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1

Respiratory Diseases and Conditions (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

... Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Bronchitis and Emphysema Tuberculosis Sinusitis If you have a respiratory condition, make ... dental office and make sure it is full. Tuberculosis Oral Effects If you have tuberculosis, you may ...

2

Physical Limitations Can Affect Oral Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... Can Affect Oral Hygiene Difficulty with Hearing Visual Impairments Orthopedic Problems Chewing and Swallowing Difficulties Changes in ... smell, taste, chewing or swallowing. These challenges and impairments can affect health, including oral health. Difficulty with ...

3

Flavor preference conditioning by oral self-administration of ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral self-administration and operant tasks have been used successfully to confirm ethanol?s positive reinforcing effects\\u000a in rats. However, in flavor conditioning tasks, ethanol is typically found to have aversive effects. The present studies explored\\u000a this apparent paradox by examining the change in value of a flavor paired with orally self-administered ethanol in two different\\u000a limited-access procedures. Rats were food-deprived and

Christopher L. Cunningham; Jill S. Niehus

1997-01-01

4

42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

2013-10-01

5

Oral bismuth for chronic intractable diarrheal conditions?  

PubMed Central

Objective Bismuth has antidiarrheal, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties. We report our single-center experience with oral colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) treatment for patients with chronic intractable diarrhea. Method We interrogated our web-based Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinical and Research database to ascertain clinical details on all patients in our tertiary hospital gastroenterology service treated with CBS between 2000 and 2010. Treatment responses were based on prospective scoring of daily number of liquid stools. Responses were recorded prior to commencement of CBS and at follow-up visits over 12 months. Results Thirty-one patients, mean age 47 years (range 17–79 years) and a mean duration of diarrhea of 22 weeks (range 6–104 weeks), were prescribed CBS at doses ranging from 120 mg to 480 mg/day for ?1 month. Of these, 23 patients (74%) had an initial clinical response and 12 (39%) who continued with this treatment had a sustained clinical response at 1 year. Twelve patients with pouchitis and four patients with indeterminate colitis had initial responses of 92% and 75%, respectively, and sustained responses of 50% and 75%, respectively. Ulcerative colitis patients (n = 5) responded poorly with respect to both initial and sustained responses. Three patients with microscopic colitis showed encouraging initial response of 100% but did not have any sustained benefit. Three of four patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (dIBS) had an initial response and two (50%) had good sustained responses. There were no serious adverse events. One patient stopped therapy because of nausea. Conclusion This is the largest report of oral bismuth treatment in chronic intractable diarrhea. CBS is cheap and appears to have the potential to be effective for ameliorating diarrheal symptoms in indeterminate colitis, pouchitis, and dIBS. An appropriately powered, blinded, randomized, controlled study appears warranted to establish the position of oral bismuth in routine practice.

Thazhath, Sony S; Haque, Mazhar; Florin, Timothy H

2013-01-01

6

The limits of oral history: ethics and methodology amid highly politicized research settings.  

PubMed

In recent years, oral history has been celebrated by its practitioners for its humanizing potential, and its ability to democratize history by bringing the narratives of people and communities typically absent in the archives into conversation with that of the political and intellectual elites who generally write history. And when dealing with the narratives of ordinary people living in conditions of social and political stability, the value of oral history is unquestionable. However, in recent years, oral historians have increasingly expanded their gaze to consider intimate accounts of extreme human experiences, such as narratives of survival and flight in response to mass atrocities. This shift in academic and practical interests begs the questions: Are there limits to oral historical methods and theory? And if so, what are these limits? This paper begins to address these questions by drawing upon fourteen months of fieldwork in Rwanda and Bosnia-Hercegovina, during which I conducted multiple life history interviews with approximately one hundred survivors, ex-combatants, and perpetrators of genocide and related mass atrocities. I argue that there are limits to the application of oral history, particularly when working amid highly politicized research settings. PMID:22175095

Jessee, Erin

2011-01-01

7

Oral conditions associated with hepatitis C virus infection.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in more than 170 million chronically infected patients with no developed preventive vaccine is a globally important issue. In addition to expected hepatic manifestations, a number of extrahepatic manifestations, such as mixed cryoglobulinemia, glomerulonephritis, polyarteritis nodosa, rashes, renal disease, neuropathy, and lymphoma, have been reported following HCV infection, which are believed to be influenced by the virus or the host immune response. HCV combination therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin might be associated with side effects as well. The association of HCV with special oral conditions has also been reported recurrently; the mechanism of most of which remains unclear. This article reviews the association of HCV infection with some of the oral conditions such as oral health, Sjogren's syndrome, lichen planus and oral cancer. PMID:24195977

Alavian, Seyed-Moayed; Mahboobi, Nastaran; Mahboobi, Nima; Karayiannis, Peter

2013-01-01

8

Influence of combined oral contraceptives on the periodontal condition  

PubMed Central

Most studies investigating the impact of oral contraceptives have been performed some years ago, when the level of sexual hormones was greater than the actual formulations. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of current combined oral contraceptives (COC) on periodontal tissues, correlating the clinical parameters examined with the total duration of continuous oral contraceptive intake. Material and methods Twenty-five women (19-35 years old) taking combined oral contraceptives for at least 1 year were included in the test group. The control group was composed by 25 patients at the same age range reporting no use of hormone-based contraceptive methods. Clinical parameters investigated included pocket probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), sulcular bleeding index (SBI) and plaque index (Pl.I). Data were statistically evaluated by unpaired t test, Pearson's correlation test and Spearman's correlation test. Results The test group showed increased PD (2.228±0.011 x 2.154±0.012; p<0.0001) and SBI (0.229±0.006 x 0.148±0.005, p<0.0001) than controls. No significant differences between groups were found in CAL (0.435±0.01 x 0.412±0.01; p=0.11). The control group showed greater Pl.I than the test group (0.206±0.007 x 0.303±0.008; p<0.0001). No correlation between the duration of oral contraceptive intake, age and periodontal parameters was observed. Conclusions These findings suggest that the use of currently available combined oral contraceptives can influence the periodontal conditions of the patients, independently of the level of plaque accumulation or total duration of medication intake, resulting in increased gingival inflammation.

DOMINGUES, Roberta Santos; FERRAZ, Bruna Fidencio Rahal; GREGHI, Sebastiao Luiz Aguiar; de REZENDE, Maria Lucia Rubo; PASSANEZI, Euloir; SANT'ANA, Adriana Campos Passanezi

2012-01-01

9

Social impact of oral conditions among older adults.  

PubMed

Oral symptoms and their effects on well-being provide an indication of the social impact of oral disease and can be used to document the burden of illness within populations. This report presents findings about the social impact of oral disease among a random sample of 1217 non-institutionalized persons aged 60 years and over living in Adelaide and Mt Gambier. They completed a questionnaire containing 49 questions about the effect of oral conditions on dysfunction, discomfort and disability. Over 5 per cent of dentate persons and over 10 per cent of edentulous persons reported impacts such as difficulty in chewing, discomfort during eating and avoidance of foods 'fairly often' or 'very often' during the previous 12 months. Impacts on social roles and interpersonal relationships were reported by up to 5 per cent of persons. Edentulous persons reported social impact more frequently, particularly in areas related to chewing and eating. Older age was associated with significantly greater amounts of impact among dentate persons, while edentulous males reported significantly more impact than edentulous females. There were larger variations among dentate persons according to their dental utilization patterns, with the highest levels of impact reported by individuals who usually attended for dental problems and who had attended the previous year. The high frequency of social impact reported in this study no doubt reflects extensive levels of disease experience, including high rates of missing teeth and edentulism, among older adults. PMID:7832683

Slade, G D; Spencer, A J

1994-12-01

10

Correlation of oral hygiene practices, smoking and oral health conditions with self perceived halitosis amongst undergraduate dental students  

PubMed Central

Objective: The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of oral hygiene practices, smoking habits and halitosis among undergraduate dental students and correlating the oral hygiene practices, oral health conditions to the prevalence of self perceived oral malodour. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among 277 male and female students. A questionnaire was developed to assess the self-reported perception of oral breath, awareness of bad breath, timing of bad breath, oral hygiene practices, caries and bleeding gums, dryness of the mouth, smoking and tongue coating. Results: The results indicate female students had better oral hygiene practices. Significantly less self-reported oral bad breath (P = 0.007) was found in female dental students (40%) as compared to their male counterparts (58%). It was found that smoking and dryness of mouth had statistically significant correlation with halitosis (P = 0.026, P = 0.001). Presence of other oral conditions such as tongue coating and dental caries and bleeding gums also showed higher prevalence of halitosis in dental students. Conclusion: A direct correlation exists between oral hygiene practices and oral health conditions with halitosis. Females exhibited better oral hygiene practices and less prevalence of halitosis as compared to male students.

Setia, Saniya; Pannu, Parampreet; Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Galhotra, Virat; Ahluwalia, Pooja; Sofat, Anjali

2014-01-01

11

A retrospective evaluation of 56 patients with oral burning and limited clinical findings.  

PubMed

This study retrospectively evaluated the charts of 56 patients who had been referred to an oral medicine clinic between 1995 and 2004 with oral burning and limited clinical findings. Of the 56 patients, 35 had a final diagnosis of essential burning mouth disorder (EBMD). Five patients with EBMD had a family history of diabetes and two had been diagnosed with late-onset diabetes. Other oral burning diagnoses included sialoadenitis (burning lips syndrome), irritation or allergic reactions to triclosan, diabetic neuropathy, subclinical oral candidiasis, nutritional deficiency/neuropathy, and a drug reaction to an ACE inhibitor (scalded mouth syndrome) that resulted in oral burning. PMID:16903201

Brown, Ronald S; Farquharson, Andre A; Sam, Frances E; Reid, Errol

2006-01-01

12

Limiting Conditions for Decay in Wood Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hygrothermal models can predict temperature and moisture conditions in wall components subjected to real weather data, but specific data and a fundamental understanding of how temperature and wood moisture content dictate the progression of decay under th...

P. I. Morris J. E. Winandy

2002-01-01

13

Diagnostic aids for detection of oral precancerous conditions  

PubMed Central

Oral cancer has a tendency to be detected at late stage which is detrimental to the patients because of its high mortality and morbidity rates. Early detection of oral cancer is therefore important to reduce the burden of this devastating disease. In this review article, the most common oral precancerous lesions are discussed and the importance of early diagnosis is emphasized. In addition, the most common non-invasive oral cancer devices that can aid the general practitioners in early diagnosis are also discussed.

Messadi, Diana V

2013-01-01

14

Oral Mucosal Conditions and Risk Factors among Elderly in a Turkish School of Dentistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Prevalence studies are important to determine the oral health status and treatment needs of elderly people. Our aim was to obtain data for the prevalence of oral mucosal conditions (OMC) in a Turkish elderly sample and to compare our results with different geographic regions. Objective: The purpose of this clinical-based study was to determine the prevalence of OMC and

Nesrin Dundar; Betul Ilhan Kal

2007-01-01

15

Oral Health Condition and Treatment Needs of a Group of Nigerian Individuals with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study was carried out to determine the oral health condition and treatment needs of a group of individuals with Down syndrome in Nigeria. Method: Participants were examined for oral hygiene status, dental caries, malocclusion, hypoplasia, missing teeth, crowding and treatment needs. Findings were compared with controls across age…

Oredugba, Folakemi A.

2007-01-01

16

Impact of dry mouth conditions on oral health-related quality of life in older people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gerodontology 2005; 22; 219-226 Impact of dry mouth conditions on oral health-related quality of life in older people Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of dry mouth conditions on oral health-related quality of life in frail old people, residents at community care centers. Further, reliability and validity of a visual analogue scale (VAS) for

Elisabeth Warnberg Gerdin; Susanne Einarson; Margareta Jonsson; Kerstin Aronsson; Ingegerd Johansson

2005-01-01

17

[Association between social capital and oral health conditions and behavior].  

PubMed

The theory of social capital seeks to explain social inequality in health through the interaction of social, economic and environmental factors and has been associated with many health problems, though there is still little research in the area of oral health. The scope of this study was to evaluate the association between social capital and socio-demographic and behavioral factors related to oral health among schoolchildren aged from 15 to 19. A random sample of 1,417 adolescents filled out a self-administered survey and the data were descriptively analyzed (simple frequencies, central tendency and variability measurement) and inferential statistics (Pearson's chi-square test). The results showed that the social capital which is more prevalent among adolescents was intermediate level, as well as between each of its dimensions, except for social action where the majority were classified as lower-leveled. Among the variables analyzed, social capital was statistically associated only with sex, with women being more likely to be classified under the 'low social capital' label. This area still needs considerable research to increase theoretical-conceptual and methodological maturity in order to better understand the social contexts that are essential for formulating effective public health policies. PMID:24897493

Bezerra, Isabella Azevedo; Goes, Paulo Sávio Angeiras de

2014-06-01

18

Health conditions for activity limitations among elder Puerto Rican males.  

PubMed

The impact of health conditions for activity involvement among 235 elder Puerto Rican males 65 years of age and older was studied. This study was made up of 18 questions: a list of ten health conditions and eight activities. It is a part of a larger study (173 questions) concerning the socio-demographic graphic status of the Puerto Rican elderly. The statistical test of significance carried out was that of Kendall's Tau B. Multiple health conditions were found to impair involvement in activities. These were in order of magnitude: heart illness, hearing, mental health and high blood pressure. The activities most impaired were cleaning the yard, tying or putting on shoes, clean or wash floor and climb stairs. These limitations have serious implications for the type of living arrangement that should be pursued by elderly males and the housing options that need to be offered by social policy planners. PMID:1946924

Irizarry, A

1991-08-01

19

Bacterial consortium proteomics under 4-chlorosalicylate carbon-limiting conditions.  

PubMed

In this study, the stable consortium composed by Pseudomonas reinekei strain MT1 and Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain MT3 (cell numbers in proportion 9:1) was under investigation to reveal bacterial interactions that take place under severe nutrient-limiting conditions. The analysis of steady states in continuous cultures was carried out at the proteome, metabolic profile, and population dynamic levels. Carbon-limiting studies showed a higher metabolic versatility in the community through upregulation of parallel catabolic enzymes (salicylate 5-hydroxylase and 17-fold on 2-keto-4-pentenoate hydratase) indicating a possible alternative carbon routing in the upper degradation pathway highlighting the effect of minor proportions of strain MT3 over the major consortia component strain MT1 with a significant change in the expression levels of the enzymes of the mainly induced biodegradation pathway such as salicylate 1-hydroxylase and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase together with important changes in the outer membrane composition of P. reinekei MT1 under different culture conditions. The study has demonstrated the importance of the outer membrane as a sensing/response protective barrier caused by interspecies interactions highlighting the role of the major outer membrane proteins OprF and porin D in P. reinekei sp. MT1 under the culture conditions tested. PMID:19382143

Bobadilla Fazzini, Roberto A; Bielecka, Agata; Quintas, Ana K Poucas; Golyshin, Peter N; Preto, Maria J; Timmis, Kenneth N; dos Santos, Vitor A P Martins

2009-04-01

20

Oral mucosal conditions in preschool children of low socioeconomic status: prevalence and determinant factors.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of oral mucosal conditions and associated factors among 541 preschoolers of low socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Sociodemographic data and information on harmful oral habits were gathered with the use of a questionnaire. A clinical exam was performed for the determination of oral mucosal conditions, dental caries and level of oral hygiene. Data analysis involved statistical analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney test, chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and multivariate regression (p < 0.05, 95 % CI). The prevalence of oral mucosal conditions was 40.7 %. The most prevalent oral mucosal conditions were coated tongue (23.4 %), melanotic macules (14.4 %), oral ulcers (11.8 %), Fordyce's spots (8.1 %), angular cheilitis (3.0 %), geographic tongue (2.8 %), linea alba (1.5 %) and fistula (1.3 %). Children between 3 and 5 years of age had a greater chance of exhibiting coated tongue (OR, 2.55; 95 % CI, 1.6-4.1), melanotic macules (OR, 4.07; 95 % CI, 2.3-7.2) and Fordyce's spots (OR, 12.70; 95 % CI, 7.2-28.6). The female gender had a greater chance of exhibiting melanotic macules (OR, 2.23; 95 % CI, 1.3-1.8). Coated tongue was more prevalent among children from low-income families (OR, 2.35; 95 % CI, 1.3-4.3) and those with inadequate oral hygiene (OR, 4.65; 95 % CI, 2.9-7.4). Caries constituted a predictive factor for oral ulcers (OR, 2.15; 95 % CI, 1.2-3.9) and fistula (OR, 12.00; 95 % CI, 1.4-11.3). Bruxism (teeth clenching/grinding) was a predictive factor for angular cheilitis (OR, 5.55; 95 % CI, 1.9-16.3). The determinant factors for oral mucosal conditions were the female gender, age between 3 and 5 years, inadequate oral hygiene, low household income, residence in rural areas and presence of dental caries and bruxism. PMID:23354789

Vieira-Andrade, Raquel Gonçalves; Martins-Júnior, Paulo Antônio; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Stella, Paulo Eduardo Melo; Marinho, Sandra Aparecida; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia

2013-05-01

21

Conditional peripheral membrane proteins: facing up to limited specificity.  

PubMed

Regulated relocalization of signaling and trafficking proteins is crucial for the control of many cellular processes and is driven by a series of domains that respond to alterations at membrane surfaces. The first examples of these domains--conditional peripheral membrane proteins--included C1, C2, PH, PX, and FYVE domains, which specifically recognize single tightly regulated membrane components such as diacylglycerol or phosphoinositides. The structural basis for this recognition is now well understood. Efforts to identify additional domains with similar functions that bind other targets (or participate in unexplained cellular processes) have not yielded many more examples of specific phospholipid-binding domains. Instead, most of the recently discovered conditional peripheral membrane proteins bind multiple targets (each with limited specificity), relying on coincidence detection and/or recognizing broader physical properties of the membrane such as charge or curvature. This broader range of recognition modes presents significant methodological challenges for a full structural understanding. PMID:22193136

Moravcevic, Katarina; Oxley, Camilla L; Lemmon, Mark A

2012-01-11

22

Relationship between oral function and general condition among Japanese nursing home residents.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between oral function and general condition among Japanese nursing home residents. The hypothesis was that oral function is one of the most important factors for the maintenance of general condition in dependent elderly. Seventy-nine residents of a nursing home in Japan participated in this study (54 women and 25 men, age range: 65-95 years, mean age: 82.2+/-8.5). A water drinking test and gargling function were used as indicators of oral function. Indicators of general condition included cognitive function (mini-mental state examination; MMSE), ADL (Barthel index), and nutritional status (body mass index=BMI, and serum albumin level). To clarify the relationship between oral function and general condition among dependent elderly, statistical evaluations of correlations (Spearman rank correlation coefficient) and differences (Mann-Whitney U test, Student's t test) between groups were conducted. SPSS was used for the statistical analysis. The water drinking and gargling function tests showed a strong correlation (p<0.001) with cognitive function and ADL. The water drinking and gargling function tests showed a correlation with BMI (p<0.005, p<0.01, respectively), and the water drinking test showed a correlation with serum albumin level (p<0.05). However, no correlation was observed between the gargling function tests and serum albumin level. It is concluded that oral function is closely related to cognitive function, ADL, and nutritional status. Oral function may play an important role in maintaining general condition in dependent elderly. To prevent decreases in cognitive function, ADL and nutritional status in dependent elderly, the importance of improvements in oral function cannot be over-emphasized. PMID:18096255

Sumi, Yasunori; Miura, Hiroko; Nagaya, Masahiro; Nagaosa, Shuichiro; Umemura, Osami

2009-01-01

23

Investigation of the Functional Role of P-Glycoprotein in Limiting the Oral Bioavailability of Lumefantrine  

PubMed Central

In the quest to explore the reason for the low and variable bioavailability of lumefantrine, we investigated the possible role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in lumefantrine intestinal absorption. An in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion study in rats with the P-gp inhibitor verapamil or quinidine and an ATPase assay with human P-gp membranes indicated that lumefantrine is a substrate of P-gp which limits its intestinal absorption. To confirm these findings, an in vivo pharmacokinetic study was performed in rats. The oral administration of verapamil (10 mg/kg of body weight) along with lumefantrine caused a significant increase in its bioavailability with a concomitant decrease in clearance. The increase in bioavailability of lumefantrine could be due to inhibition of P-gp and/or cytochrome P450 3A in the intestine/liver by verapamil. However, in a rat intestinal microsomal stability study, lumefantrine was found to be resistant to oxidative metabolism. Further, an in situ permeation study clearly showed a significant role of P-gp in limiting the oral absorption of lumefantrine. Thus, the increase in lumefantrine bioavailability with verapamil is attributed in part to the P-gp-inhibitory ability of verapamil. In conclusion, lumefantrine is a substrate of P-gp, and active efflux by P-gp across the intestine partly contributed to the low/variable bioavailability of lumefantrine.

Raju, Kanumuri S. R.; Singh, Sheelendra P.; Taneja, Isha

2014-01-01

24

Oral submucous fibrosis--a potentially malignant condition of growing concern.  

PubMed

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a premalignant condition that primarily affects the oral cavity. The clinical hallmark of this disease is the development of progressive trismus. The latter is a direct consequence of loss of the normal fibro-elasticity of the oral mucosa and replacement of the fibromuscular connective tissue by the deposition of dense collagen. This change in the oral mucosa is aetiologically linked to the areca nut chewing habit where the development of OSF results from the interaction of the mucosa with the chemical constituents of areca. Areca nuts are used as a masticatory substance either alone, in a self-prepared quid or in various commercial preparations known as paan masala and gutka. The habitual usage of these products is rapidly increasing and oral health professionals globally are likely to encounter patients with this disease. The potentially malignant nature of OSF is well documented and habitual areca nut chewing even in the absence of tobacco is an independent risk factor for oral cancer. Public health education against the areca nut chewing habit is essential to eradicate the deleterious effects of this habit on oral health. PMID:23957096

Mahomed, F

2012-11-01

25

Oral conditions of 1,049 patients referred to a university-based oral medicine and orofacial pain center.  

PubMed

At the USC Orofacial Pain/Oral Medicine Center, 1,049 new patients seen from September 2003 to September 2005 were sorted according to their primary diagnosis. Two-thirds were female and 19.7% were over 64 years of age. The most prevalent diseases were categorized and compared with a similar study published 15 years ago. The seven categories included osseous disease (3.3%), mucogingival disease (17.8%), salivary/lymphatic disease (3.3%), TMD (46.3%); neuropathic pain/headache disorders (13.1%), motor/sleep disorders (9.1%), and miscellaneous (not included in above categories) (7.1%). The 35 most frequent diagnoses were sorted by the mean age of our patients and the male-female ratio was also determined. The oldest patients had burning mouth syndrome (68.1 +/- 14.7) and the youngest had internal derangements of the temporomandibular joints (27.9 +/- 14.0). These data could be used to provide information on the scope of oral medicine practice, to help practitioners create age-appropriate differential diagnoses, and to help dental school curriculum committees and graduate program directors assess their curricula to ensure they are including the full range of oral conditions in their programs. PMID:17990478

Suarez, Piedad; Clark, Glenn

2007-01-01

26

Glycopyrrolate oral solution: for chronic, severe drooling in pediatric patients with neurologic conditions.  

PubMed

Chronic drooling (sialorrhea) is a common dysfunction in children with neurologic disorders such as cerebral palsy. Glycopyrrolate oral solution, an anticholinergic agent, is the first drug treatment approved in the US for drooling in children with neurologic conditions. This article reviews the clinical efficacy and tolerability of glycopyrrolate oral solution in pediatric patients with neurologic conditions and provides an overview of the pharmacological properties of the drug. In a phase III, randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial, children (aged 3-16 years; n = 36) with problem drooling associated with neurologic conditions and receiving glycopyrrolate oral solution had a significantly (p < 0.01) greater modified Teacher's Drooling Scale (mTDS) response rate at 8 weeks (primary endpoint) than those receiving placebo (73.7% vs 17.6%). At 24 weeks in an additional, noncomparative, phase III study, 52.3% of glycopyrrolate oral solution recipients (aged 3-18 years; n = 137) had an mTDS response (primary endpoint); the response rate was consistently above 50% at all 4-weekly timepoints, aside from the first assessment at week 4 (40.3%). In general, glycopyrrolate oral solution was well tolerated in clinical trials. The majority of adverse events were within expectations as characteristic anticholinergic outcomes. PMID:22646067

Garnock-Jones, Karly P

2012-08-01

27

Self-reported halitosis and emotional state: impact on oral conditions and treatments  

PubMed Central

Background Halitosis represents a common dental condition, although sufferers are often not conscious of it. The aim of this study was to examine behavior in a sample of Italian subjects with reference to self-reported halitosis and emotional state, and specifically the presence of dental anxiety. Methods The study was performed on Italian subjects (N = 1052; range 15-65 years). A self-report questionnaire was used to detect self-reported halitosis and other variables possibly linked to it (sociodemographic data, medical and dental history, oral hygiene, and others), and a dental anxiety scale (DAS) divided into two subscales that explore a patient's dental anxiety and dental anxiety concerning dentist-patient relations. Associations between self-reported halitosis and the abovementioned variables were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Correlations between the two groups, with self-perceived halitosis and without, were also investigated with dental anxiety and with the importance attributed to one's own mouth and that of others. Results The rate of self-reported halitosis was 19.39%. The factors linked with halitosis were: anxiety regarding dentist patient relations (relational dental anxiety) (OR = 1.04, CI = 1.01-1.07), alcohol consumption (OR = 0.47, CI = 0.34-0.66), gum diseases (OR = 0.39, CI = 0.27-0.55), age > 30 years (OR = 1.01, CI = 1.00-1.02), female gender (OR = 0.71, CI = 0.51-0.98), poor oral hygiene (OR = 0.65, CI = 0.43-0.98), general anxiety (OR = 0.66, CI = 0.49-0.90), and urinary system pathologies (OR = 0.46, CI = 0.30-0.70). Other findings emerged concerning average differences between subjects with or without self-perceived halitosis, dental anxiety and the importance attributed to one's own mouth and that of others. Conclusions Halitosis requires professional care not only by dentists, but also psychological support as it is a problem that leads to avoidance behaviors and thereby limits relationships. It is also linked to poor self care. In the study population, poor oral health related to self-reported halitosis was associated with dental anxiety factors.

2010-01-01

28

[Oral Health Conditions in Women with or without Occupation - Results from a Regional Examination and Survey].  

PubMed

In the present study oral health conditions and oral hygiene measures of women with and without occupation were examined and compared. In addition to a dental assessment, oral hygiene measures and socio-demographic data were collected by means of a questionnaire.A total of 415 subjects (210 women with and 205 women without occupation) with an age range of 25-65 years were enrolled in this study. All women underwent a dental assessment, including a radiographic examination (orthopanthomogram). The dental assessment comprised the number of teeth, caries frequency (DMFT index), type and frequency of restorations, quality of oral hygiene (API), degree of gingival inflamma-tion (SBI), probing depths and the presence of recessions. In addition, a questionnaire, concerning anamnestic data and information about the familial situation, level of education and occupation, was filled in. The study was approved by the ethics commission (Rhineland-Palatinate).Of the women without occupation (mean age: 38.1±9.7 years) 90% were married, only 3% were heavy smokers, and only 2% had a university degree. Of the working women (mean age: 43.2 ±11years) 73% were married, 17% were heavy smokers (>?20 cigarettes/day), and 10% had a university degree. Oral hygiene of the working women was slightly better than that in women without occupation; however, severe periodontal disease was seen more frequently in working women (15% vs. 3.3%; p<0.027). With respect to the periodontal situation, the probability of developing an aggressive periodontitis was with an odds ratio of 4.23 (95% CI: 0.77-23.17) considerably higher for the group of working women.The oral health of women with or without occupation differed slightly. These findings suggest that occupation, level of education and life style of the women have an influence on oral hygiene measures and on oral health. PMID:23780856

Ehlers, V; Willershausen, I; Weyer, V; Leskov-Hamza, T; Lampe, F; Willershausen, B

2014-04-01

29

Limits of deterministic predictability in limited area models due to sensible dependence on initial conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the late 50ies and the 60ies the limit of predictability of weather has been shown to be 5 to 14 days by theoretical and numerical studies as consequence of sensible dependence on initial conditions. The simulation of an ensemble is the standard approach to address this uncertainty. Climatological means over time scales of 30 years are regarded as 'certain' under constant climate forcing conditions. A systematic analysis of predictability limits on different space and time scales in the earth system is still missing. It is relevant in particular for time scales between the time scales of weather and climate and helps avoiding misinterpretation of the results and/or to find an optimal configuration for the ensemble. In terms of statistics, the predictability of weather can be associated with the predictability of 6h and 100 km mean values. In mid latitudes it reaches a saturation value at the time scale of baroclinic instability Ti of 3-5 days. In the case of a purely stochastic process, this uncertainty is decreasing with N- where N is the number of instability time periods. One of the open questions is, which field variables exhibit a purely stochastic behavior and where. The application of Earth System Models is computationally demanding. Chaotic behavior may occur in some regions at certain conditions affecting the analysis. A huge number of degrees of freedom makes very long simulation times necessary. The application of limited area modeling opens the opportunity to analyse the behavior in different regions independently und thus to investigate the stochastic properties in different climates. Three different regions Europe, Africa and Central America have been simulated twice (reference and disturbance run) at standard grid resolution of 18 to 25 km using the community model COSMO-CLM. In Europe a purely stochastic behavior was found for the momentum, pressure and precipitation. A strong memory effect was found for soil moisture and temperature and a weak memory effect for the atmospheric temperature. The analysis of the simulation for Africa and Meso-America is ongoing. Predictability limits for different thresholds and variables can be calculated in terms of the ensemble size needed to keep the uncertainty below the threshold. Such maps will be presented and the differences between the variables and regions will be discussed.

Will, Andreas

2014-05-01

30

Oral health conditions and cognitive functioning in middle and later adulthood  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of oral health conditions on cognitive functioning on basis of data samples from several European countries. Methods Secondary analyses were conducted of data from wave 2 of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) which includes 14 European countries and is intended to be representative of each country’s middle and later adulthood population. Information on word recall, verbal fluency, and numeracy as well as information on chewing ability and denture wearing status was available for a total of 28,693 persons aged 50+. Multivariate regression analysis was used to detect influences of oral health parameters on cognitive functioning (p?oral health impacts on numeracy compared to word recall and verbal fluency. Conclusions The present study provides novel large-scale epidemiological evidence supportive of an association between oral health and cognitive functioning. Future research should intend to verify the precise causal links between oral health conditions, various cognitive dimensions, and their neural correlates.

2014-01-01

31

Oral health-related quality of life of children with craniofacial conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Evaluation of the Dutch Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP), assessing the level of concordance between parents and children. The internal consistency and the predictive validity of the COHIP for self-reported general health were examined. Methods: Sample size was 35 pairs of parents and children age 11 to 14 with craniofacial conditions. Cronbach alphas were calculated and the level

L. M. Geels; J. M. Kieffer; Joh Hoogstraten; B. Prahl-Andersen

2008-01-01

32

The reported impact of oral condition on children in the United Kingdom, 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The 2003 Children's Dental Health Survey is the fourth in a series of decennial national children's dental health surveys of the United Kingdom.Aims This paper is concerned with how children are reported to have been affected by their oral condition during the 12 month period immediately preceding the survey and how this relates to the children's experience of caries,

J G Steele; D Evans; B Chadwick; A J Morris; K Hill; N M Nuttall

2006-01-01

33

Intra-oral compartment pressures: a biofunctional model and experimental measurements under different conditions of posture.  

PubMed

Oral posture is considered to have a major influence on the development and reoccurrence of malocclusion. A biofunctional model was tested with the null hypotheses that (1) there are no significant differences between pressures during different oral functions and (2) between pressure measurements in different oral compartments in order to substantiate various postural conditions at rest by intra-oral pressure dynamics. Atmospheric pressure monitoring was simultaneously carried out with a digital manometer in the vestibular inter-occlusal space (IOS) and at the palatal vault (sub-palatal space, SPS). Twenty subjects with normal occlusion were evaluated during the open-mouth condition (OC), gently closed lips (semi-open compartment condition, SC), with closed compartments after the generation of a negative pressure (CCN) and swallowing (SW). Pressure curve characteristics were compared between the different measurement phases (OC, SC, CCN, SW) as well as between the two compartments (IOS, SPS) using analysis of variance and Wilcoxon matched-pairs tests adopting a significance level of ? = 0.05. Both null hypotheses were rejected. Average pressures (IOS, SPS) in the experimental phases were 0.0, -0.08 (OC); -0.16, -1.0 (SC); -48.79, -81.86 (CCN); and -29.25, -62.51 (SW)?mbar. CCN plateau and peak characteristics significantly differed between the two compartments SPS and IOS. These results indicate the formation of two different intra-oral functional anatomical compartments which provide a deeper understanding of orofacial biofunctions and explain previous observations of negative intra-oral pressures at rest. PMID:20127264

Engelke, Wilfried; Jung, Klaus; Knösel, Michael

2011-04-01

34

National Survey of Oral/Dental Conditions Related to Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Mexican Adults  

PubMed Central

Oral diseases are a major burden on individuals and health systems. The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of tobacco and alcohol were associated with the prevalence of oral/dental problems in Mexican adults. Using data from the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2003, a cross-sectional study part of the World Health Survey, dental information from a representative sample of Mexico (n = 22,229, N = 51,155,740) was used to document self-reported oral/dental problems in the 12 months prior to the survey. Questionnaires were used to collect information related to sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and other risk factors. Three models were generated for each age group (18–30, 31–45 and 46–98 years). The prevalence of oral/dental conditions was 25.7%. Adjusting for sex, schooling, socioeconomic position, diabetes, and self-reported health, those who used tobacco (sometimes or daily) (OR = 1.15, p = 0.070; OR = 1.24, p < 0.01; and OR = 1.16, p < 0.05, for each age group respectively) or alcohol (moderate or high) (OR = 1.26, p < 0.001; OR = 1.18, p < 0.01 and OR = 1.30, p < 0.001, for each age group respectively) had a higher risk of reporting oral/dental problems. Because tobacco and alcohol use were associated with self-reported oral/dental problems in one out of four adults, it appears advisable to ascertain how direct is such link; more direct effects would lend greater weight to adopting measures to reduce consumption of tobacco and alcohol for the specific purpose of improving oral health.

Medina-Solis, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, America Patricia; Perez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernandez-Cruz, Pedro; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodriguez, Martha; Maupome, Gerardo

2014-01-01

35

Evaluation of oral mucosa collagen condition with cross-polarization optical coherence tomography.  

PubMed

The goal of the research was analysis of the effect of collagen condition in formation of cross-polarized CP OCT images. We used of the CP OCT technique for studying collagen condition on an example of oral mucosa. Special histologic picrosirius red (PSR) staining of cheek mucosa specimens was used with subsequent assessing of the result of collagen staining in polarized light. High correlation (r = 0.692, p = 0.0001) between OCT signal standard deviation (SD) in cross-polarized images and brightness of PSR stained collagen fibers in cheek mucosa specimens was demonstrated in patients with inflammatory intestine and oral mucosa diseases. We have found that the OCT signal SD in cross-polarized images reflects two boundary conditions of collagen disorganization, namely, loss of fiber properties at active inflammation which attenuates the signal and fibrosis that occurs due to synthesis of a new remodeled collagen which amplifies the OCT signal. PMID:22764058

Gladkova, Natalia; Kiseleva, Elena; Robakidze, Natalia; Balalaeva, Irina; Karabut, Maria; Gubarkova, Ekaterina; Feldchtein, Felix

2013-04-01

36

Conditions for diffusion-limited and reaction-limited recombination in nanostructured solar cells.  

PubMed

The performance of Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) and related devices made of nanostructured semiconductors relies on a good charge separation, which in turn is achieved by favoring charge transport against recombination. Although both processes occur at very different time scales, hence ensuring good charge separation, in certain cases the kinetics of transport and recombination can be connected, either in a direct or an indirect way. In this work, the connection between electron transport and recombination in nanostructured solar cells is studied both theoretically and by Monte Carlo simulation. Calculations using the Multiple-Trapping model and a realistic trap distribution for nanostructured TiO2 show that for attempt-to-jump frequencies higher than 10(11)-10(13) Hz, the system adopts a reaction limited (RL) regime, with a lifetime which is effectively independent from the speed of the electrons in the transport level. For frequencies lower than those, and depending on the concentration of recombination centers in the material, the system enters a diffusion-limited regime (DL), where the lifetime increases if the speed of free electrons decreases. In general, the conditions for RL or DL recombination depend critically on the time scale difference between recombination kinetics and free-electron transport. Hence, if the former is too rapid with respect to the latter, the system is in the DL regime and total thermalization of carriers is not possible. In the opposite situation, a RL regime arises. Numerical data available in the literature, and the behavior of the lifetime with respect to (1) density of recombination centers and (2) probability of recombination at a given center, suggest that a typical DSC in operation stays in the RL regime with complete thermalization, although a transition to the DL regime may occur for electrolytes or hole conductors where recombination is especially rapid or where there is a larger dispersion of energies of electron acceptors. PMID:24712803

Ansari-Rad, Mehdi; Anta, Juan A; Arzi, Ezatollah

2014-04-01

37

Oral Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing\\/recovering from chemo-\\/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases.

Irène Hitz Lindenmüller; J. Thomas Lambrecht

2011-01-01

38

Cognition and motor control as a function of ? 9THC concentration in serum and oral fluid: Limits of impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis use has been associated with increased risk of becoming involved in traffic accidents; however, the relation between THC concentration and driver impairment is relatively obscure. The present study was designed to define performance impairment as a function of THC in serum and oral fluid in order to provide a scientific framework to the development of per se limits for

J. G. Ramaekers; M. R. Moeller; P. van Ruitenbeek; E. L. Theunissen; E. Schneider; G. Kauert

2006-01-01

39

First-Wall and Limiter Conditioning in TFTR.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A progress report on the experimental studies of vacuum vessel conditioning during the first year of TFTR operation is presented. A previous paper described the efforts expended to condition the TFTR vessel prior to and during the initial plasma start-up ...

H. F. Dylla W. R. Blanchard R. J. Hawryluk K. W. Hill R. B. Krawchuk

1984-01-01

40

Crops Yield Increase Under Water-Limited Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to future requirements for more crop production there will be greater needs to increase yields for crops subjected to water deficits. In recent years, substantial progress has been made with soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in understanding the water deficit limitation on yield using model assessments, physiological investigations, and plant breeding. This knowledge has been applied in developing higher

Walid Sadok; Thomas R. Sinclair

2011-01-01

41

42 CFR 410.16 - Initial preventive physical examination: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Initial preventive physical examination: Conditions for and limitations...Services § 410.16 Initial preventive physical examination: Conditions for and limitations...advance directive. Initial preventive physical examination means all of the...

2012-10-01

42

42 CFR 410.16 - Initial preventive physical examination: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Initial preventive physical examination: Conditions for and limitations...Services § 410.16 Initial preventive physical examination: Conditions for and limitations...advance directive. Initial preventive physical examination means all of the...

2010-10-01

43

42 CFR 410.16 - Initial preventive physical examination: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Initial preventive physical examination: Conditions for and limitations...Services § 410.16 Initial preventive physical examination: Conditions for and limitations...advance directive. Initial preventive physical examination means all of the...

2011-10-01

44

Further examination of ontogenetic limitations on conditioned taste aversion.  

PubMed

This study was to resolve a discrepancy in the literature as to the capability of infant rats in acquiring conditioned taste aversion. Previous studies had indicated that during the 1st postnatal week, an aversion to saccharin could be conditioned when paired with lithium chloride (LiCl). Analogous conditioning with sucrose did not seem to occur until the end of the 2nd postnatal week, however, even though sucrose is discriminated from water and preferred before then. We observed that 5- and 9-day old pups express conditioned taste aversion to both saccharin and sucrose flavors that previously were paired with illness induced by LiCl. This learning occurred only when several hours separated cannulation and conditioning. A number of other factors that seemed likely to determine this early learning were found to have no effect. Thus it appears that rats can learn taste aversions very early in life, but only under certain circumstances. The results are discussed with reference to Vogt and Rudy's (1984) conclusions on the ontogeny of taste guided behaviors in the rat. PMID:3038640

Hoffmann, H; Molina, J C; Kucharski, D; Spear, N E

1987-07-01

45

The Treatment of Lateral Boundary Conditions in Limited-Area Models: A Pragmatic Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mathematical models used to simulate or predict atmospheric behavior are limited in scope because of insufficient knowledge of the initial conditions and forcing functions. But these limitations are generally dwarfed by the limited capacity and power of e...

R. Shapiro

1977-01-01

46

76 FR 10489 - Special Conditions: Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited Model 407 Helicopter, Installation of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Special Conditions: Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited Model 407 Helicopter, Installation...modification of the Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) model 407 helicopter...SAS) on the Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) model [[Page...

2011-02-25

47

Conditional probabilities with a quantal and a kolmogorovian limit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give a definition for the conditional probability that is applicable to quantum situations as well as classical ones. We show that the application of this definition to a two-dimensional probabilistic model, known as the epsilon model, allows one to evolve continuously from the quantum mechanical probabilities to the classical ones. Between the classical and the quantum mechanical, we identify a region that is neither classical nor quantum mechanical, thus emphasizing the need for a probabilistic theory that allows for a broader spectrum of probabilities.

Aerts, Sven

1996-11-01

48

[Oral health of community-living elderly. 1. Condition of teeth, use of professional dental care and oral hygiene habits].  

PubMed

With the aim to get information on oral health, professional dental care and oral hygiene habits a study was performed on persons aged 60 up to 79 years in Haarlem, the Netherlands. After an interview an oral examination was performed, using a mirror and a pocket lamp. Of all persons approached, 376 (38%) participated in the clinical part of the study. In elderly persons with natural teeth (52% of all participants) the mean numbers of present teeth (third molars excluded), FT and obvious DT were 18.1, 10.8 and 0.7 respectively. The percentage of persons with natural teeth showed a strong relationship with level of education. A comparison with results of a study performed in 1986 showed that oral health in elderly persons is improved. Of all the elderly with natural teeth 91% visited their dentist periodically at least one time a year and 76% of them brushed their teeth at least two times a day. PMID:11383261

Kalsbeek, H; de Baat, C; Kivit, M M; de Kleijnde-de Vrankrijker, M W

2000-12-01

49

Microbial glycolipid production under nitrogen limitation and resting cell conditions.  

PubMed

Rhodococcus erythropolis is able to synthesize an anionic trehalose-2,2',3,4-tetraester during cultivation on n-alkanes. Preconditions for an overproduction are nitrogen limitation, temperature- and pH-shift. The optimum carbon source was technical grade n-C-10, which led to 0.35 g g-1 of glycolipid per n-alkane. Electron microscopical observations showed that n-C-14,15 (technical grade) grown cells contained numerous lipid inclusions in contrast to n-C-10 (technical grade) grown cells. Nocardia corynebacteroides synthesizes a novel pentasaccharide lipid and as size products small amounts of trehalose-corynomycolates. Optimum precursors for overproduction are n-alkanes from n-tetradecane to n-hexadecane with yields in the range of 0.17 g g-1 of glycolipid per carbon source. PMID:1366361

Kim, J S; Powalla, M; Lang, S; Wagner, F; Lünsdorf, H; Wray, V

1990-03-01

50

Oral lichen planus: a report and review of an autoimmune-mediated condition in gingiva.  

PubMed

Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic autoimmune, mucocutaneous disease that affects the oral mucosa as well as the skin, genital mucosa, scalp, and nails. It is one of the most common dermatological diseases presenting in the oral cavity. An immune-mediated pathogenesis is recognized in lichen planus, although the exact etiology is unknown. The disease most commonly affects middle-aged females. It is infrequently found in children, with a prevalence of about 0.03%, and reports of this are scarce in the literature. The erosive and atrophic forms of OLP are less common, yet they are more likely to cause symptoms. OLP is the target of much controversy, especially in relation to its potential for malignancy. Thus, it is important for clinicians to maintain a high index of suspicion for all intraoral lichenoid lesions. Periodic follow-up of all patients with OLP is recommended. In view of the above, the authors highlight a case of gingival erosive lichen planus affecting a 17-year-old adolescent without concomitant cutaneous lesions, with special emphasis on clinical and microscopic characteristics of the condition and management with retinoids and steroid therapy. PMID:23043525

Pendyala, Gowri; Joshi, Saurabh; Kalburge, Jithendra; Joshi, Manjiri; Tejnani, Avneesh

2012-09-01

51

The reproducibility of bioavailability of oral morphine from solution under fed and fasted conditions.  

PubMed

The reproducibility in bioavailability of orally administered morphine (as a solution) under fed and fasted conditions was studied in 5 patients with chronic pain on three occasions over 1 yr (0, 6, and 12 mo). During each study period (i.e.. 0, 6, and 12 mo), patients received the 50 mg oral dose both in the fasted state (10 hr since food) and immediately after a high fat content breakfast, in randomly determined sequence. Frequent blood samples were collected for 10 hr after the dose. There was no significant difference in the maximum blood morphine concentration (Cmax) or the time to Cmax among the three study periods or between the fed and fasted states. Bioavailability, as assessed by log(AUC), was significantly greater in the fed compared to the fasted state (P less than .01) but did not differ over the three study periods (Two-factor analysis of variance). Intrapatient variability contributed 32% and 54% to total variation in log(AUC) under fed and fasted conditions, respectively. PMID:1940488

Gourlay, G K; Plummer, J L; Cherry, D A; Purser, T

1991-10-01

52

Oral Glyburide, But Not Glimepiride, Blocks the Infarct-Size Limiting Effects of Pioglitazone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus receive several oral hypoglycemic agents, including sulfonylurea drugs. Intravenous\\u000a glyburide (Glyb), a sulfonylurea agent, blocks the protective effects of “ischemic” and pharmacologic preconditioning in various\\u000a animal models without affecting myocardial infarct size when administered alone. However, there are conflicting results when\\u000a other sulfonylurea drugs are used. Pioglitazone (PIO) reduces infarct size in the

Yumei Ye; Yu Lin; Jose R. Perez-Polo; Yochai Birnbaum

2008-01-01

53

Cognition and motor control as a function of Delta9-THC concentration in serum and oral fluid: limits of impairment.  

PubMed

Cannabis use has been associated with increased risk of becoming involved in traffic accidents; however, the relation between THC concentration and driver impairment is relatively obscure. The present study was designed to define performance impairment as a function of THC in serum and oral fluid in order to provide a scientific framework to the development of per se limits for driving under the influence of cannabis. Twenty recreational users of cannabis participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way cross-over study. Subjects were administered single doses of 0, 250 and 500 microg/kg THC by smoking. Performance tests measuring skills related to driving were conducted at regular intervals between 15 min and 6h post smoking and included measures of perceptual-motor control (Critical tracking task), motor impulsivity (Stop signal task) and cognitive function (Tower of London). Blood and oral fluid were collected throughout testing. Results showed a strong and linear relation between THC in serum and oral fluid. Linear relations between magnitude of performance impairment and THC in oral fluid and serum, however, were low. A more promising way to define threshold levels of impairment was found by comparing the proportion of observations showing impairment or no impairment as a function of THC concentration. The proportion of observations showing impairment progressively increased as a function of serum THC in every task. Binomial tests showed an initial and significant shift toward impairment in the Critical tracking task for serum THC concentrations between 2 and 5 ng/ml. At concentrations between 5 and 10 ng/ml approximately 75-90% of the observations were indicative of significant impairment in every performance test. At THC concentrations >30 ng/ml the proportion of observations indicative of significant impairment increased to a full 100% in every performance tests. It is concluded that serum THC concentrations between 2 and 5 ng/ml establish the lower and upper range of a THC limit for impairment. PMID:16723194

Ramaekers, J G; Moeller, M R; van Ruitenbeek, P; Theunissen, E L; Schneider, E; Kauert, G

2006-11-01

54

Subchronic oral toxicity of microcystin in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) exposed to Microcystis under laboratory conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subchronic oral toxicity of microcystin in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) was investigated in this study. The fish (mean body weight of 322±36g, n=10) were orally exposed to Microcystis by feeding with bloom scum at a dose of 50?g microcystins\\/kg body weight under laboratory conditions for 28 days. Growth assay results showed that microcystin could completely inhibit the growth

Xiao-Yu Li; Ik-Kyo Chung; Jung-In Kim; Jin-Ae Lee

2004-01-01

55

Is oral bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw an endemic condition?  

PubMed

Since the introduction of bisphosphonates to treat diseases that affect bone remodelling, there has been an increasing number of cases of bisphosphonate (BP)-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). Epidemiological data regarding BRONJ vary widely between studies, and a number of potential methodological biases have been detected. In some small preliminary studies, single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with an increased risk of BRONJ among cancer patients have been identified. However, genetic susceptibility to oral BP-related BRONJ has not previously been discussed. We suggest that epidemiological variability could be related to the existence of a susceptibility factor particularly prevalent in the population of a well-defined geographical region. To support our hypothesis we performed a search for published case series, only including those with at least 10 patients detected in a single city or a delimited geographical region; this showed that 55% of reports came from Mediterranean countries such as Italy, Israel, Spain and France. The finding does not appear to be conditioned by publication bias. Furthermore, conditions such as classic Kaposi sarcoma and beta-thalassaemia, though not exclusive to the Mediterranean region, also have a high prevalence in that area. We speculate that some of the patients included in the selected US and Australian series may be of Spanish or Italian descent. With an ageing population, the prevalence of osteoporosis will increase, and the number of cases of oral BP-related BRONJ may rise exponentially. Identification of risk groups with susceptibility to BRONJ will arise caution when prescribing BPs and will allow new preventive and therapeutic strategies to be developed. PMID:22136947

Diz, P; Limeres, J; Fedele, S; Seoane, J; Diniz, M; Feijoo, J F

2012-02-01

56

Comparison of intravenous with oral busulfan in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with myeloablative conditioning regimens for pediatric acute leukemia.  

PubMed

Recent reports revealed that intravenous (iv) busulfan (BU) may not only reduce early nonrelapse mortality (NRM) but also improve overall survival (OS) probability in adults. Therefore, we retrospectively compared outcomes for 460 children with acute leukemia who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with either iv-BU (n = 198) or oral busulfan (oral-BU) (n = 262) myeloablative conditioning. OS at 3 years was 53.4% ± 3.7% with iv-BU and 55.1% ± 3.1% with oral-BU; the difference was not statistically significant (P = .77). OS at 3 years in 241 acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 219 acute myeloid leukemia patients was 56.4% ± 5.5% with iv-BU and 54.6% ± 4.1 with oral-BU (P = .51) and 51.0% ± 5.0% with iv-BU and 55.8% ± 4.8% with oral-BU (P = .83), respectively. Cumulative incidence of relapse at 3 years with iv-BU was similar to that with oral-BU (39.0% ± 3.6% and 36.4% ± 3.1%, respectively; P = .67). Cumulative incidence of NRM at 3 years was 16.6% ± 2.7% with iv-BU and 18.3% ± 2.5% with oral-BU (P = .51). Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed no significant survival advantage with iv-BU. In conclusion, iv-BU failed to show a significant survival advantage in children with acute leukemia. PMID:24071595

Kato, Motohiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Tomizawa, Daisuke; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Inagaki, Jiro; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Ogawa, Atsushi; Okada, Keiko; Cho, Yuko; Takita, Junko; Goto, Hiroaki; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Yabe, Hiromasa; Kawa, Keisei; Suzuki, Ritsuro; Kudo, Kazuko; Kato, Koji

2013-12-01

57

Impact of cooling condition and filling ratio on heat transfer limit of cryogenic thermosyphon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the heat transfer limits of two cryogenic thermosyphons with different cooling conditions and filling ratios are experimentally studied and discussed. The cryogenic thermosyphons are fabricated with the same inner structures and their heat transfer performances are tested. The heat transfer limit of the cryogenic thermosyphon can reach 180.0 W through improving the cooling condition at moderate filling ratios. Meanwhile, it is found that the dry-out limit occurs not only at low filling ratios, but also at high filling ratios in the case of poor cooling condition. The mechanism behind the dry-out limit at high filling ratios is analyzed and the critical heat flux is predicted by a model that describes the heat and mass balance of the working fluid. A fluctuating period is observed in the vicinity of the boiling limit, and the critical heat flux corresponding to the boiling limit is predicted by an empirical correlation.

Long, Z. Q.; Zhang, P.

2012-01-01

58

Hydrodynamic modelling of aquatic suction performance and intra-oral pressures: limitations for comparative studies  

PubMed Central

The magnitude of sub-ambient pressure inside the bucco-pharyngeal cavity of aquatic animals is generally considered a valuable metric of suction feeding performance. However, these pressures do not provide a direct indication of the effect of the suction act on the movement of the prey item. Especially when comparing suction performance of animals with differences in the shape of the expanding bucco-pharyngeal cavity, the link between speed of expansion, water velocity, force exerted on the prey and intra-oral pressure remains obscure. By using mathematical models of the heads of catfishes, a morphologically diverse group of aquatic suction feeders, these relationships were tested. The kinematics of these models were fine-tuned to transport a given prey towards the mouth in the same way. Next, the calculated pressures inside these models were compared. The results show that no simple relationship exists between the amount of generated sub-ambient pressure and the force exerted on the prey during suction feeding, unless animals of the same species are compared. Therefore, for evaluating suction performance in aquatic animals in future studies, the focus should be on the flow velocities in front of the mouth, for which a direct relationship exists with the hydrodynamic force exerted on prey.

Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Aerts, Peter; Herrel, Anthony

2006-01-01

59

[Precancerous conditions of the oral cavity. Note I. General considerations. Critical review of the literature].  

PubMed

The authors deal with the current topic of precancerous states of the oral cavity, considering various aspects such as etiopathology, diagnosis, the clinical picture and therefore, nosological classifications. The region of the Air Passages and Superior Digestive Tract (APSDT) should be considered as a single system and it is affected by a set of genetic and environmental conditions common to the various anatomical regions of which it consists. The significance of several irritating agents, which are also habitually used (e.g. tobacco), has been demonstrated for some time, whereas, the actual harmful effects of other factors such as immunodepression in particular, are only now being evaluated and detected. The discussion concerning precancerous lesions of the oral cavity, should actually refer to lesions that do not present the histologic, biological and clinical characteristics of malignant neoplasms, but that have the objective possibility of developing them. Some lesions that traditionally belong to this pathological grouping often present dysplastic aspects, if not the actual characteristics of "carcinoma in situ". Therefore, the availability of a set of indexes is of primary importance and it should be capable of providing an orientation for diagnosis and clinical practices in a precise, standardized manner. The authors hold these indexes to be divisible into three groups as follows. The first group is composed of the "parameters of cellular kinetics" and includes the percentage of cells in phase S (LI), phase S time (Ts), cell cycle duration (Tc), and the growth fraction (GF). The second group consists in the "parameters of cellular morphology", including the nuclear content in DNA, the value of the nuclear surface and the ploidy. The third group is more specific for the existence of a pathologic mass. However, given the uncertainties of the borderlines traditionally attributed to precancerous pathology, this group is definitely useful. It is composed of the potential doubling time (Tpot) and the tumor volume doubling time (Td). Moreover, biopsy is held to be an indispensable tool and the procedure should be conducted in the various manners possible according to well-defined conditions. A correct evaluation of these parameters allows for a correct approach to precancerous pathology and the prevention of the clinical risks of "rapid proliferation" even in the diagnostic biopsy phase. PMID:7984129

Chiarini, L; Bertoldi, C; Tanza, D; Cappelletto, M

1994-01-01

60

42 CFR 410.12 - Medical and other health services: Basic conditions and limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Basic conditions and limitations. 410.12 Section 410.12 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS...

2013-10-01

61

Investigation of fatty acid accumulation in the engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae under nitrogen limited culture condition.  

PubMed

In this study, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild type strain and engineered strain with an overexpressed heterologous ATP-citrate lyase (acl) were cultured in medium with different carbon and nitrogen concentrations, and their fatty acid production levels were investigated. The results showed that when the S. cerevisiae engineered strain was cultivated under nitrogen limited culture condition, the yield of mono-unsaturated fatty acids showed higher than that under non-nitrogen limited condition; with the carbon concentration increased, the accumulation become more apparent, whereas in the wild type strain, no such correlation was found. Besides, the citrate level in the S. cerevisiae under nitrogen limited condition was found to be much higher than that under non-nitrogen limited condition, which indicated a relationship between the diminution of nitrogen and accumulation of citrate in the S. cerevisiae. The accumulated citrate could be further cleaved by acl to provide substrate for fatty acid synthesis. PMID:24755317

Tang, Xiaoling; Chen, Wei Ning

2014-06-01

62

Can conditions experienced during migration limit the population levels of birds?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of migratory birds are usually considered to be limited by conditions in breeding or wintering areas, but some\\u000a might be limited by conditions encountered on migration. This could occur at stopover sites where competition for restricted\\u000a food supplies can reduce subsequent survival or breeding success, or during the flights themselves, when adverse weather can\\u000a occasionally kill large numbers of

Ian Newton

2006-01-01

63

Incidence of WHO Stage 3 and 4 Conditions following Initiation of Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Resource Limited Settings  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the incidence of WHO clinical stage 3 and 4 conditions during early anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in resource limited settings (RLS). Design/Setting A descriptive analysis of routine program data collected prospectively from 25 Médecins Sans Frontières supported HIV treatment programs in eight countries between 2002 and 2010. Subjects/Participants 35,349 study participants with median follow-up on ART of 1.33 years (IQR 0.51–2.41). Outcome Measures Incidence in 100 person-years of WHO stage 3 or 4 conditions during 5 periods after ART initiation. Diagnoses of conditions were made according to WHO criteria and relied upon clinical assessments supported by basic laboratory investigations. Results The incidence of any WHO clinical stage 3 or 4 condition over 3 years was 40.02 per 100 person-years (31.77 for stage 3 and 8.25 for stage 4). The incidence of stage 3 and 4 conditions fell by over 97% between months 0–3 and months 25–36 (77.81 to 2.40 for stage 3 and 28.70 to 0.64 for stage 4). During months 0–3 pulmonary tuberculosis was the most common condition diagnosed in adults (incidence 22.24 per 100 person-years) and children aged 5–14 years (25.76) and oral candidiasis was the most common in children <5 years (25.79). Overall incidences were higher in Africa compared with Asia (43.98 versus 12.97 for stage 3 and 8.98 versus 7.05 for stage 4 conditions, p<0.001). Pulmonary tuberculosis, weight loss, oral and oesophageal candidiasis, chronic diarrhoea, HIV wasting syndrome and severe bacterial infections were more common in Africa. Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection, cryptococcosis, penicilliosis and toxoplasmosis were more common in Asia. Conclusions The incidence of WHO stage 3 and 4 conditions during the early period after ART initiation in RLS is high, but greatly reduces over time. This is likely due to both the benefits of ART and deaths of the sickest patients occurring shortly after ART initiation. Access to appropriate disease prevention tools prior to ART, and early initiation of ART, are important for their prevention.

Curtis, Andrea J.; Marshall, Catherine S.; Spelman, Tim; Greig, Jane; Elliot, Julian H.; Shanks, Leslie; Du Cros, Philipp; Casas, Esther C.; Da Fonseca, Marcio Silveria; O'Brien, Daniel P.

2012-01-01

64

Modified Mohr-Coulomb fracture model for anisotropic sheet materials under limited triaxial stress conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews recent work of the authors to model necking and fracture for anisotropic materials, which requires consideration of the stress conditions that vary through the thickness of the sheet, and in particular, taking into consideration the conditions at individual integration points. Although the prior work adequately addresses the roll of triaxial stress conditions on necking, the fracture model developed in the prior work was limited in its application to analysis of plane-stress conditions. In this work, a fracture model is developed for application to a limited range of triaxial stress conditions, in which the through-thickness shear stresses are assumed to be negligible, but the normal stress is allowed to be non-zero. The model is extended in a way that reduces to the prior anisotropic fracture model under plane stress conditions, but includes the contribution of a triaxial stress condition in a way that retains the desired features of the Mohr-Coulomb Model.

Stoughton, Thomas B.; Yoon, Jeong Whan

2013-12-01

65

Cyclophosphamide following targeted oral busulfan as conditioning for hematopoietic cell transplantation: pharmacokinetics, liver toxicity, and mortality.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide (CY) and its metabolites hydroxycyclophosphamide and carboxyethylphosphoramide mustard were determined in 75 patients receiving targeted oral busulfan followed by i.v. CY ((T)BU/CY) and in 147 patients receiving i.v. CY followed by total body irradiation (CY/TBI) in preparation for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In the (T)BU/CY patients only, the association of the pharmacokinetic data with liver toxicity, relapse, and survival was evaluated. CY was infused at 60 mg/kg/day over 1 or 2 hours on 2 consecutive days; the majority of patients had BU levels targeted to a steady state plasma concentration (Css) of 800-900 ng/mL. Systemic exposure (i.e., area under the concentration-time curve [AUC]) of CY, hydroxycyclophosphamide, and carboxyethylphosphoramide mustard was measured. Liver toxicity was assessed as the development of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). CY metabolism was highly variable and age dependent. (T)BU/CY-treated patients had lower AUC(CY) (P < .0001), higher AUC(HCY) (P < .0001), and higher AUC(CEPM) (P = .15) than CY/TBI-conditioned patients. Among patients receiving (T)BU/CY, 17 (23%) developed SOS, and there were no statistically significant associations between the AUC of CY or its metabolites and SOS, nonrelapse mortality, relapse, or survival (all P >.15). In conclusion, CY exhibits conditioning-regimen dependent pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, suggesting that lowering CY doses is unlikely to improve outcomes to (T)BU/CY. Alternative strategies, such as administering i.v. busulfan or CY before BU, should be explored. PMID:17580264

McCune, Jeannine S; Batchelder, Ami; Deeg, H Joachim; Gooley, Ted; Cole, Scott; Phillips, Brian; Schoch, H Gary; McDonald, George B

2007-07-01

66

Abortive initiation by bacteriophage T3 and T7 RNA polymerases under conditions of limiting substrate.  

PubMed Central

Initiation of RNA synthesis by the phage polymerases is abortive if the concentration of pyrimidine triphosphates is limiting. Under abortive initiation conditions the polymerases repeatedly initiate transcription but produce ribooligonucleotides that terminate just prior to the first occurrence of the limiting substrate. Abortive initiation is most severe if the limiting substrate occurs within the first 8-12 nucleotides of the nascent RNA chain and is particularly evident when UMP is limiting. The formation of stable elongation complexes (as determined by gel retardation experiments) occurs after the synthesis of an RNA product 8-12 nucleotides in length. Images

Ling, M L; Risman, S S; Klement, J F; McGraw, N; McAllister, W T

1989-01-01

67

Limiter  

DOEpatents

A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

1984-10-19

68

Reducing Conservatism in Aircraft Engine Response Using Conditionally Active Min-Max Limit Regulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current aircraft engine control logic uses a Min-Max control selection structure to prevent the engine from exceeding any safety or operational limits during transients due to throttle commands. This structure is inherently conservative and produces transient responses that are slower than necessary. In order to utilize the existing safety margins more effectively, a modification to this architecture is proposed, referred to as a Conditionally Active (CA) limit regulator. This concept uses the existing Min-Max architecture with the modification that limit regulators are active only when the operating point is close to a particular limit. This paper explores the use of CA limit regulators using a publicly available commercial aircraft engine simulation. The improvement in thrust response while maintaining all necessary safety limits is demonstrated in a number of cases.

May, Ryan D.; Garg, Sanjay

2012-01-01

69

Dependence of Limited Growth Rate of High-Quality Gem Diamond on Growth Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growth rate of diamond has been investigated for a long time and researchers have been attempting to enhance the growth rate of high-quality gem diamond infinitely. However, it has been found according to previous research results that the quality of diamond is debased with the increase of growth rate. Thus, under specific conditions, the growth rate of high-quality diamond cannot exceed a limited value that is called the limited growth rate of diamond. We synthesize a series of type Ib gem diamonds by temperature gradient method under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) using the as-grown {100} face. The dependence of limited growth rate on growth conditions is studied. The results show that the limited growth rate increases when synthetic temperature decreases, also when growth time is prolonged.

Tian, Yu; Ma, Hong-An; Li, Shang-Sheng; Xiao, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Ya-Fei; Huang, Guo-Feng; Ma, Li-Qiu; Jia, Xiao-Peng

2007-07-01

70

Forming Limits in Sheet Metal Forming for Non-Proportional Loading Conditions - Experimental and Theoretical Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of strain paths (loading history) on material formability is well known in sheet forming processes. Sophisticated experimental methods are used to determine the entire shape of strain paths of forming limits for aluminum AA6016-T4 alloy. Forming limits for sheet metal in as-received condition as well as for different pre-deformation are presented. A theoretical approach based on Arrieux's intrinsic

Aldo Ofenheimer; Bruno Buchmayr; Ralf Kolleck; Marion Merklein

2005-01-01

71

Limiter  

DOEpatents

A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

Cohen, Samuel A. (Hopewell, NJ); Hosea, Joel C. (Princeton, NJ); Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ)

1986-01-01

72

Paediatric palliative care: development and pilot study of a 'Directory' of life-limiting conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Children’s palliative care services are developing. Rational service development requires sound epidemiological data that are difficult to obtain owing to ambiguity in the definitions both of the population who needs palliative care and of palliative care itself. Existing definitions are of trajectory archetypes. The aim of this study was to develop and pilot a directory of the commonest specific diagnoses that map on to those archetypes. Methods The diagnoses of patients under the care of five children hospices and a tertiary specialist palliative medicine service in the UK were recorded. Duplicates and diagnoses that were not life-limiting conditions according to the ACT/RCPCH criteria or were not primary were removed. The resulting Directory of life-limiting conditions was piloted by analysing Death Certificate data of children in Wales between 2002 and 2007. Results 1590 diagnoses from children’s hospices and 105 from specialist palliative medicine were combined. After removals there were 376 diagnostic label. All ICD10 chapter headings were represented by at least one condition. The pilot study showed that 569 (54%) deaths in Wales were caused by LLC. Only four LLC resulted in ten or more deaths. Among deaths from LLC, the ten commonest diagnoses accounted for 32%, while the 136 diagnoses that caused one or two deaths accounted for 25%. The majority occurred from a small number of life-limiting conditions. Conclusion The Directory is a practical tool for identifying most life-limiting conditions using ICD10 codes that facilitates extraction and analysis of data from existing sources in respect of life-limiting conditions in children such as death certificate data, offering the potential for rapid and precise studies in paediatric palliative care.

2013-01-01

73

Modelling reference conditions for the upper limit of Posidonia oceanica meadows: a morphodynamic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upper portion of the meadows of the protected Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica occurs in the region of the seafloor mostly affected by surf-related effects. Evaluation of its status is part of monitoring programs, but proper conclusions are difficult to draw due to the lack of definite reference conditions. Comparing the position of the meadow upper limit with the beach morphodynamics (i.e. the distinctive type of beach produced by topography and wave climate) provided evidence that the natural landwards extension of meadows can be predicted. Here we present an innovative predictive cartographic approach able to identify the seafloor portion where the meadow upper limit should naturally lies (i.e. its reference conditions). The conceptual framework of this model is based on 3 essential components: i) Definition of the breaking depth geometry: the breaking limit represents the major constrain for the landward meadow development. We modelled the breaking limit (1 year return time) using the software Mike 21 sw. ii) Definition of the morphodynamic domain of the beach using the surf scaling index ?; iii) Definition of the P. oceanica upper limit geometry. We coupled detailed aerial photo with thematic bionomic cartography. In GIS environment, we modelled the seafloor extent where the meadow should naturally lies according to the breaking limit position and the morphodynamic domain of the beach. Then, we added the GIS layer with the meadow upper limit geometry. Therefore, the final output shows, on the same map, both the reference condition and the actual location of the upper limit. It make possible to assess the status of the landward extent of a given P. oceanica meadow and quantify any suspected or observed regression caused by anthropic factors. The model was elaborated and validated along the Ligurian coastline (NW Mediteraanean) and was positively tested in other Mediterranean areas.

Vacchi, Matteo; Misson, Gloria; Montefalcone, Monica; Archetti, Renata; Nike Bianchi, Carlo; Ferrari, Marco

2014-05-01

74

Emittance Limitation of a Conditioned Beam in a Strong Focusing FEL Undulator  

SciTech Connect

Various methods have been proposed to condition an electron beam in order to reduce its emittance effect and to improve the short-wavelength free electron laser (FEL) performance. In this paper, we show that beam conditioning does not result in a complete elimination of the emittance effect in an alternating-gradient focusing FEL undulator. Using a one-dimensional model and a three-dimensional simulation code, we derive a criteria for the emittance limitation of a perfectly conditioned beam that depends on the focusing structure.

Huang, Z.; Stupakov, G.; Reiche, S.

2006-03-24

75

Influence of the weld conditions on the forming-limit strains of tailor-welded blanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the present work is to study experimentally the influence of just the weld conditions, namely the weld region, weld orientation, and weld location, on the forming-limit strains of steel laser-welded blanks. Transverse and longitudinal weld orient- ations are considered for this study. The weld location includes both centre and offset weld positions in the transverse weld

R Ganesh Narayanan; K Narasimhan

2008-01-01

76

Model-based condition monitoring of PEM fuel cell using Hotelling T 2 control limit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a variety of design and control strategies have been proposed to improve the performance of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems, temporary faults in such systems still might occur during operations due to the complexity of the physical process and the functional limitations of some components. The development of an effective condition monitoring system that can detect these

X. Xue; J. Tanga; N. Sammes; Y. Ding

2006-01-01

77

Effects of Martian conditions on numerically modeled, cooling-limited, channelized lava flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used the FLOWGO thermorheological model to examine the effects of Martian gravitational and environmental conditions on the cooling-limited behavior of lava flowing in a channel. The largest effect is due to the lower gravity on Mars as compared to Earth, which causes lava to flow more slowly. The lower velocity means that heat loss per distance down a Mars

Scott K. Rowland; Andrew J. L. Harris; Harold Garbeil

2004-01-01

78

Effects of Martian conditions on numerically modeled, cooling-limited, channelized lava flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) We used the FLOWGO thermorheological model to examine the effects of Martian gravitational and environmental conditions on the cooling-limited behavior of lava flowing in a channel. The largest effect is due to the lower gravity on Mars as compared to Earth, which causes lava to flow more slowly. The lower velocity means that heat loss per distance down a

Scott K. Rowland; Andrew J. L. Harris

2004-01-01

79

Extensive gastrointestinal metabolic conversion limits the oral bioavailability of the dopamine D2 agonist N-0923 in freely moving rats.  

PubMed

The absorption of the dopamine D2 agonist S(-)-2-(N-propyl-N-2-thienylethylamino)-5-hydroxy-tetralin hydrochloride (1; N-0923) was studied in fasted and non-fasted male Albino Wistar rats after intragastric administration of 10.0 mumol.kg-1. Blood samples up to 120 min were obtained from the portal vein and the levels of 1 were monitored with a sensitive HPLC method. The maximal fraction of the drug reaching the liver invariable was less than 1% of the dose. Maximal plasma levels of 30 pmol.ml-1 were found within 12 min after dosing in fasted animals. Plasma concentrations of 1 were measurable up to 60 min, after which they were below the quantitation limit of the assay (10 pmol.ml-1). This did not allow detailed kinetic analysis. Analysis of the portal blood samples obtained after an oral dosing of 10.0 mumol.kg(-1)1 spiked with 0.37 MBq tritium labelled drug showed that the amount of unchanged drug which reaches the liver invariably was comparable with the concentrations found in the study without radioactivity. In vitro incubation of 1 with gastric juice and gut contents showed no degradation. Therefore, it can be concluded that 1 undergoes an extensive metabolism in the gastrointestinal mucosa. PMID:1359583

Swart, P J; De Zeeuw, R A

1992-08-01

80

Forming Limits in Sheet Metal Forming for Non-Proportional Loading Conditions - Experimental and Theoretical Approach  

SciTech Connect

The influence of strain paths (loading history) on material formability is well known in sheet forming processes. Sophisticated experimental methods are used to determine the entire shape of strain paths of forming limits for aluminum AA6016-T4 alloy. Forming limits for sheet metal in as-received condition as well as for different pre-deformation are presented. A theoretical approach based on Arrieux's intrinsic Forming Limit Stress Curve (FLSC) concept is employed to numerically predict the influence of loading history on forming severity. The detailed experimental strain paths are used in the theoretical study instead of any linear or bilinear simplified loading histories to demonstrate the predictive quality of forming limits in the state of stress.

Ofenheimer, Aldo [vif- Kompetenzzentrum das virtuelle Fahrzeug Forschungs-GmbH, Inffeldgasse 21A, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Institute for Materials Science, Welding and Forming, Graz University of Technology, Kopernikusgasse 24, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Buchmayr, Bruno [Institute for Metal Forming -- University of Leoben, Franz Josef Strasse 18, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Kolleck, Ralf [Institute for Tooling and Forming, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 21B/II, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Merklein, Marion [Manufacturing Technology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstrasse 11, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2005-08-05

81

Free fatty acid production in Escherichia coli under phosphate-limited conditions.  

PubMed

Microbially synthesized fatty acids are an attractive platform for producing renewable alternatives to petrochemically derived transportation fuels and oleochemicals. Free fatty acids (FFA) are a direct precursor to many high-value compounds that can be made via biochemical and ex vivo catalytic pathways. To be competitive with current petrochemicals, flux through these pathways must be optimized to approach theoretical yields. Using a plasmid-free, FFA-producing strain of Escherichia coli, a set of chemostat experiments were conducted to gather data for FFA production under phosphate limitation. A prior study focused on carbon-limited conditions strongly implicated non-carbon limitations as a preferred media formulation for maximizing FFA yield. Here, additional data were collected to expand an established kinetic model of FFA production and identify targets for further metabolic engineering. The updated model was able to successfully predict the strain's behavior and FFA production in a batch culture. The highest yield observed under phosphate-limiting conditions (0.1 g FFA/g glucose) was obtained at a dilution rate of 0.1 h(-1), and the highest biomass-specific productivity (0.068 g FFA/gDCW/h) was observed at a dilution rate of 0.25 h(-1). Phosphate limitation increased yield (?45 %) and biomass-specific productivity (?300 %) relative to carbon-limited cultivations using the same strain. FFA production under phosphate limitation also led to a cellular maintenance energy ?400 % higher (0.28 g/gDCW/h) than that seen under carbon limitation. PMID:23619909

Youngquist, J Tyler; Rose, Josh P; Pfleger, Brian F

2013-06-01

82

[Relation between oral health conditions and diabetes mellitus in a japanese population from Bauru-SP-Brazil].  

PubMed

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the oral health condition in a Japanese population aged 40 to 79, in Bauru, Brazil as well as its association with the occurrence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance. It involved 530 subjects, from both sexes. All persons of first generation (Issei) and a random sample of one third of second generation (Nisei) were submitted to a home interview. A clinical examination, oral glucose tolerance test, and examination of oral health conditions took place at the Hospital of Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomaly - USP. The data were processed by Epi-Info program and 22.9% of the individuals presented diabetes mellitus (group I), 15.1% impaired glucose tolerance (group II), and 61.9% were considered normoglycemics (group III). The percentage of edentulous subjects was 45.9% for the total sample, and values of 58.4%, 46.7%, and 41.2% were observed for groups I, II, and III, respectively. Among the edentulous subjects, no one showed necessity of making a total prothesis. These data indicate that tooth loss showed significant association with the occurrence of diabetes mellitus, but there was no significant association with glucose intolerance. PMID:21409334

Tomita, Nilce Emy; Chinellato, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro; Franco, Laércio Joel; Iunes, Magid; Freitas, José Alberto de Souza; Lopes, Eymar Sampaio

2003-03-01

83

Child- and family impacts of infants' oral conditions in Tanzania and Uganda- a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Early childhood dental caries impacts on the quality of life of children and their families. This study set out to assess the psychometric properties of an oral health related quality of life, OHRQoL, measure, based on items emanating from the Child-and Family impact sections of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS), in Kiswahili and Luganda speaking communities. It was hypothesized that the Child- and Family impact scores would discriminate between children with and without clinically defined dental problems and reported good and bad oral health. Method Kiswahili and Luganda versions of the Child- and Family impact scores were derived through translation in pilot studies. Totals of 1221 and 816 child/caretaker pairs attending health care facilities in Manyara, Tanzania and Kampala, Uganda, were recruited into the study. After caretakers completed the interview, their children underwent oral clinical examination. Results Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) was > 0.80 with respect to the Child impact score and 0.79 regarding the Family impact score. Multiple variable logistic- and Poisson regression analyses revealed that the Kiswahili and Luganda versions of the Child- and Family impact score associated in the expected direction with child’s oral diseases as with their reported health and oral health status. In Manyara, multiple logistic regression revealed that the ORs of reporting Child impacts were 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.4) and 2.2 (1.3-3.4) among caretakers who confirmed linear hypoplasia and teething symptoms, respectively. In Kampala, the ORs for reporting Child impacts were 2.3 (95% CI 1.3-3.9), 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5), 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.3) and 2.7 (95% CI 1.3-5.8) among those who confirmed teeth present, hypoplasia, teething symptoms and tooth bud extractions, respectively. The odds ratios for reporting Family impacts were 2.7 (95% CI 1.5-4.7), 1.5 (95% CI 1.1- 2.1) and 4.6 (95% CI 2.0-10.7) if reporting LEH, teething symptoms and toothbud experience, respectively. Conclusion The Child and Family impact scores demonstrated acceptable internal consistency reliability and reproducibility whereas the discriminative validity was more ambiguous. The OHRQoL scores should be developed further and tested among Kiswahili and Luganda speaking caretakers.

2012-01-01

84

Plasma Wall Potentials with Secondary Electron Emissions up to the Stable Space-Charge-Limited Condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical solutions to floating plasma potentials for walls emitting secondary electrons are obtained for various surface materials. The calculations are made with plasma moment equations and the secondary electron emission coefficients, which were determined from recent laboratory experiments. The results estimate the wall potentials up to the physical conditions that allow stable plasma sheaths under the space-charge-limited condition. The materials often used in the laboratory, such as aluminum, silicon, boron, molybdenum, silicon dioxide, and alumina, are considered. The minimum wall potential before the onset of space-charge-limited emission is determined by the electron temperatures at which the effective secondary electron emission coefficient integrated over the velocity distributions is about 0.62. The corresponding potential is given by -e?0 ~ 1.87kBT. The condition for space-charge-limited emission is newly found by numerically searching for all the stable sheaths. The new condition is -e?0 ~ 0.95kBT, and this predicts a wall potential that is less negative than the previously found one. Calculation of the power dissipated to the wall for hydrogen plasmas shows that there is a large difference in terms of power dissipation among the considered materials in the temperature range 20~50 eV.

Jongho, Seon; Ensang, Lee

2013-11-01

85

Assessment of oral midazolam limited sampling strategies to predict area under the concentration time curve (AUC) during cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A baseline, inhibition and induction or activation.  

PubMed

A previous study reported a 2- and 3-timepoint limited sampling strategy (LSS) model accurately predicted oral midazolam area under the concentration time curve (AUC), and thus cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity. Objective: This study evaluated whether the LSS models predict midazolam AUC during CYP3A baseline, inhibition and induction/activation. Materials and methods: Plasma midazolam concentrations from 106 healthy adults from 6 published studies were obtained where oral midazolam was co-administered alone or with ketoconazole, double-strength grapefruit juice, Ginkgo biloba extract, pleconaril, or rifampin. Observed and predicted midazolam AUCs were determined. Bias and precision of the LSS models were determined. Results: Contrasting results were observed for the 2- and 3-timepoint LSS models in accurately predicting midazolam AUC during baseline CYP3A conditions. With the exception of 1 study (single dose, double-strength grapefruit juice), the 2- and 3-timepoint LSS models did not accurately predict midazolam AUC during conditions of CYP3A inhibition and induction/activation. Conclusion: The previously reported 2- and 3-timepoint oral midazolam LSS models are not applicable to the evaluated conditions of CYP3A baseline, inhibition, and induction/ activation. PMID:21084040

Ma, J D; Nguyen, E T; Tsunoda, S M; Greenberg, H E; Gorski, J C; Penzak, S R; Lee, L S

2010-12-01

86

Cyclophosphamide following Targeted Oral Busulfan as Conditioning for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Pharmacokinetics, Liver Toxicity, and Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide (CY) and its metabolites hydroxycyclophosphamide and carboxyethylphosphoramide mustard were determined in 75 patients receiving targeted oral busulfan followed by i.v. CY (TBU\\/CY) and in 147 patients receiving i.v. CY followed by total body irradiation (CY\\/TBI) in preparation for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In the TBU\\/CY patients only, the association of the pharmacokinetic data with liver toxicity,

Jeannine S. McCune; Ami Batchelder; H. Joachim Deeg; Ted Gooley; Scott Cole; Brian Phillips; H. Gary Schoch; George B. McDonald

2007-01-01

87

[Oral leukoplakias. I. Classification, differential diagnosis, etiological conditions for neoplastic transformation, prognosis].  

PubMed

Leucoplakia is due to abnormal keratinization of squamous epithelial mucosa and constitutes a pattern of reaction of the oral mucosa which is typical for the tissue but unspecific for any stimulus. Because of its numerous causes leucoplakia cannot be defined as a pathologic entity. There is leucoplakia in the narrow sense and leucoplakia in the broad sense; the first should be regarded as a polyetiologic symptom but not as a disease in itself. Leucoplakias in the broad sense comprise those caused by well defined disorders. A classification of oral leucoplakias must include both categories, for differential diagnostic reasons. Therefore a classification of leucoplakias in the broad sense (hereditary 1., endogenous-irritative 1.) and leucoplakias in the narrow sense (exogenous-irritative 1., precancerous 1.) is proposed. The latter category is largely identical with the WHO definition of leucoplakia. The most important clinical and histological grounds on which this classification is based are explained. The precancerous lesions and the present knowledge of stomatology and oral pathology are particularly taken into consideration. PMID:267574

Hornstein, O P

1977-07-01

88

Theoretical aspect of suitable spatial boundary condition specified for adjoint model on limited area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical argumentation for so-called suitable spatial condition is conducted by the aid of homotopy framework to demonstrate that the proposed boundary condition does guarantee that the over-specification boundary condition resulting from an adjoint model on a limited-area is no longer an issue, and yet preserve its well-poseness and optimal character in the boundary setting. The ill-poseness of over-specified spatial boundary condition is in a sense, inevitable from an adjoint model since data assimilation processes have to adapt prescribed observations that used to be over-specified at the spatial boundaries of the modeling domain. In the view of pragmatic implement, the theoretical framework of our proposed condition for spatial boundaries indeed can be reduced to the hybrid formulation of nudging filter, radiation condition taking account of ambient forcing, together with Dirichlet kind of compatible boundary condition to the observations prescribed in data assimilation procedure. All of these treatments, no doubt, are very familiar to mesoscale modelers.

Wang, Yuan; Wu, Rongsheng

2001-12-01

89

Clinico-epidemiological profile of oral potentially malignant and malignant conditions among areca nut, tobacco and alcohol users in Eastern India: A hospital based study  

PubMed Central

Context: With an increase in the abuse of various oral habitual products in India over the past few decades; the incidence of oral potentially malignant conditions as leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) rates have also increased. No recent study has been conducted reporting the scenario of oral cancer and potentially malignant conditions in Eastern India (specifically Kolkata). Aims: The present study was conducted at Dr. R. Ahmed Dental College, Kolkata during 2010-2011 to find a possible correlation between the effects of the different oral habits, age, sex and the different types of oral mucosal lesions among patients reported to the hospital. This study also enabled us to see the predilection of the various histopathological stages of the lesions for different sites of the oral cavity. Subjects and Methods: The study group consisted of 698 patients having either oral potentially malignant or malignant lesion. The control group consisted of 948 patients who had reported to the hospital for different oral/dental problems and had the habit of tobacco, areca nut and/or alcohol usage for at least 1 year. Statistical Analysis: The unadjusted odds ratio, the 95% confidence interval, and the P value were calculated to correlate patients with/without different kinds of habit and having/not having various kinds of oral lesions. Results: Our study shows that for males having the habit of taking smokeless tobacco or mixed habit poses the highest risk for developing SCC. For females, significant risk of developing SCC was found in patients habituated to processed areca nut chewing. Conclusion: This study presents probably for the first time in recent years the occurrence of oral potentially malignant and malignant conditions amongst patients having deleterious habits in a hospital based population of Kolkata.

Ray, Jay Gopal; Ganguly, Madhurima; Rao, BH Sripathi; Mukherjee, Sanjit; Mahato, Basudev; Chaudhuri, Keya

2013-01-01

90

Residual phosphate concentration under nitrogen-limiting conditions regulates curdlan production in Agrobacterium species  

Microsoft Academic Search

  We investigated the influence of inorganic phosphate concentration on the production of curdlan by Agrobacterium species. A two-step culture method was employed where cells were first cultured, followed by curdlan production under nitrogen-limiting\\u000a conditions. In the curdlan production step, cells did not grow but metabolized sugar into curdlan. Shake-flask experiments\\u000a showed that the optimal phosphate concentration for curdlan production was

M-K Kim; I-Y Lee; J-H Lee; K-T Kim; Y-H Rhee; Y-H Park

2000-01-01

91

Development of Low and High-serum Culture Conditions for Use of Human Oral Fibroblasts in Toxicity Testing of Dental Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim of establishing conditions applicable to the testing of dental materials in human target cells, fibroblastic cell lines have been derived and grown from explants of human oral mucosa. Both a high-serum medium (termed \\

Y. Liu; K. Arvidson; L. Atzori; K. Sundqvist; B. Silva; I. Cotgreave; R. C. Grafström

1991-01-01

92

Discriminative ability of the generic and condition specific Oral Impact on Daily Performance (OIDP) among adolescents with and without hypodontia  

PubMed Central

Background The aims of this study were to (1) investigate to what extent the generic and condition specific (CS) forms of the oral impact of daily performance (OIDP) inventory discriminate between a group of patients with hypodontia and a group of patients having malocclusion, (2) assess the association of the generic and CS OIDP with severity and localisation of hypodontia, whilst adjusting for patients’ age and sex. Methods A total of 163 patients aged 10–17 years were included in a cross-sectional study. Two groups were investigated: 62 patients with non-syndromic hypodontia and 101 non-hypodontia patients. Both groups had a malocclusion of similar treatment need. All patients underwent a clinical and radiographic examination and completed a Norwegian version of the generic and the CS OIDP inventory. CS scores were established for impacts attributed to hypodontia. Results The mean number of missing teeth in the hypodontia group was 6.2. The prevalence of generic and CS oral impacts in the hypodontia group were 64% and 30%, and the corresponding rates in the non-hypodontia group were 62% and 10%. The generic OIDP did not discriminate between the two groups with respect to overall scores. The CS OIDP discriminated strongly between patients with and without hypodontia regarding problems with emotional status, showing teeth, social contact, speaking and carrying out work. Compared to the non-hypodontia group, patients with hypodontia, with severe hypodontia (? 6 missing teeth) and upper anterior hypodontia were respectively 3.4, 2.5 and 7.0 times more likely to report any oral impact attributed to small teeth, gaps between teeth and missing teeth. Conclusions Hypodontia and malocclusion patients report a considerable burden of oral impacts. The CS-OIDP measure discriminated most effectively between patients with and without hypodontia and was related to severity and upper anterior localisation of hypodontia.

2014-01-01

93

Investigation of the human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii under iron limiting conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Iron acquisition systems are important virulence factors in pathogenic bacteria. To identify these systems in Acinetobacter baumannii, the transcriptomic response of the completely sequenced strain ATCC 17978 under iron limiting conditions was investigated using a genomic microarray that contained probes for all annotated open reading frames. Results Under low iron conditions, transcription levels were more than 2-fold up-regulated for 463 genes, including 95 genes that were up-regulated more than 4-fold. Of particular significance, three siderophore biosynthesis gene clusters, including one novel cluster, were highly up-regulated. Binding sites for the ferric uptake regulator were identified in the promoter regions of many up-regulated genes, suggesting a prominent role for this regulator in the Acinetobacter iron acquisition response. Down-regulation under iron limitation was less dramatic as the transcription of only 202 genes varied more than 2-fold. Various genes involved in motility featured prominently amongst the genes down-regulated when iron was less readily available. Motility assays confirmed that these transcriptional changes are manifested at the phenotypic level. The siderophore biosynthesis gene clusters were further investigated by means of comparative genomic analysis of 10 sequenced Acinetobacter isolates. These analyses revealed important roles for mobile genetic elements in shaping the siderophore meditated iron acquisition mechanisms between different Acinetobacter strains. Conclusions A. baumannii grown under iron limited conditions resulted in major transcriptional changes of not only many iron acquisition related genes, but also genes involved in other processes such as motility. Overall, this study showed that A. baumannii is well adaptable to growth in an environment which has limiting iron availability.

2011-01-01

94

Enhanced efficacy of an attenuated Flavobacterium psychrophilum strain cultured under iron-limited conditions.  

PubMed

An attenuated strain of Flavobacterium psychrophilum (CSF259-93B.17) has shown potential as a vaccine for prevention of bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Because BCWD outbreaks can result in high mortality in other salmonid species, specifically coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum), the live-attenuated strain was tested as a vaccine in this species. Additionally, we hypothesized that culture of the vaccine strain under iron-limited conditions would lead to improved protection against BCWD. To test this hypothesis, coho salmon were either injection or immersion immunized with CSF259-93B.17 cultured in iron-replete or iron-limited medium. Resultant antibody titers were low and not significantly different between the two treatments regardless of vaccine delivery method (P > 0.05). Following injection challenge with a virulent F. psychrophilum strain, mortality for injection vaccinated fish was significantly reduced compared to the control but did not differ by treatment (P > 0.05). Relative percent survival (RPS) was high in both treatments (90% in iron-replete, 98% in iron-limited medium). Fish immunized by immersion with CSF259-93B.17 grown in iron-replete medium exhibited lower mortality (29.3%; RPS 46%) when compared to mock immunized fish, but this was not significant. However, mortality was significantly lower in fish immunized with CSF259-93B.17 grown in iron-limited medium (14.7%; RPS 73%) when compared to mock immunized fish. The results demonstrate that the live-attenuated F. psychrophilum strain can confer protection to coho salmon and vaccine efficacy is enhanced by culturing the strain under iron-limited conditions. PMID:23989039

Long, Amy; Fehringer, Tyson R; Swain, Marissa A; LaFrentz, Benjamin R; Call, Douglas R; Cain, Kenneth D

2013-11-01

95

Identification of Siderophore Biosynthesis Genes Essential for Growth of Aeromonas salmonicida under Iron Limitation Conditions? †  

PubMed Central

Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the etiological agent of furunculosis in fish, produces a catechol-type siderophore under iron-limiting conditions. In this study, the Fur titration assay (FURTA) was used to identify a cluster of six genes, asbG, asbF, asbD, asbC, asbB, and asbI, encoding proteins similar to components of the siderophore biosynthetic machinery in other bacteria. Reverse transcriptase PCR analyses showed that this cluster consists of four iron-regulated transcriptional units. Mutants with deletions in either asbD (encoding a multidomain nonribosomal peptide synthetase), asbG (encoding a histidine decarboxylase), or asbC (encoding a predicted histamine monooxygenase) did not grow under iron-limiting conditions and did not produce siderophores. Growth of the ?asbG strain under iron starvation conditions was restored by addition of histamine, suggesting that the siderophore in this species could contain a histamine-derived moiety. None of the mutants could grow in the presence of transferrin, indicating that A. salmonicida uses the catechol-type siderophore for removal of iron from transferrin rather than relying on a receptor for this iron-binding protein. All 18 A. salmonicida strains analyzed by DNA probe hybridization were positive in tests for the presence of the asbD gene, and all of them promoted the growth of asbD, asbG, and asbC mutants, suggesting that this siderophore-mediated iron uptake system is conserved among A. salmonicida isolates. This study provides the first description of siderophore biosynthesis genes in this fish pathogen, and the results demonstrate that the asbD, asbG, and asbC genes are necessary for the production of a catecholate siderophore that is essential for the growth of A. salmonicida under iron limitation conditions.

Najimi, Mohsen; Lemos, Manuel L.; Osorio, Carlos R.

2008-01-01

96

Identification of siderophore biosynthesis genes essential for growth of Aeromonas salmonicida under iron limitation conditions.  

PubMed

Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the etiological agent of furunculosis in fish, produces a catechol-type siderophore under iron-limiting conditions. In this study, the Fur titration assay (FURTA) was used to identify a cluster of six genes, asbG, asbF, asbD, asbC, asbB, and asbI, encoding proteins similar to components of the siderophore biosynthetic machinery in other bacteria. Reverse transcriptase PCR analyses showed that this cluster consists of four iron-regulated transcriptional units. Mutants with deletions in either asbD (encoding a multidomain nonribosomal peptide synthetase), asbG (encoding a histidine decarboxylase), or asbC (encoding a predicted histamine monooxygenase) did not grow under iron-limiting conditions and did not produce siderophores. Growth of the DeltaasbG strain under iron starvation conditions was restored by addition of histamine, suggesting that the siderophore in this species could contain a histamine-derived moiety. None of the mutants could grow in the presence of transferrin, indicating that A. salmonicida uses the catechol-type siderophore for removal of iron from transferrin rather than relying on a receptor for this iron-binding protein. All 18 A. salmonicida strains analyzed by DNA probe hybridization were positive in tests for the presence of the asbD gene, and all of them promoted the growth of asbD, asbG, and asbC mutants, suggesting that this siderophore-mediated iron uptake system is conserved among A. salmonicida isolates. This study provides the first description of siderophore biosynthesis genes in this fish pathogen, and the results demonstrate that the asbD, asbG, and asbC genes are necessary for the production of a catecholate siderophore that is essential for the growth of A. salmonicida under iron limitation conditions. PMID:18296539

Najimi, Mohsen; Lemos, Manuel L; Osorio, Carlos R

2008-04-01

97

Liquid Lithium Limiter for Carbon Wall Conditioning on RFX-mod  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Liquid Lithium Limiter (Li3) with capillary porous system originally developed for the FTU tokamak, has been tested for the first time on the Reversed Field Pinch RFX-mod, a machine equipped with a first wall completely covered by graphite tiles. The operation in limiter configuration was restricted by a defect on the limiter, which coupled with the plasma wall interaction with a relatively limited power (2-3 MW/m^2) caused a damage to the device. The Li3 has then been operated as an evaporator, being the Lithium depositions preceded by prolonged glow discharges in Helium to remove the Hydrogen trapped into the graphite. The enhanced retention capability and the lowered recycling factor of the first wall obtained with this treatments in respect to standard operational conditions, allowed a good degree of control on the density of the RFP discharges and to reach high density regimes at high current (n/nGreenwald ˜ 0.8 at plasma current ˜ 1.6 MA).

Cavazzana, R.; Scarin, P.; Spizzo, G.; Agostini, M.; de Masi, G.; Marrelli, L.; Puiatti, M. E.; Mazzitelli, G.

2012-10-01

98

Exploring the limits and utility of operant conditioning in the treatment of drug addiction  

PubMed Central

This article describes a research program to develop an operant treatment for cocaine addiction in low-income, treatment-resistant methadone patients. The treatment's central feature is an abstinence reinforcement contingency in which patients earn monetary reinforcement for providing cocaine-free urine samples. Success and failure of this contingency appear to be an orderly function of familiar parameters of operant conditioning. Increasing reinforcement magnitude and duration can increase effectiveness, and sustaining the contingency can prevent relapse. Initial development of a potentially practical application of this technology suggests that it may be possible to integrate abstinence reinforcement into employment settings using salary for work to reinforce drug abstinence. This research illustrates the potential utility and current limitations of an operant approach to the treatment of drug addiction. Similar research programs are needed to explore the limits of the operant approach and to develop practical applications that can be used widely in society for the treatment of drug addiction.

Silverman, Kenneth

2004-01-01

99

Calcification and photosynthesis of the coral acropora cervicornis under calcium limited conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differing hypothesis about the function of calcification are based on an interesting dilemma. Is the purpose of calcification mainly a structural and protective one or does calcification serve other functions? Does photosynthesis increase carbonate ion activity and cause calcification or does calcification increase CO2 levels and stimulate photsynthesis? It is proposed that calcification in corals is not dependent upon photosynthesis but upon calcium levels in the water. Under normal ocean conditions, corals convert a certain percentage of energy to photosynthesis and respiration and another percentage to calcification. As corals become nutrient stressed, particularly calcium limited, the ratio of photosynthesis to calcification shifts towards calcification in order to generate protons. The protons generated during calcification may stimulate photosynthesis and aid in the uptake of nutrients and biocarbonates. The results of the calcification experiment show a trend towards increased calcification and decreased photosynthesis when the coral Acropora cervicornis is calcium limited, but the data are inconclusive and further research is needed.

Rathfon, Megan; Brewer, Debbie

1997-01-01

100

Speed, speed limits and road traffic accidents under free flow conditions.  

PubMed

The relationship between various measures of traffic speed, under free flow conditions, and accident rate is investigated for two groups of sites, one in the Tyne and Wear county of the UK and the other in Bahrain. The effect of speed limits on traffic speed is estimated for both groups of sites. In Bahrain, there is statistically significant evidence of an association between mean speed and accident rate. In Tyne and Wear the statistical evidence is weaker, and points to a stronger relationship between accidents and the variability of traffic speeds. In both areas, there is an apparent decrease in accident rate if the percentage of heavy vehicles increases, with the speed distribution held constant. In both areas the effect of speed limits is to reduce the mean speed of traffic by at least one quarter. Higher speeds are associated with longer trips. PMID:10084631

Aljanahi, A A; Rhodes, A H; Metcalfe, A V

1999-01-01

101

Influence of fludarabine on the pharmacokinetics of oral busulfan during pretransplant conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the influence of fludarabine on the pharmacokinetics of busulfan administered orally to patients receiving a conditioning regimen for hematopoietic allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Twenty-six patients treated with oral busulfan (1?mg/kg/6?h for 4 days) were divided into two groups according to the concomitant administration of fludarabine (n?=?11; 30?mg/m(2) for 5 days) or subsequent administration of cyclophosphamide (n?=?15; 60?mg/kg for 2 days). Serial blood samples were collected on Day 4 of busulfan administration. Plasma busulfan concentrations were determined by HPLC-UV and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using the WinNonlin program. Patients concomitantly treated with fludarabine showed reduced apparent clearance of busulfan (110.5?mL/h/kg vs. 157.4?mL/h/kg) and higher AUC0-6 (area under the plasma concentrations vs. time curve) than patients subsequently treated with cyclophosphamide (7.9?µg?h/mL vs. 5.7?µg?h/mL). No association was observed between busulfan AUC0-6 and clinical evolution of the patients. Although plasma busulfan concentrations were higher in patients receiving concomitant fludarabine, myelosuppression-related toxicity was less frequent than in patients treated with busulfan and cyclophosphamide. The results suggest that patients treated with fludarabine should receive 30% lower busulfan doses during conditioning protocols for HSCT. PMID:23955479

de Castro, Francine Attié; Lanchote, Vera Lucia; Voltarelli, Julio Cesar; Colturato, Virgílio Antônio Rensi; Simões, Belinda Pinto

2013-11-01

102

An attempt to condition flavour preference induced by oral and/or postoral administration of 16% sucrose in pigs.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the acquisition of conditioned flavour preferences in pigs using the caloric value and/or sweet taste of sucrose. Nine water-deprived juvenile pigs were given four three-day conditioning sessions during which they received flavoured solutions as conditioned stimuli (CS). The CS solutions were paired with three treatments that generated a gustatory and/or a caloric reinforcement (US). The CS++ solution was added with 16% sucrose and paired with an intraduodenal (ID) infusion of water, the CS+ solution was paired with an ID infusion of 16% sucrose and the CS- solution was paired with an ID infusion of water. One and two weeks after conditioning, the water-deprived pigs were subjected to two-choice preference tests with the unreinforced CS solutions. Solutions intake, behavioural activity and some drinking parameters were measured. Despite no difference in CS intake during conditioning, the animals spent less time inactive and more time standing during CS++ than CS+ conditioning. When receiving CS++, the pigs explored the drinking trough more than when receiving CS-. Compared to the CS- condition, the numbers of drinking episodes and intra-drinking episode (IDE) pauses were also 36% and 49% lesser in the CS++ condition, but these differences were not significant. During the two-choice tests, the pigs did not show significant preferences. Nevertheless, during the first session, the pigs seemed to show a slight preference for the CS++ (57% of total intake) compared to CS+. The duration of CS++ drinking episodes represented 64% of the total duration compared to CS+ and CS- . The total time spent drinking the CS++ also represented 57% of the total time in the CS++ vs. CS- test. To conclude, although no clear-cut preferences were found during two-choice tests, the oral perception of 16% sucrose during conditioning induced changes in behavioural activities, motivational responses and microstructure of CS intake, suggesting the importance of oral food perception for food selection processes in pigs. Further studies are needed to investigate the impact of water deprivation on the expression of flavour preferences in pigs. PMID:24184509

Clouard, Caroline; Loison, Florence; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Val-Laillet, David

2014-01-30

103

A vegetation sensitivity approximation for gross primary production in water limited conditions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most severe impact of climate change on vegetation growth and agriculture is likely to occur under water-limited conditions. Under such conditions the plants optimize the inward flux of CO2 and the outward flux of water vapor (the transpiration) by regulating the size of the stomata openings. Higher temperature increases water loss through transpiration, forcing the plants to diminish the stomata openings, which decreases photosynthesis. This is counteracted by higher CO2 concentration, which allows plants to maintain the inward flux of CO2 through the smaller openings. These two counteracting effects, combined with the change in precipitation, determine the net change of biological productivity in a changed climate. Here, a vegetation sensitivity approximation (VSA) is introduced, in order to understand and estimate the combined effect of changed temperature, CO2-concentration and precipitation on gross primary production (GPP) to first order. According to the VSA, we have: ( ) ?CO2atm ? GP P = ?0 P Here ?CO2atm is the atmospheric CO2 concentration, ?0 is the baseline for atmospheric CO2 concentration, P is precipitation and ? is defined by: -s- ? = 1 - 11°C where s is the climate sensitivity i.e. the increase in temperature when atmospheric CO2 is doubled. The VSA is based on the physical laws of gas flux through the stomata openings, and is only valid under water-limited conditions. It assumes that the temperature depends logarithmically on the CO2 concentration with a given climate sensitivity. Transpiration is assumed to be a constant fraction of precipitation, which is reasonable under water-limited conditions. The VSA is compared to simulations with the dynamic vegetation model LPJ. The agreement is reasonable, and the deviations can be understood by comparison with Köppen's definition of arid climate: in an arid climate growth increases more according to LPJ than according to the VSA, and in non-arid conditions the reverse is true. Both the VSA and the LPJ simulations generally show increased growth with increasing CO2 levels and the resulting temperature increase, assuming precipitation to be unchanged. Thus, for constant precipitation the negative temperature effect is more than compensated by the positive effect of CO2.

Claesson, Jonas; Nycander, Jonas

2013-04-01

104

Different resource limitation by carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus between base flow and high flow conditions for estuarine bacteria and phytoplankton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freshwater inflows can deliver substantial inputs of allochthonous organic carbon to estuaries. The role that allochthonous DOC has on structuring bacterial and phytoplankton communities is still not well understood. We performed a series of 1.25 L bioassay limitation experiments on the Bega and Clyde River estuaries in NSW, Australia, examining what resources limit bacteria and phytoplankton growth. We hypothesized that during base flow conditions bacteria would be carbon limited, and after high flow conditions they would be nutrient limited. A full factorial design was used with additions of carbon (glucose), nitrogen (KNO3) and phosphorus (KH2PO4). During the experiments that took place during base flow conditions bacteria were always primarily C-limited. After high flow conditions, bacteria were P-limited on the Clyde River, and remained C-limited on the Bega River. Phytoplankton growth was limited at all times in each estuary, tending toward N-limitation on the Bega River and P-limitation on the Clyde river. During high flow conditions on the Clyde River, when bacteria and phytoplankton were both primarily P-limited, it appeared that bacteria was able to outcompete phytoplankton for nutrients. These results suggest that freshwater inflows and allochthonous DOC maybe important in structuring estuarine microbial ecosystems and individual estuaries may behave differently in terms of their limiting resources.

Hitchcock, James N.; Mitrovic, Simon M.

2013-12-01

105

Optimization of plant mineral nutrition under growth-limiting conditions in a lunar greenhouse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It may be assumed that the first plants in a lunar base will play a main role in forming a protosoil of acceptable fertility needed for purposively growing second generation plants like wheat, rice, tulips, etc. The residues of the first-generation plants could be composted and transformed by microorganisms into a soil-like substrate within a loop of regenerative life support system. The lunar regolith may be used as a substrate for plant growth at the very beginning of a mission to reduce its cost. The use of microbial communities for priming plants will allow one to facilitate adaption to stressful conditions and to support the plant development under growth limiting conditions. Well-defined plant-associated bacteria were used for growing three cultivars to colonize French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) in anorthosite, a substrate of low bioavailability, analogous to a lunar rock. The consortium was composed of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and the bacterium Paenibacillus sp. IMBG156 which stimulated seed germination, better plant development, and finally, the flowering of inoculated tagetes. In contrast, control plants grew poorly in the anorthosite and practically did not survive until flowering. Analysis of bacterial community composition showed that all species colonized plant roots, however, the rate of colonization depended on the allelopatic characteristics of marigold varieties. Bacteria of consortium were able to liberate some elements (Ca, Fe, Mn, Si, Ni, Cu, Zn) from substrate anorthosite. Plant colonization by mixed culture of bacterial strains resulted in the increase of accumulation of K, Mg, Mn by the plant and in the lowering of the level of toxic metal accumulation. It was assumed that a rationally assembled consortium of bacterial strains promoted germination of marygold seeds and supported the plant development under growth limiting conditions by means of bioleaching plant essential nutritional elements and by protecting the plant against hyperaccumulation of some toxic metals.

Zaets, I.; Voznyuk, T.; Kovalchuk, M.; Rogutskyy, I.; Lukashov, D.; Mytrokhyn, O.; Mashkovska, S.; Foing, B.; Kozyrovska, N.

106

MYB10 and MYB72 Are Required for Growth under Iron-Limiting Conditions  

PubMed Central

Iron is essential for photosynthesis and is often a limiting nutrient for plant productivity. Plants respond to conditions of iron deficiency by increasing transcript abundance of key genes involved in iron homeostasis, but only a few regulators of these genes have been identified. Using genome-wide expression analysis, we searched for transcription factors that are induced within 24 hours after transferring plants to iron-deficient growth conditions. Out of nearly 100 transcription factors shown to be up-regulated, we identified MYB10 and MYB72 as the most highly induced transcription factors. Here, we show that MYB10 and MYB72 are functionally redundant and are required for plant survival in alkaline soil where iron availability is greatly restricted. myb10myb72 double mutants fail to induce transcript accumulation of the nicotianamine synthase gene NAS4. Both myb10myb72 mutants and nas4-1 mutants have reduced iron concentrations, chlorophyll levels, and shoot mass under iron-limiting conditions, indicating that these genes are essential for proper plant growth. The double myb10myb72 mutant also showed nickel and zinc sensitivity, similar to the nas4 mutant. Ectopic expression of NAS4 rescues myb10myb72 plants, suggesting that loss of NAS4 is the primary defect in these plants and emphasizes the importance of nicotianamine, an iron chelator, in iron homeostasis. Overall, our results provide evidence that MYB10 and MYB72 act early in the iron-deficiency regulatory cascade to drive gene expression of NAS4 and are essential for plant survival under iron deficiency.

Palmer, Christine M.; Hindt, Maria N.; Schmidt, Holger; Clemens, Stephan; Guerinot, Mary Lou

2013-01-01

107

MYB10 and MYB72 are required for growth under iron-limiting conditions.  

PubMed

Iron is essential for photosynthesis and is often a limiting nutrient for plant productivity. Plants respond to conditions of iron deficiency by increasing transcript abundance of key genes involved in iron homeostasis, but only a few regulators of these genes have been identified. Using genome-wide expression analysis, we searched for transcription factors that are induced within 24 hours after transferring plants to iron-deficient growth conditions. Out of nearly 100 transcription factors shown to be up-regulated, we identified MYB10 and MYB72 as the most highly induced transcription factors. Here, we show that MYB10 and MYB72 are functionally redundant and are required for plant survival in alkaline soil where iron availability is greatly restricted. myb10myb72 double mutants fail to induce transcript accumulation of the nicotianamine synthase gene NAS4. Both myb10myb72 mutants and nas4-1 mutants have reduced iron concentrations, chlorophyll levels, and shoot mass under iron-limiting conditions, indicating that these genes are essential for proper plant growth. The double myb10myb72 mutant also showed nickel and zinc sensitivity, similar to the nas4 mutant. Ectopic expression of NAS4 rescues myb10myb72 plants, suggesting that loss of NAS4 is the primary defect in these plants and emphasizes the importance of nicotianamine, an iron chelator, in iron homeostasis. Overall, our results provide evidence that MYB10 and MYB72 act early in the iron-deficiency regulatory cascade to drive gene expression of NAS4 and are essential for plant survival under iron deficiency. PMID:24278034

Palmer, Christine M; Hindt, Maria N; Schmidt, Holger; Clemens, Stephan; Guerinot, Mary Lou

2013-11-01

108

Nitrifying bacterial community structures and their nitrification performance under sufficient and limited inorganic carbon conditions.  

PubMed

This study examined the hypothesis that different inorganic carbon (IC) conditions enrich different ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) populations by operating two laboratory-scale continuous-flow bioreactors fed with 15 and 100 mg IC/L, respectively. During this study, both bioreactors maintained satisfactory nitrification performance and stably oxidized 250 mg?N/L of influent ammonium without nitrite accumulation. Based on results of cloning/sequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism targeting on the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene, Nitrosomonas nitrosa lineage was identified as the dominant AOB population in the high-IC bioreactor, while Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosomonas nitrosa lineage AOB were dominant in the low-IC bioreactor. Results of real-time polymerase chain reactions for Nitrobacter and Nitrospira 16S rRNA genes indicated that Nitrospira was the predominant NOB population in the high-IC bioreactor, while Nitrobacter was the dominant NOB in the low-IC bioreactor. Furthermore, batch experiment results suggest that N. europaea and Nitrobacter populations are proliferated in the low-IC bioreactor due to their higher rates under low IC conditions despite the fact that these two populations have been identified as weak competitors, compared with N. nitrosa and Nitrospira, under low ammonium/nitrite environments. This study revealed that in addition to ammonium/nitrite concentrations, limited IC conditions may also be important in selecting dominant AOB/NOB communities of nitrifying bioreactors. PMID:23053088

Fukushima, Toshikazu; Whang, Liang-Ming; Chiang, Ting-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Chevalier, Lizette R; Chen, Mei-Chun; Wu, Yi-Ju

2013-07-01

109

Replacement of in vivo acute oral toxicity studies by in vitro cytotoxicity methods: opportunities, limits and regulatory status.  

PubMed

The development of a new medicinal product is a long and costly process in particular due to the regulatory requirements for quality, safety and efficacy. There is a common interest to increase the efficiency of drug development and to provide new, better quality medicinal products much faster to the public. One possible way to economize time and costs, as well as to consider animal protection issues, is to introduce new alternative methods into non-clinical toxicity testing. Currently, animal tests are mandatory for the evaluation of acute toxicity of chemicals and new drugs. The replacement of the in vivo tests by alternative in vitro assays would offer the opportunity to screen and assess numerous compounds at the same time, to predict acute oral toxicity and thus accelerate drug development. Moreover, the substitution of in vivo tests by in vitro methods shows a proactive pursuit of ethical and animal welfare issues. Importantly, the implementation of in vitro assays for acute oral toxicity would require the establishment of common test guidelines across the EU, USA and Japan, i.e., the regions of ICH (International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use). Presently, alternative in vitro tests are being investigated internationally. Yet, in order to achieve regulatory acceptance and implementation of in vitro assays, convincing results from validation studies are required. In this review, we discuss the current regulatory status of acute oral toxicity testing and point out achievements of alternative methods. We describe the application of in vitro tests, correlating in vitro with in vivo data. The use of in vitro data to predict in vivo acute oral toxicity is analyzed using the Registry of Cytotoxicity, an official independent database. We have then analyzed opportunities and drawbacks for future implementation of in vitro test methods, with particular focus on industrial use. PMID:18362045

Ukelis, Ute; Kramer, Peter-Jürgen; Olejniczak, Klaus; Mueller, Stefan O

2008-06-01

110

Strong diffusion limit in the realistic magnetosphere: Dependence on geomagnetic condition and spatial location  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract<p label="1">As an essential concept of resonant wave-particle interactions, the strong diffusion <span class="hlt">limit</span> DSD is an important variable to explore the efficiency of wave-induced pitch angle scattering for particle precipitation loss to the atmosphere. Determined by the size of equatorial loss cone on a given field line and the bounce period at a given energy, the value of DSD sets a lower <span class="hlt">limit</span> to the precipitation timescale for loss cone filling, regardless of the strength of wave-particle interactions. However, no efforts have ever been made to evaluate DSD in the realistic magnetosphere considering the impact of various geomagnetic activities. To perform a systematic exploration of the dependence of DSD on geomagnetic <span class="hlt">condition</span>, spatial location, and global magnetic field model, we have numerically computed DSD using the dipolar and non-dipolar Tsyganenko magnetic field models under three representative (quiet, moderate, and active) geomagnetic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Use of more realistic Tsyganenko magnetic field models introduces non-negligible or considerable differences in DSD magnitude from that obtained using a dipolar field. The difference can be over an order of magnitude at the field lines with equatorial crossings ?6 Re during geomagnetically disturbed times. We also report that in the realistic magnetosphere both DSD magnitude and its variations have a strong dependence on the spatial location. Computed DSD shows the maximum tending to occur on the dayside (MLT = 12 and 16) and the minimum DSD more likely to occur at MLT = 00. Compared to the dipolar results, largest deviation in DSD occurs for MLT = 00, 04, and 20, while DSD variations on the dayside are relatively small. Our results demonstrate that accurate evaluation of DSD besides scattering rates in the realistic magnetosphere, especially at high spatial locations and under geomagnetically disturbed <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for which a dipolar approximation fails, can make an important contribution to quantifying the wave effect on particle resonant diffusion, which should be incorporated into future modeling efforts for comprehending the role of resonant wave-particle interactions and the dynamics of magnetospheric electrons under a variety of geomagnetic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhou, Chen; Yang, Guobin; Ni, Binbin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Hu, Ze-Jun; Shi, Run</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21551939"> <span id="translatedtitle">Medicare's policy to <span class="hlt">limit</span> payment for hospital-acquired <span class="hlt">conditions</span>: the impact on safety net providers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 2008, Medicare implemented a policy <span class="hlt">limiting</span> reimbursement to hospitals for treating avoidable hospital-acquired <span class="hlt">conditions</span> (HACs). Although the policy will expand nationally to Medicaid programs in 2011, little is known about the impact on safety-net hospitals. Using data from the 2006 American Hospital Association Annual Survey and MEDPAR, we compared the incidence of cases that met the HACs criteria at safety-net and non-safety-net hospitals. We found that safety-net hospitals had an average of 65.5 HACs per 1,000 Medicare discharges compared with 57.6 at non-safety-net hospitals. Hospitals in the lowest quintile for financial margins had higher rates of HACs on average than other hospitals. Safety-net hospitals and hospitals with the lowest financial margins may be more likely than others to be affected by policies that reduce payment for HACs. PMID:21551939</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McHugh, Megan; Martin, Timothy C; Orwat, John; Dyke, Kevin Van</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvB..87h5207D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for space-charge-<span class="hlt">limited</span> conduction in organic photovoltaic cells at open-circuit <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ac admittance of solar cells under illumination is investigated under open-circuit <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Open-circuit <span class="hlt">conditions</span> are imposed by inserting a probe capacitor into the circuit. The capacitance and conductance of the cells are investigated as function of frequency and continuous illumination intensity. Results are compared with numerical and analytical modeling of charge recombination and transport. In bulk heterojunction solar cells with [6,6]-Phenyl-C61(C71)-butyric acid methyl ester as acceptor and poly(3-hexylthiophene) or poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] as electron donor, the high-frequency capacitance C and conductance G follow a power-law dependence on intensity of white light I, with G(I) ? I3/4 and C(I) ? I1/4. The modeling shows that these dependencies can be explained in terms of space-charge-<span class="hlt">limited</span> current in combination with Langevin type recombination of carriers. For poly[2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl[4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Di Nuzzo, Daniele; van Reenen, Stephan; Janssen, René A. J.; Kemerink, Martijn; Meskers, Stefan C. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17766304"> <span id="translatedtitle">Haze, clouds and <span class="hlt">limited</span> sky visibility: polarotactic orientation of crickets under difficult stimulus <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Field crickets (Gryllus campestris L.) are able to detect the orientation of the electric vector (e-vector) of linearly polarized light. They presumably use this sense to exploit the celestial polarization pattern for course control or navigation. Polarization vision in crickets can be tested by eliciting a spontaneous polarotactic response. Previously, wide and 100% polarized stimuli were employed to induce this behavior. However, field crickets live on meadows where the observation of the sky is strongly <span class="hlt">limited</span> by surrounding vegetation. Moreover, degrees of polarization (d) in the natural sky are much lower than 100%. We have therefore investigated thresholds for the behavioral response to polarized light under <span class="hlt">conditions</span> mimicking those experienced by the insects in the field. We show that crickets are able to rely on polarized stimuli of just 1 degrees diameter. We also provide evidence that they exploit polarization down to an (average) polarization level of less than 7%, irrespective of whether the stimulus is homogeneous, such as under haze, or patched, such as a sky spotted by clouds. Our data demonstrate that crickets can rely on skylight polarization even under unfavorable celestial <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, emphasizing the significance of polarized skylight orientation for insects. PMID:17766304</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Henze, Miriam J; Labhart, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4002905"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health <span class="hlt">conditions</span> on the quality of life of preschool children and their families: a cross-sectional study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Dental caries, traumatic dental injury (TDI) and malocclusion are common <span class="hlt">oral</span> health <span class="hlt">conditions</span> among preschool children and can have both physical and psychosocial consequences. Thus, it is important to measure the impact these on the <span class="hlt">oral</span> health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health <span class="hlt">conditions</span> on the OHRQoL of preschool children and their families. Methods A preschool-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 preschool children in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered the Brazilian Early Childhood <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Impact Scale and a questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data as well as the parent’s/caregiver’s perceptions regarding their child’s health. Clinical exams were performed by three researchers who had undergone a calibration process for the diagnosis of dental caries, TDI and malocclusion (K?=?0.83-0.85). Hierarchical Poisson regression was employed to determine the strength of associations between <span class="hlt">oral</span> health <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and OHRQoL (??=?5%). The multivariate model was run on three levels obeying a hierarchical approach from distal to proximal determinants: 1) socio-demographic data; 2) perceptions of health; and 3) <span class="hlt">oral</span> health <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Results The prevalence of impact from <span class="hlt">oral</span> health <span class="hlt">conditions</span> on OHRQoL was 32.1% among the children and 26.2% among the families. The following variables were significantly associated with a impact on OHRQoL among the children: birth order of child (PR?=?1.430; 95% CI: 1.045-1.958), parent’s/caregiver’s perception of child’s <span class="hlt">oral</span> health as poor (PR?=?1.732; 95% CI: 1.399-2.145), cavitated lesions (PR?=?2.596; 95% CI: 1.982-3.400) and TDI (PR?=?1.413; 95% CI: 1.161-1.718). The following variables were significantly associated with a impact on OHRQoL among the families: parent’s/caregiver’s perception of child’s <span class="hlt">oral</span> health as poor (PR?=?2.116; 95% CI: 1.624-2.757), cavitated lesions (PR?=?2.809; 95% CI: 2.009-3.926) and type of TDI (PR?=?2.448; 95% CI: 1.288-4.653). Conclusion Cavitated lesions and TDI exerted a impact on OHRQoL of the preschool children and their families. Parents’/caregivers’ perception of their child’s <span class="hlt">oral</span> health as poor and the birth order of the child were predictors of a greater impact on OHRQoL.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title29-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title29-vol5-part1910-subpartT-appA.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart T to... - Examples of <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Which May Restrict or <span class="hlt">Limit</span> Exposure to Hyperbaric <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...by alcohol or drug use. <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> requiring continuous medication for control (e.g., antihistamines, steroids, barbiturates, moodaltering drugs, or insulin). Meniere's disease. Hemoglobinopathies. Obstructive or...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title29-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title29-vol5-part1910-subpartT-appA.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart T to... - Examples of <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Which May Restrict or <span class="hlt">Limit</span> Exposure to Hyperbaric <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...by alcohol or drug use. <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> requiring continuous medication for control (e.g., antihistamines, steroids, barbiturates, moodaltering drugs, or insulin). Meniere's disease. Hemoglobinopathies. Obstructive or...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title29-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title29-vol5-part1910-subpartT-appA.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart T to... - Examples of <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Which May Restrict or <span class="hlt">Limit</span> Exposure to Hyperbaric <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...by alcohol or drug use. <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> requiring continuous medication for control (e.g., antihistamines, steroids, barbiturates, moodaltering drugs, or insulin). Meniere's disease. Hemoglobinopathies. Obstructive or...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110015468&hterms=AdS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2522AdS%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Performance of Airborne Precision Spacing Under Realistic Wind <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> and <span class="hlt">Limited</span> Surveillance Range</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With the expected worldwide increase of air traffic during the coming decade, both the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), as well as Eurocontrol's Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) program have, as part of their plans, air traffic management (ATM) solutions that can increase performance without requiring time-consuming and expensive infrastructure changes. One such solution involves the ability of both controllers and flight crews to deliver aircraft to the runway with greater accuracy than they can today. Previous research has shown that time-based spacing techniques, wherein the controller assigns a time spacing to each pair of arriving aircraft, can achieve this goal by providing greater runway delivery accuracy and producing a concomitant increase in system-wide performance. The research described herein focuses on one specific application of time-based spacing, called Airborne Precision Spacing (APS), which has evolved over the past ten years. This research furthers APS understanding by studying its performance with realistic wind <span class="hlt">conditions</span> obtained from atmospheric sounding data and with realistic wind forecasts obtained from the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) short-range weather forecast. In addition, this study investigates APS performance with <span class="hlt">limited</span> surveillance range, as provided by the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) system, and with an algorithm designed to improve APS performance when ADS-B surveillance data is unavailable. The results presented herein quantify the runway threshold delivery accuracy of APS under these <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, and also quantify resulting workload metrics such as the number of speed changes required to maintain spacing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wieland, Frederick; Santos, Michel; Krueger, William; Houston, Vincent E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16240440"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shikimic acid production by a modified strain of E. coli (W3110.shik1) under phosphate-<span class="hlt">limited</span> and carbon-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shikimic acid is one of several industrially interesting chiral starting materials formed in the aromatic amino acid pathway of plants and microorganisms. In this study, the physiology of a shikimic acid producing strain of Escherichia coli (derived from W3110) deleted in aroL (shikimic acid kinase II gene), was compared to that of a corresponding control strain (W3110) under carbon- and phosphate-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. For the shikimic acid producing strain (referred to as W3110.shik1), phosphate <span class="hlt">limitation</span> resulted in a higher yield of shikimic acid (0.059 +/- 0.012 vs. 0.024 +/- 0.005 c-mol/c-mol) and a lower yield of by-products from the shikimate pathway, when compared to carbon-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">condition</span>. The yield of the by-product 3-dehydroshikimic acid (DHS) decreased from 0.076 +/- 0.028 to 0.022 +/- 0.001 c-mol/c-mol. Several other by-products were only detected under carbon-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. The latter group included 3-dehydroquinic acid (0.021 +/- 0.021 c-mol/c-mol), quinic acid (0.012 +/- 0.005 c-mol/c-mol), and gallic acid (0.002 +/- 0.001 c-mol/c-mol). For both strains, more acetate was produced under phosphate than the carbon-<span class="hlt">limited</span> case. Considerable cell lysis was found for both strains but was higher for W3110.shik1, and increased for both strains under phosphate <span class="hlt">limitation</span>. The advantages of the latter <span class="hlt">condition</span> in terms of an increased shikimic acid yield was thus counteracted by an increased cell lysis, which may make downstream processing more difficult. PMID:16240440</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johansson, Louise; Lindskog, Anna; Silfversparre, Gustav; Cimander, Christian; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Lidén, Gunnar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3133777"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quality of Life Measurement for Children with Life-Threatening <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>: <span class="hlt">Limitations</span> and a New Framework</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">About 500,000 children are coping with life-threatening <span class="hlt">conditions</span> (LTC) in the United States every year. Different service programs such as an integrated pediatric palliative care program may benefit health-related quality of life (HRQOL) which is a great concern of this children population and their families. However, evidence is <span class="hlt">limited</span> about the appropriate HRQOL instruments for use. This study aims to validate psychometric properties of a generic HRQOL instrument, the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL) 4.0, for children with LTC. The parent proxy-report was used. We conducted a telephone interview to collect data of 257 parents whose children had LTC and were enrolled in Medicaid. We used standard psychometric methods to validate the PedsQL: scale reliability, item-domain convergent/discriminant validity, and known-groups validity. We also conducted Rasch analysis to assess construct validity. Results suggest that the PedsQL did not demonstrate valid psychometric properties for measuring HRQOL in this population. Rasch analysis suggests that the contents of the items in all domains did not appropriately cover the latent HRQOL of children with LTC. We document several methodological challenges in using a generic instrument to measuring HRQOL and propose a new framework to improve HRQOL measures for children with LTC. The strategies include revising the content of existing items, designing new items, adding important themes (e.g., financial challenge), and applying computerized adaptive test to better select appropriate items for individual children with LTC.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wen, Pey-Shan; Revicki, Dennis A.; Shenkman, Elizabeth A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/804696"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Condition</span> for production of circulating proton beam with intensity greater than space charge <span class="hlt">limit</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Transverse e-p instability in proton rings could be damped by increasing the beam density and the rate of secondary particles production above the threshold level, with the corresponding decrease of unstable wavelength {lambda} below the transverse beam size h (increase of beam density n{sub b} and ion density n{sub i} above the threshold level: n{sub b} + n{sub i} > {beta}{sup 2}/(r{sub e} h{sup 2}), where r{sub e} = e{sup 2}/mc{sup 2}). Such island of stability can be reached by a fast charge-exchange injection without painting and enhanced generation of secondary plasma, which was demonstrated in a small scale Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia. With successful damping of e-p instability, the intensity of circulating proton beam, with a space charge neutralization was increased up to 6 times above a space charge <span class="hlt">limit</span>. Corresponding tune shift without space charge neutralization should be up to {Delta}v=0.85 x 6 (in the ring with v = 0.85). In this paper, they review experimental observations of transverse instability of proton beams in various rings. they also discuss methods which can be used to damp the instability. Such experimental data could be useful for verification of computer simulation tools developed for the studies of the space charge and instabilities in realistic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vadim Dudnikov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-11-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008IJMPB..22.5680H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of Forming <span class="hlt">Limit</span> Criteria Based on Plastic Instability <span class="hlt">Condition</span> to Metal Forming Process</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Metal forming processes such as hydroforming and sheet metal forming using tubular material and thin sheet metal have been widely used in lots of industrial fields for manufacturing of various parts that could be equipped with mechanical products. However, it is not easy to design sequential processes properly because there are various design variables that affect formability of the parts. Therefore preliminary evaluation of formability for the given process should be carried out to minimize time consumption and development cost. With the advances in finite element analysis technique over the decades, the formability evaluation using numerical simulation has been conducted in view of strain distribution and final shape. In this paper, the application of forming <span class="hlt">limit</span> criteria is carried out for the tube hydroforming and sheet metal forming processes using theoretical background based on plastic instability <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Consequently, it is confirmed that the local necking and diffuse necking criteria of sheet are suitable for formability evaluation of both hydroforming and sheet metal forming processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heo, Seong-Chan; Ku, Tae-Wan; Kim, Jeong; Kang, Beom-Soo; Song, Woo-Jin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22oral+healthcare%22&id=EJ1002398"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of a Theory-Driven E-Learning Intervention for Future <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Healthcare Providers on Secondary Prevention of Disordered Eating Behaviors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> healthcare providers have a clinical opportunity for early detection of disordered eating behaviors because they are often the first health professionals to observe overt <span class="hlt">oral</span> and physical signs. Curricula regarding early recognition of this <span class="hlt">oral</span>/systemic medical <span class="hlt">condition</span> are <span class="hlt">limited</span> in <span class="hlt">oral</span> health educational programs. Web-based learning…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">DeBate, Rita D.; Severson, Herbert H.; Cragun, Deborah L.; Gau, Jeff M.; Merrell, Laura K.; Bleck, Jennifer R.; Christiansen, Steve; Koerber, Anne; Tomar, Scott L.; Brown, Kelli R. McCormack; Tedesco, Lisa A.; Hendricson, William</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3811826"> <span id="translatedtitle">Secreted Pyomelanin of Legionella pneumophila Promotes Bacterial Iron Uptake and Growth under Iron-<span class="hlt">Limiting</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Iron acquisition is critical to the growth and virulence of Legionella pneumophila. Previously, we found that L. pneumophila uses both a ferrisiderophore pathway and ferrous iron transport to obtain iron. We now report that two molecules secreted by L. pneumophila, homogentisic acid (HGA) and its polymerized variant (HGA-melanin, a pyomelanin), are able to directly mediate the reduction of various ferric iron salts. Furthermore, HGA, synthetic HGA-melanin, and HGA-melanin derived from bacterial supernatants enhanced the ability of L. pneumophila and other species of Legionella to take up radiolabeled iron. Enhanced iron uptake was not observed with a ferrous iron transport mutant. Thus, HGA and HGA-melanin mediate ferric iron reduction, with the resulting ferrous iron being available to the bacterium for uptake. Upon further testing of L. pneumophila culture supernatants, we found that significant amounts of ferric and ferrous iron were associated with secreted HGA-melanin. Importantly, a pyomelanin-containing fraction obtained from a wild-type culture supernatant was able to stimulate the growth of iron-starved legionellae. That the corresponding supernatant fraction obtained from a nonpigmented mutant culture did not stimulate growth demonstrated that HGA-melanin is able to both promote iron uptake and enhance growth under iron-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Indicative of a complementary role in iron acquisition, HGA-melanin levels were inversely related to the levels of siderophore activity. Compatible with a role in the ecology and pathogenesis of L. pneumophila, HGA and HGA-melanin were effective at reducing and releasing iron from both insoluble ferric hydroxide and the mammalian iron chelates ferritin and transferrin.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zheng, Huaixin; Chatfield, Christa H.; Liles, Mark R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23980114"> <span id="translatedtitle">Secreted pyomelanin of Legionella pneumophila promotes bacterial iron uptake and growth under iron-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Iron acquisition is critical to the growth and virulence of Legionella pneumophila. Previously, we found that L. pneumophila uses both a ferrisiderophore pathway and ferrous iron transport to obtain iron. We now report that two molecules secreted by L. pneumophila, homogentisic acid (HGA) and its polymerized variant (HGA-melanin, a pyomelanin), are able to directly mediate the reduction of various ferric iron salts. Furthermore, HGA, synthetic HGA-melanin, and HGA-melanin derived from bacterial supernatants enhanced the ability of L. pneumophila and other species of Legionella to take up radiolabeled iron. Enhanced iron uptake was not observed with a ferrous iron transport mutant. Thus, HGA and HGA-melanin mediate ferric iron reduction, with the resulting ferrous iron being available to the bacterium for uptake. Upon further testing of L. pneumophila culture supernatants, we found that significant amounts of ferric and ferrous iron were associated with secreted HGA-melanin. Importantly, a pyomelanin-containing fraction obtained from a wild-type culture supernatant was able to stimulate the growth of iron-starved legionellae. That the corresponding supernatant fraction obtained from a nonpigmented mutant culture did not stimulate growth demonstrated that HGA-melanin is able to both promote iron uptake and enhance growth under iron-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Indicative of a complementary role in iron acquisition, HGA-melanin levels were inversely related to the levels of siderophore activity. Compatible with a role in the ecology and pathogenesis of L. pneumophila, HGA and HGA-melanin were effective at reducing and releasing iron from both insoluble ferric hydroxide and the mammalian iron chelates ferritin and transferrin. PMID:23980114</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zheng, Huaixin; Chatfield, Christa H; Liles, Mark R; Cianciotto, Nicholas P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2773004"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metabolite Profiling Uncovers Plasmid-Induced Cobalt <span class="hlt">Limitation</span> under Methylotrophic Growth <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background The introduction and maintenance of plasmids in cells is often associated with a reduction of growth rate. The reason for this growth reduction is unclear in many cases. Methodology/Principal Findings We observed a surprisingly large reduction in growth rate of about 50% of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 during methylotrophic growth in the presence of a plasmid, pCM80 expressing the tetA gene, relative to the wild-type. A less pronounced growth delay during growth under non-methylotrophic growth <span class="hlt">conditions</span> was observed; this suggested an inhibition of one-carbon metabolism rather than a general growth inhibition or metabolic burden. Metabolome analyses revealed an increase in pool sizes of ethylmalonyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA of more than 6- and 35-fold, respectively, relative to wild type, suggesting a strongly reduced conversion of these central intermediates, which are essential for glyoxylate regeneration in this model methylotroph. Similar results were found for M. extorquens AM1 pCM160 which confers kanamycin resistance. These intermediates of the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway have in common their conversion by coenzyme B12-dependent mutases, which have cobalt as a central ligand. The one-carbon metabolism-related growth delay was restored by providing higher cobalt concentrations, by heterologous expression of isocitrate lyase as an alternative path for glyoxylate regeneration, or by identification and overproduction of proteins involved in cobalt import. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that the introduction of the plasmids leads to an apparent inhibition of the cobalt-dependent enzymes of the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway. Possible explanations are presented and point to a <span class="hlt">limited</span> cobalt concentration in the cell as a consequence of the antibiotic stress.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kiefer, Patrick; Buchhaupt, Markus; Christen, Philipp; Kaup, Bjorn; Schrader, Jens; Vorholt, Julia A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22607008"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Limits</span> and perspective of <span class="hlt">oral</span> therapy with statins and aspirin for the prevention of symptomatic cholesterol gallstone disease.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The prevalence of gallstones disease in Western countries is 10 - 15%. Gallstones can be one of two types - cholesterol or pigment - with cholesterol gallstones representing nearly the 80% of the total. Cholesterol and pigment gallstones have different predisposing factors: cholesterol gallstones are related to supersaturated bile in cholesterol, whereas black pigment gallstones are related to hyperbilirubinbilia factors (hemolysis, etc.); these are necessary, but not sufficient, factors to produce gallstones in vivo. Gall bladder mucosa factors (gall bladder secretion of mucin, local bile stasis and production of endogenous biliary ?-glucuronidase) may coexist with the aforementioned factors and facilitate gallstone nucleation and growth. The gold-standard treatment for symptomatic gallstones is laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Several studies have reported a significant reduction in the onset of symptomatic gallstones disease in patients undergoing chronic therapy with statins, which can reduce bile cholesterol saturation. Aspirin, which has been shown to reduce the local production of gall bladder mucins (mucosal or parietal factors of gallstone formation) in animal experimental models, does not appear to reduce the risk of symptomatic gallstones disease when tested alone. The new horizon of <span class="hlt">oral</span> therapy for the prevention of symptomatic gallstone disease needs to evaluate the long-term effect of statins and chronic aspirin administration in patients with dyslipidemia and/or atherosclerosis. PMID:22607008</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cariati, Andrea; Piromalli, Elisa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title42-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title42-vol2-sec410-39.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> for and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> on coverage.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>...Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title42-vol2/pdf/CFR-2009-title42-vol2-sec410-39.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> for and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> on coverage.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>...Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhRvE..73f7104B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Classical <span class="hlt">limit</span> of master equation for a harmonic oscillator coupled to an oscillator bath with separable initial <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Wigner transform of the master equation describing the reduced dynamics of the system, of a harmonic oscillator coupled to an oscillator bath, was obtained by Karrlein and Grabert [Phys. Rev. E 55, 153 (1997)]. It was shown that for some special correlated initial <span class="hlt">conditions</span> the master equation reduces, in the classical <span class="hlt">limit</span>, to the corresponding classical Fokker-Planck equation obtained by Adelman [J. Chem Phys. 64, 124 (1976)]. However, for separable initial <span class="hlt">conditions</span> the Adelman equations were not recovered. We resolve this problem by showing that, for separable initial <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, the classical Langevin equations are somewhat different from the one considered by Adelman. We obtain the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation and show that they exactly match the classical <span class="hlt">limit</span> of the evolution of the Wigner function obtained from the master equation for separable initial <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. We also discuss why thermal initial <span class="hlt">conditions</span> correspond to Adelman’s solution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Banerjee, Subhashish; Dhar, Abhishek</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title42-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title42-vol2-sec410-37.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> for and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> on coverage.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...procedure). (5) An attending physician for purposes of this provision...the beneficiary's attending physician. (c) <span class="hlt">Limitations</span> on coverage...1) of the Act), or by a physician assistant, nurse practitioner, or...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24423673"> <span id="translatedtitle">The study of the <span class="hlt">condition</span> of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> prosthesis field epithelium in persons wearing dentures of polypropylene and acrylic bases.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The goal of the study was to make a comparative assessment of the effect of the partial removable polypropylene and acrylic dentures on the prosthetic bed epithelium. The material of this study was smears-scrapes of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa obtained from 316 patients. The results of the investigation of the morphological cell composition of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa epithelium obtained from the prosthesis field and after prosthesis show a negative influence of the acrylic denture bases on the epithelium of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa. The most optimal was the correlation of epithelial cells in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa in the patients with dentures from "Tipplen R 359", processed in plasma of the glow discharge. PMID:24423673</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shuturminskiy, V; Chulack, L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40152049"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Condition</span> and size of damselflies: a field study of food <span class="hlt">limitation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Based on evidence from field manipulations, several authors have recently suggested that interference competition among larval odonates reduces individual growth rates and biomass by reducing foraging rates. This study was designed to test the effects of food shortage on “<span class="hlt">condition</span>” (relative mass per unit head width) of larval Ischnura verticalis (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) under laboratory <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and to use these results</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert L. Baker</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ArRMA.213..561B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">Limit</span> for a Hamiltonian System with Boundary <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> and Conservative Noise</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the hyperbolic scaling <span class="hlt">limit</span> for a chain of N coupled anharmonic oscillators. The chain is attached to a point on the left and there is a force (tension) ? acting on the right. In order to provide good ergodic properties to the system, we perturb the Hamiltonian dynamics with random local exchanges of velocities between the particles, so that momentum and energy are locally conserved. We prove that in the macroscopic <span class="hlt">limit</span> the distributions of the elongation, momentum and energy converge to the solution of the Euler system of equations in the smooth regime.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Braxmeier-Even, Nadine; Olla, Stefano</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ArRMA.tmp...30B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">Limit</span> for a Hamiltonian System with Boundary <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> and Conservative Noise</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the hyperbolic scaling <span class="hlt">limit</span> for a chain of N coupled anharmonic oscillators. The chain is attached to a point on the left and there is a force (tension) ? acting on the right. In order to provide good ergodic properties to the system, we perturb the Hamiltonian dynamics with random local exchanges of velocities between the particles, so that momentum and energy are locally conserved. We prove that in the macroscopic <span class="hlt">limit</span> the distributions of the elongation, momentum and energy converge to the solution of the Euler system of equations in the smooth regime.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Braxmeier-Even, Nadine; Olla, Stefano</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title29-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title29-vol9-sec2590-701-3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR 2590.701-3 - <span class="hlt">Limitations</span> on preexisting <span class="hlt">condition</span> exclusion period.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...excludes coverage for the treatment of cleft palate. (ii) Conclusion. In this...exclusion of coverage for treatment of cleft palate is not a preexisting <span class="hlt">condition</span>...provides coverage for treatment of cleft palate, but only if the individual...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title29-vol9/pdf/CFR-2009-title29-vol9-sec2590-701-3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR 2590.701-3 - <span class="hlt">Limitations</span> on preexisting <span class="hlt">condition</span> exclusion period.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...However, if you were in a waiting period for coverage, the six-month period ends on the day before the waiting period begins. The preexisting <span class="hlt">condition</span> exclusion does not apply to pregnancy nor to a child who is enrolled...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title45-vol1/pdf/CFR-2009-title45-vol1-sec146-111.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">45 CFR 146.111 - <span class="hlt">Limitations</span> on preexisting <span class="hlt">condition</span> exclusion period.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...However, if you were in a waiting period for coverage, the six-month period ends on the day before the waiting period begins. The preexisting <span class="hlt">condition</span> exclusion does not apply to pregnancy nor to a child who is enrolled...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title42-vol2/pdf/CFR-2009-title42-vol2-sec410-37.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> for and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> on coverage.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...risk for colorectal cancer, screening colonoscopies. (iv) Screening barium enemas...section but who has had a screening colonoscopy performed, payment may be made for...the month in which the last screening colonoscopy was performed. (f) <span class="hlt">Condition</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title42-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title42-vol2-sec410-37.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> for and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> on coverage.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...risk for colorectal cancer, screening colonoscopies. (iv) Screening barium enemas...section but who has had a screening colonoscopy performed, payment may be made for...the month in which the last screening colonoscopy was performed. (f) <span class="hlt">Condition</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/45479197"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigations of Internal Flow Fields of Constant-Area Mixing-Tubes under Starting-<span class="hlt">Limit</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Flow fields in the constant-area mixing tubes of ejector jets were investigated under the starting-<span class="hlt">limit</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of an aerodynamic choking mode by performing numerical simulations and cold flow experiments. Pressure recovery was almost completed in the shock-train region. The length of the shock-train region (Lst) was measured under various <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Lst was proportional to the mass flow rate ratio of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eijiro Kitamura; Sadatake Tomioka; Noboru Sakuranaka; Syuichi Watanabe; Goro Masuya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000606.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Herpes - <span class="hlt">oral</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... HSV-2 is spread to the mouth during <span class="hlt">oral</span> sex, causing <span class="hlt">oral</span> herpes. Herpes viruses spread easily. You ... if someone has <span class="hlt">oral</span> herpes. Do not have <span class="hlt">oral</span> sex if you have <span class="hlt">oral</span> herpes, especially if you ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23046061"> <span id="translatedtitle">Detection of influenza A virus nucleoprotein antibodies in <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid specimens from pigs infected under experimental <span class="hlt">conditions</span> using a blocking ELISA.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In commercial swine populations, influenza is an important component of the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) and a pathogen with major economic impact. Previously, a commercial blocking ELISA (FlockChek(™) Avian Influenza Virus MultiS-Screen(®) Antibody Test Kit, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Westbrook, ME, USA) designed to detect influenza A nucleoprotein (NP) antibodies in avian serum was shown to accurately detect NP antibodies in swine serum. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this assay could detect NP antibodies in swine <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid samples. Initially, the procedure for performing the NP-blocking ELISA on <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid was modified from the serum testing protocol by changing sample dilution, sample volume, incubation time and incubation temperature. The detection of NP antibody was then evaluated using pen-based <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid samples (n = 182) from pigs inoculated with either influenza A virus subtype H1N1 or H3N2 under experimental <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and followed for 42 days post inoculation (DPI). NP antibodies in <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid were detected from DPI 7 to 42 in all inoculated groups, that is, the mean sample-to-negative (S/N) ratio of influenza-inoculated pigs was significantly different (P < 0.0001) from uninoculated controls (unvaccinated or vaccinated-uninoculated groups) through this period. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> fluid versus serum S/N ratios from the same pen showed a correlation of 0.796 (Pearson's correlation coefficient, P < 0.0001). The results showed that <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid samples from influenza virus-infected pigs contained detectable levels of NP antibodies for ?42 DPI. Future research will be required to determine whether this approach could be used to monitor the circulation of influenza virus in commercial pig populations. PMID:23046061</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Panyasing, Y; Goodell, C K; Wang, C; Kittawornrat, A; Prickett, J R; Schwartz, K J; Ballagi, A; Lizano, S; Zimmerman, J J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23672188"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of electromagnetic shielding with polyaniline nanopowders produced in solvent-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nanoparticle synthesis (~10-50 nm) of HCl-doped polyaniline elucidates the impact of <span class="hlt">limiting</span> solvent (water) and oxidizing agent (ammonium peroxydisulfate) on morphology (XRD and TEM), chemical structure (FTIR), conductivity (two-point DC) and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness (SE) in microwave frequencies (i.e., X-band S-parameter measurements). Detailed comparison of these properties with respect to three distinct polymerization environments indicate that a solvent-free or <span class="hlt">limited</span> solvent polymerization accomplished through a wet grinding solid-phase reaction produces superior conductivity (27 S/cm) with intermediate crystallinity (66%) for the highest EM shielding-an order of magnitude improvement over conventional polymerization with respect to EM power transmission reduction for all loadings per shielding area (0.04 to 0.17 g/cm(2)). By contrast, the classic oxidation of aniline in a well-dispersed aqueous reaction phase with an abundance of available oxidant in free solution yielded low conductivity (3.3 S/cm), crystallinity (54%), and SE, whereas similar solvent-rich reactions with <span class="hlt">limiting</span> oxidizer produced similar conductivity (2.9 S/cm) and significantly lower SE with the highest crystallinity (72%). This work is the first to demonstrate that <span class="hlt">limiting</span> solvent and oxidizer enhances electromagnetic interactions for shielding microwaves in polyaniline nanopowders. This appears connected to having the highest overall extent of oxidation achieved in the wet solid-phase reaction. PMID:23672188</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tantawy, Hesham Ramzy; Aston, D Eric; Smith, Jacob R; Young, Jeffrey L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21256961"> <span id="translatedtitle">A novel excipient, 1-perfluorohexyloctane shows <span class="hlt">limited</span> utility for the <span class="hlt">oral</span> delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The applicability of the semi-fluorinated alkane 1-perfluorohexyloctane (F6H8) as a novel excipient in lipid based drug delivery systems was studied. Solubility studies of 11 poorly water soluble drugs (cinnarizine, danazol, estradiol, fenofibrate, griseofulvin, halofantrine, lidocaine, prednisolone, probucol, rolipram and siramesine) showed significantly lower equilibrium solubility in F6H8 compared to soy bean oil (long chain triglyceride). F6H8 was miscible with medium chain triglycerides (MCT) but not miscible with long chain triglycerides, neither was pure F6H8 nor the mixture F6H8:MCT (1:1) miscible with 7 commonly used surfactants (Cremophor EL, Span 20, Span 80, Labrasol, Softigen 767 and Gelucire 44/14, polysorbate 80). In vitro lipolysis studies confirmed that F6H8 was non-digestible. F6H8:MCT (1:1) showed initially faster lipolysis compared to pure MCT. Thus, final phase lipolysis was lower indicating that F6H8 may affect the lipolysis of MCT. However, in vivo bioavailability studies in rats showed the same plasma concentration-time profiles when dosing 10mg/kg halofantrine at two dose levels of F6H8, MCT or F6H8:MCT (1:1) (AUC ranged from 3058 to 3447hng/ml, T(max)?6.0h, C(max) ranged from 168 to 265mg/ml). Generally, the addition of polysorbate 80 shortened the time to reach C(max) (T(max) ranged 1.3-4.5h), but had <span class="hlt">limited</span> effect on the bioavailability from F6H8 or MCT in combination with polysorbate 80 (4:1) (AUC ranged from 3807 to 4403 (hng/ml)). Although a synergistic effect was obtained with halofantrine in F6H8:MCT:polysorbate 80 (2:2:1) (AUC 5574±675hng/ml; mean±SEM), it was not superior to dosing halofantrine in pure polysorbarte 80 (AUC 7370±579hng/ml; mean±SEM). The applicability of F6H8 as an excipient for future use in lipid based formulations for poorly water soluble drugs is therefore considered to be very <span class="hlt">limited</span>. PMID:21256961</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holm, René; Jørgensen, Erling Bonne; Harborg, Michael; Larsen, Rune; Holm, Per; Müllertz, Anette; Jacobsen, Jette</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21474621"> <span id="translatedtitle">Teenagers' and parents' views on a short-break service for children with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>: a qualitative study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Few opportunities exist outside the home for children and teenagers with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> to have a break in a setting specifically designed and adequately staffed and resourced to meet their complex clinical, practical and emotional needs; until recently provision focused primarily on providing respite for parents/carers. Based on policy recommendations, a short-break service was established with the aim of working in partnership with families and voluntary and statutory agencies to provide a fun break for children and teenagers with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and complement the range of services available. This qualitative study used interviews and focus groups to determine teenagers' and parents' views of the service. Three themes emerged: accessibility and communication; needs and boundaries; and shaping the service. Teenagers enjoyed regular planned residential breaks, access to skilled staff and bespoke facilities to support their needs, opportunities to meet others with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and fun time away from home, thereby giving parents peace of mind, a regular planned break from care-giving, opportunities to meet other parents and to spend exclusive time with their other children. If specialist short-break services become part of the national range of services available, children and teenagers with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and their parents and siblings could all benefit. PMID:21474621</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Swallow, Veronica; Forrester, Tracey; Macfadyen, Ann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22395017"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Lichen striatus with nail abnormality is a self-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">condition</span>].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A six year-old boy was referred with an asymptomatic linear rash on his left arm and a nail involvement of a fingernail on his left hand. Multiple small erythematous papules coalescing into a linear band extending to the thumb with nail abnormality were noted on the left arm. A diagnosis of lichen striatus was established clinically. The <span class="hlt">condition</span> has spontaneous remission, although the course of the disease is prolonged when nail involvement exists. The <span class="hlt">condition</span> is benign and there is no need to perform biopsy. PMID:22395017</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sandreva, Tatjana; Bygum, Anette</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790015553&hterms=side+chain&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dside%2Bchain"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">condition</span> of a finite Markov chain and perturbation bounds for the <span class="hlt">limiting</span> probabilities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The inequalities bounding the relative error the norm of w- w squiggly/the norm of w are exhibited by a very simple function of E and A. Let T denote the transition matrix of an ergodic chain, C, and let A = I - T. Let E be a perturbation matrix such that T squiggly = T - E is also the transition matrix of an ergodic chain, C squiggly. Let w and w squiggly denote the <span class="hlt">limiting</span> probability (row) vectors for C and C squiggly. The inequality is the best one possible. This bound can be significant in the numerical determination of the <span class="hlt">limiting</span> probabilities for an ergodic chain. In addition to presenting a sharp bound for the norm of w-w squiggly/the norm of w an explicit expression for w squiggly will be derived in which w squiggly is given as a function of E, A, w and some other related terms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meyer, C. D., Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35685342"> <span id="translatedtitle">Baclofen, raclopride, and naltrexone differentially affect intake of fat\\/sucrose mixtures under <span class="hlt">limited</span> access <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study assessed the effects of the opioid antagonist naltrexone, the dopamine 2-like (D2) antagonist raclopride, and the GABAB agonist baclofen on consumption of fat\\/sucrose mixtures (FSM) using a <span class="hlt">limited</span> access protocol. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped according to two schedules of access (Daily [D] or Intermittent [I]) to an optional FSM. Each FSM was created by whipping 3.2%</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. J. Wong; F. H. W. Wojnicki; R. L. W. Corwin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5882164"> <span id="translatedtitle">Performance of transient <span class="hlt">limiters</span> under laboratory, simulated, and rocket-triggered lightning <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have designed and tested a prototype system that implements a lightning-protection method referred to as the ''fortress concept.'' The fortress, a structure similar to a Faraday cage, protects the critical system by surrounding it with a continuous metallic skin. Each electrical conductor that must enter the fortress is enclosed within a cable, which is, in turn, enclosed in a metallic shield that terminates at the entry point and is electrically bonded to the fortress' outer metallic surface. Within the fortress, each penetrating conductor is protected by a transient <span class="hlt">limiter</span>. The system was tested by means of full-threat-level simulated lightning and actual lightening triggered by rockets. Several <span class="hlt">limited</span> components were subsequently tested by using a laboratory-type surge generator to investigate certain anomalous responses. This paper reviews the fortress concept, discusses the operation of the <span class="hlt">limiters</span>, and examines their performance. Explanations are offered for the anomalous responses, and several important design considerations and trade-offs are offered. 3 refs., 15 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hasbrouck, R.T.; Johnson, J.P.; Breitmeier, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-07-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://jb.asm.org/cgi/reprint/191/5/1382.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen-<span class="hlt">Limiting</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Enrich for Fimbriate Cells of Uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">MR\\/P fimbriae of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis undergo invertible element-mediated phase variation whereby an individual bacterium switches between expressing fimbriae (phase ON) and not expressing fimbriae (phase OFF). Under different <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, the percentage of fimbriate bacteria within a population varies and could be dictated by either selection (growth advantage of one phase) or signaling (preferentially converting one phase to the other</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xin Li; Melanie M. Pearson; Amy N. Simms; Harry L. T. Mobley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24511926"> <span id="translatedtitle">Validity <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for stochastic chemical kinetics in diffusion-<span class="hlt">limited</span> systems.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The chemical master equation (CME) and the mathematically equivalent stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) assume that the reactant molecules in a chemically reacting system are "dilute" and "well-mixed" throughout the containing volume. Here we clarify what those two <span class="hlt">conditions</span> mean, and we show why their satisfaction is necessary in order for bimolecular reactions to physically occur in the manner assumed by the CME and the SSA. We prove that these <span class="hlt">conditions</span> are closely connected, in that a system will stay well-mixed if and only if it is dilute. We explore the implications of these validity <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for the reaction-diffusion (or spatially inhomogeneous) extensions of the CME and the SSA to systems whose containing volumes are not necessarily well-mixed, but can be partitioned into cubical subvolumes (voxels) that are. We show that the validity <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, together with an additional <span class="hlt">condition</span> that is needed to ensure the physical validity of the diffusion-induced jump probability rates of molecules between voxels, require the voxel edge length to have a strictly positive lower bound. We prove that if the voxel edge length is steadily decreased in a way that respects that lower bound, the average rate at which bimolecular reactions occur in the reaction-diffusion CME and SSA will remain constant, while the average rate of diffusive transfer reactions will increase as the inverse square of the voxel edge length. We conclude that even though the reaction-diffusion CME and SSA are inherently approximate, and cannot be made exact by shrinking the voxel size to zero, they should nevertheless be useful in many practical situations. PMID:24511926</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gillespie, Daniel T; Petzold, Linda R; Seitaridou, Effrosyni</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5607190"> <span id="translatedtitle">Factors <span class="hlt">limiting</span> endurance of armor, artillery, and infantry units under simulated NBC <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The war of the future will require 72-hour operations in environments contaminated with nuclear/biological/chemical (NBC) agents. The 1985 P2NBC2 (Physiological and Psychological Effects of NBC and Extended Operations on Combined Arms Crews) Program assessed soldier endurance and performance under simulated NBC <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. A total of 175 soldiers were observed during four tests differing in design, site, climatic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, and performance demands. In all but one of the iterations where the full chemical-protective ensemble (MOPP 4) was used without cooling, soldier endurance fell far short of the projected requirement. Psychological data were analyzed to determine which factors were associated with the incidence of casualties. The findings showed that perceived intensity of symptoms resembling the hyperventilation syndrome was significantly greater in soldiers classified as Casualties. Five of these symptoms (painful breathing, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, headache, and nausea) showed Casualty-Survivor differences in all tests. Symptom intensity was attributed to two factors. (1) External <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Thermal stress exacerbated the five basic symptoms, induced others (tetany and paresthesia), and decreased endurance. Periodic relief from respirator use attenuated these symptoms and enhanced endurance. (2) Individual differences. Significant Casualty-Survivor differences in anxiety, depression, and cognitive strategy scores indicated that perception of hyperventilation symptoms and endurance were related to personality variables. Hyperventilation symptoms could incapacitate the soldier or induce removal of the protective mask under actual chemical attack.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rauch, T.M.; Tharion, W.J.; Banderet, L.E.; Lussier, A.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-03-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17141821"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effective partial nitrification to nitrite by down-flow hanging sponge reactor under <span class="hlt">limited</span> oxygen <span class="hlt">condition</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Combining the processes of partial nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) is an attractive wastewater-treatment technology for nitrogen removal. In this study we investigated partial nitrification by implementing a closed down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor operated at controlled oxygen concentrations. Basic concept of DHS process is similar to that of trickling filter, in which oxygen concentration can be easily manipulated by controlling airflow to the reactor. The closed reactor was fed with artificial wastewater containing NH(4)Cl and operated with an HRT of 1.5h at 30 degrees C. Oxygen inside the reactor was maintained below 3% (1.2mgDO x L(-1)) (DO-dissolved oxygen) except during the startup periods. Five months of continuous operation showed that there was a strong relationship between oxygen concentration and nitrite production. The ratio of nitrite produced relative to ammonium oxidized increased by decreasing oxygen concentration. Partial nitrification was satisfactorily accomplished under oxygen <span class="hlt">limitation</span> at around 0.5% in the gas phase (0.2mgDOL(-1)). The system showed a high ammonium-removal rate, at a maximum of 1.46kg NH(4)(+)-Nm(-3)day(-1), even at <span class="hlt">limited</span> oxygen concentration. We also found that oxygen concentration played an important role in the production of nitrous oxide, which increased with decreasing oxygen concentration. PMID:17141821</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chuang, Hui-Ping; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Tandukar, Madan; Harada, Hideki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30016600"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> fluorescein angiography: reassessment of its relative safety and evaluation of optimum <span class="hlt">conditions</span> with use of capsules</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Injection of fluorescein intravenously for fundal angiography is associated with a high incidence of minor adverse effects (21%) but a very low incidence of serious (life threatening) reactions (0.05%). A serious reaction may occur without warning in a patient with no history of atopy. There are no reports of <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluorescein causing a serious reaction, and minor adverse effects are</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. P. Watson; E. S. Rosen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7771T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Unravelling Carbon Fixation under Nutrient <span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> - a Water Column Perspective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phytoplankton plays a critical role in the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) by the ocean, and is comprised of a spectrum of cell sizes that are strongly regulated by oceanographic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Elevated CO2 fixation relative to nutrient availability, also called carbon overconsumption, has been observed in various mid to high latitude systems, such as the Baltic and North Seas, the North Atlantic Ocean, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago or the Scotian Shelf. We shed light on this phenomenon relying on an extensive data set of water column observations of the CO2 system and phytoplankton cell counts from the Scotian Shelf, a temperate shelf sea. We show that in the summertime, the population of numerically abundant small cells, which favour warmer, nutrient poor <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, accounts for approximately 20% of annual carbon uptake. At the broader scale, the neglection of this "non-Redfieldian" contribution typically leads to an underestimation of net community production by approximately 20% to 50%. These small cells are not well represented by chlorophyll a - the ubiquitously used proxy of phytoplankton biomass - but rather, are strongly correlated with surface water temperature. Given the persistent near-zero nutrient concentrations during the summer, it appears that small cells drive carbon overconsumption, and suggest that their role in carbon fixation will become increasingly important in a warming, increasingly stratified ocean.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas, Helmuth; Craig, Susanne; Shadwick, Elizabeth H.; Li, William K.; Greenan, Blair J. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24565752"> <span id="translatedtitle">First assessment of classical swine fever marker vaccine candidate CP7_E2alf for <span class="hlt">oral</span> immunization of wild boar under field <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> vaccination against classical swine fever (CSF) is a potent tool to control disease outbreaks in wild boar. So far, vaccination campaigns have been carried out using live attenuated vaccines that do not allow serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). Although this drawback is acceptable for wild boar, the use of marker vaccines would facilitate studies on disease and vaccination dynamics. Recently, the CSF marker vaccine candidate CP7_E2alf was assessed for <span class="hlt">oral</span> immunization under laboratory <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Promising results prompted efforts to study the vaccine candidate under field <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and in bait formulation. In this context, two <span class="hlt">oral</span> vaccination campaigns were carried out with CP7_E2alf bait vaccines in two areas called 'faunistic-hunting farms' in the region of Umbria, Italy. One campaign was conducted using single vaccination, the second with the routinely employed double vaccination strategy. Both campaigns were carried out before concerted hunting actions were performed. Bait uptake, vaccine virus detection and antibody responses were assessed along with inspections upon gutting. As a comparator, seven wild boar were hand-fed with baits under laboratory <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. In the field, bait uptake ranged from 63.7% to 98.7%, whereas antibody prevalence reached only 33.3-35.1%. The marker serology showed a strong influence of sample quality on the test outcome with a total of 85% of samples being classified correctly. Vaccine virus was not detectable. Under hand feeding <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, six out of seven wild boar took up at least one bait, and five of them showed detectable antibody levels seven weeks after vaccination. These results were supplemented by stability tests. Appropriate stability of vaccine virus was shown both under field and laboratory <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. In total, most results were in line with our expectations. However, optimization of the DIVA assay has to be attempted in the future. PMID:24565752</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Feliziani, Francesco; Blome, Sandra; Petrini, Stefano; Giammarioli, Monica; Iscaro, Carmen; Severi, Giulio; Convito, Luca; Pietschmann, Jana; Beer, Martin; De Mia, Gian Mario</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.jstor.org/stable/3784651"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Conditions</span> and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> on learning in the adaptive management of mallard harvests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 1995, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service adopted a protocol for the adaptive management of waterfowl hunting regulations (AHM) to help reduce uncertainty about the magnitude of sustainable harvests. To date, the AHM process has focused principally on the midcontinent population of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), whose dynamics are described by 4 alternative models. Collectively, these models express uncertainty (or disagreement) about whether harvest is an additive or a compensatory form of mortality and whether the reproductive process is weakly or strongly density-dependent. Each model is associated with a probability or 'weight,' which describes its relative ability to predict changes in population size. These Bayesian probabilities are updated annually using a comparison of population size predicted under each model with that observed by a monitoring program. The current AHM process is passively adaptive, in the sense that there is no a priori consideration of how harvest decisions might affect discrimination among models. We contrast this approach with an actively adaptive approach, in which harvest decisions are used in part to produce the learning needed to increase long-term management performance. Our investigation suggests that the passive approach is expected to perform nearly as well as an optimal actively adaptive approach, particularly considering the nature of the model set, management objectives and constraints, and current regulatory alternatives. We offer some comments about the nature of the biological hypotheses being tested and describe some of the inherent <span class="hlt">limitations</span> on learning in the AHM process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, F.A.; Kendall, W.L.; Dubovsky, J.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1487..305B"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the choice of <span class="hlt">limiters</span> in a numerical approximation of a chemotaxis system with non-linear boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A mathematical model for haematopoietic stem cells migration towards their niche in the bone marrow has been proposed in the literature. It consists of a chemotaxis system of partial differential equations with nonlinear boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and an additional ordinary differential equation on a part of the computational boundary. The aim in the current paper is first to answer some of the open questions of a recently introduced finite volume scheme for this chemotaxis system of differential equations and second to investigate the influence of the boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span> on the choice of flux <span class="hlt">limiters</span> (the generalized minmod, Koren, van Leer <span class="hlt">limiters</span> are investigated) used to ensure positivity and non-oscillating nature of the numerical solution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bencheva, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44499722"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Spectral <span class="hlt">Limited</span>-Area Model Formulation with Time-dependent Boundary <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Applied to the Shallow-Water Equations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a method where double Fourier series are used in a <span class="hlt">limited</span>-area model (LAM). The method uses fast Fourier transforms (FFT) in both horizontal directions and takes into account time-dependent boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. The basic idea is to extend the time-dependent boundary fields into a zone outside the integration area in such a way that periodic fields are obtained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jan Erik Haugen; Bennert Machenhauer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3975131"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Limited</span> physical contact through a mesh barrier is sufficient for social reward-<span class="hlt">conditioned</span> place preference in adolescent male rats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Adolescence is a period of enhanced sensitivity to social influences and vulnerability to drug abuse. Social reward in adolescent rats has been demonstrated with the <span class="hlt">conditioned</span> place preference (CPP) model, but it is not clear whether <span class="hlt">limited</span> contact with another rat without play is sufficient to produce reward. We investigated this issue using an apparatus containing two main compartments each with a wire mesh barrier that allowed rats placed on either side of the barrier to have <span class="hlt">limited</span> physical contact. Adolescent male rats were given two <span class="hlt">conditioning</span> sessions/day for 2 or 8 days following baseline preference tests. Rats were placed into their preferred side alone for one daily 10-min session and into their initially non-preferred side (i.e., CS) for the other session during which they either had restricted or unrestricted physical access to another rat (Rat/Mesh or Rat/Phys, respectively) or to a tennis ball (Ball/Mesh or Ball/Phys, respectively) unconditioned stimulus (US). Only the Rat/Phys group exhibited CPP after 2 CS-US pairings; however, after 8 CS-US pairings, the Rat/Mesh and Ball/Phys groups also exhibited CPP. During <span class="hlt">conditioning</span>, the rat US elicited more robust approach and contact behavior compared to the ball, regardless of physical or restricted access. The incidence of contact and/or approach increased as the number of exposures increased. The results suggest that the rank order of US reward efficacy was physical contact with a rat > <span class="hlt">limited</span> contact with a rat > physical contact with a ball, and that rough-and-tumble play is not necessary to establish social reward-CPP. The findings have important implications for emerging drug self-administration models in which two rats self-administering drug intravenously have <span class="hlt">limited</span> physical contact via a mesh barrier shared between their respective operant <span class="hlt">conditioning</span> chambers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peartree, Natalie A.; Hood, Lauren E.; Thiel, Kenneth J.; Sanabria, Federico; Pentkowski, Nathan S.; Chandler, Kayla N.; Neisewander, Janet L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53508787"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous Brain Activity in the Default Mode Network Is Sensitive to Different Resting-State <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> with <span class="hlt">Limited</span> Cognitive Load</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BackgroundRecent functional MRI (fMRI) studies have demonstrated that there is an intrinsically organized default mode network (DMN) in the resting brain, primarily made up of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). Several previous studies have found that the DMN is minimally disturbed during different resting-state <span class="hlt">conditions</span> with <span class="hlt">limited</span> cognitive demand. However, this conclusion was drawn</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chaogan Yan; Dongqiang Liu; Yong He; Qihong Zou; Chaozhe Zhu; Xinian Zuo; Xiangyu Long; Yufeng Zang; Antonio Verdejo García</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19217918"> <span id="translatedtitle">Baclofen, raclopride, and naltrexone differentially affect intake of fat/sucrose mixtures under <span class="hlt">limited</span> access <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study assessed the effects of the opioid antagonist naltrexone, the dopamine 2-like (D2) antagonist raclopride, and the GABA(B) agonist baclofen on consumption of fat/sucrose mixtures (FSM) using a <span class="hlt">limited</span> access protocol. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped according to two schedules of access (Daily [D] or Intermittent [I]) to an optional FSM. Each FSM was created by whipping 3.2% (L), 10% (M), or 32% (H) powdered sugar into 100% vegetable shortening in a w/w manner (n=10 per group). One-hour intakes of the IL and IM groups were significantly greater than intakes of the respective DL and DM groups, thus fulfilling our operational definition of binge-type eating in these groups. Baclofen reduced intakes of the L and M mixtures regardless of access schedule, but failed to reduce intake of the H mixture. Naltrexone reduced intake in all groups, but potency was greater in IL rats than in DL rats. Furthermore, potency was attenuated in Intermittent rats, but enhanced in Daily rats, at higher sucrose concentrations. Raclopride reduced intake in the DL and stimulated intake in the IL groups, reduced intake in both M groups, and was without effect in both H groups. These results indicate that fat/sucrose mixtures containing relatively low concentrations of sucrose allow distinctions to be made between: 1) intakes stimulated by different access schedules and 2) opioid and dopaminergic modulation of those intakes. These results also suggest that brief bouts of food consumption involving fatty, sugar-rich foods may prove to be particularly resistant to pharmacological intervention. PMID:19217918</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wong, K J; Wojnicki, F H W; Corwin, R L W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B33C0468G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of Bacterial Weathering Ability in Nutrient <span class="hlt">Limited</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> on Biotite</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bacterial and fungal communities facilitate the weathering of minerals in oligotrophic soils. The bacterial communities reside in biofilms, consisting of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) such as lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nuclei acids. Biotite, a 2:1 aluminosilicate mica, is a common primary mineral found in these low nutrient soils and is a source of potassium, magnesium and iron for both microorganisms and plants. Studies show that bacteria, when incubated with biotite flakes, can remove iron, potassium, and magnesium at higher quantities and increased rates compared to abiotic controls (Balogh-Brunstad et al., 2008; Calvaruso et al., 2006; Hopf et al. 2008; Uroz et al., 2007 and 2009). How this happens mechanistically is still unclear and this study seeks to shed light on this issue. We hypothesize that weathering by bacteria is selective; i.e., that the mechanism will depend on the <span class="hlt">limiting</span> nutrient. Using a drip flow biofilm reactor, biofilms are grown on biotite coupons under non-turbulent, low sheer flow, with four different nutrient treatments. The nutrient treatments include a complete nutrient solution and the same solution without K, Mg, or Fe. In each treatment, we determine the concentration and cumulative release of each cation in the effluent. Congruent dissolution of biotite indicates that weathering is nonselective whereas incongruent dissolution suggests that the bacteria alter the weathering mechanism for a specific nutrient. The bacteria are selected from a bacterial inoculum collected from the roots of young White Pine (Pinus strobus) trees in the Saint Joseph National Forest, Idaho. The bacteria are isolated on plates and the best weathering species are selected using a microplate bioassay technique to determine the concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, and protons colorimetrically.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grant, M. R.; Harsh, J. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=168363"> <span id="translatedtitle">Competition for cellobiose among three predominant ruminal cellulolytic bacteria under substrate-excess and substrate-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ruminal cellulolytic bacteria Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1 and Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 coexisted in substrate-excess coculture with about equal population size, but R. flavefaciens outcompeted F. succinogenes for cellobiose in the substrate-<span class="hlt">limited</span> cocultures whether the two strains were coinoculated or a steady-state culture of F. succinogenes was challenged by R. flavefaciens. This outcome of competition between these two strains is due to a classical pure and simple competition mechanism based on affinity for cellobiose. Although the population size of F. succinogenes was much higher (> 70%) than that of another cellulolytic species, Ruminococcus albus 7 in substrate-excess coculture, F. succinogenes was replaced by a population of R. albus in the substrate-<span class="hlt">limited</span> coculture in both coinoculation and challenge experiments. R albus outcompeted F. succinogenes, apparently due to selection in the chemostat of a population of R. albus with a higher affinity for cellobiose. R. albus also outcompeted R. flavefaciens under substrate-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shi, Y; Weimer, P J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24763325"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bereavement support used by mothers in Ireland following the death of their child from a life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">condition</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Children's palliative care is a rapidly developing specialism internationally. Bereavement support is an integral component of children's palliative care but to date little research has investigated the bereavement support that mothers in Ireland use following the death of their child. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore mothers' experiences of bereavement support in Ireland following the death of their child from a life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">condition</span>. Method: A descriptive qualitative design was used. The study sample was ten mothers who had been bereaved in the previous 5 years. All mothers were recruited to the study by a gatekeeper from a voluntary organisation. Data were obtained through unstructured single interviews and analysed using conventional content analysis. Results: The findings indicate that the mothers relied on a combination of informal and formal bereavement support. In addition to depending on others to provide support, the mothers described their ability to self-support. Conclusions: The findings show that mothers in Ireland use a variety of sources of support following the death of their child from a life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">condition</span>. Health professionals involved in caring for families and children with a life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">condition</span> should have an understanding of these sources. PMID:24763325</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jennings, Valerie; Nicholl, Honor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-009-1542-3"> <span id="translatedtitle">A strong <span class="hlt">conditional</span> mutualism <span class="hlt">limits</span> and enhances seed dispersal and germination of a tropical palm</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seed predation and seed dispersal can have strong effects on early life history stages of plants. These processes have often been studied as individual effects, but the degree to which their relative importance co-varies with seed predator abundance and how this influences seed germination rates is poorly understood. Therefore, we used a combination of observations and field experiments to determine the degree to which germination rates of the palm Astrocaryum mexicanum varied with abundance of a small mammal seed predator/disperser, Heteromysdesmarestianus, in a lowland tropical forest. Patterns of abundance of the two species were strongly related; density of H. desmarestianus was low in sites with low density of A. mexicanum and vice versa. Rates of predation and dispersal of A. mexicanum seeds depended on abundance of H. desmarestianus; sites with high densities of H. desmarestianus had the highest rates of seed predation and lowest rates of seed germination, but a greater total number of seeds were dispersed and there was greater density of seedlings, saplings, and adults of A. mexicanum in these sites. When abundance of H. desmarestianus was experimentally reduced, rates of seed predation decreased, but so did dispersal of A. mexicanum seeds. Critically, rates of germination of dispersed seeds were 5 times greater than undispersed seeds. The results suggest that the relationship between A. mexicanum and H. desmarestianus is a <span class="hlt">conditional</span> mutualism that results in a strong local effect on the abundance of each species. However, the magnitude and direction of these effects are determined by the relative strength of opposing, but related, mechanisms. A. mexicanum nuts provide H. desmarestianus with a critical food resource, and while seed predation on A. mexicanum nuts by H. desmarestianus is very intense, A. mexicanum ultimately benefits because of the relatively high germination rates of its seeds that are dispersed by H. desmarestianus. ?? The Author(s) 2010.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klinger, R.; Rejmanek, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMMM..364...39H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solubility <span class="hlt">limits</span> in Mn-Mg ferrites system under hydrothermal <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the present investigation, we successfully synthesized a pure MnFe2O4 ferrite by the hydrothermal method. Moreover, the effect of Mg ion content on the formation of Mn1-xMgxFe2O4 particles (with x varying from 0.1 to 1.0) was also investigated using XRD, SEM, TEM and Mossbauer Spectroscopy. Phases formed in the system Mn1-xMgxFe2O4; 0.0?x?1.0 were investigated under hydrothermal <span class="hlt">conditions</span> at 453 K.The produced phases were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scanning, transmission microscopy and Mossbauer spectroscopy. The information of composition, cation distribution in the spinel structure and the particle size of the products were obtained. The spinel ferrites; Mn1-xMgxFe2O4 were formed in the range 0.0?x?0.3. However, sample with x>0.3 showed semi-crystalline magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) and hematite (Fe2O3) beside the ferrite phase. For x=1.0, only magnesium hydroxide and hematite are formed without any ferrites. Particles of uniform size around 10-20 nm were obtained in the spinel structure of Mn1-xMgxFe2O4 with x=0.0 and 0.1. The corresponding average crystallite size for each sample was 40.3 nm and 39.2 nm respectively. In addition, the Mossbauer spectra were analyzed into two subspectra, one for the tetrahedral A-site and the other for the octahedral B-site. The Mossbauer parameters were determined and discussed for the studied system. The cation distribution was estimated from the analysis of the Mossbauer spectra as well as the X-ray diffraction patterns. The results showed that Mg ions occupy mainly B-site while both Mn and Fe ions are distributed between A- and B-sites.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hemeda, O. M.; Mostafa, N. Y.; Abd Elkader, O. H.; Ahmed, M. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48589061"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discriminative ability of the generic and <span class="hlt">condition</span>-specific Child-<span class="hlt">Oral</span> Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP) by the Limpopo-Arusha School Health (LASH) Project: A cross-sectional study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background  Generic and <span class="hlt">condition</span>-specific (CS) <span class="hlt">oral</span>-health-related quality-of-life (OHRQoL) instruments assess the impacts of general\\u000a <span class="hlt">oral</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and specific <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases. Focusing schoolchildren from Arusha and Dar es Salaam, in Tanzania, this study\\u000a compared the discriminative ability of the generic Child OIDP with respect to dental caries and periodontal problems across\\u000a the study sites. Secondly, the discriminative ability of the generic-and the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hawa S Mbawalla; Matilda Mtaya; Joyce R Masalu; Pongsri Brudvik; Anne N Astrom</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/rbxyvwwxkjk69abj.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Progressive ratio and behavioral economic evaluation of the reinforcing efficacy of <span class="hlt">orally</span> delivered phencyclidine and ethanol in monkeys: effects of feeding <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of feeding <span class="hlt">conditions</span> on the reinforcing efficacy of <span class="hlt">orally</span>-delivered drugs was evaluated using a progressive-ratio\\u000a (PR) paradigm and a behavioral economic analysis of demand. Seven monkeys self-administered phencyclidine (PCP) (0.06, 0.12,\\u000a 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg\\/ml) or ethanol (2, 4, 8, 16, and 32% wt\\/vol) and concurrent water from two drinking spouts under concurrent\\u000a PR schedules. The ratios</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. S. Rodefer; Marilyn E. Carroll</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24010603"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Australian Dekkera bruxellensis strains grown under oxygen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> on model wine composition and aroma.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spoilage of red wine by the yeast species Dekkera bruxellensis is a common problem for the global wine industry. When <span class="hlt">conditions</span> are conducive for growth of these yeasts in wine, they efficiently convert non-volatile hydroxycinnamic acids into aroma-active ethylphenols, thereby reducing the quality of the wine. It has been demonstrated previously that dissolved oxygen is a key factor which stimulates D. bruxellensis growth in wine. We demonstrate that whereas the presence of oxygen accelerates the growth of this species, oxygen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> favour 4-ethylphenol production. Consequently, we evaluated wine spoilage potential of three D. bruxellensis strains (AWRI1499, AWRI1608 and AWRI1613) under oxygen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Each strain was cultured in a chemically-defined wine medium and the fermentation products were analysed using HPLC and HS-SPME-GC/MS. The strains displayed different growth characteristics but were equally capable of producing ethylphenols. On the other hand, significant differences were observed for 18 of the remaining 33 metabolites analysed and duo-trio sensory analysis indicated significant aroma differences between wines inoculated with AWRI1499 and AWRI1613. When these wines were spiked with low concentrations of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol, no sensorial differences could be perceived. Together these data suggest that the three predominant D. bruxellensis strains previously isolated during a large survey of Australian wineries do not differ substantively in their capacity to grow in, and spoil, a model wine medium. PMID:24010603</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Curtin, Chris D; Langhans, Geoffrey; Henschke, Paul A; Grbin, Paul R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24736031"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physiology of Geobacter metallireducens under excess and <span class="hlt">limitation</span> of electron donors. Part II. Mimicking environmental <span class="hlt">conditions</span> during cultivation in retentostats.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The strict anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens was cultivated in retentostats under acetate and acetate plus benzoate <span class="hlt">limitation</span> in the presence of Fe(III) citrate in order to investigate its physiology under close to natural <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Growth rates below 0.003h(-1) were achieved in the course of cultivation. A nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach (nano-LC-MS/MS) with subsequent label-free quantification was performed on proteins extracted from cells sampled at different time points during retentostat cultivation. Proteins detected at low (0.002h(-1)) and high (0.06h(-1)) growth rates were compared between corresponding growth <span class="hlt">conditions</span> (acetate or acetate plus benzoate). Carbon <span class="hlt">limitation</span> significantly increased the abundances of several catabolic proteins involved in the degradation of substrates not present in the medium (ethanol, butyrate, fatty acids, and aromatic compounds). Growth rate-specific physiology was reflected in the changed abundances of energy-, chemotaxis-, oxidative stress-, and transport-related proteins. Mimicking natural <span class="hlt">conditions</span> by extremely slow bacterial growth allowed to show how G. metallireducens optimized its physiology in order to survive in its natural habitats, since it was prepared to consume several carbon sources simultaneously and to withstand various environmental stresses. PMID:24736031</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marozava, Sviatlana; Röling, Wilfred F M; Seifert, Jana; Küffner, Robert; von Bergen, Martin; Meckenstock, Rainer U</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20723943"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oil viscosity <span class="hlt">limitation</span> on dispersibility of crude oil under simulated at-sea <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in a large wave tank.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study determined the <span class="hlt">limiting</span> oil viscosity for chemical dispersion of oil spills under simulated sea <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in the large outdoor wave tank at the US National Oil Spill Response Test Facility in New Jersey. Dispersant effectiveness tests were completed using crude oils with viscosities ranging from 67 to 40,100 cP at test temperature. Tests produced an effectiveness-viscosity curve with three phases when oil was treated with Corexit 9500 at a dispersant-to-oil ratio of 1:20. The oil viscosity that <span class="hlt">limited</span> chemical dispersion under simulated at-sea <span class="hlt">conditions</span> was in the range of 18,690 cP to 33,400 cP. Visual observations and measurements of oil concentrations and droplet size distributions in the water under treated and control slicks correlated well with direct measurements of effectiveness. The dispersant effectiveness versus oil viscosity relationship under simulated at sea <span class="hlt">conditions</span> at Ohmsett was most similar to those from similar tests made using the Institut Francais du Pétrole and Exxon Dispersant Effectiveness (EXDET) test methods. PMID:20723943</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Trudel, Ken; Belore, Randy C; Mullin, Joseph V; Guarino, Alan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeCoA..70.5323C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carbon isotopic fractionation by the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under nutrient- and light-<span class="hlt">limited</span> growth <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A theoretical model was developed to explain the characteristics of carbon isotopic fractionation ( ?P) by the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under nutrient- and light-<span class="hlt">limited</span> growth <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. The model takes into consideration active transport and diffusion of inorganic carbon through the cell membrane and chloroplast membrane and the energetic tradeoff between production of Rubisco and operation of a carbon-concentrating mechanism to achieve a given growth rate. The model is able to explain 88% of the variance in experimental ?p data reported in this study and in previous work and is able to account for the observed pattern of Rubisco activity in nitrate-<span class="hlt">limited</span> chemostats. Two important implications of the model include the fact that ?p is not a unique function of the ratio of growth rate to external CO 2 concentration (as opposed to the predictions of several previous models) and that changes in light-<span class="hlt">limited</span> and nutrient-<span class="hlt">limited</span> growth rates have opposite effects on the fraction of CO 2 taken up by the chloroplast that is lost to diffusion and hence on certain patterns of carbon isotopic fractionation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cassar, Nicolas; Laws, Edward A.; Popp, Brian N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24925039"> <span id="translatedtitle">The HITECH Act and Electronic Health Records' <span class="hlt">Limitation</span> in Coordinating Care for Children with Complex Chronic <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While the HITECH Act was implemented to promote the use of electronic health records to improve the quality and coordination of healthcare, the <span class="hlt">limitations</span> established to the setting of the hospital or physician's office affect the care coordination for those who utilize many health-related services outside these settings, including children with complex and chronic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Incentive-based support or nationally supported electronic health record systems for allied and other healthcare professionals are necessary to see the full impact that electronic health records can have on care coordination for individuals who utilize many skilled healthcare services that are not associated with a hospital or physician's office. PMID:24925039</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cook, Jason E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23059582"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neutral zone and <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> submucous fibrosis is a premalignant <span class="hlt">condition</span> in which rigidity of the lip, tongue, and palate results in reduced mouth opening and tongue movement. <span class="hlt">Limited</span> mouth opening, mucosal rigidity, and reduced salivary flow makes prosthodontic procedures difficult in these patients and affects the stability, retention, and the support of removable prostheses. The burning sensation in the mouth that these patients experience reduces the tolerance to prostheses. We report a case of <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis where the conventional neutral zone technique with certain modifications was utilized to rehabilitate a completely edentulous patient with this <span class="hlt">condition</span>. PMID:23059582</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Afroz, Shaista; Rahman, Sajjad Abdur; Rajawat, Indresh; Verma, A K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23196704"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fe and P solubilization under <span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> by bacteria isolated from Carex kobomugi roots at the Hasaki coast.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Our objective was simply to report a sedge species, Carex kobomugi Ohwi that has beneficial bacterial associations under low Fe and P <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of the Hasaki coast, Japan. C. kobomugi is the dominant species in our study area and grows closest to the sea. C. kobomugi showed higher Fe and P content, while these nutrients were less available under alkaline root-zone soil. Within the roots, mycorrhizal fungal colonization was absent, and endophytic fungal colonization was low. On the contrary, endophytic bacteria (e.g. Bacillus sp., Streptomyces luteogriseus, and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were isolated, which exhibited both siderophore production and inorganic phosphate solubilization under Fe or P <span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Our results suggest that colonization of root tissue by these bacteria contribute to the Fe and P uptakes by C. kobomugi by increasing availability in the soil. PMID:23196704</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matsuoka, Hiroaki; Akiyama, Masaru; Kobayashi, Katsuichiro; Yamaji, Keiko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7686S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the Influence of Lateral Boundary <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> in <span class="hlt">Limited</span> Area Numerical Weather Prediction Modelling for the Territory of Latvia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Increase in available computing power has allowed even more research centres to begin work on atmospheric modelling and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). When <span class="hlt">Limited</span> Area Models (LAM) are used, the possible influence of boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span> must be taken into account for sufficient analysis of the modelling results. However, there is no universally applicable approach and the analysis must be performed for each domain setup. The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model [1] is currently used in University of Latvia for research in NWP. The region of interest is the territory of Latvia that is situated in the North-Eastern part of Europe and on the Eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. The terrain is relatively flat (highest elevation ~ 300 m ASL). The climate of Latvia is hemiboreal (Dfb) according to the Köppen classification. In the winter the climate is strongly influenced by mid-latitude cyclones. The target computational domain covers the territory of Latvia with the resolution of 3 km (301x301 grid points) and is nested in a lower-resolution outer computational domain. The aim of this study is to assess the uncertainty that is caused by the choice of the computational domain and consequently the influence of the applied boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Due to the <span class="hlt">limited</span> computational resources selected events characteristic of different meteorological <span class="hlt">conditions</span> are chosen for investigation. Several aspects are analysed such as: (1) domain sizes (2) positioning of the domains (with the aim of better cyclone description) and (3) boundary <span class="hlt">condition</span> data sources (4) influence of the model spin-up times. The results are compared with the surface meteorological observations from the Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre (LEGMC) observational network. References: [1] Skamarock, William C. and Klemp, Joseph B. A time-split nonhydrostatic atmospheric model for weather research and forecasting applications. Journal of Computational Physics. 227, 2008, pp. 3465-3485.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S?le, Tija; Se??ikovs, Juris; Bethers, Uldis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3076704"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Tolerance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is the largest immune organ in the body and is the primary route by which we are exposed to antigens. Tolerance induction is the default immune pathway in the gut, and the type of tolerance induced relates to the dose of antigen fed: anergy/deletion (high dose) or regulatory T-cell (Treg) induction (low dose). <span class="hlt">Conditioning</span> of gut dendritic cells by gut epithelial cells and the gut flora, which itself has a major influence on gut immunity, induces a CD103+ retinoic acid-dependent dendritic cell that induces Tregs. A number of Tregs are induced at mucosal surfaces. Th3 type Tregs are transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) dependent and express latency-associated peptide (LAP) on their surface and were discovered in the context of <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance. Tr1 type Tregs (interleukin-10 dependent) are induced by nasal antigen and Foxp3 iTregs are induced by <span class="hlt">oral</span> antigen and by <span class="hlt">oral</span> administration of aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> or nasal antigen ameliorates autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in animal models by inducing Tregs. Furthermore, anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody is active at mucosal surfaces and <span class="hlt">oral</span> or nasal anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody induces a LAP+ Tregs that suppresses animal models (experimental autoimmune encephalitis, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, lupus, arthritis, atherosclerosis) and is being tested in humans. Although there is a large literature on treatment of animal models by mucosal tolerance and some positive results in humans, this approach has yet to be translated to the clinic. The successful translation will require defining responsive patient populations, validating biomarkers to measure immunologic effects, and using combination therapy and immune adjuvants to enhance Treg induction. A major avenue being investigated for the treatment of autoimmunity is the induction of Tregs and mucosal tolerance represents a non-toxic, physiologic approach to reach this goal.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weiner, Howard L.; Cunha, Andre Pires da; Quintana, Francisco; Wu, Henry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24491579"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced interaction of Vibrio cholerae virulence regulators TcpP and ToxR under oxygen-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the diarrheal disease cholera. The ability of V. cholerae to colonize and cause disease requires the intricately regulated expression of a number of virulence factors during infection. One of the signals sensed by V. cholerae is the presence of oxygen-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in the gut. It has been shown that the virulence activator AphB plays a key role in sensing low oxygen concentrations and inducing the transcription of another key virulence activator, TcpP. In this study, we used a bacterial two-hybrid system to further examine the effect of oxygen on different virulence regulators. We found that anoxic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> enhanced the interaction between TcpP and ToxR, identified as the first positive regulator of V. cholerae virulence genes. We further demonstrated that the TcpP-ToxR interaction was dependent on the primary periplasmic protein disulfide formation enzyme DsbA and cysteine residues in the periplasmic domains of both ToxR and TcpP. Furthermore, we showed that in V. cholerae, an interaction between TcpP and ToxR is important for virulence gene induction. Under anaerobic growth <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, we detected ToxR-TcpP heterodimers, which were abolished in the presence of the reducing agent dithiothreitol. Our results suggest that V. cholerae may sense intestinal anoxic signals by multiple components to activate virulence. PMID:24491579</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fan, Fenxia; Liu, Zhi; Jabeen, Nusrat; Birdwell, L Dillon; Zhu, Jun; Kan, Biao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21906935"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optimization of operating parameters for sludge process reduction under alternating aerobic/oxygen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> by response surface methodology.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Batch tests were employed to estimate the optimal <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for excess sludge reduction under an alternating aerobic/oxygen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> environment using response surface methodology. Three key operating parameters, initial mixed liquor suspended solids (initial MLSS), HRT (hydraulic retention time) and reaction temperature (T), were selected, and their interrelationships studied by the Box-Behnken design. The experimental data and ANOVA analysis showed that the coefficient of determination (R(2)) was 0.9956 and the adjR(2) was 0.9912, which demonstrates that the modified model was significant. The optimum <span class="hlt">conditions</span> were predicted to give a maximal ?MLSS yield of 226 mg/L at an initial MLSS of 10,021 ± 50 mg/L, an HRT of 9.1h and a reaction temperature of 29°C. The prediction was tested by triplicate experiments, where a ?MLSS yield of 233 mg/L was achieved under the chosen optimal <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. This excellent correlation between the predicted and measured values provides confidence in the model. PMID:21906935</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Shan-Shan; Guo, Wan-Qian; Zhou, Xian-Jiao; Meng, Zhao-Hui; Liu, Bo; Ren, Nan-Qi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016543"> <span id="translatedtitle">Use of the Priestley-Taylor evaporation equation for soil water <span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in a small forest clearcut</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Priestley-Taylor equation, a simplification of the Penman equation, was used to allow calculations of evapotranspiration under <span class="hlt">conditions</span> where soil water supply <span class="hlt">limits</span> evapotranspiration. The Priestley-Taylor coefficient, ??, was calculated to incorporate an exponential decrease in evapotranspiration as soil water content decreases. The method is appropriate for use when detailed meteorological measurements are not available. The data required to determine the parameter for the ?? coefficient are net radiation, soil heat flux, average air temperature, and soil water content. These values can be obtained from measurements or models. The dataset used in this report pertains to a partially vegetated clearcut forest site in southwest Oregon with soil depths ranging from 0.48 to 0.70 m and weathered bedrock below that. Evapotranspiration was estimated using the Bowen ratio method, and the calculated Priestley-Taylor coefficient was fitted to these estimates by nonlinear regression. The calculated Priestley-Taylor coefficient (?????) was found to be approximately 0.9 when the soil was near field capacity (0.225 cm3 cm-3). It was not until soil water content was less than 0.14 cm3 cm-3 that soil water supply <span class="hlt">limited</span> evapotranspiration. The soil reached a final residual water content near 0.05 cm3 cm-3 at the end of the growing season. ?? 1991.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Flint, A. L.; Childs, S. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28513652"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Prospective <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Mucositis Audit: relationship of severe <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis with clinical and medical resource use outcomes in patients receiving high-dose melphalan or BEAM-<span class="hlt">conditioning</span> chemotherapy and autologous SCT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Prospective <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Mucositis Audit was an observational study in 197 patients with multiple myeloma (MM) or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) undergoing, respectively, high-dose melphalan or BEAM chemotherapy and autologous SCT at 25 European centres. We evaluated the relationship between severe <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis (SOM; WHO <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Toxicity Scale grade 3–4) and local and systemic clinical sequelae and medical resource use. SOM</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. McCann; M. Schwenkglenks; P. Bacon; H. Einsele; A. D'Addio; J. Maertens; D. Niederwieser; W. Rabitsch; A. Roosaar; T. Ruutu; H. Schouten; R. Stone; S. Vorkurka; B. Quinn; N. M. A. Blijlevens</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4013613"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Activity of Nodules of the Supernodulating Mutant Mtsunn Is not <span class="hlt">Limited</span> by Photosynthesis under Optimal Growth <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Legumes match the nodule number to the N demand of the plant. When a mutation in the regulatory mechanism deprives the plant of that ability, an excessive number of nodules are formed. These mutants show low productivity in the fields, mainly due to the high carbon burden caused through the necessity to supply numerous nodules. The objective of this study was to clarify whether through optimal <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for growth and CO2 assimilation a higher nodule activity of a supernodulating mutant of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) can be induced. Several experimental approaches reveal that under the <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of our experiments, the nitrogen fixation of the supernodulating mutant, designated as sunn (super numeric nodules), was not <span class="hlt">limited</span> by photosynthesis. Higher specific nitrogen fixation activity could not be induced through short- or long-term increases in CO2 assimilation around shoots. Furthermore, a whole plant P depletion induced a decline in nitrogen fixation, however this decline did not occur significantly earlier in sunn plants, nor was it more intense compared to the wild-type. However, a distinctly different pattern of nitrogen fixation during the day/night cycles of the experiment indicates that the control of N2 fixing activity of the large number of nodules is an additional problem for the productivity of supernodulating mutants.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cabeza, Ricardo A.; Lingner, Annika; Liese, Rebecca; Sulieman, Saad; Senbayram, Mehmet; Trankner, Merle; Dittert, Klaus; Schulze, Joachim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24791685"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anhydrobiosis in yeast: is it possible to reach anhydrobiosis for yeast grown in <span class="hlt">conditions</span> with severe oxygen <span class="hlt">limitation</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was shown to be extremely sensitive to dehydration-rehydration treatments when stationary phase cells were subjected to <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of severe oxygen <span class="hlt">limitation</span>, unlike the same cells grown in aerobic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. The viability of dehydrated anaerobically grown yeast cells never exceeded 2 %. It was not possible to increase this viability using gradual rehydration of dry cells in water vapour, which usually strongly reduces damage to intracellular membranes. Specific pre-dehydration treatments significantly increased the resistance of anaerobic yeast to drying. Thus, incubation of cells with trehalose (100 mM), increased the viability of dehydrated cells after slow rehydration in water vapour to 30 %. Similarly, pre-incubation of cells in 1 M xylitol or glycerol enabled up to 50-60 % of cells to successfully enter a viable state of anhydrobiosis after subsequent rehydration. We presume that trehalose and sugar alcohols function mainly according to a water replacement hypothesis, as well as initiating various protective intracellular reactions. PMID:24791685</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rozenfelde, Linda; Rapoport, Alexander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610492C"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the spatial distribution of the transpiration and soil moisture of a Mediterranean heterogeneous ecosystem in water-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mediterranean ecosystems are characterized by a strong heterogeneity, and often by water-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. In these <span class="hlt">conditions</span> contrasting plant functional types (PFT, e.g. grass and woody vegetation) compete for the water use. Both the vegetation cover spatial distribution and the soil properties impact the soil moisture (SM) spatial distribution. Indeed, vegetation cover density and type affects evapotranspiration (ET), which is the main lack of the soil water balance in these ecosystems. With the objective to carefully estimate SM and ET spatial distribution in a Mediterranean water-<span class="hlt">limited</span> ecosystem and understanding SM and ET relationships, an extended field campaign is carried out. The study was performed in a heterogeneous ecosystem in Orroli, Sardinia (Italy). The experimental site is a typical Mediterranean ecosystem where the vegetation is distributed in patches of woody vegetation (wild olives mainly) and grass. Soil depth is low and spatially varies between 10 cm and 40 cm, without any correlation with the vegetation spatial distribution. ET, land-surface fluxes and CO2 fluxes are estimated by an eddy covariance technique based micrometeorological tower. But in heterogeneous ecosystems a key assumption of the eddy covariance theory, the homogeneity of the surface, is not preserved and the ET estimate may be not correct. Hence, we estimate ET of the woody vegetation using the thermal dissipation method (i.e. sap flow technique) for comparing the two methodologies. Due the high heterogeneity of the vegetation and soil properties of the field a total of 54 sap flux sensors were installed. 14 clumps of wild olives within the eddy covariance footprint were identified as the most representative source of flux and they were instrumented with the thermal dissipation probes. Measurements of diameter at the height of sensor installation (height of 0.4 m above ground) were recorded in all the clumps. Bark thickness and sapwood depth were measured on several trees to obtain a generalized estimates of sapwood depth. The known of allometric relationships between sapwood area, diameter and canopy cover area within the eddy covariance footprint helped for the application of a reliable scaling procedure of the local sap flow estimates which are in a good agreement with the estimates of ET eddy covariance based. Soil moisture were also extensively monitored through 25 probes installed in the eddy covariance footprint. Results show that comparing eddy covariance and sap flow ET estimates eddy covariance technique is still accurate in this heterogeneous field, whereas the key assumption, surface homogeneity, is not preserved. Furthermore, interestingly wild olives still transpire at higher rates for the driest soil moisture <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, confirming the hydraulic redistribution from soil below the roots, and from roots penetrating deep cracks in the underlying basalt parent rock.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Curreli, Matteo; Corona, Roberto; Montaldo, Nicola; Albertson, John D.; Oren, Ram</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3579717"> <span id="translatedtitle">Planning ahead with children with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and their families: development, implementation and evaluation of 'My Choices'</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background The United Kingdom has led the world in the development of children’s palliative care. Over the past two decades, the illness trajectories of children with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> have extended with new treatments and better home-based care. Future planning is a critically under-researched aspect of children’s palliative care globally. This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of innovative child and parent-held palliative care planning resources. The resources were designed to facilitate parent and child thinking and engagement in future planning, and to determine care preferences and preferred locations of care for children with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> from diagnosis onwards. These resources fill a significant gap in palliative care planning before the end-of-life phase. Methods Drawing on contemporaneous research on producing evidence-based children’s health information, we collaborated with leading children’s not-for-profit organisations, parents, children, and professionals. A set of resources (My Choices booklets) were developed for parents and children and evaluated using interviews (parents, children, professionals) and questionnaires (professionals) and an open web-based consultation. Results Parents and children responded in three ways: Some used the booklets to produce detailed written plans with clear outcomes and ideas about how best to achieve desired outcomes. Others preferred to use the booklet to help them think about potential options. Remaining parents found it difficult to think about the future and felt there was no point because they perceived there to be no suitable local services. Professionals varied in confidence in their ability to engage with families to plan ahead and identified many challenges that prevented them from doing so. Few families shared their plans with professionals. Parents and children have far stronger preferences for home-care than professionals. Conclusion The My Choices booklets were revised in light of findings, have been endorsed by Together for Short Lives, and are free to download in English and Welsh for use by parents and young people globally. More work needs to be done to support families who are not yet receptive to planning ahead. Professionals would benefit from more training in person-centred approaches to future planning and additional communications skills to increase confidence and ability to engage with families to deliver sensitive palliative care planning.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20943803"> <span id="translatedtitle">Personal resuscitation plans and end of life planning for children with disability and life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span>/life-threatening <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article discusses the need for person-specific planning for the increasing numbers of disabled children with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> and life-threatening <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. It describes the system developed in Nottingham for this client group to have a family-held personal resuscitation plan, (PRP) which is developed with the child and family by their lead paediatrician. The PRP is an emergency medical care plan which supports the provision of the most appropriate level of intervention for the child whether they are at home, school, short break unit or hospital. The PRP template is presented with advice on implementation and case examples. Feedback from families, medical and nursing staff is that PRPs are useful and empowering. The system supports timely discussions about appropriate care in an emergency and the communication of decisionsmade jointly by the child, family and medical team to all concerned. A flexible and person-specific PRP stating what interventions to do such as airway clearance, facial oxygen, trial of bag and mask ventilation is preferable to a do not attempt resuscitation form which is an 'all or nothing system' and can seem very negative to families. A PRP in the home can support appropriate action from local rapid response teams set up to review unexpected child deaths. PMID:20943803</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wolff, A; Browne, J; Whitehouse, W P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..DPPCP9021H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Axisymmetric Bernstein modes in a non-neutral plasma: Boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and 6/7 of the Brillouin <span class="hlt">limit</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Axisymmetric Bernstein modes exist in a cylindrical non-neutral plasma in the vicinity of the cyclotron frequency. Using a kinetic-theory model we have analyzed the theory of these modes in a rigid-rotor thermal equilibrium. We find that in the central region of the plasma (where the density is constant) the perturbed velocity is proportional to the Bessel function J1(k r), with k having a distinct value for each mode. There are two distinct modes with separate ?s for each k. We have improved our simulation of these modes in our r-? PIC code by finding a set of parameters where we can both resolve the Debye length and avoid Landau damping of the modes. We find that in a thermal equilibrium plasma the perturbed velocity closely matches this J1(k r) in the interior of the plasma. The dispersion relation derived from the theory also matches the values of ? and k seen in the simulation. We also see the two families of modes in the simulation at different frequencies for the same initial velocity perturbation in the plasma. The boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span> that need to be applied to constrain k at the free boundary of the plasma are unclear from the physics and appear to be different for the two modes. The theory also breaks down in a region surrounding 6/7 of the Brillouin <span class="hlt">limit</span>. Progress in understanding these issues will be discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hart, Grant W.; Spencer, Ross L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-12/pdf/2013-26928.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 67320 - Special <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>: Airbus, Model A350-900 series Airplane; Pitch and Roll <span class="hlt">Limiting</span> by Electronic...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...<span class="hlt">Limiting</span> by Electronic Flight Control System AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...associated with the Electronic Flight Control System that <span class="hlt">limits</span> pitch and roll attitude...features: an Electronic Flight Control system (EFCS), that when...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16151151"> <span id="translatedtitle">Disintegration of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms under glucose-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> depends on the activity of the alternative sigma factor sigmaB.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To evaluate the role of the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin as an energy-storage molecule, we investigated the effect of nutrient <span class="hlt">limitation</span> on S. epidermidis biofilms. The stability of established biofilms depends on sigma(B) activity; however, the slow decay of biofilms under <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of nutrient <span class="hlt">limitation</span> reveal its use as an energy-storage molecule to be unlikely. PMID:16151151</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jäger, Sebastian; Mack, Dietrich; Rohde, Holger; Horstkotte, Matthias A; Knobloch, Johannes K-M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3885153"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> health problems and mortality</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background/purpose Previous studies have shown the relationship between individual <span class="hlt">oral</span> health <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and mortality; however, the relationship between mortality and multiple <span class="hlt">oral</span> health <span class="hlt">conditions</span> has not been examined. This study investigates the link between individual <span class="hlt">oral</span> health problems and <span class="hlt">oral</span> comorbidity and mortality risk. Materials and methods Data are derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004, which is linked to the National Death Index for mortality follow-up through 2006. We estimated the risk of mortality among people with three individual <span class="hlt">oral</span> health <span class="hlt">conditions</span>—tooth loss, root caries, and periodontitis as well as with <span class="hlt">oral</span> comorbidity—or having all three <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Results Significant tooth loss, root caries, and periodontal disease were associated with increased odds of dying. The relationship between <span class="hlt">oral</span> health <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and mortality disappeared when controlling for sociodemographic, health, and/or health behavioral indicators. Having multiple <span class="hlt">oral</span> health problems was associated with an even higher rate of mortality. Conclusion Individual <span class="hlt">oral</span> health <span class="hlt">conditions</span>—tooth loss, root caries, and periodontal disease—were not related to mortality when sociodemographic, health, and/or health behavioral factors were considered, and there was no differential pattern between the three <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Multiple <span class="hlt">oral</span> health problems were associated with a higher risk of dying.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Jung Ki; Baker, Lindsey A.; Davarian, Shieva; Crimmins, Eileen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411911M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Limited</span> area NWP and regional climate modeling: A test of the relaxation vs Eta lateral boundary <span class="hlt">condition</span> schemes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With very few exceptions, just about all <span class="hlt">limited</span> area models (LAMs) used in operational NWP and regional climate modeling use the Davies relaxation lateral boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span> (LBCs), even though from the mathematical point of view they are not the best choice one can make. While in the early stages of the primitive equation LAM development in the seventies numerous schemes have been proposed and tested, LAM communities have eventually for the most part settled on the relaxation LBCs with few questions asked. An exception is the Eta model used extensively at NCEP and numerous other centers, in which the Mesinger (1977) LBCs are used. They prescribe variables along the outermost row of grid points only; all of them at the inflow points and one less at the outflow points where the tangential velocity components are extrapolated from inside of the model domain. Additional schemes are in place to suppress separation of gravity-wave solutions on C-subgrids of the model's E grid. A recent paper of Veljovic et al. (2010) included three 32-day forecasts done with both the Eta and the relaxation LBCs and the comparison of some of their verification results. This experiment was subsequently extended by three additional forecasts to arrive at an ensemble of six members run with both schemes, along with a more complete analysis of results. Results of two verification schemes used as well as the inspection of forecast wind fields strongly suggest an advantage of the Eta over the conventional and costlier relaxation scheme, thereby raising doubts as to the justification for its use.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mesinger, F.; Veljovic, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MAP...119....1M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Limited</span> area NWP and regional climate modeling: a test of the relaxation vs Eta lateral boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With very few exceptions, just about all <span class="hlt">limited</span> area models (LAMs) used in operational NWP and regional climate modeling use the Davies (Q J R Meteorol Soc 102:405-418, 1976) relaxation lateral boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span> (LBCs), even though they make no effort to respect the basic mathematics of the problem. While in the early stages of the primitive equation LAM development in the seventies numerous schemes have been proposed and tested, LAM communities have eventually for the most part settled on the relaxation LBCs with few questions asked. An exception is the Eta model used extensively at NCEP and several other centers, in which the Mesinger (Contrib Atmos Phys 50:200-210, 1977) LBCs are used, designed and based on knowledge available before the introduction of the relaxation scheme. They prescribe variables along the outermost row of grid points only; all of them at the inflow points and one less at the outflow points where the tangential velocity components are extrapolated from inside of the model domain. Additional schemes are in place to suppress separation of gravity-wave solutions on C-subgrids of the model's E-grid. A recent paper of Veljovic et al. (Meteor Zeitschrift 19:237-246, 2010) included three 32-day forecasts done with both the Eta and the relaxation LBCs and the comparison of some of their verification results. Here we extend this experiment by three additional forecasts to arrive at an ensemble of six members run with both schemes, and present a more complete discussion of results. We in addition show results of one of these forecasts in which the linear change of relaxation coefficients was replaced by the change following the recommendation of Lehmann (Meteorol Atmos Phys 52:1-14, 1993). We feel that the results of our two verification schemes strongly suggest the advantage of the Eta over the conventional relaxation scheme, thereby raising doubts as to the justification for its use.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mesinger, Fedor; Veljovic, Katarina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3272860"> <span id="translatedtitle">Good <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health and Diet</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An unhealthy diet has been implicated as risk factors for several chronic diseases that are known to be associated with <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases. Studies investigating the relationship between <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases and diet are <span class="hlt">limited</span>. Therefore, this study was conducted to describe the relationship between healthy eating habits and <span class="hlt">oral</span> health status. The dentistry has an important role in the diagnosis of <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases correlated with diet. Consistent nutrition guidelines are essential to improve health. A poor diet was significantly associated with increased odds of <span class="hlt">oral</span> disease. Dietary advice for the prevention of <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases has to be a part of routine patient education practices. Inconsistencies in dietary advice may be linked to inadequate training of professionals. Literature suggests that the nutrition training of dentists and <span class="hlt">oral</span> health training of dietitians and nutritionists is <span class="hlt">limited</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scardina, G. A.; Messina, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24664504"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aerobactin mediates virulence and accounts for increased siderophore production under iron-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> by hypervirulent (hypermucoviscous) Klebsiella pneumoniae.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hypervirulent (hypermucoviscous) Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) strains are an emerging variant of "classical" K. pneumoniae (cKP) that cause organ and life-threatening infection in healthy individuals. An understanding of hvKP-specific virulence mechanisms that enabled evolution from cKP is <span class="hlt">limited</span>. Observations by our group and previously published molecular epidemiologic data led us to hypothesize that hvKP strains produced more siderophores than cKP strains and that this trait enhanced hvKP virulence. Quantitative analysis of 12 hvKP strains in iron-poor minimal medium or human ascites fluid showed a significant and distinguishing 6- to 10-fold increase in siderophore production compared to that for 14 cKP strains. Surprisingly, high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-mass spectrometry and characterization of the hvKP strains hvKP1, A1142, and A1365 and their isogenic aerobactin-deficient (?iucA) derivatives established that aerobactin accounted for the overwhelming majority of increased siderophore production and that this was not due to gene copy number. Further, aerobactin was the primary factor in <span class="hlt">conditioned</span> medium that enhanced the growth/survival of hvKP1 in human ascites fluid. Importantly the ex vivo growth/survival of hvKP1 ?iucA was significantly less than that of hvKP1 in human ascites fluid, and the survival of outbred CD1 mice challenged subcutaneously or intraperitoneally with hvKP1 was significantly less than that of mice challenged with hvKP1 ?iucA. The lowest subcutaneous and intraperitoneal challenge inocula of 3 × 10(2) and 3.2 × 10(1) CFU, respectively, resulted in 100% mortality, demonstrating the virulence of hvKP1 and its ability to cause infection at a low dose. These data strongly support that aerobactin accounts for increased siderophore production in hvKP compared to cKP (a potential defining trait) and is an important virulence factor. PMID:24664504</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Russo, Thomas A; Olson, Ruth; Macdonald, Ulrike; Metzger, Daniel; Maltese, Lauren M; Drake, Eric J; Gulick, Andrew M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24947100"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tolerance and toxicity of neoadjuvant docetaxel, cisplatin and 5 fluorouracil regimen in technically unresectable <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer in resource <span class="hlt">limited</span> rural based tertiary cancer center.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Recent studies indicate neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) can result in R0 resection in a substantial proportion of patients with technically unresectable <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity cancers. However, data regarding the efficacy and safety of docetaxel, cisplatin and 5 fluorouracil (TPF) NACT in our setting is lacking. The present audit was proposed to evaluate the toxicities encountered during administration of this regimen. It was hypothesized that TPF NACT would be considered feasible for routine administration if an average relative dose intensity (ARDI) of ?0.90 or more in at least 70% of the patients. Materials and Methods: Technically unresectable <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancers with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS 0-2, with biopsy proven squamous cell carcinoma underwent two cycles of NACT with TPF regimen. Toxicity and response rates were noted following the CTCAE 4.03 and RECIST criteria. Descriptive analysis of completion rates (completing 2 cycles of planned chemotherapy with ARDI of 0.85 or more), reason for delay, toxicity, and response are presented. Results: The NACT was completed by all patients. The number of subjects who completed all planned cycles of chemotherapy are with the ARDI of the delivered chemotherapy been equal to or >0.85 was 11 (91.67%). All toxicity inclusive Grade 3-5 toxicity was seen in 11 patients (91.67%). The response rate of chemotherapy was 83.33%. There were three complete response, seven partial response, and two stable disease seen post NACT in this study. Conclusion: Docetaxel, cisplatin and 5 fluorouracil regimen can be routinely administered at our center with the supportive care methods and precautionary methods used in our study. PMID:24947100</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patil, V M; Chakraborty, S; Shenoy, P K; Manuprasad, A; Sajith Babu, T P; Shivkumar, T; Babu, S; Bhatterjee, A; Balasubramanian, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23072195"> <span id="translatedtitle">Compounded <span class="hlt">oral</span> ketamine.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The nonnarcotic nonaddictive neuropathic pain reliever ketamine, which was synthesized in the early 1960s by Parke-Davis, was first administered to human patients in 1965. Used by the U. S. military as a field anesthetic during the Vietnam War, it slowly became popular as both an induction and maintenance agent for the general anesthesia required during brief surgical procedures. The use of ketamine in the past has been <span class="hlt">limited</span> primarily to intravenous administration in hospitalized patients. Very recently, several published reports have described the use of low-dose ketamine for the relief of pain, refractory depression, and anxiety in patients with or without cancer. Because chronic pain, depression, and anxiety often occur in hospice patients with or without cancer and in palliative care patients who are not eligible for hospice, the discovery of new and effective uses for an established drug to treat those <span class="hlt">conditions</span> has excited interest in the palliative care community. We support that interest with this case report, which describes our experience in treating a 44-year-old male hospice patient with severe constant anxiety, fear, and depression in addition to multiple near-terminal comorbid physical <span class="hlt">conditions</span> that produce chronic pain. Prior treatments prescribed to resolve this patient's pain, anxiety, and depression had proven ineffective. However, a single low-dose (0.5 mg/kg) subcutaneous test injection of ketamine provided dramatic relief from those symptoms for 80 hours, although the anesthetic effects of that drug are not of long duration. This good outcome has been sustained to date by daily treatment with a compounded flavored <span class="hlt">oral</span> ketamine solution (40 mg/5 mL) that is not commercially available. Flavoring the solution masks the bitter taste of ketamine and renders the treatment palatable. We found ketamine to be a well-tolerated and effective treatment for the triad of severe anxiety, chronic pain, and severe depression in a hospice patient with multiple comorbid <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. To our knowledge, this report chronicles the first use of compounded <span class="hlt">oral</span> ketamine for home-based palliative or hospice care in Louisiana. A formulation for a flavored <span class="hlt">oral</span> ketamine solution is provided for easy reference. PMID:23072195</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McNulty, Jack P; Hahn, Kristian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/x6215r5t7v8h2l7x.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Approaches to <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Nutrition Health Risk Assessment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> health plays a significant role in overall and nutritional health. This role becomes increasingly important for patients\\u000a with <span class="hlt">oral</span> or medical illness, patients with physical <span class="hlt">limitations</span> that affect chewing ability, and patients who take medications\\u000a that affect immune surveillance, <span class="hlt">oral</span> ecology, and <span class="hlt">oral</span> physiology. The primary focus of this chapter is to describe approaches\\u000a to <span class="hlt">oral</span> nutrition and diet</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Riva Touger-Decker; David A. Sirois</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=168362"> <span id="translatedtitle">Competition for cellulose among three predominant ruminal cellulolytic bacteria under substrate-excess and substrate-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three predominant ruminal cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1, and Ruminococcus albus 7) were grown in different binary combinations to determine the outcome of competition in either cellulose-excess batch culture or in cellulose-<span class="hlt">limited</span> continuous culture. Relative populations of each species were estimated by using signature membrane-associated fatty acids and/or 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Both F. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens coexisted in cellulose-excess batch culture with similar population sizes (58 and 42%, respectively; standard error, 12%). By contrast, under cellulose <span class="hlt">limitation</span> R. flavefaciens predominated (> 96% of total cell mass) in coculture with F. succinogenes, regardless of whether the two strains were inoculated simultaneously or whether R. flavefaciens was inoculated into an established culture of F. succinogenes. The predominance of R. flavefaciens over F. succinogenes under cellulose <span class="hlt">limitation</span> is in accord with the former's more rapid adherence to cellulose and its higher affinity for cellodextrin products of cellulose hydrolysis. In batch cocultures of F. succinogenes and R. albus, the populations of the two species were similar. However, under cellulose <span class="hlt">limitation</span>, F. succinogenes was the predominant strain (approximately 80% of cell mass) in cultures simultaneously coinoculated with R. albus. The results from batch cocultures of R. flavefaciens and R. albus were not consistent within or among trials: some experiments yielded monocultures of R. albus (suggesting production of an inhibitory agent by R. albus), while others contained substantial populations of both species. Under cellulose <span class="hlt">limitation</span>, R. flavefaciens predominated over R. albus (85 and 15%, respectively), as would be expected by the former's greater adherence to cellulose. The retention of R. albus in the cellulose-<span class="hlt">limited</span> coculture may result from a combination of its ability to utilize glucose (which is not utilizable by R. flavefaciens), its demonstrated ability to adapt under selective pressure in the chemostat to utilization of lower concentrations of cellobiose, a major product of cellulose hydrolysis, and its possible production of an inhibitory agent.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shi, Y; Odt, C L; Weimer, P J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" 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href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-02-24/pdf/2011-4072.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 10213 - Special <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>: Embraer Model EMB-135BJ (Legacy 650) Airplanes, <span class="hlt">Limit</span> Engine Torque Loads for...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...but severe seizure events, these criteria could allow some deformation in the engine- supporting structure (ultimate load design...adjacent supporting airframe structure. 5. Any permanent deformation that results from the <span class="hlt">conditions</span> specified in Special...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/22909153"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous removal of organic substances and nitrogen using amembrane bioreactor seeded with anaerobic granular sludge under oxygen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An innovative process, the oxygen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> membrane bioreactor seeded with anaerobic granular sludge, wasproposed and its performance investigated for concurrent removal of organic substances and nitrogen from synthetic domestic wastewaters. An air diffuser was installed just above the granular sludge bed to supply air to the reactor at an intermittent mode. The internal recycle from the upper part of the reactor</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li-Bing Chu; Xing-Wen Zhang; Xiaohui Li; Feng-Lin Yang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED285625.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Project BEST Program and Curriculum Review: Bilingual Vocational Training in Heating, Refrigeration and Air <span class="hlt">Conditioning</span> for <span class="hlt">Limited</span> English Proficiency Students.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A description is provided of Project BEST (Building Energy Systems Technology), bilingual vocational training program offered to speakers of Spanish and Polish through Oakton College's adult continuing education program. Part I of the report provides a program overview, indicating that Project BEST teaches <span class="hlt">limited</span> English proficient students the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pankratz, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3177673"> <span id="translatedtitle">No evidence of carbon <span class="hlt">limitation</span> with tree age and height in Nothofagus pumilio under Mediterranean and temperate climate <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background and Aims Trees universally decrease their growth with age. Most explanations for this trend so far support the hypothesis that carbon (C) gain becomes <span class="hlt">limited</span> with age; though very few studies have directly assessed the relative reductions of C gain and C demand with tree age. It has also been suggested that drought enhances the effect of C gain <span class="hlt">limitation</span> in trees. Here tests were carried out to determine whether C gain <span class="hlt">limitation</span> is causing the growth decay with tree age, and whether drought accentuates its effect. Methods The balance between C gain and C demand across tree age and height ranges was estimated. For this, the concentration of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in stems and roots of trees of different ages and heights was measured in the deciduous temperate species Nothofagus pumilio. An ontogenetic decrease in NSCs indicates support for C <span class="hlt">limitation</span>. Furthermore, the importance of drought in altering the C balance with ontogeny was assessed by sampling the same species in Mediterranean and humid climate locations in the southern Andes of Chile. Wood density (WD) and stable carbon isotope ratios (?13C) were also determined to examine drought constraints on C gain. Key Results At both locations, it was effectively found that tree growth ultimately decreased with tree age and height. It was found, however, that NSC concentrations did not decrease with tree age or height when WD was considered, suggesting that C <span class="hlt">limitation</span> is not the ultimate mechanism causing the age/height-related declining tree growth. ?13C decreased with tree age/height at the Mediterranean site only; drought effect increased with tree age/height, but this pattern was not mirrored by the levels of NSCs. Conclusions The results indicate that concentrations of C storage in N. pumilio trees do not decrease with tree age or height, and that reduced C assimilation due to summer drought does not alter this pattern.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Piper, Frida I.; Fajardo, Alex</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3303528"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> pyogenic granuloma: Various concepts of etiopathogenesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pyogenic granuloma or granuloma pyogenicum is a well-known <span class="hlt">oral</span> lesion. The name pyogenic granuloma is a misnomer since the <span class="hlt">condition</span> is not associated with pus and does not represent a granuloma histologically. Pyogenic granuloma of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity is known to involve the gingiva commonly. Extragingivally, it can occur on the lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, palate, and the like. A history of trauma is common in such sites. The etiology of the lesion is not known, though it was originally believed to be a botryomycotic infection. It is theorized that pyogenic granuloma possibly originates as a response of tissues to minor trauma and/or chronic irritation, thus opening a pathway for invasion of nonspecific microorganisms, although microorganisms are seldom demonstrated within the lesion. Pathogenesis of pyogenic granuloma is still debatable. Medline and PubMed databases were searched under the following key terms: Pathogenesis of <span class="hlt">oral</span> pyogenic granuloma, pyogenic granuloma, and <span class="hlt">oral</span> pyogenic granuloma. This search was <span class="hlt">limited</span> to articles on human/animal studies which were published in English language. After reviewing the searched articles, the relevant articles were selected for the present review. Through this article, we have tried to summarize and present all the concepts of pathogenesis related to this most common and most mysterious <span class="hlt">oral</span> lesion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kamal, Reet; Dahiya, Parveen; Puri, Abhiney</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB243009"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimating <span class="hlt">Limiting</span> Risk Levels from <span class="hlt">Orally</span> Ingested DDT and Dieldrin Using an Up-Dated Version of the Mantel-Bryan Procedure.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mathematical extrapolations of the upper <span class="hlt">limits</span> on risk of cancer at various low levels of exposure to dieldrin and DDT are presented. The statistical model used is that described by Mantel, et al., Cancer Research, 35, 865-872, 1975, the so-called 'updat...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. Mantel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20043056"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> submucous fibrosis in a young patient.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A seventeen-year-old male presented with a restriction in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. The <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa was white and he could not protrude his tongue. For 4 years he had habitually held a powdery material containing betel nut in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> vestibule for several minutes a day. A biopsy of the labial mucosa was carried out and a diagnosis of <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis was confirmed. This is a premalignant <span class="hlt">condition</span>. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> submucous fibrosis is very rare in young patients. PMID:20043056</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yazdanpanah, Mohammad Javad; Banihashemi, Mahnaz; Pezeshkpoor, Fakhrozaman; Famili, Soroor; Layegh, Pouran; Katebi, Mehrdad; Hamidi, Hamid</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3118891"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discriminative ability of the generic and <span class="hlt">condition</span>-specific Child-<span class="hlt">Oral</span> Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP) by the Limpopo-Arusha School Health (LASH) Project: A cross-sectional study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Generic and <span class="hlt">condition</span>-specific (CS) <span class="hlt">oral</span>-health-related quality-of-life (OHRQoL) instruments assess the impacts of general <span class="hlt">oral</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and specific <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases. Focusing schoolchildren from Arusha and Dar es Salaam, in Tanzania, this study compared the discriminative ability of the generic Child OIDP with respect to dental caries and periodontal problems across the study sites. Secondly, the discriminative ability of the generic-and the CS Child OIDP attributed to dental caries, periodontal problems and malocclusion was compared with respect to various <span class="hlt">oral</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> as part of a construct validation. Methods In Arusha, 1077 school children (mean age 14.9 years, range 12-17 years) and 1601 school children in Dar es Salaam (mean age 13.0 years, range 12-14 years) underwent <span class="hlt">oral</span> clinical examinations and completed the Kiswahili version of the generic and CS Child-OIDP inventories. The discriminative ability was assessed as differences in overall mean and prevalence scores between groups, corresponding effect sizes and odd ratios, OR. Results The differences in the prevalence scores and the overall mean generic Child-OIDP scores were significant between the groups with (DMFT > 0) and without (DMFT = 0) caries experience and with (simplified <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene index [OHI-S] > 1) and without periodontal problems (OHI-S ? 1) in Arusha and Dar es Salaam. In Dar es Salaam, differences in the generic and CS Child-OIDP scores were observed between the groups with and without dental caries, differences in the generic Child-OIDP scores were observed between the groups with and without periodontal problems, and differences in the CS Child-OIDP scores were observed between malocclusion groups. The adjusted OR for the association between dental caries and the CS Child-OIDP score attributed to dental caries was 5.4. The adjusted OR for the association between malocclusion and CS Child-OIDP attributed to malocclusion varied from 8.8 to 2.5. Conclusion The generic Child-OIDP discriminated equally well between children with and without dental caries and periodontal problems across socio-culturally different study sites. Compared with its generic form, the CS Child-OIDP discriminated most strongly between children with and without dental caries and malocclusion. The CS Child OIDP attributed to dental caries and malocclusion seems to be better suited to support clinical indicators when estimating <span class="hlt">oral</span> health needs among school children in Tanzania.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16048553"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> tolerance.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by <span class="hlt">oral</span> antigen. Low doses favor active suppression, whereas higher doses favor clonal anergy/deletion. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> antigen induces T-helper 2 [interleukin (IL)-4/IL-10] and Th3 [transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta] T cells plus CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells and latency-associated peptide+ T cells. Induction of <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance is enhanced by IL-4, IL-10, anti-IL-12, TGF-beta, cholera toxin B subunit, Flt-3 ligand, and anti-CD40 ligand. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> (and nasal) antigen administration suppresses animal models of autoimmune diseases including experimental autoimmune encephalitis, uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis, and diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, plus non-autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, graft rejection, allergy, colitis, stroke, and models of Alzheimer's disease. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> tolerance has been tested in human autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS), arthritis, uveitis, and diabetes and in allergy, contact sensitivity to dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), and nickel allergy. Although positive results have been observed in phase II trials, no effect was observed in phase III trials of CII in rheumatoid arthritis or <span class="hlt">oral</span> myelin and glatiramer acetate (GA) in MS. Large placebo effects were observed, and new trials of <span class="hlt">oral</span> GA are underway. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> insulin has recently been shown to delay onset of diabetes in at-risk populations, and confirmatory trials of <span class="hlt">oral</span> insulin are being planned. Mucosal tolerance is an attractive approach for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases because of lack of toxicity, ease of administration over time, and antigen-specific mechanisms of action. The successful application of <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance for the treatment of human diseases will depend on dose, developing immune markers to assess immunologic effects, route (nasal versus <span class="hlt">oral</span>), formulation, mucosal adjuvants, combination therapy, and early therapy. PMID:16048553</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Faria, Ana M C; Weiner, Howard L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JCrGr.338..267V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental study of the kinetically-<span class="hlt">limited</span> decomposition of ZnGeAs 2 and its role in determining optimal <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for thin film growth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To understand the thermochemistry and determine the rate <span class="hlt">limiting</span> steps of ZnGeAs 2 thin-film synthesis, experiments were performed to measure the (a) thermal decomposition rate and (b) elemental composition and deposition rate of films produced with pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The decomposition rate is kinetically <span class="hlt">limited</span> with an activation energy of 1.08±0.05 eV and an evaporation coefficient of ˜10 -3. We show that ZnGeAs 2 thin film synthesis is a metastable process with the kinetically-<span class="hlt">limited</span> decomposition rate playing a dominant role at the elevated temperatures needed to attain epitaxy. Our conclusions are in contrast to those of earlier reports that assumed the growth rate is <span class="hlt">limited</span> by desorption and the resulting low reactant sticking coefficient. The thermochemical analysis presented here can be used to predict optimal <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for ZnGeAs 2 film physical vapor deposition and thermal processing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vahidi, M.; Tang, Z. Z.; Tucker, J.; Peshek, T. J.; Zhang, L.; Kopas, C.; Singh, R. K.; van Schilfgaarde, M.; Newman, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSV...333..962N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Singular inextensible <span class="hlt">limit</span> in the vibrations of post-buckled rods: Analytical derivation and role of boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In-plane vibrations of an elastic rod clamped at both extremities are studied. The rod is modeled as an extensible planar Kirchhoff elastic rod under large displacements and rotations. Equilibrium configurations and vibrations around these configurations are computed analytically in the incipient post-buckling regime. Of particular interest is the variation of the first mode frequency as the load is increased through the buckling threshold. The loading type is found to have a crucial importance as the first mode frequency is shown to behave singularly in the zero thickness <span class="hlt">limit</span> in the case of prescribed axial displacement, whereas a regular behavior is found in the case of prescribed axial load.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Neukirch, Sébastien; Goriely, Alain; Thomas, Olivier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3327310"> <span id="translatedtitle">Centrosome misorientation mediates slowing of the cell cycle under <span class="hlt">limited</span> nutrient <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in Drosophila male germline stem cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Drosophila male germline stem cells (GSCs) divide asymmetrically, balancing self-renewal and differentiation. Although asymmetric stem cell division balances between self-renewal and differentiation, it does not dictate how frequently differentiating cells must be produced. In male GSCs, asymmetric GSC division is achieved by stereotyped positioning of the centrosome with respect to the stem cell niche. Recently we showed that the centrosome orientation checkpoint monitors the correct centrosome orientation to ensure an asymmetric outcome of the GSC division. When GSC centrosomes are not correctly oriented with respect to the niche, GSC cell cycle is arrested/delayed until the correct centrosome orientation is reacquired. Here we show that induction of centrosome misorientation upon culture in poor nutrient <span class="hlt">conditions</span> mediates slowing of GSC cell proliferation via activation of the centrosome orientation checkpoint. Consistently, inactivation of the centrosome orientation checkpoint leads to lack of cell cycle slowdown even under poor nutrient <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. We propose that centrosome misorientation serves as a mediator that transduces nutrient information into stem cell proliferation, providing a previously unappreciated mechanism of stem cell regulation in response to nutrient <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roth, Therese M.; Chiang, C.-Y. Ason; Inaba, Mayu; Yuan, Hebao; Salzmann, Viktoria; Roth, Caitlin E.; Yamashita, Yukiko M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JNuM..415S.579P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span> at the <span class="hlt">limiter</span> surface obtained in the modelling of plasma wall interaction with a penalization technique</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Isoardi et al. [1] recently proposed a penalization technique to model solid plasma facing components that treats a solid obstacle as a sink region corresponding to the strong plasma recombination in the solid state material. A major advantage of this approach is that it produces a system that can be solved in an obstacle free domain, thus allowing the use of powerful numerical algorithms. Such a technique implemented in a minimal transport model for ionic density and parallel momentum appeared to exhibit a Mach-1 transition at the boundary layer between the plasma presheath and the <span class="hlt">limiter</span> region. In this paper, we reconsider this result by analysing the physics of detached plasmas that are governed both by strong recombination and plasma pressure decrease, as imposed by the penalization technique within the <span class="hlt">limiter</span> region. The analysis provides a unique control parameter A=?csmi/? (? being the parallel particles flux, cs the sound speed, mi the ionic mass and ? the total plasma pressure) that allows one to understand the results of the penalization technique for the Mach-1 transition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paredes, A.; Serre, E.; Isoardi, L.; Chiavassa, G.; Ciraolo, G.; Schwander, F.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Sarazin, Y.; Tamain, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3354786"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis in children</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis is a rare <span class="hlt">condition</span> in humans and is associated with poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene, severe halitosis, mouth breathing during sleep, mental handicap, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and other <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. In this report, a 14 year-old boy who had an orofacial trauma in the maxillary dentoalveolar region,which was neglected, has been described. There was a deep lacerated wound on the upper vestibule which was infected and maggots were found on the same wound. The clinical features, management, treatment are discussed and relevant literature is reviewed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reddy, M. H. Raghunath; Das, Nagarajappa; Vivekananda, M. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7548621"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> leukoplakia.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Leukoplakia has evolved as a clinico-pathologic concept over many years, with the current clinical designation being accepted worldwide. Reflective of the biology of leukoplakia is the concept of cellular atypia and epithelial dysplasia. Adding to a better understanding of leukoplakia in general has been the definition of relevant clinical subsets which, in some cases, includes etiology (snuff), while in other cases a verrucous clinical appearance will suggest a more aggressive anticipated behavior pattern. Tobacco usage, in many of its forms, remains the prime etiologic factor; however, other considerations also apply. More recently, the potential etiologic role of Candida albicans has been stressed, as well as its possible role in carcinogenesis. So-called <span class="hlt">oral</span> hairy leukoplakia has been defined in relation to a possible Epstein-Barr viral infection, usually in the immunosuppressed patient. Other viruses, human papilloma virus in particular, have been implicated in leukoplakia, while genetic alterations involving tumor suppressor elements (p53) have also been investigated. Finally, the management of this common <span class="hlt">condition</span> remains a variable and includes local, topical, and systemic therapies such as anti-oxidants, carotenoids, and retinoids. PMID:7548621</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sciubba, J J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18804192"> <span id="translatedtitle">The corrective effects of warning on false memories in the DRM paradigm are <span class="hlt">limited</span> to full attention <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Effects of attention control and forewarning on the activation and monitoring of experimentally induced false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm were investigated in a young adult sample (N=77). We found that reducing the degree of attention during encoding led to a decrease in veridical recall and an increase in non-presented critical lure intrusions. This effect could not be counteracted by a forewarning instruction. However, these findings did not emerge in a (retrieval supportive) recognition task. It seems that divided attention increases false recall when attention control and forewarning have to compete for <span class="hlt">limited</span> cognitive resources in a generative free recall as opposed to a retrieval supportive recognition task. Forewarning instructions do not always protect young adults against experimentally induced false memories. PMID:18804192</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peters, Maarten J V; Jelicic, Marko; Gorski, Benny; Sijstermans, Kevin; Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983PhyA..117....1D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Two-dimensional random walk description of fluid flow in the presence of a wall: The origin of stick versus slip boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in the continuum <span class="hlt">limit</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is shown how a fairly simple random walk on a lattice provides insight into the nature of hydrodynamic boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. In a flow parallel to the boundary, collisions of up and downward moving particles induce lateral bulk diffusion. At the wall the model accounts essentially for 1) specular reflection, 2) diffuse reflection and 3) trapping at the surface. The steady state is solved exactly. In the continuum <span class="hlt">limit</span> the case of stick versus slip boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span> is explained in its relation to the interplay of bulk and boundary processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dekker, H.; Oppenheim, I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22526495"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nitrogen availability impacts oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plant water status and proline production efficiency under water-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Large amounts of nitrogen (N) fertilizers are used in the production of oilseed rape. However, as low-input methods of crop management are introduced crops will need to withstand temporary N deficiency. In temperate areas, oilseed rape will also be affected by frequent drought periods. Here we evaluated the physiological and metabolic impact of nitrate <span class="hlt">limitation</span> on the oilseed rape response to water deprivation. Different amounts of N fertilizer were applied to plants at the vegetative stage, which were then deprived of water and rehydrated. Both water and N depletion accelerated leaf senescence and reduced leaf development. N-deprived plants exhibited less pronounced symptoms of wilting during drought, probably because leaves were smaller and stomata were partially closed. Efficiency of proline production, a major stress-induced diversion of nitrogen metabolism, was assessed at different positions along the whole plant axis and related to leaf developmental stage and water status indices. Proline accumulation, preferentially in younger leaves, accounted for 25-85% of the free amino acid pool. This was mainly due to a better capacity for proline synthesis in fully N-supplied plants whether they were subjected to drought or not, as deduced from the expression patterns of the proline metabolism BnP5CS and BnPDH genes. Although less proline accumulated in the oldest leaves, a significant amount was transported from senescing to emerging leaves. Moreover, during rehydration proline was readily recycled. Our results therefore suggest that proline plays a significant role in leaf N remobilization and in N use efficiency in oilseed rape. PMID:22526495</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Albert, Benjamin; Le Cahérec, Françoise; Niogret, Marie-Françoise; Faes, Pascal; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Leport, Laurent; Bouchereau, Alain</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3209400"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Receptor Binding Mutants with <span class="hlt">Limited</span> Receptor Recognition Properties and <span class="hlt">Conditional</span> Replication Characteristics?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To examine the range of selective processes that potentially operate when poorly binding influenza viruses adapt to replicate more efficiently in alternative environments, we passaged a virus containing an attenuating mutation in the hemagglutinin (HA) receptor binding site in mice and characterized the resulting mutants with respect to the structural locations of mutations selected, the replication phenotypes of the viruses, and their binding properties on glycan microarrays. The initial attenuated virus had a tyrosine-to-phenylalanine mutation at HA1 position 98 (Y98F), located in the receptor binding pocket, but viruses that were selected contained second-site pseudoreversion mutations in various structural locations that revealed a range of molecular mechanisms for modulating receptor binding that go beyond the scope that is generally mapped using receptor specificity mutants. A comparison of virus titers in the mouse respiratory tract versus MDCK cells in culture showed that the mutants displayed distinctive replication properties depending on the system, but all were less attenuated in mice than the Y98F virus. An analysis of receptor binding properties confirmed that the initial Y98F virus bound poorly to several different species of erythrocytes, while all mutants reacquired various degrees of hemagglutination activity. Interestingly, both the Y98F virus and pseudoreversion mutants were shown to bind very inefficiently to standard glycan microarrays containing an abundance of binding substrates for most influenza viruses that have been characterized to date, provided by the Consortium for Functional Glycomics. The viruses were also examined on a recently developed microarray containing glycans terminating in sialic acid derivatives, and <span class="hlt">limited</span> binding to a potentially interesting subset of glycans was revealed. The results are discussed with respect to mechanisms for HA-mediated receptor binding, as well as regarding the species of molecules that may act as receptors for influenza virus on host cell surfaces.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bradley, Konrad C.; Galloway, Summer E.; Lasanajak, Yi; Song, Xuezheng; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Yu, Hai; Chen, Xi; Talekar, Ganesh R.; Smith, David F.; Cummings, Richard D.; Steinhauer, David A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3722713"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention of <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic, progressive, potentially malignant <span class="hlt">condition</span> affecting the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity and frequently involving the upper part of the aerodigestive tract including the oropharynx and the upper part of the esophagus. It is characterized by juxtaepithelial inflammatory reaction and progressive fibrosis of lamina propria, leading to stiffening of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa eventually causing trismus. This <span class="hlt">condition</span> is associated with significant morbidity and high risk of malignancy. Over the years, several drugs and combinations have been tried for the treatment of submucous fibrosis, but with <span class="hlt">limited</span> success, because of its unclear molecular pathogenesis. Till date, there are no known effective treatments for OSF. The aim of this article is to emphasize on the molecular changes taking place in OSF and possible therapeutic interventions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoithapprabhunath, Thukanaykanpalayam Ragunathan; Maheswaran, Thangadurai; Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Anusushanth, Abraham; Sindhuja, Pandian; Sitra, Govindasamy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23946584"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention of <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic, progressive, potentially malignant <span class="hlt">condition</span> affecting the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity and frequently involving the upper part of the aerodigestive tract including the oropharynx and the upper part of the esophagus. It is characterized by juxtaepithelial inflammatory reaction and progressive fibrosis of lamina propria, leading to stiffening of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa eventually causing trismus. This <span class="hlt">condition</span> is associated with significant morbidity and high risk of malignancy. Over the years, several drugs and combinations have been tried for the treatment of submucous fibrosis, but with <span class="hlt">limited</span> success, because of its unclear molecular pathogenesis. Till date, there are no known effective treatments for OSF. The aim of this article is to emphasize on the molecular changes taking place in OSF and possible therapeutic interventions. PMID:23946584</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoithapprabhunath, Thukanaykanpalayam Ragunathan; Maheswaran, Thangadurai; Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Anusushanth, Abraham; Sindhuja, Pandian; Sitra, Govindasamy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16340903"> <span id="translatedtitle">[The spermiological <span class="hlt">limits</span> to ART].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spermatic <span class="hlt">limitations</span> impairing IVF results exist. Globozoospermia is a severe form of teratozoospermia characterized by round-headed sperm with an absence of acrosome. This morphologic abnormality should decrease fertilization failure. Sperm DNA fragmentation is known to compromise male fertility. Furthermore previous findings have suggested the implication of oxidative stress in the aetiology of this pathological <span class="hlt">condition</span>. Other studies have indicated that abnormally low parameters of sperm DNA integrity and sperm membrane integrity correlate to reduced fertility due in part to implantation disorders. Sperm DNA damage should be efficiently treated with <span class="hlt">oral</span> antioxidants. Moreover, testicular sperm for use in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) should be injected without delay. PMID:16340903</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barrière, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23075585"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> feeding.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Early nutrition can help to improve energy and protein intake and decrease the negative impact of the metabolic response to surgery. A key goal is to identify patients who exhibit increased respiration risk before beginning <span class="hlt">oral</span> alimentation. Once a simple bedside 3-oz (90 ml) challenge, or early intervention in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> care, administered by a trained provider is passed, specific diet recommendations can be made safely and confidently without the need for further objective dysphagia testing. Gastrointestinal motility disorders occur as part of the pathophysiology of diseases and critical illness, or are a result of medication therapies or enteral feeding complications. Inadequate energy intake in the first 7 days following extubation have recently been described. It would be highly beneficial to determine when it is best to initiate timely <span class="hlt">oral</span> alimentation for recovering extubated intensive care unit (ICU) and more specifically surgical ICU patients to support the maintenance and rebuilding of lean body mass, maintain hydration, and permit the ingestion of <span class="hlt">oral</span> medications. In a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted in 18 Spanish ICUs, within the scope of the 2007 European Nutrition Day, only 95 of 348 investigated patients (27.3%) received <span class="hlt">oral</span> nutritional support. Constipation and diarrhea were common adverse effects. Unexpectedly, however, constipation episodes were more frequent than diarrhea in the patients not receiving <span class="hlt">oral</span> nutritional support. PMID:23075585</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alvárez-Falcón, Ana; Ruiz-Santana, Sergio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24811140"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rapid post-<span class="hlt">oral</span> stimulation of intake and flavor <span class="hlt">conditioning</span> in rats by glucose but not a non-metabolizable glucose analog.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mice adapted to drink a flavored saccharin solution (CS-) paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of water rapidly increase their intake of a new flavored solution (CS+) that is paired with IG glucose self-infusions. The present study extends this method to examine post-<span class="hlt">oral</span> glucose appetition in rats. Food-restricted rats were trained to consume a CS- flavor (e.g., grape saccharin) paired with IG water in 5 daily 1-h tests. In the next 3 tests, they drank a CS+ (e.g., cherry saccharin) paired with IG glucose. Rats infused with 8% glucose increased intake significantly on CS+ Test 1, but those infused with 16% glucose showed only a small increase in intake, which may reflect a counteracting satiating effect. Both groups further increased CS+ intakes in Tests 2 and 3, and preferred (81%) the CS+ to the CS- in a two-bottle test without infusions. A second experiment investigated rats' responses to IG alpha-methyl-d-glucopyranoside (MDG), a non-metabolizable sugar analog which stimulates CS+ intake and preference in mice. The rats reduced their intake of the MDG-paired CS+ flavor over sessions, and preferred the CS- to the CS+ in the choice test. The glucose data show that rats, like mice, rapidly detect the sugar's positive post-<span class="hlt">oral</span> effects that can stimulate intake within the first hour of exposure. The MDG avoidance may indicate a greater sensitivity to its post-<span class="hlt">oral</span> inhibitory effects in rats than in mice, or perhaps slower clearance of MDG in rats. The test protocol described here can be used to investigate the peripheral and central processes involved in stimulation of intake by post-<span class="hlt">oral</span> nutrients in rats. PMID:24811140</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1448188"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of cytology and molecular biology in diagnosing premalignant or malignant <span class="hlt">oral</span> lesions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Early detection of a premalignant or cancerous <span class="hlt">oral</span> lesion promises to improve the survival and the morbidity of patients suffering from these <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Cytological study of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cells is a non-aggressive technique that is well accepted by the patient, and is therefore an attractive option for the early diagnosis of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer, including epithelial atypia and squamous cell carcinoma. However its usage has been <span class="hlt">limited</span> so far due to poor sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing <span class="hlt">oral</span> malignancies. Lately it has re-emerged due to improved methods and it's application in <span class="hlt">oral</span> precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. Newer diagnostic techniques such as "brush biopsy" and molecular studies have been developed. Recent advances in cytological techniques and novel aspects of applications of scraped or exfoliative cytology for detecting these lesions and predicting their progression or recurrence are reviewed here.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mehrotra, Ravi; Gupta, Anurag; Singh, Mamta; Ibrahim, Rahela</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9852012"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physiological role for the GlnK protein of enteric bacteria: relief of NifL inhibition under nitrogen-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In Klebsiella pneumoniae, NifA-dependent transcription of nitrogen fixation (nif) genes is inhibited by a flavoprotein, NifL, in the presence of molecular oxygen and/or combined nitrogen. We recently demonstrated that the general nitrogen regulator NtrC is required to relieve NifL inhibition under nitrogen (N)-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. We provide evidence that the sole basis for the NtrC requirement is its role as an activator of transcription for glnK, which encodes a PII-like allosteric effector. Relief of NifL inhibition is a unique physiological function for GlnK in that the structurally related GlnB protein of enteric bacteria-apparently a paralogue of GlnK-cannot substitute. Unexpectedly, although covalent modification of GlnK by uridylylation normally occurs under N-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, several lines of evidence indicate that uridylylation is not required for relief of NifL inhibition. When GlnK was synthesized constitutively from non-NtrC-dependent promoters, it was able to relieve NifL inhibition in the absence of uridylyltransferase, the product of the glnD gene, and under N excess <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Moreover, an altered form of GlnK, GlnKY51N, which cannot be uridylylated due to the absence of the requisite tyrosine, was still able to relieve NifL inhibition. PMID:9852012</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">He, L; Soupene, E; Ninfa, A; Kustu, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16362827"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coordinated expression and immunogenicity of an outer membrane protein from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi under iron <span class="hlt">limitation</span>, oxidative stress and anaerobic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Successful pathogens overcome the environmental stresses by the coordinated expression of various genes and eventually proteins. Since, the surface of the microbe is likely to come in contact with the host initially, an attempt was made to identify the outer membrane proteins (OMPs), if any, which may get expressed under more than one environmental <span class="hlt">conditions</span> simulating the in vivo ones. In the present study, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was grown under iron-<span class="hlt">limited</span>, oxidative stress as well as anaerobic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and the OMP profiles were compared. A 69 kDa OMP was found to express with enhanced intensity under the selected stress <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in comparison to normal <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. The phenotypic similarity among the proteins was assessed on the basis of their molecular weight, cross reactivity and HPLC. The protein expressed under oxidative stress and anaerobic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> reacted with the antibodies raised against iron-regulated outer membrane protein (IROMP), indicating the sharing of at least some of the epitopes. A single peak observed after subjecting the pooled 69 kDa protein sample and appearance of a single band on SDS-PAGE thereafter, confirmed the purity and phenotypic similarity of the 69 kDa OMP. Reactivity of pooled 69 kDa protein with 85% of sera from typhoid patients revealed the in vivo expression of this protein. The results of this study indicate the coordination of this phenotype under iron stress, oxidative stress and anaerobic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. In view of the expression of the 69 kDa protein under the selected stress <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and their in vivo immunogenicity, these findings may be relevant for the better understanding of the host-microbe interactions and for the further development of diagnostic and preventive strategies. PMID:16362827</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chanana, V; Majumdar, S; Ray, P; Sharma, M; Rishi, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23803630"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Oral</span> ecosystem in elderly people].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mouth is a complex natural cavity which constitutes the initial segment of the digestive tract. It is an essential actor of the vital functions as nutrition, language, communication. The whole mouth (teeth, periodontium, mucous membranes, tongue) is constantly hydrated and lubricated by the saliva. At any age, a balance becomes established between the bacterial proliferations, the salivary flow, the adapted tissular answer: it is the <span class="hlt">oral</span> ecosystem. The regulation of this ecosystem participates in the protection of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> complex against current inflammatory and infectious pathologies (caries, gingivitis, periodontitis, candidiasis). In elderly, the modification of the salivary flow, the appearance of specific pathologies (root caries, edentulism, periodontitis), the local <span class="hlt">conditions</span> (removable dentures), the development of general pathologies, the development of general pathologies (diabetes, hypertension, immunosuppression, the insufficient <span class="hlt">oral</span> care are so many elements which are going to destabilize the <span class="hlt">oral</span> ecosystem, to favor the formation of the dental plaque and to weaken <span class="hlt">oral</span> tissues. The preservation of this ecosystem is essential for elderly: it allows to eat in good <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and so to prevent the risks of undernutrition. The authors describe the <span class="hlt">oral</span> physiopathology (<span class="hlt">oral</span> microflora, salivary secretion) and the strategies to be adopted to protect the balance of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> ecosystem in geriatric population. PMID:23803630</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lacoste-Ferré, Marie-Hélène; Hermabessière, Sophie; Jézéquel, Fabienne; Rolland, Yves</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4071825"> <span id="translatedtitle">Over-expression of the Arabidopsis proton-pyrophosphatase AVP1 enhances transplant survival, root mass, and fruit development under <span class="hlt">limiting</span> phosphorus <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phosphorus (P), an element required for plant growth, fruit set, fruit development, and fruit ripening, can be deficient or unavailable in agricultural soils. Previously, it was shown that over-expression of a proton-pyrophosphatase gene AVP1/AVP1D (AVP1DOX) in Arabidopsis, rice, and tomato resulted in the enhancement of root branching and overall mass with the result of increased mineral P acquisition. However, although AVP1 over-expression also increased shoot biomass in Arabidopsis, this effect was not observed in tomato under phosphate-sufficient <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. AVP1DOX tomato plants exhibited increased rootward auxin transport and root acidification compared with control plants. AVP1DOX tomato plants were analysed in detail under <span class="hlt">limiting</span> P <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in greenhouse and field trials. AVP1DOX plants produced 25% (P=0.001) more marketable ripened fruit per plant under P-deficient <span class="hlt">conditions</span> compared with the controls. Further, under low phosphate <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, AVP1DOX plants displayed increased phosphate transport from leaf (source) to fruit (sink) compared to controls. AVP1DOX plants also showed an 11% increase in transplant survival (P<0.01) in both greenhouse and field trials compared with the control plants. These results suggest that selection of tomato cultivars for increased proton pyrophosphatase gene expression could be useful when selecting for cultivars to be grown on marginal soils.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Haibing; Zhang, Xiao; Gaxiola, Roberto A.; Xu, Guohua; Peer, Wendy Ann; Murphy, Angus S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24723407"> <span id="translatedtitle">Over-expression of the Arabidopsis proton-pyrophosphatase AVP1 enhances transplant survival, root mass, and fruit development under <span class="hlt">limiting</span> phosphorus <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phosphorus (P), an element required for plant growth, fruit set, fruit development, and fruit ripening, can be deficient or unavailable in agricultural soils. Previously, it was shown that over-expression of a proton-pyrophosphatase gene AVP1/AVP1D (AVP1DOX) in Arabidopsis, rice, and tomato resulted in the enhancement of root branching and overall mass with the result of increased mineral P acquisition. However, although AVP1 over-expression also increased shoot biomass in Arabidopsis, this effect was not observed in tomato under phosphate-sufficient <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. AVP1DOX tomato plants exhibited increased rootward auxin transport and root acidification compared with control plants. AVP1DOX tomato plants were analysed in detail under <span class="hlt">limiting</span> P <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in greenhouse and field trials. AVP1DOX plants produced 25% (P=0.001) more marketable ripened fruit per plant under P-deficient <span class="hlt">conditions</span> compared with the controls. Further, under low phosphate <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, AVP1DOX plants displayed increased phosphate transport from leaf (source) to fruit (sink) compared to controls. AVP1DOX plants also showed an 11% increase in transplant survival (P<0.01) in both greenhouse and field trials compared with the control plants. These results suggest that selection of tomato cultivars for increased proton pyrophosphatase gene expression could be useful when selecting for cultivars to be grown on marginal soils. PMID:24723407</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Haibing; Zhang, Xiao; Gaxiola, Roberto A; Xu, Guohua; Peer, Wendy Ann; Murphy, Angus S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3671512"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of Propolis on Hygiene, Gingival <span class="hlt">Condition</span>, and <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Microflora in Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate Treated with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 3% ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) on hygiene, gingival and microbiological status of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity in patients with cleft lip and palate treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. The study included forty-one nonsyndromic complete unilateral of bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects with fixed appliance on at least 10 teeth. Twenty-one subjects were instructed to brush their teeth three times a day using toothpaste with propolis. Control group included twenty subjects who were asked to brush their teeth three times a day using a toothpaste without propolis. API, OPI, GI, and supragingival bacterial plaque were taken from each subject twice: baseline and after using the toothpaste for 35 days. The final examinations showed statistically significant decrease in OPI, GI, and the percentage of the Actinomyces spp. and Capnocytophaga spp. compared with baseline in propolis group subjects. The improvement in <span class="hlt">oral</span> health in these patients confirms antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative properties of propolis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Machorowska-Pieniazek, Agnieszka; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Krol, Wojciech</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3298125"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of the Proteomic Profiles of the Brown Tide Alga Aureoumbra lagunensis under Phosphate- and Nitrogen-<span class="hlt">Limiting</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> and of Its Phosphate <span class="hlt">Limitation</span>-Specific Protein with Alkaline Phosphatase Activity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The persistent bloom of the brown tide alga Aureoumbra lagunensis has been reported in coastal embayments along southern Texas, but the molecular mechanisms that sustain such algal bloom are unknown. We compared the proteome and physiological parameters of A. lagunensis grown in phosphate (P)-depleted, P- and nitrogen (N)-depleted, and nutrient-replete cultures. For the proteomic analysis, samples from three <span class="hlt">conditions</span> were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Because of the paucity of genomic resources in this species, a de novo cross-species protein search was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins, which revealed their involvement in several key biological processes, such as chlorophyll synthesis, antioxidative protection, and protein degradation, suggesting that A. lagunensis may adopt intracellular nutrient compensation, extracellular organic nutrient regeneration, and damage protection to thrive in P-depleted environments. A highly abundant P <span class="hlt">limitation</span>-specific protein, tentatively identified as a putative alkaline phosphatase, was further characterized by enzyme activity assay on nondenaturing gel and confocal microscopy, which confirmed that this protein has alkaline phosphatase activity, is a cytoplasmic protein, and is closely associated with the cell membrane. The abundance, location, and functional expression of this alkaline phosphatase all indicate the importance of organic P utilization for A. lagunensis under P <span class="hlt">limitation</span> and the possible role of this alkaline phosphatase in regenerating phosphate from extra- or intracellular organic phosphorus.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sun, Ming-Ming; Sun, Jin; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Jing, Hongmei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/imagegallery/oralhealth/OralWarts.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Warts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Title: <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Warts Description: Warts are small, white, gray, or pinkish rough bumps that look like cauliflower. They can appear inside the lips and on other parts of the mouth. Credit: NIDCR publication: Mouth Problems + HIV Download: Low-Resolution Image High- ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/oralcancer.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... t heal Bleeding in your mouth Loose teeth Problems or pain with swallowing A lump in your neck An earache <span class="hlt">Oral</span> cancer treatments may include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some patients have a combination of treatments. NIH: National Cancer Institute</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2219108"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Tumours</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors of this article review briefly the anatomy of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> soft tissues and describe the more common benign and malignant tumours of the mouth, giving emphasis to their clinical features. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lecavalier, D.R.; Main, J.H.P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48508275"> <span id="translatedtitle">Strategies in <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Immunization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Development of mucosal vaccine delivery system is an important area for improving public health. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> vaccines have large\\u000a implications for rural and remote populations since the access to trained medical staff to administer vaccines by injection\\u000a is <span class="hlt">limited</span>. New mucosal vaccine strategies are focused on development of non-replicating subunit vaccines, DNA, plant, and\\u000a other types of recombinant vaccines. The conjugation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pavla Simerska; Peter Moyle; Colleen Olive; Istvan Toth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4044857"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phycobilisome-Deficient Strains of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Have Reduced Size and Require Carbon-<span class="hlt">Limiting</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> to Exhibit Enhanced Productivity1[W][OPEN</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reducing excessive light harvesting in photosynthetic organisms may increase biomass yields by <span class="hlt">limiting</span> photoinhibition and increasing light penetration in dense cultures. The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 harvests light via the phycobilisome, which consists of an allophycocyanin core and six radiating rods, each with three phycocyanin (PC) discs. Via targeted gene disruption and alterations to the promoter region, three mutants with two (pcpcT?C) and one (?CpcC1C2:pcpcT?C) PC discs per rod or lacking PC (olive) were generated. Photoinhibition and chlorophyll levels decreased upon phycobilisome reduction, although greater penetration of white light was observed only in the PC-deficient mutant. In all strains cultured at high cell densities, most light was absorbed by the first 2 cm of the culture. Photosynthesis and respiration rates were also reduced in the ?CpcC1C2:pcpcT?C and olive mutants. Cell size was smaller in the pcpcT?C and olive strains. Growth and biomass accumulation were similar between the wild-type and pcpcT?C under a variety of <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Growth and biomass accumulation of the olive mutant were poorer in carbon-saturated cultures but improved in carbon-<span class="hlt">limited</span> cultures at higher light intensities, as they did in the ?CpcC1C2:pcpcT?C mutant. This study shows that one PC disc per rod is sufficient for maximal light harvesting and biomass accumulation, except under <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of high light and carbon <span class="hlt">limitation</span>, and two or more are sufficient for maximal oxygen evolution. To our knowledge, this study is the first to measure light penetration in bulk cultures of cyanobacteria and offers important insights into photobioreactor design.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lea-Smith, David J.; Bombelli, Paolo; Dennis, John S.; Scott, Stuart A.; Smith, Alison G.; Howe, Christopher J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cdc.gov/OralHealth/oral_health_disparities/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Disparities in <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Site Index Share Compartir Disparities in <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health <span class="hlt">Oral</span> health disparities are profound in the United ... individual's ability to get and keep dental insurance. Disparities in <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Some of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> health disparities that exist ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3884884"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparative Study of <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Isotretinoin Versus <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Isotretinoin + 20% Salicylic Acid Peel in the Treatment of Active Acne</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Acne is a self <span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">condition</span> that often results in scarring and disfigurement disproportionate to its clinical severity. Isotretinoin is considered the gold standard in the medical management of severe form of acne vulgaris. Salicyclic acid (SA) peels, a ?- hydroxy acid peel has got sebosuppressive effect and helps in faster resolution of acne with minimal scarring. It also decreases the post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Combining both the modalities is usually not advocated because of expected excessive dryness and irritation Aims: To compare the efficacy of <span class="hlt">oral</span> isotretinoin and <span class="hlt">oral</span> isotretinoin with 20% SA peels in patients with moderate to severe acne. Materials and Methods: 60 consecutive patients with moderate to severe facial acne attending the skin department were randomized in to 2 groups. 1st group received 20mg <span class="hlt">oral</span> isotretinoin once daily for 16 weeks and 2nd group received 20mg <span class="hlt">oral</span> isotretinoin once daily along with 20% SA peels every two weeks for 16 weeks. Baseline grading of acne was done with Michelsons Acne severity index (MASI).Right and left sides of the face were scored separately and total score was taken. Severity score was assessed monthly .Clinical photographs were obtained for evaluation every month. Patients were asked to follow up once every 2 weeks or earlier in case of any adverse events. Results: Patients in both the groups revealed a reduction in the number of lesions. The 1st group showed a reduction of approximately 73.4% after receiving 20mg <span class="hlt">oral</span> isotretinoin for 16 weeks. The 2nd group showed a reduction of approximately 92.5 % after receiving 20mg <span class="hlt">oral</span> isotretinoin along with 20% SA peel once every 2 weeks for 16 weeks. Conclusion: Both <span class="hlt">oral</span> isotretinoin and combination of <span class="hlt">oral</span> isotretinoin with 20% SA peels once every 2 weeks are effective in treating moderate to severe acne but the combination showed significantly better clearance of acne than monotherapy with isotretinoin.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kar, Bikash Ranjan; Tripathy, Sanjita; Panda, Maitreyee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3295535"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Haemangioma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Vascular anomalies comprise a widely heterogeneous group of tumours and malformations. Haemangioma is the most common benign tumour of vascular origin of the head and neck region. The possible sites of occurrence in <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity are lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate. Despite its benign origin and behaviour, it is always of clinical importance to the dental profession and requires appropriate management. This case study reports a rare case of capillary haemangioma on the palatal gingiva in a 14-year-old female.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gill, Jaspreet Singh; Gill, Sharanjeet; Bhardwaj, Amit; Grover, Harpreet Singh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24650215"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of <span class="hlt">oral</span> appliances that advanced the mandible forward and <span class="hlt">limited</span> mouth opening in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> appliances (OAs) have demonstrated efficacy in treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but many different OA devices are available. The Japanese Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine supported the use of OAs that advanced the mandible forward and <span class="hlt">limited</span> mouth opening and suggested an evaluation of their effects in comparison with untreated or CPAP. A systematic search was undertaken in 16 April 2012. The outcome measures of interest were as follows: Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI), lowest SpO2 , arousal index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the SF-36 Health Survey. We performed this meta-analysis using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Five studies remained eligible after applying the exclusion criteria. Comparing OA and control appliance, OA significantly reduced the weighted mean difference (WMD) in both AHI and the arousal index (favouring OA, AHI: -7·05 events h(-1) ; 95% CI, -12·07 to -2·03; P = 0·006, arousal index: -6·95 events h(-1) ; 95% CI, -11·75 to -2·15; P = 0·005). OAs were significantly less effective at reducing the WMD in AHI and improving lowest SpO2 and SF-36 than CPAP, (favouring OA, AHI: 6·11 events h(-1) ; 95% CI, 3·24 to 8·98; P = 0·0001, lowest SpO2 : -2·52%; 95% CI, -4·81 to -0·23; P = 0·03, SF-36: -1·80; 95% CI, -3·17 to -042; P = 0·01). Apnea Hypopnea Index and arousal index were significantly improved by OA relative to the untreated disease. Apnea Hypopnea Index, lowest SpO2 and SF-36 were significantly better with CPAP than with OA. The results of this study suggested that OAs improve OSA compared with untreated. CPAP appears to be more effective in improving OSA than OAs. PMID:24650215</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Okuno, K; Sato, K; Arisaka, T; Hosohama, K; Gotoh, M; Taga, H; Sasao, Y; Hamada, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4006880"> <span id="translatedtitle">Functional Characterization of the Rice UDP-glucose 4-epimerase 1, OsUGE1: A Potential Role in Cell Wall Carbohydrate Partitioning during <span class="hlt">Limiting</span> Nitrogen <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plants grown under inadequate mineralized nitrogen (N) levels undergo N and carbon (C) metabolic re-programming which leads to significant changes in both soluble and insoluble carbohydrate profiles. However, relatively little information is available on the genetic factors controlling carbohydrate partitioning during adaptation to N-<span class="hlt">limitation</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in plants. A gene encoding a uridine-diphospho-(UDP)-glucose 4-epimerase (OsUGE-1) from rice (Oryza sativa) was found to be N-responsive. We developed transgenic rice plants to constitutively over-express the OsUGE-1 gene (OsUGE1-OX1–2). The transgenic rice lines were similar in size to wild-type plants at the vegetative stage and at maturity regardless of the N-level tested. However, OsUGE1-OX lines maintained 18–24% more sucrose and 12–22% less cellulose in shoots compared to wild-type when subjected to sub-optimal N-levels. Interestingly, OsUGE1-OX lines maintained proportionally more galactose and glucose in the hemicellulosic polysaccharide profile of plants compared to wild-type plants when grown under low N. The altered cell wall C-partitioning during N-<span class="hlt">limitation</span> in the OsUGE1-OX lines appears to be mediated by OsUGE1 via the repression of the cellulose synthesis associated genes, OsSus1, OsCesA4, 7, and 9. This relationship may implicate a novel control point for the deposition of UDP-glucose to the complex polysaccharide profiles of rice cell walls. However, a direct relationship between OsUGE1 and cell wall C-partitioning during N-<span class="hlt">limitation</span> requires further investigation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guevara, David R.; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Yaish, Mahmoud W.; Mei-Bi, Yong; Rothstein, Steven J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20966083"> <span id="translatedtitle">FdC1, a novel ferredoxin protein capable of alternative electron partitioning, increases in <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of acceptor <span class="hlt">limitation</span> at photosystem I.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In higher plants, [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin (Fd) proteins are the unique electron acceptors from photosystem I (PSI). Fds are soluble, and distribute electrons to many enzymes, including Fd:NADP(H) reductase (FNR), for the photoreduction of NADP(+). In addition to well studied [2Fe-2S] Fd proteins, higher plants also possess genes for significantly different, as yet uncharacterized Fd proteins, with extended C termini (FdCs). Whether these FdC proteins function as photosynthetic electron transfer proteins is not known. We examined whether these proteins play a role as alternative electron acceptors at PSI, using quantitative RT-PCR to follow how their expression changes in response to acceptor <span class="hlt">limitation</span> at PSI, in mutant Arabidopsis plants lacking 90-95% of photosynthetic [2Fe-2S] Fd. Expression of the gene encoding one FdC protein, FdC1, was identified as being strongly up-regulated. We confirmed that this protein was chloroplast localized and increased in abundance on PSI acceptor <span class="hlt">limitation</span>. We purified the recombinant FdC1 protein, which exhibited a UV-visible spectrum consistent with a [2Fe-2S] cluster, confirmed by EPR analysis. Measurements of electron transfer show that FdC1 is capable of accepting electrons from PSI, but cannot support photoreduction of NADP(+). Whereas FdC1 was capable of electron transfer with FNR, redox potentiometry showed that it had a more positive redox potential than photosynthetic Fds by around 220 mV. These results indicate that FdC1 electron donation to FNR is prevented because it is thermodynamically unfavorable. Based on our data, we speculate that FdC1 has a specific function in <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of acceptor <span class="hlt">limitation</span> at PSI, and channels electrons away from NADP(+) photoreduction. PMID:20966083</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Voss, Ingo; Goss, Tatjana; Murozuka, Emiko; Altmann, Bianca; McLean, Kirsty J; Rigby, Stephen E J; Munro, Andrew W; Scheibe, Renate; Hase, Toshiharu; Hanke, Guy T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14693265"> <span id="translatedtitle">Failure of a schedule-induction procedure to increase ethanol intake in an established <span class="hlt">limited</span>-access self-administration <span class="hlt">condition</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Determining mechanisms that can increase ethanol consumption during a single drinking bout is central to understanding alcohol abuse. When rodents are used as models to study excessive drinking, most often <span class="hlt">limited</span> and transient increases in bout size are found with various manipulations. In a variety of studies, investigators have reported that schedule-induced drinking can result in excessive consumption of either water or alcohol (ethanol) during a single drinking period in food-restricted rats. The question examined in this experiment was, Could a schedule-induction paradigm increase bout size in nondeprived rats already self-administering ethanol? After the rats were trained to self-administer a 10% (volume/volume) ethanol solution in a fixed daily drinking session, non-response-contingent presentation of a 10% (weight/volume) sucrose solution, on a fixed-time, 120-s schedule, was used to determine whether additional ethanol consumption could be induced. This was followed by the use of a fixed-time, 300-s schedule and then, by using the fixed-time, 120-s schedule, with the presentation of a 2% (weight/volume) sucrose solution. None of these <span class="hlt">conditions</span> induced an increase in ethanol self-administration. The results indicate that factors that control ethanol bout size in the nondeprived rat are such that the standard schedule-induction <span class="hlt">condition</span> seems to be ineffective if an ethanol bout has occurred in the recent past. PMID:14693265</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Samson, Herman H; Chappell, Ann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3153044"> <span id="translatedtitle">Growth of Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 in Thiosulfate Under Oxygen-<span class="hlt">Limiting</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Generates Extracellular Sulfur Globules by Means of a Secreted Tetrathionate Hydrolase</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Production of sulfur globules during sulfide or thiosulfate oxidation is a characteristic feature of some sulfur bacteria. Although their generation has been reported in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, its mechanism of formation and deposition, as well as the physiological significance of these globules during sulfur compounds oxidation, are currently unknown. Under oxygen-sufficient <span class="hlt">conditions</span> (OSC), A. ferrooxidans oxidizes thiosulfate to tetrathionate, which accumulates in the culture medium. Tetrathionate is then oxidized by a tetrathionate hydrolase (TTH) generating thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, and sulfate as final products. We report here a massive production of extracellular conspicuous sulfur globules in thiosulfate-grown A. ferrooxidans cultures shifted to oxygen-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> (OLC). Concomitantly with sulfur globule deposition, the extracellular concentration of tetrathionate greatly diminished and sulfite accumulated in the culture supernatant. A. ferrooxidans cellular TTH activity was negligible in OLC-incubated cells, indicating that this enzymatic activity was not responsible for tetrathionate disappearance. On the other hand, supernatants from both OSC- and OLC-incubated cells showed extracellular TTH activity, which most likely accounted for tetrathionate consumption in the culture medium. The extracellular TTH activity described here: (i) gives experimental support to the TTH-driven model for hydrophilic sulfur globule generation, (ii) explains the extracellular location of A. ferrooxidans sulfur deposits, and (iii) strongly suggests that the generation of sulfur globules in A. ferrooxidans corresponds to an early step during its adaptation to an anaerobic lifestyle.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beard, Simon; Paradela, Alberto; Albar, Juan P.; Jerez, Carlos A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3377505"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Appliances for Obstructive Sleep Apnea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Executive Summary Objective The objective of this review was to determine the clinical effectiveness of <span class="hlt">oral</span> appliances compared to ‘no treatment’, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), or surgery for the management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Clinical Need: <span class="hlt">Condition</span> and Target Population OSA is characterized by repeated occurrences of upper airway collapse and obstruction during sleep. The <span class="hlt">condition</span> leads to excessive daytime sleepiness, diminished quality of life, and increased risks of accidents, cardiovascular disease and death. In the general population, the prevalence of OSA is estimated to be 4% in men and 2% in women. Risk factors for OSA include obesity, male gender, increasing age, alcohol use, sedative use, and a family history of OSA. Description of <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Appliances <span class="hlt">Oral</span> appliances for OSA fall into two broad categories: mandibular advancement splints (MAS), also known as mandibular repositioning devices, and tongue repositioning or retaining devices. The aim of MAS devices is to advance the mandible forward slightly to enlarge the upper airway and prevent it from collapsing. Similarly, tongue repositioning devices suction the tongue forward to prevent it from falling back and obstructing the airway during sleep. The alternatives to <span class="hlt">oral</span> appliances include continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices, surgery, drug therapy, positional devices, and lifestyle modification. CPAP is the gold standard of treatment, but despite its effectiveness, compliance rates for CPAP have declined because required systems are noisy and because wearing the mask can be uncomfortable, causing claustrophobia in some users. Evidence-Based Analysis Methods Research Questions Are <span class="hlt">oral</span> appliances effective in improving sleep-disordered breathing in patients with OSA compared to alternative treatments? Are there safety concerns with <span class="hlt">oral</span> appliances? What is the evidence regarding patient preference, quality of life, and compliance for <span class="hlt">oral</span> appliances? If effective, are <span class="hlt">oral</span> appliances cost effective? Literature Search A literature search was conducted up to February 2009. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with more than 20 adults with OSA were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcomes of interest were the Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI), measures of daytime sleepiness, patient preference, compliance, and adverse events. Summary of Findings Five systematic reviews and 16 RCTs that met the inclusion criteria were identified. The systematic reviews consistently concluded that CPAP was more effective than <span class="hlt">oral</span> appliances at improving sleep disordered breathing, although there may be a niche area for the latter, especially among those with mild OSA as CPAP is difficult to tolerate by some users. Based on the results of the RCTs analyzed for this review, MAS devices are less effective than CPAP when AHI is used as the outcome of interest. MAS devices were shown to decrease AHI levels, but whether this reduction is clinically meaningful is uncertain. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was not able to achieve statistical significance in comparisons of MAS versus CPAP and MAS versus placebo. Nonetheless, after treatment with either MAS or CPAP, patients seem to be able to achieve normal ESS levels. The ESS has substantial <span class="hlt">limitations</span> including its subjective nature and low construct validity (i.e. it is unclear if the scale is an accurate measure of sleepiness). Adverse events among patients with MAS devices in the RCTs were common, but mostly mild and transient. Jaw discomfort was the most commonly reported adverse event. Based on the results of the RCTs, compliance does not seem to be better or worse with MAS or CPAP. Similarly, there is no clear patient preference for MAS or CPAP among the studies reporting preference and satisfaction. Keywords Obstructive sleep apnea, <span class="hlt">oral</span> appliances, mandibular advancement splints, tongue repositioning devices</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24678188"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemoprevention of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer: Green tea experience.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> cancer has a well characterized progression from premalignant <span class="hlt">oral</span> epithelial changes to invasive cancer, making <span class="hlt">oral</span> squamous cell carcinoma an optimal disease for chemoprevention interventions prior to malignant transformation. The primary goal of chemoprevention here is to reverse, suppress, or inhibit the progression of premalignant lesions to cancer. Due to the extended duration of <span class="hlt">oral</span> pathogenesis, its chemoprevention using natural products has been found promising due to their decreased dose and <span class="hlt">limited</span> toxicity profiles. This review discusses with an emphasis on the clinical trials using green tea extract (GTE) in chemoprevention of <span class="hlt">oral</span> premalignant lesions along with use of GTE as a chemopreventive agent in various other cancers as well. It is worthwhile to include green tea extract in an <span class="hlt">oral</span> screening program for evaluating the premalignant lesions comparing the results between the treated and untreated group. Given the wide acceptance of green tea, its benefits may help in effective chemoprevention <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer. PMID:24678188</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi; Krishnamurthy, Arvind</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59266792"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recalling <span class="hlt">Oral</span> and Written Discourse</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We prescribed an expository text in two versions that varied in difficulty. The text was presented either <span class="hlt">orally</span> or under one of two reading <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, a normal reading or a moving window <span class="hlt">condition</span>. The subjects were business trainees whose main communication experience was in either written or spoken communication. Immediately after presentation of the text, we asked the subjects to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gert Rickheit; Hans Strohner; Jochen Müsseler; Dieter Nattkemper</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.psych.rwth-aachen.de/ifp-zentral/upload/muesseler/Publ/1987RiStMtJEP.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recalling <span class="hlt">oral</span> and written discourse</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We prescribed an expository text in two versions that varied in difficulty. The text was presented either <span class="hlt">orally</span> or under one of two reading <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, a normal reading or a moving window <span class="hlt">condition</span>. The subjects were business trainees whose main communication experience was in either written or spoken communication. Immediately after presentation of the text, we asked the subjects to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gert Rickheit; Hans Strohner; Jochen Miisseler; Dieter Nattkemper</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4035829"> <span id="translatedtitle">Protein expression and transcription profiles of three strains of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida under normal and iron-<span class="hlt">limited</span> culture <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Aeromonas salmonicida is an important fish pathogen that produces a wide and varied array of virulence factors. Here we used iron deprivation by addition of the chelator 2’2-dipyridyl to induce the expression of several such virulence factors in three isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida (one avirulent and two virulent). By using SDS-PAGE followed by mass spectrometry, we identified proteins that appeared differentially expressed under these <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. The differential transcription of the identified gene products were subsequently measured by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Results Our initial screening using SDS-PAGE identified five proteins that appeared differentially expressed in virulent and avirulent isolates or, within the same isolates, between bacteria cultivated under iron-rich or iron-deprived <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. The transcription of the genes coding for these proteins were subsequently quantified by RT-qPCR. Results of this analysis demonstrated that the gene coding for alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC), a protein involved in oxidative stress response, was transcribed at a higher rate in the virulent strain as compared to the avirulent strain. Additionally, it was observed that addition of an iron chelator to the culture medium lead to a reduction of the transcription levels of the regulatory histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS). This was consistent in all three isolates. On the other hand, the transcription levels of the virulence array protein (VapA) and the protein ATP-synthetase F (ATPF) displayed only <span class="hlt">limited</span> changes, despite being the dominant component of a protein fraction that displayed changes during the preliminary SDS-PAGE screening. This was true regardless of the culture <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and of the isolates considered. Finally, transcription of the enzyme enolase was upregulated in the iron-deprived broths in all isolates. Conclusions We identified several genes differentially expressed under culture <span class="hlt">conditions</span> known to lead to the overexpression of virulence factors. In addition, we identified alkyl hydroperoxide as being overexpressed in the virulent isolates compared to the avirulent isolates. The results from this study will contribute to enhance our understanding of the virulence of A. salmonicida and may suggest new directions for further research.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23789933"> <span id="translatedtitle">Raisins and <span class="hlt">oral</span> health.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Traditionally, raisins have been thought to promote dental caries due to their suspected "stickiness" and sugar content. Current research identifies some evidence contrary to traditional thought, suggesting that raisins may not contribute to dental caries. This article reviews new findings with regards to raisins and the 3 <span class="hlt">conditions</span> that are thought to contribute to the formation of dental caries; low <span class="hlt">oral</span> pH, adherence of food to teeth, and biofilm (bacterial) behavior. The studies reviewed concluded that raisin: consumption alone does not drop <span class="hlt">oral</span> pH below the threshold that contributes to enamel dissolution, do not remain on the teeth longer than other foods, and contain a variety of antioxidants that inhibit Streptococcus Mutans, bacteria that is a primary cause of dental caries. Further research in this area should be considered. PMID:23789933</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wong, Allen; Young, Douglas A; Emmanouil, Dimitris E; Wong, Lynne M; Waters, Ashley R; Booth, Mark T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000011419&hterms=iphone&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Diphone"> <span id="translatedtitle">Initial Piloted Simulation Evaluation of the Reference-H High-Speed Civil Transport Design During Takeoff and Recovery From <span class="hlt">Limit</span> Flight <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An initial assessment of a proposed High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) was conducted in the fall of 1995 at the NASA Langley Research Center. This configuration, known as the Industry Reference-H (Ref.-H), was designed by the Boeing Aircraft Company as part of their work in the High Speed Research program. It included a conventional tail, a cranked-arrow wing, four mixed-flow turbofan engines, and capacity for transporting approximately 300 passengers. The purpose of this assessment was to evaluate and quantify operational aspects of the Reference-H configuration from a pilot's perspective with the additional goal of identifying design strengths as well as any potential configuration deficiencies. This study was aimed at evaluating the Ref.-H configuration at many points of the aircraft's envelope to determine the suitability of the vehicle to accomplish typical mission profiles as well as emergency or envelope-<span class="hlt">limit</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Pilot-provided Cooper-Harper ratings and comments constituted the primary vehicle evaluation metric. The analysis included simulated real-time piloted evaluations, performed in a 6 degree of freedom motion base NASA Langley Visual-Motion Simulator, combined with extensive bath analysis. The assessment was performed using the third major release of the simulation data base (known as Ref.-H cycle 2B).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Glaab, Louis J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24387769"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metabolic and transcriptomic response of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain EC1118 after an oxygen impulse under carbon-sufficient, nitrogen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> fermentative <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During alcoholic fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to continuously changing environmental <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, such as decreasing sugar and increasing ethanol concentrations. Oxygen, a critical nutrient to avoid stuck and sluggish fermentations, is only discretely available throughout the process after pump-over operation. In this work, we studied the physiological response of the wine yeast S. cerevisiae strain EC1118 to a sudden increase in dissolved oxygen, simulating pump-over operation. With this aim, an impulse of dissolved oxygen was added to carbon-sufficient, nitrogen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> anaerobic continuous cultures. Results showed that genes related to mitochondrial respiration, ergosterol biosynthesis, and oxidative stress, among other metabolic pathways, were induced after the oxygen impulse. On the other hand, mannoprotein coding genes were repressed. The changes in the expression of these genes are coordinated responses that share common elements at the level of transcriptional regulation. Beneficial and detrimental effects of these physiological processes on wine quality highlight the dual role of oxygen in 'making or breaking wines'. These findings will facilitate the development of oxygen addition strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations. PMID:24387769</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Orellana, Marcelo; Aceituno, Felipe F; Slater, Alex W; Almonacid, Leonardo I; Melo, Francisco; Agosin, Eduardo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23989967"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pharmacokinetics of desmopressin administered as tablet and <span class="hlt">oral</span> lyophilisate formulation in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Desmopressin 120 ?g <span class="hlt">oral</span> lyophilisate and 200 ?g tablet are considered bioequivalent, based on extrapolation of studies in a <span class="hlt">limited</span> number of adults and on one dose-finding study of desmopressin <span class="hlt">oral</span> lyophilisate in children. However, no comparative pharmacokinetic study in children was executed confirming this statement. No data are available on the influence of food intake on the bioavailability of desmopressin tablet in a pediatric setting, although studies in adults have documented that food intake results in a significantly lower desmopressin plasma concentration. In this study, we analyzed plasma concentrations of desmopressin <span class="hlt">oral</span> lyophilisate and tablet with concomitant food intake. Twenty-three children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (mean age, 12.7 years) were recruited. Two tests were performed on two separate days in identical <span class="hlt">conditions</span> with a standardized food and fluid intake. Desmopressin was administered as desmopressin tablet or desmopressin <span class="hlt">oral</span> lyophilisate immediately after a meal. Desmopressin plasma concentration was measured at 1 h, 2 h, and 6 h postdosing. No significant difference in plasma concentration of 120 ?g desmopressin <span class="hlt">oral</span> lyophilisate and 200 ?g tablet was demonstrated, even with concomitant food intake. A significant difference in variability was found, identifying a smaller variance for desmopressin <span class="hlt">oral</span> lyophilisate plasma concentrations at all time points. This study demonstrates comparable plasma levels for desmopressin <span class="hlt">oral</span> lyophilisate, despite the lower dose. The dosage for desmopressin <span class="hlt">oral</span> lyophilisate is more predictable due to the significantly smaller variance. Therefore, desmopressin <span class="hlt">oral</span> lyophilisate seems more suitable, especially in the younger age group for which time interval between dinner and drug administration is <span class="hlt">limited</span>. PMID:23989967</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">De Bruyne, Pauline; De Guchtenaere, Ann; Van Herzeele, Charlotte; Raes, Ann; Dehoorne, Jo; Hoebeke, Piet; Van Laecke, Erik; Vande Walle, Johan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/xt6g85581354833k.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Investigation into the Influence of Experimental <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> on In Vitro Drug Release from Immediate-Release Tablets of Levothyroxine Sodium and Its Relation to <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Bioavailability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of experimental <span class="hlt">conditions</span> on levothyroxine sodium release from two\\u000a immediate-release tablet formulations which narrowly passed the standard requirements for bioequivalence studies. The in vivo study was conducted as randomised, single-dose, two-way cross-over pharmacokinetic study in 24 healthy subjects. The in vitro study was performed using various dissolution media, and obtained</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ivana Kocic; Irena Homsek; Mirjana Dacevic; Jelena Parojcic; Branislava Miljkovic</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.astrobio.net/index.php?option=com_exclusive&task=detail&id=578"> <span id="translatedtitle">Life's <span class="hlt">Limit</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dr. Rocco Mancinelli of the SETI Institute is featured in this web article discussing the environmental <span class="hlt">limits</span> to life including extreme life forms that can thrive in harsh <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of salt, pressure, temperature and pH, but share a common theme of needing liquid water. Links to related websites and astrobiology stories, the NASA Astrobiology Institute, and the Ames Astrobiology portal can also be accessed through this page.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mancinelli, Rocco; Magazine, Astrobiology</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7229409"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> rehydration therapy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The management of diarrhea is mostly dependent on parenteral administration of fluids and electrolytes, yet for the majority of India's population such facilities are practically unavailable. In addition there are several serious <span class="hlt">limitations</span> to the use of this technique. These include prohibitive cost, the fact that it can only be administered by trained personnel, and that it brings undue distress to both patients and parents. Such procedures should be reserved only for those patients who have severe dehydration, impending shock, electrolyte imbalance, or persistent vomiting. For the others, the majority, <span class="hlt">oral</span> rehydration therapy should be the treatment of choice. The implementation of <span class="hlt">oral</span> rehydration therapy in the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Calcutta alone, has resulted in an annual saving of much money. Another benefit is that the family members can participate in the therapy and can continue it at home. The process of water and solute absorption is accelerated in the presence of glucose and sodium, and its effectiveness has been proven and documented. There are various types of <span class="hlt">oral</span> multi-electrolyte-glucose powders available in India. The mixture recommended by the World Health Organization seems to be the most suitable, and this mixture can be prepared at home by the addition of 3-1/2 grams of common salt, 2-1/2 grams of baking soda, 1-1/2 grams of potassium chloride, and 20 grams of glucose in 1 liter of water. Instructions for the use of <span class="hlt">oral</span> rehydration therapy are outlined, and other types of rehydration therapy are described. PMID:7229409</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jain, A; Khatri, P C; Jain, S; Yadav, S P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-09-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4008927"> <span id="translatedtitle">Switch over from intravenous to <span class="hlt">oral</span> therapy: A concise overview</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Majority of the patients admitted to a hospital with severe infections are initially started with intravenous medications. Short intravenous course of therapy for 2-3 days followed by <span class="hlt">oral</span> medications for the remainder of the course is found to be beneficial to many patients. This switch over from intravenous to <span class="hlt">oral</span> therapy is widely practiced in the case of antibiotics in many developed countries. Even though intravenous to <span class="hlt">oral</span> therapy conversion is inappropriate for a patient who is critically ill or who has inability to absorb <span class="hlt">oral</span> medications, every hospital will have a certain number of patients who are eligible for switch over from intravenous to <span class="hlt">oral</span> therapy. Among the various routes of administration of medications, <span class="hlt">oral</span> administration is considered to be the most acceptable and economical method of administration. The main obstacle <span class="hlt">limiting</span> intravenous to <span class="hlt">oral</span> conversion is the belief that <span class="hlt">oral</span> medications do not achieve the same bioavailability as that of intravenous medications and that the same agent must be used both intravenously and <span class="hlt">orally</span>. The advent of newer, more potent or broad spectrum <span class="hlt">oral</span> agents that achieve higher and more consistent serum and tissue concentration has paved the way for the popularity of intravenous to <span class="hlt">oral</span> medication conversion. In this review, the advantages of intravenous to <span class="hlt">oral</span> switch over therapy, the various methods of intravenous to <span class="hlt">oral</span> conversion, bioavailability of various <span class="hlt">oral</span> medications for the switch over program, the patient selection criteria for conversion from parenteral to <span class="hlt">oral</span> route and application of intravenous to <span class="hlt">oral</span> switch over through case studies are exemplified.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cyriac, Jissa Maria; James, Emmanuel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5609S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Increased belowground C release during initial plant development of Populus deltoides x nigra grown under light and C reserve <span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plants might be a key factor for the long-term stabilisation of carbon (C) in the soil, e.g. through enhanced physical protection of root-derived C against microbial decomposition in soil aggregates. On the other hand C released by the plants into the soil might promote the decomposition of native soil organic matter (SOM) through the stimulation of microbial activity. We measured the C budget of developing plant-soil systems (Populus deltoides x nigra, Cambisol soil) in the laboratory under controlled environmental <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. In order to distinguish plant-derived from native C in the SOM and the soil CO2 efflux, we labelled the poplar shoots continuously with 13C-CO2 from first emergence of leaves (sprouting from stem cuttings). Throughout the experiment the CO2 fluxes (photosynthetic assimilation, dark respiratory loss, soil CO2 efflux) were measured frequently (every 30 min) and the 13C was traced in the soil CO2 efflux (1-2 times a week). After 10 weeks the plant-soil systems were destructively harvested and the distribution of the 13C distribution was analysed. The plants developed slowly (compared to previous experiments), most likely due to <span class="hlt">limitation</span> in C reserves (long term cutting storage) and C supply (low light intensities). The amount of 13C recovered in the roots, microbial biomass and soil CO2 efflux was directly correlated with the leaf area of the different plant individuals. After 3-4 weeks of plant development we observed a high peak in the total soil CO2 efflux. During this time the relative belowground C release was increased massively over the basal rate of 17 % of net C assimilated, whereby the variability between the plant individuals was large. The smallest plants, i.e. the plants that were most resource <span class="hlt">limited</span>, obtained the highest belowground C release accounting at the peak time for up to 57 % of net assimilated C. We hypothesize that the plants released specific compounds, which either directly (enzymatically) or indirectly (priming) enhanced the decomposition of native SOM as a survival mechanisms (e.g. mine for nutrients). The results of this study confirm linear correlations between aboveground plant traits (leaf area) and belowground C allocation into roots, microbial biomass and plant-derived respiration. However it also highlights that plant-soil systems are not permanently in a steady state. C allocation patterns can change massively when the plant is under stress, which affects other fluxes within the terrestrial C cycle, such as the microbial decomposition of SOM.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Studer, Mirjam S.; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.; Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Abiven, Samuel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22081401"> <span id="translatedtitle">The prrAB two-component system is essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis viability and is induced under nitrogen-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Mycobacterium tuberculosis prrA-prrB (Rv0903c-Rv0902c) two-component regulatory system is expressed during intracellular growth in human macrophages and is required for early intracellular multiplication in murine macrophages, suggesting its importance in establishing infection. To better understand the function of the prrA-prrB two-component system, we defined the transcriptional characteristics of the prrA and prrB genes during exponential and stationary growth and upon exposure to different environmental stresses and attempted to generate a prrA-prrB deletion mutant. The prrA and prrB genes constitute an operon and are cotranscribed during logarithmic growth, with transcriptional levels decreasing in stationary phase and during hypoxia. Despite the transcriptional differences, PrrA protein levels remained relatively stable throughout growth and in hypoxia. Under <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of nitrogen <span class="hlt">limitation</span>, prrAB transcription was induced, while acidic pH stress and carbon starvation did not significantly alter transcript levels. Deletion of the prrAB operon on the chromosome of M. tuberculosis H37Rv occurred only in the presence of an episomal copy of the prrAB genes, indicating that this two-component system is essential for viability. Characterization of the prrAB locus in M. tuberculosis Mt21D3, a previously described prrA transposon mutant, revealed that this strain is not a true prrA knockout mutant. Rather, Tn5367 transposon insertion into the prrA promoter only decreased prrA and prrB transcription and PrrA levels in Mt21D3 compared to those in the parental Mt103 clinical strain. These data provide the first report describing the essentiality of the M. tuberculosis prrAB two-component system and reveal insights into its potential role in mycobacterial growth and metabolism. PMID:22081401</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haydel, Shelley E; Malhotra, Vandana; Cornelison, Garrett L; Clark-Curtiss, Josephine E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2489381"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Investigation into the actual <span class="hlt">condition</span> of outpatients. I. The environmental and <span class="hlt">oral</span> health status prior to and at the first visit. Comparison of the results between present study and last investigation].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this paper was to investigate the actual status of environmental and <span class="hlt">oral</span> health <span class="hlt">conditions</span> prior to and at the first visit of the outpatients who visited the pedodontics clinic of Tohoku University Dental Hospital during the period from April 1981 to May 1986, and to compare them with the results of the same kinds of investigation carried out 10 years ago. The subjects were 895 children, with questionnaires being filled out by their mothers. The following results were obtained. 1) As to methods of nursing, breast feedings have increased, while bottle feedings have decreased. The weaning period of almost all of the children was a period between 3 and 6 months of age, as the same as found during the last investigation. 2) The number of children who had eating and drinking habits at bedtime decreased relatively compared with the last investigation. 3) The majority of the children ate between meals twice a day regularly, eating fruits, senbeis (rice crackers), potato chips, and drinking milk frequently. These tendencies in the present study were almost the same as the results of the last investigation. 4) The number of children brushing more than twice a day has been increased compared with the last investigation, and most of them have been brushing their teeth after breakfast and before going to bed. 5) About 87% of the mothers of the patients thought that dental caries are an illness, but 8.9% of them did not. 6) As to caries prevention at home, the majority of the mothers were concerned about tooth-brushing habits and eating habits between meals. In conclusion, this study indicated that concern about <span class="hlt">oral</span> health of mothers has increased in recent years. PMID:2489381</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koseki, A; Kanou, N; Yamada, K; Sakurai, S; Ohnishi, N; Mayanagi, H; Kamiyama, K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3623289"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health and Type 2 Diabetes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been described as a new epidemic. Approximately 285 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, and this number is predicted to increase by about 50% by year 2030.This article will review <span class="hlt">oral</span> health manifestations of diabetes, and discuss associations between periodontal disease and diabetes. Although there is a strong body of evidence that supports the relationship between <span class="hlt">oral</span> health and T2DM, <span class="hlt">oral</span> health awareness is lacking among patients with diabetes and other health professionals. There is a need for the treating physician to be educated about the various <span class="hlt">oral</span> manifestations of diabetes so that they can be diagnosed early and timely referrals to <span class="hlt">oral</span> health specialists can be made. The established link between periodontitis and diabetes calls for an increased need to study ways to control both diseases, particularly among populations with health disparities and <span class="hlt">limited</span> access to <span class="hlt">oral</span> and health care.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leite, Renata S.; Marlow, Nicole M.; Fernandes, Jyotika K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20647699"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Treatment with <span class="hlt">oral</span> agents for breast cancer].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To overcome the <span class="hlt">limited</span> efficacy with intermittent high-dose chemotherapy, a metronomic therapy with consecutive administration of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cytotoxic agents has been attempted. Numerous promising <span class="hlt">oral</span> molecular-targeted agents have also been emerging. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> agents have the definite benefit of convenience. Time-dependent long-term exposure of cancer cells to drugs is one of the strategies for treatment. Not only <span class="hlt">oral</span> cyclophosphamide containing classical CMF, but also UFT, capecitabine and S-1 have been investigated in treatment for breast cancer. Small molecule agents of tyrosine kinase inhibitor have been extensively explored. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> molecular-targeted agents, such as lapatinib, neratinib, sunitinib, pazopanib, olaparib or everolimus have demonstrated clinical efficacy The significance of treatment with <span class="hlt">oral</span> agents in chemotherapy, endocrine therapy or molecular-targeted therapy requires further investigation. PMID:20647699</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ito, Yoshinori</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22471882"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biologics in <span class="hlt">oral</span> medicine: ulcerative disorders.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Inflammatory ulcerative diseases of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa are wide ranging but include especially aphthous and aphthous-like ulceration, vesiculobullous disorders and erosive lichen planus (LP). While most patients with these <span class="hlt">conditions</span> respond to conventional topical and/or systemic immunosuppressive agents, treatment-resistant cases remain challenging. In these, the use of biologics such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) inhibitors or rituximab may be of benefit. This article reviews the use of biologics in ulcerative <span class="hlt">oral</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, highlighting potential benefits, adverse effects and principles of use and future developments. TNF-? inhibitors such as infliximab can be effective in inducing resolution in <span class="hlt">oral</span> aphthous and aphthous-like ulcers and may be an appropriate therapy in those patients in which disease is severe and refractory to, or patients are intolerant of, traditional immunomodulatory regimens. There would also seem support and rationale for use of biologics (mainly rituximab) in pemphigus but not in <span class="hlt">oral</span> LP or other <span class="hlt">oral</span> ulcerative <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. PMID:22471882</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O'Neill, I D; Scully, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3674268"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> health as a predictive factor for <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVES: <span class="hlt">Oral</span> mucositis is a complication frequently associated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, decreasing a patient's quality of life and increasing the occurrence of opportunistic infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and severity of <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis and to assess the correlation of this disease with the <span class="hlt">oral</span> health of an individual at the time of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. METHODS: Before transplantation, patients' <span class="hlt">oral</span> health and inflammatory <span class="hlt">conditions</span> were determined using the gingival index and the plaque index, which are based on gingival bleeding and the presence of dental plaque, respectively. Additionally, the dental health status was determined using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. The monitoring of <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis was based on the World Health Organization grading system and was performed for five periods: from Day 0 to D+5, from D+6 to D+10, from D+11 to D+15, from D+16 to D+20, and from D+21 to D+30. RESULTS: A total of 97 patients (56% male and 44% female) who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo between January 2008 and July 2009 were prospectively examined. The incidence of ulcerative mucositis was highest from days +6 to +10 and from days +11 to +15 in the patients who underwent autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, respectively. CONCLUSION: The data, including the dental plaque and periodontal status data, showed that these <span class="hlt">oral</span> health factors were predictive of the incidence and severity of <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis in a cohort of patients with similar <span class="hlt">conditioning</span> regimens before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coracin, Fabio Luiz; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sergio; Gallottini, Marina H. C.; Saboya, Rosaura; Musqueira, Priscila Tavares; Barban, Alessandra; de Alencar Fischer Chamone, Dalton; Dulley, Frederico Luiz; Nunes, Fabio Daumas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24382372"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis: a case report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Myiasis is a <span class="hlt">condition</span> caused by the invasion of tissues by larvae of Diptera flies. This phenomenon is well documented in the skin especially among animals and people in tropical and subtropical areas. The <span class="hlt">condition</span> causes extensive tissue destruction as the larvae, at least for a certain period, feed on the host's dead or living tissue, liquid body substances, or ingested food. Mouth breathing during sleep, poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene, alcoholism, senility, mental disability, cerebral palsy, and hemiplegia may facilitate the development of myiasis. We present a case report of <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis in a 22-year-old male with cerebral palsy and severe mental retardation treated successfully by manual removal of the larvae by topical application of turpentine oil and <span class="hlt">oral</span> systemic therapy with ivermectin. PMID:24382372</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zachariah, Jane Emily; Sehgal, Khushboo; Dixit, Uma B; Bhatia, Rupinder</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=J%2cF.+AND+Miller&pg=2&id=EJ733044"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Language and Reading in Bilingual Children</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article examines the question: Do lexical, syntactic, fluency, and discourse measures of <span class="hlt">oral</span> language collected under narrative <span class="hlt">conditions</span> predict reading achievement both within and across languages for bilingual children? More than 1,500 Spanish-English bilingual children attending kindergarten-third grade participated. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> narratives…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miller, Jon F.; Heilmann, John; Nockerts, Ann; Iglesias, Aquiles; Fabiano, Leah; Francis, David J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3104654"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> and Cutaneous Melanoma: Similarities and Differences</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Melanomas are malignant lesions stemming from the disorganized proliferation of melanocytes. This <span class="hlt">condition</span> is more common on skin, but may also be detected in mucosa, such as in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. The aim of the present study was to report similarities and differences between <span class="hlt">oral</span> and cutaneous melanoma. Keywords Melanoma; Skin; Mouth; Diagnosis</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moreira, Rafaela Nogueira; Santos, Cassio Roberto Rocha; Lima, Nadia Lages; Verli, Flaviana Dornela; Marinho, Sandra Aparecida</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21748540"> <span id="translatedtitle">An investigation into the influence of experimental <span class="hlt">conditions</span> on in vitro drug release from immediate-release tablets of levothyroxine sodium and its relation to <span class="hlt">oral</span> bioavailability.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of experimental <span class="hlt">conditions</span> on levothyroxine sodium release from two immediate-release tablet formulations which narrowly passed the standard requirements for bioequivalence studies. The in vivo study was conducted as randomised, single-dose, two-way cross-over pharmacokinetic study in 24 healthy subjects. The in vitro study was performed using various dissolution media, and obtained dissolution profiles were compared using the similarity factor value. Drug solubility in different media was also determined. The in vivo results showed narrowly passing bioequivalence. Considering that levothyroxine sodium is classified as Class III drug according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System, drug bioavailability will be less sensitive to the variation in its dissolution characteristics and it can be assumed that the differences observed in vitro in some of investigated media probably do not have significant influence on the absorption process, as long as rapid and complete dissolution exists. The study results indicate that the current regulatory criteria for the value of similarity factor in comparative dissolution testing, as well as request for very rapid dissolution (more than 85% of drug dissolved in 15 min), are very restricted for immediate-release dosage forms containing highly soluble drug substance and need further investigation. The obtained results also add to the existing debate on the appropriateness of the current bioequivalence standards for levothyroxine sodium products. PMID:21748540</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kocic, Ivana; Homsek, Irena; Dacevic, Mirjana; Parojcic, Jelena; Miljkovic, Branislava</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24655522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Update on <span class="hlt">oral</span> herpes virus infections.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> herpes virus infections (OHVIs) are among the most common mucosal disorders encountered by <span class="hlt">oral</span> health care providers. These infections can affect individuals at any age, from infants to the elderly, and may cause significant pain and dysfunction. Immunosuppressed patients may be at increased risk for serious and potential life-threatening complications caused by OHVIs. Clinicians may have difficulty in diagnosing these infections because they can mimic other <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa. This article provides <span class="hlt">oral</span> health care providers with clinically relevant information regarding etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of OHVIs. PMID:24655522</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Balasubramaniam, Ramesh; Kuperstein, Arthur S; Stoopler, Eric T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23580109"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Pirfenidone and its Major Metabolite after Single and Multiple <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Doses in Healthy Chinese Subjects under Fed <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pirfenidone is a promising antifibrotic agent with therapeutic potential for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of pirfenidone and its major metabolite 5-carboxy-pirfenidone in healthy Chinese subjects under fed <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.20 healthy subjects of either sex were recruited in this randomized, single-center, and open-label, single ascending doses (200, 400, and 600 mg) and multiple doses (400 mg, 3 times daily) study. Safety was assessed by adverse events, ECGs, vital signs, and clinical laboratory parameters. Blood and urine samples were analyzed with a validated LC/MS method.Pirfenidone was safe and well tolerated. After single-dose administration, pirfenidone was rapidly absorbed with a mean Tmax of 1.8-2.2 h and a mean t1/2 of 2.1-2.4 h. 5-carboxy-pirfenidone was rapidly formed with a mean Tmax of 1.5-2.2 h and a mean t1/2 of 2.1-2.6 h. Cmax and AUC for both parent and metabolite were dose proportional over the 200-600 mg dose range. No gender effect was found. In the steady state, the accumulation index (R) estimated for the 3 dosing intervals ranged from 1.1 to 1.5 for both pirfenidone and 5-carboxy-pirfenidone, indicating that the exposure of pirfenidone and 5-carboxy-pirfenidone increased slightly with repeated dosing, but t1/2 and CL/F remained unchanged. Metabolism is the primary mechanism of drug clearance of pirfenidone. About 87.76% of the administered pirfenidone was excreted in urine in the form of 5-carboxy-pirfenidone, while only 0.6159% of the administered pirfenidone was detected as the unchanged form in urine. PMID:23580109</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, N-Y; Ding, L; Wang, J; Zhang, Q-Y; Liu, X; Lin, H-D; Hua, W-Y</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a687007.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Zidovudine <span class="hlt">Oral</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... to the liver and a blood <span class="hlt">condition</span> called lactic acidosis.Call your doctor immediately if you experience ... interferon, lorazepam (Ativan), oxazepam (Serax), probenecid (Benemid), valproic acid (Depakene, Depakote), and vitamins.tell your doctor if ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=6.1&pg=5&id=EJ981166"> <span id="translatedtitle">Understanding <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Learners</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are <span class="hlt">oral</span> learners. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize <span class="hlt">oral</span> teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of <span class="hlt">oral</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moon, W. Jay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24086913"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">oral</span> health status and the treatment needs of salt workers at sambhar lake, jaipur, India.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Salt workers are exposed to the adversities of environmental <span class="hlt">conditions</span> such as direct sunlight, salt dust and contact with brine, which have an impact on the health of workers. Since <span class="hlt">oral</span> health is an integral part of the general health, we planned to determine its effect on the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. Objectives: To assess the <span class="hlt">oral</span> health status and the treatment needs among the workers of Sambhar Salts <span class="hlt">Limited</span> at Sambhar Lake, Jaipur, India. Material and Methods: A cross sectional, descriptive survey was conducted among 979 subjects (509 males; 470 females) who were aged between 19-68 years, who were the workers of Sambhar Salts <span class="hlt">Limited</span>, Sambhar Lake, Jaipur, India. An interview on the demographic profile followed a clinical examination for recording the <span class="hlt">oral</span> health status, based on the World Health Organization guidelines. The Chi-square test, t-test, One way Analysis of Variance and a Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Females had a significantly greater prevalence of dental fluorosis (71.7%) and periodontal disease (96.4%) as compared to males (p= 0.001). The mean number of healthy sextants (0.71 ± 0.09) and the mean DMFT (5.19 ± 4.11) were also significantly higher in females as compared to those in males (p=0.001). One surface filling (78.2%), followed by pulp care and restoration (76.1%) were the most prevalent treatment needs. The gender and <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene practices for dental caries and periodontal disease were respectively identified as the best predictors. Conclusion: Considerable percentages of salt workers have demonstrated a higher prevalence of <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases. Higher unmet treatment needs suggest a poor accessibility and availability of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health care, in addition to a low utilization of preventive or therapeutic <span class="hlt">oral</span> health services. PMID:24086913</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Sharda, Archana Jagat; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Batra, Mehak; Daryani, Hemasha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18674956"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lifestyle risk factors for <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The "style of life is the unique way in which individuals try to realize their fictional final goal and meet or avoid the three main tasks of life: work, community, love" (Alfred Adler, founder of the Individual Psychology). Lifestyle refers to the way individuals live their lives and how they handle problems and interpersonal relations. The lifestyle behaviours associated to <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer with convincing evidence are tobacco use, betel quid chewing, alcohol drinking, low fruit and vegetable consumption (the detrimental lifestyle is high fat and/or sugar intake, resulting in low fruit and/or vegetable intake). Worldwide, 25% of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancers are attributable to tobacco usage (smoking and/or chewing), 7-19% to alcohol drinking, 10-15% to micronutrient deficiency, more than 50% to betel quid chewing in areas of high chewing prevalence. Carcinogenicity is dose-dependent and magnified by multiple exposures. Conversely, low and single exposures do not significantly increase <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer risk. These behaviours have common characteristics: (i) they are widespread: one billion men, 250 million women smoke cigarettes, 600-1200 million people chew betel quid, two billion consume alcohol, unbalanced diet is common amongst developed and developing countries; (ii) they were already used by animals and human forerunners millions of years ago because they were essential to overcome <span class="hlt">conditions</span> such as cold, hunger, famine; their use was seasonal and <span class="hlt">limited</span> by low availability, in contrast with the pattern of consumption of the modern era, characterized by routine, heavy usage, for recreational activities and with multiple exposures; (iii) their consumption in small doses is not recognized as detrimental by the human body and activates the dopaminergic reward system of the brain, thus giving instant pleasure, "liking" (overconsumption) and "wanting" (craving). For these reasons, effective Public Health measures aimed at preventing <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer and other lifestyle-related <span class="hlt">conditions</span> fail to realize their final goal to eradicate these lifestyles. Following Adler's theory and the principles of the "Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion", <span class="hlt">conditions</span> such as education, sustainable resources, social justice, and equity must be satisfied before the implementation of physical health promotion campaigns. PMID:18674956</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Petti, Stefano</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23876501"> <span id="translatedtitle">Zein-based <span class="hlt">oral</span> drug delivery system targeting activated macrophages.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). ROS such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide are overproduced by activated macrophages in RA. As scavengers of ROS, enzymatic proteins such as catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) have a great therapeutic potential; however, in vivo application is <span class="hlt">limited</span> especially when they are <span class="hlt">orally</span> administered. Although, the <span class="hlt">oral</span> route is the most convenient for drug administration, therapeutic proteins are easily degraded in vivo by the harsh <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Here, we introduce a novel drug delivery system composed of zein, a plant storage protein derived from maize. We demonstrate that zein nanoparticles can protect therapeutic proteins, catalase and SOD, from the harsh <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of GI tract. Folate-conjugated catalase or SOD in zein nanoparticles can target the activated macrophages and scavenge the ROS generated by macrophages in vitro. This novel drug delivery system will be applicable to other <span class="hlt">orally</span> administered treatments based on the protective property in the harsh <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of GI tract. PMID:23876501</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Sungmun; Alwahab, Noaf Salah Ali; Moazzam, Zainab Muhammad</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=life+AND+dental&id=EJ897114"> <span id="translatedtitle">Review of the Evidence for <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Promotion Effectiveness</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dental caries, periodontal diseases, tooth loss and <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancers have significant burden of disease effects, quality of life and cost implications for the Australian community. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> health promotion is a key approach to addressing these <span class="hlt">conditions</span> endorsed as part of the National <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Plan. Understanding the evidence for effectiveness of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Satur, Julie G.; Gussy, Mark G.; Morgan, Michael V.; Calache, Hanny; Wright, Clive</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3737653"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Insulin Delivery: How Far Are We?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> delivery of insulin may significantly improve the quality of life of diabetes patients who routinely receive insulin by the subcutaneous route. In fact, compared with this administration route, <span class="hlt">oral</span> delivery of insulin in diabetes treatment offers many advantages: higher patient compliance, rapid hepatic insulinization, and avoidance of peripheral hyperinsulinemia and other adverse effects such as possible hypoglycemia and weight gain. However, the <span class="hlt">oral</span> delivery of insulin remains a challenge because its <span class="hlt">oral</span> absorption is <span class="hlt">limited</span>. The main barriers faced by insulin in the gastrointestinal tract are degradation by proteolytic enzymes and lack of transport across the intestinal epithelium. Several strategies to deliver insulin <span class="hlt">orally</span> have been proposed, but without much clinical or commercial success. Protein encapsulation into nanoparticles is regarded as a promising alternative to administer insulin <span class="hlt">orally</span> because they have the ability to promote insulin paracellular or transcellular transport across the intestinal mucosa. In this review, different delivery systems intended to increase the <span class="hlt">oral</span> bioavailability of insulin will be discussed, with a special focus on nanoparticulate carrier systems, as well as the efforts that pharmaceutical companies are making to bring to the market the first <span class="hlt">oral</span> delivery system of insulin. The toxicological and safety data of delivery systems, the clinical value and progress of <span class="hlt">oral</span> insulin delivery, and the future prospects in this research field will be also scrutinized.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fonte, Pedro; Araujo, Francisca; Reis, Salette; Sarmento, Bruno</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3269347"> <span id="translatedtitle">Randomized Phase III evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a novel glycopyrrolate <span class="hlt">oral</span> solution for the management of chronic severe drooling in children with cerebral palsy or other neurologic <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aim To evaluate the efficacy of glycopyrrolate <span class="hlt">oral</span> solution (1 mg/5 mL) in managing problem drooling associated with cerebral palsy and other neurologic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Method Thirty-eight patients aged 3–23 years weighing at least 27 lb (12.2 kg) with severe drooling (clothing damp 5–7 days/week) were randomized to glycopyrrolate (n = 20), 0.02–0.1 mg/kg three times a day, or matching placebo (n = 18). Primary efficacy endpoint was responder rate, defined as percentage showing ?3-point change on the modified Teacher’s Drooling Scale (mTDS). Results Responder rate was significantly higher for the glycopyrrolate (14/19; 73.7%) than for the placebo (3/17; 17.6%) group (P = 0.0011), with improvements starting 2 weeks after treatment initiation. Mean improvements in mTDS at week 8 were significantly greater in the glycopyrrolate than in the placebo group (3.94 ± 1.95 vs 0.71 ± 2.14 points; P < 0.0001). In addition, 84% of physicians and 100% of parents/caregivers regarded glycopyrrolate as worthwhile compared with 41% and 56%, respectively, for placebo (P ? 0.014). Most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse events (glycopyrrolate vs placebo) were dry mouth, constipation, and vomiting. Interpretation Children aged 3–16 years with problem drooling due to neurologic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> showed a significantly better response, as assessed by mTDS, to glycopyrrolate than to placebo. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00425087.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zeller, Robert S; Lee, Hak-Myung; Cavanaugh, Paul F; Davidson, Jennifer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23643024"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> and maxillofacial surgery in dogs and cats.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Advancements in diagnostic and treatment modalities for <span class="hlt">oral</span> and maxillofacial surgery have allowed veterinarians to offer clients a range of alternatives for their pets. Categories of <span class="hlt">oral</span> and maxillofacial surgery reviewed in this article include jaw fracture management, management of palatal/oronasal defects, recognition and treatment of <span class="hlt">oral</span> masses, and management of several miscellaneous pathologic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Miscellaneous <span class="hlt">oral</span> lesions discussed in this article include odontogenic cysts, osteonecrosis and osteomyelitis, and lesions of the tongue and lips. PMID:23643024</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zacher, Amalia M; Marretta, Sandra Manfra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.simplestepsdental.com/SS/ihtSSPrint/r.WSIHW000/st.31848/t.32262/pr.3/c.354211.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neuromuscular Diseases and <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> (and <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... greenish color. People with cerebral palsy may experience: Malocclusion (upper and lower teeth that do not come ... have problems keeping your teeth clean, there are modified brushes and other appliances that can help. Your ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22285858"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hypoxia-induced up-regulation of apelin is associated with a poor prognosis in <span class="hlt">oral</span> squamous cell carcinoma patients.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently, apelin has been shown to be a novel angiogenic factor in various cancers including lung, breast and brain cancer. However, there is <span class="hlt">limited</span> information regarding the expression and role of apelin in <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity cancer. In this study, we determined that apelin expression was localized in the cytoplasm of <span class="hlt">oral</span> squamous cell carcinoma at various intensities. Strong apelin expression significantly correlated with tumor recurrence and disease-free survival. Using a multivariate analysis, we demonstrated that apelin was an independent prognostic factor for on disease-free survival, age, lymph node metastasis and CA9 expression. Moreover, apelin expression was up-regulated under hypoxic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, and exogenous apelin enhanced the proliferation and migration of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer cells. Based on these results, we propose that the presence of hypoxia-induced apelin is a new prognostic factor and potential therapeutic target for <span class="hlt">oral</span> squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:22285858</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heo, Kyun; Kim, Yun Hee; Sung, Ho Jin; Li, Hai Ying; Yoo, Chong Woo; Kim, Joo Young; Park, Joo Yong; Lee, Ui Lyong; Nam, Byung Ho; Kim, Eun Ok; Kim, So Young; Lee, Seung Hoon; Park, Jong Bae; Choi, Sung Weon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3574626"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nanoparticles for <span class="hlt">oral</span> delivery: Targeted nanoparticles with peptidic ligands for <span class="hlt">oral</span> protein delivery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As the field of biotechnology has advanced, <span class="hlt">oral</span> protein delivery has also made significant progress. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> delivery is the most common method of drug administration with high levels of patient acceptance. Despite the preference of <span class="hlt">oral</span> delivery, administration of therapeutic proteins has been extremely difficult. Increasing the bioavailability of <span class="hlt">oral</span> protein drugs to the therapeutically acceptable level is still a challenging goal. Poor membrane permeability, high molecular weight, and enzymatic degradation of protein drugs have remained unsolved issues. Among diverse strategies, nanotechnology has provided a glimpse of hope in <span class="hlt">oral</span> delivery of protein drugs. Nanoparticles have advantages, such as small size, high surface area, and modification using functional groups for high capacity or selectivity. Nanoparticles with peptidic ligands are especially worthy of notice because they can be used for specific targeting in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This article reviews the transport mechanism of the GI tract, barriers to protein absorption, current status and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> of nanotechnology for <span class="hlt">oral</span> protein delivery system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yun, Yeonhee; Cho, Yong Woo; Park, Kinam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1579288"> <span id="translatedtitle">Drug Testing in <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Fluid</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid (saliva) for drug testing. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection <span class="hlt">limits</span> required. Drug testing outside laboratory environments has become widespread and provides presumptive results within minutes of collection of specimens. This review focuses on the developments, particularly over the last 10 years, and outlines the roles and applications of testing for drugs in <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid, describes the difficulties associated with this form of testing and illustrates applications of <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid testing for specific drugs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Drummer, Olaf H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://aslo.org/lo/toc/vol_44/issue_1/0062.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bacteria-protist interactions and organic matter degradation under P-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>: Analysis of an enclosure experiment using a simple model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An enclosure experiment was performed in the brackish layer of a Norwegian fjord, a system where both phy- toplankton and bacterial growth have previously been hypothesized to be phosphorus (p) <span class="hlt">limited</span>. All enclosures had a succession pattern characterized by an initial autotrophic phase with positive net community production, increasing phytoplankton primary production, and chlorophyll, followed by a heterotrophic phase with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. F. Thingstad; H. Havskum; H. Kaas; T. G. Nielsen; B. Riemann; D. Lefevre; P. J. le B. Williams</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24311779"> <span id="translatedtitle">The bidirectional NiFe-hydrogenase in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is reduced by flavodoxin and ferredoxin and is essential under mixotrophic, nitrate-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cyanobacteria are able to use solar energy for the production of hydrogen. It is generally accepted that cyanobacterial NiFe-hydrogenases are reduced by NAD(P)H. This is in conflict with thermodynamic considerations, as the midpoint potentials of NAD(P)H do not suffice to support the measured hydrogen production under physiological <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. We show that flavodoxin and ferredoxin directly reduce the bidirectional NiFe-hydrogenase of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 in vitro. A merodiploid ferredoxin-NADP reductase mutant produced correspondingly more photohydrogen. We furthermore found that the hydrogenase receives its electrons via pyruvate:flavodoxin/ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR)-flavodoxin/ferredoxin under fermentative <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, enabling the cells to gain ATP. These results strongly support that the bidirectional NiFe-hydrogenases in cyanobacteria function as electron sinks for low potential electrons from photosystem I and as a redox balancing device under fermentative <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. However, the selective advantage of this enzyme is not known. No strong phenotype of mutants lacking the hydrogenase has been found. Because bidirectional hydrogenases are widespread in aquatic nutrient-rich environments that are capable of triggering phytoplankton blooms, we mimicked those <span class="hlt">conditions</span> by growing cells in the presence of increased amounts of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic nitrogen. Under these <span class="hlt">conditions</span> the hydrogenase was found to be essential. As these <span class="hlt">conditions</span> close the two most important sinks for reduced flavodoxin/ferredoxin (CO2-fixation and nitrate reduction), this discovery further substantiates the connection between flavodoxin/ferredoxin and the NiFe-hydrogenase. PMID:24311779</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gutekunst, Kirstin; Chen, Xi; Schreiber, Karoline; Kaspar, Ursula; Makam, Srinivas; Appel, Jens</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=commonality+AND+analysis&pg=3&id=EJ958435"> <span id="translatedtitle">Perspectives of Parents and Tutors on a Self-Management Program for Parents/Guardians of Children with Long-Term and Life-<span class="hlt">Limiting</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>: "A Life Raft We Can Sail along with"</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The lay-led, community-based Supporting Parents Programme (SPP) aims to assist parents caring for children with long-term or life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> through support and cognitive behavioral techniques. The value of the SPP from the perspectives of parent participants and tutors was examined in focus groups and telephone interviews. Data were…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barlow, Julie; Swaby, Laura; Turner, Andrew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/22825903"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photocatalysis with nanostructured zinc oxide thin films: The relationship between morphology and photocatalytic activity under oxygen <span class="hlt">limited</span> and oxygen rich <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and evidence for a Mars Van Krevelen mechanism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using a range of innovative nanostructured high surface area zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films as photocatalysts, and thereafter to systematically relate initial and reacted surface morphology and irradiated surface area to photocatalytic activity under both <span class="hlt">limited</span> and rich oxygen <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.The thin films were produced using an innovative combination of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arshid M. Ali; Emma A. C. Emanuelsson; Darrell A. Patterson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2847072"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating <span class="hlt">oral</span> noncombustible potential-reduced exposure products for smokers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction: Potential-reduced exposure products (PREPs) are marketed as a way for smokers to continue using tobacco while possibly lessening their tobacco toxicant intake. Some tobacco-based PREPs are combustible and intended to be smoked, while others are noncombustible and intended to be administered <span class="hlt">orally</span> (e.g., Camel Snus [CS] tobacco sachets and Ariva tobacco tablets). The ability of these noncombustible PREPs to reduce smokers’ exposure to cigarette-delivered toxicants and suppress tobacco abstinence symptoms effectively is unclear. Clinical laboratory methods have been used to measure combustible PREP-associated toxicant exposure and abstinence symptom suppression and could be applied to evaluating the effects of <span class="hlt">orally</span> administered noncombustible PREPs. Methods: In this study, 21 smokers (6 women) participated in four 5-day <span class="hlt">conditions</span> that differed by product used: CS, Ariva, own brand cigarettes, or no tobacco. Measures included expired-air carbon monoxide (CO), the urinary metabolite of nicotine (cotinine), the urinary metabolite of the carcinogen NNK (NNAL-T), and subjective effect ratings. Results: Relative to own brand, all other <span class="hlt">conditions</span> were associated with CO and cotinine levels that were lower and abstinence symptom ratings that were greater. Only no-tobacco use was associated with significantly lower NNAL levels. Acceptability ratings were also lower in all <span class="hlt">conditions</span> relative to own brand. Discussion: Although these <span class="hlt">oral</span> products reduce exposure to CO, their ineffective abstinence symptom suppression and low acceptability may <span class="hlt">limit</span> their viability as PREPs. As with combustible PREPs, clinical laboratory study of <span class="hlt">orally</span> administered noncombustible PREPs will be a valuable part of any comprehensive PREP evaluation strategy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eissenberg, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a606021.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nicotine <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Inhalation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nicotine <span class="hlt">oral</span> inhalation is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine <span class="hlt">oral</span> inhalation should be used together with a ... support groups, counseling, or specific behavioral change techniques. Nicotine inhalation is in a class of medications called ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oralcancerfoundation.org"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Cancer Foundation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Support - Advocacy Research... and Hope About About The Foundation About Us Bruce Paltrow Fund Press Releases TV ... Videos & Images OCF YouTube Channel | The <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Cancer Foundation The <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Cancer Foundation is a national public ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.oralcancerfoundation.org/facts/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Cancer Facts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... in a localized intra <span class="hlt">oral</span> area. Besides the metastasis, at these later stages, the primary tumor has ... <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancers. Added to decrease the possibility of metastasis, to sensitize the malignant cells to radiation, to ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36375573"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bacterial fermentation of recombinant major wasp allergen Antigen 5 using oxygen <span class="hlt">limiting</span> growth <span class="hlt">conditions</span> improves yield and quality of inclusion bodies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A process for bacterial expression and purification of the recombinant major wasp allergen Antigen 5 (Ves v 5) was developed to produce protein for diagnostic and therapeutic applications for type 1 allergic diseases. Special attention was focused on medium selection, fermentation <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, and efficient refolding procedures. A soy based medium was used for fermentation to avoid peptone from animal origin.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stefanie Kischnick; Bernhard Weber; Petra Verdino; Walter Keller; Ernst A. Sanders; F. Birger Anspach; Helmut Fiebig; Oliver Cromwell; Roland Suck</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49169928"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stomatal and non-stomatal <span class="hlt">limitations</span> to photosynthesis in seedlings and saplings of Mediterranean species pre-<span class="hlt">conditioned</span> and aged in nurseries: Different response to water stress</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of the present work was to compare the physiological responses to water stress and recovery of seedlings and saplings of three different Mediterranean species (Olea europaea var. sylvestris, Rhamnus alaternus and Cneorum tricoccon), pre-<span class="hlt">conditioning</span> and aged in nursery and presenting different ages and pot sizes. Our hypothesis was that the ratio of plant size to soil volume (which</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Laura Varone; Miquel Ribas-Carbo; Carles Cardona; Alexander Gallé; Hipólito Medrano; Loretta Gratani; Jaume Flexas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14725379"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">oral</span> environment: the challenge for antimicrobials in <span class="hlt">oral</span> care products.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For any antibacterial/ anti-plaque system from an <span class="hlt">oral</span> care product to be effective, it must firstly be delivered and retained at relevant sites in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity and secondly, remain active within the chosen formulation to successfully target the biofilm cells within dental plaque. This must include inhibition of the growth and metabolism of relevant organisms associated with disease. This review will concentrate on understanding the environmental <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in which such <span class="hlt">oral</span> care products must work and summarise the activity within the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity of the main antibacterial and anti-plaque agents in common <span class="hlt">oral</span> care products, namely chlorhexidine, essential oils, metal salts and Triclosan. Routes to further enhance the activity of these products, together with the use of relatively novel formats such as confectionery products to provide added consumer <span class="hlt">oral</span> health benefits will be considered. PMID:14725379</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brading, M G; Marsh, P D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.knowyourteeth.com/infobites/abc/article/?abc=O&iid=321&aid=3813"> <span id="translatedtitle">What Is an <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Piercing?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... to your desktop! more... What Is an <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Piercing? Article Chapters What Is an <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Piercing? <span class="hlt">Oral</span> ... strenuous activity. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Piercings A Fatal Fad? Tongue Studs Cause More Problems ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3929149"> <span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulants: are coagulation units still required?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chronic antithrombotic therapy involves the use of anticoagulants, antiplatelets given either as monotherapy or in combination for the prevention of thrombotic complications. The most feared and sometimes fatal complication with this therapy is bleeding. It should be considered a “golden rule” that a drug or combination of drugs that maximizes efficiency (decreased thromboembolic risk) will probably be less safe (increased risk of bleeding), and this holds true either for single therapy or during combined therapy. The chances of bleeding indicated by risk tables can be useful but show only a snapshot, and the biological, social, environmental, and drug changes and therapeutic adherence also determine changes in the risk of thrombosis and bleeding. Bleeding is an eventuality that occurs in places of “locus minoris resistentiae,” and the results of careful phase 3 studies thus cannot be completely predictive of outcomes when a medication is introduced on the pharmaceutical market. With the use of warfarin, the International Normalized Ratio (INR) that has been established to indicate adequately balanced therapy is between 2.0 and 3.0. With the new <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulants, the pharmaceutical companies emphasize that it is not necessary to monitor anticoagulant effects. In studies with different doses of new <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulants, however, incidence of clinically significant bleeding complications have been directly related to the doses. Therefore, therapeutic excesses can <span class="hlt">condition</span> bleeding risk and therapeutic <span class="hlt">limitation</span> can increase thrombotic risk, especially when short-acting drugs such as the new <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulants are used. Hence, it is imperative to establish an appropriate method for monitoring new <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulants, setting levels of safety and effectiveness through periodic dosage and monitoring of their anticoagulant effects. Therefore, we still recommend the use of anticoagulation units for monitoring during treatment with the new <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulants.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3133136"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Has Three High-Affinity Iron-Scavenging Systems Functional under Iron <span class="hlt">Limitation</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> but Dispensable for Pathogenesis?¶</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High-affinity iron scavenging through the use of siderophores is a well-established virulence determinant in mammalian pathogenesis. However, few examples have been reported for plant pathogens. Here, we use a genetic approach to investigate the role of siderophores in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000) virulence in tomato. DC3000, an agronomically important pathogen, has two known siderophores for high-affinity iron scavenging, yersiniabactin and pyoverdin, and we uncover a third siderophore, citrate, required for growth when iron is <span class="hlt">limiting</span>. Though growth of a DC3000 triple mutant unable to either synthesize or import these siderophores is severely restricted in iron-<span class="hlt">limited</span> culture, it is fully pathogenic. One explanation for this phenotype is that the DC3000 triple mutant is able to directly pirate plant iron compounds such as heme/hemin or iron-nicotianamine, and our data indicate that DC3000 can import iron-nicotianamine with high affinity. However, an alternative explanation, supported by data from others, is that the pathogenic environment of DC3000 (i.e., leaf apoplast) is not iron <span class="hlt">limited</span> but is iron replete, with available iron of >1 ?M. Growth of the triple mutant in culture is restored to wild-type levels by supplementation with a variety of iron chelates at >1 ?M, including iron(III) dicitrate, a dominant chelate of the leaf apoplast. This suggests that lower-affinity iron import would be sufficient for DC3000 iron nutrition in planta and is in sharp contrast to the high-affinity iron-scavenging mechanisms required in mammalian pathogenesis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jones, Alexander M.; Wildermuth, Mary C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12145019"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carotenoids in nestling Montagu’s harriers: variations according to age, sex, body <span class="hlt">condition</span> and evidence for diet-related <span class="hlt">limitations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Carotenoids are colored pigments forming the basis of many avian social traits. Before their utilization carotenoids must\\u000a be acquired through diet and mobilized for specific uses. The relationships between carotenoid-based coloration, circulating\\u000a carotenoids and body <span class="hlt">condition</span> have been well studied in adult birds, but little is known in nestlings. Here, we investigated\\u000a variations in carotenoid-based coloration in a raptor nestling,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Audrey Sternalski; François Mougeot; Cyril Eraud; Benoît Gangloff; Alexandre Villers; Vincent Bretagnolle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24771969"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adjusting the light in the <span class="hlt">limit</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of consciousness by the means of ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) and of subordinated systems Part 1: Introduction and Aims.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: In our activity in the Ambulance Service of Bucharest Municipality during March 2002 - March 2003 we studied a casuistry of patients who had fallen in a coma of varying degrees. To aid better understanding of coma, the concept of "pre-coma stage" or diencephalic "0 stage" was introduced. This concept complements the Arseni classification already used in medical practice, because some doctors alternatively use the term of "inaugural coma" for the same <span class="hlt">condition</span> that we call diencephalic "0 stage". In the median hypothalamus and on the retino-hypothalamic path (SCN - AN) optical waves are transmitted, probably in the near infrared spectral range (800-1000 nm). These waves would constitute a means of transmitting information about the infradian biorhythm of coordination (frequencies below 1 cycle/28 hours), essential for the modulation and pre-processing of the consciousness and wakefulness, a fact which has already been demonstrated in animals. Methods: The current work is based on observations made on a group of 51 patients with the precoma and coma <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, and on a thorough study of the specialized (especially Romanian) literature. Also, we used validated scientific proof of torture in <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of lack of light. Results: We found a perfect interpenetration between the ARAS and the following two complementary subsystems: 1. The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, that has the role of coordinating the periodicity of some biological functions depending on the circadian rhythm; and 2. The main photoperiodic organ, the pineal gland (epiphysis), which together with the ARAS has a role in the photoperiodicity modulation of some biological functions during the state of vigilance. Conclusion: From the above mentioned one may conclude that the consciousness <span class="hlt">condition</span> is the unitary result of action of all human brain systems and especially sub-systems, which are controlled and led by a psycho-neurological process of integration at the cortex level. "Everyone knows what the consciousness is, until one tries to define it" (William James: The Stream of Consciousness", 1892). PMID:24771969</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Siposan, Dan Georgel; Aliu, Octavian Florin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> 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onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22949075"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of imidacloprid and pyrimethanil in shallot (Allium ascalonicum) grown under greenhouse <span class="hlt">conditions</span> using tandem mass spectrometry: establishment of pre-harvest residue <span class="hlt">limits</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, the original Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe method was used for the extraction of imidacloprid and pyrimethanil followed by a rapid clean-up through dispersive solid-phase extraction technique with primary secondary amine sorbent and magnesium sulfate in shallot. Residues were analyzed using LC-tandem mass spectrometry in positive-ion electrospray ionization mode. The <span class="hlt">limits</span> of detection and quantification were estimated to be 0.006 and 0.02?mg/kg, respectively. The samples were fortified at two different concentration levels (0.2 and 1.0?mg/kg), and the recoveries ranged between 79.7 and 83.9% with relative standard deviation values?<?6%. The method was successfully applied for the establishment of the pre-harvest residue <span class="hlt">limits</span> (PHRL). The rate of disappearance of imidacloprid and pyrimethanil on shallot was described with first-order kinetics (imidacloprid, y(2) ?=?0.9670; pyrimethanil, y(2) ?=?0.9841), with half-lives of 2.87 and 2.08?days, respectively. Based on the dissipation patterns of the pesticide residues, the PHRL was recommended at 7.86?mg/kg for 14?days (PHRL14 ) and 1.98?mg/kg for 7?days (PHRL7 ) before harvest for imidacloprid, and 21.64?mg/kg for 7?days (PHRL7 ) and 9.28?mg/kg for 4?days (PHRL4 ) before harvest for pyrimethanil in shallot. PMID:22949075</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Park, Jong-Hyouk; Park, Joon-Seong; Abd El-Aty, A M; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Na, Tae-Woong; Shim, Jae-Han</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23314830"> <span id="translatedtitle">Function of wheat phosphate transporter gene TaPHT2;1 in Pi translocation and plant growth regulation under replete and <span class="hlt">limited</span> Pi supply <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several phosphate transporters (PTs) that belong to the Pht2 family have been released in bioinformatics databases, but only a few members of this family have been functionally characterized. In this study, we found that wheat TaPHT2;1 shared high identity with a subset of Pht2 in diverse plants. Expression analysis revealed that TaPHT2;1 was strongly expressed in the leaves, was up-regulated by low Pi stress, and exhibited a circadian rhythmic expression pattern. TaPHT2;1-green fluorescent protein fusions in the leaves of tobacco and wheat were specifically detected in the chloroplast envelop. TaPHT2;1 complemented the Pi transporter activities in a yeast mutant with a defect in Pi uptake. Knockdown expression of TaPHT2;1 significantly reduced Pi concentration in the chloroplast under sufficient (2 mM Pi) and deficient Pi (100 ?M Pi) <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, suggesting that TaPHT2;1 is crucial in the mediation of Pi translocation from the cytosol to the chloroplast. The down-regulated expression of TaPHT2;1 resulted in reduced photosynthetic capacities, total P contents, and accumulated P amounts in plants under sufficient and deficient Pi <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, eventually leading to worse plant growth phenotypes. The TaPHT2;1 knockdown plants exhibited pronounced decrease in accumulated phosphorus in sufficient and deficient Pi <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, suggesting that TaPHT2;1 is an important factor to associate with a distinct P signaling that up-regulates other PT members to control Pi acquisition and translocation within plants. Therefore, TaPHT2;1 is a key member of the Pht2 family involved in Pi translocation, and that it can function in the improvement of phosphorus usage efficiency in wheat. PMID:23314830</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guo, Chengjin; Zhao, Xiaolei; Liu, Xiaoman; Zhang, Lijun; Gu, Juntao; Li, Xiaojuan; Lu, Wenjing; Xiao, Kai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3731728"> <span id="translatedtitle">Non-fatal injuries resulting in activity <span class="hlt">limitations</span> in Estonia--risk factors and association with the incidence of chronic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and quality of life: a retrospective study among the population aged 20-79</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives Evidence about the health and quality-of-life outcomes of injuries is obtained mainly from follow-up studies of surviving trauma patients; population-based studies are rarer, in particular for countries in Eastern Europe. This study examines the incidence, prevalence and social variation in non-fatal injuries resulting in activity <span class="hlt">limitations</span> and outcomes of injuries in Estonia. Design A retrospective population-based study. Setting Estonia. Participants 7855 respondents of the face-to-face interviews of the second round of the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey conducted between 2004 and 2005 based on the nationally representative probability sample (n=11?192) of the resident population of Estonia aged 20–79. Primary and secondary outcome measures The cumulative incidence and prevalence of injuries leading to activity <span class="hlt">limitations</span> was estimated. Survival models were applied to analyse variations in the injury risk across sociodemographic groups. The association between injuries and the development of chronic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and quality of life was examined using survival and logistic regression models. Results 10% (95% CI 9.4 to 10.7) of the population aged 20–79 had experienced injuries leading to activity <span class="hlt">limitations</span>; the prevalence of activity <span class="hlt">limitations</span> due to injuries was 4.4% (95% CI 3.9% to 4.9%). Significant differences in injury risk were associated with gender, education, employment, marital status and nativity. <span class="hlt">Limiting</span> injury was associated with a doubling of the likelihood of having chronic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> (adjusted HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.58 to 2.46). Injury exhibited a statistically significant negative association with most quality-of-life measures. Although reduced, these effects persisted after recovery from activity <span class="hlt">limitations</span>. Conclusions Substantial variation in injury risk across population groups suggests potential for prevention. Men and workers in manual occupations constitute major target groups for injury prevention in Estonia. The association of injury with the development of chronic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and reduced quality of life warrants further investigation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Puur, Allan; Altmets, Katre; Saava, Astrid; Uuskula, Anneli; Sakkeus, Luule</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24835917"> <span id="translatedtitle">Growth and neutral lipid synthesis by Yarrowia lipolytica on various carbon substrates under nutrient-sufficient and nutrient-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Growth and TAG production by Yarrowia lipolytica were compared for cells cultured in nitrogen-complete medium containing waste glycerol derived from biodiesel production, as well as pure glycerol, dextrose, or canola oil as the carbon sources. Growth and TAG production were also analyzed for Y. lipolytica cells cultured in nitrogen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> media containing either pure glycerol or glycerol plus dextrose. Significantly greater amounts of TAGs were synthesized by Y. lipolytica cultured in minimal media compared to rich media (approximately 3-fold on dry weight basis when grown on glycerol). Cultures in minimal medium containing glycerol yielded 31% TAGs on a dry cell weight (dcw) basis, while cultures in minimal medium containing glycerol plus dextrose produced 38% TAGs (dcw), with glycerol consumption favored over dextrose consumption. Our results suggest that Y. lipolytica could serve as a source of TAGs for biodiesel production using crude waste glycerol generated by biodiesel synthesis. PMID:24835917</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sestric, Ryan; Munch, Garret; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24266878"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> glycopyrrolate for refractory pediatric and adolescent hyperhidrosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Primary hyperhidrosis is a common disorder affecting children and adolescents, and it can have a significant negative psychosocial effect. Treatment for pediatric hyperhidrosis tends to be <span class="hlt">limited</span> by low efficacy, low adherence, and poor tolerance. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> glycopyrrolate is emerging as a potential second-line treatment option, but experience with safety, efficacy, and dosing is especially <span class="hlt">limited</span> in children. We present an institutional review of 12 children with severe, refractory hyperhidrosis treated with <span class="hlt">oral</span> glycopyrrolate; 11 (92%) noted improvement and 9 (75%) would recommend <span class="hlt">oral</span> glycopyrrolate to their friends. No significant side effects were noted. Our retrospective analysis suggests that <span class="hlt">oral</span> glycopyrrolate is safe and effective in children with hyperhidrosis. PMID:24266878</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kumar, Monique G; Foreman, Rebecca S; Berk, David R; Bayliss, Susan J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3649212"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of a theory-driven e-learning intervention for future <span class="hlt">oral</span> healthcare providers on secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> healthcare providers have a clinical opportunity for early detection of disordered eating behaviors because they are often the first health professionals to observe overt <span class="hlt">oral</span> and physical signs. Curricula regarding early recognition of this <span class="hlt">oral</span>/systemic medical <span class="hlt">condition</span> are <span class="hlt">limited</span> in <span class="hlt">oral</span> health educational programs. Web-based learning can supplement and reinforce traditional learning and has the potential to develop skills. The study purpose was to determine the efficacy of a theory-driven Web-based training program to increase the capacity of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health students to perform behaviors related to the secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance evaluation framework, a longitudinal group-randomized controlled trial involving 27 <span class="hlt">oral</span> health classes from 12 <span class="hlt">oral</span> health education programs in the United States was implemented to assess the efficacy of the Web-based training on attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy and skills related to the secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Mixed-model analysis of covariance indicated substantial improvements among students in the intervention group (effect sizes: 0.51–0.83) on all six outcomes of interest. Results suggest that the Web-based training program may increase the capacity of <span class="hlt">oral</span> healthcare providers to deliver secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Implications and value of using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">DeBate, Rita D.; Severson, Herbert H.; Cragun, Deborah L.; Gau, Jeff M.; Merrell, Laura K.; Bleck, Jennifer R.; Christiansen, Steve; Koerber, Anne; Tomar, Scott L.; McCormack Brown, Kelli R.; Tedesco, Lisa A.; Hendricson, William</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21762434"> <span id="translatedtitle">From global to local genetic structuring in the red gorgonian Paramuricea clavata: the interplay between oceanographic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and <span class="hlt">limited</span> larval dispersal.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Defining the scale of connectivity among marine populations and identifying the barriers to gene flow are tasks of fundamental importance for understanding the genetic structure of populations and for the design of marine reserves. Here, we investigated the population genetic structure at three spatial scales of the red gorgonian Paramuricea clavata (Cnidaria, Octocorallia), a key species dwelling in the coralligenous assemblages of the Mediterranean Sea. Colonies of P. clavata were collected from 39 locations across the Mediterranean Sea from Morocco to Turkey and analysed using microsatellite loci. Within three regions (Medes, Marseille and North Corsica), sampling was obtained from multiple locations and at different depths. Three different approaches (measures of genetic differentiation, Bayesian clustering and spatially explicit maximum-difference algorithm) were used to determine the pattern of genetic structure. We identified genetic breaks in the spatial distribution of genetic diversity, which were concordant with oceanographic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in the Mediterranean Sea. We revealed a high level of genetic differentiation among populations and a pattern of isolation by distance across the studied area and within the three regions, underlining short effective larval dispersal in this species. We observed genetic differentiation among populations in the same locality dwelling at different depths, which may be explained by local oceanographic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and which may allow a process of local adaptation of the populations to their environment. We discuss the implications of our results for the conservation of the species, which is exposed to various threats. PMID:21762434</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mokhtar-Jamaï, K; Pascual, M; Ledoux, J-B; Coma, R; Féral, J-P; Garrabou, J; Aurelle, D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4111095"> <span id="translatedtitle">Poverty Does Not <span class="hlt">Limit</span> Tobacco Consumption in Cambodia: Quantitative Estimate of Tobacco Use Under <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> of No Income and Adult Malnutrition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Current data indicate that under <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of poverty, tobacco is consumed at the expense of basic needs. In a large national sample from Cambodia, we sought to determine whether tobacco consumption declines under extreme <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of no income and malnutrition. Our major findings are as follows: (1) Among men, there was no significant difference in the number of cigarettes smoked for no income (425, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 395-456) versus >US$2 per day (442, 95% CI = 407-477); (2) among women, there was no significant difference in the amount of loose tobacco (ie, betel quid) consumed for no income (539 g, 95% CI = 441-637) versus >US$2 per day (558 g, 95% CI = 143-973); (3) for the contrast of no income + malnutrition versus >US$2 per day + no malnutrition in a linear model, there was no significant difference for men who smoked (462 vs 517 cigarettes/month, P = .82) or women who chewed (316 vs 404 g tobacco/month, P = .34), adjusting for confounders. Among the poorest and malnourished Cambodian adults, lack of resources did not appear to prevent them from obtaining smoked or smokeless tobacco.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Singh, Pramil N.; Washburn, Dawn; Yel, Daravuth; Kheam, They; Job, Jayakaran S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2170428"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of iron in Mycobacterium smegmatis biofilm formation: the exochelin siderophore is essential in <span class="hlt">limiting</span> iron <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for biofilm formation but not for planktonic growth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many species of mycobacteria form structured biofilm communities at liquid–air interfaces and on solid surfaces. Full development of Mycobacterium smegmatis biofilms requires addition of supplemental iron above 1 ?M ferrous sulphate, although addition of iron is not needed for planktonic growth. Microarray analysis of the M. smegmatis transcriptome shows that iron-responsive genes – especially those involved in siderophore synthesis and iron uptake – are strongly induced during biofilm formation reflecting a response to iron deprivation, even when 2 ?M iron is present. The acquisition of iron under these <span class="hlt">conditions</span> is specifically dependent on the exochelin synthesis and uptake pathways, and the strong defect of an iron–exochelin uptake mutant suggests a regulatory role of iron in the transition to biofilm growth. In contrast, although the expression of mycobactin and iron ABC transport operons is highly upregulated during biofilm formation, mutants in these systems form normal biofilms in low-iron (2 ?M) <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. A close correlation between iron availability and matrix-associated fatty acids implies a possible metabolic role in the late stages of biofilm maturation, in addition to the early regulatory role. M. smegmatis surface motility is similarly dependent on iron availability, requiring both supplemental iron and the exochelin pathway to acquire it.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ojha, Anil; Hatfull, Graham F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24959038"> <span id="translatedtitle">Myofibroblasts in <span class="hlt">oral</span> lesions: A review.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Myofibroblasts (MFs) are modified fibroblasts that express features of smooth muscle differentiation and were first observed in granulation tissue during wound healing. These cells play a key role in physiologic and pathologic processes like wound healing and tumorigenesis. The presence of MFs has been reported in normal <span class="hlt">oral</span> tissues and pathologic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> like reactive lesions, benign tumors, locally aggressive tumors and malignancies affecting the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. This article briefly reviews the important hallmarks related to the discovery, characterization and tissue distribution of MFs in <span class="hlt">oral</span> health and disease. PMID:24959038</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pinisetti, Soujanya; Manyam, Ravikanth; Suresh, Babburi; Aparna, V</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4065449"> <span id="translatedtitle">Myofibroblasts in <span class="hlt">oral</span> lesions: A review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Myofibroblasts (MFs) are modified fibroblasts that express features of smooth muscle differentiation and were first observed in granulation tissue during wound healing. These cells play a key role in physiologic and pathologic processes like wound healing and tumorigenesis. The presence of MFs has been reported in normal <span class="hlt">oral</span> tissues and pathologic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> like reactive lesions, benign tumors, locally aggressive tumors and malignancies affecting the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. This article briefly reviews the important hallmarks related to the discovery, characterization and tissue distribution of MFs in <span class="hlt">oral</span> health and disease.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pinisetti, Soujanya; Manyam, Ravikanth; Suresh, Babburi; Aparna, V</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3220060"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> hairy leukoplakia: An exfoliative cytology study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is a white, hyperplastic, vertically corrugated lesion that occurs on the lateral border of the tongue, usually unilateral. Caused by the Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV), the lesion is said to be an early indicator of an immune deficiency status, thereby unmasking subclinical systemic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. OHL mimics many other white lesions of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity; therefore, it becomes imperative to identify the lesion. This study used exfoliative cytology, a noninvasive procedure, which helped in identifying the cellular changes brought about by the virus in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> epithelium. The study revealed a subclinical phase of OHL, where the cellular changes were seen even before the appearance of the clinical lesion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reginald, Ajay; Sivapathasundharam, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3084574"> <span id="translatedtitle">Respiratory disease and the role of <span class="hlt">oral</span> bacteria</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relationship between <span class="hlt">oral</span> health and systemic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, including the association between poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene, periodontal disease, and respiratory disease, has been increasingly debated over recent decades. A considerable number of hypotheses have sought to explain the possible role of <span class="hlt">oral</span> bacteria in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases, and some clinical and epidemiological studies have found results favoring such an association. This review discusses the effect of <span class="hlt">oral</span> bacteria on respiratory disease, briefly introduces the putative biological mechanisms involved, and the main factors that could contribute to this relationship. It also describes the role of <span class="hlt">oral</span> care for individuals who are vulnerable to respiratory infections.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gomes-Filho, Isaac S.; Passos, Johelle S.; Seixas da Cruz, Simone</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17162357"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> tolerance: therapeutic implications for autoimmune diseases.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> tolerance is classically defined as the suppression of immune responses to antigens (Ag) that have been administered previously by the <span class="hlt">oral</span> route. Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by <span class="hlt">oral</span> Ag. Low doses favor active suppression, whereas higher doses favor clonal anergy/deletion. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Ag induces Th2 (IL-4/IL-10) and Th3 (TGF-beta) regulatory T cells (Tregs) plus CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells and LAP+T cells. Induction of <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance is enhanced by IL-4, IL-10, anti-IL-12, TGF-beta, cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), Flt-3 ligand, anti-CD40 ligand and continuous feeding of Ag. In addition to <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance, nasal tolerance has also been shown to be effective in suppressing inflammatory <span class="hlt">conditions</span> with the advantage of a lower dose requirement. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> and nasal tolerance suppress several animal models of autoimmune diseases including experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis and diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, plus non-autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, colitis and stroke. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> tolerance has been tested in human autoimmune diseases including MS, arthritis, uveitis and diabetes and in allergy, contact sensitivity to DNCB, nickel allergy. Positive results have been observed in phase II trials and new trials for arthritis, MS and diabetes are underway. Mucosal tolerance is an attractive approach for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases because of lack of toxicity, ease of administration over time and Ag-specific mechanism of action. The successful application of <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance for the treatment of human diseases will depend on dose, developing immune markers to assess immunologic effects, route (nasal versus <span class="hlt">oral</span>), formulation, mucosal adjuvants, combination therapy and early therapy. PMID:17162357</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Faria, Ana M C; Weiner, Howard L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7168S"> <span id="translatedtitle">The water regime of silver (Betula pendula Roth) and Karelian (Betula pendula var. carelica) birches under sufficient and <span class="hlt">limited</span> soil moisture <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The sensitivity of the silver (Betula pendula Roth) and Karelian (Betula pendula var. carelica) birches to different soil moisture <span class="hlt">conditions</span> was investigated using results of field measurements provided in 2008-11 at forest experimental sites of the Forest Research Institute of Karelian Research Center of RAS in Karelia, Russia. Karelian birch is a specific form of the silver birch and it is characterized by structural abnormalities of trunk tissues (thickenings on the trunk, the marble-like pattern and figured wood) that results in considerable reduction of number of xylem vessels and increase of parenchyma cell number (Novitskaya, 2008). For experimental study several three-, five- and seven-year old trees of the silver and Karelian birches were selected. The transpiration rate of the leaves (E) was determined using the portable photosynthesis system Li-6400XTR (Li-Cor, USA). Leaf water potential of photosynthesizing leaves (?) was measured using the pressure chamber. Amount of available water in leaves (WCf), water deficit (WSD) and saturating leaf water content (WCs) were calculated using the following equations: WCf = (Wf -Wd)/ Wd (gwatergdryweight-1), WSD = (Ws - Wf)/(Ws - Wd) (%), WCs= (Ws- Wf) / Wd (gwatergdryweight-1), where Wf and Wd - fresh and dried leaf biomass, Ws - weight of the leaves at saturation. Comparisons of three and five years old birches showed that the differences between WSD and WCs of the Karelian and silver birch increased with tree age. It can be explained that the Karelian birch has increased parenchyma and significant amount of water can be additionally stored there. Comparisons of WSD and WCs of silver birches of both forms show that the differences between forms increase with growth of water deficit in plants. It was observed in both seasonal and daily patterns. The largest differences were indicated at the afternoon and at the end of growing season (from middle of August until September). These results also show that WSD and WCs of the Karelian birch were some smaller than the silver birch values probably due to some additional "water source" that has the Karelian birch in the bark parenchyma. Analysis of seasonal pattern of E of seven years old birches showed that the daily E of the silver birch is some higher than E of Karelian ones. Comparisons of E of both forms under stressed soil moisture <span class="hlt">conditions</span> showed a higher decrease in E and leaf water content at the afternoon for the silver birch. It also indicates that the Karelian birch can store more water due to some specific features of assimilation mechanisms and xylem structure. Comparison of water potentials of both birch forms didn't reveal any significant differences. However, it was shown that the Karelian birch has usually lower values of ? than the silver birch.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sazonova, T.; Pridacha, V.; Olchev, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1395328"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of mothers' socio-economic status on the management of febrile <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in their under five children in a resource <span class="hlt">limited</span> setting</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Public health research is shifting focus to the role of socioeconomic indicators in the promotion of health. As such an understanding of the roles that socio-economic factors play in improving health and health-seeking behaviour is important for public health policy. This is because the share of resources devoted to different policy options should depend on their relative effectiveness. Objective To measure the effect of socio-economic status (age, education, occupation, income, religion and family structure) of mothers on the management of febrile <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in under-fives children Method Two hundred mothers who brought their febrile under-five children to a health facility were interviewed on the treatment they gave to their children before reporting at health facility. Data collected were entered and analyzed using the SPSS software. Binary logistic regression was adopted for the quantitative analysis of the effect of socio-economic variables on the mothers' actions prior to utilizing the health facility. Results Results showed that while mothers' age was negatively correlated (-0.13), occupation was positively correlated (0.17) with under-fives mothers' action. Education, religion, income and family structure were however insignificant at 5% level Conclusion This poses a lot of challenges to policy makers in the developing nations where women's education and earning capacity is low. There is therefore a need to increase the number of women benefiting from micro credit. This will ensure that more women are engaged in a form of occupation that is profitable and can sustain the economic and health needs of the family.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Olaogun, Adenike AE; Adebayo, Abayomi A; Ayandiran, Olufemi E; Olasode, Olayinka A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3769235"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bile Salts Affect Expression of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Genes for Virulence and Iron Acquisition, and Promote Growth under Iron <span class="hlt">Limiting</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bile salts exhibit potent antibacterial properties, acting as detergents to disrupt cell membranes and as DNA-damaging agents. Although bacteria inhabiting the intestinal tract are able to resist bile’s antimicrobial effects, relatively little is known about how bile influences virulence of enteric pathogens. Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important pathogen of humans, capable of causing severe diarrhea and more serious sequelae. In this study, the transcriptome response of E. coli O157:H7 to bile was determined. Bile exposure induced significant changes in mRNA levels of genes related to virulence potential, including a reduction of mRNA for the 41 genes making up the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island. Bile treatment had an unusual effect on mRNA levels for the entire flagella-chemotaxis regulon, resulting in two- to four-fold increases in mRNA levels for genes associated with the flagella hook-basal body structure, but a two-fold decrease for “late” flagella genes associated with the flagella filament, stator motor, and chemotaxis. Bile salts also caused increased mRNA levels for seventeen genes associated with iron scavenging and metabolism, and counteracted the inhibitory effect of the iron chelating agent 2,2’-dipyridyl on growth of E. coli O157:H7. These findings suggest that E. coli O157:H7 may use bile as an environmental signal to adapt to changing <span class="hlt">conditions</span> associated with the small intestine, including adaptation to an iron-scarce environment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hamner, Steve; McInnerney, Kate; Williamson, Kerry; Franklin, Michael J.; Ford, Timothy E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24058617"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bile salts affect expression of Escherichia coli O157:H7 genes for virulence and iron acquisition, and promote growth under iron <span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bile salts exhibit potent antibacterial properties, acting as detergents to disrupt cell membranes and as DNA-damaging agents. Although bacteria inhabiting the intestinal tract are able to resist bile's antimicrobial effects, relatively little is known about how bile influences virulence of enteric pathogens. Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important pathogen of humans, capable of causing severe diarrhea and more serious sequelae. In this study, the transcriptome response of E. coli O157:H7 to bile was determined. Bile exposure induced significant changes in mRNA levels of genes related to virulence potential, including a reduction of mRNA for the 41 genes making up the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island. Bile treatment had an unusual effect on mRNA levels for the entire flagella-chemotaxis regulon, resulting in two- to four-fold increases in mRNA levels for genes associated with the flagella hook-basal body structure, but a two-fold decrease for "late" flagella genes associated with the flagella filament, stator motor, and chemotaxis. Bile salts also caused increased mRNA levels for seventeen genes associated with iron scavenging and metabolism, and counteracted the inhibitory effect of the iron chelating agent 2,2'-dipyridyl on growth of E. coli O157:H7. These findings suggest that E. coli O157:H7 may use bile as an environmental signal to adapt to changing <span class="hlt">conditions</span> associated with the small intestine, including adaptation to an iron-scarce environment. PMID:24058617</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hamner, Steve; McInnerney, Kate; Williamson, Kerry; Franklin, Michael J; Ford, Timothy E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18430286"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using Personal Digital Assistants to improve self-care in <span class="hlt">oral</span> health.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We conducted a pilot project to evaluate the potential of Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) technologies to improve the <span class="hlt">oral</span> health of people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities, chronic health problems and a long-standing history of poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> health self-care. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> health video and audio materials were prepared and transferred to PDAs. Patients were trained in the use of the PDAs at a regular dental appointment and the utilization of the PDA and any change in <span class="hlt">oral</span> health status was tracked over the next six months. More than half of the 36 patients reported problems in keeping the PDAs functioning properly (mainly problems of keeping the batteries charged) for the duration of the project and 11 patients dropped out of the study. Ten of the remainder (40%) achieved improvement in at least three areas of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health. The pilot project potentially brings a range of health promotion activities within the reach of people with <span class="hlt">limited</span> health literacy which may produce better self-management of chronic health <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. PMID:18430286</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O'Hara, David M; Seagriff-Curtin, Patricia; Levitz, Mitchell; Davies, Daniel; Stock, Steven</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/x057n382205j1646.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Delivery of Taxanes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> treatment with cytotoxic agents is tobe preferred as this administration routeis convenient to patients, reducesadministration costs and facilitates theuse of more chronic treatment regimens. Forthe taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel,however, low <span class="hlt">oral</span> bioavailability haslimited development of treatment by theoral route. Preclinical studies with mdr1aP-glycoprotein knock-out mice, which lackfunctional P-glycoprotein activity in thegut, have shown significant bioavailabilityof <span class="hlt">orally</span> administered paclitaxel.Additional studies</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mirte M. Malingré; Jos H. Beijnen; Jan H. M. Schellens</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8406952"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Cambodian National <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Plan 1992-2000.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The reconstruction of dental services and training in Cambodia following the devastation of the country during the reign of the Khmer Rouge has been <span class="hlt">limited</span> by minimal help from other countries for political reasons. Following the recent signing of a peace treaty, a National Conference on <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health has been held, and a National <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Plan formulated, outlining goals for the year 2000, and strategies to improve the <span class="hlt">oral</span> health status in the country. PMID:8406952</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Durward, C S; Todd, R V</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3990394"> <span id="translatedtitle">Treatment of Children with Protein - Losing Enteropathy After Fontan and Other Complex Congenital Heart Disease Procedures in <span class="hlt">Condition</span> with <span class="hlt">Limited</span> Human and Technical Resources</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is a disorder characterized by abnormal and often profound enteric protein loss. It’s relatively uncommon complication of Fontan and other complex congenital heart disease (CCHD) procedures. Because of the complexity and rarity of this disease process, the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of protein-losing enteropathy remain poorly understood, and attempts at treatment seldom yield long-term success. Aim of presentation is to describe single centre experience in diagnosis, evaluation, management and treatment of children with protein-losing enteropathy after Fontan and other CCHD procedures in the current era and in centre with <span class="hlt">limited</span> human and technical resources, follows with a comprehensive review of protein-losing enteropathy publications, and concludes with suggestions for prevention and treatment. Material and methodology Retrospectively we analyzed patients with CCHD and protein-losing enteropathy in our institution, starting from January 2000 to December 2012. The including criteria were age between two and 17 years, to have a complex congenital heart disease and available complete documentation of cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. Results Of all patients we evaluated 18 cases with protein-losing enteropathy, aged 6 to 19 years (mean 14±9); there were three children who had undergone screening procedure for D-transposition, one Tetralogy of Fallot, and remaining 14 patients had undergone Fontan procedures; (anatomic diagnosis are: six with tricuspid atresia, seven with d-transposition, double outlet right ventricle and pulmonary atresia and two with hypoplastic left heart syndrome). The diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy was made at median age of 5.6 years, ranging from 13 months to 15 years. Diagnosis was made using alpha 1-antitrypsin as a gold marker in stool. By physical examination in 14 patients edema was found, in three ascites, and six patients had pleural effusion. Laboratory findings at the time of diagnosis are: abnormal enteric protein loss was documented at the time of diagnosis in all 18 patients. At the time of diagnosis all patients receiving some form of anticoagulation, 17 patients receiving other medication: 17 – diuretics and ACE inhibitors, 12 digoxin, 9 antiarrhytmics. Cross-sectional echocardiography was performed for all patients and different abnormalities were registered. In 14 patients also magnetic resonance was performed. Therapeutic approach was based on the non-specific medication (diet, diuretics, digoxin, ACE inhibitors, and anticoagulants), heparin and corticosteroids therapy. Long-term response to this type of therapy was registered in three patients. Nine patients underwent treatment with heparin and corticosteroids and no one experienced long term benefit. Despite of needs for catheter therapy or surgical intervention in our study, in the absent of technical and human resources now any one had underwent those procedures. Six patients has been transferred abroad and in five of them surgical intervention was perform. Conclusion Protein-losing enteropathy remains a devastating complication of Fontan procedure and despite in advantages in surgical and medical therapy there is no evidence that protein-losing enteropathy is less common in the current area.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bejiqi, Ramush; Retkoceri, Ragip; Zeka, Naim; Bejiqi, Hana; Vuqiterna, Armend; Maloku, Arlinda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3740676"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis in a maxillofacial trauma patient</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Myiasis is a rare disease primarily caused by the invasion of tissue by larvae of certain dipteran flies. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis is still more “rare” and “unique” owing to the fact that <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity rarely provides the necessary habitat conducive for a larval lifecycle. Common predisposing factors are poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene, halitosis, trauma, senility, learning disabilities, physically and mentally challenged <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis can lead to rapid tissue destruction and disfigurement and requires immediate treatment. Treatment consists of manual removal of maggots from the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity after application of chemical agents. Good sanitation, personal and environmental hygiene and cleanliness and special care for debilitated persons are the best methods to prevent <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis. This case report describes the presentation of <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis caused by musca nebulo (common house fly) in a 40-year-old male patient, with recent maxillofacial trauma. The patient was treated by manual removal larvae by topical application of turpentine oil, followed by surgical debridement of the wound and open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vinit, Grandim Balarama Gupta; Jayavelu, Perumal; Shrutha, Santhebachali Prakasha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23956607"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis in a maxillofacial trauma patient.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Myiasis is a rare disease primarily caused by the invasion of tissue by larvae of certain dipteran flies. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis is still more "rare" and "unique" owing to the fact that <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity rarely provides the necessary habitat conducive for a larval lifecycle. Common predisposing factors are poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene, halitosis, trauma, senility, learning disabilities, physically and mentally challenged <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis can lead to rapid tissue destruction and disfigurement and requires immediate treatment. Treatment consists of manual removal of maggots from the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity after application of chemical agents. Good sanitation, personal and environmental hygiene and cleanliness and special care for debilitated persons are the best methods to prevent <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis. This case report describes the presentation of <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis caused by musca nebulo (common house fly) in a 40-year-old male patient, with recent maxillofacial trauma. The patient was treated by manual removal larvae by topical application of turpentine oil, followed by surgical debridement of the wound and open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture. PMID:23956607</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vinit, Grandim Balarama Gupta; Jayavelu, Perumal; Shrutha, Santhebachali Prakasha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24842447"> <span id="translatedtitle">Restricted mouth opening and trismus in <span class="hlt">oral</span> oncology.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Restricted mouth opening (RMO) and trismus are terms commonly used in <span class="hlt">oral</span> oncology in instances where there is difficulty in mouth opening. The term trismus in <span class="hlt">oral</span> oncology is mainly used to indicate the radiation-induced fibrosis of the muscles of mastication. The treatment given for RMO as reported in the literature is given for muscular dysfunction trismus, whereas RMO in <span class="hlt">oral</span> oncology can occur owing to various reasons other than muscular dysfunction. RMO occurs in various <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity; in posterior pharyngeal infection, where it is termed reflectory trismus; in <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis; in <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosal disorders; in the use of certain drugs; and in minor dental procedures of the posterior <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. The usage of the term trismus in all RMO cases would complicate the treatment; thus, the word should not be used in all RMO cases. PMID:24842447</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Satheeshkumar, P S; Mohan, Minu P; Jacob, Jayan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21093629"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> manifestations of hematologic and nutritional diseases.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> manifestations of hematologic and nutritional deficiencies can affect the mucous membranes, teeth, periodontal tissues, salivary glands, and perioral skin. This article reviews common <span class="hlt">oral</span> manifestations of hematologic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> starting with disorders of the white blood cells including cyclic hematopoiesis (cyclic neutropenia), leukemias, lymphomas, plasma cell dyscrasias, and mast cell disorders; this is followed by a discussion of the impact of red blood cell disorders including anemias and less common red blood cell dyscrasias (sickle cell disease, hemochromatosis, and congenital erythropoietic porphyria) as well as thrombocytopenia. Several nutritional deficiencies exhibit <span class="hlt">oral</span> manifestations. The authors specifically discuss the impact of water-soluble vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B9, B12, and C), fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and K) and the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa on the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa. PMID:21093629</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schlosser, Bethanee J; Pirigyi, Megan; Mirowski, Ginat W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED291101.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contemporary Heroes as Role Models for <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Language Development.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> language has primacy both developmentally and by virtue of use for most individuals in our society; however, the development of <span class="hlt">oral</span> language for many children is left to chance. Although English education journals have resounded with exhortations to teachers about the importance of encouraging children to talk, the recent <span class="hlt">limited</span> research…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davis, Diana F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29552475"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carbon dioxide laser <span class="hlt">oral</span> safety parameters for teeth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The carbon dioxide laser is used in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity for a variety of procedures. Although the procedures may not involve the teeth directly, precaution should be exercised to preserve their integrity. The results of this study indicate that the most <span class="hlt">limiting</span> parameter for <span class="hlt">oral</span> use of the COâ laser is damage to the enamel surface, which could be inflicted</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Lynn Powell; Brian K. Whisenant; Thomas H. Morton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39231886"> <span id="translatedtitle">Materiality and <span class="hlt">oral</span> documents</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Information professionals focus on artifacts. This focus shows the value information science has placed on materiality or physicality in its efforts to preserve and make artifacts in specific media accessible. But this focus has proven less useful when dealing with information that becomes available <span class="hlt">orally</span>. As a strategy to increase understanding of <span class="hlt">oral</span> information, Turner asserted that it can emerge</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deborah Turner; Warren Allen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22609283"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phase behavior and <span class="hlt">oral</span> bioavailability of amorphous Curcumin.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Amorphous form has been used as a means to improve aqueous solubility and <span class="hlt">oral</span> bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. The objective of present study was to characterize thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of amorphous form of Curcumin (CRM-A). CRM-A was found to be a good glass former with glass transition temperature (T(g)) of 342.64K and critical cooling rate below 1K/min. CRM-A had a moderate tendency of crystallization and exhibited Kauzmann temperature (T(KS)) of 294.23 K. CRM-A was found to be fragile in nature as determined by T(m)/T(g) (1.32), C(p)(1 iq):C(p)(glass) (1.22), strength parameter (D<10), fragility index (m>75), T(K)/T(g) (0.85), and T(g)-T(K) (48.41). Theoretically predicted aqueous solubility advantage of 43.15-folds, was reduced to 17-folds under practical <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. This reduction in solubility was attributed to water induced devitrification, as evident through PXRD and SEM analysis. Further, <span class="hlt">oral</span> bioavailability study of CRM-A was undertaken to investigate bioavailability benefits, if any. C(max) was improved by 1.97-folds (statistically significant difference over control). However, <span class="hlt">oral</span> bioavailability (AUC(0-)(?)) was improved by 1.45-folds (statistically non significant difference over control). These observations pointed towards role of rapid devitrification of CRM-A in GIT milieu, thus <span class="hlt">limiting</span> its <span class="hlt">oral</span> bioavailability advantage. PMID:22609283</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pawar, Yogesh B; Shete, Ganesh; Popat, Dharmesh; Bansal, Arvind K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3927385"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparative Study of Expression of Smad3 in <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Lichen Planus and Normal <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Mucosa</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa which is considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a premalignant <span class="hlt">condition</span>. One step in malignant development is so called epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process whereby epithelial cells acquire mesenchymal characteristics. A factor known to induce EMT is the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), which uses the Smad proteins as mediators for its signaling. The aim of this study was to compare the expression of Smad 3 in <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Lichen Planus and normal <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa. This descriptive analytic study was performed on 30 patients with OLP (21 women and 9 men with mean age of 45.23± 2.44 years) and 20 normal <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa (14 women and 6 men with mean age of 46.95± 2.21 years). The samples were studied by immunohistochemical staining. Data were analyzed with paired T-test and Wilcoxon test by SPSS software. Expression of Smad3 in OLP samples and normal <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa was different. This difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). The apparently higher expression of Smad 3 in <span class="hlt">oral</span> lichen planus compared to normal <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa might help to discuss its higher potential for malignant transition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nafarzadeh, Shima; Ejtehadi, Samad; Amini Shakib, Pouyan; Fereidooni, Majid; Bijani, Ali</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2390522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and non-neoplastic <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases in Europe and the United States</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background How smokeless tobacco contributes to non-neoplastic <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases is unclear. It certainly increases risk of <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosal lesions, but reviewers disagree as to other <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. In some areas, especially South-East Asia, risk is difficult to quantify due to the many products, compositions (including non-tobacco ingredients), and usage practices involved. This review considers studies from Europe (in practice mainly Scandinavia) and from the USA. Methods Experimental and epidemiological studies published in 1963–2007 were identified that related risk of <span class="hlt">oral</span> lesions to smokeless tobacco use. Data were assessed separately for <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosal lesions, periodontal and gingival diseases, dental caries and tooth loss, and <span class="hlt">oral</span> pain. Results <span class="hlt">Oral</span> mucosal lesions: Thirty-three epidemiological studies consistently show a strong dose-related effect of current snuff on <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosal lesion prevalence. In Scandinavia, users have a near 100% prevalence of a characteristic "snuff-induced lesion", but prevalence of the varied lesions reported in the USA is lower. Associations with chewing tobacco are weaker. The lack of clear association with former use suggests reversibility following cessation, consistent with experimental studies showing rapid lesion regression on quitting. Periodontal and gingival diseases: Two of four studies report a significant association of snuff with attachment loss and four out of eight with gingival recession. Snuff is not clearly related to gingivitis or periodontal diseases. <span class="hlt">Limited</span> evidence suggests chewing tobacco is unrelated to periodontal or gingival diseases. Tooth loss: Swedish studies show no association with snuff, but one US study reported an association with snuff, and another with chewing tobacco. Dental caries: Evidence from nine studies suggests a possible relationship with use of smokeless tobacco, particularly chewing tobacco, and the risk of dental caries. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> pain: <span class="hlt">Limited</span> evidence precludes any clear conclusion. Conclusion This review confirms the strong association of current use of smokeless tobacco, particularly snuff, with prevalence of <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosal lesions. It provides suggestive evidence of an association of snuff use with gingival recession and attachment loss, and of chewing tobacco with dental caries. While smokeless tobacco clearly increases risk of <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosal lesions, interpretation for other endpoints is <span class="hlt">limited</span> by study weaknesses, including poor confounding control.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kallischnigg, Gerd; Weitkunat, Rolf; Lee, Peter N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4065477"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genes and <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> cancers have been one of the leading causes of deaths particularly in the developing countries. Prime reason for this high mortality and morbidity is attributed to the delay in diagnosis and prompt treatment. Relentless research in the field of oncology has led to the advent of novel procedures for the early detection of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancers. Molecular biology is highly promising in this regard. It is a procedure that detects alterations at a molecular level much before they are seen under a microscope and much before clinical changes occur. Molecular studies serve as the basis by which we will eventually be able not only to augment clinical assessment and classification of <span class="hlt">oral</span> lesions but also predict malignant potential of <span class="hlt">oral</span> lesions, thus reducing the incidence and increasing the scope for early diagnosis and treatment of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancers. However, making such sophisticated tools available for the common man in developing countries is one of the most important challenges faced today.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jurel, Sunit Kumar; Gupta, Durga Shanker; Singh, Raghuwar D.; Singh, Mrinalini; Srivastava, Shilpi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-10-12/pdf/2010-25552.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 62591 - <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Argument</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Argument AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board...hereby given of the scheduling of <span class="hlt">oral</span> argument in the matters of: Hyginus U. Aguzie...or ``Board'') will hear <span class="hlt">oral</span> argument in the matters of Hyginus U....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-09-15/pdf/2010-22921.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 56146 - <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Argument</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Argument AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board...hereby given of the scheduling of <span class="hlt">oral</span> argument in the matters of Rhonda K. Conyers...or ``Board'') will hear <span class="hlt">oral</span> argument in the matters of Rhonda K....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.aaom.com"> <span id="translatedtitle">American Academy of <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Medicine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... the Date! AAOM: Representing the Discipline of <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Medicine <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for <span class="hlt">oral</span> medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands We ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24841464"> <span id="translatedtitle">Maintaining <span class="hlt">oral</span> health across the life span.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">: <span class="hlt">Oral</span> health is directly related to systemic health, yet many Americans have <span class="hlt">limited</span> to no access to dental health professionals. Nurse practitioners are in an excellent position to fill this void by providing caries risk assessments, chemical therapy to prevent progression of caries, and appropriate patient education to prevent caries. PMID:24841464</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jablonski, Rita; Mertz, Elizabeth; Featherstone, John D B; Fulmer, Terry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5649948"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Limiter</span> study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Studies of energy deposition on a mushroom-shaped <span class="hlt">limiter</span> have been performed on ZT-40M. Total energy deposition, estimated power deposition per unit area, the effects of gas puffing and vertical and error field application, and approximate time histories of the extent of the impact area are presented for two different current levels (120 and 190 kA), protrusions into the body of the plasma (+2 - +12 mm from the wall) and <span class="hlt">limiter</span> materials. Photographs of a bare graphite and TiC-coated graphite <span class="hlt">limiter</span> before and after exposure to the plasma are shown. Massive spallation of the TiC-coated <span class="hlt">limiter</span> is observed at the higher current level. Spallation occurs during the discharge and after termination. The degree of spallation is dependent on the current level. The average power deposition on the <span class="hlt">limiter</span> over the discharge is estimated to be less than or equal to 1 MW.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Downing, J.N.; Gordon, R.A.; Thomas, K.S.; Watt, R.G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23966202"> <span id="translatedtitle">Examining the association between <span class="hlt">oral</span> health and <span class="hlt">oral</span> HPV infection.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health in <span class="hlt">oral</span> HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between <span class="hlt">oral</span> health and <span class="hlt">oral</span> HPV infection and the interactive effects of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health, smoking, and <span class="hlt">oral</span> sex on <span class="hlt">oral</span> HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on <span class="hlt">oral</span> HPV and <span class="hlt">oral</span> health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of <span class="hlt">oral</span> HPV infection was associated with four measures of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health, including self-rated <span class="hlt">oral</span> health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, <span class="hlt">oral</span> HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall <span class="hlt">oral</span> health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and <span class="hlt">oral</span> sex. In conclusion, poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> health was an independent risk factor of <span class="hlt">oral</span> HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and <span class="hlt">oral</span> sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene and <span class="hlt">oral</span> health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancers. PMID:23966202</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3578149"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanism of <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Tolerance Induction to Therapeutic Proteins</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> tolerance is defined as the specific suppression of humoral and / or cellular immune responses to an antigen by administration of the same antigen through the <span class="hlt">oral</span> route. Due to its absence of toxicity, easy administration, and antigen specificity, <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance is a very attractive approach to prevent unwanted immune responses that cause a variety of diseases or that complicate treatment of a disease. Many researchers have induced <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance to efficiently treat autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in different animal models. However, clinical trials yielded <span class="hlt">limited</span> success. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance induction to therapeutic proteins is critical for paving the way for clinical development of <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance protocols. This review will summarize progress on understanding the major underlying tolerance mechanisms and contributors, including antigen presenting cells, regulatory T cells, cytokines, and signaling pathways. Potential applications, examples for therapeutic proteins and disease targets, and recent developments in delivery methods are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Xiaomei; Sherman, Alexandra; Liao, Gongxian; Leong, Kam W.; Daniell, Henry; Terhorst, Cox; Herzog, Roland W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3500272"> <span id="translatedtitle">Parental reports of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> health-related quality of life of children with cerebral palsy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background The severity of physical and mental impairments and <span class="hlt">oral</span> problems, as well as socioeconomic factors, may have an impact on quality of life of children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this research was to assess the impact of impairments and <span class="hlt">oral</span> health <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, adjusted by socioeconomic factors, on the <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children with CP using their parents as proxies. Methods Sixty children, between 6-14 years of age were selected. Their parents answered a children’s OHRQoL instrument (5 domains) which combines the Parental-Caregivers Perception Questionnaire (P-CPQ) and Family Impact Scale (FIS). The severity of dental caries, type of CP, communication ability, gross motor function, seizures and socioeconomic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> were assessed. Results Considering the total score of the OHRQoL instrument, only the reduction of communication ability and dental caries severity had a negative impact on the OHRQoL (p?<?0.05). Considering each domain of the instrument, the severity of the type of CP and its reduction of communication ability showed a negative impact on <span class="hlt">oral</span> symptoms and functional <span class="hlt">limitations</span> domains (p?<?0.05). Seizures have a negative impact on <span class="hlt">oral</span> symptoms domain (p?=?0.006). The multivariate fitted model showed that the severity of dental caries, communication ability and low family income were negatively associated with the impact on OHRQoL (p?=?0.001). Conclusions The severity of dental caries, communication ability, and family income are <span class="hlt">conditions</span> strongly associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL of children with CP.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14658829"> <span id="translatedtitle">Huli <span class="hlt">oral</span> health.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Tari <span class="hlt">oral</span> health study was conducted in 1985 and aimed to provide an <span class="hlt">oral</span> health profile of a rural highlands community. The sample was selected from the database of the Tari Research Unit, Southern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea and consisted of 815 Huli people aged from 3 to 64 years, in seven age groups, who were examined for <span class="hlt">oral</span> health status and had completed an interview-questionnaire. A wide range of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health status was seen, ranging from excellent to very poor. Dental caries and periodontal disease were common in the population. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> habits such as smoking and betelnut chewing were associated with an increase in leukoplakia, which may lead to <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer in some people. Dental caries varied in prevalence and severity. Higher decayed, missing and filled teeth scores in the primary teeth of young children were associated with defective tooth formation (hypoplasia) linked to maternal and childhood illnesses and nutritional deficiencies. Older adults had the worst <span class="hlt">oral</span> health, with the 45-64 year old group having a caries prevalence of 95% and a decayed, missing and filled teeth score of 14.7. Root surface caries, seen as a consequence of poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene and gum recession, was the major site of caries attack in the older Hull. The public <span class="hlt">oral</span> health services are unable to reach a large proportion of the rural population, and people continue to use traditional herbal and folk remedies. Many seek the skills of local tooth extractors who use six-inch nails with no anaesthetic. PMID:14658829</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Newell, Paul L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23060540"> <span id="translatedtitle">Viral and molecular aspects of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common epithelial malignancy in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. SCCs and their variants constitute over 90% of <span class="hlt">oral</span> malignancies, and the disease is associated with poor prognosis. OSCC is a complex malignancy where environmental factors, virus infections, and genetic alterations most likely interact, and thus give rise to the malignant <span class="hlt">condition</span>. Herein, we review the available literature regarding high-risk factors such as alcohol and tobacco usage; discuss the roles of human papillomaviruses (HPV), the Epstein-Barr virus, and the human herpes simplex virus (HSV); and evaluate several candidate genes associated with the <span class="hlt">condition</span>: p53, p16(INK4) and p21(WAF1/CIPI), survivin, B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2), keratins, Fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF3), FGF4, FGF19, <span class="hlt">Oral</span> cancer overexpressed gene 1 (ORAOV1), and Cyclin D1 (CCND1). PMID:23060540</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hillbertz, Nicolette Salmon; Hirsch, Jan-Michaél; Jalouli, Jamshid; Jalouli, Miranda M; Sand, Lars</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3246241"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">oral</span> metagenome in health and disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity of humans is inhabited by hundreds of bacterial species and some of them have a key role in the development of <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases, mainly dental caries and periodontitis. We describe for the first time the metagenome of the human <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity under health and diseased <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, with a focus on supragingival dental plaque and cavities. Direct pyrosequencing of eight samples with different <span class="hlt">oral</span>-health status produced 1?Gbp of sequence without the biases imposed by PCR or cloning. These data show that cavities are not dominated by Streptococcus mutans (the species originally identified as the ethiological agent of dental caries) but are in fact a complex community formed by tens of bacterial species, in agreement with the view that caries is a polymicrobial disease. The analysis of the reads indicated that the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity is functionally a different environment from the gut, with many functional categories enriched in one of the two environments and depleted in the other. Individuals who had never suffered from dental caries showed an over-representation of several functional categories, like genes for antimicrobial peptides and quorum sensing. In addition, they did not have mutans streptococci but displayed high recruitment of other species. Several isolates belonging to these dominant bacteria in healthy individuals were cultured and shown to inhibit the growth of cariogenic bacteria, suggesting the use of these commensal bacterial strains as probiotics to promote <span class="hlt">oral</span> health and prevent dental caries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Belda-Ferre, Pedro; Alcaraz, Luis David; Cabrera-Rubio, Raul; Romero, Hector; Simon-Soro, Aurea; Pignatelli, Miguel; Mira, Alex</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35209719"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> low molecular weight heparin delivery by microparticles from complex coacervation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As low molecular weight heparins exhibit <span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">oral</span> absorption they usually have to be administered parenterally. Their strong negative charge appears to be one of the biggest hurdles to overcome in order to increase <span class="hlt">oral</span> absorption. Complex coacervation has been proposed as a microencapsulation technique for increased <span class="hlt">oral</span> drug absorption on the basis of charge compensation. Optimized tinzaparin\\/acacia gum mixture</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alf Lamprecht; Nathalie Ubrich; Philippe Maincent</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22periodontal+disease%22&id=EJ477885"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Burden in the United States: A Summary of Recent Epidemiological Studies.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article reviews recent large-scale epidemiological surveys of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health in the United States, outlines risk factors for <span class="hlt">oral</span> disease, and makes recommendations for future surveys. Discussion is <span class="hlt">limited</span> to dental caries, periodontal diseases, tooth loss, edentulism, <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer, and orofacial clefts. (Author/MSE)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Caplan, Daniel J.; Weintraub, Jane A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ914022.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Methodology in Seeking Stakeholder Perceptions of Effective Technical <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Presentations: An Exploratory Pilot Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Engineering communication studies indicate the importance of <span class="hlt">oral</span> presentations as an indispensable component of workplace <span class="hlt">oral</span> communication activities; however, since there is <span class="hlt">limited</span> literature regarding stakeholder perceptions of effective presentation skills and attributes in technical <span class="hlt">oral</span> presentations or final year engineering project…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bhattacharyya, Ena; Patil, Arun; Sargunan, Rajeswary Appacutty</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.hawaii.edu/hivandaids/The_Oral_Health_Consequences_of_Chewing_Areca_Nut.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">oral</span> health consequences of chewing areca nut</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Deleterious effects of areca nut on <span class="hlt">oral</span> soft tissues are published extensively in the dental literature. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal tissues, two major <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases, are less well researched. Areca-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa or tongue are reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers a <span class="hlt">condition</span> known as betel chewer's mucosa, a discoloured areca</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. R. Trivedy; G. Craig; S. Warnakulasuriya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Prevalence+AND+of+AND+Mental+AND+Health+AND+Problems%2c+AND+Treatment+AND+Need%2c&id=EJ904007"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vision and <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Needs of Individuals with Intellectual Disability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over the past 20 years, there has been an increased emphasis on health promotion, including prevention activities related to vision and <span class="hlt">oral</span> health, for the general population, but not for individuals with intellectual disability (ID). This review explores what is known about the prevalence of vision problems and <span class="hlt">oral</span> health <span class="hlt">conditions</span> among…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Owens, Pamela L.; Kerker, Bonnie D.; Zigler, Edward; Horwitz, Sarah M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED540592.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Language Skills to Build on the Emerging Literacy of Adult English Learners. CAELA Network Brief</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In addition to learning to read and write for the first time, adult English language learners with <span class="hlt">limited</span> or emerging literacy skills must acquire <span class="hlt">oral</span> English. Often, learners with <span class="hlt">limited</span> print literacy in their first language have <span class="hlt">oral</span> skills in English that exceed their English literacy skills (Geva & Zadeh, 2006). While this mismatch of <span class="hlt">oral</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vinogradov, Patsy; Bigelow, Martha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NucFu..52l3011W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observation of a new turbulence-driven <span class="hlt">limit</span>-cycle state in H-modes with lower hybrid current drive and lithium-wall <span class="hlt">conditioning</span> in the EAST superconducting tokamak</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The first high confinement H-mode plasma has been obtained in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with about 1 MW lower hybrid current drive after wall <span class="hlt">conditioning</span> by lithium evaporation and real-time injection of Li powder. Following the L-H transition, a small-amplitude, low-frequency oscillation, termed a <span class="hlt">limit</span>-cycle state, appears at the edge during the quiescent phase with good energy and particle confinement. Detailed measurements by edge Langmuir probes show modulation interaction and strong three-wave coupling between the low-frequency oscillations and high-frequency-broadband (80-500 kHz) turbulences that emerge after the L-H transition or in the inter-ELM phase. The potential fluctuations at the plasma edge are correlated with the <span class="hlt">limit</span>-cycle oscillations, and the fluctuations in the floating potential signals at different toroidal, poloidal and radial locations are strongly correlated with each other, with nearly no phase differences poloidally and toroidally, and finite phase difference radially, thus providing strong evidence for zonal flows. The growth, saturation and disappearance of the zonal flows are strongly correlated with those of the high-frequency turbulence. And the measurements demonstrate that the energy gain of zonal flows is of the same order as the energy loss of turbulence. This strongly suggests the interactions between zonal flows and high-frequency turbulences at the pedestal during the <span class="hlt">limit</span>-cycle state.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, H. Q.; Xu, G. S.; Guo, H. Y.; Wan, B. N.; Naulin, V.; Ding, S. Y.; Yan, N.; Zhang, W.; Wang, L.; Liu, S. C.; Chen, R.; Shao, L. M.; Xiong, H.; Liu, P.; Jiang, M.; Luo, G.-N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3961934"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis involving palatal mucosa of a young female</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In literal terms myiasis is the invasion of the tissues and organs of human beings by fly larvae. This phenomenon is well documented in the skin, especially among animals and people in developed and developing countries. When the tissues of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity are invaded by the parasitic larvae of flies, the <span class="hlt">condition</span> is called as <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis. With the paper we are presenting a case of 19-year-old female suffering from <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis of upper lip and palate. The treatment consisted of manual removal of the larvae, surgical debridement of the wound and <span class="hlt">oral</span> therapy with doxycycline used as a locally acting drug for faster and better recovery.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yadav, Suresh; Tyagi, Shallu; Kumar, Prince; Puri, Naveen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24678227"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis involving palatal mucosa of a young female.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In literal terms myiasis is the invasion of the tissues and organs of human beings by fly larvae. This phenomenon is well documented in the skin, especially among animals and people in developed and developing countries. When the tissues of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity are invaded by the parasitic larvae of flies, the <span class="hlt">condition</span> is called as <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis. With the paper we are presenting a case of 19-year-old female suffering from <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis of upper lip and palate. The treatment consisted of manual removal of the larvae, surgical debridement of the wound and <span class="hlt">oral</span> therapy with doxycycline used as a locally acting drug for faster and better recovery. PMID:24678227</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yadav, Suresh; Tyagi, Shallu; Kumar, Prince; Puri, Naveen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cancer.org/cancer/oralcavityandoropharyngealcancer/detailedguide/oral-cavity-and-oropharyngeal-cancer-what-is-oral-cavity-cancer"> <span id="translatedtitle">What Are <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? What are <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? <span class="hlt">Oral</span> cavity cancer, or just ... parts of the mouth and throat. The <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity (mouth) and oropharynx (throat) The <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity includes ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kidshealth.org/parent/infections/skin/thrush.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Thrush (For Parents)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... of the yeast (a type of fungus) called Candida albicans . Candida overgrowth can lead to vaginal (yeast) infections, diaper ... <span class="hlt">oral</span> thrush. Most people (including infants) naturally have Candida in their mouths and digestive tracts, which is ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/data/Journals/PEDS/5208/pap05005_784_784.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dehydration and <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Rehydration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... v <span class="hlt">Oral</span> rehydration fluids. These are also called electrolyte solutions. These fluids are made for situations when ... diarrhea. These fluids provide water as well as electrolytes (like salt), which the body loses during vomiting ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/OralHealth/Topics/OralCancer/OralCancerVideo.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Cancer Exam</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes HIV/AIDS Order Free Publications English and Spanish brochures available free of charge. ... early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications For Health Professionals Detecting <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Cancer: A Guide ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1982135"> <span id="translatedtitle">Epilepsy and <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Contraception</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A controlled cross-over trial in 20 epileptic women, receiving regular anticonvulsant therapy showed that an <span class="hlt">oral</span> contraceptive with a low oestrogen/ progestogen content had no significant effect on the average frequency of fits compared with identical dummy tablets.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Espir, Michael; Walker, M. E.; Lawson, June P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1969-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://journal.oraltradition.org/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Tradition Journal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stretching back thousands of years, the <span class="hlt">oral</span> traditions that have enriched and documented human existence remain a subject of much fascination. The <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Tradition Journal was founded in 1986 in order to "serve as an international and interdisciplinary forum for discussion of worldwide <span class="hlt">oral</span> traditions and related forms." The journal is based at the University of Missouri, and visitors to the site can search the entire run of the journal on this site by keyword or author. Clicking over to the "Browse the Journal" area, visitors can look over back issues that include special issues on the Serbo-Croatian <span class="hlt">oral</span> tradition, performance literature, and the performance artistry of Bob Dylan. The site is a real treat for anyone interested in the subject, and visitors can also learn how to submit their own work for possible inclusion in a forthcoming volume.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1381431"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of p53 protein expression in normal, benign, and malignant <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent studies have shown the accumulation of high levels of p53 protein to be associated with malignant disease, within a range of tissues. This paper assesses p53 expression in <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosal disease. Biopsies were obtained from a range of <span class="hlt">oral</span> disorders which included normal, benign, premalignant, and malignant <span class="hlt">oral</span> tissue. In addition, <span class="hlt">oral</span> smears were obtained from a <span class="hlt">limited</span> number of patients with biopsy-proven <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer. Expression of the p53 protein was assessed using the polyclonal antibody CM1, together with a standard immunoperoxidase technique. A total of 37 <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancers were assessed, of which 20 were found to express the p53 protein (54 per cent of cases). The p53 protein was not identified in normal, benign, or premalignant <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa (54 cases). The identification of p53 within biopsies of <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosal lesions would appear to correlate with <span class="hlt">oral</span> malignancy. PMID:1381431</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ogden, G R; Kiddie, R A; Lunny, D P; Lane, D P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> 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onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12357302"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effects of food on the pharmacokinetic profile of <span class="hlt">oral</span> vinorelbine.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of food on the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of a soft-gel capsule formulation of vinorelbine (Navelbine <span class="hlt">Oral</span>) were evaluated in fed and fasted patients with solid tumours or lymphomas. A group of 18 patients (12 planned) were entered into a multicentre phase I pharmacokinetic study following a crossover design with a 1-week wash-out period. Patients received the first dose of 80 mg/m(2) <span class="hlt">oral</span> vinorelbine either after fasting or after ingestion of a standard continental breakfast. The second dose of 80 mg/m(2) was administered 1 week later in the alternate feeding <span class="hlt">condition</span> to the first dose. Of the 18 patients, 13 were eligible for pharmacokinetic evaluation. The mean time to maximum concentration (T(max)) was shorter in fasted patients (1.63+/-0.98 h in blood, 1.67+/-0.96 h in plasma) than in fed patients (2.48+/-1.40 h in blood, 2.56+/-1.65 h in plasma) but these differences are not likely to modify the safety and/or efficacy of <span class="hlt">oral</span> vinorelbine. Values for C(max) and AUC were similar in fed and fasted patients and no significant differences were observed. The safety profile of <span class="hlt">oral</span> vinorelbine observed in this <span class="hlt">limited</span> number of patients appears to be comparable to that usually reported for vinorelbine, the main toxicity being neutropenia. Only one episode of febrile neutropenia was reported. The main nonhaematological toxicities encountered were gastrointestinal, consisting of nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and constipation. A tendency for a lower incidence of vomiting was suggested when <span class="hlt">oral</span> vinorelbine was administered after a standard breakfast. Based on this study, the administration of <span class="hlt">oral</span> vinorelbine to fasted patients is not mandatory since administration after a standard breakfast does not lead to differences in body exposure to the drug. As the comfort of patients may be improved when the treatment is administered after a light meal, this procedure can be recommended in clinical practice. PMID:12357302</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bugat, Roland; Variol, Philippe; Roché, Henri; Fumoleau, Pierre; Robinet, Gilles; Senac, Isabelle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24313740"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> and systemic photoprotection.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by <span class="hlt">oral</span> substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified <span class="hlt">oral</span> substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with <span class="hlt">oral</span> nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as <span class="hlt">oral</span> supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . <span class="hlt">Orally</span> consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an <span class="hlt">oral</span> supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight. PMID:24313740</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29746280"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new <span class="hlt">oral</span> testosterone undecanoate formulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Testosterone undecanoate has been available on the market for more than 20 years. This testosterone ester is used worldwide for <span class="hlt">oral</span> treatment of male hypogonadism. So far, testosterone undecanoate has been dissolved in oleic acid, leading to inconvenient storage <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. It will now be available in a new formulation with castor oil and propylene glycol laurate instead of oleic acid, thus</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frank-Michael Köhn; Wolf-Bernhard Schill</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1008619"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the Heat Stress and Establishing the <span class="hlt">Limits</span> for Work in a Hot Mine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The management of the mine at Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia decided to enquire into the following questions with regard to men working underground in hot <span class="hlt">conditions</span>: (a) Which of the various heat stress indices predicts most accurately the effects on workmen of the various heat stress factors which occur in the mine at Mount Isa? (b) How best should the <span class="hlt">limits</span> of heat stress be judged at which the normal 8-hour shift should be reduced to a 6-hour shift, or at which work should be stopped? With these objects in mind, <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperatures were measured on 86 workmen after three hours of ordinary work in the mine and also on 36 occasions on 29 volunteers after three hours of stepping on and off a stool at a work rate of 1,560 ft. lb./min. These men were studied in different environmental heat stresses over the range that occurs in the mine. Dry bulb air temperatures (D.B.), wet bulb temperatures (W.B.), velocity of air movements, and globe temperatures (G.T.) were measured in the micro-climate in which each man worked. An estimate was made of the work rate of the 86 workmen. From these estimates and measurements, the predicted 4-hourly sweat rate (P4SR) and corrected effective temperature (C.E.T.) values were determined for each heat stress <span class="hlt">condition</span>. P4SR values varied between 0·9 and 6·5 and C.E.T. between 70° and 95°F. Correlation coefficients were calculated between <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperatures and W.B.s, C.E.T.s, and P4SRs and are 0·51, 0·64, and 0·75 respectively. Further analysis was confined to C.E.T. and P4SR. Plots of <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature on P4SR for <span class="hlt">conditions</span> where G.T. was more than 10°F. above D.B. were found to fall well below the rest of the plots, indicating that P4SR exaggerates the effect of mean radiant temperature. These data were therefore excluded from the rest of the analysis. Regression equations were calculated for <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature on P4SR and for <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature on C.E.T. for (a) men `on the job', for (i) <span class="hlt">conditions</span> where D.B. was more than 10°F. above W.B. and (ii) for <span class="hlt">conditions</span> where D.B. was less than 10°F. above W.B., and (b) for men `stepping'. This analysis showed that one overall regression line can be used for all three <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature on P4SR, but for <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature on C.E.T. at least two different regression lines would be needed. Also the correlation coefficients between <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature and P4SR were generally higher than between <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature and C.E.T. For the prediction of <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature in the mine at Mount Isa the P4SR index is to be preferred to the C.E.T. scale. These results indicate that the emphasis given to G.T. in the P4SR index is too great. A multi-variance analysis of the P4SR index shows that, in the middle of the range of heat stress <span class="hlt">conditions</span> examined, a unit change in P4SR would be obtained by about the same change in W.B. and G.T. This is at variance with the present results and also with the experimental findings of the M.R.C. Climatic Physiology Unit at Singapore. It appears, therefore, that the P4SR index should be revised in this regard. When it came to setting <span class="hlt">limits</span> of heat stress for a 6-hour shift and for `stop-work', it was decided to base the <span class="hlt">limit</span> for the 6-hour shift on a 1:100 probability of men reaching an <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature of 100·5°F. (rectal temperature of 101·5°F.) and to base the `stop work' <span class="hlt">limit</span> on a 1:2,000 probability of reaching an <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature of 101·5°F. (rectal temperature of 102·5°F.). The reasons for this choice of physiological criteria are given in full in the paper. P4SR values at which these <span class="hlt">limits</span> are reached were determined by calculating 1:100 and 1:2,000 probability belts to the overall regression line of <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature on P4SR. The P4SR value at the intersection of the 1:100 probability <span class="hlt">limit</span> and the <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature of 100·5°F. is 3·8 and the P4SR value at the intersection of the 1:2,000 probability <span class="hlt">limit</span> and the <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature of 101·5°F. is 5·0. These then are the <span class="hlt">limits</span> of heat stress in th</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wyndham, C. H.; Allan, A. McD.; Bredell, G. A. G.; Andrew, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1967-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080022207&hterms=harder&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dharder"> <span id="translatedtitle">On <span class="hlt">Limits</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the last 3 decades or so, the size of systems we have been able to verify formally with automated tools has increased dramatically. At each point in this development, we encountered a different set of <span class="hlt">limits</span> -- many of which we were eventually able to overcome. Today, we may have reached some <span class="hlt">limits</span> that may be much harder to conquer. The problem I will discuss is the following: given a hypothetical machine with infinite memory that is seamlessly shared among infinitely many CPUs (or CPU cores), what is the largest problem size that we could solve?</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holzmann, Gerard J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.118..157S"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of Fe and redox <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in olivine carbonation rates: An experimental study of the rate <span class="hlt">limiting</span> reactions at 90 and 150 °C in open and closed systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mechanisms and rates of olivine carbonation reactions have been the object of a number of studies, but the thermodynamic <span class="hlt">limitations</span> and the kinetics of the elementary processes that control the overall reaction are still poorly understood and characterized. The main objective of this study is to probe the effect of Fe on the measured rates of olivine carbonation and its role in the formation of Si-rich surface layers, which can significantly inhibit olivine dissolution and <span class="hlt">limit</span> the extent of the carbonation reaction. A series of batch and flow-through reactor experiments was conducted in pure water at 90 and 150 °C and under a CO2 partial pressure of 100 and 200 bar, using both a natural sample of Fe-bearing olivine (Fo88) and a synthetic sample of pure forsterite (Fo100). Experimental results show that Fe plays an ambivalent role in the carbonation rates of olivine. On one hand, the presence of Fe favors the formation of Fe-Si-rich protective layers at the interface between olivine and aqueous solution, slowing down the dissolution reaction and <span class="hlt">limiting</span> the extent of carbonation, whereas pure silica coatings have little to no inhibiting effect on measured carbonation rates. On the other hand, Fe enhances olivine to carbonate conversion rates at low degrees of supersaturation, by promoting the formation of fast precipitating Mg-Fe carbonate solid solutions. The passivating properties of Fe-Si-rich layers originate from the strong Fe(III)-Si interaction and are linked to the permanence of oxidizing <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in the aqueous fluid. As a consequence, under reducing <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, olivine carbonation rates can be significantly increased by higher extents of dissolution and by the formation of ferroan magnesites (Mg,Fe)CO3, which nucleate faster than the pure Mg end-member. Forsterite and olivine carbonation reactions can be hindered by the formation of secondary Mg sheet-silicates but, at the <span class="hlt">conditions</span> studied, the formation of such silicate phases was observed to be transitional and not affecting significantly the rates of carbonation at the end of one-month long experimental runs. This work presents new measurements of olivine carbonation rates and delivers relevant information that suggest new reference criteria for the assessment of the sequestration potential of CO2 repositories and the optimization of the mineral carbonation process in mafic and ultramafic rocks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saldi, Giuseppe D.; Daval, Damien; Morvan, Gilles; Knauss, Kevin G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24805802"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spray-dried polyelectrolyte microparticles in <span class="hlt">oral</span> antigen delivery: stability, biocompatibility, and cellular uptake.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the past decade, extensive research has undeniably improved the formulation and delivery of <span class="hlt">oral</span> vaccines. Nevertheless, several factors, such as the harsh gastrointestinal environment together with tolerance induction to exogenous antigens, have thus far impeded the optimal effectiveness and clinical application of <span class="hlt">oral</span> delivery systems. The current study encompasses an initial evaluation of the stability, biocompatibility, and cellular uptake of two promising candidate systems for <span class="hlt">oral</span> antigen delivery, that is, calcium carbonate- (CP) and mannitol-templated (MP) porous microspheres. Both spray-dried formulations were efficiently internalized by human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2 and HT-29) and degraded into phagolysosomal intracellular compartments. In addition, cellular particle uptake and processing significantly up-regulated the expression of (HLA) class-II and costimulatory molecules on intestinal epithelial cells. Even though the high surface-area-to-volume ratio of the microspheres was expected to favor protease access, antigen release was remarkably <span class="hlt">limited</span> in simulated intestinal fluid and was even absent under gastric <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Finally, neither CP nor MP exerted cytotoxicity upon prolonged in vitro incubation with high antigen concentration. Altogether, these data support the potential of CP and MP for <span class="hlt">oral</span> antigen delivery and motivate the further development of these promising carrier systems in in vivo studies. PMID:24805802</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">De Smet, Rebecca; Verschuere, Stephanie; Allais, Liesbeth; Leclercq, Georges; Dierendonck, Marijke; De Geest, Bruno G; Van Driessche, Isabel; Demoor, Tine; Cuvelier, Claude A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22285465"> <span id="translatedtitle">The mucoadhesive and gastroretentive properties of hydrophobin-coated porous silicon nanoparticle <span class="hlt">oral</span> drug delivery systems.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Impediments to intestinal absorption, such as poor solubility and instability in the variable <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract plague many of the current drugs restricting their <span class="hlt">oral</span> bioavailability. Particulate drug delivery systems hold great promise in solving these problems, but their effectiveness might be <span class="hlt">limited</span> by their often rapid transit through the GI tract. Here we describe a bioadhesive <span class="hlt">oral</span> drug delivery system based on thermally-hydrocarbonized porous silicon (THCPSi) functionalized with a self-assembled amphiphilic protein coating consisting of a class II hydrophobin (HFBII) from Trichoderma reesei. The HFBII-THCPSi nanoparticles were found to be non-cytotoxic and mucoadhesive in AGS cells, prompting their use in a biodistribution study in rats after <span class="hlt">oral</span> administration. The passage of HFBII-THCPSi nanoparticles in the rat GI tract was significantly slower than that of uncoated THCPSi, and the nanoparticles were retained in stomach by gastric mucoadhesion up to 3 h after administration. Upon entry to the small intestine, the mucoadhesive properties were lost, resulting in the rapid transit of the nanoparticles through the remainder of the GI tract. The gastroretentive drug delivery system with a dual function presented here is a viable alternative for improving drug bioavailability in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> route. PMID:22285465</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sarparanta, Mirkka P; Bimbo, Luis M; Mäkilä, Ermei M; Salonen, Jarno J; Laaksonen, Päivi H; Helariutta, A M Kerttuli; Linder, Markus B; Hirvonen, Jouni T; Laaksonen, Timo J; Santos, Hélder A; Airaksinen, Anu J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22682207"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Limitations</span> of anticoagulant therapy].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Vitamin K antagonists have been shown to be effective in the primary and secondary prevention of systemic and cerebral emboli in patients with cardiac causes of embolism, especially atrial fibrillation. The reduced risk of stroke is greater in secondary prevention, although this reduction is accompanied by an inherent risk of hemorrhagic complications, among which cerebral hemorrhage is especially serious. The therapeutic window of these agents is <span class="hlt">limited</span> and the best benefit/risk profile is obtained with an INR of between 2 and 3. The anticoagulant effect obtained shows marked variability, requiring frequent clinical and laboratory monitoring of the treatment. The introduction of <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulants that would aid the administration of these agents with equal or greater efficacy and lower risk is required. PMID:22682207</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martí-Fàbregas, J; Delgado-Mederos, R; Mateo, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24741230"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exuberant <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Myiasis Caused by Musca domestica (Housefly).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tissues of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity, when invaded by the parasitic larvae of houseflies, the <span class="hlt">condition</span> is called as <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis. It is a rare disease that is most common in developing countries and is associated with <span class="hlt">conditions</span> leading to persistent mouth opening along with poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene, suppurative lesions, severe halitosis and maxillofacial trauma. A case of exuberant <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis in a 42-year-old female patient is described here. She reported with swelling, pain, mobility of teeth and foul odor. Diagnosis was based primarily on history and clinical features. Management included use of turpentine oil, mechanical removal of larvae followed by extraction of mobile teeth and curettage along with supportive antibiotic and analgesic therapy. Supportive nutritional supplements and timely institution of treatment encompassing removal of the offending larvae and carious teeth with proper education and motivation of the patient including <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene instructions led to the resolution of these lesions. PMID:24741230</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parwani, Rajkumar N; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Simran R; Wanjari, Sangeeta P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3982355"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exuberant <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Myiasis Caused by Musca domestica (Housefly)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tissues of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity, when invaded by the parasitic larvae of houseflies, the <span class="hlt">condition</span> is called as <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis. It is a rare disease that is most common in developing countries and is associated with <span class="hlt">conditions</span> leading to persistent mouth opening along with poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene, suppurative lesions, severe halitosis and maxillofacial trauma. A case of exuberant <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis in a 42-year-old female patient is described here. She reported with swelling, pain, mobility of teeth and foul odor. Diagnosis was based primarily on history and clinical features. Management included use of turpentine oil, mechanical removal of larvae followed by extraction of mobile teeth and curettage along with supportive antibiotic and analgesic therapy. Supportive nutritional supplements and timely institution of treatment encompassing removal of the offending larvae and carious teeth with proper education and motivation of the patient including <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene instructions led to the resolution of these lesions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parwani, Rajkumar N; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Simran R; Wanjari, Sangeeta P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23912870"> <span id="translatedtitle">Candida spp. in <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer and <span class="hlt">oral</span> precancerous lesions.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To assess the presence of Candida spp. in lesions of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity in a sample of patients with precancer or cancer of the mouth and evaluate the <span class="hlt">limitations</span> and advantages of microbiological and histological methods, 103 subjects with precancerous or cancerous lesions and not treated were observed between 2007 and 2009. The presence of Candida in the lesions was analyzed by microbiological and histological methods. Cohen's k statistic was used to assess the agreement between culture method and staining techniques. Forty-eight (47%) patients had cancer and 55 (53%) patients had precancerous lesions. Candida spp. were isolated from 31 (30%) patients with cancerous lesions and 33 (32%) with precancerous lesions. C. albicans was the most frequent species isolated in the lesions. The k value showed a fair overall agreement for comparisons between culture method and PAS (0.2825) or GMS (0.3112). This study supports the frequent presence of Candida spp. in cancer and precancerous lesions of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. Both microbiological investigations and histological techniques were reliable for detection of Candida spp. It would be desirable for the two techniques to be considered complementary in the detection of yeast infections in these types of lesions. PMID:23912870</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gall, Francesca; Colella, Giuseppe; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Rossiello, Raffaele; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Liguori, Giorgio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32071762"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of multiple micronutrient supplementation in the management of <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis in Karachi, Pakistan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> submucous fibrosis (OSF) is an <span class="hlt">oral</span> pre?cancerous <span class="hlt">condition</span> characterized by symptoms such as intolerance to spicy food, altered salivation, progressive difficulty in opening the mouth, and signs like vesiculation, ulceration, blanching, rigidity, and stiffening of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa and depapillation and altered mobility of the tongue. It is seen mostly among people of Indian subcontinent origin. The major structural</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rehana Maher; Perin Aga; Newell W. Johnson; Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan; Saman Warnakulasuriya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31610674"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coexpression of colligin and collagen in <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis: plausible role in pathogenesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The high incidence of <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis (OSF), a potentially malignant <span class="hlt">condition</span> of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity, in the Indian subcontinent is causally associated with commonly prevailing habit of chewing areca nut and tobacco. Knowledge of molecular alterations in OSF is meagre. OSF is characterised by progressive accumulation of collagen fibres in lamina propria and <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucosa. Colligin\\/HSP47 is a 47KDa</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J Kaur; M Rao; N Chakravarti; M Mathur; N. K Shukla; B. D Sanwal; R Ralhan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24623849"> <span id="translatedtitle">Proton gradient regulation 5-mediated cyclic electron flow under ATP- or redox-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>: a study of ?ATpase pgr5 and ?rbcL pgr5 mutants in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii proton gradient regulation5 (Crpgr5) mutant shows phenotypic and functional traits similar to mutants in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ortholog, Atpgr5, providing strong evidence for conservation of PGR5-mediated cyclic electron flow (CEF). Comparing the Crpgr5 mutant with the wild type, we discriminate two pathways for CEF and determine their maximum electron flow rates. The PGR5/proton gradient regulation-like1 (PGRL1) ferredoxin (Fd) pathway, involved in recycling excess reductant to increase ATP synthesis, may be controlled by extreme photosystem I acceptor side <span class="hlt">limitation</span> or ATP depletion. Here, we show that PGR5/PGRL1-Fd CEF functions in accordance with an ATP/redox control model. In the absence of Rubisco and PGR5, a sustained electron flow is maintained with molecular oxygen instead of carbon dioxide serving as the terminal electron acceptor. When photosynthetic control is decreased, compensatory alternative pathways can take the full load of linear electron flow. In the case of the ATP synthase pgr5 double mutant, a decrease in photosensitivity is observed compared with the single ATPase-less mutant that we assign to a decreased proton motive force. Altogether, our results suggest that PGR5/PGRL1-Fd CEF is most required under <span class="hlt">conditions</span> when Fd becomes overreduced and photosystem I is subjected to photoinhibition. CEF is not a valve; it only recycles electrons, but in doing so, it generates a proton motive force that controls the rate of photosynthesis. The <span class="hlt">conditions</span> where the PGR5 pathway is most required may vary in photosynthetic organisms like C. reinhardtii from anoxia to high light to <span class="hlt">limitations</span> imposed at the level of carbon dioxide fixation. PMID:24623849</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, Xenie; Steinbeck, Janina; Dent, Rachel M; Takahashi, Hiroko; Richaud, Pierre; Ozawa, Shin-Ichiro; Houille-Vernes, Laura; Petroutsos, Dimitris; Rappaport, Fabrice; Grossman, Arthur R; Niyogi, Krishna K; Hippler, Michael; Alric, Jean</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3556944"> <span id="translatedtitle">Does <span class="hlt">Limiting</span> <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Contrast Decrease Emergency Department Length of Stay?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact on emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS) of a new protocol for intravenous (IV)-contrast only abdominal/pelvic computed tomography (ABCT) compared to historical controls. Methods: This was a retrospective case-controlled study performed at a single academic medical center. Patients ? 18 undergoing ABCT imaging for non-traumatic abdominal pain were included in the study. We compared ED LOS between historical controls undergoing ABCT imaging with PO/IV contrast and study patients undergoing an IV-contrast-only protocol. Imaging indications were the same for both groups and included patients with clinical suspicion for appendicitis, diverticulitis, small bowel obstruction, or perforation. We identified all patients from the hospital’s electronic storehouse (imaging code, ordering department, imaging times), and we abstracted ED LOS and disposition from electronic medical records. Results: Two hundred and eleven patients who underwent PO/IV ABCT prep were compared to 184 patients undergoing IV-contrast only ABCT prep. ED LOS was shorter for patients imaged with the IV-contrast only protocol (4:35 hrs vs. 6:39 hrs, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Implementation of an IV-contrast only ABCT prep for select ED patients presenting for evaluation of acute abdominal pain significantly decreased ED LOS.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hopkins, Christy L.; Madsen, Troy; Foy, Zachary; Reina, Michielle; Barton, Erik</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24509066"> <span id="translatedtitle">Taste-masking assessment of solid <span class="hlt">oral</span> dosage forms--a critical review.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Approaches to improve the taste of <span class="hlt">oral</span> dosage forms that contain unpleasant tasting drugs are versatile. Likewise, the analytical in vitro and in vivo methods to assess taste-masking efficacy are diverse. Taste-masking has gained in importance since the EU legislation on medicines for children came into force in 2007, and taste-masking attributes are often required by regulatory authorities. However, standardized guidance for the analytical evaluation is still poor. Published protocols rarely consider real <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, such as the volume of saliva or the residence time of solid <span class="hlt">oral</span> dosage forms in the mouth. Methodological <span class="hlt">limitations</span> and problems regarding time point of evaluation, sampling or sample pretreatment are hardly ever addressed. This critical review aims to evaluate and discuss published strategies in this context. PMID:24509066</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pein, Miriam; Preis, Maren; Eckert, Carolin; Kiene, Florian E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3943513"> <span id="translatedtitle">Atypical esthesioneuroblastoma invading <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity: a case report and review of the literature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Esthesioneuroblastoma is an uncommon tumour of neuroectodermal origin. The authors describe a rare presentation of an atypical esthesioneuroblastoma invading <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. The clinical presentation, aetiology, diagnosis, and management of this <span class="hlt">condition</span> are discussed. The patient developed significant swelling in the right anterosuperior alveolar mucosa and had moderate tooth mobility. Conventional x-rays and computed tomography revealed a large osteolytic lesion, with imprecise <span class="hlt">limits</span>. Histological findings along with immunohistochemical staining results and clinical features led to the diagnosis of high-grade esthesioneuroblastoma. Local recurrences and neck metastasis were detected. The rare <span class="hlt">oral</span> findings produced delayed in diagnosis which may lead to a compromise in planning and execution of further radical management and thus a poor prognosis. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1168853011139286.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24019797"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> splint for temporomandibular joint disorders with revolutionary fluid system.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) diseases and disorders refer to a complex and poorly understood set of <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, manifested by pain in the area of the jaw and associated muscles and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> in the ability to make the normal movements of speech, facial expression, eating, chewing, and swallowing. The conventional soft occlusal splint therapy is a much safer and effective mode of a conservative line of therapy in comparison to the surgical therapy for temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). The purpose of this article is to review the Aqualizer™, an hydrostatic <span class="hlt">oral</span> splint, as accurate, effective treatment and differential diagnostic tool in TMD that allow treating the patient's pain quickly and accurately saving valuable treatment time. The review article has been prepared doing a literature review from the world-wide web and pubmed/medline. PMID:24019797</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Srivastava, Rahul; Jyoti, Bhuvan; Devi, Parvathi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=120797"> <span id="translatedtitle">Communication among <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Bacteria</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Human <span class="hlt">oral</span> bacteria interact with their environment by attaching to surfaces and establishing mixed-species communities. As each bacterial cell attaches, it forms a new surface to which other cells can adhere. Adherence and community development are spatiotemporal; such order requires communication. The discovery of soluble signals, such as autoinducer-2, that may be exchanged within multispecies communities to convey information between organisms has emerged as a new research direction. Direct-contact signals, such as adhesins and receptors, that elicit changes in gene expression after cell-cell contact and biofilm growth are also an active research area. Considering that the majority of <span class="hlt">oral</span> bacteria are organized in dense three-dimensional biofilms on teeth, confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled probes provide valuable approaches for investigating the architecture of these organized communities in situ. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> biofilms are readily accessible to microbiologists and are excellent model systems for studies of microbial communication. One attractive model system is a saliva-coated flowcell with <span class="hlt">oral</span> bacterial biofilms growing on saliva as the sole nutrient source; an intergeneric mutualism is discussed. Several <span class="hlt">oral</span> bacterial species are amenable to genetic manipulation for molecular characterization of communication both among bacteria and between bacteria and the host. A successful search for genes critical for mixed-species community organization will be accomplished only when it is conducted with mixed-species communities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kolenbrander, Paul E.; Andersen, Roxanna N.; Blehert, David S.; Egland, Paul G.; Foster, Jamie S.; Palmer, Robert J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47592016"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Attitudes and Practices Among a German Mexican Mennonite Farmworker Community</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">oral</span> health needs of migrant farm laborers are greater and more immediate than those of comparable populations. However,\\u000a little is known about the <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health care among German-speaking Mexican Mennonites, a distinctive cultural\\u000a subgroup of migrant farm laborers. The purpose of this study was to examine the <span class="hlt">oral</span> health practices, perceived <span class="hlt">oral</span> health\\u000a status, and barriers to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paula M. Rowden; Angelia M. Paschal; Suzanne R. Hawley; Tracy Hsiao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://collections.mnhs.org/ioh/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Minnesota Immigrant <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Histories</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">How can the Hmong history of Minnnesota be best understood? One good place to start is with <span class="hlt">oral</span> histories of their own experiences. Various Hmong experiences, along with other ethnic groups, are told with a flourish on the Minnesota Immigrant <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Histories site. Created by the Minnesota Historical Society, this site contains over 360 <span class="hlt">oral</span> history interviews conducted between 1967 and 2012. Visitors can click on any of the groups listed to get started, then find detailed transcripts, streaming audio, and thumbnail sketches of participants. The Tibetan collection is quite a gem as visitors can learn about the U.S. Tibetan Resettlement Project from 1990. Overall, it's a wonderful way to learn about the diversity of the people who have come to call Minnesota home.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16686945"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> heparin: status review.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin are the most commonly used antithrombotic and thromboprophylactic agents in hospital practice. Extended out-of-hospital treatment is inconvenient in that these agents must be administered parenterally. Current research is directed at development of a safe and effective <span class="hlt">oral</span> antithrombotic agent as an alternative for the effective, yet difficult to use vitamin K antagonists. A novel drug delivery technology that facilitates transport of drugs across the gastrointestinal epithelium has been harnessed to develop an <span class="hlt">oral</span> dosage form of unfractionated heparin. Combining unfractionated heparin with the carrier molecule, sodium N-(8 [2-hydroxybenzoyl]amino) caprylate, or SNAC has markedly increased the gastrointestinal absorption of this drug. Preclinical and clinical studies to-date suggests that <span class="hlt">oral</span> heparin-SNAC can confer a clinical efficacious effect; further confirmation is sought in planned clinical trials. PMID:16686945</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arbit, Ehud; Goldberg, Michael; Gomez-Orellana, Isabel; Majuru, Shingai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1526416"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> heparin: status review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin are the most commonly used antithrombotic and thromboprophylactic agents in hospital practice. Extended out-of-hospital treatment is inconvenient in that these agents must be administered parenterally. Current research is directed at development of a safe and effective <span class="hlt">oral</span> antithrombotic agent as an alternative for the effective, yet difficult to use vitamin K antagonists. A novel drug delivery technology that facilitates transport of drugs across the gastrointestinal epithelium has been harnessed to develop an <span class="hlt">oral</span> dosage form of unfractionated heparin. Combining unfractionated heparin with the carrier molecule, sodium N-(8 [2-hydroxybenzoyl]amino) caprylate, or SNAC has markedly increased the gastrointestinal absorption of this drug. Preclinical and clinical studies to-date suggests that <span class="hlt">oral</span> heparin-SNAC can confer a clinical efficacious effect; further confirmation is sought in planned clinical trials.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arbit, Ehud; Goldberg, Michael; Gomez-Orellana, Isabel; Majuru, Shingai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4069285"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can affect a variety of organ systems with significant morbidity and mortality. Some of the most frequently reported EHM of HCV infection, involve the <span class="hlt">oral</span> region predominantly or exclusively. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory <span class="hlt">condition</span> that is potentially malignant and represents cell-mediated reaction to a variety of extrinsic antigens, altered self-antigens, or super antigens. Robust epidemiological evidence support the link between OLP and HCV. As the virus may replicate in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa and attract HCV-specific T lymphocytes, HCV may be implicated in OLP pathogenesis. Sjögren syndrome (SjS) is an autoimmune exocrinopathy, characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes and a multitude of other systemic signs and symptoms. SjS patients have also an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients with chronic hepatitis C do frequently have histological signs of Sjögren-like sialadenitis with mild or even absent clinical symptoms. However, it is still unclear if HCV may cause a disease mimicking SjS or it is directly responsible for the development of SjS in a specific subset of patients. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> squamous cell carcinoma is the most common <span class="hlt">oral</span> malignant tumour and at least in some part of the world could be linked to HCV.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carrozzo, Marco; Scally, Kara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2626336"> <span id="translatedtitle">Strategies and approaches in <span class="hlt">oral</span> disease prevention and health promotion.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> health is an important element of general health and well-being. Although largely preventable, many people across the world still suffer unnecessarily from the pain and discomfort associated with <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases. In addition, the costs of dental treatment are high, both to the individual and to society. Effective evidence-based preventive approaches are needed to address this major public health problem. The aim of this paper is to outline public health strategies to promote <span class="hlt">oral</span> health and reduce inequalities. An extensive collection of public health policy documents produced by WHO are reviewed to guide the development of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health strategies. In addition a range of Cochrane and other systematic reviews assessing the evidence base for <span class="hlt">oral</span> health interventions are summarized. Public health strategies should tackle the underlying social determinants of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health through the adoption of a common risk approach. Isolated interventions which merely focus on changing <span class="hlt">oral</span> health behaviours will not achieve sustainable improvements in <span class="hlt">oral</span> health. Radical public health action on the <span class="hlt">conditions</span> which determine unhealthy behaviours across the population is needed rather than relying solely on the high-risk approach. Based upon the Ottawa Charter, a range of complementary strategies can be implemented in partnership with relevant local, national and international agencies. At the core of this public health approach is the need to empower local communities to become actively involved in efforts to promote their <span class="hlt">oral</span> health.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Watt, Richard G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2944498"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Human <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Microbiome? † ?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The human <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity contains a number of different habitats, including the teeth, gingival sulcus, tongue, cheeks, hard and soft palates, and tonsils, which are colonized by bacteria. The <span class="hlt">oral</span> microbiome is comprised of over 600 prevalent taxa at the species level, with distinct subsets predominating at different habitats. The <span class="hlt">oral</span> microbiome has been extensively characterized by cultivation and culture-independent molecular methods such as 16S rRNA cloning. Unfortunately, the vast majority of unnamed <span class="hlt">oral</span> taxa are referenced by clone numbers or 16S rRNA GenBank accession numbers, often without taxonomic anchors. The first aim of this research was to collect 16S rRNA gene sequences into a curated phylogeny-based database, the Human <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Microbiome Database (HOMD), and make it web accessible (www.homd.org). The HOMD includes 619 taxa in 13 phyla, as follows: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydiae, Chloroflexi, Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, SR1, Synergistetes, Tenericutes, and TM7. The second aim was to analyze 36,043 16S rRNA gene clones isolated from studies of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> microbiota to determine the relative abundance of taxa and identify novel candidate taxa. The analysis identified 1,179 taxa, of which 24% were named, 8% were cultivated but unnamed, and 68% were uncultivated phylotypes. Upon validation, 434 novel, nonsingleton taxa will be added to the HOMD. The number of taxa needed to account for 90%, 95%, or 99% of the clones examined is 259, 413, and 875, respectively. The HOMD is the first curated description of a human-associated microbiome and provides tools for use in understanding the role of the microbiome in health and disease.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Chen, Tuste; Izard, Jacques; Paster, Bruce J.; Tanner, Anne C. R.; Yu, Wen-Han; Lakshmanan, Abirami; Wade, William G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3532199"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> cleft prevention program (OCPP)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background <span class="hlt">Oral</span> clefts are one of the most common birth defects with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> clefts have a complex etiology with genetic and environmental risk factors. There are suggestive results for decreased risks of cleft occurrence and recurrence with folic acid supplements taken at preconception and during pregnancy with a stronger evidence for higher than lower doses in preventing recurrence. Yet previous studies have suffered from considerable design <span class="hlt">limitations</span> particularly non-randomization into treatment. There is also well-documented effectiveness for folic acid in preventing neural tube defect occurrence at 0.4 mg and recurrence with 4 mg. Given the substantial burden of clefting on the individual and the family and the supportive data for the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation as well as its low cost, a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of high versus low dose folic acid for prevention of cleft recurrence is warranted. Methods/design This study will assess the effect of 4 mg and 0.4 mg doses of folic acid, taken on a daily basis during preconception and up to 3 months of pregnancy by women who are at risk of having a child with nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without palate (NSCL/P), on the recurrence of NSCL/P. The total sample will include about 6,000 women (that either have NSCL/P or that have at least one child with NSCL/P) randomly assigned to the 4 mg and the 0.4 mg folic acid study groups. The study will also compare the recurrence rates of NSCL/P in the total sample of subjects, as well as the two study groups (4mg, 0.4 mg) to that of a historical control group. The study has been approved by IRBs (ethics committees) of all involved sites. Results will be disseminated through publications and presentations at scientific meetings. Discussion The costs related to <span class="hlt">oral</span> clefts are high, including long term psychological and socio-economic effects. This study provides an opportunity for huge savings in not only money but the overall quality of life. This may help establish more specific clinical guidelines for <span class="hlt">oral</span> cleft prevention so that the intervention can be better tailored for at-risk women. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00397917</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21808919"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Self-perception of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health and impact on quality of life among the elderly: a quantitative-qualitative approach].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A qualitative-quantitative approach was used in this study to obtain a clearer understanding of the relationship between self-perception, impact on quality of life and <span class="hlt">oral</span> health among the elderly. Clinical examination and recorded interviews with objective and discursive questions were conducted with 45 institutionalized elderly people. Descriptive analyses of quantitative data were made. The interviews were transcribed and a systematic reading of the interviews was carried out selecting the components related to the categories under analysis. Photographic images of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> clinical status were correlated with participants' speech. Quantitative analysis revealed: an average of 4.8 teeth; DMFT were 29.9; 57.7 % were toothless; 60% believed they did not need dental care; 75% suffered a great impact on quality of life due to <span class="hlt">oral</span> health <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, despite the fact that 67% evaluated their <span class="hlt">oral</span> health positively. Underestimation of symptoms, lack of hope and resignation due to <span class="hlt">limitations</span> regarding poor clinical status were detected. Most elderly people viewed such <span class="hlt">limitations</span> as a consequence of aging and not as a problem that may be solved. This reality can be changed through information and guidance for elderly people. PMID:21808919</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haikal, Desirée Sant'Ana; Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista de; Martins, Andrea Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Moreira, Allyson Nogueira; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira e</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24552939"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis: case report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis is a rare disease caused by larvae of dipteran flies. Houseflies are strongly suspected of transmitting at least 65 diseases to humans, including typhoid fever, dysentery and cholera. Flies regurgitate and excrete wherever they come to rest and thereby mechanically are the root cause for disease organisms. A case of <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana in the maxillary anterior region in a 40-year-old patient is presented. Manual removal of maggots, and surgical debridement of wound was done followed by broad-spectrum anti-parasitic medications. A note on the identification of the larva and histopathology of the tissue is also highlighted here. PMID:24552939</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jimson, S; Prakash, C A; Balachandran, C; Raman, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12490433"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxidative stress-induced cell death of human <span class="hlt">oral</span> neutrophils.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) play crucial roles in protecting hosts against invading microbes and in the pathogenesis of inflammatory tissue injury. Although PMN migrate into mucosal layers of digestive and respiratory tracts, only <span class="hlt">limited</span> information is available of their fate and function in situ. We previously reported that, unlike circulating PMN (CPMN), PMN in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity spontaneously generate superoxide radical and nitric oxide (NO) in the absence of any stimuli. When cultured for 12 h under physiological <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, <span class="hlt">oral</span> PMN (OPMN) showed morphological changes that are characteristic of those of apoptosis. Upon agarose gel electrophoresis, nuclear DNA samples isolated from OPMN revealed ladder-like profiles characteristic of nucleosomal fragmentation. l-cysteine, reduced glutathione (GSH), and herbimycin A, a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, suppressed the activation of caspase-3 and apoptosis of OPMN. Neither thiourea, superoxide dismutase (SOD), nor catalase inhibited the activation of caspase-3 and apoptosis. Moreover, N-acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-aldehyde (Ac-DEVD-CHO), inhibitor for caspase-3, inhibited the fragmentation of DNA. These results suggested that oxidative stress and/or tyrosine-kinase-dependent pathway(s) activated caspase-3 in OPMN, thereby inducing their apoptosis. PMID:12490433</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sato, Eisuke F; Higashino, Masahiro; Ikeda, Kazuo; Wake, Ryotaro; Matsuo, Mitsuyoshi; Utsumi, Kozo; Inoue, Masayasu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3108384"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Carcinogenesis and <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of <span class="hlt">oral</span> premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of <span class="hlt">oral</span> carcinogenesis will yield important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, and assessing cancer risk and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancers will be derived from studies using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk <span class="hlt">oral</span> individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of <span class="hlt">oral</span> malignancy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Mayu; Tanaka, Takahiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18441394"> <span id="translatedtitle">NADPH oxidase and uncoupled nitric oxide synthase are major sources of reactive oxygen species in <span class="hlt">oral</span> squamous cell carcinoma. Potential implications for immune regulation in high oxidative stress <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The development of cancer is associated with high oxidative stress and at the same time with immune system activation. Tumors develop efficient mechanisms of protection against the immune response, which allow them to escape the immune surveillance. Simultaneously, key events in the process of carcinogenesis are related to oxidative stress. The relationship between the two remains unknown. Novel understanding of oxidative stress shows that discrete changes of activities of certain enzyme systems such as NADPH oxidases or nitric oxide synthases may be more important than the overall balance of production and removal of reactive oxygen species. Such imbalance of nitric oxide and superoxide production could modify inflammation and immune regulation. We studied superoxide anion production (by lucigenin enhanced chemiluminescence - 5 microM), NADPH oxidase activity and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) dysfunction. In parallel mRNA expression of immunomodulatory markers such as FoxP3 (T regulatory cell marker), CCR6 (mucosal homing effector T cell marker) and CD85j (NK cell/CD8 T cell Ig-like MHC class I inhibitory receptor) was determined. Basal superoxide production and NADPH oxidase activity are increased in <span class="hlt">oral</span> squamous cell carcinoma. Tumor superoxide production was inhibited by NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin and by NOS inhibitor L-NAME. This indicates, for the first time, that <span class="hlt">oral</span> squamous cell carcinoma is characterized by dysregulated nitric oxide synthase, which apart from increased NADPH oxidase activity contributes to oxidative stress and may be related to the immuno-pathology of these tumors. Studied tumors were infiltrated by CCR6+, but showed lower expression of both CD85j and FoxP3 mRNA. Finally, the CD85j mRNA expression was inversely correlated to oxidative stress parameters. These preliminary studies indicate that tumor oxidative stress, related to NADPH oxidase activity and NOS activity could be related to immune responses to cancer, thus therapeutic modification of oxidative stress, which could include the correction of NOS dysfunction, could facilitate immune surveillance. PMID:18441394</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Czesnikiewicz-Guzik, M; Lorkowska, B; Zapala, J; Czajka, M; Szuta, M; Loster, B; Guzik, T J; Korbut, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17506958"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Oral</span> involvement in lymphomatoid papulosis].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lymphomatoid papulosis is a cutaneous lymphoma with an indolent clinical behaviour characterized by chronic development of recurrent, self-<span class="hlt">limited</span> lesions appearing as necrotic papules and with a pathology compatible with T cell lymphoma. Mucosal involvement by lymphomatoid papulosis is very rare but has been reported in the literature. It usually appears as ulcers in patients previously diagnosed of lymphomatoid papulosis. From a histological perspective it is characterized by an infiltrate of CD 30 positive atypical lymphocytes together with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate of eosinophils, neutrophils, histiocytes and plasma cells. We report the case of a man previously diagnosed of lymphomatoid papulosis that developed two ulcerated lesions in the tongue whose biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of <span class="hlt">oral</span> involvement by lymphomatoid papulosis. PMID:17506958</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Serra-Guillén, C; Requena, C; Alfaro, A; Hueso, L; Sanmartín, O; Llombart, B; Nagore, E; Botella-Estrada, R; Martorell-Calatayud, A; Guillén, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=HEAD+AND+NECK&pg=3&id=EJ359543"> <span id="translatedtitle">Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Diagnosis/<span class="hlt">Oral</span> Medicine.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in <span class="hlt">oral</span> diagnosis/<span class="hlt">oral</span> medicine is presented. (MLW)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Journal of Dental Education, 1987</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57116742"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Inequalities: <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Infections–Challenges and Approaches</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Four <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosal infections were identified as Global <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Priorities: (a) HIV and associated viral, bacterial, and fungal infections; (b) tuberculosis; (c) NOMA; and (d) sexually transmitted diseases. Huge global inequalities exist in all four. HIV-associated infections constitute the major challenge. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> manifestations of AIDS can be specifically diagnostic, indicating a significant role for dentists within health teams. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Challacombe; M. Chidzonga; M. Glick; T. Hodgson; M. Magalhães; C. Shiboski; F. Owotade; R. Ranganathan; S. Naidoo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24479275"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> biofilms, <span class="hlt">oral</span> and periodontal infections, and systemic disease.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: <span class="hlt">Oral</span> biofilms harbor several hundreds of species of bacteria as well as spirochetes, protozoa, fungi and viruses. The composition of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> biofilm varies from health to disease. It is the source of microorganisms that cause dental and periodontal infections. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> infections and periodontal disease have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of several important chronic systemic diseases. PMID:24479275</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maddi, Abhiram; Scannapieco, Frank A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=formatting&pg=5&id=EJ938004"> <span id="translatedtitle">Syntactically Cued Text Facilitates <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Reading Fluency in Developing Readers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Can fluency in <span class="hlt">oral</span> reading be facilitated by formatting text to preserve major syntactic boundaries? Seven-, 8-, and 9-year-old children read aloud passages under two text format <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. In the structure-preserving <span class="hlt">condition</span>, the ends of lines coincided with ends of clauses; in the phrase-disrupting <span class="hlt">condition</span>, line breaks always interrupted a…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">LeVasseur, Valerie Marciarille; Macaruso, Paul; Palumbo, Laura Conway; Shankweiler, Donald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=vietnam+AND+history&pg=6&id=EJ360676"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vietnam: An <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Describes a writing assignment in which students collected <span class="hlt">oral</span> histories from Vietnam veterans in their community, edited the transcripts of their interviews, prepared manuscripts for a booklet of ten interviews, and composed cover letters for the final product. Notes positive effects of both the revision work and the primary research. (JG)</p> <di