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1

Neuromuscular Diseases and Conditions (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

... supplements. Epilepsy Oral Effects If you are taking phenytoin (Dilantin) or other anti-seizure medicines for epilepsy, ... effect occurs in nearly half of people taking phenytoin. Good oral hygiene can help prevent or limit ...

2

Nutritional Consequences of Oral Conditions and Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health status is influenced by numerous oral diseases and conditions, including loss of teeth and supporting dental alveolar\\u000a bone, xerostomia, loss of taste and smell, orofacial pain, oral movement disorders, and others. Other major factors include\\u000a general health, socioeconomic status (SES), nutritional well-being, and dietary habits (1). Diseases of the oral cavity, both local and systemic, can have a

A. Ross Kerr; Riva Touger-Decker

3

STDs and Related Conditions (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

... Related Conditions Herpes Simplex Virus Cytomegalovirus Gonorrhea Hepatitis Syphilis Epstein-Barr Virus Dentists and dental personnel who ... sure your dentist is aware of your condition. Syphilis Oral Effects After syphilis infection, people may get ...

4

Respiratory Diseases and Conditions (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

... Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Bronchitis and Emphysema Tuberculosis Sinusitis If you have a respiratory condition, make ... dental office and make sure it is full. Tuberculosis Oral Effects If you have tuberculosis, you may ...

5

42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

2011-10-01

6

42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

2012-10-01

7

42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.  

...2014-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

2014-10-01

8

42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

2013-10-01

9

Physical Limitations Can Affect Oral Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... These challenges and impairments can affect health, including oral health. Difficulty with Hearing Gradual hearing loss is common ... loss. Impaired hearing has no direct effect on oral health. However, it can make it harder for patients ...

10

42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01... false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220...Section 493.1220 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE...SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If...

2010-10-01

11

Oral health conditions in Italian Special Olympics athletes.  

PubMed

During three Italian Special Olympics National Games, 365 athletes were screened. Dental and medical conditions and demographic data were recorded. The athletes were divided into two groups: those with Down syndrome (DS) and those without DS but who had intellectual disabilities (non-DS). Most of the subjects were in good systemic health. Total DMFt was 10.3 (SD 5.8; D=1.3; M=6.1; F=2.8). Decayed and filled teeth were significantly more frequent in athletes who did not have DS compared to those with DS. No significant differences were found between the two groups in the number of subjects with filled, sealed, or traumatized teeth. Athletes with DS and without DS who participated in the Italian Special Olympics had a similar oral status, which was better than Italian persons who were institutionalized and who had an intellectual disability. PMID:19284505

Dellavia, Claudia; Allievi, Cristina; Pallavera, Andrea; Rosati, Riccardo; Sforza, Chiarella

2009-01-01

12

Oral Condition and Its Relationship to Nutritional Status in the Institutionalized Elderly Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between the oral condition and nutritional status of all institutionalized elderly people in Florianópolis, Brazil. Of the population of 232 institutionalized individuals, the sample consisted of 187 elderly people. In the oral evaluation, the criteria used was the number of functional units present in the oral cavity, classifying the participants

Michelle Soares Rauen; Emília Addison Machado Moreira; Maria Cristina Marino Calvo; Adriana Soares Lobo

2006-01-01

13

Oral condition, chemistry of saliva, and salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans in thalassemic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the oral status in a group of patients with thalassemia major (TM). Eighteen TM patients (15 M, three F) and 18 healthy controls randomly matched for age and sex were examined for dental caries using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index and for oral hygiene conditions using the oral hygiene

P. F. Lugliè; Guglielmo Campus; C. Deiola; M. Mela; D. Gallisai

2002-01-01

14

Allelic imbalance in oral lichen planus and assessment of its classification as a premalignant condition.  

PubMed

OLP is a relatively common immune-mediated mucosal condition with a predilection for middle-aged women. Although classified as a premalignant condition, this classification remains controversial. Using stringent diagnostic criteria, some authors have found that OLP patients are not at increased risk for oral SCC. Credible but limited genetic evidence also indicates that epithelial tissues from OLP patients diagnosed using stringent criteria differs from premalignant or malignant oral lesions but is similar to epithelium from benign oral lesions. To further investigate this genetic line of evidence, biopsy specimens diagnosed as fibroma, OLP, low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and SCC were retrieved from the archives of the Oral Pathology Consultants at the Ohio State University. Using laser capture microdissection, tissue of interest was captured from each case and DNA subsequently extracted. Fluorescently labeled PCR primers were used to amplify DNA at 3 tumor suppressor gene loci (3p14.2, 9p21, and 17p13) and evaluated for LOH or microsatellite instability (MSI). OLP was found to be significantly different from low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and SCC when LOH/MSI was found at more than 1 loci (P = .011, P = .032, P = .003), but not different from benign fibromas (P = .395). In agreement with previous studies, well-documented cases of OLP diagnosed using stringent criteria exhibit a genetic profile more similar to a benign or reactive process than a premalignant/malignant one. These findings do not support the classification of OLP as a premalignant condition. PMID:21764610

Accurso, Brent T; Warner, Blake M; Knobloch, Thomas J; Weghorst, Christopher M; Shumway, Brian S; Allen, Carl M; Kalmar, John R

2011-09-01

15

Relationships between self-rated oral health, subjective symptoms, oral health behavior and clinical conditions in Japanese university students: a cross-sectional survey at Okayama University  

PubMed Central

Background Self-rated oral health is a valid and useful summary indicator of overall oral health status and quality of life. However, few studies on perception of oral health have been conducted among Japanese young adults. This study investigated whether oral health behavior, subjective oral symptoms, or clinical oral status were associated with self-rated oral health in Japanese young adults. Methods This cross-sectional survey included 2,087 students (1,183 males, 904 females), aged 18 and 19 years, at Okayama University, Japan. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed and an oral examination was performed. Results In a structural equation modeling analysis, the score of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) significantly affected self-rated oral health (p <0.05) and the effect size was highest. Malocclusion, subjective symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and stomatitis, and poor oral health behavior significantly induced self-rated poor oral health with small effect sizes (p <0.05). Clinical periodontal conditions and Oral Hygiene Index-simplified were not related to self-rated oral health. Conclusion Self-rated oral health was influenced by subjective symptoms of TMD and stomatitis, oral health behavior, the score of DMFT, and malocclusion. The evaluation of these parameters may be a useful approach in routine dental examination to improve self-rated oral health in university students. PMID:24195632

2013-01-01

16

Oral Health Condition and Treatment Needs of a Group of Nigerian Individuals with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study was carried out to determine the oral health condition and treatment needs of a group of individuals with Down syndrome in Nigeria. Method: Participants were examined for oral hygiene status, dental caries, malocclusion, hypoplasia, missing teeth, crowding and treatment needs. Findings were compared with controls across age…

Oredugba, Folakemi A.

2007-01-01

17

Limitations in Life Participation and Independence Due to Secondary Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of secondary conditions across adults with autism, Down syndrome, and cerebral palsy were explored in terms of overall limitation in life participation and independence, changes over time, and the degree and nature of limitation in specific secondary conditions. Information was obtained for 35 adults with autism, 49 with Down syndrome,…

Koritsas, Stella; Iacono, Teresa

2009-01-01

18

Influence of oral health condition on swallowing and oral intake level for patients affected by chronic stroke  

PubMed Central

Background According to the literature, the occurrence of dysphagia is high in cases of stroke, and its severity can be enhanced by loss of teeth and the use of poorly fitting prostheses. Objective To verify that the status of oral health influences the level of oral intake and the degree of swallowing dysfunction in elderly patients with stroke in chronic phase. Methods Thirty elderly individuals affected by stroke in chronic phase participated. All subjects underwent assessment of their oral condition, with classification from the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) and nasoendoscopic swallowing assessment to classify the degree of dysphagia. The statistical analysis examined a heterogeneous group (HG, n=30) and two groups designated by the affected body part, right (RHG, n=8) and left (LHG, n=11), excluding totally dentate or edentulous individuals without rehabilitation with more than one episode of stroke. Results There was a negative correlation between the need for replacement prostheses and the FOIS scale for the HG (P=0.02) and RHG (P=0.01). Differences in FOIS between types of prostheses of the upper dental arch in the LHG (P=0.01) and lower dental arch in the RHG (P=0.04). A negative correlation was found between the number of teeth present and the degree of dysfunction in swallowing liquid in the LHG (P=0.05). There were differences in the performance in swallowing solids between individuals without prosthesis and those with partial prosthesis in the inferior dental arch (P=0.04) for the HG. Conclusion The need for replacement prostheses, type of prostheses, and the number of teeth of elderly patients poststroke in chronic phase showed an association with the level of oral intake and the degree of oropharyngeal dysphagia.

Mituuti, Cláudia T; Bianco, Vinicius C; Bentim, Cláudia G; de Andrade, Eduardo C; Rubo, José H; Berretin-Felix, Giédre

2015-01-01

19

Predictability of oral and laryngopharyngeal function for aspiration and limitation of oral intake in patients after surgery for head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

Swallowing disorders are common in patients after surgery for head and neck cancer. The clinical assessment of oral and laryngopharyngeal abilities is widely used as a dysphagia assessment tool in this patient group, despite a lack of research. The goal of this study was to assess the predictability of clinical parameters for aspiration and limitation of oral intake. A swallowing disorder with the need for further intervention was identified by fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) in 65%, with aspiration in 49%, silently in 21%, and limited oral intake with tube dependency in 56% of studied patients. Four clinical parameters (dysglossia, wet voice, tongue motility, and tongue strength) correlated significantly with aspiration and limitation of oral intake. However, none of these clinical parameters was able to predict one of our two reference criteria, due to low positive likelihood ratios, mostly less than two. Clinical assessment is therefore inappropriate for early detection of swallowing disorders in such patients. PMID:23898102

Hey, Christiane; Lange, Benjamin P; Aere, Christina; Eberle, Silvia; Zaretsky, Yevgen; Sader, Robert; Stöver, Timo; Wagenblast, Jens

2013-08-01

20

[The impact of oral conditions in the quality of life municipal civil servants].  

PubMed

The scope of this article is to verify the prevalence of the impact produced by oral health conditions on the quality of life of civil servants and the possible association with social and demographic variables, utilization of dental services, dental pain and the need for prosthetics. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess a random sample of 286 public employees. Data was collected using four questionnaires including the Oral Health Impact Profile. The association between the variables was measured using Fisher's Exact Test; the Odds Ratio evaluated the strength of association between impact and exposure. Logistic regression models were adjusted for each dimension. Ninety-three individuals (32.5%) declared impacts. The main impact prediction was associated with age, social and economic status, education, the use of dental services, the need for prosthetics and dental pain. A considerable number of individuals declared an impact on quality of life due to oral conditions. PMID:25184598

Miotto, Maria Helena Monteiro de Barros; Almeida, Claudio Santos; Barcellos, Ludmilla Awad

2014-09-01

21

Socio-demographic factors and oral health conditions in the elderly: a population-based study.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between oral health conditions and socio-demographic factors in an elderly population from Macaíba/RN (Brazil). A questionnaire was used to characterize the socio-demographic profiles and a clinical examination was performed to assess oral health conditions such as tooth decay, gum disease, use of dental prosthesis, need for dental prosthesis and soft tissue injuries. The technique of random sampling by conglomerates was used, taken from randomly selected census drafts, with a total sample of 441 individuals. The prevalence of edentulism, bleeding and dental calculus was 50.8%, 27.2% and 32%, respectively, excluding all sextants in 59% of the elderly. Data analysis was conducted using the chi-squared test with the level of significance set at 5%. Prior to association tests, the dependant variables were submitted to principal component analysis. Four factors were extracted to represent the oral health conditions of elderly individuals. A statistically significant association was found between the following variables: gender and the presence of a caregiver with gum disease; age, residence area, presence of a caregiver and household density with need for dental prosthesis; and household density with soft tissue injuries. Therefore, precarious oral health conditions were found among the elderly and associations were found between these conditions and the socio-demographic factors, particularly gender, age and residence area. The results obtained demonstrated the need for improved oral health conditions in the elderly. The study of these conditions, allied to socio-demographic factors, is important in terms of both dental care and public policy planning related to these individuals. PMID:23773366

de Oliveira, Tamires Carneiro; da Silva, Diviane Alves; Leite de Freitas, Yan Nogueira; da Silva, Romerito Lins; Pegado, Carla Patrícia de Castro; de Lima, Kenio Costa

2013-01-01

22

Impact of oral health conditions on the quality of life of workers.  

PubMed

Occupational health has been the scope of numerous studies, primarily due to the concern that the worker should enjoy good working conditions and a satisfactory quality of life. This study seeks to analyze the impact of oral health on the quality of life of workers at a public university using the simplified version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) and associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 326 workers who responded the questions of OHIP-14 about self-rated health, oral morbidity, and socioeconomic and demographic questions. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to verify the association between the independent variables and OHIP-14. About 40% of the impact of oral health on quality of life can be explained by the variables: education level (p = 0,03), age (p = 0,03), reason for visiting a dentist (p = 0,01), oral health perception (p < 0,01) and satisfaction with teeth and mouth (p < 0,01). The use of OHIP-14 can be useful for planning programs and actions focused on health education for occupational health, prioritizing workers with greater psychosocial impacts caused by oral problems. PMID:25388186

Guerra, Maria Júlia Campos; Greco, Rosangela Maria; Leite, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Paula, Marcos Vinícius Queiroz de

2014-12-01

23

Oral health conditions and cognitive functioning in middle and later adulthood  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of oral health conditions on cognitive functioning on basis of data samples from several European countries. Methods Secondary analyses were conducted of data from wave 2 of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) which includes 14 European countries and is intended to be representative of each country’s middle and later adulthood population. Information on word recall, verbal fluency, and numeracy as well as information on chewing ability and denture wearing status was available for a total of 28,693 persons aged 50+. Multivariate regression analysis was used to detect influences of oral health parameters on cognitive functioning (p?oral health impacts on numeracy compared to word recall and verbal fluency. Conclusions The present study provides novel large-scale epidemiological evidence supportive of an association between oral health and cognitive functioning. Future research should intend to verify the precise causal links between oral health conditions, various cognitive dimensions, and their neural correlates. PMID:24923362

2014-01-01

24

National Survey of Oral/Dental Conditions Related to Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Mexican Adults  

PubMed Central

Oral diseases are a major burden on individuals and health systems. The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of tobacco and alcohol were associated with the prevalence of oral/dental problems in Mexican adults. Using data from the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2003, a cross-sectional study part of the World Health Survey, dental information from a representative sample of Mexico (n = 22,229, N = 51,155,740) was used to document self-reported oral/dental problems in the 12 months prior to the survey. Questionnaires were used to collect information related to sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and other risk factors. Three models were generated for each age group (18–30, 31–45 and 46–98 years). The prevalence of oral/dental conditions was 25.7%. Adjusting for sex, schooling, socioeconomic position, diabetes, and self-reported health, those who used tobacco (sometimes or daily) (OR = 1.15, p = 0.070; OR = 1.24, p < 0.01; and OR = 1.16, p < 0.05, for each age group respectively) or alcohol (moderate or high) (OR = 1.26, p < 0.001; OR = 1.18, p < 0.01 and OR = 1.30, p < 0.001, for each age group respectively) had a higher risk of reporting oral/dental problems. Because tobacco and alcohol use were associated with self-reported oral/dental problems in one out of four adults, it appears advisable to ascertain how direct is such link; more direct effects would lend greater weight to adopting measures to reduce consumption of tobacco and alcohol for the specific purpose of improving oral health. PMID:24642844

Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

2014-01-01

25

Plasma, oral fluid and sweat wipe ecstasy concentrations in controlled and real life conditions.  

PubMed

In a double-blind placebo controlled study on psychomotor skills important for car driving (Study 1), a 75 mg dose of +/- 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) was administered orally to 12 healthy volunteers who were known to be recreational MDMA-users. Toxicokinetic data were gathered by analysis of blood, urine, oral fluid and sweat wipes collected during the first 5h after administration. Resultant plasma concentrations varied from 21 to 295 ng/ml, with an average peak concentration of 178 ng/ml observed between 2 and 4h after administration. MDA concentrations never exceeded 20 ng/ml. Corresponding MDMA concentrations in oral fluid, as measured with a specific LC-MS/MS method (which required only 50 microl of oral fluid), generally exceeded those in plasma and peaked at an average concentration of 1215 ng/ml. A substantial intra- and inter-subject variability was observed with this matrix, and values ranged from 50 to 6982 ng/ml MDMA. Somewhat surprisingly, even 4-5h after ingestion, the MDMA levels in sweat only averaged 25 ng/wipe. In addition to this controlled study, data were collected from 19 MDMA-users who participated in a driving simulator study (Study 2), comparing sober non-drug conditions with MDMA-only and multiple drug use conditions. In this particular study, urine samples were used for general drug screening and oral fluid was collected as an alternative to blood sampling. Analysis of oral fluid samples by LC-MS/MS revealed an average MDMA/MDEA concentration of 1121 ng/ml in the MDMA-only condition, with large inter-subject variability. This was also the case in the multiple drug condition, where generally, significantly higher concentrations of MDMA, MDEA and/or amphetamine were detected in the oral fluid samples. Urine screening revealed the presence of combinations such as MDMA, MDEA, amph, cannabis, cocaine, LSD and psilocine in the multiple-drug condition. PMID:12208028

Samyn, Nele; De Boeck, Gert; Wood, Michelle; Lamers, Caroline T J; De Waard, Dick; Brookhuis, Karel A; Verstraete, Alain G; Riedel, Wim J

2002-08-14

26

Evaluation of oral mucosa collagen condition with cross-polarization optical coherence tomography.  

PubMed

The goal of the research was analysis of the effect of collagen condition in formation of cross-polarized CP OCT images. We used of the CP OCT technique for studying collagen condition on an example of oral mucosa. Special histologic picrosirius red (PSR) staining of cheek mucosa specimens was used with subsequent assessing of the result of collagen staining in polarized light. High correlation (r = 0.692, p = 0.0001) between OCT signal standard deviation (SD) in cross-polarized images and brightness of PSR stained collagen fibers in cheek mucosa specimens was demonstrated in patients with inflammatory intestine and oral mucosa diseases. We have found that the OCT signal SD in cross-polarized images reflects two boundary conditions of collagen disorganization, namely, loss of fiber properties at active inflammation which attenuates the signal and fibrosis that occurs due to synthesis of a new remodeled collagen which amplifies the OCT signal. PMID:22764058

Gladkova, Natalia; Kiseleva, Elena; Robakidze, Natalia; Balalaeva, Irina; Karabut, Maria; Gubarkova, Ekaterina; Feldchtein, Felix

2013-04-01

27

Investigation of the Functional Role of P-Glycoprotein in Limiting the Oral Bioavailability of Lumefantrine  

PubMed Central

In the quest to explore the reason for the low and variable bioavailability of lumefantrine, we investigated the possible role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in lumefantrine intestinal absorption. An in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion study in rats with the P-gp inhibitor verapamil or quinidine and an ATPase assay with human P-gp membranes indicated that lumefantrine is a substrate of P-gp which limits its intestinal absorption. To confirm these findings, an in vivo pharmacokinetic study was performed in rats. The oral administration of verapamil (10 mg/kg of body weight) along with lumefantrine caused a significant increase in its bioavailability with a concomitant decrease in clearance. The increase in bioavailability of lumefantrine could be due to inhibition of P-gp and/or cytochrome P450 3A in the intestine/liver by verapamil. However, in a rat intestinal microsomal stability study, lumefantrine was found to be resistant to oxidative metabolism. Further, an in situ permeation study clearly showed a significant role of P-gp in limiting the oral absorption of lumefantrine. Thus, the increase in lumefantrine bioavailability with verapamil is attributed in part to the P-gp-inhibitory ability of verapamil. In conclusion, lumefantrine is a substrate of P-gp, and active efflux by P-gp across the intestine partly contributed to the low/variable bioavailability of lumefantrine. PMID:24189249

Raju, Kanumuri S. R.; Singh, Sheelendra P.; Taneja, Isha

2014-01-01

28

A Conditional Local Limit Theorem for Recurrent Random Walk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let $S_n, n = 1, 2, 3, \\\\cdots$ denote the recurrent random walk formed by the partial sums of i.i.d. lattice random variables with mean zero and finite variance. Let $T_{\\\\{x\\\\}} = \\\\min \\\\lbrack n \\\\geqq 1 \\\\mid S_n = x \\\\rbrack$ with $T \\\\equiv T_{\\\\{0\\\\}}$. We obtain a local limit theorem for the random walk conditioned by the event

W. D. Kaigh

1975-01-01

29

Biological conversion of synthesis gas. Limiting conditions/scale-up  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research is to develop a technically and economically feasible process for biologically producing H(sub 2) from synthesis gas while, at the same time, removing harmful sulfur gas compounds. Six major tasks are being studied: 1. Culture development, where the best cultures are selected and conditions optimized for simultaneous hydrogen production and sulfur gas removal; 2. Mass transfer and kinetic studies in which equations necessary for process design are developed; 3. Bioreactor design studies, where the cultures chosen in Task 1 are utilized in continuous reaction vessels to demonstrate process feasibility and define operating conditions; 4. Evaluation of biological synthetic gas conversion under limiting conditions in preparation for industrial demonstration studies; 5. Process scale-up where laboratory data are scaled to larger-size units in preparation for process demonstration in a pilot-scale unit; and 6. Economic evaluation, where process simulations are used to project process economics and identify high cost areas during sensitivity analyses.

Basu, R.; Klasson, K.T.; Takriff, M.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

1993-09-01

30

Oxygen Consumption Rates of Bacteria under Nutrient-Limited Conditions  

PubMed Central

Many environments on Earth experience nutrient limitation and as a result have nongrowing or very slowly growing bacterial populations. To better understand bacterial respiration under environmentally relevant conditions, the effect of nutrient limitation on respiration rates of heterotrophic bacteria was measured. The oxygen consumption and population density of batch cultures of Escherichia coli K-12, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 were tracked for up to 200 days. The oxygen consumption per CFU (QO2) declined by more than 2 orders of magnitude for all three strains as they transitioned from nutrient-abundant log-phase growth to the nutrient-limited early stationary phase. The large reduction in QO2 from growth to stationary phase suggests that nutrient availability is an important factor in considering environmental respiration rates. Following the death phase, during the long-term stationary phase (LTSP), QO2 values of the surviving population increased with time and more cells were respiring than formed colonies. Within the respiring population, a subpopulation of highly respiring cells increased in abundance with time. Apparently, as cells enter LTSP, there is a viable but not culturable population whose bulk community and per cell respiration rates are dynamic. This result has a bearing on how minimal energy requirements are met, especially in nutrient-limited environments. The minimal QO2 rates support the extension of Kleiber's law to the mass of a bacterium (100-fg range). PMID:23770901

Riedel, Timothy E.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Finkel, Steven E.

2013-01-01

31

Oxygen consumption rates of bacteria under nutrient-limited conditions.  

PubMed

Many environments on Earth experience nutrient limitation and as a result have nongrowing or very slowly growing bacterial populations. To better understand bacterial respiration under environmentally relevant conditions, the effect of nutrient limitation on respiration rates of heterotrophic bacteria was measured. The oxygen consumption and population density of batch cultures of Escherichia coli K-12, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 were tracked for up to 200 days. The oxygen consumption per CFU (QO2) declined by more than 2 orders of magnitude for all three strains as they transitioned from nutrient-abundant log-phase growth to the nutrient-limited early stationary phase. The large reduction in QO2 from growth to stationary phase suggests that nutrient availability is an important factor in considering environmental respiration rates. Following the death phase, during the long-term stationary phase (LTSP), QO2 values of the surviving population increased with time and more cells were respiring than formed colonies. Within the respiring population, a subpopulation of highly respiring cells increased in abundance with time. Apparently, as cells enter LTSP, there is a viable but not culturable population whose bulk community and per cell respiration rates are dynamic. This result has a bearing on how minimal energy requirements are met, especially in nutrient-limited environments. The minimal QO2 rates support the extension of Kleiber's law to the mass of a bacterium (100-fg range). PMID:23770901

Riedel, Timothy E; Berelson, William M; Nealson, Kenneth H; Finkel, Steven E

2013-08-01

32

Feasibility and benefits of methanogenesis under oxygen-limited conditions  

SciTech Connect

Methanogenic and aerobic (or microaerophilic) biological processes are often considered mutually exclusive and separated as biological wastewater treatment options. However, under oxygen-limited conditions, both aerobic respiration and methanogenesis can be practically accomplished by a single mixed culture. This paper describes sustained batch culture, oxygen-limited methanogenic serum bottle and bench-scale systems. Serum bottle cultures exhibited methanogenic activity similar to or greater than that of a strictly anaerobic culture maintained in parallel. The COD removal efficiencies of anaerobic, oxygen-limited, and aerobic bench-scale reactors receiving 30,000 mg/l of sucrose were all greater than 93%, a system receiving 1 g O{sub 2}/L{sub R}-day achieved a lower final effluent COD than the strictly anaerobic reactor. After a shock-load of sucrose, the pH recovered in low-aeration batch reactors in 28--34 days, whereas anaerobic pH did not recover after 52 days of observation. In the future, methanogenesis under limited-aeration may be employed as an energy efficient treatment option to achieve low final COD concentrations, minimal biosolids generation, and mineralization of a broad range of specific organic chemicals.

Zitomer, D.H.; Shrout, J.D. [Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States)] [Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States)

1998-12-31

33

Variations in the Social Impact of Oral Conditions Among Older Adults in South Australia, Ontario, and North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies among older adults have demonstrated that oral disease frequently leads to dysfunction, discomfort, and disability. This study aimed to assess variations in the social impact of oral conditions among six strata of people aged 65 years and older: residents of metropolitan Adelaide and rural Mt Gambier, South Australia; residents of metropolitan Toronto-North York and non-metropolitan Simcoe-Sudbury counties, Ontario,

G. D. Slade; A. J. Spencer; D. Locker; R. J. Hunt; R. P. Strauss; J. D. Beck

1996-01-01

34

Limits of deterministic predictability in limited area models due to sensible dependence on initial conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the late 50ies and the 60ies the limit of predictability of weather has been shown to be 5 to 14 days by theoretical and numerical studies as consequence of sensible dependence on initial conditions. The simulation of an ensemble is the standard approach to address this uncertainty. Climatological means over time scales of 30 years are regarded as 'certain' under constant climate forcing conditions. A systematic analysis of predictability limits on different space and time scales in the earth system is still missing. It is relevant in particular for time scales between the time scales of weather and climate and helps avoiding misinterpretation of the results and/or to find an optimal configuration for the ensemble. In terms of statistics, the predictability of weather can be associated with the predictability of 6h and 100 km mean values. In mid latitudes it reaches a saturation value at the time scale of baroclinic instability Ti of 3-5 days. In the case of a purely stochastic process, this uncertainty is decreasing with N- where N is the number of instability time periods. One of the open questions is, which field variables exhibit a purely stochastic behavior and where. The application of Earth System Models is computationally demanding. Chaotic behavior may occur in some regions at certain conditions affecting the analysis. A huge number of degrees of freedom makes very long simulation times necessary. The application of limited area modeling opens the opportunity to analyse the behavior in different regions independently und thus to investigate the stochastic properties in different climates. Three different regions Europe, Africa and Central America have been simulated twice (reference and disturbance run) at standard grid resolution of 18 to 25 km using the community model COSMO-CLM. In Europe a purely stochastic behavior was found for the momentum, pressure and precipitation. A strong memory effect was found for soil moisture and temperature and a weak memory effect for the atmospheric temperature. The analysis of the simulation for Africa and Meso-America is ongoing. Predictability limits for different thresholds and variables can be calculated in terms of the ensemble size needed to keep the uncertainty below the threshold. Such maps will be presented and the differences between the variables and regions will be discussed.

Will, Andreas

2014-05-01

35

Oral Administration of Fermented Probiotics Improves the Condition of Feces in Adult Horses  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The effects of probiotics on horses are still controversial. The present study was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study designed to evaluate the ability of probiotics to improve intestinal conditions in adult horses. Fermented probiotics were administered to 10 healthy adult geldings for 28 days. The clinical condition of the horses was monitored daily, and the blood and feces were biochemically analyzed every 14 days. In the probiotic-treated group, the concentration of carboxylic acids in the feces was increased at days 14 and 28. In contrast to the fecal pH in the control group, which increased at days 14 and 28, the fecal pH in the probiotic-treated group did not increase. Additionally, the relative amounts of enteropathogenic bacterial DNA were diminished in the probiotic-treated group. These results suggest that probiotic bacteria proliferated in the equine intestine. No instances of abnormal clinical conditions or abnormal values in blood tests were observed throughout the study. Oral administration of fermented probiotics may have the ability to improve the intestinal environment biochemically and microbiologically without the risk of adverse effects.

ISHIZAKA, Saori; MATSUDA, Akira; AMAGAI, Yosuke; OIDA, Kumiko; JANG, Hyosun; UEDA, Yuko; TAKAI, Masaki; TANAKA, Akane; MATSUDA, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

36

Conditions for diffusion-limited and reaction-limited recombination in nanostructured solar cells  

SciTech Connect

The performance of Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) and related devices made of nanostructured semiconductors relies on a good charge separation, which in turn is achieved by favoring charge transport against recombination. Although both processes occur at very different time scales, hence ensuring good charge separation, in certain cases the kinetics of transport and recombination can be connected, either in a direct or an indirect way. In this work, the connection between electron transport and recombination in nanostructured solar cells is studied both theoretically and by Monte Carlo simulation. Calculations using the Multiple-Trapping model and a realistic trap distribution for nanostructured TiO{sub 2} show that for attempt-to-jump frequencies higher than 10{sup 11}–10{sup 13} Hz, the system adopts a reaction limited (RL) regime, with a lifetime which is effectively independent from the speed of the electrons in the transport level. For frequencies lower than those, and depending on the concentration of recombination centers in the material, the system enters a diffusion-limited regime (DL), where the lifetime increases if the speed of free electrons decreases. In general, the conditions for RL or DL recombination depend critically on the time scale difference between recombination kinetics and free-electron transport. Hence, if the former is too rapid with respect to the latter, the system is in the DL regime and total thermalization of carriers is not possible. In the opposite situation, a RL regime arises. Numerical data available in the literature, and the behavior of the lifetime with respect to (1) density of recombination centers and (2) probability of recombination at a given center, suggest that a typical DSC in operation stays in the RL regime with complete thermalization, although a transition to the DL regime may occur for electrolytes or hole conductors where recombination is especially rapid or where there is a larger dispersion of energies of electron acceptors.

Ansari-Rad, Mehdi, E-mail: ansari.rad@ut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, 1439955961 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, 1439955961 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, University of Shahrood, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Anta, Juan A., E-mail: anta@upo.es [Departamento de Sistemas Físicos, Químicos y Naturales, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Arzi, Ezatollah [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, 1439955961 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, 1439955961 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-04-07

37

Conditions for diffusion-limited and reaction-limited recombination in nanostructured solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) and related devices made of nanostructured semiconductors relies on a good charge separation, which in turn is achieved by favoring charge transport against recombination. Although both processes occur at very different time scales, hence ensuring good charge separation, in certain cases the kinetics of transport and recombination can be connected, either in a direct or an indirect way. In this work, the connection between electron transport and recombination in nanostructured solar cells is studied both theoretically and by Monte Carlo simulation. Calculations using the Multiple-Trapping model and a realistic trap distribution for nanostructured TiO2 show that for attempt-to-jump frequencies higher than 1011-1013 Hz, the system adopts a reaction limited (RL) regime, with a lifetime which is effectively independent from the speed of the electrons in the transport level. For frequencies lower than those, and depending on the concentration of recombination centers in the material, the system enters a diffusion-limited regime (DL), where the lifetime increases if the speed of free electrons decreases. In general, the conditions for RL or DL recombination depend critically on the time scale difference between recombination kinetics and free-electron transport. Hence, if the former is too rapid with respect to the latter, the system is in the DL regime and total thermalization of carriers is not possible. In the opposite situation, a RL regime arises. Numerical data available in the literature, and the behavior of the lifetime with respect to (1) density of recombination centers and (2) probability of recombination at a given center, suggest that a typical DSC in operation stays in the RL regime with complete thermalization, although a transition to the DL regime may occur for electrolytes or hole conductors where recombination is especially rapid or where there is a larger dispersion of energies of electron acceptors.

Ansari-Rad, Mehdi; Anta, Juan A.; Arzi, Ezatollah

2014-04-01

38

The limit equilibrium of an anisotropic medium under the general plasticity condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory of the limit equilibrium of an anisotropic medium under the general plasticity condition in the plane strain state is developed. The proposed yield criterion (the limit equilibrium condition) is obtained by combining the von Mises–Hill yield criterion of an ideally plastic anisotropic material and Prandtl's limit equilibrium condition for a medium under the general plasticity law. It is

I. V. Shirko

2006-01-01

39

THE ELASTIC LIMIT OF SPACE AND THE QUANTUM CONDITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantum condition describes the angular momentum of a quantum system. This angular momentum is a multiple of Planck's constant. Max Planck, Niels Bohr, and Albert Einstein sought a classical explanation for the quantum condition. Ernest Rutherford also looked for a classical solution, gave up, and began his work with the nucleus. It has now been over one hundred years

Frank Znidarsic

2011-01-01

40

Oral Assessment and Postgraduate Medical Examinations: Establishing Conditions for Validity, Reliability and Fairness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this review was to examine the practice of oral assessment in postgraduate medical education in the context of the core assessment constructs of validity, reliability and fairness. Although oral assessment has a long history in the certification process of medical specialists and is a well-established part of such proceedings for a…

Memon, Muhammed Ashraf; Joughin, Gordon Rowland; Memon, Breda

2010-01-01

41

Cognition and motor control as a function of Delta9-THC concentration in serum and oral fluid: limits of impairment.  

PubMed

Cannabis use has been associated with increased risk of becoming involved in traffic accidents; however, the relation between THC concentration and driver impairment is relatively obscure. The present study was designed to define performance impairment as a function of THC in serum and oral fluid in order to provide a scientific framework to the development of per se limits for driving under the influence of cannabis. Twenty recreational users of cannabis participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way cross-over study. Subjects were administered single doses of 0, 250 and 500 microg/kg THC by smoking. Performance tests measuring skills related to driving were conducted at regular intervals between 15 min and 6h post smoking and included measures of perceptual-motor control (Critical tracking task), motor impulsivity (Stop signal task) and cognitive function (Tower of London). Blood and oral fluid were collected throughout testing. Results showed a strong and linear relation between THC in serum and oral fluid. Linear relations between magnitude of performance impairment and THC in oral fluid and serum, however, were low. A more promising way to define threshold levels of impairment was found by comparing the proportion of observations showing impairment or no impairment as a function of THC concentration. The proportion of observations showing impairment progressively increased as a function of serum THC in every task. Binomial tests showed an initial and significant shift toward impairment in the Critical tracking task for serum THC concentrations between 2 and 5 ng/ml. At concentrations between 5 and 10 ng/ml approximately 75-90% of the observations were indicative of significant impairment in every performance test. At THC concentrations >30 ng/ml the proportion of observations indicative of significant impairment increased to a full 100% in every performance tests. It is concluded that serum THC concentrations between 2 and 5 ng/ml establish the lower and upper range of a THC limit for impairment. PMID:16723194

Ramaekers, J G; Moeller, M R; van Ruitenbeek, P; Theunissen, E L; Schneider, E; Kauert, G

2006-11-01

42

Limits to estimation to stochastic ill-conditioned inverse problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using information-theoretic methods we develop simple results quantifying a lower bound for minimax estimation, a kind of infinite-dimensional Cramer-Rao lower bound, for signal estimation in possibly nonlinear, ill-conditioned, inverse problems. Our results reduce calculation to a geometric computation based on a modulus of continuity and make explicit connections with results in the literature on deterministic ill-conditioned inverse problems. Several applications

Victor Solo

2000-01-01

43

Cyclophosphamide following targeted oral busulfan as conditioning for hematopoietic cell transplantation: pharmacokinetics, liver toxicity, and mortality.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide (CY) and its metabolites hydroxycyclophosphamide and carboxyethylphosphoramide mustard were determined in 75 patients receiving targeted oral busulfan followed by i.v. CY ((T)BU/CY) and in 147 patients receiving i.v. CY followed by total body irradiation (CY/TBI) in preparation for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In the (T)BU/CY patients only, the association of the pharmacokinetic data with liver toxicity, relapse, and survival was evaluated. CY was infused at 60 mg/kg/day over 1 or 2 hours on 2 consecutive days; the majority of patients had BU levels targeted to a steady state plasma concentration (Css) of 800-900 ng/mL. Systemic exposure (i.e., area under the concentration-time curve [AUC]) of CY, hydroxycyclophosphamide, and carboxyethylphosphoramide mustard was measured. Liver toxicity was assessed as the development of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). CY metabolism was highly variable and age dependent. (T)BU/CY-treated patients had lower AUC(CY) (P < .0001), higher AUC(HCY) (P < .0001), and higher AUC(CEPM) (P = .15) than CY/TBI-conditioned patients. Among patients receiving (T)BU/CY, 17 (23%) developed SOS, and there were no statistically significant associations between the AUC of CY or its metabolites and SOS, nonrelapse mortality, relapse, or survival (all P >.15). In conclusion, CY exhibits conditioning-regimen dependent pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, suggesting that lowering CY doses is unlikely to improve outcomes to (T)BU/CY. Alternative strategies, such as administering i.v. busulfan or CY before BU, should be explored. PMID:17580264

McCune, Jeannine S; Batchelder, Ami; Deeg, H Joachim; Gooley, Ted; Cole, Scott; Phillips, Brian; Schoch, H Gary; McDonald, George B

2007-07-01

44

Rapid post-oral stimulation of intake and flavor conditioning by glucose and fat in the mouse  

PubMed Central

Although widely assumed to have only satiating actions, nutrients in the gut can also condition increases in intake in some cases. Here we studied the time course of post-oral nutrient stimulation of ingestion in food-restricted C57BL/6J mice. In experiment 1, mice adapted to drink a 0.8% sucralose solution 1 h/day, rapidly increased their rate of licking (within 4–6 min) when first tested with an 8% glucose solution and even more so in tests 2 and 3. Other mice decreased their licking rate when switched from sucralose to 8% fructose, a sugar that is sweet like glucose but lacks positive post-oral effects in mice. The glucose-stimulated drinking is due to the sugar's post-oral rather than taste properties, because sucralose is highly preferred to glucose and fructose in brief choice tests. A second experiment showed that the glucose-stimulated ingestion is associated with a conditioned flavor preference in both intact and capsaicin-treated mice. This indicates that the post-oral stimulatory action of glucose is not mediated by capsaicin-sensitive visceral afferents. In experiment 3, mice consumed flavored saccharin solutions as they self-infused water or glucose via an intragastric (IG) catheter. The glucose self-infusion stimulated ingestion within 13–15 min in test 1 and produced a conditioned increase in licking that was apparent in the initial minute of tests 2 and 3. Experiment 4 revealed that IG self-infusions of a fat emulsion also resulted in post-oral stimulation of licking in test 1 and conditioned increases in tests 2 and 3. These findings indicate that glucose and fat can generate stimulatory post-oral signals early in a feeding session that increase ongoing ingestion and condition increases in flavor acceptance and preference revealed in subsequent feeding sessions. The test procedures developed here can be used to investigate the peripheral and central processes involved in stimulation of intake by post-oral nutrients. PMID:21975648

Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

2011-01-01

45

Prosthetic rehabilitation of edentulous patient with limited oral access: A clinical report  

PubMed Central

Microstomia may result from surgical treatment of orofacial neoplasms, cleft lips, maxillofacial trauma, burns, radiotherapy or scleroderma. A maximal oral opening that is smaller than the size of a complete denture can make prosthetic treatment challenging. This clinical report presents the prosthodontic management of a total edentulous patient with microstomia. Sectional mandibular and maxillary trays and foldable mandibular and maxillary denture were fabricated for the total edentulous patient. PMID:23293498

Kumar, Sandeep; Arora, Aman; Yadav, Reena

2012-01-01

46

Fructose- and glucose-conditioned preferences in FVB mice: strain differences in post-oral sugar appetition.  

PubMed

Recent studies indicate that, unlike glucose, fructose has little or no post-oral preference conditioning actions in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. The present study determined whether this is also the case for FVB mice, which overconsume fructose relative to B6 mice. In experiment 1, FVB mice strongly preferred a noncaloric 0.1% sucralose + 0.1% saccharin (S+S) solution to 8% fructose in a 2-day choice test but switched their preference to fructose after separate experience with the two sweeteners. Other FVB mice displayed a stronger preference for 8% glucose over S+S. In a second experiment, ad libitum-fed FVB mice trained 24 h/day acquired a significant preference for a flavor (CS+) paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of 16% fructose over a different flavor (CS-) paired with IG water infusions. IG fructose infusions also conditioned flavor preferences in food-restricted FVB mice trained 1 h/day. IG infusions of 16% glucose conditioned stronger preferences in FVB mice trained 24- or 1 h/day. Thus, fructose has post-oral flavor conditioning effects in FVB mice, but these effects are less pronounced than those produced by glucose. Further studies of the differential post-oral conditioning effects of fructose and glucose in B6 and FVB mice should enhance our understanding of the physiological processes involved in sugar reward. PMID:25320345

Sclafani, Anthony; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

2014-12-15

47

14 CFR 135.227 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...pilot may take off an aircraft that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any rotor...except that takeoffs may be made with frost under the wing in the area of the fuel...airplane any time conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be...

2012-01-01

48

14 CFR 135.227 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.  

...pilot may take off an aircraft that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any rotor...except that takeoffs may be made with frost under the wing in the area of the fuel...airplane any time conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be...

2014-01-01

49

14 CFR 125.221 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...pilot may take off an airplane that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any propeller...except that takeoffs may be made with frost under the wing in the area of the fuel...airplane any time conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be...

2011-01-01

50

14 CFR 125.221 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.  

...pilot may take off an airplane that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any propeller...except that takeoffs may be made with frost under the wing in the area of the fuel...airplane any time conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be...

2014-01-01

51

14 CFR 135.227 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...pilot may take off an aircraft that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any rotor...except that takeoffs may be made with frost under the wing in the area of the fuel...airplane any time conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be...

2011-01-01

52

14 CFR 125.221 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pilot may take off an airplane that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any propeller...conditions: (1) Takeoffs may be made with frost adhering to the wings, or stabilizing or control surfaces, if the frost has been polished to make it...

2010-01-01

53

14 CFR 125.221 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...pilot may take off an airplane that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any propeller...except that takeoffs may be made with frost under the wing in the area of the fuel...airplane any time conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be...

2012-01-01

54

14 CFR 135.227 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pilot may take off an aircraft that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any rotor...except that takeoffs may be made with frost under the wing in the area of the fuel...airplane any time conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be...

2013-01-01

55

14 CFR 125.221 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pilot may take off an airplane that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any propeller...except that takeoffs may be made with frost under the wing in the area of the fuel...airplane any time conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be...

2013-01-01

56

The Limits of Knowledge Management in Contemporary Corporate Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on Jean-François Lyotard's (1984) seminal study "The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge" to reflect on two macro-level catastrophes: the global financial crisis (GFC) of 2009 (and its continuing effects throughout the Eurozone and elsewhere) and Fukushima. These two case studies probe aspects of these grand…

Garrick, John

2014-01-01

57

Optimal variable speed-limit control under abnormal traffic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of variable speed-limit (VSL) control has become promising in managing incidents in the context of intelligent highway systems, wherein advanced VSL signs are densely placed along the roadways. This paper aims to develop a genetic-fuzzy-logic- controller (GFLC)-based VSL control model with an objective function to enhance both safety and throughput efficiency at incident sites. In order to evaluate the

Yu-Chiun Chiou; Yen-Fei Huang; Po-Cheng Lin

2012-01-01

58

Flood control reservoir operations for conditions of limited storage capacity  

E-print Network

............................................................ 134 5.21 Risk-based EOS (EF = 1%, SS = Rising) Based on the Reservoirs GOL Limits.................................................................................... 137 6.1 TSA Rainfall Distribution Transposed Over Addicks Watershed... . 141 6.2 TSA Rainfall Distribution Transposed Over Barker Watershed.... 142 6.3 Computed Excess Precipitation and Flood Hydrographs for (a) Addicks; (b) Barker; and (c) Piney Point Based on Scenario (1); and for (d) Addicks; (e...

Rivera Ramirez, Hector David

2005-02-17

59

Rate-Limiting Steps of Oral Absorption for Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs in Dogs; Prediction from a Miniscale Dissolution Test and a Physiologically-Based Computer Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Nonlinear oral absorption due to poor solubility often impedes drug development. The purpose of this study was to elucidate\\u000a the rate-limiting process in oral absorption of Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class II (low solubility–high\\u000a permeability) drugs in order to predict nonlinear absorption of dose caused by solubility-limited absorption.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Oral absorption of danazol, griseofulvin, and aprepitant was predicted from a miniscale

Ryusuke Takano; Kentaro Furumoto; Koji Shiraki; Noriyuki Takata; Yoshiki Hayashi; Yoshinori Aso; Shinji Yamashita

2008-01-01

60

Methods to assess the impact of mass oral cholera vaccination campaigns under real field conditions.  

PubMed

There is increasing interest to use oral cholera vaccination as an additional strategy to water and sanitation interventions against endemic and epidemic cholera. There are two internationally-available and WHO-prequalified oral cholera vaccines: an inactivated vaccine containing killed whole-cells of V. cholerae O1 with recombinant cholera toxin B-subunit (WC/rBS) and a bivalent inactivated vaccine containing killed whole cells of V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 (BivWC). The efficacy, effectiveness, direct and indirect (herd) protection conferred by WC/rBS and BivWC are well established. Yet governments may need local evidence of vaccine impact to justify and scale-up mass oral cholera vaccination campaigns. We discuss various approaches to assess oral cholera vaccine protection, which may be useful to policymakers and public health workers considering deployment and evaluation of the vaccine. PMID:24516595

Deen, Jacqueline; Ali, Mohammad; Sack, David

2014-01-01

61

Plasma, oral fluid and sweat wipe ecstasy concentrations in controlled and real life conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a double-blind placebo controlled study on psychomotor skills important for car driving (Study 1), a 75mg dose of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) was administered orally to 12 healthy volunteers who were known to be recreational MDMA-users. Toxicokinetic data were gathered by analysis of blood, urine, oral fluid and sweat wipes collected during the first 5h after administration. Resultant plasma concentrations varied

Nele Samyn; Gert De Boeck; Michelle Wood; Caroline T. J Lamers; Dick De Waard; Karel A Brookhuis; Alain G Verstraete; Wim J Riedel

2002-01-01

62

Children's trust in unexpected oral versus printed suggestions: limitations of the power of print.  

PubMed

Children have a bias to trust spoken testimony, yet early readers have an even stronger bias to trust print. Here, we ask how enduring is the influence of printed testimony: Can the learning be applied to new scenarios? Using hybrid pictures more dominant in one animal species (e.g., squirrel) than another (e.g., rabbit), we examined 3-6-year-olds' (N = 130) acceptance of an unexpected, non-dominant label suggested only orally or via print. Consistent with previous findings, early readers, but not pre-readers, accepted printed labels more frequently than when spoken. Children were then presented with identical but unlabelled hybrid exemplars and frequently applied the non-dominant labels to these. Despite early readers' prior greater acceptance of text, when oral suggestions were accepted they retained a greater influence. Findings highlight potential implications for educators regarding knowledge being applied to new scenarios: For early readers, unexpected information from text may be fragile, while a greater confidence might be placed in such information gained from spoken testimony. PMID:24986692

Eyden, Julie; Robinson, Elizabeth J; Einav, Shiri

2014-11-01

63

Oral health-related quality of life in complete denture wearers depending on their socio-demographic background, prosthetic-related factors and clinical condition  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the differences in impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among complete denture wearers depending on their socio-demographic characteristics, prosthetic-related factors and oral status. Study Design: 51 patients aged 50-90 years treated, from 2005 to 2010, with at least one complete denture at the Department of Buccofacial Prostheses of the Complutense University (Madrid) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. All of the participants answered the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14sp) questionnaire. The additive scoring method was used. The prevalence of impacts was calculated by using the occasional threshold (OHIP-14sp score?2). Socio-demographic and prosthetic-related variables were gathered. Patients underwent clinical examination to assess their oral condition. Descriptive probes and Chi-Square tests were run (p?0.05). Results: The predominant participants’ profile was that of a man with a mean age of 69 years wearing complete dentures in both the maxilla and the mandible. The prevalence of impact was 23.5%, showing an average score of 19±9.8. The most affected domains were “functional limitation” and “physical pain”, followed by “physical disability”. Minor impacts were recorded for the psychological and social subscales (“psychological discomfort”, “psychological disability”, “social disability” and “handicap”). The prosthesis’ location significantly influenced the overall patient satisfaction, the lower dentures being the less comfortable. Having a complete removable denture as antagonist significantly hampered the patient satisfaction. Patients without prosthetic stomatitis and those who need repairing or changing their prostheses, recorded significantly higher OHIP-14sp total scores. Conclusions: The use of conventional complete dentures brings negative impacts in the OHRQoL of elderly patients, mainly in case of lower prostheses that required reparation or substitution, with a removable total denture as antagonist. The prosthetic stomatitis in this study was always associated to other severe illness, which may have influenced the self-perceived discomfort with the prostheses, as those patients were daily medicated with painkillers. Key words:Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP), oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), patient satisfaction, complete denture, elderly patients. PMID:23385509

Perea, Carmen; Suárez-García, María J.; Del Río, Jaime; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Montero, Javier

2013-01-01

64

42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...definitions apply: (1) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the...

2013-10-01

65

42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...definitions apply: (1) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the...

2010-10-01

66

42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...definitions apply: (1) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the...

2011-10-01

67

42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...definitions apply: (1) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the...

2012-10-01

68

42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

... 2014-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...definitions apply: (1) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the...

2014-10-01

69

A self-limited febrile illness produced in guinea pigs associated with oral administration of Legionella pneumophila.  

PubMed

The presumed route of human infection by Legionella pneumophila is inhalation. We investigated possible oral transmission of legionellosis in guinea pigs. Fifty-six guinea pigs (group 1) were given virulent L. pneumophila, serogroup 1, in drinking water. Fifty-nine guinea pigs (group 2) were inoculated with L. pneumophila via gastric intubation. Nineteen guinea pigs (group 3) were given heat-killed L. pneumophila in drinking water. Twenty-four guinea pigs (group 4, positive control) were inoculated intraperitoneally with L. pneumophila. Twenty-seven guinea pigs (group 5, negative control) were either intubated gastrically with phosphate-buffered saline or given drinking water without L. pneumophila. Sixty-six of 115 (57%) of the guinea pigs orally inoculated with viable L. pneumophila (groups 1 and 2) had a temperature greater than or equal to 103 degrees F and 8 of 115 (7%) had diarrhea, compared with 0 of 19 (0%) and 0 of 19 (0%), respectively, in group 3 and 1 of 27 (4%) and 0 of 27 (0%), respectively, in group 5. There were no fatalities in groups 1, 2, 3, and 5 compared with 15 of 24 (63%) in group 4. Groups 1, 2, and 4 consistently showed pneumonitis and splenitis. The pneumonitis of groups 1 and 2 was mild, predominantly interstitial, and mainly composed of macrophages; neither gross nor microscopic evidence of aspiration was seen. In group 1, 4 of 29 (14%) guinea pigs tested seroconverted to L. pneumophila compared with 0 of 7 (0%) in group 3 and 0 of 10 (0%) in group 5. In groups 1 and 2 combined, L. pneumophila was isolated from the lung of 5 of 57 (11%) guinea pigs and spleen of 5 of 47 (11%) guinea pigs compared with 0 of 14 guinea pigs in group 5. We conclude that viable L. pneumophila administered orally produces a self-limited febrile illness in guinea pigs. PMID:3181681

Katz, S M; Hammel, J M; Matus, J P; Poropatich, R; Katz, J

1988-12-01

70

Some Aspects of Speech Production under Controlled Conditions of Oral Anaesthesia and Auditory Masking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the effects of oral anaesthesia and auditory masking on various aspects of speech articulation as objectively quantified by electropalatography and sound spectrography. The results show changes in speech production caused by altered tactile and auditory feedback. (Author/TL)

Hardcastle, W. J.

1975-01-01

71

Local Limit Theorems and Recurrence Conditions for Sums of Independent Integer-Valued Random Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditions are given which imply that the partial sums of a sequence of independent integer-valued variables which satisfy the classical Lindeberg conditions for the central limit theorem also obey a strong version of the local limit theorem. Application is made to the problem of establishing the interval recurrence of the partial sums.

J. Mineka

1972-01-01

72

Child- and family impacts of infants’ oral conditions in Tanzania and Uganda– a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Early childhood dental caries impacts on the quality of life of children and their families. This study set out to assess the psychometric properties of an oral health related quality of life, OHRQoL, measure, based on items emanating from the Child-and Family impact sections of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS), in Kiswahili and Luganda speaking communities. It was hypothesized that the Child- and Family impact scores would discriminate between children with and without clinically defined dental problems and reported good and bad oral health. Method Kiswahili and Luganda versions of the Child- and Family impact scores were derived through translation in pilot studies. Totals of 1221 and 816 child/caretaker pairs attending health care facilities in Manyara, Tanzania and Kampala, Uganda, were recruited into the study. After caretakers completed the interview, their children underwent oral clinical examination. Results Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) was > 0.80 with respect to the Child impact score and 0.79 regarding the Family impact score. Multiple variable logistic- and Poisson regression analyses revealed that the Kiswahili and Luganda versions of the Child- and Family impact score associated in the expected direction with child’s oral diseases as with their reported health and oral health status. In Manyara, multiple logistic regression revealed that the ORs of reporting Child impacts were 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.4) and 2.2 (1.3-3.4) among caretakers who confirmed linear hypoplasia and teething symptoms, respectively. In Kampala, the ORs for reporting Child impacts were 2.3 (95% CI 1.3-3.9), 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5), 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.3) and 2.7 (95% CI 1.3-5.8) among those who confirmed teeth present, hypoplasia, teething symptoms and tooth bud extractions, respectively. The odds ratios for reporting Family impacts were 2.7 (95% CI 1.5-4.7), 1.5 (95% CI 1.1- 2.1) and 4.6 (95% CI 2.0-10.7) if reporting LEH, teething symptoms and toothbud experience, respectively. Conclusion The Child and Family impact scores demonstrated acceptable internal consistency reliability and reproducibility whereas the discriminative validity was more ambiguous. The OHRQoL scores should be developed further and tested among Kiswahili and Luganda speaking caretakers. PMID:23016603

2012-01-01

73

[Oral bioavailability of oncological preparations : The intake conditions are often decisive].  

PubMed

The oral administration of pharmaceuticals plays an important role due to the many advantages, such as the simple administration and the associated high acceptance by patients. For modern oncological therapy in particular, the frequently encountered distribution of drug intake over morning, midday and evening is insufficient. Due to the sometimes highly significant food effect, the time of intake relative to mealtimes becomes of substantial importance. According to current knowledge the safest way to achieve as constant as possible resorption is to maintain strict rules with respect to intake times relative to food intake. Oral therapy with oncological drugs with pronounced food effects still raises the question how much the resorption is affected by simultaneous therapy with opioids. PMID:25391438

Weitschies, W

2014-12-01

74

Cyclophosphamide following Targeted Oral Busulfan as Conditioning for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Pharmacokinetics, Liver Toxicity, and Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide (CY) and its metabolites hydroxycyclophosphamide and carboxyethylphosphoramide mustard were determined in 75 patients receiving targeted oral busulfan followed by i.v. CY (TBU\\/CY) and in 147 patients receiving i.v. CY followed by total body irradiation (CY\\/TBI) in preparation for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In the TBU\\/CY patients only, the association of the pharmacokinetic data with liver toxicity,

Jeannine S. McCune; Ami Batchelder; H. Joachim Deeg; Ted Gooley; Scott Cole; Brian Phillips; H. Gary Schoch; George B. McDonald

2007-01-01

75

Natural history of potentially malignant oral lesions and conditions: an overview of the literature.  

PubMed

At a workshop coordinated by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Oral Cancer and Pre-cancer in the UK issues related to potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity were discussed by an expert group. The consensus views of the Working Group are presented in a series of papers. In this report we review the literature on the epidemiology and natural history of potentially malignant disorders (PMD), detailing those characteristics of the patients and lesions thought to be associated with future development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Older patients, particularly females are more at risk than younger patients; the duration of PMD may be important. Those who have never used tobacco seem at greater risk than smokers. OSCC is more likely with PMD on the lateral and ventral tongue, floor of mouth and retromolar/soft palate complex than with those elsewhere. The vast majority of PMD in which OSCC develop are non-homogenous although 5% of homogenous PMD will develop carcinoma. Large lesions covering several intraoral subsites also appear more at risk. PMID:18154571

Napier, Séamus S; Speight, Paul M

2008-01-01

76

Discriminative ability of the generic and condition specific Oral Impact on Daily Performance (OIDP) among adolescents with and without hypodontia  

PubMed Central

Background The aims of this study were to (1) investigate to what extent the generic and condition specific (CS) forms of the oral impact of daily performance (OIDP) inventory discriminate between a group of patients with hypodontia and a group of patients having malocclusion, (2) assess the association of the generic and CS OIDP with severity and localisation of hypodontia, whilst adjusting for patients’ age and sex. Methods A total of 163 patients aged 10–17 years were included in a cross-sectional study. Two groups were investigated: 62 patients with non-syndromic hypodontia and 101 non-hypodontia patients. Both groups had a malocclusion of similar treatment need. All patients underwent a clinical and radiographic examination and completed a Norwegian version of the generic and the CS OIDP inventory. CS scores were established for impacts attributed to hypodontia. Results The mean number of missing teeth in the hypodontia group was 6.2. The prevalence of generic and CS oral impacts in the hypodontia group were 64% and 30%, and the corresponding rates in the non-hypodontia group were 62% and 10%. The generic OIDP did not discriminate between the two groups with respect to overall scores. The CS OIDP discriminated strongly between patients with and without hypodontia regarding problems with emotional status, showing teeth, social contact, speaking and carrying out work. Compared to the non-hypodontia group, patients with hypodontia, with severe hypodontia (? 6 missing teeth) and upper anterior hypodontia were respectively 3.4, 2.5 and 7.0 times more likely to report any oral impact attributed to small teeth, gaps between teeth and missing teeth. Conclusions Hypodontia and malocclusion patients report a considerable burden of oral impacts. The CS-OIDP measure discriminated most effectively between patients with and without hypodontia and was related to severity and upper anterior localisation of hypodontia. PMID:24884584

2014-01-01

77

Phase stability limit of c-BN under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic pressure conditions  

SciTech Connect

Phase stability limit of cubic boron nitride (c-BN) has been investigated by the crystal structure search technique. It indicated that this limit is ?1000 GPa at hydrostatic pressure condition. Above this pressure, c-BN turns into a metastable phase with respect to rocksalt type boron nitride (rs-BN). However, rs-BN cannot be retained at 0 GPa owing to its instability at pressure below 250 GPa. For non-hydrostatic pressure conditions, the phase stability limit of c-BN is substantially lower than that under hydrostatic pressure conditions and it is also dramatically different for other pressure mode.

Xiao, Jianwei; Du, Jinglian; Wen, Bin, E-mail: wenbin@ysu.edu.cn; Zhang, Xiangyi [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Melnik, Roderick [M2NeT Lab, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo25, 75 University Ave. West, Ontario, Canada N2L 3C5 (Canada)] [M2NeT Lab, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo25, 75 University Ave. West, Ontario, Canada N2L 3C5 (Canada); Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-4 Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579, Japan and Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 1, Lavyrentyev Avenue, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)] [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-4 Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579, Japan and Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 1, Lavyrentyev Avenue, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

2014-04-28

78

Inhibitory activity in vitro of probiotic lactobacilli against oral Candida under different fermentation conditions.  

PubMed

Clinical studies have shown that probiotics positively affect oral health by decreasing gum bleeding and/or reducing salivary counts of certain oral pathogens. Our aim was to investigate the inhibitory effect of six probiotic lactobacilli against opportunistic oral Candida species. Sugar utilisation by both lactobacilli and Candida was also assessed. Agar overlay assay was utilised to study growth inhibition of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112, Lactobacillus brevis CD2, Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB86 and L. bulgaricus LB Lact. The inhibitory effect was measured at pH 5.5, 6.4, and 7.2, respectively, and in the presence of five different carbohydrates in growth medium (glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose, and sorbitol). Growth and final pH values were measured at two-hour time points to 24 h. L. rhamnosus GG showed the strongest inhibitory activity in fructose and glucose medium against C. albicans, followed by L. casei Shirota, L. reuteri SD2112 and L. brevis CD2. None of the lactobacilli tested affected the growth of C. krusei. Only L. rhamnosus GG produced slight inhibitory effect on C. glabrata. The lower pH values led to larger inhibition zones. Sugar fermentation profiles varied between the strains. L. casei Shirota grew in the presence of all sugars tested, whereas L. brevis CD2 could utilise only glucose and fructose. All Candida species metabolised the available sugars but the most rapid growth was observed with C. glabrata. The results suggest that commercially available probiotics differ in their inhibitory activity and carbohydrate utilisation; the above properties are modified by different pH values and sugars with more pronounced inhibition at lower pH. PMID:25380800

Jiang, Q; Stamatova, I; Kari, K; Meurman, J H

2014-11-01

79

Parameter Estimation of Dynamic Air-conditioning Component Models Using Limited Sensor Data  

E-print Network

This thesis presents an approach for identifying critical model parameters in dynamic air-conditioning systems using limited sensor information. The expansion valve model and the compressor model parameters play a crucial role in the system model...

Hariharan, Natarajkumar

2011-08-08

80

Numerical simulation of the flow over a coastal structure in depth-limited conditions  

E-print Network

of detailed measurements of irregular wave transformation in front of the structure in depth-limited conditions. The second data set consists of several test runs to study the irregular wave reflection and runup on the coastal structure in depth...

Ginting, Victor Eralingga

2012-06-07

81

Recent trends in prevention of oral cancer  

PubMed Central

Oral cancers often occurs out of long standing potentially malignant lesions and conditions so called premalignant lesions and conditions. Oral precancer is a intermediate state with increased cancer rate which can be recognized and treated obviously with much better prognosis than a full blown malignancy. Oral cancer risk can be lowered or even prevented by simply understanding basic oral hygiene, different bacteria found in the mouth, and how diet influences oral cancers. Currently, research is being done on the relationship between diet and oral cancer. Oral cancer is a very serious disease that can be prevented. Practicing good oral hygiene is key to help keep the oral cavity clean. Limiting the use of tobacco and alcohol products is also important because these are the causes of most oral cancers. Lastly, eating a well balanced diet that has protective affects can reduce the risk of oral cancer. This includes a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and fish and low in high fat and cholesterol meats, rice, and refined grains. PMID:25625069

Mangalath, Ummar; Aslam, Sachin Aslam; Abdul Khadar, Abdul Hafiz Kooliyat; Francis, Pulikkan George; Mikacha, Muhamed Shaloob Karimbil; Kalathingal, Jubin Hassan

2014-01-01

82

[Limited sampling strategy to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters of orally administered metformin hydrochloride].  

PubMed

The present study was to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters of metformin hydrochloride in 20 Chinese healthy volunteers with a limited sampling strategy (LSS), which will provide scientific data for bioequivalence and clinical application. A single dose of metformin was administrated to 20 healthy volunteers. The concentration of metformin in whole blood was determined by validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Multi-linear regression analysis was performed to establish a model to estimate AUC(0-24 h) and Cmax of metformin by LSS method. The LSS models were validated by the Jackknife method. The result indicated: the linearity relationship between AUC(0-24 h) or Cmax and single concentration point was poor. Several models for metformin AUC(0-24 h) or Cmax, estimation were better (r2 > 0.9, P < 0.05). Validation tests indicated that most informative sampling points (C2, C6 for AUC(0-24 h), C1.5, C2 for Cmax) provided accurate estimations of these parameters. So, a multi-linear regression model for estimation pharmacokinetic parameters of metformin by using LSS method is feasible. PMID:21351492

Chen, Li-fang; Jiao, Jian-jie; Zhang, Cai-li; Lou, Jian-shi; Liu, Chang-xiao

2010-12-01

83

77 FR 69785 - Public Use Limit on Commercial Dog Walking; Revised Disposal Conditions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 1002 Public Use Limit on Commercial Dog Walking; Revised Disposal Conditions AGENCY...on persons who are walking four or more dogs at one time in Area B of the Presidio of...Presidio) for consideration (Commercial Dog Walkers). The limit will require any...

2012-11-21

84

78 FR 6273 - Public Use Limit on Commercial Dog Walking; Revised Disposal Conditions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 1002 Public Use Limit on Commercial Dog Walking; Revised Disposal Conditions AGENCY...on persons who are walking four or more dogs at one time in Area B of the Presidio of San Francisco for consideration (Commercial Dog Walkers). The limit will require any...

2013-01-30

85

A Comparison of Bilingual Oral Language and Reading Skills among Limited English-Speaking Students from Spanish-Speaking Backgrounds. Monograph 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether there were significant differences in the acquisition of oral language and reading skills among limited-English-speaking, Hispanic elementary school students receiving instruction through three different bilingual reading approaches, and what other variables might be important. The three reading approaches were: (1)…

Gunther, Vicki

86

The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health.  

PubMed Central

This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral mucosal lesions and oropharyngeal cancers, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related oral disease and orodental trauma are major public health problems worldwide and poor oral health has a profound effect on general health and quality of life. The diversity in oral disease patterns and development trends across countries and regions reflects distinct risk profiles and the establishment of preventive oral health care programmes. The important role of sociobehavioural and environmental factors in oral health and disease has been shown in a large number of socioepidemiological surveys. In addition to poor living conditions, the major risk factors relate to unhealthy lifestyles (i.e. poor diet, nutrition and oral hygiene and use of tobacco and alcohol), and limited availability and accessibility of oral health services. Several oral diseases are linked to noncommunicable chronic diseases primarily because of common risk factors. Moreover, general diseases often have oral manifestations (e.g. diabetes or HIV/AIDS). Worldwide strengthening of public health programmes through the implementation of effective measures for the prevention of oral disease and promotion of oral health is urgently needed. The challenges of improving oral health are particularly great in developing countries. PMID:16211157

Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Estupinan-Day, Saskia; Ndiaye, Charlotte

2005-01-01

87

Driver Behavior and Preferences for Changeable Message Signs and Variable Speed Limits in Reduced Visibility Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the factors affecting drivers’ stated behavior in adverse visibility conditions, and examines whether drivers rely on and follow advisory or warning messages displayed on portable changeable message signs (CMS) and\\/or variable speed limit (VSL) signs in different visibility, traffic conditions, and on two types of roadways; freeways and two-lane roads. A multiple approach survey was designed to

Hany M. Hassan; Mohamed A. Abdel-Aty; Keechoo Choi; Saad A. AlGadhi

2012-01-01

88

Pontine Stimulation Overcomes Developmental Limitations in the Neural Mechanisms of Eyeblink Conditioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pontine neuronal activation during auditory stimuli increases ontogenetically between postnatal days (P) P17 and P24 in rats. Pontine neurons are an essential component of the conditioned stimulus (CS) pathway for eyeblink conditioning, providing mossy fiber input to the cerebellum. Here we examined whether the developmental limitation in pontine…

Freeman, John H., Jr; Rabinak, Christine A.; Campolattaro, Matthew M.

2005-01-01

89

42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

2013-10-01

90

42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

2011-10-01

91

42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

2012-10-01

92

42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

2010-10-01

93

42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

2014-10-01

94

Effects of surface voids on burning rate measurements of pulverized coal at diffusion-limited conditions  

SciTech Connect

This research explores the effects of voids (pores on the particle surface that are deeper than their surface radius) on burning area at diffusion-limited combustion conditions. Scanning electron microscopy and digital processing of images of quenched particles were used to quantify surface void area, perimeter, and reacting void wall area for voids with diameters larger than 1 {micro}m. After careful analysis, the most accurate determination of particle burning area at diffusion-limited conditions was achieved by measuring particle surface area using the technique of discrete revolution, subtracting surface void area, and adding reacting void wall area. In situ measurements of reacting coal particle temperatures and images were taken for three coals and spherocarb particles at conditions that limit the formation of CO{sub 2} from reacting carbon under various oxygen concentrations and heating rates. The results of these experiments indicate that correcting the measured surface area for void area and reacting void wall area produces calculated burning rates closely matching diffusion-limited burning rates for all conditions and all coals investigated. These results suggest that void area effects should be included for accurate determination of burning area at diffusion-limited conditions.

Bayless, D.J.; Schroeder, A.R.; Peters, J.E.; Buckius, R.O. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering] [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

1997-01-01

95

Reducing Conservatism in Aircraft Engine Response Using Conditionally Active Min-Max Limit Regulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current aircraft engine control logic uses a Min-Max control selection structure to prevent the engine from exceeding any safety or operational limits during transients due to throttle commands. This structure is inherently conservative and produces transient responses that are slower than necessary. In order to utilize the existing safety margins more effectively, a modification to this architecture is proposed, referred to as a Conditionally Active (CA) limit regulator. This concept uses the existing Min-Max architecture with the modification that limit regulators are active only when the operating point is close to a particular limit. This paper explores the use of CA limit regulators using a publicly available commercial aircraft engine simulation. The improvement in thrust response while maintaining all necessary safety limits is demonstrated in a number of cases.

May, Ryan D.; Garg, Sanjay

2012-01-01

96

Impact of oral health conditions on the quality of life of preschool children and their families: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Dental caries, traumatic dental injury (TDI) and malocclusion are common oral health conditions among preschool children and can have both physical and psychosocial consequences. Thus, it is important to measure the impact these on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of oral health conditions on the OHRQoL of preschool children and their families. Methods A preschool-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 preschool children in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered the Brazilian Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale and a questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data as well as the parent’s/caregiver’s perceptions regarding their child’s health. Clinical exams were performed by three researchers who had undergone a calibration process for the diagnosis of dental caries, TDI and malocclusion (K?=?0.83-0.85). Hierarchical Poisson regression was employed to determine the strength of associations between oral health conditions and OHRQoL (??=?5%). The multivariate model was run on three levels obeying a hierarchical approach from distal to proximal determinants: 1) socio-demographic data; 2) perceptions of health; and 3) oral health conditions. Results The prevalence of impact from oral health conditions on OHRQoL was 32.1% among the children and 26.2% among the families. The following variables were significantly associated with a impact on OHRQoL among the children: birth order of child (PR?=?1.430; 95% CI: 1.045-1.958), parent’s/caregiver’s perception of child’s oral health as poor (PR?=?1.732; 95% CI: 1.399-2.145), cavitated lesions (PR?=?2.596; 95% CI: 1.982-3.400) and TDI (PR?=?1.413; 95% CI: 1.161-1.718). The following variables were significantly associated with a impact on OHRQoL among the families: parent’s/caregiver’s perception of child’s oral health as poor (PR?=?2.116; 95% CI: 1.624-2.757), cavitated lesions (PR?=?2.809; 95% CI: 2.009-3.926) and type of TDI (PR?=?2.448; 95% CI: 1.288-4.653). Conclusion Cavitated lesions and TDI exerted a impact on OHRQoL of the preschool children and their families. Parents’/caregivers’ perception of their child’s oral health as poor and the birth order of the child were predictors of a greater impact on OHRQoL. PMID:24745700

2014-01-01

97

Oral pathology.  

PubMed

Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth. PMID:18482706

Niemiec, Brook A

2008-05-01

98

Impact of Hiv-Associated Conditions on Mortality in People Commencing Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Resource Limited Settings  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify associations between specific WHO stage 3 and 4 conditions diagnosed after ART initiation and all cause mortality for patients in resource-limited settings (RLS). Design, Setting Analysis of routine program data collected prospectively from 25 programs in eight countries between 2002 and 2010. Subjects, Participants 36,664 study participants with median ART follow-up of 1.26 years (IQR 0.55–2.27). Outcome Measures Using a proportional hazards model we identified factors associated with mortality, including the occurrence of specific WHO clinical stage 3 and 4 conditions during the 6-months following ART initiation. Results There were 2922 deaths during follow-up (8.0%). The crude mortality rate was 5.41 deaths per 100 person-years (95% CI: 5.21–5.61). The diagnosis of any WHO stage 3 or 4 condition during the first 6 months of ART was associated with increased mortality (HR: 2.21; 95% CI: 1.97–2.47). After adjustment for age, sex, region and pre-ART CD4 count, a diagnosis of extrapulmonary cryptococcosis (aHR: 3.54; 95% CI: 2.74–4.56), HIV wasting syndrome (aHR: 2.92; 95%CI: 2.21 -3.85), non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection (aHR: 2.43; 95% CI: 1.80–3.28) and Pneumocystis pneumonia (aHR: 2.17; 95% CI 1.80–3.28) were associated with the greatest increased mortality. Cerebral toxoplasmosis, pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, Kaposi’s sarcoma and oral and oesophageal candidiasis were associated with increased mortality, though at lower rates. Conclusions A diagnosis of certain WHO stage 3 and 4 conditions is associated with an increased risk of mortality in those initiating ART in RLS. This information will assist initiatives to reduce excess mortality, including prioritization of resources for diagnostics, therapeutic interventions and research. PMID:23935870

Marshall, Catherine S.; Curtis, Andrea J.; Spelman, Tim; O’Brien, Daniel P.; Greig, Jane; Shanks, Leslie; du Cros, Philipp; Casas, Esther C.; da Fonseca, Marcio Silveira; Athan, Eugene; Elliott, Julian H.

2013-01-01

99

Evaluation of a Theory-Driven E-Learning Intervention for Future Oral Healthcare Providers on Secondary Prevention of Disordered Eating Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oral healthcare providers have a clinical opportunity for early detection of disordered eating behaviors because they are often the first health professionals to observe overt oral and physical signs. Curricula regarding early recognition of this oral/systemic medical condition are limited in oral health educational programs. Web-based learning…

DeBate, Rita D.; Severson, Herbert H.; Cragun, Deborah L.; Gau, Jeff M.; Merrell, Laura K.; Bleck, Jennifer R.; Christiansen, Steve; Koerber, Anne; Tomar, Scott L.; Brown, Kelli R. McCormack; Tedesco, Lisa A.; Hendricson, William

2013-01-01

100

42 CFR 410.19 - Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage...Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage...ultrasound screening for an abdominal aortic aneurysm as a result of an initial...

2011-10-01

101

42 CFR 410.19 - Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage...Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage...ultrasound screening for an abdominal aortic aneurysm as a result of an initial...

2012-10-01

102

42 CFR 410.19 - Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage...Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Condition for and limitation on coverage...ultrasound screening for an abdominal aortic aneurysm as a result of an initial...

2013-10-01

103

Systemic concentrations can limit the oral absorption of poorly soluble drugs: an investigation of non-sink permeation using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.  

PubMed

In the early drug discovery environment, poorly soluble compounds with suboptimal potency are often used in efficacy studies to demonstrate in vivo preclinical proof-of-concept for new drug discovery targets and in preclinical toxicity studies to assess chemical scaffold safety. These compounds present a challenge to formulation scientists who are tasked with improving their oral bioavailability because high systemic concentrations are required. Despite the use of enabling formulations, increases in systemic exposure following oral delivery are often not achieved. We hypothesize that in some cases non-sink intestinal permeation can occur for poorly soluble compounds where their high systemic concentrations can act to inhibit their own oral absorption. Rats were given a 30 mg/kg oral dose of 1,3-dicyclohexyl urea (DCU) alone or concurrently with deuterated DCU (D8-DCU) intravenous infusions at rates of 13, 17, and 22 mg/kg/h. D8-DCU infusions dose dependently inhibited DCU oral absorption up to a maximum of 92%. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling was utilized to understand the complex interaction between high DCU systemic concentrations and its effect on its own oral absorption. We show that high systemic concentrations of DCU act to suppress its own absorption by creating a condition where intestinal permeation occurs under non-sink conditions. More importantly, we identify relevant DCU concentrations that create the concentration gradient driving the intestinal permeation process. A new parameter, the maximum permeation extraction ratio, is proposed and provides a simple means to assess the extent of non-sink permeation. PMID:23611122

Chiang, Po-Chang; La, Hank; Zhang, Haiming; Wong, Harvey

2013-11-01

104

Oral intake of ?-aminobutyric acid affects mood and activities of central nervous system during stressed condition induced by mental tasks.  

PubMed

?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a kind of amino acid contained in green tea leaves and other foods. Several reports have shown that GABA might affect brain protein synthesis, improve many brain functions such as memory and study capability, lower the blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats, and may also have a relaxation effect in humans. However, the evidence for its mood-improving function is still not sufficient. In this study, we investigated how the oral intake of GABA influences human adults psychologically and physiologically under a condition of mental stress. Sixty-three adults (28 males, 35 females) participated in a randomized, single blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-designed study over two experiment days. Capsules containing 100 mg of GABA or dextrin as a placebo were used as test samples. The results showed that EEG activities including alpha band and beta band brain waves decreased depending on the mental stress task loads, and the condition of 30 min after GABA intake diminished this decrease compared with the placebo condition. That is to say, GABA might have alleviated the stress induced by the mental tasks. This effect also corresponded with the results of the POMS scores. PMID:22203366

Yoto, A; Murao, S; Motoki, M; Yokoyama, Y; Horie, N; Takeshima, K; Masuda, K; Kim, M; Yokogoshi, H

2012-09-01

105

Paediatric palliative care: development and pilot study of a ‘Directory’ of life-limiting conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Children’s palliative care services are developing. Rational service development requires sound epidemiological data that are difficult to obtain owing to ambiguity in the definitions both of the population who needs palliative care and of palliative care itself. Existing definitions are of trajectory archetypes. The aim of this study was to develop and pilot a directory of the commonest specific diagnoses that map on to those archetypes. Methods The diagnoses of patients under the care of five children hospices and a tertiary specialist palliative medicine service in the UK were recorded. Duplicates and diagnoses that were not life-limiting conditions according to the ACT/RCPCH criteria or were not primary were removed. The resulting Directory of life-limiting conditions was piloted by analysing Death Certificate data of children in Wales between 2002 and 2007. Results 1590 diagnoses from children’s hospices and 105 from specialist palliative medicine were combined. After removals there were 376 diagnostic label. All ICD10 chapter headings were represented by at least one condition. The pilot study showed that 569 (54%) deaths in Wales were caused by LLC. Only four LLC resulted in ten or more deaths. Among deaths from LLC, the ten commonest diagnoses accounted for 32%, while the 136 diagnoses that caused one or two deaths accounted for 25%. The majority occurred from a small number of life-limiting conditions. Conclusion The Directory is a practical tool for identifying most life-limiting conditions using ICD10 codes that facilitates extraction and analysis of data from existing sources in respect of life-limiting conditions in children such as death certificate data, offering the potential for rapid and precise studies in paediatric palliative care. PMID:24330676

2013-01-01

106

Modelling reference conditions for the upper limit of Posidonia oceanica meadows: a morphodynamic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upper portion of the meadows of the protected Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica occurs in the region of the seafloor mostly affected by surf-related effects. Evaluation of its status is part of monitoring programs, but proper conclusions are difficult to draw due to the lack of definite reference conditions. Comparing the position of the meadow upper limit with the beach morphodynamics (i.e. the distinctive type of beach produced by topography and wave climate) provided evidence that the natural landwards extension of meadows can be predicted. Here we present an innovative predictive cartographic approach able to identify the seafloor portion where the meadow upper limit should naturally lies (i.e. its reference conditions). The conceptual framework of this model is based on 3 essential components: i) Definition of the breaking depth geometry: the breaking limit represents the major constrain for the landward meadow development. We modelled the breaking limit (1 year return time) using the software Mike 21 sw. ii) Definition of the morphodynamic domain of the beach using the surf scaling index ?; iii) Definition of the P. oceanica upper limit geometry. We coupled detailed aerial photo with thematic bionomic cartography. In GIS environment, we modelled the seafloor extent where the meadow should naturally lies according to the breaking limit position and the morphodynamic domain of the beach. Then, we added the GIS layer with the meadow upper limit geometry. Therefore, the final output shows, on the same map, both the reference condition and the actual location of the upper limit. It make possible to assess the status of the landward extent of a given P. oceanica meadow and quantify any suspected or observed regression caused by anthropic factors. The model was elaborated and validated along the Ligurian coastline (NW Mediteraanean) and was positively tested in other Mediterranean areas.

Vacchi, Matteo; Misson, Gloria; Montefalcone, Monica; Archetti, Renata; Nike Bianchi, Carlo; Ferrari, Marco

2014-05-01

107

Calibration and operational analysis of Variable Speed Limits for high flow conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract—Variable Speed Limits (VSL) is a control tool of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) which can enhance traffic safety and which has the potential to contribute to traffic efficiency. This study presents the results of a calibration and operational analysis of a candidate VSL algorithm for high flow conditions on an urban motorway of Queensland, Australia. The analysis was done

Rui Jiang; Adama Brian Lucky; Edward Chung

2011-01-01

108

Speed, speed limits and road traffic accidents under free flow conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between various measures of traffic speed, under free flow conditions, and accident rate is investigated for two groups of sites, one in the Tyne and Wear county of the UK and the other in Bahrain. The effect of speed limits on traffic speed is estimated for both groups of sites. In Bahrain, there is statistically significant evidence of

A. A. M Aljanahi; A. H Rhodes; A. V Metcalfe

1999-01-01

109

PRODUCTION OF ITACONIC ACID BY PSEUDOZYMA ANTARCTICA NRRL Y-7808 UNDER NITROGEN-LIMITED GROWTH CONDITIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pseudozyma antarctica NRRL Y-7808 was found to produce itaconic acid from glucose and other sugars under nitrogen-limited growth conditions. Other Pseudozyma strains screened, including a second strain of Pseudozyma antarctica, did not produce this product; so itaconic acid production is not a comm...

110

Effects of Martian conditions on numerically modeled, cooling-limited, channelized lava flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) We used the FLOWGO thermorheological model to examine the effects of Martian gravitational and environmental conditions on the cooling-limited behavior of lava flowing in a channel. The largest effect is due to the lower gravity on Mars as compared to Earth, which causes lava to flow more slowly. The lower velocity means that heat loss per distance down a

Scott K. Rowland; Andrew J. L. Harris

2004-01-01

111

Effects of Martian conditions on numerically modeled, cooling-limited, channelized lava flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used the FLOWGO thermorheological model to examine the effects of Martian gravitational and environmental conditions on the cooling-limited behavior of lava flowing in a channel. The largest effect is due to the lower gravity on Mars as compared to Earth, which causes lava to flow more slowly. The lower velocity means that heat loss per distance down a Mars

Scott K. Rowland; Andrew J. L. Harris; Harold Garbeil

2004-01-01

112

76 FR 63822 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G280 Airplane, Limit Engine Torque Loads...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conditions No. 25-447-SC] Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G280 Airplane, Limit Engine Torque Loads...SUMMARY: These special conditions are issued for the Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) model G280 airplane. This airplane will...

2011-10-14

113

Limiting current in a relativistic diode under the condition of magnetic insulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum emission current density is calculated for a time-independent, relativistic, cycloidal electron flow in a diode that is under the condition of magnetic insulation. Contrary to conventional thinking, this maximum current is not determined by the space charge limited condition on the cathode, even when the emission velocity of the electrons is assumed to be zero. The self electric and magnetic fields associated with the cycloidal flow are completely accounted for. This maximum current density is confirmed by a two-dimensional, fully electromagnetic and fully relativistic particle-in-cell code.

Lopez, Mike; Lau, Y. Y.; Luginsland, John W.; Jordan, David W.; Gilgenbach, Ronald M.

2003-11-01

114

Intestinal secretion of drugs. The role of P-glycoprotein and related drug efflux systems in limiting oral drug absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral bioavailability requires absorption of drugs across the intestinal epithelium. This may be mediated by either the paracellular and\\/or transcellular routes. Passive transcellular absorption requires the appropriate physicochemical properties to allow permeation across the apical and basolateral membrane domains. Compounds demonstrating these properties are more likely to be recognised as substrates for intracellular metabolism, such as by cytochrome P450 isozymes,

Janice Hunter; Barry H. Hirst

1997-01-01

115

Bayesian methodology to estimate and update safety performance functions under limited data conditions: a sensitivity analysis.  

PubMed

In road safety studies, decision makers must often cope with limited data conditions. In such circumstances, the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), which relies on asymptotic theory, is unreliable and prone to bias. Moreover, it has been reported in the literature that (a) Bayesian estimates might be significantly biased when using non-informative prior distributions under limited data conditions, and that (b) the calibration of limited data is plausible when existing evidence in the form of proper priors is introduced into analyses. Although the Highway Safety Manual (2010) (HSM) and other research studies provide calibration and updating procedures, the data requirements can be very taxing. This paper presents a practical and sound Bayesian method to estimate and/or update safety performance function (SPF) parameters combining the information available from limited data with the SPF parameters reported in the HSM. The proposed Bayesian updating approach has the advantage of requiring fewer observations to get reliable estimates. This paper documents this procedure. The adopted technique is validated by conducting a sensitivity analysis through an extensive simulation study with 15 different models, which include various prior combinations. This sensitivity analysis contributes to our understanding of the comparative aspects of a large number of prior distributions. Furthermore, the proposed method contributes to unification of the Bayesian updating process for SPFs. The results demonstrate the accuracy of the developed methodology. Therefore, the suggested approach offers considerable promise as a methodological tool to estimate and/or update baseline SPFs and to evaluate the efficacy of road safety countermeasures under limited data conditions. PMID:24316506

Heydari, Shahram; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Lord, Dominique; Fu, Liping

2014-03-01

116

Oral recall of limited English proficient students: a textual analysis using the STEP (Subordination Technique for Evaluating Passages) procedure  

E-print Network

), this study differs on two dimensions. First, a modified version of Christensen's Generative Rhetoric of the Paragraph, here identified as the Subordination Technique for Evaluating Passages (STEP) procedure, has been developed for the study. The STEP... specific method of textual analysis is necessary to allow the oral recall process to yield clear and practical results for classroom use. Christensen's Gen r tive Rhetoric of the Para ra h Francis Christensen's Generative Rhetoric of the Paragraph posits...

Kibler, Amanda

2013-02-22

117

Limiter  

DOEpatents

A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

1984-10-19

118

A ˜ 3.5 Ga record of water-limited, acidic weathering conditions on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The secondary mineral budget on Earth is dominated by clay minerals, Al-hydroxides, and Fe-oxides, which are formed under the moderate pH, high water-to-rock ratio conditions typical of Earth's near-surface environment. In contrast, geochemical analyses of rocks and soils from landed missions to Mars indicate that secondary mineralogy is dominated by Mg (± Fe, Ca)-sulfates and Fe-oxides. This discrepancy can be explained as resulting from differences in the chemical weathering environment of Earth and Mars. We suggest that chemical weathering processes on Mars are dominated by: (1) a low-pH, sulfuric acid-rich environment in which the stoichiometric dissolution of labile mineral phases such as olivine and apatite (± Fe-Ti oxides) is promoted; and (2) relatively low water-to-rock ratio, such that other silicate phases with slower dissolution rates (e.g., plagioclase, pyroxene) do not contribute substantially to the secondary mineral budget at the Martian surface. Under these conditions, Al-mobilization is limited, and the formation of significant Al-bearing secondary phases (e.g., clays, Al-hydroxides, Al-sulfates) is inhibited. The antiquity of rock samples analyzed in-situ on Mars suggest that water-limited acidic weathering conditions have more than likely been the defining characteristic of the Martian aqueous environment for billions of years.

Hurowitz, Joel A.; McLennan, Scott M.

2007-08-01

119

Detection of influenza A virus nucleoprotein antibodies in oral fluid specimens from pigs infected under experimental conditions using a blocking ELISA.  

PubMed

In commercial swine populations, influenza is an important component of the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) and a pathogen with major economic impact. Previously, a commercial blocking ELISA (FlockChek(™) Avian Influenza Virus MultiS-Screen(®) Antibody Test Kit, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Westbrook, ME, USA) designed to detect influenza A nucleoprotein (NP) antibodies in avian serum was shown to accurately detect NP antibodies in swine serum. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this assay could detect NP antibodies in swine oral fluid samples. Initially, the procedure for performing the NP-blocking ELISA on oral fluid was modified from the serum testing protocol by changing sample dilution, sample volume, incubation time and incubation temperature. The detection of NP antibody was then evaluated using pen-based oral fluid samples (n = 182) from pigs inoculated with either influenza A virus subtype H1N1 or H3N2 under experimental conditions and followed for 42 days post inoculation (DPI). NP antibodies in oral fluid were detected from DPI 7 to 42 in all inoculated groups, that is, the mean sample-to-negative (S/N) ratio of influenza-inoculated pigs was significantly different (P < 0.0001) from uninoculated controls (unvaccinated or vaccinated-uninoculated groups) through this period. Oral fluid versus serum S/N ratios from the same pen showed a correlation of 0.796 (Pearson's correlation coefficient, P < 0.0001). The results showed that oral fluid samples from influenza virus-infected pigs contained detectable levels of NP antibodies for ?42 DPI. Future research will be required to determine whether this approach could be used to monitor the circulation of influenza virus in commercial pig populations. PMID:23046061

Panyasing, Y; Goodell, C K; Wang, C; Kittawornrat, A; Prickett, J R; Schwartz, K J; Ballagi, A; Lizano, S; Zimmerman, J J

2014-04-01

120

Calcification and photosynthesis of the coral acropora cervicornis under calcium limited conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differing hypothesis about the function of calcification are based on an interesting dilemma. Is the purpose of calcification mainly a structural and protective one or does calcification serve other functions? Does photosynthesis increase carbonate ion activity and cause calcification or does calcification increase CO2 levels and stimulate photsynthesis? It is proposed that calcification in corals is not dependent upon photosynthesis but upon calcium levels in the water. Under normal ocean conditions, corals convert a certain percentage of energy to photosynthesis and respiration and another percentage to calcification. As corals become nutrient stressed, particularly calcium limited, the ratio of photosynthesis to calcification shifts towards calcification in order to generate protons. The protons generated during calcification may stimulate photosynthesis and aid in the uptake of nutrients and biocarbonates. The results of the calcification experiment show a trend towards increased calcification and decreased photosynthesis when the coral Acropora cervicornis is calcium limited, but the data are inconclusive and further research is needed.

Rathfon, Megan; Brewer, Debbie

1997-01-01

121

Limiter  

DOEpatents

A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

Cohen, Samuel A. (Hopewell, NJ); Hosea, Joel C. (Princeton, NJ); Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ)

1986-01-01

122

Limits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will see how the idea of a limit can be presented both in formal epsilon-delta-style terms, and using corresponding animations. After calculating a limit for a simple example function, we point out that limits do not always exist.

2013-06-21

123

A vegetation sensitivity approximation for gross primary production in water limited conditions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most severe impact of climate change on vegetation growth and agriculture is likely to occur under water-limited conditions. Under such conditions the plants optimize the inward flux of CO2 and the outward flux of water vapor (the transpiration) by regulating the size of the stomata openings. Higher temperature increases water loss through transpiration, forcing the plants to diminish the stomata openings, which decreases photosynthesis. This is counteracted by higher CO2 concentration, which allows plants to maintain the inward flux of CO2 through the smaller openings. These two counteracting effects, combined with the change in precipitation, determine the net change of biological productivity in a changed climate. Here, a vegetation sensitivity approximation (VSA) is introduced, in order to understand and estimate the combined effect of changed temperature, CO2-concentration and precipitation on gross primary production (GPP) to first order. According to the VSA, we have: ( ) ?CO2atm ? GP P = ?0 P Here ?CO2atm is the atmospheric CO2 concentration, ?0 is the baseline for atmospheric CO2 concentration, P is precipitation and ? is defined by: -s- ? = 1 - 11°C where s is the climate sensitivity i.e. the increase in temperature when atmospheric CO2 is doubled. The VSA is based on the physical laws of gas flux through the stomata openings, and is only valid under water-limited conditions. It assumes that the temperature depends logarithmically on the CO2 concentration with a given climate sensitivity. Transpiration is assumed to be a constant fraction of precipitation, which is reasonable under water-limited conditions. The VSA is compared to simulations with the dynamic vegetation model LPJ. The agreement is reasonable, and the deviations can be understood by comparison with Köppen's definition of arid climate: in an arid climate growth increases more according to LPJ than according to the VSA, and in non-arid conditions the reverse is true. Both the VSA and the LPJ simulations generally show increased growth with increasing CO2 levels and the resulting temperature increase, assuming precipitation to be unchanged. Thus, for constant precipitation the negative temperature effect is more than compensated by the positive effect of CO2.

Claesson, Jonas; Nycander, Jonas

2013-04-01

124

Vestibular lesions selectively abolish body rotation-induced, but not lithium-induced, conditioned taste aversions (oral rejection responses) in rats.  

PubMed

Pairing a novel taste with provocative vestibular stimulation results in conditioned taste aversions in both rats and humans. Vestibular system involvement in gustatory conditioning was examined in sham-lesioned or labyrinthectomized rats. Three conditioning trials consisted of 30 min access to asaccharin (0.1%) solution followed by 30 min of rotation (70 rpm) or sham rotation. In a taste reactivity test with saccharin, rotated sham-lesioned rats, but not labyrinthectomized rats, exhibited increased oral rejection reactions compared with control rats. When conditioned with lithium chloride, both labyrinthectomized and sham-lesioned rats displayed robust conditioned rejection reactions. The finding that normal vestibular function is necessary in obtaining rotation-induced conditioned taste aversions supports the face and construct validity of a rat model of motion sickness. PMID:12619913

Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter; Parker, Linda A; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Burton, Page; Fudge, Melissa A; Cross-Mellor, Shelley K

2003-02-01

125

Assessment of bacterial community structure in nitrifying biofilm under inorganic carbon-sufficient and -limited conditions.  

PubMed

In this work, nitrification and changes in the composition of the total bacterial community under inorganic carbon (IC)-limited conditions, in a nitrifying moving bed biofilm reactor, was investigated. A culture-independent analysis of cloning and sequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene was applied to quantify the bacterial diversity and to determine bacterial taxonomic assignment. IC concentrations had significant effects on the stability of ammonia-oxidation as indicated by the reduction of the nitrogen conversion rate with high NH4(+)-N loadings. The predominance of Nitrosomonas europaea was maintained in spite of changes in the IC concentration. In contrast, heterotrophic bacterial species contributed to a high bacterial diversity, and to a dynamic shift in the bacterial community structure, under IC-limited conditions. In this study, individual functions of heterotrophic bacteria were estimated based on taxonomic information. Possible key roles of coexisting heterotrophic bacteria are the assimilation of organic compounds of extracellular polymeric substances produced by nitrifiers, and biofilm formation by providing a filamentous structure and aggregation properties. PMID:25560266

Bae, Hyokwan; Chung, Yun-Chul; Yang, Heejeong; Lee, Changsoo; Aryapratama, Rio; Yoo, Young J; Lee, Seockheon

2015-01-28

126

Physiological characterization of xylose metabolism in Aspergillus niger under oxygen-limited conditions.  

PubMed

The physiology of Aspergillus niger was studied under different aeration conditions. Five different aeration rates were investigated in batch cultivations of A. niger grown on xylose. Biomass, intra- and extra-cellular metabolites profiles were determined and ten different enzyme activities in the central carbon metabolism were assessed. The focus was on organic acid production with a special interest in succinate production. The fermentations revealed that oxygen limitation significantly changes the physiology of the micro-organism. Changes in extra cellular metabolite profiles were observed, that is, there was a drastic increase in polyol production (erythritol, xylitol, glycerol, arabitol, and mannitol) and to a lesser extent in the production of reduced acids (malate and succinate). The intracellular metabolite profiles indicated changes in fluxes, since several primary metabolites, like the intermediates of the TCA cycle accumulated during oxygen limitation (on average three fold increase). Also the enzyme activities showed changes between the exponential growth phase and the oxygen limitation phase. In general, the oxygen availability has a significant impact on the physiology of this fungus causing dramatic alterations in the central carbon metabolism that should be taken into account in the design of A. niger as a succinate cell factory. PMID:17335061

Meijer, S; Panagiotou, G; Olsson, L; Nielsen, J

2007-10-01

127

Response of plants to ectomycorrhizae in N-limited conditions: which factors determine its variation?  

PubMed

In the present work, the following hypotheses were tested: (1) the negative effects of mycorrhization over host plant productivity in N-limited conditions are due to N retention by the fungal partner and not due to excessive C drainage; (2) If mycorrhization results in decreased N uptake, the host plant decreases its C investment in fungal growth. The effects of mycorrhization over a wide range of combinations between N availability, N concentration in plant tissues, and degree of mycorrhizal colonization were studied in Pinus pinaster L. mycorrhizal with Pisolithus tinctorius. Several plant productivity parameters, the seedlings' N status, chl a fluorescence (JIP test), and mycorrhizal colonization were measured. N was always limiting. A gradient of mycorrhizal effects over the host plant's growth and vitality was successfully obtained. The mycorrhizal effects on plant growth and N uptake were very strongly and positively correlated, and no evidence was found of a C limitation to growth, confirming hypothesis 1. Indications were found that the plants continued to provide C to the fungus although the N supplied by it was increasingly lower, denying hypothesis 2. A new index, the mycorrhizal N demand-supply balance, was found to efficiently explain, and to have a curvilinear relation with, the variation in response to mycorrhization. The mycorrhizal effect on host plant growth was not related to a negative effect on its photosynthetic performance and, therefore, reflected changes in resource allocation between host plant and mycorrhizal fungus, not in plant vitality. PMID:18719949

Corrêa, A; Strasser, R J; Martins-Loução, M A

2008-10-01

128

[Possibilities and limitations of the surgery of the eye's posterior segment under the outpatient conditions].  

PubMed

The goal of this article was to analyze possibilities of the vitreoretinal surgery under the outpatient conditions and to set its limitations. During the period January 1st-September 30th, 2004, there were performed 95 operations of 78 eyes in 77 patients. Number of men and women was practically equal; the age ranged 17-86 years (average 62.6 years). We operated on mostly the retinal detachment. These as well as other procedures, including also the extreme surgery with relaxing retinectomy, extraction of the subretinal tractions and membranes, silicone oil implantation or extraction, or operations combined with the cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation. Surgeries were performed under local anesthesia combined with analgesia and sedation introduced by anesthesiologist, who was always present and monitored the patient. Surgeries were performed by means of A.V.I. lens and Biom as well, with the assistance of a doctor, and later on, solely of a theatre nurse. The surgeon performed the operations by herself and long-term followed up the patients. The variety of vitreoretinal procedures did not differ from those performed at the departments of ophthalmology at university hospitals. The retinal detachment surgery was more often performed by means of cryosurgical procedure than pars plana vitrectomy undoubtedly because of early recognition of the beginning detachment. All vitreoretinal procedures may be performed on the outpatient basis. The only limiting factors are the physical condition of the patient and an acute ocular disease demanding urgent surgery in a facility with permanent service. Vitreoretinal surgery in outpatient facility performed under local anesthesia is well tolerated by the patients and the postoperative care under outpatient conditions is of equal quality as in inpatient facilities. PMID:16491636

Dolezalová, J; Karel, I; Záhlava, J; Lesták, J

2006-01-01

129

Optimization of plant mineral nutrition under growth-limiting conditions in a lunar greenhouse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It may be assumed that the first plants in a lunar base will play a main role in forming a protosoil of acceptable fertility needed for purposively growing second generation plants like wheat, rice, tulips, etc. The residues of the first-generation plants could be composted and transformed by microorganisms into a soil-like substrate within a loop of regenerative life support system. The lunar regolith may be used as a substrate for plant growth at the very beginning of a mission to reduce its cost. The use of microbial communities for priming plants will allow one to facilitate adaption to stressful conditions and to support the plant development under growth limiting conditions. Well-defined plant-associated bacteria were used for growing three cultivars to colonize French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) in anorthosite, a substrate of low bioavailability, analogous to a lunar rock. The consortium was composed of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and the bacterium Paenibacillus sp. IMBG156 which stimulated seed germination, better plant development, and finally, the flowering of inoculated tagetes. In contrast, control plants grew poorly in the anorthosite and practically did not survive until flowering. Analysis of bacterial community composition showed that all species colonized plant roots, however, the rate of colonization depended on the allelopatic characteristics of marigold varieties. Bacteria of consortium were able to liberate some elements (Ca, Fe, Mn, Si, Ni, Cu, Zn) from substrate anorthosite. Plant colonization by mixed culture of bacterial strains resulted in the increase of accumulation of K, Mg, Mn by the plant and in the lowering of the level of toxic metal accumulation. It was assumed that a rationally assembled consortium of bacterial strains promoted germination of marygold seeds and supported the plant development under growth limiting conditions by means of bioleaching plant essential nutritional elements and by protecting the plant against hyperaccumulation of some toxic metals.

Zaets, I.; Voznyuk, T.; Kovalchuk, M.; Rogutskyy, I.; Lukashov, D.; Mytrokhyn, O.; Mashkovska, S.; Foing, B.; Kozyrovska, N.

130

Genomic sweep and potential genetic rescue during limiting environmental conditions in an isolated wolf population.  

PubMed

Genetic rescue, in which the introduction of one or more unrelated individuals into an inbred population results in the reduction of detrimental genetic effects and an increase in one or more vital rates, is a potentially important management tool for mitigating adverse effects of inbreeding. We used molecular techniques to document the consequences of a male wolf (Canis lupus) that immigrated, on its own, across Lake Superior ice to the small, inbred wolf population in Isle Royale National Park. The immigrant's fitness so exceeded that of native wolves that within 2.5 generations, he was related to every individual in the population and his ancestry constituted 56 per cent of the population, resulting in a selective sweep of the total genome. In other words, all the male ancestry (50% of the total ancestry) descended from this immigrant, plus 6 per cent owing to the success of some of his inbred offspring. The immigration event occurred in an environment where space was limiting (i.e. packs occupied all available territories) and during a time when environmental conditions had deteriorated (i.e. wolves' prey declined). These conditions probably explain why the immigration event did not obviously improve the population's demography (e.g. increased population numbers or growth rate). Our results show that the beneficial effects of gene flow may be substantial and quickly manifest, short-lived under some circumstances, and how the demographic benefits of genetic rescue might be masked by environmental conditions. PMID:21450731

Adams, Jennifer R; Vucetich, Leah M; Hedrick, Philip W; Peterson, Rolf O; Vucetich, John A

2011-11-22

131

Genomic sweep and potential genetic rescue during limiting environmental conditions in an isolated wolf population  

PubMed Central

Genetic rescue, in which the introduction of one or more unrelated individuals into an inbred population results in the reduction of detrimental genetic effects and an increase in one or more vital rates, is a potentially important management tool for mitigating adverse effects of inbreeding. We used molecular techniques to document the consequences of a male wolf (Canis lupus) that immigrated, on its own, across Lake Superior ice to the small, inbred wolf population in Isle Royale National Park. The immigrant's fitness so exceeded that of native wolves that within 2.5 generations, he was related to every individual in the population and his ancestry constituted 56 per cent of the population, resulting in a selective sweep of the total genome. In other words, all the male ancestry (50% of the total ancestry) descended from this immigrant, plus 6 per cent owing to the success of some of his inbred offspring. The immigration event occurred in an environment where space was limiting (i.e. packs occupied all available territories) and during a time when environmental conditions had deteriorated (i.e. wolves' prey declined). These conditions probably explain why the immigration event did not obviously improve the population's demography (e.g. increased population numbers or growth rate). Our results show that the beneficial effects of gene flow may be substantial and quickly manifest, short-lived under some circumstances, and how the demographic benefits of genetic rescue might be masked by environmental conditions. PMID:21450731

Adams, Jennifer R.; Vucetich, Leah M.; Hedrick, Philip W.; Peterson, Rolf O.; Vucetich, John A.

2011-01-01

132

Effects of Martian conditions on numerically modeled, cooling-limited, channelized lava flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used the FLOWGO thermorheological model to examine the effects of Martian gravitational and environmental conditions on the cooling-limited behavior of lava flowing in a channel. The largest effect is due to the lower gravity on Mars as compared to Earth, which causes lava to flow more slowly. The lower velocity means that heat loss per distance down a Mars channel is greater even though the lower velocity also produces a higher percentage cover of insulating crust. Gravity alone causes the Mars flow to be >65 km shorter than an Earth flow with an equivalent volumetric flow rate. The cooler ambient Mars atmosphere causes a slight increase in heat loss by forced convection. This slows the flow a bit more, resulting in a very slight increase in heat loss per distance by all mechanisms, and decreases the modeled flow length by ~1 km, a difference well below our model uncertainty. Replacing terrestrial values of atmospheric density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and cubic expansivity makes convection less efficient and increases flow length by ~15 km. Nevertheless, at the same volumetric flow rate, lava flows ~50 km less far under Martian conditions than under terrestrial conditions. Our specific model flow has a volumetric flow rate of ~5000 m3 s-1 and traveled ~190 km down a channel on a constant 7° slope. This volumetric flow rate is slightly less than the maximum rates during the 1783-1785 Laki eruption and is 5-10 times greater than those of typical Mauna Loa eruptions.

Rowland, Scott K.; Harris, Andrew J. L.; Garbeil, Harold

2004-10-01

133

Influence of condition of surgical margins on local recurrence and disease-specific survival in oral and oropharyngeal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The clearance of surgical margins at the primary site is widely thought to influence the subsequent course of the disease in patients operated on for oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma. In some reports the adverse impact of close or involved margins was not negated by postoperative radiotherapy. These findings, in addition to descriptive histopathological studies, have led some authors to

J McMahon; C. J O’Brien; I Pathak; R Hamill; E McNeil; N Hammersley; S Gardiner; E Junor

2003-01-01

134

Oral inflammation in small animals.  

PubMed

The oral cavity can be affected by a wide variety of disorders characterized by inflammation of the gingiva and/or oral mucosa. In dogs and cats, differential diagnoses for generalized oral inflammatory disorders include plaque-reactive mucositis, chronic gingivostomatitis, eosinophilic granuloma complex, pemphigus and pemphigoid disorders, erythema multiforme, and systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition, endodontic or periodontal abscesses, infectious conditions, reactive lesions, and neoplastic conditions may initially present with localized or generalized inflammation of the oral mucosa. Determination of the underlying cause of an oral inflammatory condition relies on a thorough history, complete physical and oral examination, and incisional biopsy and histopathologic examination of lesions. PMID:23643021

Lommer, Milinda J

2013-05-01

135

29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart T of... - Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions  

...function caused by alcohol or drug use. Conditions requiring continuous medication for control (e.g., antihistamines, steroids, barbiturates, moodaltering drugs, or insulin). Meniere's disease. Hemoglobinopathies. Obstructive or...

2014-07-01

136

29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart T to... - Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...function caused by alcohol or drug use. Conditions requiring continuous medication for control (e.g., antihistamines, steroids, barbiturates, moodaltering drugs, or insulin). Meniere's disease. Hemoglobinopathies. Obstructive or...

2012-07-01

137

29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart T to... - Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...function caused by alcohol or drug use. Conditions requiring continuous medication for control (e.g., antihistamines, steroids, barbiturates, moodaltering drugs, or insulin). Meniere's disease. Hemoglobinopathies. Obstructive or...

2011-07-01

138

29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart T of... - Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...function caused by alcohol or drug use. Conditions requiring continuous medication for control (e.g., antihistamines, steroids, barbiturates, moodaltering drugs, or insulin). Meniere's disease. Hemoglobinopathies. Obstructive or...

2013-07-01

139

Unintentional prescription drug non-compliance for financial reasons in families with a child with a limiting health condition.  

PubMed

Area probability sampling via U.S. postal addresses was used to select households from seven high poverty U.S. metropolitan areas. In person and telephone interviews with one adult household member were used to determine the odds of delaying or failing to fill a needed prescription for families with a child member with a limiting health condition. Logistic models indicate families with a child with a limiting health condition are 1.57 times more likely to delay or fail to fill a needed prescription, and families with more than one child with a limiting condition are 1.85 times more likely. Implications are set forth. PMID:25674724

Stoddard-Dare, Patricia; DeRigne, LeaAnne; Mallett, Christopher; Quinn, Linda M

2015-02-01

140

Oral health Oral health  

E-print Network

Prams asks about the care of teeth during pregnancy: whether the mother had a dental problem, went to a dentist or dental clinic or discussed oral hygiene with a dentist or other healthcare worker. Public health importance A pregnant woman’s oral health affects the woman, her fetus and infant. In pregnant women, periodontal disease, which affects the gums and adjacent bone, is associated with pre-term and/or low birth-weight delivery. 1, 2, 3 After delivery, infants or young children may develop cavities from maternal oral bacteria. 4 All health care providers can promote oral health through oral examinations; advising patients about oral hygiene, diet and smoking cessation; and by making referrals to oral health practitioners. 5 Access to oral health services during pregnancy may be constrained by the American Dental Association recommendations to avoid elective dental care during the first trimester and last half of the third trimester. 6 In four PRAMS states, among mothers who reported having a dental problem, about one-half did not go for care. 7 NM PRAMS findings In 2002, 25 % of mothers recalled discussion of oral hygiene during prenatal care (Table 56 / Figure 28), 13% had a dental problem and 33 % had dental care (Table 57 / Figure 29). Among women with a dental problem, 56% had dental care (Table 58 / Figure 30). In 2001-2002, women who were more likely to have dental care included those with insurance, without public assistance or with more than high school education. Use of oral health

unknown authors

141

Nitrogen dioxide-dependent oxidation of uric acid in the human oral cavity under acidic conditions: implications for its occurrence in acidic dental plaque.  

PubMed

The pH in dental plaque falls to below 5 after the ingestion of foods, and it may remain low if acid-tolerant bacteria grow in the plaque. Certain nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity can proliferate in dental plaque at low pH, and nitrite is detected in such plaque. In acidic dental plaque, NO(2) can be produced by self-decomposition of nitrous acid and also by peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of nitrite, and it may oxidize uric acid, a major antioxidant in the oral cavity. Under experimental conditions that simulate oral cavity, the oxidation of uric acid by nitrite and by nitrite/peroxidase systems was much more rapid at pH 5 than at pH 7, suggesting the more rapid production of NO(2) in dental plaque at lower pH. We propose that if the pH of plaque developed in a dental crevice decreased, NO(2) and other nitrogen oxides produced in the plaque would diffuse into the adjoining gingival tissues. The results of this study seem to contribute to the understanding of the induction of periodontal diseases in the context of nitrite-dependent production of nitrogen oxides in acidic dental plaque. PMID:20446708

Takahama, Umeo; Hirota, Sachiko

2010-06-21

142

Oral candidiasis  

PubMed Central

Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of Candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic candidiasis, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors include impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, and extremes of life, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndrome, malignancies, and immunosuppressive conditions. Management involves taking a history, an examination, and appropriate antifungal treatment with a few requiring samples to be taken for laboratory analysis. In certain high risk groups antifungal prophylaxis reduces the incidence and severity of infections. The prognosis is good in the great majority of cases. PMID:12185216

Akpan, A; Morgan, R

2002-01-01

143

Do water-limiting conditions predispose Norway spruce to bark beetle attack?  

PubMed

Drought is considered to enhance susceptibility of Norway spruce (Picea abies) to infestations by the Eurasian spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus, Coleoptera: Curculionidae), although empirical evidence is scarce. We studied the impact of experimentally induced drought on tree water status and constitutive resin flow, and how physiological stress affects host acceptance and resistance. We established rain-out shelters to induce both severe (two full-cover plots) and moderate (two semi-cover plots) drought stress. In total, 18 sample trees, which were divided equally between the above treatment plots and two control plots, were investigated. Infestation was controlled experimentally using a novel 'attack box' method. Treatments influenced the ratios of successful and defended attacks, but predisposition of trees to infestation appeared to be mainly driven by variations in stress status of the individual trees over time. With increasingly negative twig water potentials and decreasing resin exudation, the defence capability of the spruce trees decreased. We provide empirical evidence that water-limiting conditions impair Norway spruce resistance to bark beetle attack. Yet, at the same time our data point to reduced host acceptance by I. typographus with more extreme drought stress, indicated by strongly negative pre-dawn twig water potentials. PMID:25417785

Netherer, Sigrid; Matthews, Bradley; Katzensteiner, Klaus; Blackwell, Emma; Henschke, Patrick; Hietz, Peter; Pennerstorfer, Josef; Rosner, Sabine; Kikuta, Silvia; Schume, Helmut; Schopf, Axel

2015-02-01

144

Do water-limiting conditions predispose Norway spruce to bark beetle attack?  

PubMed Central

Drought is considered to enhance susceptibility of Norway spruce (Picea abies) to infestations by the Eurasian spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus, Coleoptera: Curculionidae), although empirical evidence is scarce. We studied the impact of experimentally induced drought on tree water status and constitutive resin flow, and how physiological stress affects host acceptance and resistance. We established rain-out shelters to induce both severe (two full-cover plots) and moderate (two semi-cover plots) drought stress. In total, 18 sample trees, which were divided equally between the above treatment plots and two control plots, were investigated. Infestation was controlled experimentally using a novel ‘attack box’ method. Treatments influenced the ratios of successful and defended attacks, but predisposition of trees to infestation appeared to be mainly driven by variations in stress status of the individual trees over time. With increasingly negative twig water potentials and decreasing resin exudation, the defence capability of the spruce trees decreased. We provide empirical evidence that water-limiting conditions impair Norway spruce resistance to bark beetle attack. Yet, at the same time our data point to reduced host acceptance byI. typographus with more extreme drought stress, indicated by strongly negative pre-dawn twig water potentials. PMID:25417785

Netherer, Sigrid; Matthews, Bradley; Katzensteiner, Klaus; Blackwell, Emma; Henschke, Patrick; Hietz, Peter; Pennerstorfer, Josef; Rosner, Sabine; Kikuta, Silvia; Schume, Helmut; Schopf, Axel

2015-01-01

145

Global burden of dental condition among children in nine countries participating in an international oral health promotion programme, 2012-2013.  

PubMed

The Live.Learn.Laugh. phase 2 programme is a unique global partnership between FDI World Dental Federation and Unilever Oral Care which aims to provide measurable improvement of oral health on a global scale through encouraging twice-daily brushing with a fluoride toothpaste. It was based on international recommendations using the principles of health promotion within school for the implementation of preventive health strategies. This paper is an overview of the dental caries condition of children from 2012 to 2013 in nine countries included in four World Health Organisation (WHO) regions. A cross-sectional study was conducted in each country before the implementation of health-promotion measures focused on twice-daily toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste. The sample was based on stratified sampling according to the WHO pathfinder recommendations. From a total of 7,949 children examined, there were 517 children (1-2 years of age), 1,667 preschool children (3-5 years of age) and 5,789 schoolchildren (6-13 years of age). The prevalence and severity of primary dental caries, early childhood caries and temporary dental caries were described using decayed, filled teeth (dft), permanent decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) indices and the significant caries index (SCI). The major findings were a high prevalence of caries, identification of high-risk groups and inequality in the distribution of the severity of dental conditions. Aggregated data from this overview should provide justification for implementing an oral health programme. The main point is the need to retain and expand the community fluoridation programme as an effective preventive measure. At the individual level, the aggregated data identify the need for more targeted efforts to reach children early - especially among specific high-risk groups. PMID:25209648

Bourgeois, Denis M; Llodra, Juan Carlos

2014-10-01

146

Secreted Pyomelanin of Legionella pneumophila Promotes Bacterial Iron Uptake and Growth under Iron-Limiting Conditions  

PubMed Central

Iron acquisition is critical to the growth and virulence of Legionella pneumophila. Previously, we found that L. pneumophila uses both a ferrisiderophore pathway and ferrous iron transport to obtain iron. We now report that two molecules secreted by L. pneumophila, homogentisic acid (HGA) and its polymerized variant (HGA-melanin, a pyomelanin), are able to directly mediate the reduction of various ferric iron salts. Furthermore, HGA, synthetic HGA-melanin, and HGA-melanin derived from bacterial supernatants enhanced the ability of L. pneumophila and other species of Legionella to take up radiolabeled iron. Enhanced iron uptake was not observed with a ferrous iron transport mutant. Thus, HGA and HGA-melanin mediate ferric iron reduction, with the resulting ferrous iron being available to the bacterium for uptake. Upon further testing of L. pneumophila culture supernatants, we found that significant amounts of ferric and ferrous iron were associated with secreted HGA-melanin. Importantly, a pyomelanin-containing fraction obtained from a wild-type culture supernatant was able to stimulate the growth of iron-starved legionellae. That the corresponding supernatant fraction obtained from a nonpigmented mutant culture did not stimulate growth demonstrated that HGA-melanin is able to both promote iron uptake and enhance growth under iron-limiting conditions. Indicative of a complementary role in iron acquisition, HGA-melanin levels were inversely related to the levels of siderophore activity. Compatible with a role in the ecology and pathogenesis of L. pneumophila, HGA and HGA-melanin were effective at reducing and releasing iron from both insoluble ferric hydroxide and the mammalian iron chelates ferritin and transferrin. PMID:23980114

Zheng, Huaixin; Chatfield, Christa H.; Liles, Mark R.

2013-01-01

147

Controlled drug release for oral condition by a novel device based on ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer.  

PubMed

The application of drug delivery systems in oral environment is relatively a new area of research with the exception of release of fluoride ions from polyalkenoate cements and their predecessor silicate cements. The present study addresses development of a novel device based on ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA), a biocompatible material which enables constant drug release over several days to treat oral infections. Drugs incorporated in EVA included tetracycline, minocycline and nystatin together with combinations (C) of nytatin-tetracycline (1 : 1) and nystatin-minocycline (1 : 1). Polymer casting solutions were prepared by dissolving EVA and the drugs in the ratio of 10 : 1 in 70 ml of dichloromethane at 38 degrees C for 6 h. Thin square films of 3x3 cm and 1 mm thickness were cut from the dry sheet obtained by solvent evaporation. Drug loaded samples were extracted for a minimum of 15 days in 10 ml medium (water or water/ethanol (1 : 2) or 0.9% saline solution) which is replaced daily. Spectral measurements were made to follow changes in optical densities (OD) during release kinetics. Analysis of the data revealed that among all the drugs tested tetracycline exhibited the highest release rate (56.15microg/cm2/day) and % cumulative release (27.92). The observed enhanced values may be interpreted as due to the channels formed due to changes in free volume (microvoids). In case of nystatin-minocycline combination, the observed increased values of release rates and percent cumulative release, may be attributed to the swelling component or channels or relative hydrophobic interactions. Initial "burst" effects due to liberation of surface-bound drug molecules were observed with reference to all the three drugs and the combinations of drugs studied. Among all the drugs, minocycline exhibited the least "burst" effect suggesting that the drug is more homogeneously distributed in the copolymer. Drug loaded EVA thermoplastic copolymer may provide a favorable therapeutic material for the development of a novel, local treatment for oral, mucosal and periodontal infections. PMID:15348205

Kalachandra, S; Dongming, Lin; Offenbacher, S

2002-01-01

148

Neural Network Approach to variable vehicle speed limitation upon weather conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The target of this research is to adapt a Neural Network Approach that could be used in determining proper vehicle speed upon relevant conditions data. These include weather condition such as: Precipitation intensity, speed of wind, and degree of visibility, and road surface condition. Data are input to neural network. Output driven is a decision about allowed (advised) speed of

Maged M. M. Fahmy

2008-01-01

149

Development and test of resistive superconducting fault current limiter; acting time and its recovery conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resistive-type of superconducting fault current limiters (RSFCL) have been developed for medium voltage class aiming to operate at 1 MVA power capacity and short time recovery (< 2 s). A RSFCL in form of superconducting modular device was designed and constructed using 50 m-length of YBCO coated conductor tapes for operation under 1 kV / 1 kA and acting time of 0.1 s. In order to increase the acting time the RSFCL was combined with an air-core reactor in parallel to increase the fault limiting time up to 1 s. The tests determined the electrical and thermal characteristics of the combined resistive/inductive protection unit. The combined fault current limiter reached a limiting current of 583 A, corresponding to a limiting factor of 3.3 times within an acting time of up to 1 s.

Baldan, Carlos A.; Guedes, Luciano C.; Lamas, Jerika S.; Shigue, Carlos Y.; Ruppert, Ernesto

2014-05-01

150

Limited condition dependence of male acoustic signals in the grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus  

PubMed Central

In many animal species, male acoustic signals serve to attract a mate and therefore often play a major role for male mating success. Male body condition is likely to be correlated with male acoustic signal traits, which signal male quality and provide choosy females indirect benefits. Environmental factors such as food quantity or quality can influence male body condition and therefore possibly lead to condition-dependent changes in the attractiveness of acoustic signals. Here, we test whether stressing food plants influences acoustic signal traits of males via condition-dependent expression of these traits. We examined four male song characteristics, which are vital for mate choice in females of the grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus. Only one of the examined acoustic traits, loudness, was significantly altered by changing body condition because of drought- and moisture-related stress of food plants. No condition dependence could be observed for syllable to pause ratio, gap duration within syllables, and onset accentuation. We suggest that food plant stress and therefore food plant quality led to shifts in loudness of male grasshopper songs via body condition changes. The other three examined acoustic traits of males do not reflect male body condition induced by food plant quality. PMID:22957192

Franzke, Alexandra; Reinhold, Klaus

2012-01-01

151

Physiological factors limiting growth and yield of Oryza sativa under unflooded conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Rice grown under flooded conditions consistently produces better vegetative growth and higher grain yields than when grown in unflooded culture. Physiological and nutritional differences in rice grown under these two conditions were determined. Growth observations showed that plants under unflooded culture made an initial vigorous start, but soon showed poor tillering, depressed leaf growth, delayed flowering, low moisture content,

S. T. Senewiratne; D. S. Mikkelsen

1961-01-01

152

40 CFR 122.44 - Establishing limitations, standards, and other permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...testing (when evaluating whole effluent toxicity), and where appropriate...the numeric criterion for whole effluent toxicity, the permit must contain effluent limits for whole effluent toxicity. (v) Except as...

2010-07-01

153

GCM Simulations of Neoproterozoic "Snowball Earth" Conditions: Implications for the Environmental Limits on Terrestrial Metazoans and Their Extraterrestrial Analogues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth intervals provide excellent opportunities to examine the environmental limits on terrestrial metazoans. A series of GCM simulations was run in order to quantify climatic conditions during these intervals. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Sohl, L. E.; Chandler, M. A.

2001-01-01

154

78 FR 67320 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 series Airplane; Pitch and Roll Limiting by Electronic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Design Features The Airbus Model A350-900 series will...with collision avoidance capability or with attaining and...conditions apply to Airbus Model A350-900 series airplanes...certification basis for Airbus Model A350-900 series airplanes...further limit the roll capability under certain...

2013-11-12

155

76 FR 25648 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Limit Engine Torque Loads for Sudden Engine...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...361(b)(1) requires that for turbine engine installations, the engine mounts and the supporting structures must be...special conditions are proposed: 1. For turbine engine installations, the engine mounts, pylons and adjacent...

2011-05-05

156

76 FR 10489 - Special Conditions: Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited Model 407 Helicopter, Installation of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...407 Helicopter, Installation of a Hoh Aeronautics, Inc. Autopilot/ Stabilization Augmentation...when modified by installing the Hoh Aeronautics, Inc. (Hoh) complex Autopilot...conditions are issued as part of the Hoh Aeronautics, Inc. (Hoh) supplemental type...

2011-02-25

157

Effects of operating conditions, compression ratio, and gasoline reformate on SI engine knock limits  

E-print Network

A set of experiments was performed to investigate the effects of air-fuel ratio, inlet boost pressure, hydrogen rich fuel reformate, and compression ratio on engine knock behavior. For each condition the effect of spark ...

Gerty, Michael D

2005-01-01

158

42 CFR 410.16 - Initial preventive physical examination: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

... Initial preventive physical examination: Conditions... Initial preventive physical examination means...separate Medicare Part B benefits as described in sections...impairment. (2) Activities of daily living. ...2) Diet. (3) Physical activities....

2014-10-01

159

42 CFR 410.12 - Medical and other health services: Basic conditions and limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical and other health services: Basic conditions...HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.12...

2010-10-01

160

42 CFR 410.12 - Medical and other health services: Basic conditions and limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medical and other health services: Basic conditions...HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.12...

2013-10-01

161

42 CFR 410.12 - Medical and other health services: Basic conditions and limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medical and other health services: Basic conditions...HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.12...

2012-10-01

162

42 CFR 410.16 - Initial preventive physical examination: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Education, counseling, and referral, including a brief written plan such as a checklist provided to the individual for obtaining...History of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use. (2) Diet. (3) Physical activities. (b) Condition for...

2010-10-01

163

42 CFR 410.16 - Initial preventive physical examination: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Education, counseling, and referral, including a brief written plan such as a checklist provided to the individual for obtaining...History of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use. (2) Diet. (3) Physical activities. (b) Condition for...

2011-10-01

164

Hydrogenase does not confer significant benefits to Azotobacter vinelandii growing diazotrophically under conditions of glucose limitation.  

PubMed Central

The presumed beneficial effect of hydrogenase on growth of diazotrophic bacteria was reinvestigated with carbon-limited chemostat cultures of the hydrogenase-deficient mutant hoxKG of Azotobacter vinelandii and its parent. The results revealed that hydrogen recycling was too low to benefit the cellular energy metabolism or activities of nitrogenase and respiration. PMID:7592361

Linkerhägner, K; Oelze, J

1995-01-01

165

The research about the price-limited housing existence conditions in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

To stabilize the house price and guarantee the housing need of the medium income group, our government has put forward the price-limited housing policy. However, in various areas it arouses the controversy on the execution of the policy. Based on a systematic analysis about the welfare among the government, the developer and the house purchaser in the construction process of

Guo Bin; Jiang Hongwei

2009-01-01

166

Good Oral Health and Diet  

PubMed Central

An unhealthy diet has been implicated as risk factors for several chronic diseases that are known to be associated with oral diseases. Studies investigating the relationship between oral diseases and diet are limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to describe the relationship between healthy eating habits and oral health status. The dentistry has an important role in the diagnosis of oral diseases correlated with diet. Consistent nutrition guidelines are essential to improve health. A poor diet was significantly associated with increased odds of oral disease. Dietary advice for the prevention of oral diseases has to be a part of routine patient education practices. Inconsistencies in dietary advice may be linked to inadequate training of professionals. Literature suggests that the nutrition training of dentists and oral health training of dietitians and nutritionists is limited. PMID:22363174

Scardina, G. A.; Messina, P.

2012-01-01

167

76 FR 44245 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Limit Engine Torque Loads for Sudden Engine...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...design features include engine size and the potential...load imposed by sudden engine stoppage. These special...conditions pertain to their effects on the structural performance...an all-new, two- engine jet transport airplane...that for turbine engine installations, the engine...

2011-07-25

168

50 CFR 22.32 - Conditions and limitations on taking under depredation control order.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...control order. 22.32 Section 22.32 Wildlife and Fisheries...Depredation Control Orders on Golden Eagles § 22.32 Conditions...a) Whenever the taking of golden eagles without a permit...c) The authority to take golden eagles under a...

2010-10-01

169

50 CFR 22.32 - Conditions and limitations on taking under depredation control order.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...control order. 22.32 Section 22.32 Wildlife and Fisheries...Depredation Control Orders on Golden Eagles § 22.32 Conditions...a) Whenever the taking of golden eagles without a permit...c) The authority to take golden eagles under a...

2011-10-01

170

50 CFR 22.32 - Conditions and limitations on taking under depredation control order.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...control order. 22.32 Section 22.32 Wildlife and Fisheries...Depredation Control Orders on Golden Eagles § 22.32 Conditions...a) Whenever the taking of golden eagles without a permit...c) The authority to take golden eagles under a...

2013-10-01

171

50 CFR 22.32 - Conditions and limitations on taking under depredation control order.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...control order. 22.32 Section 22.32 Wildlife and Fisheries...Depredation Control Orders on Golden Eagles § 22.32 Conditions...a) Whenever the taking of golden eagles without a permit...c) The authority to take golden eagles under a...

2012-10-01

172

Maize and Sorghum Simulations with CERES-Maize, SORKAM, and ALMANAC under Water-Limiting Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

mize risks associated with unpredictable weather condi- tions. Crop models offer hope as tools to optimize such While crop models often are tested against long-term mean grain management practices. Robust crop models can provide yields, models for aiding decision making must accurately simulate grain yields in extreme climatic conditions. In this study, we evaluated a quantitative means to predict crop

Yun Xie; James R. Kiniry; Vernon Nedbalek; Wesley D. Rosenthal

2001-01-01

173

A local limit theorem for random walks conditioned to stay positive  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a real random walk Sn=X1+...+Xn attracted (without centering) to the normal law: this means that for a suitable norming sequence an we have the weak convergence Sn\\/an??(x)dx, ?(x) being the standard normal density. A local refinement of this convergence is provided by Gnedenko's and Stone's Local Limit Theorems, in the lattice and nonlattice case respectively. Now let \\u000a\\u000a\\u0009 denote

Francesco Caravenna

2005-01-01

174

Performance of transient limiters under laboratory, simulated, and rocket-triggered lightning conditions  

SciTech Connect

We have designed and tested a prototype system that implements a lightning-protection method referred to as the ''fortress concept.'' The fortress, a structure similar to a Faraday cage, protects the critical system by surrounding it with a continuous metallic skin. Each electrical conductor that must enter the fortress is enclosed within a cable, which is, in turn, enclosed in a metallic shield that terminates at the entry point and is electrically bonded to the fortress' outer metallic surface. Within the fortress, each penetrating conductor is protected by a transient limiter. The system was tested by means of full-threat-level simulated lightning and actual lightening triggered by rockets. Several limited components were subsequently tested by using a laboratory-type surge generator to investigate certain anomalous responses. This paper reviews the fortress concept, discusses the operation of the limiters, and examines their performance. Explanations are offered for the anomalous responses, and several important design considerations and trade-offs are offered. 3 refs., 15 figs.

Hasbrouck, R.T.; Johnson, J.P.; Breitmeier, J.

1989-07-02

175

Central carbon metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in anaerobic, oxygen-limited and fully aerobic steady-state conditions and following a shift to anaerobic conditions.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-1A was grown in glucose-limited chemostat culture with 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.8% or 20.9% O2 in the inlet gas (D=0.10 h(-1), pH 5, 30 degrees C) to determine the effects of oxygen on 17 metabolites and 69 genes related to central carbon metabolism. The concentrations of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) metabolites and all glycolytic metabolites except 2-phosphoglycerate+3-phosphoglycerate and phosphoenolpyruvate were higher in anaerobic than in fully aerobic conditions. Provision of only 0.5-1% O2 reduced the concentrations of most metabolites, as compared with anaerobic conditions. Transcription of most genes analyzed was reduced in 0%, 0.5% or 1.0% O2 relative to cells grown in 2.8% or 20.9% O2. Ethanol production was observed with 2.8% or less O2. After steady-state analysis in defined oxygen concentrations, the conditions were switched from aerobic to anaerobic. Metabolite and transcript levels were monitored for up to 96 h after the transition, and this showed that more than 30 h was required for the cells to fully adapt to anaerobiosis. Levels of metabolites of upper glycolysis and the TCA cycle increased following the transition to anaerobic conditions, whereas those of metabolites of lower glycolysis generally decreased. Gene regulation was more complex, with some genes showing transient upregulation or downregulation during the adaptation to anaerobic conditions. PMID:17425669

Wiebe, Marilyn G; Rintala, Eija; Tamminen, Anu; Simolin, Helena; Salusjärvi, Laura; Toivari, Mervi; Kokkonen, Juha T; Kiuru, Jari; Ketola, Raimo A; Jouhten, Paula; Huuskonen, Anne; Maaheimo, Hannu; Ruohonen, Laura; Penttilä, Merja

2008-02-01

176

Water-Limiting Conditions Alter the Structure and Biofilm-Forming Ability of Bacterial Multispecies Communities in the Alfalfa Rhizosphere  

PubMed Central

Biofilms are microbial communities that adhere to biotic or abiotic surfaces and are enclosed in a protective matrix of extracellular compounds. An important advantage of the biofilm lifestyle for soil bacteria (rhizobacteria) is protection against water deprivation (desiccation or osmotic effect). The rhizosphere is a crucial microhabitat for ecological, interactive, and agricultural production processes. The composition and functions of bacterial biofilms in soil microniches are poorly understood. We studied multibacterial communities established as biofilm-like structures in the rhizosphere of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) exposed to 3 experimental conditions of water limitation. The whole biofilm-forming ability (WBFA) for rhizospheric communities exposed to desiccation was higher than that of communities exposed to saline or nonstressful conditions. A culture-dependent ribotyping analysis indicated that communities exposed to desiccation or saline conditions were more diverse than those under the nonstressful condition. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of selected strains showed that the rhizospheric communities consisted primarily of members of the Actinobacteria and ?- and ?-Proteobacteria, regardless of the water-limiting condition. Our findings contribute to improved understanding of the effects of environmental stress factors on plant-bacteria interaction processes and have potential application to agricultural management practices. PMID:24223979

Bogino, Pablo; Abod, Ayelén; Nievas, Fiorela; Giordano, Walter

2013-01-01

177

The limits of the adaptation of life to extreme conditions (in connection with problems of exobiology)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accommodation is discussed as a universal evolutionary principle which essentially will apply to all life forms, regardless of chemical base (carbon, silicon, etc.). Life forms must either adapt to extreme conditions or perish, and for any life form an extremum factor is any significant deviation in environmental parameters. The possibility of life forms existing in specific extraterrestrial environments is discussed, and a conclusion is drawn which unequivocally states that through many forms of accommodation life is possible in many different environments.

Aksenov, S. I.

1973-01-01

178

Factors limiting endurance of armor, artillery, and infantry units under simulated NBC conditions  

SciTech Connect

The war of the future will require 72-hour operations in environments contaminated with nuclear/biological/chemical (NBC) agents. The 1985 P2NBC2 (Physiological and Psychological Effects of NBC and Extended Operations on Combined Arms Crews) Program assessed soldier endurance and performance under simulated NBC conditions. A total of 175 soldiers were observed during four tests differing in design, site, climatic conditions, and performance demands. In all but one of the iterations where the full chemical-protective ensemble (MOPP 4) was used without cooling, soldier endurance fell far short of the projected requirement. Psychological data were analyzed to determine which factors were associated with the incidence of casualties. The findings showed that perceived intensity of symptoms resembling the hyperventilation syndrome was significantly greater in soldiers classified as Casualties. Five of these symptoms (painful breathing, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, headache, and nausea) showed Casualty-Survivor differences in all tests. Symptom intensity was attributed to two factors. (1) External conditions. Thermal stress exacerbated the five basic symptoms, induced others (tetany and paresthesia), and decreased endurance. Periodic relief from respirator use attenuated these symptoms and enhanced endurance. (2) Individual differences. Significant Casualty-Survivor differences in anxiety, depression, and cognitive strategy scores indicated that perception of hyperventilation symptoms and endurance were related to personality variables. Hyperventilation symptoms could incapacitate the soldier or induce removal of the protective mask under actual chemical attack.

Rauch, T.M.; Tharion, W.J.; Banderet, L.E.; Lussier, A.R.

1986-03-13

179

Oral Insulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation.

Sanjay Kalra; Bharti Kalra; Navneet Agrawal

2010-01-01

180

Oral Insulin  

PubMed Central

Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation. PMID:21059246

2010-01-01

181

Oral Medication  

MedlinePLUS

... over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money by finding the right type and ... Options? Is There a Danger of Interactions? How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? We Can Help (Long) - we-can-help-long. ...

182

CD36 gene deletion reduces fat preference and intake but not post-oral fat conditioning in mice.  

PubMed

Several findings suggest the existence of a "fatty" taste, and the CD36 fatty acid translocase is a candidate taste receptor. The present study compared fat preference and acceptance in CD36 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice using nutritive (triglyceride and fatty acid) and nonnutritive (Sefa Soyate oil) emulsions. In two-bottle tests (24 h/day) naive KO mice, unlike WT mice, displayed little or no preference for dilute soybean oil, linoleic acid, or Sefa Soyate emulsions. At high concentrations (2.5-20%), KO mice developed significant soybean oil preferences, although they consumed less oil than WT mice. The postoral actions of fat likely conditioned these preferences. KO mice, like WT mice, learned to prefer a flavored solution paired with intragastric soybean oil infusions. These findings support CD36 mediation of a gustatory component to fat preference but demonstrate that it is not essential for fat-conditioned flavor preferences. The finding that oil-naive KO mice failed to prefer a nonnutritive oil, assumed to provide texture rather than taste cues, requires explanation. Finally, CD36 deletion decreased fat consumption and enhanced the ability of the mice to compensate for the calories provided by their optional fat intake. PMID:17804586

Sclafani, A; Ackroff, K; Abumrad, N A

2007-11-01

183

Osgood-schlatter disease: practical treatment for a self-limiting condition.  

PubMed

Osgood-Schlatter disease is one of the most common causes of knee pain in active adolescents. It is a generally benign disturbance at the junction of the patellar tendon and the tibial tubercle apophysis, and treatment during its 12- to 24-month course should be matched to severity. Mild symptoms require only patient education and moderation of activity, but severe symptoms call for a period of rest (or, rarely, immobilization) followed by aggressive quadriceps strengthening. Other conditions such as Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease may occur simultaneously, and long-term effects can include a prominence on the anterior knee or painful kneeling. PMID:20086789

Wall, E J

1998-03-01

184

Proteomic comparison of Gibberella moniliformis in limited-nitrogen (fumonisin-inducing) and excess-nitrogen (fumonisin-repressing) conditions.  

PubMed

The maize pathogen Gibberella moniliformis produces fumonisins, a group of mycotoxins associated with several disorders in animals and humans, including cancer. The current focus of our research is to understand the regulatory mechanisms involved in fumonisin biosynthesis. In this study, we employed a proteomics approach to identify novel genes involved in the fumonisin biosynthesis under nitrogen stress. The combination of genome sequence, mutant strains, EST database, microarrays, and proteomics offers an opportunity to advance our understanding of this process. We investigated the response of the G. moniliformis proteome in limited nitrogen (N0, fumonisininducing) and excess nitrogen (N+, fumonisin-repressing) conditions by one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis. We selected 11 differentially expressed proteins, six from limited nitrogen conditions and five from excess nitrogen conditions, and determined the sequences by peptide mass fingerprinting and MS/MS spectrophotometry. Subsequently, we identified the EST sequences corresponding to the proteins and studied their expression profiles in different culture conditions. Through the comparative analysis of gene and protein expression data, we identified three candidate genes for functional analysis and our results provided valuable clues regarding the regulatory mechanisms of fumonisin biosynthesis. PMID:22573154

Choi, Yoon-E; Butchko, Robert A E; Shim, Won-Bo

2012-06-01

185

Roles of NMDA and dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the acquisition and expression of flavor preferences conditioned by oral glucose in rats.  

PubMed

Animals learn to prefer flavors associated with the intake of sugar (sucrose, fructose, glucose) and fat (corn oil: CO) solutions. Conditioned flavor preferences (CFP) have been elicited for sugars based on orosensory (flavor-flavor: e.g., fructose-CFP) and post-ingestive (flavor-nutrient: e.g., intragastric (IG) glucose-CFP) processes. Dopamine (DA) D1, DA D2 and NMDA receptor antagonism differentially eliminate the acquisition and expression of fructose-CFP and IG glucose-CFP. However, pharmacological analysis of fat (CO)-CFP, mediated by both flavor-flavor and flavor-nutrient processes, indicated that acquisition and expression of fat-CFP were minimally affected by systemic DA D1 and D2 antagonists, and were reduced by NMDA antagonism. Therefore, the present study examined whether systemic DA D1 (SCH23390), DA D2 (raclopride) or NMDA (MK-801) receptor antagonists altered acquisition and/or expression of CFP induced by oral glucose that should be mediated by both flavor-flavor and flavor-nutrient processes. Oral glucose-CFP was elicited following by training rats to drink one novel flavor (CS+, e.g., cherry) mixed in 8% glucose and another flavor (CS-, e.g., grape) mixed in 2% glucose. In expression studies, food-restricted rats drank these solutions in one-bottle sessions (2 h) over 10 days. Subsequent two-bottle tests with the CS+ and CS- flavors mixed in 2% glucose occurred 0.5 h after systemic administration of vehicle (VEH), SCH23390 (50-800 nmol/kg), raclopride (50-800 nmol/kg) or MK-801 (50-200 ?g/kg). Rats displayed a robust CS+ preference following VEH treatment (94-95%) which was significantly though marginally attenuated by SCH23390 (67-70%), raclopride (77%) or MK-801 (70%) at doses that also markedly reduced overall CS intake. In separate acquisition studies, rats received VEH, SCH23390 (50-400 nmol/kg), raclopride (50-400 nmol/kg) or MK-801 (100 ?g/kg) 0.5 h prior to ten 1-bottle training trials with CS+/8%G and CS-/2%G training solutions that was followed by six 2-bottle CS+ vs. CS- tests in 2% glucose conducted without injections. The significant and persistent CS+ preferences observed in the VEH (94-98%) group was significantly reduced by rats receiving SCH23390 at 400 nmol/kg (65-73%), raclopride at 200 or 400 nmol/kg (76-82%) or MK-801 at 100 ?g/kg (68-69%). Thus, systemic DA D1 and DA D2 receptor antagonism produced smaller reductions in the expression of oral glucose-CFP relative to fructose-CFP or IG-glucose-CFP. Correspondingly, systemic DA D1, DA D2 and NMDA receptor antagonism also produced smaller reductions in the acquisition of oral glucose-CFP relative to fructose-CFP or IG-glucose-CFP. These data suggest, but do not prove, that the magnitude and persistence of these receptor antagonist effects upon sugar-CFP might depend upon the individual or combined engagement of flavor-flavor and flavor-nutrient processes. PMID:25065714

Dela Cruz, J A D; Coke, T; Icaza-Cukali, D; Khalifa, N; Bodnar, R J

2014-10-01

186

Conditions and limitations on learning in the adaptive management of mallard harvests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1995, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service adopted a protocol for the adaptive management of waterfowl hunting regulations (AHM) to help reduce uncertainty about the magnitude of sustainable harvests. To date, the AHM process has focused principally on the midcontinent population of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), whose dynamics are described by 4 alternative models. Collectively, these models express uncertainty (or disagreement) about whether harvest is an additive or a compensatory form of mortality and whether the reproductive process is weakly or strongly density-dependent. Each model is associated with a probability or 'weight,' which describes its relative ability to predict changes in population size. These Bayesian probabilities are updated annually using a comparison of population size predicted under each model with that observed by a monitoring program. The current AHM process is passively adaptive, in the sense that there is no a priori consideration of how harvest decisions might affect discrimination among models. We contrast this approach with an actively adaptive approach, in which harvest decisions are used in part to produce the learning needed to increase long-term management performance. Our investigation suggests that the passive approach is expected to perform nearly as well as an optimal actively adaptive approach, particularly considering the nature of the model set, management objectives and constraints, and current regulatory alternatives. We offer some comments about the nature of the biological hypotheses being tested and describe some of the inherent limitations on learning in the AHM process.

Johnson, F.A.; Kendall, W.L.; Dubovsky, J.A.

2002-01-01

187

A strong conditional mutualism limits and enhances seed dispersal and germination of a tropical palm.  

PubMed

Seed predation and seed dispersal can have strong effects on early life history stages of plants. These processes have often been studied as individual effects, but the degree to which their relative importance co-varies with seed predator abundance and how this influences seed germination rates is poorly understood. Therefore, we used a combination of observations and field experiments to determine the degree to which germination rates of the palm Astrocaryum mexicanum varied with abundance of a small mammal seed predator/disperser, Heteromys desmarestianus, in a lowland tropical forest. Patterns of abundance of the two species were strongly related; density of H. desmarestianus was low in sites with low density of A. mexicanum and vice versa. Rates of predation and dispersal of A. mexicanum seeds depended on abundance of H. desmarestianus; sites with high densities of H. desmarestianus had the highest rates of seed predation and lowest rates of seed germination, but a greater total number of seeds were dispersed and there was greater density of seedlings, saplings, and adults of A. mexicanum in these sites. When abundance of H. desmarestianus was experimentally reduced, rates of seed predation decreased, but so did dispersal of A. mexicanum seeds. Critically, rates of germination of dispersed seeds were 5 times greater than undispersed seeds. The results suggest that the relationship between A. mexicanum and H. desmarestianus is a conditional mutualism that results in a strong local effect on the abundance of each species. However, the magnitude and direction of these effects are determined by the relative strength of opposing, but related, mechanisms. A. mexicanum nuts provide H. desmarestianus with a critical food resource, and while seed predation on A. mexicanum nuts by H. desmarestianus is very intense, A. mexicanum ultimately benefits because of the relatively high germination rates of its seeds that are dispersed by H. desmarestianus. PMID:20049480

Klinger, Rob; Rejmánek, Marcel

2010-04-01

188

The behavior of fuel-lean premixed flames in a standard flammability limit tube under controlled gravity conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel-lean flames in methane-air mixtures from 4.90 to 6.20 volume percent fuel and propane-air mixtures from 1.90 to 3.00 volume percent fuel were studied in the vicinity of the limit for a variety of gravity conditions. The limits were determined and the behavior of the flames studied for one g upward, one g downward, and zero g propagation. Photographic records of all flammability tube firings were obtained. The structure and behavior of these flames were detailed including the variations of the curvature of the flame front, the skirt length, and the occurrence of cellular instabilities with varying gravity conditions. The effect of ignition was also discussed. A survey of flame speeds as a function of mixture strength was made over a range of lean mixture compositions for each of the fuels studied. The results were presented graphically with those obtained by other researchers. The flame speed for constant fractional gravity loadings were plotted as a function of gravity loadings from 0.0 up to 2.0 g's against flame speeds extracted from the transient gravity flame histories for corresponding gravity loadings. The effects of varying gravity conditions on the extinguishment process for upward and downward propagating flames were investigated.

Wherley, B. L.; Strehlow, R. A.

1986-01-01

189

Benefits and limitations of pig slurry to reclaim bare mine soils under Mediterranean semiarid conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the effects of pig slurry application on reclamation of mine soils from Cartagena-La Unión Mining District (SE Spain) were investigated in a field experiment. Exchangeable metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, soluble carbon, microbial biomass and three enzyme activities were periodically monitored during 67 days. In addition, one year after the application of the pig slurry, soil and developed vegetation was sampled. Results showed that only exchangeable Cd and Zn significantly decreased in the amended plots, mainly for Cd, with decreases of 98%. The rest of metals and chemical properties did not change with time after application of amendments, showing values not significantly different than those present before pig slurry application. Soluble carbon, microbial biomass carbon and the enzyme activities increased after the application of pig slurry. However, after various days these parameters started a decreasing trend until reaching values similar to the control from approximately day 25. Thus, mainly precipitation as phosphate from the waste was very effective for Cd immobilization. No increments were observed in soil organic carbon because the organic carbon applied with the slurry was too low to be significantly detected. Nonetheless, pig slurry is a good fertilizer owing to the high quantity of nutrients provided, needed to promote the development of vegetation. One year after application, a native vegetation cover (25-30%) was reached by spontaneous colonization. Triggered plant growth by the effect of amendment improved soil conditions, particularly by the help of the medium created by their rhizosphere systems. Increments in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, and decreases in the exchangeable metals fraction concentration were observed in rhizospheric soils when compared to the bare soils. This improvement in soil quality mediated by vegetation was more efficient than the direct effect of the amendment. In conclusion, the use of pig slurry to reclaim bare contaminated soils by heavy metals brings indirect positive effects by triggering a vegetation cover which can stabilize metals and increase soil quality (phytostabilization). Keywords: heavy metals, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, phytoremediation.

Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Acosta, Jose A.; Kabas, Sebla; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Ángeles Muñoz, M.

2013-04-01

190

Menopause and oral health  

PubMed Central

Different phases of a woman's life: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause have varied influence on her oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production, affecting their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels directly affect the oral cavity. A few oral conditions and or diseases are seen more frequently during post menopausal years. Role of hormones affecting the health of oro-dental tissues, as well as treatment by HRT in ameliorating these conditions is not clear. There is paucity of randomized controlled trials in this field and more data is needed, before the recommendations for oral health care in post menopausal women can be made. A gynecologist sitting in menopausal clinic should be aware of oral changes happening during this period, and dental needs of these women and should refer them to the dental specialists accordingly. On the other hand, a dentist should also be sensitized about the menopausal status of the woman, her HRT status and special preventive and treatment needs. PMID:25316996

Suri, Vanita; Suri, Varun

2014-01-01

191

Menopause and oral health.  

PubMed

Different phases of a woman's life: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause have varied influence on her oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production, affecting their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels directly affect the oral cavity. A few oral conditions and or diseases are seen more frequently during post menopausal years. Role of hormones affecting the health of oro-dental tissues, as well as treatment by HRT in ameliorating these conditions is not clear. There is paucity of randomized controlled trials in this field and more data is needed, before the recommendations for oral health care in post menopausal women can be made. A gynecologist sitting in menopausal clinic should be aware of oral changes happening during this period, and dental needs of these women and should refer them to the dental specialists accordingly. On the other hand, a dentist should also be sensitized about the menopausal status of the woman, her HRT status and special preventive and treatment needs. PMID:25316996

Suri, Vanita; Suri, Varun

2014-07-01

192

Oral health attitudes and practices among a German Mexican Mennonite farmworker community.  

PubMed

The oral health needs of migrant farm laborers are greater and more immediate than those of comparable populations. However, little is known about the conditions of oral health care among German-speaking Mexican Mennonites, a distinctive cultural subgroup of migrant farm laborers. The purpose of this study was to examine the oral health practices, perceived oral health status, and barriers to obtaining dental care among a community of Low German-speaking Mexican Mennonites residing in Southwest Kansas. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 25 individuals, with questions addressing access/barriers to care, oral health practices, and perceived oral health status. The most frequently identified barriers to dental care were limited finances, lack of adequate health/dental insurance, and limited awareness of available dental services. Although the majority of participants reported experiencing no problems related to language or scheduling dental appointments, the results also indicated low utilization levels of oral care services. Findings suggest that: (1) this population is at-risk for periodontal disease, (2) culturally appropriate programs are needed for preventive oral care education, (3) community and statewide support may help improve access to affordable oral health care. PMID:20922481

Rowden, Paula M; Paschal, Angelia M; Hawley, Suzanne R; Hsiao, Tracy

2011-12-01

193

Oral health and nutrition.  

PubMed

The relationships between oral health conditions, dietary practices and nutritional status, and general health status in the older American are complex, with many interrelating factors. Just as inadequate nutrition can affect oral health, poor oral health status affects food choices and, thus, nutritional status. It is clearly essential that the primary care practitioner and/or screening health professionals always include an evaluation of oral status in assessment of an elderly person. Effective care for the elderly dental patient requires knowledge about the disease of aging and the impact of those diseases on oral health and nutrition, pharmacology and drug interactions and their impact on oral health status, the biology of aging including sensory changes, the relationship of general medicine and systemic diseases, and psychology and sociology. The attitudes of empathy and understanding, caring and compassion, respect and a positive attitude toward the older patient, and flexibility in treatment planning are also critical elements. The interdisciplinary team of physicians, nurses, nutrition professionals, dentists, and social service professionals must all work together to ensure that good oral health status and adequate nutrition are maintained in older Americans. Recognizing and treating oral health and nutrition problems are important in improving the health and quality of life for the elderly population. Research that can provide more answers to health care problems in this growing group; educating professionals with respect to the relationships between oral health and nutrition; and public policy changes with regard to provision and funding of nutrition services, especially when provided by registered and/or licensed nutrition professionals, contribute to improving the health and quality of life for elders. PMID:8197250

Pla, G W

1994-03-01

194

Oral myiasis: a rare entity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myiasis is the invasion of tissues and organs of human beings or other vertebrates by fly larvae. This phenomenon is well\\u000a documented in the skin, especially among animals and people in tropical and subtropical areas.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a When tissues of the oral cavity are invaded by the parasitic larvae of flies, this condition is called oral myiasis. Oral\\u000a myiasis is a rare

Gayathri S. Rao; Laxmikanth Chatra; Shenai K Prashanth

2009-01-01

195

Determination of ability of several arbor and shrub species to endure and survive extreme aridity with limited-areas methods under field conditions in Horqin Sandy Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using limited-areas methods, the ability of several arbor and shrub species to endure and survive extreme aridity under field conditions in Horqin Sandy Land was studied, and the lowest critical soil water content that was endurable for each of these species was determined. By limiting the horizontal distribution range of the plant roots system, the limited-areas methods could decrease the

Jiyi Zhang; Zhenzhen Wei; Halin Zhao

2006-01-01

196

Metabolic and energetic control of Pseudomonas mendocina growth during transitions from aerobic to oxygen-limited conditions in chemostat cultures.  

PubMed Central

Several metabolic fluxes were analyzed during gradual transitions from aerobic to oxygen-limited conditions in chemostat cultures of Pseudomonas mendocina growing in synthetic medium at a dilution rate of 0.25 h-1. P. mendocina growth was glucose limited at high oxygen partial pressures (70 and 20% pO2) and exhibited an oxidative type of metabolism characterized by respiratory quotient (RQ) values of 1.0. A similar RQ value was obtained at low pO2 (2%), and detectable levels of acetic, formic, and lactic acids were determined in the extracellular medium. RQs of 0.9 +/- 0.12 were found at 70% pO2 for growth rates ranging from 0.025 to 0.5 h-1. At high pO2, the control coefficients of oxygen on catabolic fluxes were 0.19 and 0.22 for O2 uptake and CO2 production, respectively. At low pO2 (2%), the catabolic and anabolic fluxes were highly controlled by oxygen. P. mendocina showed a mixed-type fermentative metabolism when nitrogen was flushed into chemostat cultures. Ethanol and acetic, lactic, and formic acids were excreted and represented 7.5% of the total carbon recovered. Approximately 50% of the carbon was found as uronic acids in the extracellular medium. Physiological studies were performed under microaerophilic conditions (nitrogen flushing) in continuous cultures for a wide range of growth rates (0.03 to 0.5 h-1). A cell population, able to exhibit a near-maximum theoretical yield of ATP (YmaxATP = 25 g/mol) with a number of ATP molecules formed during the transfer of an electron towards oxygen along the respiration chain (P/O ratio) of 3, appears to have adapted to microaerophilic conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1444429

Verdoni, N; Aon, M A; Lebeault, J M

1992-01-01

197

Pyruvate and lactate metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under fermentation, oxygen limitation, and fumarate respiration conditions.  

PubMed

Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe that derives energy by coupling organic matter oxidation to the reduction of a wide range of electron acceptors. Here, we quantitatively assessed the lactate and pyruvate metabolism of MR-1 under three distinct conditions: electron acceptor-limited growth on lactate with O(2), lactate with fumarate, and pyruvate fermentation. The latter does not support growth but provides energy for cell survival. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of that needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensable for growth, the respiration of fumarate does not contribute significantly to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory conditions, S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, whereby the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle did not contribute significantly. Pyruvate dehydrogenase was not involved in lactate metabolism under conditions of O(2) limitation but was required for anaerobic growth, likely by supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. The results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination of substrate-level phosphorylation and respiration, where pyruvate serves as an electron donor and an electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by a recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H-independent d-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). The results further indicate that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by the generation of proton motive force. PMID:21965410

Pinchuk, Grigoriy E; Geydebrekht, Oleg V; Hill, Eric A; Reed, Jennifer L; Konopka, Allan E; Beliaev, Alexander S; Fredrickson, Jim K

2011-12-01

198

Optimization of operating parameters for sludge process reduction under alternating aerobic/oxygen-limited conditions by response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Batch tests were employed to estimate the optimal conditions for excess sludge reduction under an alternating aerobic/oxygen-limited environment using response surface methodology. Three key operating parameters, initial mixed liquor suspended solids (initial MLSS), HRT (hydraulic retention time) and reaction temperature (T), were selected, and their interrelationships studied by the Box-Behnken design. The experimental data and ANOVA analysis showed that the coefficient of determination (R(2)) was 0.9956 and the adjR(2) was 0.9912, which demonstrates that the modified model was significant. The optimum conditions were predicted to give a maximal ?MLSS yield of 226 mg/L at an initial MLSS of 10,021 ± 50 mg/L, an HRT of 9.1h and a reaction temperature of 29°C. The prediction was tested by triplicate experiments, where a ?MLSS yield of 233 mg/L was achieved under the chosen optimal conditions. This excellent correlation between the predicted and measured values provides confidence in the model. PMID:21906935

Yang, Shan-Shan; Guo, Wan-Qian; Zhou, Xian-Jiao; Meng, Zhao-Hui; Liu, Bo; Ren, Nan-Qi

2011-11-01

199

Enhanced Interaction of Vibrio cholerae Virulence Regulators TcpP and ToxR under Oxygen-Limiting Conditions  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the diarrheal disease cholera. The ability of V. cholerae to colonize and cause disease requires the intricately regulated expression of a number of virulence factors during infection. One of the signals sensed by V. cholerae is the presence of oxygen-limiting conditions in the gut. It has been shown that the virulence activator AphB plays a key role in sensing low oxygen concentrations and inducing the transcription of another key virulence activator, TcpP. In this study, we used a bacterial two-hybrid system to further examine the effect of oxygen on different virulence regulators. We found that anoxic conditions enhanced the interaction between TcpP and ToxR, identified as the first positive regulator of V. cholerae virulence genes. We further demonstrated that the TcpP-ToxR interaction was dependent on the primary periplasmic protein disulfide formation enzyme DsbA and cysteine residues in the periplasmic domains of both ToxR and TcpP. Furthermore, we showed that in V. cholerae, an interaction between TcpP and ToxR is important for virulence gene induction. Under anaerobic growth conditions, we detected ToxR-TcpP heterodimers, which were abolished in the presence of the reducing agent dithiothreitol. Our results suggest that V. cholerae may sense intestinal anoxic signals by multiple components to activate virulence. PMID:24491579

Fan, Fenxia; Liu, Zhi; Jabeen, Nusrat; Birdwell, L. Dillon

2014-01-01

200

Conditions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research interests in feral hogs typically involve their negative impacts on ecosystems or their potential as a disease reservoir, especially with disease transmission to domestic swine. Authors within scientific literature state that feral hogs were captured as part of their research, but usually fail to mention specific conditions in which hogs were captured. Novice researchers of feral hogs must rely

A. Christy Wyckoff; Scott E. Henke; Kurt C. VerCauteren

201

Melatonin and oral cavity.  

PubMed

While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

Cengiz, Murat ?nanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

2012-01-01

202

Melatonin and Oral Cavity  

PubMed Central

While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

Cengiz, Murat ?nanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

2012-01-01

203

Trial-to-trial modulations of the Simon effect in conditions of attentional limitations: Evidence from dual tasks.  

PubMed

Interference effects are reduced after trials including response conflict. This sequential modulation has often been attributed to a top-down mediated adaptive control mechanism and/or to feature repetition mechanisms. In the present study we tested whether mechanisms responsible for such sequential modulations are subject to attentional limitations under dual-task situations. Participants performed a Simon task in mixed single- and dual-task contexts (Experiment 1), in blocked contexts with dual-task load either, in trialN (Experiment 2a), in trialN-1 (Experiment 2b), or in both trials (Experiment 3). Results showed that the occurrence of a sequential modulation did not depend on dual-task load per se as it occurred predominantly in conditions of lowest and highest task load. Instead, task factors such as the repetition of task episodes and stimulus-response repetitions determined whether a sequential modulation occurred. PMID:20718574

Fischer, Rico; Plessow, Franziska; Kunde, Wilfried; Kiesel, Andrea

2010-12-01

204

Pyruvate and Lactate Metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under Fermentation, Oxygen Limitation, and Fumarate Respiration Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe that derives energy by coupling organic matter oxidation to the reduction of wide range of electron acceptors. Here, we quantitatively assessed lactate and pyruvate metabolism of MR-1 under three distinct conditions: electron acceptor limited growth on lactate with O2; lactate with fumarate; and pyruvate fermentation. The latter does not support growth but provides energy for cell survival. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of that needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensible for growth, respiration of fumarate does not contribute significantly to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory conditions S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, whereby the TCA cycle did not contribute significantly. Pyruvate dehydrogenase was not involved in lactate metabolism under O2 limitation but was required for anaerobic growth likely by supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. The results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination of substrate-level phosphorylation and respiration, where pyruvate serves as electron donor and electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H independent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). The results further indicate that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by proton motive force generation.

Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Hill, Eric A.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2011-12-01

205

Pyruvate and Lactate Metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under Fermentation, Oxygen Limitation, and Fumarate Respiration Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe growing by coupling organic matter oxidation to reduction of wide range of electron acceptors. Here we quantitatively assessed lactate and pyruvate metabolism of these bacteria under three distinct conditions: electron acceptor limited growth on lactate with O2 and fumarate, and pyruvate fermentation, which does not sustain growth but allows cells to survive for prolonged period. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of all ATP needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensible for growth, respiration of fumarate does not contribute much to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory conditions S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, and TCA cycle did not contribute significantly to substrate oxidation. Pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction was not involved in lactate metabolism under O2 limitation, however was important for anaerobic growth probably supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. Unexpectedly, obtained results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination between substrate-level phosphorylation and a respiratory process, where pyruvate serves as electron donor and electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H independent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). Based on involved enzymes localization we hypothesize that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by proton motive force generation.

Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Hill, Eric A.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2011-12-30

206

Use of the Priestley-Taylor evaporation equation for soil water limited conditions in a small forest clearcut  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Priestley-Taylor equation, a simplification of the Penman equation, was used to allow calculations of evapotranspiration under conditions where soil water supply limits evapotranspiration. The Priestley-Taylor coefficient, ??, was calculated to incorporate an exponential decrease in evapotranspiration as soil water content decreases. The method is appropriate for use when detailed meteorological measurements are not available. The data required to determine the parameter for the ?? coefficient are net radiation, soil heat flux, average air temperature, and soil water content. These values can be obtained from measurements or models. The dataset used in this report pertains to a partially vegetated clearcut forest site in southwest Oregon with soil depths ranging from 0.48 to 0.70 m and weathered bedrock below that. Evapotranspiration was estimated using the Bowen ratio method, and the calculated Priestley-Taylor coefficient was fitted to these estimates by nonlinear regression. The calculated Priestley-Taylor coefficient (?????) was found to be approximately 0.9 when the soil was near field capacity (0.225 cm3 cm-3). It was not until soil water content was less than 0.14 cm3 cm-3 that soil water supply limited evapotranspiration. The soil reached a final residual water content near 0.05 cm3 cm-3 at the end of the growing season. ?? 1991.

Flint, A.L.; Childs, S.W.

1991-01-01

207

Performance limitation and the role of core temperature when wearing light-weight workwear under moderate thermal conditions.  

PubMed

The objective of this investigation was to achieve an understanding about the relationship between heat stress and performance limitation when wearing a two-layerfire-resistant light-weight workwear (full-clothed ensemble) compared to an one-layer short sports gear (semi-clothed ensemble) in an exhaustive, stressful situation under moderate thermal condition (25°C). Ten well trained male subjects performed a strenuous walking protocol with both clothing ensembles until exhaustion occurred in a climatic chamber. Wearing workwear reduced the endurance performance by 10% (p=0.007) and the evaporation by 21% (p=0.003), caused a more pronounced rise in core temperature during submaximal walking (0.7±0.3 vs. 1.2±0.4°C; p?0.001) and from start till exhaustion (1.4±0.3 vs. 1.8±0.5°C; p=0.008), accelerated sweat loss (13±2 vs. 15±3gmin(-1); p=0.007), and led to a significant higher heart rate at the end of cool down (103±6 vs. 111±7bpm; p=0.004). Correlation analysis revealed that core temperature development during submaximal walking and evaporation may play important roles for endurance performance. However, a critical core temperature of 40°C, which is stated to be a crucial factor for central fatigue and performance limitation, was not reached either with the semi-clothed or the full-clothed ensemble (38.3±0.4 vs. 38.4±0.5°C). Additionally, perceived exertion did not increase to a higher extent parallel with the rising core temperature with workwear which would substantiate the critical core temperature theory. In conclusion, increased heat stress led to cardiovascular exercise limitation rather than central fatigue. PMID:25526658

Kofler, Philipp; Burtscher, Martin; Heinrich, Dieter; Bottoni, Giuliamarta; Caven, Barnaby; Bechtold, Thomas; Teresa Herten, Anne; Hasler, Michael; Faulhaber, Martin; Nachbauer, Werner

2015-01-01

208

Application of thresholds of potential concern and limits of acceptable change in the condition assessment of a significant wetland.  

PubMed

We propose a framework in which thresholds of potential concern (TPCs) and limits of acceptable change (LACs) are used in concert in the assessment of wetland condition and vulnerability and apply the framework in a case study. The lower Murrumbidgee River floodplain (the 'Lowbidgee') is one of the most ecologically important wetlands in Australia and the focus of intense management intervention by State and Federal government agencies. We used a targeted management stakeholder workshop to identify key values that contribute to the ecological significance of the Lowbidgee floodplain, and identified LACs that, if crossed, would signify the loss of significance. We then used conceptual models linking the condition of these values (wetland vegetation communities, waterbirds, fish species and the endangered southern bell frog) to measurable threat indicators, for which we defined a management goal and a TPC. We applied this framework to data collected across 70 wetland storages', or eco-hydrological units, at the peak of a prolonged drought (2008) and following extensive re-flooding (2010). At the suggestion of water and wetland mangers, we neither aggregated nor integrated indices but reported separately in a series of chloropleth maps. The resulting assessment clearly identified the effect of rewetting in restoring indicators within TPC in most cases, for most storages. The scale of assessment was useful in informing the targeted and timely management intervention and provided a context for retaining and utilising monitoring information in an adaptive management context. PMID:23616079

Rogers, Kerrylee; Saintilan, Neil; Colloff, Matthew J; Wen, Li

2013-10-01

209

The Activity of Nodules of the Supernodulating Mutant Mtsunn Is not Limited by Photosynthesis under Optimal Growth Conditions  

PubMed Central

Legumes match the nodule number to the N demand of the plant. When a mutation in the regulatory mechanism deprives the plant of that ability, an excessive number of nodules are formed. These mutants show low productivity in the fields, mainly due to the high carbon burden caused through the necessity to supply numerous nodules. The objective of this study was to clarify whether through optimal conditions for growth and CO2 assimilation a higher nodule activity of a supernodulating mutant of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) can be induced. Several experimental approaches reveal that under the conditions of our experiments, the nitrogen fixation of the supernodulating mutant, designated as sunn (super numeric nodules), was not limited by photosynthesis. Higher specific nitrogen fixation activity could not be induced through short- or long-term increases in CO2 assimilation around shoots. Furthermore, a whole plant P depletion induced a decline in nitrogen fixation, however this decline did not occur significantly earlier in sunn plants, nor was it more intense compared to the wild-type. However, a distinctly different pattern of nitrogen fixation during the day/night cycles of the experiment indicates that the control of N2 fixing activity of the large number of nodules is an additional problem for the productivity of supernodulating mutants. PMID:24727372

Cabeza, Ricardo A.; Lingner, Annika; Liese, Rebecca; Sulieman, Saad; Senbayram, Mehmet; Tränkner, Merle; Dittert, Klaus; Schulze, Joachim

2014-01-01

210

Accumulation of cellobiose lipids under nitrogen-limiting conditions by two ustilaginomycetous yeasts, Pseudozyma aphidis and Pseudozyma hubeiensis.  

PubMed

Some basidiomycetous yeast strains extracellularly produce cellobiose lipids (CLs), glycolipid biosurfactants which have strong fungicidal activity. The representative CL producer Ustilago maydis produces CLs together with the other glycolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs); the preference of the two glycolipids is affected considerably by the nitrogen source. To develop new CL producers, 12 MEL producers were cultured under the nitrogen-limited conditions. Pseudozyma aphidis and Pseudozyma. hubeiensis were characterized as new CL producers. CL production was induced on three strains, P. aphidis, Pseudozyma graminicola, and P. hubeiensis under these conditions. The putative homologous genes of U. maydis cyp1, which encodes a P450 monooxygenase, essential for CL biosynthesis, were partially amplified from their genomic DNA. The nucleotide sequences of the gene fragments from P. hubeiensis and P. aphidis shared identities with U. maydis cyp1 of 99% and 78%, respectively. Furthermore, all of the deduced translation products are tightly clustered in the phylogenic tree of the monooxygenase. These results suggest that the genes involved with CL biosynthesis must be widely distributed in the basidiomycetous fungi as well as the MEL biosynthesis genes, and thus, the genus Pseudozyma has great potential as a biosurfactant producer. PMID:22985214

Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

2013-02-01

211

Oral vaccines  

PubMed Central

Oral vaccines are safe and easy to administer and convenient for all ages. They have been successfully developed to protect from many infectious diseases acquired through oral transmission. We recently found in animal models that formulation of oral vaccines in a nanoparticle-releasing microparticle delivery system is a viable approach for selectively inducing large intestinal protective immunity against infections at rectal and genital mucosae. These large-intestine targeted oral vaccines are a potential substitute for the intracolorectal immunization, which has been found to be effective against rectogenital infections but is not feasible for mass vaccination. Moreover, the newly developed delivery system can be modified to selectively target either the small or large intestine for immunization and accordingly revealed a regionalized immune system in the gut. Future applications and research endeavors suggested by the findings are discussed. PMID:23493163

Zhu, Qing; Berzofsky, Jay A.

2013-01-01

212

On the spatial distribution of the transpiration and soil moisture of a Mediterranean heterogeneous ecosystem in water-limited conditions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mediterranean ecosystems are characterized by a strong heterogeneity, and often by water-limited conditions. In these conditions contrasting plant functional types (PFT, e.g. grass and woody vegetation) compete for the water use. Both the vegetation cover spatial distribution and the soil properties impact the soil moisture (SM) spatial distribution. Indeed, vegetation cover density and type affects evapotranspiration (ET), which is the main lack of the soil water balance in these ecosystems. With the objective to carefully estimate SM and ET spatial distribution in a Mediterranean water-limited ecosystem and understanding SM and ET relationships, an extended field campaign is carried out. The study was performed in a heterogeneous ecosystem in Orroli, Sardinia (Italy). The experimental site is a typical Mediterranean ecosystem where the vegetation is distributed in patches of woody vegetation (wild olives mainly) and grass. Soil depth is low and spatially varies between 10 cm and 40 cm, without any correlation with the vegetation spatial distribution. ET, land-surface fluxes and CO2 fluxes are estimated by an eddy covariance technique based micrometeorological tower. But in heterogeneous ecosystems a key assumption of the eddy covariance theory, the homogeneity of the surface, is not preserved and the ET estimate may be not correct. Hence, we estimate ET of the woody vegetation using the thermal dissipation method (i.e. sap flow technique) for comparing the two methodologies. Due the high heterogeneity of the vegetation and soil properties of the field a total of 54 sap flux sensors were installed. 14 clumps of wild olives within the eddy covariance footprint were identified as the most representative source of flux and they were instrumented with the thermal dissipation probes. Measurements of diameter at the height of sensor installation (height of 0.4 m above ground) were recorded in all the clumps. Bark thickness and sapwood depth were measured on several trees to obtain a generalized estimates of sapwood depth. The known of allometric relationships between sapwood area, diameter and canopy cover area within the eddy covariance footprint helped for the application of a reliable scaling procedure of the local sap flow estimates which are in a good agreement with the estimates of ET eddy covariance based. Soil moisture were also extensively monitored through 25 probes installed in the eddy covariance footprint. Results show that comparing eddy covariance and sap flow ET estimates eddy covariance technique is still accurate in this heterogeneous field, whereas the key assumption, surface homogeneity, is not preserved. Furthermore, interestingly wild olives still transpire at higher rates for the driest soil moisture conditions, confirming the hydraulic redistribution from soil below the roots, and from roots penetrating deep cracks in the underlying basalt parent rock.

Curreli, Matteo; Corona, Roberto; Montaldo, Nicola; Albertson, John D.; Oren, Ram

2014-05-01

213

Application of cytology and molecular biology in diagnosing premalignant or malignant oral lesions  

PubMed Central

Early detection of a premalignant or cancerous oral lesion promises to improve the survival and the morbidity of patients suffering from these conditions. Cytological study of oral cells is a non-aggressive technique that is well accepted by the patient, and is therefore an attractive option for the early diagnosis of oral cancer, including epithelial atypia and squamous cell carcinoma. However its usage has been limited so far due to poor sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing oral malignancies. Lately it has re-emerged due to improved methods and it's application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. Newer diagnostic techniques such as "brush biopsy" and molecular studies have been developed. Recent advances in cytological techniques and novel aspects of applications of scraped or exfoliative cytology for detecting these lesions and predicting their progression or recurrence are reviewed here. PMID:16556320

Mehrotra, Ravi; Gupta, Anurag; Singh, Mamta; Ibrahim, Rahela

2006-01-01

214

Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum of the Skin with Involvement of the Oral Cavity  

PubMed Central

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is an inherited multisystemic disease of elastic fibers that primarily affects the skin and retina. A case of primary PXE of the skin with late involvement of the upper lip is reported. A 55-year-old woman with a previous diagnosis of PXE affecting her skin developed a lesion on her lower lip. An oral examination identified a yellowish macule of undefined limits. A biopsy from her lip was taken and both light and transmission electron microscopies confirmed the presence of fragmented elastic fibers and calcifications on her mucosa, which was compatible with the diagnosis of oral PXE. Since the manifestation of oral PXE is rare in this region, dental practitioners must be aware that this systemic condition may produce oral lesions, which sometimes may mimic other benign diseases of the oral cavity like Fordyce granules. So, the establishment of an appropriate diagnosis is necessary to provide adequate information and attention to the patient. PMID:23762643

Matsuo, Flávia Sayuri; Berbert, Alceu Luiz Camargo Villela; Mantese, Sônia Antunes de Oliveira; Loyola, Adriano Mota; Cardoso, Sérgio Vitorino; de Faria, Paulo Rogério

2013-01-01

215

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum of the skin with involvement of the oral cavity.  

PubMed

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is an inherited multisystemic disease of elastic fibers that primarily affects the skin and retina. A case of primary PXE of the skin with late involvement of the upper lip is reported. A 55-year-old woman with a previous diagnosis of PXE affecting her skin developed a lesion on her lower lip. An oral examination identified a yellowish macule of undefined limits. A biopsy from her lip was taken and both light and transmission electron microscopies confirmed the presence of fragmented elastic fibers and calcifications on her mucosa, which was compatible with the diagnosis of oral PXE. Since the manifestation of oral PXE is rare in this region, dental practitioners must be aware that this systemic condition may produce oral lesions, which sometimes may mimic other benign diseases of the oral cavity like Fordyce granules. So, the establishment of an appropriate diagnosis is necessary to provide adequate information and attention to the patient. PMID:23762643

Matsuo, Flávia Sayuri; Berbert, Alceu Luiz Camargo Villela; Mantese, Sônia Antunes de Oliveira; Loyola, Adriano Mota; Cardoso, Sérgio Vitorino; de Faria, Paulo Rogério

2013-01-01

216

Clinical experience with thalidomide in the management of severe oral and genital ulceration in conditions such as Behçet's disease: use of neurophysiological studies to detect thalidomide neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To examine the efficacy, dose, and safety profile, including neurophysiological testing of thalidomide used in 59 patients (including 23 with Behçet's disease) to treat severe oral or genital ulceration (OGU). METHODS--We identified prospectively subjects (including women of childbearing potential) who had persistent OGU over periods lasting one to 40 years and whose active ulceration was not controlled by other therapies.

J M Gardner-Medwin; N J Smith; R J Powell

1994-01-01

217

Planning ahead with children with life-limiting conditions and their families: development, implementation and evaluation of ‘My Choices’  

PubMed Central

Background The United Kingdom has led the world in the development of children’s palliative care. Over the past two decades, the illness trajectories of children with life-limiting conditions have extended with new treatments and better home-based care. Future planning is a critically under-researched aspect of children’s palliative care globally. This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of innovative child and parent-held palliative care planning resources. The resources were designed to facilitate parent and child thinking and engagement in future planning, and to determine care preferences and preferred locations of care for children with life-limiting conditions from diagnosis onwards. These resources fill a significant gap in palliative care planning before the end-of-life phase. Methods Drawing on contemporaneous research on producing evidence-based children’s health information, we collaborated with leading children’s not-for-profit organisations, parents, children, and professionals. A set of resources (My Choices booklets) were developed for parents and children and evaluated using interviews (parents, children, professionals) and questionnaires (professionals) and an open web-based consultation. Results Parents and children responded in three ways: Some used the booklets to produce detailed written plans with clear outcomes and ideas about how best to achieve desired outcomes. Others preferred to use the booklet to help them think about potential options. Remaining parents found it difficult to think about the future and felt there was no point because they perceived there to be no suitable local services. Professionals varied in confidence in their ability to engage with families to plan ahead and identified many challenges that prevented them from doing so. Few families shared their plans with professionals. Parents and children have far stronger preferences for home-care than professionals. Conclusion The My Choices booklets were revised in light of findings, have been endorsed by Together for Short Lives, and are free to download in English and Welsh for use by parents and young people globally. More work needs to be done to support families who are not yet receptive to planning ahead. Professionals would benefit from more training in person-centred approaches to future planning and additional communications skills to increase confidence and ability to engage with families to deliver sensitive palliative care planning. PMID:23384400

2013-01-01

218

Biotin production under limiting growth conditions by Agrobacterium/Rhizobium HK4 transformed with a modified Escherichia coli bio operon.  

PubMed

The E. coli biotin (bio) operon was modified to improve biotin production by host cells: (a) the divergently transcribed wild-type bio operon was re-organized into one transcriptional unit; (b) the wild-type bio promoter was replaced with a strong artificial (tac) promoter; (c) a potential stem loop structure between bioD and bioA was removed; and (d) the wild-type bioB ribosomal binding site (RBS) was replaced with an artificial RBS that resulted in improved bioB expression. The effects of the modifications on the bio operon were studied in E. coli by measuring biotin and dethiobiotin production, and bio gene expression with mini-cells and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The modified E. coli bio operon was introduced into a broad host-range plasmid and used to transform Agrobacterium/Rhizobium HK4, which then produced 110 mg L-1 of biotin in a 2-L fermenter, growing on a defined medium with diaminononanoic acid as the starting material. Biotin production was not growth-phase dependent in this strain, and the rate of production remained high under limiting (maintenance) and zero growth conditions. PMID:10455485

Shaw; Lehner; Fuhrmann; Kulla; Brass; Birch; Tinschert; Venetz; Venetz; Sanchez; Tonella; Hochstrasser

1999-06-01

219

Rate-limited mass transfer of octane, decane, and dodecane into nonionic surfactants solutions under laminar flow conditions.  

PubMed

A key component to predicting the success of utilizing surfactants to enhance the removal of organic liquids from soil system is quantifying micellar solubilization kinetics. In this study, a flow reactor was employed to investigate the influence of surfactant ethoxylate chain length on the rates of solubilization of octane, decane, and dodecane in micellar solutions of a homologous series of purified dodecyl alcohol ethoxylates. Effluent concentration data were fit using a finite element model utilizing a linear-driving-force model to represent mass transfer at the interface. For flow rates between 0.1 and 2 ml min(-1), mass transfer coefficients ranged from 5 x 10(-8) to 7 x 10(-7)m s(-1) and did not vary in a systematic way with either solute structure or surfactant ethoxylate chain length and were lower than those found in pure water. Correlations developed for the Sherwood number based on diffusion coefficients of surfactant micelles containing organic material (organic-laden micelle) exhibit a velocity dependence similar to that found for systems based on aqueous diffusion. These results suggest that under gentle flowing conditions, the mass transfer is limited by diffusion of the organic-laden micelle. Although these trends are specific for this experimental system, the results demonstrate the importance of selecting the proper diffusion coefficient when modeling surfactant solubilization processes. PMID:18372002

Prak, Dianne J Luning

2008-05-01

220

76 FR 12274 - Special Conditions: Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited Model 206B and 206L Series Helicopters...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Helicopter Textron Canada Limited Model 206B and 206L Series Helicopters...Textron Canada Limited (Bell) model 206B and 206L series helicopters...Textron Canada Limited (Bell) model 206B, 206L, 206L-1, 206L-3...not affect the operational capability of the rotorcraft or...

2011-03-07

221

Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Lithiation of 1,4-Difluorobenzene under Nonequilibrium Conditions: Role of Monomer-, Dimer-, and Tetramer-Based Intermediates and Lessons about Rate Limitation.  

PubMed

Lithiation of 1,4-difluorobenzene with lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in THF at -78 °C joins the ranks of a growing number of metalations that occur under conditions in which the rates of aggregate exchanges are comparable to the rates of metalation. As such, a substantial number of barriers vie for rate limitation. Rate studies reveal that rate-limiting steps and even the choice of reaction coordinate depend on subtle variations in concentration. Deuteration shifts the rate-limiting step and markedly alters the concentration dependencies and overall rate law. This narrative is less about ortholithiation per se and more about rate limitation and the dynamics of LDA aggregate exchange. PMID:25000303

Liang, Jun; Hoepker, Alexander C; Bruneau, Angela M; Ma, Yun; Gupta, Lekha; Collum, David B

2014-12-19

222

Oral Appliances  

MedlinePLUS

... weeks or months to complete. This includes examination, evaluation to determine the most appropriate oral appliance, fitting, maximizing adaptation of the appliance, and the function. Ongoing care, including short- and long-term follow-up is an essential step in the ...

223

Ampicillin Oral  

MedlinePLUS

... Tenormin), oral contraceptives, probenecid (Benemid), rifampin, sulfasalazine, and vitamins.tell your doctor if you have or have ever had kidney or liver disease, allergies, asthma, blood disease, colitis, stomach problems, or hay fever.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan ...

224

Oral Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... the effects of oral cancer on speech and swallowing? The effects of cancer on speech and swallowing depend on the location and size of the ... or push food back toward the throat during swallowing. A growth on the roof of the mouth ( ...

225

Strategies in Oral Immunization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of mucosal vaccine delivery system is an important area for improving public health. Oral vaccines have large\\u000a implications for rural and remote populations since the access to trained medical staff to administer vaccines by injection\\u000a is limited. New mucosal vaccine strategies are focused on development of non-replicating subunit vaccines, DNA, plant, and\\u000a other types of recombinant vaccines. The conjugation

Pavla Simerska; Peter Moyle; Colleen Olive; Istvan Toth

226

Studies in oral leukoplakias  

PubMed Central

Oral carcinoma has been shown to be correlated with the use of tobacco in various parts of India. In a large-scale dental survey conducted in Lucknow, Bombay and Bangalore various precancerous conditions were investigated and studied for their possible relation to smoking and chewing habits. This paper reports the prevalence of oral leukoplakia among 10 000 dental-clinic patients in Lucknow and the correlation of the condition with the use of tobacco and betel nut in the study population. The results show that leukoplakia is far more prevalent among users of tobacco, betel nut or both than among non-users. A strikingly high frequency was found among smokers of the local cigarette, the bidi. PMID:5300044

Pindborg, J. J.; Kiær, Joyce; Gupta, P. C.; Chawla, T. N.

1967-01-01

227

Oral Manifestations of Vitiligo  

PubMed Central

Background: Vitiligo is one of the disorder that has social impact. Both skin and mucous membrane show depigmentation in vitiligo. Depigmentation in oral cavity can be more easily observed and the patient can be given awareness regarding the condition if they are unaware of vitiligo elsewhere in their body and can be guided for treatment. Aim and objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of occurrence of oral mucosal vitiligo in vitiligo patients and to determine the most commonly involved oral mucosal site. Materials and methods: The study sample included 100 vitiligo patients. The patients of all age groups and both genders were included. Vitiligo patients associated with systemic conditions such as thyroid disorders, juvenile diabetes mellitus, pernicious anemia, Addison's disease were excluded in this study. Results: Out of 100 vitiligo patients 44 % male and 56% were female. The oral presentation of vitiligo in this study showed depigmentation of buccal mucosa in 5% of patients, labial mucosa in 5% of patients, palate in 8% of patients, gingiva in 2% of patients and alveolar mucosa 1%. Depigmentation of lip was seen in 42% of patients. Lip involvement refers to depigmentation of both the lips or either lip. Also vermilion border involvement was noted in majority of cases. In some cases, the depigmentation of lip extended to the facial skin also. Conclusion: In this study 55 patients out of 100 patients showed depigmentation in the oral cavity. Lip involvement was most common in this study showing about 42% of patients. Intraoral mucosal involvement was found in 21% of patients. Among intraoral mucosal site palate was common followed by buccal and labial mucosa, gingiva. Two patients had lip pigmentation as the only manifestation without any depigmentation in the skin.

Nagarajan, Anitha; Masthan, Mahaboob Kader; Sankar, Leena Sankari; Narayanasamy, Aravindha Babu; Elumalai, Rajesh

2015-01-01

228

Identifying root traits among MAR and non-MAR cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. cultivars that relate to performance under limited moisture conditions  

E-print Network

IDENTIFYING ROOT TRAITS AMONG MAR AND NON-MAR COTTON, GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L. CULTIVARS THAT RELATE TO PERFOMANCE UNDER LIMITED MOISTURE CONDITIONS. A Thesis by CHARLES GARLAND COOK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University zn... partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1985 Major Subject: Plant Breeding IDENTIFYING ROOT TRAITS AMONG MAR AND NON-MAR COTTON, GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L. CULTIVARS THAT RELATE TO PERFOMANCE UNDER LIMITED...

Cook, Charles Garland

2012-06-07

229

Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts and Natural Products with Activity Against Oral Bacteria: Potential Application in the Prevention and Treatment of Oral Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral diseases are major health problems with dental caries and periodontal diseases among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. Oral health influences the general quality of life and poor oral health is linked to chronic conditions and systemic diseases. The associ- ation between oral diseases and the oral microbiota is well established. Of the more than 750 species of

Enzo A. Palombo

2009-01-01

230

Interactions between P-limitation and different C conditions on the fatty acid composition of an extremophile microalga  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extremophilic microalga Chlamydomonas acidophila inhabits very acidic waters (pH 2–3.5), where its growth is often limited by phosphorus (P) or colimited by P and inorganic\\u000a carbon (CO2). Because this alga is a major food source for predators in acidic habitats, we studied its fatty acid content, which reflects\\u000a their quality as food, grown under a combination of P-limited and

Elly Spijkerman; Alexander Wacker

2011-01-01

231

Oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification\\/denitrification by ammonia oxidisers enables upward motion towards more favourable conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The hypothesis is formulated that in case of oxygen limitation in the sediment, nitrifiers switch from nitrification to oxygen-limited\\u000a autotrophic nitrification-denitrification (OLAND) in order to survive and maintain activity. During OLAND, ammonium is oxidised\\u000a using nitrite as e-acceptor to form dinitrogen gas. As an additional advantage they benefit from the gaseous N2 formed as a means of transport. In

S. Philips; S. Wyffels; R. Sprengers; W. Verstraete

2002-01-01

232

Oral manifestations of gastrointestinal diseases  

PubMed Central

The present paper offers a detailed review of the oral manifestations of various gastrointestional diseases or conditions, with suggestions on how they may be relevant to the practice of gastroenterology. The review includes Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, Gardner syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, malabsorption conditions related to hematopoiesis, gastrointestinal malignancy metastatic to the jaws, jaundice and gastric reflux diseases. PMID:17431513

Daley, Tom D; Armstrong, Jerrold E

2007-01-01

233

Oral Haemangioma  

PubMed Central

Vascular anomalies comprise a widely heterogeneous group of tumours and malformations. Haemangioma is the most common benign tumour of vascular origin of the head and neck region. The possible sites of occurrence in oral cavity are lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate. Despite its benign origin and behaviour, it is always of clinical importance to the dental profession and requires appropriate management. This case study reports a rare case of capillary haemangioma on the palatal gingiva in a 14-year-old female. PMID:22431929

Gill, Jaspreet Singh; Gill, Sharanjeet; Bhardwaj, Amit; Grover, Harpreet Singh

2012-01-01

234

Oral Thrush (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Crisp Choosing Safe Toys Checkups: What to Expect Ebola: What to Know Oral Thrush KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Skin Infections & Rashes > Oral Thrush Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? About Oral Thrush Symptoms Prevention Treatment About Oral Thrush Oral thrush is a very ...

235

June 6, 2003 Crop conditions: Apples are sizing slowly due to cool weather, and are approaching the upper limit of  

E-print Network

to cool weather, and are approaching the upper limit of where chemical thinning is effective. Grapes of vegetative growth to insure economic yields of high quality fruit. Pruning severity is based on the strategy is an indication of the vine's capacity to ripen the crop. Many growers prune vines lightly during the early spring

Ginzel, Matthew

236

A comparison of iron limitation of phytoplankton in natural oceanic waters and laboratory media conditioned with EDTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solubility of iron in oxic waters is so low that iron can be a limiting nutrient for phytoplankton growth in the open ocean. In order to mimic low iron concentrations in algal cultures, Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) is commonly used. The presence of EDTA enables culture experiments to be performed at a low free metal concentration, while the total metal concentrations

L. J. A. Gerringa; H. J. W. de Baar; K. R. Timmermans

2000-01-01

237

No evidence of carbon limitation with tree age and height in Nothofagus pumilio under Mediterranean and temperate climate conditions  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Trees universally decrease their growth with age. Most explanations for this trend so far support the hypothesis that carbon (C) gain becomes limited with age; though very few studies have directly assessed the relative reductions of C gain and C demand with tree age. It has also been suggested that drought enhances the effect of C gain limitation in trees. Here tests were carried out to determine whether C gain limitation is causing the growth decay with tree age, and whether drought accentuates its effect. Methods The balance between C gain and C demand across tree age and height ranges was estimated. For this, the concentration of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in stems and roots of trees of different ages and heights was measured in the deciduous temperate species Nothofagus pumilio. An ontogenetic decrease in NSCs indicates support for C limitation. Furthermore, the importance of drought in altering the C balance with ontogeny was assessed by sampling the same species in Mediterranean and humid climate locations in the southern Andes of Chile. Wood density (WD) and stable carbon isotope ratios (?13C) were also determined to examine drought constraints on C gain. Key Results At both locations, it was effectively found that tree growth ultimately decreased with tree age and height. It was found, however, that NSC concentrations did not decrease with tree age or height when WD was considered, suggesting that C limitation is not the ultimate mechanism causing the age/height-related declining tree growth. ?13C decreased with tree age/height at the Mediterranean site only; drought effect increased with tree age/height, but this pattern was not mirrored by the levels of NSCs. Conclusions The results indicate that concentrations of C storage in N. pumilio trees do not decrease with tree age or height, and that reduced C assimilation due to summer drought does not alter this pattern. PMID:21852277

Piper, Frida I.; Fajardo, Alex

2011-01-01

238

78 FR 11554 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane, Limit Pilot Forces for Sidestick Control  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The Model EMB-550 airplane is the first of a new family of jet airplanes designed for corporate flight, fractional, charter...conditions, the Model EMB-550 airplane must comply with the fuel vent and exhaust emission requirements of 14 CFR part 34 and the...

2013-02-19

239

26 CFR 20.2056(b)-3 - Marital deduction; interest of spouse conditioned on survival for limited period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...subject to the condition that she does not die as a result of a common disaster which...the decedent and his spouse should both die as a result of a common disaster, or...decedent by 3 months, and did not thereafter die as a result of a common disaster which...

2010-04-01

240

High thallus water content severely limits photosynthetic carbon gain of central European epilithic lichens under natural conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments under controlled conditions have shown that net photosynthesis (NP) of many lichens is depressed when their thalli are highly hydrated. In this study we characterise the light and water content (WC) dependency of CO2 exchange for selected epilithic lichens in the laboratory and match this against samples monitored in their natural habitat by a novel, fully automatic cuvette. Laboratory

Otto L. Lange; T. G. Allan Green

1996-01-01

241

Condition Transition Analysis Reveals TF Activity Related to Nutrient-Limitation-Specific Effects of Oxygen Presence in Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Regulatory networks are usually presented as graph structures showing the (combinatorial) regulatory effect of transcription\\u000a factors (TF’s) on modules of similarly expressed or otherwise related genes. However, from these networks it is not clear\\u000a when and how TF’s are activated. The actual conditions or perturbations that trigger a change in the activity of TF’s should\\u000a be a crucial part of

Theo A. Knijnenburg; Lodewyk F. A. Wessels; Marcel J. T. Reinders

2006-01-01

242

N 2O and NH 3 emissions from a bioreactor landfill operated under limited aerobic degradation conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of leachate recirculation and aeration to landfill may be an efficient way for in-situ nitrogen removal. However, nitrogenous substances contained in the landfill layer are concomitantly transformed into N2O and NH3, leading to increased emissions into the atmosphere. In the present study, the emissions of N2O and NH3 were measured under conditions of fresh or partially stabilized refuse

Pinjing He; Na Yang; Huili Gu; Hua Zhang; Liming Shao

2011-01-01

243

Interspecific competition and coexistence of the two chrysomelids, Gastrophysa atrocyanea motschulsky and Galerucella vittaticollis baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), under limited food resource conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were conducted in order to investigate the mode of exploitation of food resources and the mechanism of coexistence\\u000a of mixed larval populations of the two chrysomelids,Gastrophysa atrocyanea andGalerucella vittaticollis, under limited food resource conditions. The larval survival rates seemed high enough to assure coexistence when hatchlings\\u000a of the two species were released in 1?1 and 1?3 ratios on

Nobuhiko Suzuki

1986-01-01

244

Oral Language and Reading in Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the question: Do lexical, syntactic, fluency, and discourse measures of oral language collected under narrative conditions predict reading achievement both within and across languages for bilingual children? More than 1,500 Spanish-English bilingual children attending kindergarten-third grade participated. Oral narratives…

Miller, Jon F.; Heilmann, John; Nockerts, Ann; Iglesias, Aquiles; Fabiano, Leah; Francis, David J.

2006-01-01

245

A Method for Rapid Determination of the Icing Limit of a Body in Terms of the Stream Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of existing frictional heating were analyzed to determine the conditions under which ice formations on aircraft surfaces can be prevented. A method is presented for rapidly determining by means of charts the combination of-Mach number, altitude, and stream temperature which will maintain an ice-free surface in an icing cloud. The method can be applied to both subsonic and supersonic flow. The charts presented are for Mach numbers up to 1.8 and pressure altitudes from sea level to 45,000 feet.

Callaghan, Edmund E.; Serafini, John S.

1953-01-01

246

The corrective effects of warning on false memories in the DRM paradigm are limited to full attention conditions.  

PubMed

Effects of attention control and forewarning on the activation and monitoring of experimentally induced false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm were investigated in a young adult sample (N=77). We found that reducing the degree of attention during encoding led to a decrease in veridical recall and an increase in non-presented critical lure intrusions. This effect could not be counteracted by a forewarning instruction. However, these findings did not emerge in a (retrieval supportive) recognition task. It seems that divided attention increases false recall when attention control and forewarning have to compete for limited cognitive resources in a generative free recall as opposed to a retrieval supportive recognition task. Forewarning instructions do not always protect young adults against experimentally induced false memories. PMID:18804192

Peters, Maarten J V; Jelicic, Marko; Gorski, Benny; Sijstermans, Kevin; Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald

2008-10-01

247

Oral submucous fibrosis and its dermatological relation  

PubMed Central

Oral submucous fibrosis is a chronic insidious disease and is well-recognized as a premalignant condition. It is a collagen related disorder associated with betel quid chewing and characterized by progressive hyalinization of the submucosa. The oral submucous fibrosis needs to be differentiated from scleroderma showing oral manifestations, as these diseases have different pathogenesis and prognostic aspects. The patients of oral submucous fibrosis can approach the dermatologist. The aim of this article is to present concise overview of the disease and its dermatological relation. PMID:25165640

Ali, Fareedi Mukram; Patil, Ashok; Patil, Kishor; Prasant, M. C.

2014-01-01

248

Magnetic resonance of the heart in a muscular dystrophy patient with an MR conditional ICD: assessment of safety, diagnostic value and technical limitations.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) studies in patients with pacemakers or implantable cardioverter/defibrillators (ICD) are increasingly required in daily clinical practice. Therefore, in the last years the manufacturers developed not only MR-conditional pacemakers, but also MR-conditional ICDs. However, the clinical experience regarding the feasibility and limitations of MR studies of the heart in patients with ICDs is still limited. In particular, there are hardly any CMR studies in the same patients performed prior to and post ICD implantation allowing a one-to-one comparison of the obtained CMR images. This is the first presentation of a CMR study in a patient with the world's first and so far only MR-conditional ICD. In our case, a major problem related to the presence of the MR conditional ICD was an image artifact caused by the device's generator which hampered the visualization of the midventricular and apical anterior and antero-lateral segments in all sequences performed. Considering previous studies, right chest implantation of the ICD could probably have helped in this setting and may be preferred in future ICD implantations. Our case report nicely illustrates the real clinical need for specially designed implantable devices that ensure safe and high-quality imaging in patients in whom serial CMR is required. PMID:23758805

Florian, Anca; Ludwig, Anna; Rösch, Sabine; Sechtem, Udo; Yilmaz, Ali

2013-01-01

249

Understanding Oral Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral

Moon, W. Jay

2012-01-01

250

The Oral Health Status and the Treatment Needs of Salt Workers at Sambhar Lake, Jaipur, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Salt workers are exposed to the adversities of environmental conditions such as direct sunlight, salt dust and contact with brine, which have an impact on the health of workers. Since oral health is an integral part of the general health, we planned to determine its effect on the oral cavity. Objectives: To assess the oral health status and the treatment needs among the workers of Sambhar Salts Limited at Sambhar Lake, Jaipur, India. Material and Methods: A cross sectional, descriptive survey was conducted among 979 subjects (509 males; 470 females) who were aged between 19–68 years, who were the workers of Sambhar Salts Limited, Sambhar Lake, Jaipur, India. An interview on the demographic profile followed a clinical examination for recording the oral health status, based on the World Health Organization guidelines. The Chi–square test, t–test, One way Analysis of Variance and a Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Females had a significantly greater prevalence of dental fluorosis (71.7%) and periodontal disease (96.4%) as compared to males (p= 0.001). The mean number of healthy sextants (0.71 ± 0.09) and the mean DMFT (5.19 ± 4.11) were also significantly higher in females as compared to those in males (p=0.001). One surface filling (78.2%), followed by pulp care and restoration (76.1%) were the most prevalent treatment needs. The gender and oral hygiene practices for dental caries and periodontal disease were respectively identified as the best predictors. Conclusion: Considerable percentages of salt workers have demonstrated a higher prevalence of oral diseases. Higher unmet treatment needs suggest a poor accessibility and availability of oral health care, in addition to a low utilization of preventive or therapeutic oral health services. PMID:24086913

Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Sharda, Archana Jagat; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Batra, Mehak; Daryani, Hemasha

2013-01-01

251

N2O and NH3 emissions from a bioreactor landfill operated under limited aerobic degradation conditions.  

PubMed

The combination of leachate recirculation and aeration to landfill may be an efficient way for in-situ nitrogen removal. However, nitrogenous substances contained in the landfill layer are concomitantly transformed into N2O and NH3, leading to increased emissions into the atmosphere. In the present study, the emissions of N2O and NH3 were measured under conditions of fresh or partially stabilized refuse with or without leachate recirculation or intermittent aeration. The results showed that the largest N2O emission (12.4 mg-N/L of the column) was observed in the aerated column loaded with partially stabilized refuse and recycled with the leachate of low C/N ratio; while less than 0.33 mg-N/L of the column was produced in the other columns. N2O production was positively correlated with the prolonged aerobic time and negatively related with the C/N ratio in the recycled leachate. NH3 volatilization increased with enhanced gas flow and concentration of free ammonia in the leachate, and the highest cumulative volatilization quantity was 1.7 mg-N/L of the column. PMID:22066225

He, Pinjing; Yang, Na; Gu, Huili; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Liming

2011-01-01

252

A study of suprathermal oxygen atoms in Mars upper thermosphere and exosphere over the range of limiting conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of a global effort, the dynamics of energetic particles flowing through the martian upper atmosphere is studied. Most of the production of hot atomic oxygen occurs deep in the day-side thermosphere of Mars, where dissociative recombination (DR) of O2+ ion is the dominant source. The study of an upper atmosphere is complicated by the change in the flow regime from a thermospheric collisional to an exospheric collisionless domain. To understand the martian exosphere, it is then highly desirable to employ a global kinetic model that includes a self-consistent description of both thermospheric and exospheric regions. In this work, a combination of our Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) model [Tenishev, V., Combi, M.R., 2005. Monte-Carlo model for dust/gas interaction in rarefied flows. AIAA, 2005-4832] and the 3D Mars Thermosphere General Circulation Model (MTGCM) [Bougher, S.W., Bell, J.M., Murphy, J.R., Lopez-Valverde, M.A., Withers, P.G., 2006. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi:10.1029/2005GL024059. L02203] is used to describe self-consistently the exosphere and the upper thermosphere. Along with the effect of ionization, the model provides profiles of density and temperature, atmospheric loss rates and return fluxes as functions of the Solar Zenith Angle (SZA) for all cases considered. To present a complete description of the effects of a 3D thermosphere onto the exosphere, several of the most limiting cases spanning spatial and temporal domains are examined. Along with solar activity variability, the influences of position on the planet and of different seasons are investigated and their relative contribution to the atmospheric loss is shown to be of the same order.

Valeille, Arnaud; Combi, Michael R.; Tenishev, Valeriy; Bougher, Stephen W.; Nagy, Andrew F.

2010-03-01

253

Budesonide Oral  

MedlinePLUS

Budesonide is used to treat Crohn's disease (a condition in which the body attacks the lining of ... tract, causing pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and fever). Budesonide is in a class of medications called corticosteroids. ...

254

Lifestyle risk factors for oral cancer.  

PubMed

The "style of life is the unique way in which individuals try to realize their fictional final goal and meet or avoid the three main tasks of life: work, community, love" (Alfred Adler, founder of the Individual Psychology). Lifestyle refers to the way individuals live their lives and how they handle problems and interpersonal relations. The lifestyle behaviours associated to oral cancer with convincing evidence are tobacco use, betel quid chewing, alcohol drinking, low fruit and vegetable consumption (the detrimental lifestyle is high fat and/or sugar intake, resulting in low fruit and/or vegetable intake). Worldwide, 25% of oral cancers are attributable to tobacco usage (smoking and/or chewing), 7-19% to alcohol drinking, 10-15% to micronutrient deficiency, more than 50% to betel quid chewing in areas of high chewing prevalence. Carcinogenicity is dose-dependent and magnified by multiple exposures. Conversely, low and single exposures do not significantly increase oral cancer risk. These behaviours have common characteristics: (i) they are widespread: one billion men, 250 million women smoke cigarettes, 600-1200 million people chew betel quid, two billion consume alcohol, unbalanced diet is common amongst developed and developing countries; (ii) they were already used by animals and human forerunners millions of years ago because they were essential to overcome conditions such as cold, hunger, famine; their use was seasonal and limited by low availability, in contrast with the pattern of consumption of the modern era, characterized by routine, heavy usage, for recreational activities and with multiple exposures; (iii) their consumption in small doses is not recognized as detrimental by the human body and activates the dopaminergic reward system of the brain, thus giving instant pleasure, "liking" (overconsumption) and "wanting" (craving). For these reasons, effective Public Health measures aimed at preventing oral cancer and other lifestyle-related conditions fail to realize their final goal to eradicate these lifestyles. Following Adler's theory and the principles of the "Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion", conditions such as education, sustainable resources, social justice, and equity must be satisfied before the implementation of physical health promotion campaigns. PMID:18674956

Petti, Stefano

2009-01-01

255

Columbia Oral History Columbia University Center for Oral History  

E-print Network

Columbia Oral History Columbia University Center for Oral History Annual Report AUGUST 1, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Rule of Law Oral History Project Carnegie Corporation Oral History Project BIOGRAPHICAL INTERVIEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Oral History Master of Arts Summer Institute 2012 Oral History Workshop Series 2011­12 Oral

Kim, Philip

256

[Use of fibrin glue in oral surgery].  

PubMed

Patients with progressive thromboembolic diseases usually are administered a daily therapy with anticoagulants-antiaggregants drugs: oral surgical procedures may be performed in these conditions without reduction of the systemic therapy, using topically fibrin glue. PMID:2534911

Rota, L; Pignanelli, C; Pignanelli, M

1989-11-30

257

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Tissues: A Comprehensive Review for Oral Healthcare Providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annually, over 35,000 cases of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma are diagnosed in the United States. Oral health care providers can be instrumental in reducing the incidence of oral and pharyngeal premalignant and malignant lesions by identifying patients with high-risk behavior, educating their patients about the consequences of their high-risk behavior, and by early detection of premalignant and malignant conditions. To

Samer A. Bsoul; Michaell A. Huber; Geza T. Terezhalmy

258

Oral and maxillofacial surgery in dogs and cats.  

PubMed

Advancements in diagnostic and treatment modalities for oral and maxillofacial surgery have allowed veterinarians to offer clients a range of alternatives for their pets. Categories of oral and maxillofacial surgery reviewed in this article include jaw fracture management, management of palatal/oronasal defects, recognition and treatment of oral masses, and management of several miscellaneous pathologic conditions. Miscellaneous oral lesions discussed in this article include odontogenic cysts, osteonecrosis and osteomyelitis, and lesions of the tongue and lips. PMID:23643024

Zacher, Amalia M; Marretta, Sandra Manfra

2013-05-01

259

Over-expression of the Arabidopsis proton-pyrophosphatase AVP1 enhances transplant survival, root mass, and fruit development under limiting phosphorus conditions  

PubMed Central

Phosphorus (P), an element required for plant growth, fruit set, fruit development, and fruit ripening, can be deficient or unavailable in agricultural soils. Previously, it was shown that over-expression of a proton-pyrophosphatase gene AVP1/AVP1D (AVP1DOX) in Arabidopsis, rice, and tomato resulted in the enhancement of root branching and overall mass with the result of increased mineral P acquisition. However, although AVP1 over-expression also increased shoot biomass in Arabidopsis, this effect was not observed in tomato under phosphate-sufficient conditions. AVP1DOX tomato plants exhibited increased rootward auxin transport and root acidification compared with control plants. AVP1DOX tomato plants were analysed in detail under limiting P conditions in greenhouse and field trials. AVP1DOX plants produced 25% (P=0.001) more marketable ripened fruit per plant under P-deficient conditions compared with the controls. Further, under low phosphate conditions, AVP1DOX plants displayed increased phosphate transport from leaf (source) to fruit (sink) compared to controls. AVP1DOX plants also showed an 11% increase in transplant survival (P<0.01) in both greenhouse and field trials compared with the control plants. These results suggest that selection of tomato cultivars for increased proton pyrophosphatase gene expression could be useful when selecting for cultivars to be grown on marginal soils. PMID:24723407

Yang, Haibing; Zhang, Xiao; Gaxiola, Roberto A.; Xu, Guohua; Peer, Wendy Ann; Murphy, Angus S.

2014-01-01

260

Drug Testing in Oral Fluid  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the oral cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in oral fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection limits required. Drug testing outside laboratory environments has become widespread and provides presumptive results within minutes of collection of specimens. This review focuses on the developments, particularly over the last 10 years, and outlines the roles and applications of testing for drugs in oral fluid, describes the difficulties associated with this form of testing and illustrates applications of oral fluid testing for specific drugs. PMID:17268583

Drummer, Olaf H

2006-01-01

261

New oral anticoagulants and their implications for dental patients.  

PubMed

Anticoagulation therapy is used in several conditions to prevent or treat thromboembolism. Over the last 40 years, warfarin has been the oral anticoagulant of choice and has been considered the mainstay of treatment. However, its use is limited by a narrow therapeutic index and complex pharmacodynamics, necessitating regular monitoring and dose adjustments. Recently, two new oral anticoagulants--dabigatran etexilate (a direct thrombin inhibitor) and rivaroxiban (a factor Xa inhibitor)--have been approved for use in North America and Europe. Unlike warfarin, dabigatran and rivaroxiban are relatively small molecules that work as anticoagulants by targeting specific single steps of the coagulation cascade. Their advantages, relative to warfarin, include: predictable pharmacokinetics; limited food and drug interactions; rapid onset of action; and, short half-life. They require no monitoring. However, they lack a specific reversal agent. The number of patients taking dabigatran and rivaroxaban is increasing. Therefore, it is inevitable that dentists will be required to perform invasive procedures on this cohort of patients. This paper outlines the various properties of the new oral anticoagulants and the most recent guidelines regarding the management of these dental patients taking these medications. PMID:25080640

O'Connell, John Edward; Stassen, Leo F A

2014-01-01

262

Phycobilisome-Deficient Strains of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Have Reduced Size and Require Carbon-Limiting Conditions to Exhibit Enhanced Productivity1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Reducing excessive light harvesting in photosynthetic organisms may increase biomass yields by limiting photoinhibition and increasing light penetration in dense cultures. The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 harvests light via the phycobilisome, which consists of an allophycocyanin core and six radiating rods, each with three phycocyanin (PC) discs. Via targeted gene disruption and alterations to the promoter region, three mutants with two (pcpcT?C) and one (?CpcC1C2:pcpcT?C) PC discs per rod or lacking PC (olive) were generated. Photoinhibition and chlorophyll levels decreased upon phycobilisome reduction, although greater penetration of white light was observed only in the PC-deficient mutant. In all strains cultured at high cell densities, most light was absorbed by the first 2 cm of the culture. Photosynthesis and respiration rates were also reduced in the ?CpcC1C2:pcpcT?C and olive mutants. Cell size was smaller in the pcpcT?C and olive strains. Growth and biomass accumulation were similar between the wild-type and pcpcT?C under a variety of conditions. Growth and biomass accumulation of the olive mutant were poorer in carbon-saturated cultures but improved in carbon-limited cultures at higher light intensities, as they did in the ?CpcC1C2:pcpcT?C mutant. This study shows that one PC disc per rod is sufficient for maximal light harvesting and biomass accumulation, except under conditions of high light and carbon limitation, and two or more are sufficient for maximal oxygen evolution. To our knowledge, this study is the first to measure light penetration in bulk cultures of cyanobacteria and offers important insights into photobioreactor design. PMID:24760817

Lea-Smith, David J.; Bombelli, Paolo; Dennis, John S.; Scott, Stuart A.; Smith, Alison G.; Howe, Christopher J.

2014-01-01

263

Alginate Production by Pseudomonas putida Creates a Hydrated Microenvironment and Contributes to Biofilm Architecture and Stress Tolerance under Water-Limiting Conditions?  

PubMed Central

Biofilms exist in a variety of habitats that are routinely or periodically not saturated with water, and residents must integrate cues on water abundance (matric stress) or osmolarity (solute stress) into lifestyle strategies. Here we examine this hypothesis by assessing the extent to which alginate production by Pseudomonas putida strain mt-2 and by other fluorescent pseudomonads occurs in response to water limitations and how the presence of alginate in turn influences biofilm development and stress tolerance. Total exopolysaccharide (EPS) and alginate production increased with increasing matric, but not solute, stress severity, and alginate was a significant component, but not the major component, of EPS. Alginate influenced biofilm architecture, resulting in biofilms that were taller, covered less surface area, and had a thicker EPS layer at the air interface than those formed by an mt-2 algD mutant under water-limiting conditions, properties that could contribute to less evaporative water loss. We examined this possibility and show that alginate reduces the extent of water loss from biofilm residents by using a biosensor to quantify the water potential of individual cells and by measuring the extent of dehydration-mediated changes in fatty acid composition following a matric or solute stress shock. Alginate deficiency decreased survival of desiccation not only by P. putida but also by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a. Our findings suggest that in response to water-limiting conditions, pseudomonads produce alginate, which influences biofilm development and EPS physiochemical properties. Collectively these responses may facilitate the maintenance of a hydrated microenvironment, protecting residents from desiccation stress and increasing survival. PMID:17601783

Chang, Woo-Suk; van de Mortel, Martijn; Nielsen, Lindsey; Nino de Guzman, Gabriela; Li, Xiaohong; Halverson, Larry J.

2007-01-01

264

Poor oral health, a potential new geriatric syndrome.  

PubMed

This article presents a brief introduction to the medical aspects of ageing and age-related diseases, and to some geriatric syndromes, followed by a discussion on their impact on general and oral healthcare provision to community-dwelling older people. Recent investigations suggest that inflammation constitutes a biological foundation of ageing and the onset of age-related diseases. Multimorbidity and polypharmacy, together with alterations in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, make older people at risk of adverse medication reactions. A side effect of several medications is causing xerostomia and hyposalivation, and both the type and number of medications used are relevant. New options of general healthcare provision to community-dwelling older people are the use of mobility aids and assistive technology devices, domiciliary health care, respite care and telecare. Their oral health status may be jeopardised by frailty, disability, care dependency and limited access to professional oral health care. Recommendations for improvement are the following: better integrating oral health care into general health care, developing and implementing an oral healthcare guideline, providing customised oral hygiene care aids, domiciliary oral healthcare provision, visiting dental hygienists and/or nurses, oral hygiene telecare, easily and safely accessible dental offices, transforming dentistry into medical oral health care and upgrading dentists to oral physicians. In case oral healthcare providers do not take the responsibility of persuading society of the importance of adequate oral health, weakened oral health of community-dwelling older people will become a potential new geriatric syndrome. PMID:24446975

van der Putten, Gert-Jan; de Baat, Cees; De Visschere, Luc; Schols, Jos

2014-02-01

265

Randomized Phase III evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a novel glycopyrrolate oral solution for the management of chronic severe drooling in children with cerebral palsy or other neurologic conditions  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate the efficacy of glycopyrrolate oral solution (1 mg/5 mL) in managing problem drooling associated with cerebral palsy and other neurologic conditions. Method Thirty-eight patients aged 3–23 years weighing at least 27 lb (12.2 kg) with severe drooling (clothing damp 5–7 days/week) were randomized to glycopyrrolate (n = 20), 0.02–0.1 mg/kg three times a day, or matching placebo (n = 18). Primary efficacy endpoint was responder rate, defined as percentage showing ?3-point change on the modified Teacher’s Drooling Scale (mTDS). Results Responder rate was significantly higher for the glycopyrrolate (14/19; 73.7%) than for the placebo (3/17; 17.6%) group (P = 0.0011), with improvements starting 2 weeks after treatment initiation. Mean improvements in mTDS at week 8 were significantly greater in the glycopyrrolate than in the placebo group (3.94 ± 1.95 vs 0.71 ± 2.14 points; P < 0.0001). In addition, 84% of physicians and 100% of parents/caregivers regarded glycopyrrolate as worthwhile compared with 41% and 56%, respectively, for placebo (P ? 0.014). Most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse events (glycopyrrolate vs placebo) were dry mouth, constipation, and vomiting. Interpretation Children aged 3–16 years with problem drooling due to neurologic conditions showed a significantly better response, as assessed by mTDS, to glycopyrrolate than to placebo. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00425087. PMID:22298950

Zeller, Robert S; Lee, Hak-Myung; Cavanaugh, Paul F; Davidson, Jennifer

2012-01-01

266

New oral anticoagulants: are coagulation units still required?  

PubMed Central

Chronic antithrombotic therapy involves the use of anticoagulants, antiplatelets given either as monotherapy or in combination for the prevention of thrombotic complications. The most feared and sometimes fatal complication with this therapy is bleeding. It should be considered a “golden rule” that a drug or combination of drugs that maximizes efficiency (decreased thromboembolic risk) will probably be less safe (increased risk of bleeding), and this holds true either for single therapy or during combined therapy. The chances of bleeding indicated by risk tables can be useful but show only a snapshot, and the biological, social, environmental, and drug changes and therapeutic adherence also determine changes in the risk of thrombosis and bleeding. Bleeding is an eventuality that occurs in places of “locus minoris resistentiae,” and the results of careful phase 3 studies thus cannot be completely predictive of outcomes when a medication is introduced on the pharmaceutical market. With the use of warfarin, the International Normalized Ratio (INR) that has been established to indicate adequately balanced therapy is between 2.0 and 3.0. With the new oral anticoagulants, the pharmaceutical companies emphasize that it is not necessary to monitor anticoagulant effects. In studies with different doses of new oral anticoagulants, however, incidence of clinically significant bleeding complications have been directly related to the doses. Therefore, therapeutic excesses can condition bleeding risk and therapeutic limitation can increase thrombotic risk, especially when short-acting drugs such as the new oral anticoagulants are used. Hence, it is imperative to establish an appropriate method for monitoring new oral anticoagulants, setting levels of safety and effectiveness through periodic dosage and monitoring of their anticoagulant effects. Therefore, we still recommend the use of anticoagulation units for monitoring during treatment with the new oral anticoagulants. PMID:24491189

2014-01-01

267

Killed oral cholera vaccines: history, development and implementation challenges  

PubMed Central

Cholera is still a major global health problem, affecting mainly people living in unsanitary conditions and who are at risk for outbreaks of cholera. During the past decade, outbreaks are increasingly reported from more countries. From the early killed oral cholera vaccine, rapid improvements in vaccine development occurred as a result of a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, pathogenesis of cholera infection and immunity. The newer-generation oral killed cholera vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective in field trials conducted in cholera endemic areas. Likewise, they have been shown to be protective when used during outbreak settings. Aside from providing direct protection to vaccinated individuals, recent studies have demonstrated that these killed oral vaccines also confer indirect protection through herd immunity. Although new-generation oral cholera vaccines should not be considered in isolation from other preventive approaches in countries where they are most needed, especially improved water quality and sanitation, these vaccines serve as immediately available public health tools for preventing further morbidity and mortality from cholera. However, despite its availability for more than two decades, use of these vaccines has not been optimized. Although there are limitations of the currently available oral cholera vaccines, recent data show that the vaccines are safe, feasible to use even in difficult circumstances and able to provide protection in various settings. Clear identification of the areas and target population groups who will benefit from the use of the cholera vaccines will be required and strategies to facilitate accessibility and usage of these vaccines in these areas and population groups will need to be developed. PMID:25177492

Gonzales, Maria Liza Antoinette; Aldaba, Josephine G.; Nair, G. Balakrish

2014-01-01

268

Oral Transliterating. PEPNet Tipsheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An oral transliterator provides communication access to a person who is deaf or hard of hearing and who uses speechreading and speaking as a means of communicating. The oral transliterator, positioned in front of the speechreader, inaudibly repeats the spoken message, making it as speechreadable as possible. This is called Expressive Oral

Troiano, Claire A.

2010-01-01

269

Evaluation of a theory-driven e-learning intervention for future oral healthcare providers on secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors  

PubMed Central

Oral healthcare providers have a clinical opportunity for early detection of disordered eating behaviors because they are often the first health professionals to observe overt oral and physical signs. Curricula regarding early recognition of this oral/systemic medical condition are limited in oral health educational programs. Web-based learning can supplement and reinforce traditional learning and has the potential to develop skills. The study purpose was to determine the efficacy of a theory-driven Web-based training program to increase the capacity of oral health students to perform behaviors related to the secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance evaluation framework, a longitudinal group-randomized controlled trial involving 27 oral health classes from 12 oral health education programs in the United States was implemented to assess the efficacy of the Web-based training on attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy and skills related to the secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Mixed-model analysis of covariance indicated substantial improvements among students in the intervention group (effect sizes: 0.51–0.83) on all six outcomes of interest. Results suggest that the Web-based training program may increase the capacity of oral healthcare providers to deliver secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Implications and value of using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework are discussed. PMID:23564725

DeBate, Rita D.; Severson, Herbert H.; Cragun, Deborah L.; Gau, Jeff M.; Merrell, Laura K.; Bleck, Jennifer R.; Christiansen, Steve; Koerber, Anne; Tomar, Scott L.; McCormack Brown, Kelli R.; Tedesco, Lisa A.; Hendricson, William

2013-01-01

270

Evaluation of a theory-driven e-learning intervention for future oral healthcare providers on secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors.  

PubMed

Oral healthcare providers have a clinical opportunity for early detection of disordered eating behaviors because they are often the first health professionals to observe overt oral and physical signs. Curricula regarding early recognition of this oral/systemic medical condition are limited in oral health educational programs. Web-based learning can supplement and reinforce traditional learning and has the potential to develop skills. The study purpose was to determine the efficacy of a theory-driven Web-based training program to increase the capacity of oral health students to perform behaviors related to the secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance evaluation framework, a longitudinal group-randomized controlled trial involving 27 oral health classes from 12 oral health education programs in the United States was implemented to assess the efficacy of the Web-based training on attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy and skills related to the secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Mixed-model analysis of covariance indicated substantial improvements among students in the intervention group (effect sizes: 0.51-0.83) on all six outcomes of interest. Results suggest that the Web-based training program may increase the capacity of oral healthcare providers to deliver secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Implications and value of using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework are discussed. PMID:23564725

DeBate, Rita D; Severson, Herbert H; Cragun, Deborah L; Gau, Jeff M; Merrell, Laura K; Bleck, Jennifer R; Christiansen, Steve; Koerber, Anne; Tomar, Scott L; McCormack Brown, Kelli R; Tedesco, Lisa A; Hendricson, William

2013-06-01

271

Respiratory disease and the role of oral bacteria  

PubMed Central

The relationship between oral health and systemic conditions, including the association between poor oral hygiene, periodontal disease, and respiratory disease, has been increasingly debated over recent decades. A considerable number of hypotheses have sought to explain the possible role of oral bacteria in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases, and some clinical and epidemiological studies have found results favoring such an association. This review discusses the effect of oral bacteria on respiratory disease, briefly introduces the putative biological mechanisms involved, and the main factors that could contribute to this relationship. It also describes the role of oral care for individuals who are vulnerable to respiratory infections. PMID:21523216

Gomes-Filho, Isaac S.; Passos, Johelle S.; Seixas da Cruz, Simone

2010-01-01

272

Myofibroblasts in oral lesions: A review  

PubMed Central

Myofibroblasts (MFs) are modified fibroblasts that express features of smooth muscle differentiation and were first observed in granulation tissue during wound healing. These cells play a key role in physiologic and pathologic processes like wound healing and tumorigenesis. The presence of MFs has been reported in normal oral tissues and pathologic conditions like reactive lesions, benign tumors, locally aggressive tumors and malignancies affecting the oral cavity. This article briefly reviews the important hallmarks related to the discovery, characterization and tissue distribution of MFs in oral health and disease. PMID:24959038

Pinisetti, Soujanya; Manyam, Ravikanth; Suresh, Babburi; Aparna, V

2014-01-01

273

Bacterial Growth Stimulation with Exogenous Siderophore and Synthetic N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone Autoinducers under Iron-Limited and Low-Nutrient Conditions  

PubMed Central

The growth of marine bacteria under iron-limited conditions was investigated. Neither siderophore production nor bacterial growth was detected for Pelagiobacter sp. strain V0110 when Fe(III) was present in the culture medium at a concentration of <1.0 ?M. However, the growth of V0110 was strongly stimulated by the presence of trace amounts of exogenous siderophore from an alpha proteobacterium, V0902, and 1 nM N-acyl-octanoylhomoserine lactone (C8-HSL), which is known as a quorum-sensing chemical signal. Even though the iron-binding functionality of a hydroxamate siderophore was undetected in the supernatant of V0902, a hydroxamate siderophore was detected in the supernatant of V0110 under the above conditions. These results indicated that hydroxamate siderophore biosynthesis by V0110 began in response to the exogenous siderophore from V0902 when in the presence of C8-HSL; however, C8-HSL production by V0110 and V0902 was not detected. Direct interaction between V0902 and V0110 through siderophore from V0902 was observed in the dialyzing culture. Similar stimulated growth by exogenous siderophore and HSL was also observed in other non-siderophore-producing bacteria isolated from marine sponges and seawater. The requirement of an exogenous siderophore and an HSL for heterologous siderophore production indicated the possibility that cell-cell communication between different species was occurring. PMID:10877770

Guan, Le Luo; Onuki, Hiroyuki; Kamino, Kei

2000-01-01

274

Growth of Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 in Thiosulfate Under Oxygen-Limiting Conditions Generates Extracellular Sulfur Globules by Means of a Secreted Tetrathionate Hydrolase  

PubMed Central

Production of sulfur globules during sulfide or thiosulfate oxidation is a characteristic feature of some sulfur bacteria. Although their generation has been reported in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, its mechanism of formation and deposition, as well as the physiological significance of these globules during sulfur compounds oxidation, are currently unknown. Under oxygen-sufficient conditions (OSC), A. ferrooxidans oxidizes thiosulfate to tetrathionate, which accumulates in the culture medium. Tetrathionate is then oxidized by a tetrathionate hydrolase (TTH) generating thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, and sulfate as final products. We report here a massive production of extracellular conspicuous sulfur globules in thiosulfate-grown A. ferrooxidans cultures shifted to oxygen-limiting conditions (OLC). Concomitantly with sulfur globule deposition, the extracellular concentration of tetrathionate greatly diminished and sulfite accumulated in the culture supernatant. A. ferrooxidans cellular TTH activity was negligible in OLC-incubated cells, indicating that this enzymatic activity was not responsible for tetrathionate disappearance. On the other hand, supernatants from both OSC- and OLC-incubated cells showed extracellular TTH activity, which most likely accounted for tetrathionate consumption in the culture medium. The extracellular TTH activity described here: (i) gives experimental support to the TTH-driven model for hydrophilic sulfur globule generation, (ii) explains the extracellular location of A. ferrooxidans sulfur deposits, and (iii) strongly suggests that the generation of sulfur globules in A. ferrooxidans corresponds to an early step during its adaptation to an anaerobic lifestyle. PMID:21833324

Beard, Simón; Paradela, Alberto; Albar, Juan P.; Jerez, Carlos A.

2011-01-01

275

Oral leukoplakia development in patients with pre-existing oral lichen planus.  

PubMed

Oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus are conditions that have the potential to transform into squamous cell carcinoma. This article describes a series of nine patients with an initial clinical-microscopic diagnosis of lichen planus. During close follow-up, these patients developed localized areas of leukoplakia at intervals ranging from one and a half to six and a half years. While both conditions may present with white and red oral mucosal changes, their management differs with leukoplakia requiring surgical intervention, therefore accurate diagnosis is imperative. PMID:25632518

Chainani-Wu, Nita; Purnell, Daniel M; Silverman, Sol

2015-01-01

276

Taxanes: old drugs, new oral formulations.  

PubMed

Oral administration of anticancer drugs is most often preferred over intravenous administration, as it is convenient for patients, prevents hospitalisation and reduces costs of the therapy. However, the oral route is often hampered by low oral bioavailability, for instance of the taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel. Limited oral bioavailability can be due to pharmaceutical as well as pharmacological reasons. Taxanes are poorly water-soluble drugs and do not sufficiently dissolve when administered in their crystalline form. Furthermore, affinity for drug transporters highly expressed in the epithelial layer of the gastro-intestinal tract, such as the drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1), and presystemic elimination by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic enzymes, especially CYP3A4, present in liver and gut wall, further hamper oral application of these important anticancer drugs. Preclinical studies with knockout mice lacking functional Pgp and CYP3A4 metabolic enzymes show a significant increase in the bioavailability of orally applied taxanes. Enhancement of oral bioavailability of both taxanes was shown also in wild-type mice using P-gp and CYP3A4 blockers such as cyclosporine A (CsA) and ritonavir (RTV). Subsequently, in clinical studies enhancement of the oral bioavailability of paclitaxel and docetaxel was established when administered orally in combination with CsA or ritonavir. Initially, in preclinical and clinical studies drinking solutions based on the intravenous formulations were applied for oral administration of taxanes. Because these solutions had several disadvantages, solid pharmaceutical formulations of paclitaxel and docetaxel were developed. Clinical studies with these novel formulations in combination with ritonavir are currently ongoing at our Institute. PMID:23660368

Jibodh, Rajni A; Lagas, Jurjen S; Nuijen, Bastiaan; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M

2013-10-01

277

Using dried blood spots collected under field condition to determine HIV-1 diversity and drug resistance mutations in resource limited Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Introduction A dried blood spot (DBS) on filter paper has been used for different tests globally and has gained popularities in resource limited settings especially during HIV/AIDS epidemic. We assessed the efficiency of molecular characterization of HIV-1 subtypes using DBS collected under field conditions in northern Tanzania. Materials and Methods In 2011 and 2012, 60 DBS samples were collected under field conditions from exposed and newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected children from Kilimanjaro (n=20), Arusha (n=20), Tanga (n=10) and Manyara (n=10). Results and discussion Of 60 DBS analyzed at both Protease (PR) and Reverse Transcriptase (RT) regions, 45 (75%) were analyzed, including 17 (85%) from Kilimanjaro, 15 (75%) from Arusha, 8 (80%) from Tanga, and 5 (50%) from Manyara region. All 45 DBS characterized had viral load above 1000 copies/mL with mean log10 viral loads of 3.87 copies/mL (SD 0.995). The phylogenetic results indicated presence of subtype and circulating recombinant form (CRF). In which, 24 were subtype A1 (53.33%), 16 were subtype C (35.55%), 3 were subtype D (6.67%) and 2 were CRF10_CD (4.35%). All major mutations were detected in the RT region, none from protease (PR) region. The mutations detected were Y181C (n=8), K103 (n=4) and G190A (n=1), conferring resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and M184V (n=1), conferring resistance to lamivudine and emtricitabine. Conclusions Our results indicate that DBS collected from field conditions in resource scarcity areas can be used to determine the phylogeny of the virus and drug resistance mutations in areas with diverse HIV-1 group M subtypes. PMID:25397436

Kimaro, James; Shao, Elichilia; Nyombi, Balthazar; Kifaro, Emanuel; Maruapula, Dorcas; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Musonda, Rosemary

2014-01-01

278

Oral Tolerance: Therapeutic Implications for Autoimmune Diseases  

PubMed Central

Oral tolerance is classically defined as the suppression of immune responses to antigens (Ag) that have been administered previously by the oral route. Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by oral Ag. Low doses favor active suppression, whereas higher doses favor clonal anergy/deletion. Oral Ag induces Th2 (IL-4/IL-10) and Th3 (TGF-?) regulatory T cells (Tregs) plus CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells and LAP+T cells. Induction of oral tolerance is enhanced by IL-4, IL-10, anti-IL-12, TGF-?, cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), Flt-3 ligand, anti-CD40 ligand and continuous feeding of Ag. In addition to oral tolerance, nasal tolerance has also been shown to be effective in suppressing inflammatory conditions with the advantage of a lower dose requirement. Oral and nasal tolerance suppress several animal models of autoimmune diseases including experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis and diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, plus non-autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, colitis and stroke. Oral tolerance has been tested in human autoimmune diseases including MS, arthritis, uveitis and diabetes and in allergy, contact sensitivity to DNCB, nickel allergy. Positive results have been observed in phase II trials and new trials for arthritis, MS and diabetes are underway. Mucosal tolerance is an attractive approach for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases because of lack of toxicity, ease of administration over time and Ag-specific mechanism of action. The successful application of oral tolerance for the treatment of human diseases will depend on dose, developing immune markers to assess immunologic effects, route (nasal versus oral), formulation, mucosal adjuvants, combination therapy and early therapy. PMID:17162357

Faria, Ana M. C.; Weiner, Howard L.

2006-01-01

279

Protein expression and transcription profiles of three strains of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida under normal and iron-limited culture conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Aeromonas salmonicida is an important fish pathogen that produces a wide and varied array of virulence factors. Here we used iron deprivation by addition of the chelator 2’2-dipyridyl to induce the expression of several such virulence factors in three isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida (one avirulent and two virulent). By using SDS-PAGE followed by mass spectrometry, we identified proteins that appeared differentially expressed under these conditions. The differential transcription of the identified gene products were subsequently measured by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Results Our initial screening using SDS-PAGE identified five proteins that appeared differentially expressed in virulent and avirulent isolates or, within the same isolates, between bacteria cultivated under iron-rich or iron-deprived conditions. The transcription of the genes coding for these proteins were subsequently quantified by RT-qPCR. Results of this analysis demonstrated that the gene coding for alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC), a protein involved in oxidative stress response, was transcribed at a higher rate in the virulent strain as compared to the avirulent strain. Additionally, it was observed that addition of an iron chelator to the culture medium lead to a reduction of the transcription levels of the regulatory histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS). This was consistent in all three isolates. On the other hand, the transcription levels of the virulence array protein (VapA) and the protein ATP-synthetase F (ATPF) displayed only limited changes, despite being the dominant component of a protein fraction that displayed changes during the preliminary SDS-PAGE screening. This was true regardless of the culture conditions and of the isolates considered. Finally, transcription of the enzyme enolase was upregulated in the iron-deprived broths in all isolates. Conclusions We identified several genes differentially expressed under culture conditions known to lead to the overexpression of virulence factors. In addition, we identified alkyl hydroperoxide as being overexpressed in the virulent isolates compared to the avirulent isolates. The results from this study will contribute to enhance our understanding of the virulence of A. salmonicida and may suggest new directions for further research. PMID:24872729

2014-01-01

280

Oral health and elite sport performance  

PubMed Central

While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25263651

Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen

2015-01-01

281

Oral health and elite sport performance.  

PubMed

While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25263651

Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen

2015-01-01

282

Pharmacokinetics of cytisine after single intravenous and oral administration in rabbits  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to develop a sensitive HPLC method for the quantitative determination of cytisine in serum and to characterize the pharmacokinetic behaviour of cytisine after oral and intravenous administration in rabbits. The pharmacokinetic behaviour of cytisine is studied in male and female New Zealand rabbits after oral and intravenous administration. Cytisine is administered orally (dose of 5 mg/kg b.w.) under fasting condition (12 hours) and intravenously (dose 1 mg/kg b.w.) in the marginal ear vein. Cytisine serum concentrations are measured using a highly selective and sensitive validated HPLC method with UV detection. Linearity of the method is in the range 12–2 400 µg/L; accuracy and precision are both within ± 10%, and the limit of detection is 4 µg/L. Selectivity and stability are also validated. Basic pharmacokinetic parameters of cytisine after single oral and intravenous administration are calculated using TOPFIT software. Pharmacokinetic analysis suggests a rapid but incomplete absorption of cytisine after oral administration. PMID:21217866

Astroug, Henri; Simeonova, Roumiana; Kassabova, Lilia V.; Danchev, Nikolay; Svinarov, Dobrin

2010-01-01

283

Pharmacokinetics of cytisine after single intravenous and oral administration in rabbits.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to develop a sensitive HPLC method for the quantitative determination of cytisine in serum and to characterize the pharmacokinetic behaviour of cytisine after oral and intravenous administration in rabbits. The pharmacokinetic behaviour of cytisine is studied in male and female New Zealand rabbits after oral and intravenous administration. Cytisine is administered orally (dose of 5 mg/kg b.w.) under fasting condition (12 hours) and intravenously (dose 1 mg/kg b.w.) in the marginal ear vein. Cytisine serum concentrations are measured using a highly selective and sensitive validated HPLC method with UV detection. Linearity of the method is in the range 12-2 400 µg/L; accuracy and precision are both within ± 10%, and the limit of detection is 4 µg/L. Selectivity and stability are also validated. Basic pharmacokinetic parameters of cytisine after single oral and intravenous administration are calculated using TOPFIT software. Pharmacokinetic analysis suggests a rapid but incomplete absorption of cytisine after oral administration. PMID:21217866

Astroug, Henri; Simeonova, Roumiana; Kassabova, Lilia V; Danchev, Nikolay; Svinarov, Dobrin

2010-03-01

284

Radiation Induced Oral Mucositis  

PubMed Central

Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene PMID:20668585

PS, Satheesh Kumar; Balan, Anita; Sankar, Arun; Bose, Tinky

2009-01-01

285

Multiple sclerosis and oral care.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis is a complex neurological condition affecting sensory and motor nerve transmission. Its progression and symptoms are unpredictable and vary from person to person as well as over time. Common early symptoms include visual disturbances, facial pain or trigeminal neuralgia and paraesthesia or numbness of feet, legs, hands and arms. These, plus symptoms of spasticity, spasms, tremor, fatigue, depression and progressive disability, impact on the individual's ability to maintain oral health, cope with dental treatment and access dental services. Also, many of the medications used in the symptomatic management of the condition have the potential to cause dry mouth and associated oral disease. There is no cure for multiple sclerosis, and treatment focuses on prevention of disability and maintenance of quality of life. Increasingly a multi-disciplinary team approach is used where the individual, if appropriate his/her carer, and the specialist nurse are key figures. The dental team plays an essential role in ensuring that oral health impacts positively on general health. PMID:12222018

Fiske, Janice; Griffiths, Janet; Thompson, Shelagh

2002-01-01

286

Shari T. Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Shari T. Oral History Interviewed by Tami Albin February 25, 2009 http...://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/dspace/handle/1808/5631 This interview was made possible by the generous support of the University of Kansas Libraries and the University of Kansas grants 2302114, 2301283, 2301334. © Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian...

T., Shari; Albin, Tami

2009-12-17

287

Oral hypoglycemics overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... hypoglycemics. The poisonous ingredient depends on the specific drug. The main (active) ingredient in sulfonylurea-based oral hypoglycemics stimulates cells in the pancreas to produce more insulin.

288

'Why does it happen like this?' Consulting with users and providers prior to an evaluation of services for children with life limiting conditions and their families.  

PubMed

Children with life limiting conditions and their families have complex needs. Evaluations must consider their views and perspectives to ensure care is relevant, appropriate and acceptable. We consulted with children, young people, their parents and local professionals to gain a more informed picture of issues affecting them prior to preparing a bid to evaluate services in the area. Multiple methods included focus groups, face-to-face and telephone interviews and participatory activities. Recordings and products from activities were analysed for content to identify areas of relevance and concern. An overarching theme from parents was 'Why does it happen like this?' Services did not seem designed to meet their needs. Whilst children and young people expressed ideas related to quality of environment, services and social life, professionals focused on ways of meeting the families' needs. The theme that linked families' concerns with those of professionals was 'assessing individual needs'. Two questions to be addressed by the evaluation are (1) to what extent are services designed to meet the needs of children and families and (2) to what extent are children, young people and their families consulted about what they need? Consultations with families and service providers encouraged us to continue their involvement as partners in the evaluation. PMID:24270996

Hunt, Anne; Brown, Erica; Coad, Jane; Staniszewska, Sophie; Hacking, Suzanne; Chesworth, Brigit; Chambers, Lizzie

2014-01-01

289

Initial Piloted Simulation Evaluation of the Reference-H High-Speed Civil Transport Design During Takeoff and Recovery From Limit Flight Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An initial assessment of a proposed High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) was conducted in the fall of 1995 at the NASA Langley Research Center. This configuration, known as the Industry Reference-H (Ref.-H), was designed by the Boeing Aircraft Company as part of their work in the High Speed Research program. It included a conventional tail, a cranked-arrow wing, four mixed-flow turbofan engines, and capacity for transporting approximately 300 passengers. The purpose of this assessment was to evaluate and quantify operational aspects of the Reference-H configuration from a pilot's perspective with the additional goal of identifying design strengths as well as any potential configuration deficiencies. This study was aimed at evaluating the Ref.-H configuration at many points of the aircraft's envelope to determine the suitability of the vehicle to accomplish typical mission profiles as well as emergency or envelope-limit conditions. Pilot-provided Cooper-Harper ratings and comments constituted the primary vehicle evaluation metric. The analysis included simulated real-time piloted evaluations, performed in a 6 degree of freedom motion base NASA Langley Visual-Motion Simulator, combined with extensive bath analysis. The assessment was performed using the third major release of the simulation data base (known as Ref.-H cycle 2B).

Glaab, Louis J.

1999-01-01

290

Metabolic and transcriptomic response of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain EC1118 after an oxygen impulse under carbon-sufficient, nitrogen-limited fermentative conditions.  

PubMed

During alcoholic fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to continuously changing environmental conditions, such as decreasing sugar and increasing ethanol concentrations. Oxygen, a critical nutrient to avoid stuck and sluggish fermentations, is only discretely available throughout the process after pump-over operation. In this work, we studied the physiological response of the wine yeast S. cerevisiae strain EC1118 to a sudden increase in dissolved oxygen, simulating pump-over operation. With this aim, an impulse of dissolved oxygen was added to carbon-sufficient, nitrogen-limited anaerobic continuous cultures. Results showed that genes related to mitochondrial respiration, ergosterol biosynthesis, and oxidative stress, among other metabolic pathways, were induced after the oxygen impulse. On the other hand, mannoprotein coding genes were repressed. The changes in the expression of these genes are coordinated responses that share common elements at the level of transcriptional regulation. Beneficial and detrimental effects of these physiological processes on wine quality highlight the dual role of oxygen in 'making or breaking wines'. These findings will facilitate the development of oxygen addition strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations. PMID:24387769

Orellana, Marcelo; Aceituno, Felipe F; Slater, Alex W; Almonacid, Leonardo I; Melo, Francisco; Agosin, Eduardo

2014-05-01

291

Oral candidosis in relation to oral immunity.  

PubMed

Symptomatic oral infection with Candida albicans is characterized by invasion of the oral epithelium by virulent hyphae that cause tissue damage releasing the inflammatory mediators that initiate and sustain local inflammation. Candida albicans triggers pattern-recognition receptors of keratinocytes, macrophages, monocytes and dendritic cells, stimulating the production of IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-23. These cytokines induce the differentiation of Th17 cells and the generation of IL-17- and/or IL-22-mediated antifungal protective immuno-inflammatory responses in infected mucosa. Some immune cells including NKT cells, ?? T cells and lymphoid cells that are innate to the oral mucosa have the capacity to produce large quantities of IL-17 in response to C. albicans, sufficient to mediate effective protective immunity against C. albicans. On the other hand, molecular structures of commensal C. albicans blastoconidia, although detected by pattern-recognition receptors, are avirulent, do not invade the oral epithelium, do not elicit inflammatory responses in a healthy host, but induce regulatory immune responses that maintain tissue tolerance to the commensal fungi. The type, specificity and sensitivity of the protective immune response towards C. albicans is determined by the outcome of the integrated interactions between the intracellular signalling pathways of specific combinations of activated pattern-recognition receptors (TLR2, TLR4, Dectin-1 and Dectin-2). IL-17-mediated protective immune response is essential for oral mucosal immunity to C. albicans infection. PMID:24118267

Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Chandran, R; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

2014-09-01

292

The place of new oral anticoagulants in travel medicine.  

PubMed

New oral anticoagulants are increasingly used instead of vitamin K antagonists or low molecular weight heparins. Hence, more individuals treated with new oral anticoagulants will seek travel medicine advice. Travel medicine experts should therefore become familiar with new oral anticoagulants and with their impact and role in travel medicine. This review summarizes pharmacological characteristics and approved indications of dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban, and highlights their relevance for travellers on permanent oral anticoagulation and for the prophylaxis of travellers' thrombosis. Compared to vitamin K antagonists, the new oral anticoagulants have many advantages: they do not have interactions with food, they have lower potential for drug-drug interactions and do not require regularly performed laboratory tests. The oral administration, obviating the need to carry needles and syringes during travel may give the new oral anticoagulants a further advantage over low molecular weight heparins. Clinical experience with the new oral anticoagulants, however, is still rather limited and there is concern regarding the clinical management of patients treated with new oral anticoagulants who suffer from severe bleeding or who need urgent invasive procedures. Overall, it remains an individual decision based on a risk/benefit analysis as to whether or not patients on long-term treatment with vitamin K antagonists should be switched to new oral anticoagulants for intended travel. Further caution is also indicated so that the availability of orally administered new anticoagulants should not lead to undifferentiated and unjustified prescription of anticoagulants for the prophylaxis of traveller's thrombosis. PMID:24316087

Ringwald, Juergen; Grauer, Martin; Eckstein, Reinhold; Jelinek, Tomas

2014-01-01

293

College of Dentistry ODM Oral Diagnosis and Oral Medicine  

E-print Network

College of Dentistry ODM Oral Diagnosis and Oral Medicine KEY: # = new course * = course changed. Prereq: Admission to the College of Dentistry. ODM 820 ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL RADIOLOGY AND DIAGNOSTIC

MacAdam, Keith

294

Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and non-neoplastic oral diseases in Europe and the United States  

PubMed Central

Background How smokeless tobacco contributes to non-neoplastic oral diseases is unclear. It certainly increases risk of oral mucosal lesions, but reviewers disagree as to other conditions. In some areas, especially South-East Asia, risk is difficult to quantify due to the many products, compositions (including non-tobacco ingredients), and usage practices involved. This review considers studies from Europe (in practice mainly Scandinavia) and from the USA. Methods Experimental and epidemiological studies published in 1963–2007 were identified that related risk of oral lesions to smokeless tobacco use. Data were assessed separately for oral mucosal lesions, periodontal and gingival diseases, dental caries and tooth loss, and oral pain. Results Oral mucosal lesions: Thirty-three epidemiological studies consistently show a strong dose-related effect of current snuff on oral mucosal lesion prevalence. In Scandinavia, users have a near 100% prevalence of a characteristic "snuff-induced lesion", but prevalence of the varied lesions reported in the USA is lower. Associations with chewing tobacco are weaker. The lack of clear association with former use suggests reversibility following cessation, consistent with experimental studies showing rapid lesion regression on quitting. Periodontal and gingival diseases: Two of four studies report a significant association of snuff with attachment loss and four out of eight with gingival recession. Snuff is not clearly related to gingivitis or periodontal diseases. Limited evidence suggests chewing tobacco is unrelated to periodontal or gingival diseases. Tooth loss: Swedish studies show no association with snuff, but one US study reported an association with snuff, and another with chewing tobacco. Dental caries: Evidence from nine studies suggests a possible relationship with use of smokeless tobacco, particularly chewing tobacco, and the risk of dental caries. Oral pain: Limited evidence precludes any clear conclusion. Conclusion This review confirms the strong association of current use of smokeless tobacco, particularly snuff, with prevalence of oral mucosal lesions. It provides suggestive evidence of an association of snuff use with gingival recession and attachment loss, and of chewing tobacco with dental caries. While smokeless tobacco clearly increases risk of oral mucosal lesions, interpretation for other endpoints is limited by study weaknesses, including poor confounding control. PMID:18452601

Kallischnigg, Gerd; Weitkunat, Rolf; Lee, Peter N

2008-01-01

295

Phase behavior and oral bioavailability of amorphous Curcumin.  

PubMed

Amorphous form has been used as a means to improve aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. The objective of present study was to characterize thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of amorphous form of Curcumin (CRM-A). CRM-A was found to be a good glass former with glass transition temperature (T(g)) of 342.64K and critical cooling rate below 1K/min. CRM-A had a moderate tendency of crystallization and exhibited Kauzmann temperature (T(KS)) of 294.23 K. CRM-A was found to be fragile in nature as determined by T(m)/T(g) (1.32), C(p)(1 iq):C(p)(glass) (1.22), strength parameter (D<10), fragility index (m>75), T(K)/T(g) (0.85), and T(g)-T(K) (48.41). Theoretically predicted aqueous solubility advantage of 43.15-folds, was reduced to 17-folds under practical conditions. This reduction in solubility was attributed to water induced devitrification, as evident through PXRD and SEM analysis. Further, oral bioavailability study of CRM-A was undertaken to investigate bioavailability benefits, if any. C(max) was improved by 1.97-folds (statistically significant difference over control). However, oral bioavailability (AUC(0-)(?)) was improved by 1.45-folds (statistically non significant difference over control). These observations pointed towards role of rapid devitrification of CRM-A in GIT milieu, thus limiting its oral bioavailability advantage. PMID:22609283

Pawar, Yogesh B; Shete, Ganesh; Popat, Dharmesh; Bansal, Arvind K

2012-08-30

296

Oral mucosal diseases: evaluation and management.  

PubMed

Oral mucosal diseases encompass several common conditions that affect the general population. Some of these disorders present with signs and symptoms that are pathognomonic for the condition, whereas others present with similar features that can make clinical diagnosis difficult to achieve. It is important for physicians to have a clear understanding of these disorders to provide appropriate care to patients. This article reviews clinical aspects of common oral mucosal disorders, including candidiasis, herpes simplex viral infections, aphthous stomatitis, lichen planus, pemphigus vulgaris, and mucous membrane pemphigoid. PMID:25443679

Stoopler, Eric T; Sollecito, Thomas P

2014-11-01

297

Oral Transliterating. NETAC Tipsheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An oral transliterator provides communication access to a person who is deaf or hard of hearing and who uses speechreading and speaking as a means of communicating. The oral transliterator, positioned in front of the deaf person, inaudibly repeats the spoken message for the deaf person, making it as speechreadable as possible. This is called…

Troiano, Claire A.

2005-01-01

298

Correlated analysis of semi-quantitative immunohistochemical features of E-cadherin, VEGF and CD105 in assessing malignant potentiality of oral submucous fibrosis.  

PubMed

Oral submucous fibrosis, a potentially premalignant condition for oral squamous cell carcinoma, manifests both non-dysplastic and dysplastic grades. Early and specific identification of its malignant potentiality suffers from diagnostic limitations that may be addressed by correlated molecular pathology attributes having histopathological backdrop. Present study correlates expressional alteration in prime epithelial marker E-cadherin, with neo-angiogenic molecules viz. VEGF and CD105 for elucidation of malignant potentiality in different stages of oral submucous fibrosis. Sixty-eight incision biopsies from normal oral mucosa (n=10), non-dysplastic (n=18) and different dysplastic grades (n=40) of oral submucous fibrosis were semi-quantitatively analyzed for immunohistochemical expressions of E-cadherin (membranous and cytoplasmic), VEGF and CD105 which were further statistically correlated. The loss of membranous E-cadherin with increase in cytoplasmic accumulation in differentiative layers of epithelium through the progression of dysplasia was noted along with up-regulation in VEGF expressions. The number of CD105(+) blood vessels and their major axis also showed significant increase from non-dysplasia toward higher grades of dysplasia. The positive correlation between deregulated expression of epithelial cell-cell adhesion molecule and increase in neo-angiogenic attributes of oral submucous fibrosis with increase in dysplastic grades indicated elucidatory potential of molecular expression features in assessment of malignant potentiality in oral submucous fibrosis. PMID:25015036

Anura, Anji; Das, Raunak Kumar; Pal, Mousumi; Paul, Ranjan Rashmi; Ray, Ajoy Kumar; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

2014-12-01

299

Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Adults  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) Information for adults A A A White, slightly elevated lesions on the tongue and lips are typical of oral candidiasis. Overview Thrush (oral candidiasis), also known as ...

300

75 FR 62591 - Oral Argument  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD Oral Argument AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection...Notice is hereby given of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of: Hyginus U...MSPB'' or ``Board'') will hear oral argument in the matters of Hyginus...

2010-10-12

301

Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS  

MedlinePLUS

PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . Updated 25 February 2014. +Related Content Key Facts ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...

302

Curricular Guidelines for Oral Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for oral biology curriculum cover its scope, primary educational goals, prerequisites, sequencing, faculty, course content in each subarea (oral tissues and systems and oral diagnostic methodology), and specific behavioral objectives. (MSE)

Journal of Dental Education, 1984

1984-01-01

303

GRADUATE COLLEGE ORAL DEFENSE RESULTS  

E-print Network

GRADUATE COLLEGE ORAL DEFENSE RESULTS THESIS, DISSERTATION/MUSIC DOCUMENT, PROFESSIONAL: Phone: MEANS OF PUBLICIZING ORAL DEFENSE Department email Posted flyer UNLV Today Department website GPSA/GPSA Lounge Other (specify): Date: ORAL DEFENSE

Cho, Hokwon

304

Gastroprotective effects of oral nucleotide administration  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Nucleotides form the building blocks of DNA and are marketed as dietary supplements, alone or in combination with other ingredients, to promote general health. However, there has been only limited scientific study regarding the true biological activity of orally administered nucleotides. We therefore tested their efficacy in a variety of models of epithelial injury and repair. Methods Effects on proliferation ([3H] thymidine incorporation) and restitution (cell migration of wounded monolayers) were analysed using HT29 and IEC6 cells. The ability of a nucleotide mixture to influence gastric injury when administered orally and subcutaneously was analysed using a rat indomethacin (20?mg/kg) restraint model. Results In both cell lines, cell migration was increased by approximately twofold when added at 1?mg/ml (p<0.01); synergistic responses were seen when a mixture of nucleotides was used. Cell proliferation was stimulated by adenosine monophosphate (AMP) in HT29, but not in IEC6, cells. Gastric injury was reduced by approximately 60% when gavaged at 4–16?mg/ml (p<0.05), concentrations similar to those likely to be found in consumers taking nucleotide supplements. Systemic administration of nucleotides was unhelpful. Conclusions Nucleotides possess biological activity when analysed in a variety of models of injury and repair and could provide a novel inexpensive approach for the prevention and treatment of the injurious effects of non steroidal anti?inflammatory drugs and other ulcerative conditions of the bowel. Further studies on their potential benefits (and risks) appear justified. PMID:16091553

Belo, A; Marchbank, T; Fitzgerald, A; Ghosh, S; Playford, R J

2006-01-01

305

Dentition, oral hygiene, and risk of oral cancer: a case-control study in Beijing, People's Republic of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case-control study of oral cancer was conducted in Beijing, People's Republic of China. The study was hospitalbased and controls were hospital in-patients matched to the cases by age and gender. A total of 404 case\\/control pairs were interviewed. This paper provides data regarding oral conditions as risk factors for oral cancer, with every patient having an intact mouth examined

Tongzhang Zheng; Peter Boyle; Huanfang Hu; Jun Duan; Peijue Jiang; Daquan Ma; Liangpeng Shui; Shiru Niu; Crispian Scully; Brian MacMahon

1990-01-01

306

Genes and oral cancer  

PubMed Central

Oral cancers have been one of the leading causes of deaths particularly in the developing countries. Prime reason for this high mortality and morbidity is attributed to the delay in diagnosis and prompt treatment. Relentless research in the field of oncology has led to the advent of novel procedures for the early detection of oral cancers. Molecular biology is highly promising in this regard. It is a procedure that detects alterations at a molecular level much before they are seen under a microscope and much before clinical changes occur. Molecular studies serve as the basis by which we will eventually be able not only to augment clinical assessment and classification of oral lesions but also predict malignant potential of oral lesions, thus reducing the incidence and increasing the scope for early diagnosis and treatment of oral cancers. However, making such sophisticated tools available for the common man in developing countries is one of the most important challenges faced today. PMID:24959008

Jurel, Sunit Kumar; Gupta, Durga Shanker; Singh, Raghuwar D.; Singh, Mrinalini; Srivastava, Shilpi

2014-01-01

307

Oral Lichenoid Lesions - A Review and Update  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral lichenoid lesions or reactions (OLLs/OLRs) are clinical and histological contemporaries of the classical oral lichen planus (OLP) that have generated a lot of debate in literature. In contrast to the idiopathic nature of OLP, OLLs are often associated with a known identifiable inciting factor. A superficial examination of these lesions clinically and histologically often reveals many similarities with OLP, but recent data indicate that distinguishable features do exist and form the basis of most classifications. Aims and Objectives: This paper attempts to collate available data in English literature on OLLs, highlight distinguishing features clinically and histologically and reflect on the malignant transformation potential and treatment modalities of the condition. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive search of medical and dental databases including PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane, Pubget, Researchgate, and non-medical search engines were utilized for the review. The search words included “oral lichen planus”, “oral lichenoid lesions”, “oral drug reactions”, “lichenoid dysplasia”, and “adverse effects of dental materials”. Review Results: OLLs seem to grossly underrated and most cases were clubbed as OLP. Definite clinical and histological features were uncovered to establish the identity of this lesion. Associations with dental restorative materials, drugs, and medications have been conclusively proven in the etiology of this condition. Specific markers are being utilized to diagnose the condition and monitor its progress. Conclusion: Substantial differentiating features were uncovered to delineate OLLs as a separate entity with definite etiology, pathogenesis, and a high malignant transformation rate compared with OLP. PMID:25657414

Kamath, Venkatesh Vishwanath; Setlur, Krishnanand; Yerlagudda, Komali

2015-01-01

308

Effectiveness of Oral Ketamine, Midazolam, and Atropine Cocktail Versus Oral Diphenhydramine for Pediatric Sedation in the Emergency Department  

PubMed Central

Background: Sedation is a condition of reduced level of consciousness (LOC) for a patient that is created to decrease irritability, anxiety, and restlessness. Objectives: In this study, we compared the sedative effect of oral administration of ketamine, midazolam, and atropine cocktail with diphenhydramine in the referent children to the emergency department. Patients and Methods: Based on the double-blind randomized clinical trial in this investigation, 80 children, who needed to repair their wounds with suture were randomly divided into two groups: group 1 and group 2, who have received oral diphenhydramine and oral ketamine, midazolam, and atropine cocktail, respectively. Behavioral changes were collected and recorded before, during intervention and two weeks after intervention. Statistical data were analyzed by SPSS-16 software and chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests were employed to study the relations among variables. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups in terms of drug acceptance and anxiety degree in children before intervention. Group 2 had achieved better and deeper sedation than group 1 during 45-minute post-medication (P < 0.05, P = 0.01). Regarding pediatric general behavior such as crying or interruptive moves, there was also a significant statistical difference between group 2 and group 1 (P = 0.009) based on Houpt Classification. The mean recovery times in groups 1 and 2 were 34.37 ± 14.23 min and 27.25 ± 5.14 min, respectively (P = 0.003). In terms of behavioral changes, the rate of cumulative frequency was computed for behavioral changes two weeks after the discharge from emergency department in which there were less behavioral changes in group 2 than in group 1 (P = 0.04). Conclusions: Oral administration of ketamine, midazolam, and atropine cocktail induces better sedation than diphenhydramine with respect to its limited mood changes in children, who need a medical procedure at emergency department. PMID:25593736

Soleimanpour, Hassan; Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Eftekhari Milani, Farid; Shahsavari Nia, Kavous; Mehdizadeh Esfanjani, Robab; Safari, Saeid

2014-01-01

309

The ZmASR1 Protein Influences Branched-Chain Amino Acid Biosynthesis and Maintains Kernel Yield in Maize under Water-Limited Conditions1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Abscisic acid-, stress-, and ripening-induced (ASR) proteins were first described about 15 years ago as accumulating to high levels during plant developmental processes and in response to diverse stresses. Currently, the effects of ASRs on water deficit tolerance and the ways in which their physiological and biochemical functions lead to this stress tolerance remain poorly understood. Here, we characterized the ASR gene family from maize (Zea mays), which contains nine paralogous genes, and showed that maize ASR1 (ZmASR1) was encoded by one of the most highly expressed paralogs. Ectopic expression of ZmASR1 had a large overall impact on maize yield that was maintained under water-limited stress conditions in the field. Comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of wild-type and ZmASR1-overexpressing leaves led to the identification of three transcripts and 16 proteins up- or down-regulated by ZmASR1. The majority of them were involved in primary and/or cellular metabolic processes, including branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis. Metabolomic and transcript analyses further indicated that ZmASR1-overexpressing plants showed a decrease in BCAA compounds and changes in BCAA-related gene expression in comparison with wild-type plants. Interestingly, within-group correlation matrix analysis revealed a close link between 13 decreased metabolites in ZmASR1-overexpressing leaves, including two BCAAs. Among these 13 metabolites, six were previously shown to be negatively correlated to biomass, suggesting that ZmASR1-dependent regulation of these 13 metabolites might contribute to regulate leaf growth, resulting in improvement in kernel yield. PMID:21852416

Virlouvet, Laetitia; Jacquemot, Marie-Pierre; Gerentes, Denise; Corti, Hélène; Bouton, Sophie; Gilard, Françoise; Valot, Benoît; Trouverie, Jacques; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Falque, Matthieu; Damerval, Catherine; Rogowsky, Peter; Perez, Pascual; Noctor, Graham; Zivy, Michel; Coursol, Sylvie

2011-01-01

310

7 CFR 42.111 - Sampling plans for reduced condition of container inspection, Tables III and III-A; and limit...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sampling plans for reduced condition of container...CONTAINERS Procedures for Stationary Lot Sampling and Inspection § 42.111 Sampling plans for reduced condition of...

2010-01-01

311

Oral Mucositis: understanding the pathology and management  

PubMed Central

Oral Mucositis is a common complication of cancer therapy which may limit the completion of treatment and affect the quality of life of the patient. As we have come to understand its pathogenesis new developments in its management and prevention have allowed us minimize this side effect. PMID:23935285

Georgiou, M; Patapatiou, G; Domoxoudis, S; Pistevou-Gompaki, K; Papanikolaou, A

2012-01-01

312

Parental reports of the oral health-related quality of life of children with cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

Background The severity of physical and mental impairments and oral problems, as well as socioeconomic factors, may have an impact on quality of life of children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this research was to assess the impact of impairments and oral health conditions, adjusted by socioeconomic factors, on the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children with CP using their parents as proxies. Methods Sixty children, between 6-14 years of age were selected. Their parents answered a children’s OHRQoL instrument (5 domains) which combines the Parental-Caregivers Perception Questionnaire (P-CPQ) and Family Impact Scale (FIS). The severity of dental caries, type of CP, communication ability, gross motor function, seizures and socioeconomic conditions were assessed. Results Considering the total score of the OHRQoL instrument, only the reduction of communication ability and dental caries severity had a negative impact on the OHRQoL (p?oral symptoms and functional limitations domains (p?oral symptoms domain (p?=?0.006). The multivariate fitted model showed that the severity of dental caries, communication ability and low family income were negatively associated with the impact on OHRQoL (p?=?0.001). Conclusions The severity of dental caries, communication ability, and family income are conditions strongly associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL of children with CP. PMID:22708973

2012-01-01

313

Vision and Oral Health Needs of Individuals with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past 20 years, there has been an increased emphasis on health promotion, including prevention activities related to vision and oral health, for the general population, but not for individuals with intellectual disability (ID). This review explores what is known about the prevalence of vision problems and oral health conditions among…

Owens, Pamela L.; Kerker, Bonnie D.; Zigler, Edward; Horwitz, Sarah M.

2006-01-01

314

Methodology in Seeking Stakeholder Perceptions of Effective Technical Oral Presentations: An Exploratory Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engineering communication studies indicate the importance of oral presentations as an indispensable component of workplace oral communication activities; however, since there is limited literature regarding stakeholder perceptions of effective presentation skills and attributes in technical oral presentations or final year engineering project…

Bhattacharyya, Ena; Patil, Arun; Sargunan, Rajeswary Appacutty

2010-01-01

315

The Oral Health Burden in the United States: A Summary of Recent Epidemiological Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews recent large-scale epidemiological surveys of oral health in the United States, outlines risk factors for oral disease, and makes recommendations for future surveys. Discussion is limited to dental caries, periodontal diseases, tooth loss, edentulism, oral cancer, and orofacial clefts. (Author/MSE)

Caplan, Daniel J.; Weintraub, Jane A.

1993-01-01

316

Oral Lactoferrin Treatment of Experimental Oral Candidiasis in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the potential of lactoferrin (LF), a multifunctional milk protein, for treatment of oral candi- diasis with immunosuppressed mice, which have local symptoms characteristic of oral thrush. Oral adminis- tration of bovine LF in drinking water starting 1 day before the infection significantly reduced the number of Candida albicans in the oral cavity and the score of lesions on

Natsuko Takakura; Hiroyuki Wakabayashi; Hiroko Ishibashi; Susumu Teraguchi; Yoshitaka Tamura; Hideyo Yamaguchi; Shigeru Abe

2003-01-01

317

NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER ORAL HISTORY PROJECT ORAL HISTORY TRANSCRIPT  

E-print Network

NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER ORAL HISTORY PROJECT ORAL HISTORY TRANSCRIPT NEIL A. ARMSTRONG history with Neil Armstrong was conducted on September 19, 2001, for the Johnson Space Center Oral History of that? 19 September 2001 1 #12;Johnson Space Center Oral History Project Neil A. Armstrong ARMSTRONG: I

318

ADHA Oral Health Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the American Dental Hygienists' Association, this site's resources are valuable for both dental patients and hygienists to help understand "the importance of oral health to total health." Patients will find informative fact sheets describing potential oral health problems as well as tips for preventing them. Hygienists will find the free posters useful as well as the instructions included for proper brushing and flossing techniques in order to educate and support their patients. The site underscores dental hygienists' roles in tobacco cessation efforts, a major topic of concern in the allied health professions. Providing free "life-saving advice", the ADHA hopes to promote overall heath beginning with oral care.

319

Life's Limit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Rocco Mancinelli of the SETI Institute is featured in this web article discussing the environmental limits to life including extreme life forms that can thrive in harsh conditions of salt, pressure, temperature and pH, but share a common theme of needing liquid water. Links to related websites and astrobiology stories, the NASA Astrobiology Institute, and the Ames Astrobiology portal can also be accessed through this page.

Mancinelli, Rocco; Magazine, Astrobiology

320

Challenges for the oral delivery of macromolecules.  

PubMed

The rapid integration of new technologies by the pharmaceutical industry has resulted in numerous breakthroughs in the discovery, development and manufacturing of pharmaceutical products. In particular, the commercial-scale production of high-purity recombinant proteins has resulted in important additions to treatment options for many large therapeutic areas. In addition to proteins, other macromolecules, such as the animal-derived mucopolysaccharide heparins, have also seen dramatic growth as injectable pharmaceutical products. To date, macromolecules have been limited as therapeutics by the fact that they cannot be orally delivered. This article will address the current status and future possibilities of oral macromolecular drug delivery. PMID:12669028

Goldberg, Michael; Gomez-Orellana, Isabel

2003-04-01

321

Pope Michael Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Pope Michael (David Bawden) conducted by Torang Asadi in Delia, Kansas, on September 2, 2010. In this interview, Pope Michael describes how his family came to be in Kansas, how he came to believe ...

Pope Michael; Bawden, David; Asadi, Torang

2010-09-02

322

Oral Hypersensitivity Reactions  

MedlinePLUS

... Million NIDCR/NIH Grant 2015 AAOM Call for Abstract Submissions Upcoming Events 2015 Annual Conference Registration is Now Open 2016 Annual Meeting in Atlanta - Save the Date! Oral Hypersensitivity Reactions ...

323

Oral Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... available from the NCI Web site . There is no standard or routine screening test for oral cancer. ... other areas by the time they are found. No studies have shown that screening would decrease the ...

324

Oral Tradition Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stretching back thousands of years, the oral traditions that have enriched and documented human existence remain a subject of much fascination. The Oral Tradition Journal was founded in 1986 in order to "serve as an international and interdisciplinary forum for discussion of worldwide oral traditions and related forms." The journal is based at the University of Missouri, and visitors to the site can search the entire run of the journal on this site by keyword or author. Clicking over to the "Browse the Journal" area, visitors can look over back issues that include special issues on the Serbo-Croatian oral tradition, performance literature, and the performance artistry of Bob Dylan. The site is a real treat for anyone interested in the subject, and visitors can also learn how to submit their own work for possible inclusion in a forthcoming volume.

2008-01-01

325

Children's Oral Health  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . Oral Health home School-Based Dental Sealant Programs Community Water Fluoridation Fluoridation Basics Benefits Guidelines ... Health Engineering & Operations Infection Control School-Based Dental Sealant Programs Community Water Fluoridation FAQs Community Water Fluoridation ...

326

[Risk of oral piercing].  

PubMed

Oral and facial piercing with different kinds of body art are being observed more frequently in medical and dental practices. Principally, piercing is not a new form of body art and is traditional in different geographical areas. Various materials are used. Besides tongue and lip piercing, different locations of the face such as the eyebrows and the nose are anatomical areas of piercing. The aim of this article is to demonstrate different forms of oral piercing, illustrated by own observations. The piercing procedure is briefly described. Piercing is usually performed without local anaesthesia and stepwise. In a literature review, the possible risks and complications are summarised. Postprocedural complications are oedema, haemorrhage and infection. Other complications are foreign body granulomas or allergies, particularly against nickel. Dentists, and oral- and maxillofacial surgeons should be in a position to advise patients with oral or facial piercings or those who plan to have this type of body art performed. PMID:10234960

Bethke, G; Reichart, P A

1999-03-01

327

Mike Rose Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Mike Rose conducted by Lauren Helmer in Salina, Kansas, on December 31, 2010. In this interview, Mike Rose, pastor of the University United Methodist Church in Salina, describes his experiences ...

Rose, Mike; Helmer, Lauren

2010-12-31

328

Rose Stokes Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Rose Stokes conducted by Sarah Heidrick in Nicodemus, Kansas, on November 14, 2009. In this interview, Rose Stokes discusses her involvement with the First Baptist Church in Nicodemus, Kansas, ...

Stokes, Rose; Heidrick, Sarah

2009-11-14

329

Gene Carlson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Gene Carlson conducted by Clint Shriner on December 10, 2009. In this interview, Gene Carlson, lead pastor at Westlink Christian Church, discusses the formative experiences that resulted in his ...

Carlson, Gene; Shriner, Clint

2009-12-10

330

Matt Cox Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Matt Cox conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on July 16, 2013. This interview features Matt Cox, the planter and lead pastor of EastLake Community Church. EastLake Community Church ...

Cox, Matt; Stratton, Emily

2013-07-16

331

David Frech Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with David Frech conducted by Emily Stratton in Olathe, Kansas, on July 10, 2013. David Frech is the senior pastor at the Church of the Harvest in Olathe, Kansas. Church of the Harvest started up in ...

Frech, David; Stratton, Emily

2013-07-10

332

Deacon Godsey Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Deacon Godsey conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on June 21, 2013. Deacon Godsey is the lead pastor at Vintage Church in Lawrence. Vintage Church is one of Lawrence’s newer ...

Godsey, Deacon; Stratton, Emily

2013-06-21

333

Mary Miller Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Mary Miller conducted by Dr. Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas, on September 16, 2009. In this interview, Mary Miller describes her journey from a her Presbyterian upbringing and education to the decision that she was a...

Miller, Mary; Miller, Timothy

2009-09-16

334

Gregg Hall Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Gregg Hall conducted by Emily Stratton in Olathe, Kansas, on June 24, 2013. Gregg Hall is the pastor for the Ottawa, Kansas, branch of Life Church. Life Church is a non-denominational church ...

Hall, Gregg; Stratton, Emily

2013-06-24

335

Kacey Carlson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Kacey Carlson conducted by Kaitlin Dosier and Jeremy Adkison in Lawrence, Kansas, on October 25, 2010. In this interview, Kacey Carlson, owner of the store Village Witch in Lawrence, Kansas, describes the history...

Carlson, Kacey; Adkison, Jeremy; Dosier, Kaitlin

2010-10-25

336

Anna Manning Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Anna Manning conducted by Sean Manning in Overland Park, Kansas, on November 5, 2009. In this interview, Anna Manning discusses the Hispanic ministries in Catholic Churches in Johnson County, Kansas. This interview...

Manning, Anna; Manning, Sean

2009-11-05

337

Dan Chaverin Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Dan Chaverin conducted by Clint Shriner in Lenexa, Kansas, on December 6, 2009. In this interview, Dan Chaverin, executive pastor of Westside Family Church in Lenexa, Kansas, discusses the operations, missions...

Chaverin, Dan; Shriner, Clint

2009-12-06

338

Leona Anderson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Leona Anderson conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Burdick, Kansas, on September 18, 2009. In this interview, Leona Anderson discusses her experiences as a member of the Missouri Synod Lutheran Church in Lattimer, Kansas...

Anderson, Leona; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-09-18

339

Garrett Fugate Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Garrett Fugate conducted by Jeremy Adkison in 2010. In this interview, University of Kansas student Garrett Fugate discusses his childhood experiences as a member of the Greek Orthodox community, and his eventual decision...

Fugate, Garrett; Adkison, Jeremy

2010-01-01

340

Joseph Luben Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Joseph Luben conducted by Sean Manning in Overland Park, Kansas, on November 5, 2009. In this interview, Joseph Luben discusses being raised with both Pentecostal and Jewish influences in Galena, Kansas. He also describes...

Luben, Joseph; Manning, Sean

2009-11-05

341

Evelyn Forsberg Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Evelyn Forsberg conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson on September 18, 2009. In this interview, Evelyn Forsberg discusses the experience of growing up Catholic in the Herrington, Kansas, area, and, after her marriage to a...

Forsberg, Evelyn; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-09-18

342

Improving the oral bioavailability of sulpiride by a gastric-retained form in rabbits.  

PubMed

To improve the limited oral bioavailability of sulpiride, a gastric-retained form was developed and evaluated using gastric-emptying-controlled rabbits. The AUC value after oral administration of sulpiride as an aqueous solution was less than that after oral administration of sulpiride original powder. The dissolution was not important as a rate limiting factor for sulpiride oral absorption. Sulpiride was absorbed predominantly from the upper part of the small intestine of the rabbit. A gastric-retained tablet prepared from Carbopol 934P, with sustained-release characteristics, was found to be suitable for improving and extending the oral bioavailability of sulpiride. PMID:8794985

Kohri, N; Naasani, I; Iseki, K; Miyazaki, K

1996-04-01

343

Oralidad, narración oral y narración oral escénica  

E-print Network

sociedades pasaron de la oralidad primaria a la escritura, y de la escritura a la oralidad secundaria (escritura y oralidad audiovisual), avanzaron, pero la oralidad retrocedió. No ignoro que nuestras sociedades de oralidad secundaria coexisten con... sociedades de oralidad primaria y con otras en tránsito entre las dos a través de la escritura. Pero mi propuesta de la narración oral escénica (NOE) se centra en las sociedades a las que pertenezco: en las sociedades de oralidad secundaria, marcadas por...

Garzó n Cé spedes, Francisco

1995-10-01

344

Ryan Campbell Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTQ People in Kansas Ryan Campbell Oral History Part 1 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 2 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player... Lawrence, KS 66045 Requestors must identify: 1. Type of publication 2. Proposed title 3. Specific passages to be quoted 4. Anticipated uses of the passages 5. Publisher's name 6. Expected date of publication ...

Campbell, Ryan; Albin, Tami

2009-12-16

345

Aerodigestive cancers: oral cancer.  

PubMed

Worldwide, approximately 260,000 new cases of oral cancer occur, and more than 125,000 mortalities are attributed to oral cancers each year. Oral cancers most commonly arise in the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth and the lower gum. Tobacco and alcohol use are the major risk factors, although human papillomavirus has been identified as an etiology in a small percentage of oral squamous cell cancers. Although the evidence to support routine annual screening for oral cancers is inconclusive, family physicians and dental practitioners should be attentive to precursor lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia, and strongly consider obtaining or referring for biopsy patients with suspicious lesions. Depending on stage, management of oral cancers often involves surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who have been treated for these cancers should undergo close surveillance by otolaryngology subspecialists, but their family physicians primarily will be responsible for their long-term care. Complications relating to management, including difficulties with speech, swallowing, and chewing, will need to be addressed. For patients with advanced-stage disease, family physicians also may be responsible for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:25198382

Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

2014-09-01

346

78 FR 30197 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Clindamycin; Enrofloxacin  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. FDA-2013-N-0002] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs...NADA 135- Tallaght, Dublin Oral Drops. 940. 24, Ireland...amended as follows: PART 520--ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...Conditions of use in dogs and cats--(1) Amount....

2013-05-22

347

Oral complications during treatment of malignant diseases in childhood: effects of tooth brushing  

Microsoft Academic Search

During anticancer treatment, oral lesions considerably aggravate the child’s clinical condition and increase the risk of infection. This prospective study evaluated the incidence, nature and chronology of oral complications arising during the first 6 weeks of chemotherapy. 131 children were included in this study, and their oral and dental health evaluated on enrolment. Each child was observed once a week,

M Bonnaure-Mallet; L Bunetel; S Tricot-Doleux; J Guérin; C Bergeron; E LeGall

1998-01-01

348

Low levels of ferredoxin, ATP and leghemoglobin contribute to limited N 2 fixation of peas ( Pisum sativum L.) and alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) under S deficiency conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulphur (S) has become a major limiting factor for plant production in industrial as well as in remote industrial rural areas.\\u000a Limitation of S can reduce legume N2 fixation by affecting nodule development and function. In pot experiments with pea (Pisum sativum L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), we investigated the influence of S on growth, ferredoxin, ATP and leghemoglobin

Heinrich W. Scherer; Svea Pacyna; Katrin R. Spoth; Margot Schulz

2008-01-01

349

Exuberant Oral Myiasis Caused by Musca domestica (Housefly)  

PubMed Central

Tissues of oral cavity, when invaded by the parasitic larvae of houseflies, the condition is called as oral myiasis. It is a rare disease that is most common in developing countries and is associated with conditions leading to persistent mouth opening along with poor oral hygiene, suppurative lesions, severe halitosis and maxillofacial trauma. A case of exuberant oral myiasis in a 42-year-old female patient is described here. She reported with swelling, pain, mobility of teeth and foul odor. Diagnosis was based primarily on history and clinical features. Management included use of turpentine oil, mechanical removal of larvae followed by extraction of mobile teeth and curettage along with supportive antibiotic and analgesic therapy. Supportive nutritional supplements and timely institution of treatment encompassing removal of the offending larvae and carious teeth with proper education and motivation of the patient including oral hygiene instructions led to the resolution of these lesions. PMID:24741230

Parwani, Rajkumar N; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Simran R; Wanjari, Sangeeta P

2014-01-01

350

Tissue-engineered Oral Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in tissue engineering have permitted the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of human oral mucosa for various in vivo and in vitro applications. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa have been further optimized in recent years for clinical applications as a suitable graft material for intra-oral and extra-oral repair and treatment of soft-tissue defects. Novel 3D in vitro models of oral diseases such as

K. Moharamzadeh; H. Colley; C. Murdoch; V. Hearnden; W. L. Chai; I. M. Brook; M. H. Thornhill; S. MacNeil

2012-01-01

351

How Does What I Eat Affect My Oral Health?  

MedlinePLUS

... systems have been shown to be at higher risk for periodontal disease. Additionally, research shows a link between oral health and systemic conditions, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. So eating a variety of foods as ...

352

The Canine Oral Microbiome  

PubMed Central

Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

2012-01-01

353

Composition and development of oral bacterial communities  

PubMed Central

The oral bacterial microbiome encompasses ca. 700 commonly occurring phylotypes, approximately half of which can be present at any time in any individual. These bacteria are largely indigenous to the oral cavity; this limited range suggests that interactions between the various phylotypes, and between the phylotypes and their environment, are crucial for their existence. Molecular cataloging has confirmed many basic observations on the composition of the oral microbiome that were formulated well before ribosomal RNA-based systematics, but the power and the scope of molecular taxonomy has resulted in the discovery of new phylotypes and, more importantly, the speed and detail of molecular analyses are impossible to achieve through classical approaches. Community structure varies with location within the mouth, and changes in community structure are related to disease initiation and disease progression. Factors that influence the formation and the evolution of communities include selective adherence to epithelial or tooth surfaces, specific cell-to-cell binding as a driver of early community composition, and interorganismal interaction leading to alteration of the local environment, which represents the first step on the road to oral disease. A comprehensive understanding of how these factors interact to drive changes in the composition of the oral microbial community can lead to new strategies for the inhibition of periodontal diseases and dental caries. PMID:24320954

Palmer, Robert J.

2012-01-01

354

Risk indicators of oral health status among young adults aged 18 years analyzed by negative binomial regression  

PubMed Central

Background Limited information on oral health status for young adults aged 18 year-olds is known, and no available data exists in Hong Kong. The aims of this study were to investigate the oral health status and its risk indicators among young adults in Hong Kong using negative binomial regression. Methods A survey was conducted in a representative sample of Hong Kong young adults aged 18 years. Clinical examinations were taken to assess oral health status using DMFT index and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) according to WHO criteria. Negative binomial regressions for DMFT score and the number of sextants with healthy gums were performed to identify the risk indicators of oral health status. Results A total of 324 young adults were examined. Prevalence of dental caries experience among the subjects was 59% and the overall mean DMFT score was 1.4. Most subjects (95%) had a score of 2 as their highest CPI score. Negative binomial regression analyses revealed that subjects who had a dental visit within 3 years had significantly higher DMFT scores (IRR?=?1.68, p?condition was unsatisfactory. Their oral health status was related to their dental visit behavior, oral hygiene habit, and oral health knowledge. PMID:23957895

2013-01-01

355

Oral splint for temporomandibular joint disorders with revolutionary fluid system.  

PubMed

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) diseases and disorders refer to a complex and poorly understood set of conditions, manifested by pain in the area of the jaw and associated muscles and limitations in the ability to make the normal movements of speech, facial expression, eating, chewing, and swallowing. The conventional soft occlusal splint therapy is a much safer and effective mode of a conservative line of therapy in comparison to the surgical therapy for temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). The purpose of this article is to review the Aqualizer™, an hydrostatic oral splint, as accurate, effective treatment and differential diagnostic tool in TMD that allow treating the patient's pain quickly and accurately saving valuable treatment time. The review article has been prepared doing a literature review from the world-wide web and pubmed/medline. PMID:24019797

Srivastava, Rahul; Jyoti, Bhuvan; Devi, Parvathi

2013-05-01

356

Oral splint for temporomandibular joint disorders with revolutionary fluid system  

PubMed Central

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) diseases and disorders refer to a complex and poorly understood set of conditions, manifested by pain in the area of the jaw and associated muscles and limitations in the ability to make the normal movements of speech, facial expression, eating, chewing, and swallowing. The conventional soft occlusal splint therapy is a much safer and effective mode of a conservative line of therapy in comparison to the surgical therapy for temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). The purpose of this article is to review the Aqualizer™, an hydrostatic oral splint, as accurate, effective treatment and differential diagnostic tool in TMD that allow treating the patient's pain quickly and accurately saving valuable treatment time. The review article has been prepared doing a literature review from the world-wide web and pubmed/medline. PMID:24019797

Srivastava, Rahul; Jyoti, Bhuvan; Devi, Parvathi

2013-01-01

357

Oral manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection  

PubMed Central

Extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can affect a variety of organ systems with significant morbidity and mortality. Some of the most frequently reported EHM of HCV infection, involve the oral region predominantly or exclusively. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory condition that is potentially malignant and represents cell-mediated reaction to a variety of extrinsic antigens, altered self-antigens, or super antigens. Robust epidemiological evidence support the link between OLP and HCV. As the virus may replicate in the oral mucosa and attract HCV-specific T lymphocytes, HCV may be implicated in OLP pathogenesis. Sjögren syndrome (SjS) is an autoimmune exocrinopathy, characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes and a multitude of other systemic signs and symptoms. SjS patients have also an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients with chronic hepatitis C do frequently have histological signs of Sjögren-like sialadenitis with mild or even absent clinical symptoms. However, it is still unclear if HCV may cause a disease mimicking SjS or it is directly responsible for the development of SjS in a specific subset of patients. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral malignant tumour and at least in some part of the world could be linked to HCV. PMID:24976694

Carrozzo, Marco; Scally, Kara

2014-01-01

358

Smokeless tobacco, viruses and oral cancer.  

PubMed

Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common epithelial malignancy in the oral cavity. OSCCs and their variants constitute over 90% of oral malignancies, and the disease is associated with poor prognosis. OSCC is a complex malignancy where environmental factors, viral infections, and genetic alterations most likely interact, and thus give rise to the malignant condition. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2007 concluded: "there is sufficient evidence in humans to establish smokeless tobacco as carcinogenic, i.e. smokeless tobacco causes cancer of the oral cavity and pancreas". ST products contain a large array of carcinogens, although the number found is actually smaller than in cigarette smoke. Worldwide, ST products have many different names depending on the region where it is produced. However, there are two main types of ST, chewing tobacco and snuff. It is estimated that approximately 150 million people in the world use ST. Herein, we review available literature regarding smokeless tobacco and oral Carcinogenesis. We also discuss the role of viral infections in combination with ST in OSCC development. PMID:24984650

Sand, Lars; Wallström, Mats; Hirsch, Jan-Michaél

2014-06-01

359

Biochemical acclimation, stomatal limitation and precipitation patterns underlie decreases in photosynthetic stimulation of Soybean (Glycine max) at elevated [CO2] and temperatures under fully open air field conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The net effect of elevated [CO2] and temperature on photosynthetic acclimation and plant productivity is poorly resolved. We assessed the effects of canopy warming and fully open air [CO2] enrichment on 1) the acclimation of two biochemical parameters that frequently limit photosynthesis (A), the ma...

360

Influence of oral mucosal lesions and oral symptoms on oral health related quality of life in dermatological patients: a cross sectional study in Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background There are only few studies considering the impact of oral mucosal lesions (OML) on the oral quality of life of patients with different dermatological conditions. This study aimed to assess the relationship between oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and OML and reported oral symptoms, perceived general and oral health condition and caries experience in adult skin diseased patients attending an outpatient dermatologic clinic in Sudan. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 544 diagnosed skin diseased patients (mean age 37.1?years, 50?% females), during the period October 2008 to January 2009. The patients were orally examined and OML and caries experience was recorded. The patients were interviewed using the Sudanese Arabic version of the OIDP. OHRQoL was evaluated by socio-demographic and clinical correlates according to number of types of OML diagnosed (no OML, one type of OML, > one type of OML) and number and types of oral symptoms. Results An oral impact (OIDP?>?0) was reported by 190 patients (35.6?%) (mean OIDP total score 11.6, sd?=?6.7). The prevalence of any oral impact was 30.5?%, 36.7?% and 44.1?%, in patients with no OML, one type of OML and more than one type of OML, respectively. Number of types of OML and number and types of oral symptoms were consistently associated with the OIDP scores. Patients who reported bad oral health, patients with???1 dental attendance, patients with?>?1 type of OML, and patients with???1 type of oral symptoms were more likely than their counterparts in the opposite groups to report any OIDP. The odds ratios (OR) were respectively; 2.9 (95?% CI 1.9-4.5), 2.3 (95?% CI 1.5-3.5), 1.8 (95?% CI 1.1-3.2) and 6.7 (95?% CI 2.6-17.5). Vesiculobullous and ulcerative lesions of OML disease groups associated statistically significantly with OIDP. Conclusion OIDP was more frequently affected among skin diseased patients with than without OML. The frequency of the impacts differed according to the number of type of OML, oral symptoms, and OML disease groups. Dentists and dermatologists should pay special attention to skin diseased patients because they are likely to experience oral impacts on daily performances. PMID:22768994

2012-01-01

361

The Bidirectional NiFe-hydrogenase in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Is Reduced by Flavodoxin and Ferredoxin and Is Essential under Mixotrophic, Nitrate-limiting Conditions*  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria are able to use solar energy for the production of hydrogen. It is generally accepted that cyanobacterial NiFe-hydrogenases are reduced by NAD(P)H. This is in conflict with thermodynamic considerations, as the midpoint potentials of NAD(P)H do not suffice to support the measured hydrogen production under physiological conditions. We show that flavodoxin and ferredoxin directly reduce the bidirectional NiFe-hydrogenase of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 in vitro. A merodiploid ferredoxin-NADP reductase mutant produced correspondingly more photohydrogen. We furthermore found that the hydrogenase receives its electrons via pyruvate:flavodoxin/ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR)-flavodoxin/ferredoxin under fermentative conditions, enabling the cells to gain ATP. These results strongly support that the bidirectional NiFe-hydrogenases in cyanobacteria function as electron sinks for low potential electrons from photosystem I and as a redox balancing device under fermentative conditions. However, the selective advantage of this enzyme is not known. No strong phenotype of mutants lacking the hydrogenase has been found. Because bidirectional hydrogenases are widespread in aquatic nutrient-rich environments that are capable of triggering phytoplankton blooms, we mimicked those conditions by growing cells in the presence of increased amounts of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic nitrogen. Under these conditions the hydrogenase was found to be essential. As these conditions close the two most important sinks for reduced flavodoxin/ferredoxin (CO2-fixation and nitrate reduction), this discovery further substantiates the connection between flavodoxin/ferredoxin and the NiFe-hydrogenase. PMID:24311779

Gutekunst, Kirstin; Chen, Xi; Schreiber, Karoline; Kaspar, Ursula; Makam, Srinivas; Appel, Jens

2014-01-01

362

Oral Leukoplakia – an Update  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The main purpose of this paper was to assess the current state of science on oral leukoplakia. Although it is considered a potentially malignant disorder the overall malignant progression of oral leukoplakia is of the order of 5% and even more. Nowadays there are no currently accepted markers to distinguish those that may progress to cancer from those that may not. The current golden standard is considered the presence of epithelial dysplasia on the tissue biopsy of the lesion. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia is a rare form of OL which has multiple recurrences, is refractory to treatment and has malignant transformation in a short period. It is considered a true premalignant lesion. The management of oral leukoplakia varies from a "wait and see" attitude and topical chemopreventive agents to complete surgical removal. PMID:25553134

PARLATESCU, Ioanina; GHEORGHE, Carmen; COCULESCU, Elena; TOVARU, Serban

2014-01-01

363

[Osteoporosis and oral diseases].  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a major cause of fractures in elderly women. Bone densitometry is used in order to detect osteoporosis. It has been observed can also be analyzed in the jawbone. The osteoporosis may be associated with resorption of the residual ridge, periodontitis and tooth loss; also the same treatments can affect the jaws. A search was carried out in the Medline-Pubmed database in order to search the association between osteoporosis and oral diseases over the past 5 years. Forty-two articles were obtained after the selection process. The authors stated that: in reference to periodontal disease the results are conflicting, but there seems to be a higher prevalence of the disease and tooth loss and resorption of the crest. Oral bisphosphonates have little risk of causing osteonecrosis, and there is no relationship in the dental implant failure among patients taking bisphosphonates. There is no clear scientific evidence that could link osteoporosis and oral diseases. PMID:22854070

Estrugo-Devesa, Albert; Gómez-Vaquero, Carmen; López-López, José

2013-02-16

364

[Oral dissolving treatment of gallbladder calculi: focus in 1989].  

PubMed

Oral dissolution treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is indicated in the case of cholesterol gallstones. However, three conditions must be satisfied for treatment to be effective: 1) the stones must be radiolucent; 2) the gallbladder must be functioning, i.e. opacified by oral cholecystography; 3) the stones must be smaller than 15 mm in diameter. Most authors consider that treatment is only justified when the stones are symptomatic. On the basis of these criteria, it has been estimated that about 20% of patients with gallstones presenting to gastroenterologists could be suitable for treatment. The mean percentage of efficacy is of the order of 50 to 60% at 18 months to 2 years. This percentage may be as high as 70-80% in the case of floating stones smaller than 1 cm. At the optimal dose (15 mg/kg/day), CDCA may induce diarrhoea and raised transaminases. Its prolonged administration can induce hepatic lesions. UDCA (7-10 mg/kg/day) generally does not have any side effect. The combination of CDCA/UDCA at the dose of 7-8 mg/kg/day of each agent may be more effective. After stopping treatment, a recurrence is observed in about 50% of cases within 5 years. Regular ultrasonographic follow-up (annually, for example) is therefore necessary to treat recurrences in time. Because of the criteria of efficacy and its adverse effects, oral dissolution treatment is only indicated in a very limited number of patients. However, it constitutes an essential complement to extracorporeal lithotripsy, which may represent its principal indication at the present time. PMID:2817740

Erlinger, S

1989-01-01

365

Oral health and dental care in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

With a population of six million people and situated at the South-eastern corner of mainland China, Hong Kong is considered as the gateway between East and West, often playing a role disproportionate to its territorial or population size. The FDI World Dental Congress 1995 provides an impetus to familiarise colleagues worldwide with the oral health and dental care situation in Hong Kong. Water fluoridation was introduced in 1961, which has achieved a continuous low and stable caries prevalence in children as well as in adults. Edentulousness among adults is usually not apparent until after age 55, but at much lower rates than in comparable western industrialised populations. Periodontal conditions in adults are dominated by calculus and shallow pockets. Overall, treatment needs are mainly oral hygiene and simple restorative treatment. Dental awareness is considered low with only a minority of the population seeking dental care on a regular basis. Traditional Chinese health beliefs are common and may influence health behaviour in terms of self- or professional care. Dental care is mainly provided by around 1000 private dental practitioners but special government dental programmes are established for primary school children, who are mainly treated by dental therapists, and for civil servants and their dependents. Dental hygienists are trained in very limited numbers. Dental specialties are under development as part of a newly established Academy of Medicine. Developments are under way to introduce new preventive oriented programmes for pre-school and secondary school age groups. PMID:7558355

Schwarz, E; Lo, E C

1995-06-01

366

What are the sources and conditions responsible for exceedences of the 24 h PM 10 limit value (50 ?g m -3) at a heavily trafficked London site?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Union has set limit values for PM 10 to be met in 2005. At Marylebone Road, London, where the traffic is heavy, the daily limit value of 50 ?g m -3 is exceeded more than 35 times a year. A total of 185 days with daily PM 10 concentrations exceeding the limit value of 50 ?g m -3 measured between January 2002 and December 2004 (data capture of 89.5%) are discussed in this paper. These exceedences were more frequent in early spring and in autumn. Concentrations have been disaggregated into regional, urban (background) and local (street) contributions. Most of the episodes of gravimetric PM 10 above the limit value were associated with a high regional background and very often the regional contribution dominated the PM 10 mass. The secondary aerosol (especially the particulate nitrate) made a major contribution to the PM 10 load. These situations were frequently observed when air masses came from the European mainland (showing that both emissions from the UK and other EU countries contributed to the exceedences), and less frequently with maritime air masses that have stagnated over the UK (showing that emissions from the UK alone less frequently contributed to the high regional background). However, the higher frequency of episodes breaching the limit value at the roadside site than at the rural site and the higher frequency of PM 10 concentrations above the limit value on weekdays show that the high regional contributions are additional to local and urban emissions. Local emissions mainly due to traffic were the second important contributor to the exceedences, while the contribution of the urban background of London was less important than the local emissions and the regional background. Applying the pragmatic mass closure model of Harrison et al. [2003. A pragmatic mass closure model for airborne particulate matter at urban background and roadside sites. Atmospheric Environment 37, 4927-4933], revealed that the regional aerosol is comprised very largely of ammonium nitrate and sulphate and secondary organic aerosol. Findings suggest that international abatement of secondary aerosol precursors may be the most effective measure to fulfil the requirements of the European Directive 1999/30/CE by lowering the regional background.

Charron, Aurélie; Harrison, Roy M.; Quincey, Paul

367

The Human Oral Microbiome? † ?  

PubMed Central

The human oral cavity contains a number of different habitats, including the teeth, gingival sulcus, tongue, cheeks, hard and soft palates, and tonsils, which are colonized by bacteria. The oral microbiome is comprised of over 600 prevalent taxa at the species level, with distinct subsets predominating at different habitats. The oral microbiome has been extensively characterized by cultivation and culture-independent molecular methods such as 16S rRNA cloning. Unfortunately, the vast majority of unnamed oral taxa are referenced by clone numbers or 16S rRNA GenBank accession numbers, often without taxonomic anchors. The first aim of this research was to collect 16S rRNA gene sequences into a curated phylogeny-based database, the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD), and make it web accessible (www.homd.org). The HOMD includes 619 taxa in 13 phyla, as follows: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydiae, Chloroflexi, Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, SR1, Synergistetes, Tenericutes, and TM7. The second aim was to analyze 36,043 16S rRNA gene clones isolated from studies of the oral microbiota to determine the relative abundance of taxa and identify novel candidate taxa. The analysis identified 1,179 taxa, of which 24% were named, 8% were cultivated but unnamed, and 68% were uncultivated phylotypes. Upon validation, 434 novel, nonsingleton taxa will be added to the HOMD. The number of taxa needed to account for 90%, 95%, or 99% of the clones examined is 259, 413, and 875, respectively. The HOMD is the first curated description of a human-associated microbiome and provides tools for use in understanding the role of the microbiome in health and disease. PMID:20656903

Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Chen, Tuste; Izard, Jacques; Paster, Bruce J.; Tanner, Anne C. R.; Yu, Wen-Han; Lakshmanan, Abirami; Wade, William G.

2010-01-01

368

Current developments for the oral delivery of heparin.  

PubMed

Anticoagulant therapy is widely used for the treatment and prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis and coronary syndromes. Until now, drugs such as unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparins need to be administered parenterally. Parenteral administration results in lower patient compliance compared to oral therapy and for this reason, the focus of various research groups is to develop an oral heparin formulation which is as effective as the parenteral formulation, easy to use and non-toxic. In the last few years, some new oral anticoagulants like Rivaroxaban (Xarelto(®)), Apixaban (Eliquis(®)) and Dabigatranetexilat (Pradaxa(®)) have reached the market, but their use is limited to certain indications. Therefore, the development of oral formulations with well-established anti-coagulant drugs is still relevant and in demand. In this paper, we reviewed strategies that have been developed so far to achieve an adequate anticoagulant effect using oral formulations of unfractionated and low molecular weight heparins. PMID:25219865

Schlüter, Anna; Lamprecht, Alf

2014-01-01

369

Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review  

PubMed Central

Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, and assessing cancer risk and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from studies using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy. PMID:21660266

Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Mayu; Tanaka, Takahiro

2011-01-01

370

Oral carcinogenesis and oral cancer chemoprevention: a review.  

PubMed

Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, and assessing cancer risk and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from studies using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy. PMID:21660266

Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Mayu; Tanaka, Takahiro

2011-01-01

371

Oral cleft prevention program (OCPP)  

PubMed Central

Background Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. Oral clefts have a complex etiology with genetic and environmental risk factors. There are suggestive results for decreased risks of cleft occurrence and recurrence with folic acid supplements taken at preconception and during pregnancy with a stronger evidence for higher than lower doses in preventing recurrence. Yet previous studies have suffered from considerable design limitations particularly non-randomization into treatment. There is also well-documented effectiveness for folic acid in preventing neural tube defect occurrence at 0.4 mg and recurrence with 4 mg. Given the substantial burden of clefting on the individual and the family and the supportive data for the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation as well as its low cost, a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of high versus low dose folic acid for prevention of cleft recurrence is warranted. Methods/design This study will assess the effect of 4 mg and 0.4 mg doses of folic acid, taken on a daily basis during preconception and up to 3 months of pregnancy by women who are at risk of having a child with nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without palate (NSCL/P), on the recurrence of NSCL/P. The total sample will include about 6,000 women (that either have NSCL/P or that have at least one child with NSCL/P) randomly assigned to the 4 mg and the 0.4 mg folic acid study groups. The study will also compare the recurrence rates of NSCL/P in the total sample of subjects, as well as the two study groups (4mg, 0.4 mg) to that of a historical control group. The study has been approved by IRBs (ethics committees) of all involved sites. Results will be disseminated through publications and presentations at scientific meetings. Discussion The costs related to oral clefts are high, including long term psychological and socio-economic effects. This study provides an opportunity for huge savings in not only money but the overall quality of life. This may help establish more specific clinical guidelines for oral cleft prevention so that the intervention can be better tailored for at-risk women. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00397917 PMID:23181832

2012-01-01

372

Nanoporous sorbent material as an oral phosphate binder and for aqueous phosphate, chromate, and arsenate removal  

PubMed Central

Phosphate removal is both biologically and environmentally important. Biologically, hyperphosphatemia is a critical condition in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Patients with hyperphosphatemia are treated long-term with oral phosphate binders to prevent phosphate absorption to the body by capturing phosphate in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract followed by fecal excretion. Environmentally, phosphate levels in natural water resources must be regulated according to limits set forth by the US Environmental Protection Agency. By utilizing nanotechnology and ligand design, we developed a new material to overcome limitations of traditional sorbent materials such as low phosphate binding capacity, slow binding kinetics, and negative interference by other anions. A phosphate binder based on iron-ethylenediamine on nanoporous silica (Fe-EDA-SAMMS) has been optimized for substrates and Fe(III) deposition methods. The Fe-EDA-SAMMS material had a 4-fold increase in phosphate binding capacity and a broader operating pH window compared to other reports. The material had a faster phosphate binding rate and was significantly less affected by other anions than Sevelamer HCl, the gold standard oral phosphate binder, and AG® 1-X8, a commercially available anion exchanger. It had less cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells than lanthanum carbonate, another prescribed oral phosphate binder. The Fe-EDA-SAMMS also had high capacity for arsenate and chromate, two of the most toxic anions in natural water.

Sangvanich, Thanapon; Ngamcherdtrakul, Worapol; Lee, Richard; Morry, Jingga; Castro, David; Fryxell, Glen E.; Yantasee, Wassana

2014-01-01

373

Per-oral cholangioscopy  

PubMed Central

Direct endoscopic views of bile duct have been described in literature since the 1970s. Since then rapid strides have been made with the advent of technologically advanced systems with better image quality and maneuverability. The single operator semi-disposable per-oral cholangioscope and other novel methods such as the cholangioscopy access balloon are likely to revolutionize this field. Even though cholangioscopy is currently used primarily for characterization of indeterminate strictures and management of large bile duct stones, the diagnostic and therapeutic indications are likely to expand in future. The following is an overview of the currently available per-oral cholangioscopy equipments, indications for use and future directions. PMID:21776429

Monga, Amitabh; Ramchandani, Mohan

2011-01-01

374

Michael Johnson Oral History  

E-print Network

support groups or whatever like that and then it just turned into, Well there's Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 5 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas porn online too. (laugh) So it's like—it's like you just kind... stepmother had found my Xanga site as well. Along with that she had found, on his computer, links to porn site—like gay porn Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 7 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas sites, right...

Johnson, Michael; Albin, Tami

2009-12-16

375

Immunology of oral candidiasis.  

PubMed

A successful pathogen is one that is able to effectively survive and evade detection by the host immune defense. Oral candidiasis has adopted strategies, which evade host defense and eventually cause disease in at-risk patients. Host defense against infections with Candida spp. depends on rapid activation of an acute inflammatory response by innate immunity, followed by an incremental stimulation of specific immune responses mediated by T-cells (cellular immunity) or B-cells (humoral immunity). Understanding these complex pathways of immune evasion can potentially contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies against oral candidiasis. PMID:25210393

Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Sivakumar, Muniapillai; Karthikeyan, M; Udayakumar, P; Shanmugam, K T; Kesavan, G

2014-07-01

376

Flux Analysis of the Metabolism of Clostridium cellulolyticum Grown in Cellulose-Fed Continuous Culture on a Chemically Defined Medium under Ammonium-Limited Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of cellulose degradation by the nonruminal, cellulolytic, mesophilic bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum was performed in cellulose-fed chemostat cultures with ammonium as the growth-limiting nu- trient. At any dilution rate (D), acetate was always the main product of the catabolism, with a yield of product from substrate ranging between 37.7 and 51.5 g per mol of hexose equivalent fermented and

MICKAEL DESVAUX; HENRI PETITDEMANGE

2001-01-01

377

FLAVODIIRON2 and FLAVODIIRON4 Proteins Mediate an Oxygen-Dependent Alternative Electron Flow in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under CO2-Limited Conditions.  

PubMed

This study aims to elucidate the molecular mechanism of an alternative electron flow (AEF) functioning under suppressed (CO2-limited) photosynthesis in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Photosynthetic linear electron flow, evaluated as the quantum yield of photosystem II [Y(II)], reaches a maximum shortly after the onset of actinic illumination. Thereafter, Y(II) transiently decreases concomitantly with a decrease in the photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate and then recovers to a rate that is close to the initial maximum. These results show that CO2 limitation suppresses photosynthesis and induces AEF. In contrast to the wild type, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 mutants deficient in the genes encoding FLAVODIIRON2 (FLV2) and FLV4 proteins show no recovery of Y(II) after prolonged illumination. However, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 mutants deficient in genes encoding proteins functioning in photorespiration show AEF activity similar to the wild type. In contrast to Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 has no FLV proteins with high homology to FLV2 and FLV4 in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. This lack of FLV2/4 may explain why AEF is not induced under CO2-limited photosynthesis in S. elongatus PCC 7942. As the glutathione S-transferase fusion protein overexpressed in Escherichia coli exhibits NADH-dependent oxygen reduction to water, we suggest that FLV2 and FLV4 mediate oxygen-dependent AEF in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 when electron acceptors such as CO2 are not available. PMID:25540330

Shimakawa, Ginga; Shaku, Keiichiro; Nishi, Akiko; Hayashi, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Katsuhiko; Makino, Amane; Miyake, Chikahiro

2015-02-01

378

Alterations of the oxygen-evolving apparatus induced by a 305Arg --> 305Ser mutation in the CP43 protein of photosystem II from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under chloride-limiting conditions.  

PubMed

The psbC gene encodes CP43, a component of Photosystem II (PSII) in higher plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. Previous work demonstrated that alteration of an arginine residue occurring at position 305 to serine produced a strain (R305S) with altered PSII activity (Knoepfle, N., Bricker, T. M., and Putnam-Evans, C. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 1582-1588). This strain grew at wild-type rates in complete BG-11 media (480 microM chloride) and evolved oxygen at rates that were 60-70% of the observed wild-type rates. The R305S strain assembled approximately 70-80% of the functional PSII centers contained in the control strain, and these PSII centers were very sensitive to photoinactivation at high light intensities. We recently observed that the R305S mutant exhibited a pronounced chloride effect. When this mutant was grown in media depleted of chloride (30 microM chloride), it exhibited a severely reduced photoautotrophic growth rate. The effect of chloride depletion on the growth rate of the mutant was reversed by the addition of 480 microM bromide to the chloride-depleted BG-11 media. Oxygen evolution rates for the mutant were further depressed to about 22% of that observed in control cells under chloride-limiting conditions. Addition of bromide restored these rates to those observed under chloride-sufficient conditions. The mutant exhibited a significantly lower relative quantum yield for oxygen evolution than did the control strain, and this was exacerbated under chloride-limiting conditions. Fluorescence yield measurements indicated that both the mutant and the control strains assembled fewer PSII reaction centers under chloride-limiting conditions. The reaction centers assembled by the mutant exhibited an enhanced sensitivity to photoinactivation under chloride-limiting conditions, with a t(1/2) of photoinactivation of 2.6 min under chloride-limiting conditions as compared to a t(1/2) of 4.7 min under normal growth conditions. The mutant also exhibited an enhanced stability of its S(2) state and increased number of centers in the S(1) state following dark incubation. These results indicate that the mutant R305S exhibits a defect in its ability to utilize chloride in support of efficient oxygen evolution in PSII. This is the first mutant of this type described in the CP43 protein. PMID:12501203

Young, Andrew; McChargue, Myriam; Frankel, Laurie K; Bricker, Terry M; Putnam-Evans, Cindy

2002-12-31

379

Raman spectroscopy and oral exfoliative cytology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early detection of oral cancers can substantially improve disease-free survival rates. Ex vivo and in vivo Raman spectroscopic (RS) studies on oral cancer have demonstrated the applicability of RS in identifying not only malignant and premalignant conditions but also cancer-field-effects: the earliest events in oral carcinogenesis. RS has also been explored for cervical exfoliated cells analysis. Exfoliated cells are associated with several advantages like non-invasive sampling, higher patient compliance, transportation and analysis at a central facility: obviating need for on-site instrumentation. Thus, oral exfoliative cytology coupled with RS may serve as a useful adjunct for oral cancer screening. In this study, exfoliated cells from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits, premalignant lesions (leukoplakia and tobacco-pouch-keratosis) and their contralateral mucosa were collected using a Cytobrush. Cells were harvested by vortexing and centrifugation at 6000 rpm. The cellular yield was ascertained using Neubauer's chamber. Cell pellets were placed on a CaF2 window and Raman spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe (40X objective) coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Approximately 7 spectra were recorded from each pellet, following which pellet was smeared onto a glass slide, fixed in 95% ethanol and subjected to Pap staining for cytological diagnosis (gold standard). Preliminary PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross validation indicate delineation of cells from healthy and all pathological conditions. A tendency of classification was also seen between cells from contralateral, healthy tobacco and site of premalignant lesions. These results will be validated by cytological findings, which will serve as the basis for building standard models of each condition.

Sahu, Aditi; Shah, Nupur; Mahimkar, Manoj; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Nair, Sudhir; Krishna, C. Murali

2014-03-01

380

Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives  

MedlinePLUS

... Progestin-only oral contraceptives are a very effective method of birth control, but they do not prevent ... oral contraceptives on another day, use a backup method of birth control (such as a condom and/ ...

381

Kidney Disease (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

Kidney Disease Oral Effects At the Dentist Oral Effects People with kidney disease often have other health issues. They often have compromised immune systems, so they may be more likely to get infections. People with renal (kidney) problems may have ...

382

Lin Tongqi : an oral history  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I explore the life of Professor Lin Tongqi, a well-known scholar of American Chinese studies, by using an oral history methodology. This oral history is named "Suffering and Thinking," and my goal is to ...

Chen, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

383

Oral healthcare challenges for older Punjabi-speaking immigrants.  

PubMed

This study explored how older Punjabi-speaking South-Asian immigrants (four focus groups; 33 participants) in Surrey, British Columbia, perceive oral health and related problems. Content analysis revealed two umbrella themes: (a) interpretations of mouth conditions and (b) challenges to oral health. The umbrella themes had four sub-themes: damage caused by heat (wai), disturbances caused by caries, coping with dentures, and quality of life. Three challenges were considered: home remedies, Western dentistry, and difficulties accessing dentists. Participants explained oral diseases in terms of a systemic infection (resha), and preferred to decrease imbalances of wai in the mouth with home remedies from India. We conclude that older Punjabi-speaking immigrants interpret oral health and disease in the context of both Western and Ayurvedic traditions, and that they manage dental problems with a mix of traditional remedies supplemented, if possible, by elective oral health care in India, and by emergency dental care in Canada. PMID:24806541

MacEntee, Michael I; Wong, Sabrina T; Smith, André; Beattie, B Lynn; Brondani, Mario; Bryant, S Ross; Graf, Peter; Soheilipour, Shimae

2014-06-01

384

The Phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Has Three High-Affinity Iron-Scavenging Systems Functional under Iron Limitation Conditions but Dispensable for Pathogenesis?¶  

PubMed Central

High-affinity iron scavenging through the use of siderophores is a well-established virulence determinant in mammalian pathogenesis. However, few examples have been reported for plant pathogens. Here, we use a genetic approach to investigate the role of siderophores in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000) virulence in tomato. DC3000, an agronomically important pathogen, has two known siderophores for high-affinity iron scavenging, yersiniabactin and pyoverdin, and we uncover a third siderophore, citrate, required for growth when iron is limiting. Though growth of a DC3000 triple mutant unable to either synthesize or import these siderophores is severely restricted in iron-limited culture, it is fully pathogenic. One explanation for this phenotype is that the DC3000 triple mutant is able to directly pirate plant iron compounds such as heme/hemin or iron-nicotianamine, and our data indicate that DC3000 can import iron-nicotianamine with high affinity. However, an alternative explanation, supported by data from others, is that the pathogenic environment of DC3000 (i.e., leaf apoplast) is not iron limited but is iron replete, with available iron of >1 ?M. Growth of the triple mutant in culture is restored to wild-type levels by supplementation with a variety of iron chelates at >1 ?M, including iron(III) dicitrate, a dominant chelate of the leaf apoplast. This suggests that lower-affinity iron import would be sufficient for DC3000 iron nutrition in planta and is in sharp contrast to the high-affinity iron-scavenging mechanisms required in mammalian pathogenesis. PMID:21441525

Jones, Alexander M.; Wildermuth, Mary C.

2011-01-01

385

Imaging in oral cancers  

PubMed Central

Oral cavity squamous cell cancers form a significant percentage of the cancers seen in India. While clinical examination allows direct visualization, it cannot evaluate deep extension of disease. Cross-sectional imaging has become the cornerstone in the pretreatment evaluation of these cancers and provides accurate information about the extent and depth of disease that can help decide the appropriate management strategy and indicate prognosis. Early cancers are treated with a single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy while advanced cancers are offered a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Imaging can decide resectability, help plan the precise extent of resection, and indicate whether organ conservation therapy should be offered. Quality of life issues necessitate preservation of form and function and pretreatment imaging helps plan appropriate reconstruction and counsel patients regarding lifestyle changes. Oral cavity has several subsites and the focus of the review is squamous cancers of the gingivobuccal region, oral tongue and retromolar trigone as these are most frequently encountered in the subcontinent. References for this review were identified by searching Medline and PubMed databases. Only articles published in English language literature were selected. This review aims to familiarize the radiologist with the relevant anatomy of the oral cavity, discuss the specific issues that influence prognosis and management at the above subsites, the optimal imaging methods, the role of imaging in accurately staging these cancers and in influencing management. A checklist for reporting will emphasize the information to be conveyed by the radiologist. PMID:23599568

Arya, Supreeta; Chaukar, Devendra; Pai, Prathamesh

2012-01-01

386

Oral History Online!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bancroft Library at the University of California-Berkeley has recently begun a project to place portions of its oral history collection online in full text. The transcripts will be marked up in SGML using the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), which will allow complex searches of the entire text. In addition to the transcripts themselves, the remainder (photos, prefaces, contents pages) of the published volumes will also be encoded to provide complete access. At this stage, the Suffragists Oral History Project, which offers the text of interviews with twelve suffragists and women's activists for searching or browsing, is the only project available online in complete form. Projects under construction include the Disabled Persons Independence Movement and the BioTech Project. Among the future planned additions are oral histories of the Free Speech Movement at Berkeley, the Earl Warren gubernatorial era, and African-American Alumni at the University of California. Historians of California and oral historians will want to monitor the site as it develops.

387

Oral Anticoagulant Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background: The objective of this article is to summarize the published literature concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral anticoagulant drugs that are currently available for clinical use and other aspects related to their management. Methods: We carried out a standard review of published articles focusing on the laboratory and clinical characteristics of the vitamin K antagonists; the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate; and the direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban Results: The antithrombotic effect of each oral anticoagulant drug, the interactions, and the monitoring of anticoagulation intensity are described in detail and discussed without providing specific recommendations. Moreover, we describe and discuss the clinical applications and optimal dosages of oral anticoagulant therapies, practical issues related to their initiation and monitoring, adverse events such as bleeding and other potential side effects, and available strategies for reversal. Conclusions: There is a large amount of evidence on laboratory and clinical characteristics of vitamin K antagonists. A growing body of evidence is becoming available on the first new oral anticoagulant drugs available for clinical use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban. PMID:22315269

Gallus, Alexander S.; Wittkowsky, Ann; Crowther, Mark; Hylek, Elaine M.; Palareti, Gualtiero

2012-01-01

388

Milk and Oral Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health includes freedom from disease in the gums, the mucosa and the teeth. There has been a striking reduction in dental caries and periodontitis in industrialized countries, although the proportion with severe disease has remained at 10–15%, and the prevalence increases in less developed countries. If left untreated, these diseases may lead to pain, and impaired quality of life

Ingegerd Johansson; Pernilla Lif Holgerson

2011-01-01

389

Teaching Oral History Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains the audiotape recorder is an invaluable tool for the local historian. Outlines interviewing techniques, questioning skills, and audiotape recorder use instructions. Provides suggestions for preparing students for an oral history project. Discusses second interviews and how to utilize the tape after the interview. (RW)

Ahren, John

1990-01-01

390

[Oral management for cancer patients].  

PubMed

Chemotherapy and radiotherapy administered to cancer patients can be harmful because of their effect on normal cells as well as cancer cells, and cause many adverse events. The oral cavity is one of the sites most vulnerable to the direct and indirect effects of cancer therapy. Severe adverse events of the oral cavity can not only reduce a patient's QOL, but also disrupt cancer treatment. We discuss the concept of oral management by maintenance of the oral environment. PMID:24335358

Kishimoto, Hiromitsu; Shudo, Atsushi

2013-12-01

391

American Academy of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology  

MedlinePLUS

... you the very latest news and information about oral health care and practice. The Academy of Oral and ... with other dental and medical professionals to advance oral health care. Oral and maxillofacial pathologists (OMP) are uniquely ...

392

Cryotherapy effect on oral mucositis severity among recipients of bone marrow transplantation: a literature review.  

PubMed

Oral mucositis is a distressing toxic effect of cancer therapy and one of the major side effects of the myeloablative conditioning used to prepare patients for bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Oral cryotherapy is one of the recent modalities used to prevent and manage oral mucositis. The purpose of this review is to clarify the cryotherapy effect on oral mucositis severity among patients receiving myeloablative conditioning followed by BMT. A literature search was performed using six different electronic databases: CINAHL®, MEDLINE®, Nursing Ovid, PubMed, Springer, and Science Direct. Six articles were deemed relevant and included in this review. Oral mucositis increases mortality rate, length of hospital stay, opioid use, and the need for parenteral nutrition usage. It also decreases patient's quality of life and his or her desire to complete treatment. However, oral cryotherapy significantly minimizes the incidence and severity of oral mucositis and decreases secondary oral mucositis complications. Using oral cryotherapy concurrently with a regular oral care protocol can improve its efficacy for preventing and managing oral mucositis. Additional studies should be conducted to create standard oral cryotherapy protocols. PMID:25095309

Tayyem, Abdel-Qader Mahmoud

2014-08-01

393

Application of modern optical fiber technology to the study of plasmas of closed divertors and pump limiters in reactor-relevant conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern optical fibers, through control of the purity of the materials and the tolerances of the core and clad diameters, provide very good light transmission in the visible and near-ultraviolet regions of the spectrum. This makes it possible to use them in place of traditional optical systems without large losses in light intensity at the detectors. In addition, the same control of the quality of the fiber materials, coupled with novel jacket materials, makes it possible to use the fibers inside vacuum chambers and at elevated temperatures. A fiber-optic bundle recently installed in the TEXTOR tokamak is an example of the use of modern fiber technology. The bundle was made of 80 100-?m fibers held together with a polyimide organic material that has good outgassing specifications up to 400 °C. This fiber bundle has been used for recent measurements of the recycling in the throat region of one of the blades of the Advanced Limiter Test-II (ALT-II) belt pump limiter. Another system presently under design and testing employs individual fibers that are gold plated. These fibers are fed through holes in a vacuum blank flange and silver soldered to the flange. This system is designed to transmit the light from the strike point inside the closed divertor of the DIII-D tokamak out to a spectrometer. There, the spectral profile of the H? line is analyzed to determine the energy distribution of the recycling particles.

Klepper, C. C.; Simpkins, J. E.; Hills, D. L.; Mioduszewski, P. K.; Moyer, R. A.; Gray, D.; Dippel, K. H.; Pospieszczyk, A.

1990-10-01

394

Analysis of imidacloprid and pyrimethanil in shallot (Allium ascalonicum) grown under greenhouse conditions using tandem mass spectrometry: establishment of pre-harvest residue limits.  

PubMed

In this study, the original Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe method was used for the extraction of imidacloprid and pyrimethanil followed by a rapid clean-up through dispersive solid-phase extraction technique with primary secondary amine sorbent and magnesium sulfate in shallot. Residues were analyzed using LC-tandem mass spectrometry in positive-ion electrospray ionization mode. The limits of detection and quantification were estimated to be 0.006 and 0.02?mg/kg, respectively. The samples were fortified at two different concentration levels (0.2 and 1.0?mg/kg), and the recoveries ranged between 79.7 and 83.9% with relative standard deviation values?limits (PHRL). The rate of disappearance of imidacloprid and pyrimethanil on shallot was described with first-order kinetics (imidacloprid, y(2) ?=?0.9670; pyrimethanil, y(2) ?=?0.9841), with half-lives of 2.87 and 2.08?days, respectively. Based on the dissipation patterns of the pesticide residues, the PHRL was recommended at 7.86?mg/kg for 14?days (PHRL14 ) and 1.98?mg/kg for 7?days (PHRL7 ) before harvest for imidacloprid, and 21.64?mg/kg for 7?days (PHRL7 ) and 9.28?mg/kg for 4?days (PHRL4 ) before harvest for pyrimethanil in shallot. PMID:22949075

Park, Jong-Hyouk; Park, Joon-Seong; Abd El-Aty, A M; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Na, Tae-Woong; Shim, Jae-Han

2013-04-01

395

Microbiota and their role in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis.  

PubMed

Oral mucositis in patients undergoing cancer therapy is a significant problem. Its prevalence ranges between 20 and 100%, depending on treatment type and protocols and patient-based variables. Mucositis is self-limiting when uncomplicated by infection. Unfortunately, the incidence of developing a local or systemic infection during the course of the treatment is very high. At this stage, it is unclear which role oral microbiota play in the onset, duration, and severity of oral mucositis. Nevertheless, there is growing interest in this underexplored topic, and new studies are being undertaken to unravel their impact on the pathogenesis of mucositis. PMID:24456144

Vanhoecke, B; De Ryck, T; Stringer, A; Van de Wiele, T; Keefe, D

2015-01-01

396

75 FR 56146 - Oral Argument  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD Oral Argument AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection...Notice is hereby given of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of Rhonda K. Conyers...MSPB'' or ``Board'') will hear oral argument in the matters of Rhonda K....

2010-09-15

397

Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.  

PubMed

Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

2014-07-01

398

Adjusting the light in the limit conditions of consciousness by the means of ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) and of subordinated systems  

PubMed Central

Background: In our activity in the Ambulance Service of Bucharest Municipality during March 2002 – March 2003 we studied a casuistry of patients who had fallen in a coma of varying degrees. To aid better understanding of coma, the concept of “pre-coma stage” or “diencephalic 0 stage” was introduced. This concept complements the Arseni classification already used in medical practice, because some doctors alternatively use the term of “inaugural coma” for the same condition that we call diencephalic “0 stage”. In the median hypothalamus and on the retino-hypothalamic path (SCN - AN) optical waves are transmitted, probably in the near infrared spectral range (800–1000 nm) in what we term the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS). These waves would constitute a means of transmitting information via the ARAS about the infradian biorhythm of coordination (frequencies below 1 cycle/28 hours), essential for the modulation and pre-processing of the consciousness and wakefulness, a fact which has already been demonstrated in animals. Methods: The current work is based on observations made on a group of 51 patients with the precoma and coma conditions, and on a thorough study of the specialized (especially Romanian) literature. Also, we used validated scientific proof of torture in conditions of lack of light. Results: We found a perfect interpenetration between the ARAS and the following two complementary subsystems: 1. The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, that has the role of coordinating the periodicity of some biological functions depending on the circadian rhythm; and 2. The main photoperiodic organ, the pineal gland (epiphysis), which together with the ARAS has a role in the photoperiodicity modulation of some biological functions during the state of vigilance. PMID:25071308

Aliu, Octavian Florin

2014-01-01

399

Plane and axisymmetric problem in the theory of limiting equilibrium of an inhomogeneous cohesive or loose medium satisfying Mohr’s condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The plane and axisymmetric problems of the TLE of a homogeneous cohesive medium obeying Mohr’s condition are generalized to\\u000a the inhomogeneous case. The equations of the characteristics are written in a comparatively simple form for the plane and\\u000a axisymmetric cases.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a The use of an associated law of flow leads to coincidence between the equations for the velocities

A. K. Chernikov

1979-01-01

400

A Review on the Oral Health Impacts of Acculturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of acculturation on systemic health has been extensively investigated and is regarded as an important explanatory\\u000a factor for health disparity. However, information is limited and fragmented on the oral health implications of acculturation.\\u000a This study aimed to review the current evidence on the oral health impact of acculturation. Papers were retrieved from five\\u000a electronic databases. Twenty-seven studies were

Xiaol-Li Gao; Colman McGrath

2011-01-01

401

Oral Phenytoin Toxicity Causing Sinus Arrest: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

We present a case of sinus node arrest leading to symptomatic junctional bradycardia from oral phenytoin toxicity, which is a rare presentation. Our patient had no prior cardiac history and was on phenytoin therapy for seizure disorder. Although bradycardia is more commonly associated with intravenous phenytoin and there were few case reports of bradycardia with oral phenytoin reported, the literature is limited. In this case report, we also reviewed the pathophysiology of phenytoin-induced cardiac toxicity. PMID:25343048

Thimmisetty, Ravi K.; Gorthi, Janardhana Rao

2014-01-01

402

The role of iron in Mycobacterium smegmatis biofilm formation: the exochelin siderophore is essential in limiting iron conditions for biofilm formation but not for planktonic growth.  

PubMed

Many species of mycobacteria form structured biofilm communities at liquid-air interfaces and on solid surfaces. Full development of Mycobacterium smegmatis biofilms requires addition of supplemental iron above 1 microM ferrous sulphate, although addition of iron is not needed for planktonic growth. Microarray analysis of the M. smegmatis transcriptome shows that iron-responsive genes - especially those involved in siderophore synthesis and iron uptake - are strongly induced during biofilm formation reflecting a response to iron deprivation, even when 2 microM iron is present. The acquisition of iron under these conditions is specifically dependent on the exochelin synthesis and uptake pathways, and the strong defect of an iron-exochelin uptake mutant suggests a regulatory role of iron in the transition to biofilm growth. In contrast, although the expression of mycobactin and iron ABC transport operons is highly upregulated during biofilm formation, mutants in these systems form normal biofilms in low-iron (2 microM) conditions. A close correlation between iron availability and matrix-associated fatty acids implies a possible metabolic role in the late stages of biofilm maturation, in addition to the early regulatory role. M. smegmatis surface motility is similarly dependent on iron availability, requiring both supplemental iron and the exochelin pathway to acquire it. PMID:17854402

Ojha, Anil; Hatfull, Graham F

2007-10-01

403

Poverty does not limit tobacco consumption in Cambodia: quantitative estimate of tobacco use under conditions of no income and adult malnutrition.  

PubMed

Current data indicate that under conditions of poverty, tobacco is consumed at the expense of basic needs. In a large national sample from Cambodia, we sought to determine whether tobacco consumption declines under extreme conditions of no income and malnutrition. Our major findings are as follows: (1) Among men, there was no significant difference in the number of cigarettes smoked for no income (425, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 395-456) versus >US$2 per day (442, 95% CI = 407-477); (2) among women, there was no significant difference in the amount of loose tobacco (ie, betel quid) consumed for no income (539 g, 95% CI = 441-637) versus >US$2 per day (558 g, 95% CI = 143-973); (3) for the contrast of no income + malnutrition versus >US$2 per day + no malnutrition in a linear model, there was no significant difference for men who smoked (462 vs 517 cigarettes/month, P = .82) or women who chewed (316 vs 404 g tobacco/month, P = .34), adjusting for confounders. Among the poorest and malnourished Cambodian adults, lack of resources did not appear to prevent them from obtaining smoked or smokeless tobacco. PMID:23666843

Singh, Pramil N; Washburn, Dawn; Yel, Daravuth; Kheam, They; Job, Jayakaran S

2013-09-01

404

Association of p62/SQSTM1 Excess and Oral Carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

p62/SQSTM1 (sequestosome1) has never been evaluated in oral epithelium. In order to clarify the role of p62/SQSTM1 in carcinogenesis in oral epithelium, both p62/SQSTM1 and Nrf2 were immunohistochemically evaluated in 54 carcinomas and 14 low grade dysplasias. p62/SQSTM1 knockdowns were also designed in oral cancer cells, and we analyzed the Nrf2 pathway, GSH contents and ROS accumulation. The association between p62/SQSTM1 excess and prognosis was addressed in a clinical cohort of oral carcinoma cases. p62/SQSTM1 excess was more obvious in carcinomas, but Nrf2 was abundant in almost all samples of the oral epithelium. In oral carcinoma cells, p62/SQSTM1 knockdown did not affect the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway but did significantly reduce GSH content with subsequent ROS accumulation, and caused cell growth inhibition in the irradiated condition. Finally, p62/SQSTM1 excess was associated with poor prognosis in a clinical cohort. In oral epithelial carcinogenesis, p62/SQSTM1 excess played a role in GSH induction rather than Nrf2 accumulation, and may cause resistance to cytotoxic stresses such as radiation or chemotherapy. Immunohistochemical evaluation of p62/SQSTM1 may be a potential significant marker to identify early carcinogenesis, chemo-radiotherapeutic resistance or poor prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:24086340

Inui, Takuma; Chano, Tokuhiro; Takikita-Suzuki, Mikiko; Nishikawa, Masanori; Yamamoto, Gaku; Okabe, Hidetoshi

2013-01-01

405

Refractory oral candidiasis. Report of a case.  

PubMed

A 55-year-old male patient with no significant medical history or systemic physical findings was found, on routine dental examination, to have an oral Candida albicans infection. The condition failed to clear completely after 21 days of nystatin therapy. A 5-day course of clotrimazole was then initiated. Complete clearing of all signs of candida infection occurred in 48 hours, but the infection recurred by the twentieth day of follow-up. A 14-day regimen was then prescribed. Again, the condition cleared in 48 hours, and at the 6-month follow-up all signs of candida involvement, including cultures and smears, remained negative. As no reports of the use of clotrimazole vaginal tablets in oral candidiasis clinically refractory to nystatin therapy were found in the literature of the last 11 years, it was thought that this case was of significant interest. PMID:366495

Aufdemorte, T B; McPherson, M A

1978-12-01

406

A Comparison of the Oral Health Status of Children Who Are Blind and Children Who Are Sighted in Istanbul  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintaining oral health is central to a high quality of life because it limits the risks of disease. The oral health status of children with visual impairments should be investigated so their health care needs can be determined and preventive dental procedures can be implemented. This paper presents a study that aimed to evaluate the oral health…

Ozdemir-Ozenen, Didem; Sungurtekin, Elif; Cildir, Sule; Sandalli, Nuket

2012-01-01

407

Environmental Conditions Environmental Conditions  

E-print Network

Environmental Conditions Environmental Conditions Appendix II The unique geology, hydrology and instream habitat. This chapter examines how environmental conditions in the Deschutes watershed affect, the discussion characterizes the environmental conditions within three watershed areas: the Lower Deschutes

408

Oral Biofilm Architecture on Natural Teeth  

PubMed Central

Periodontitis and caries are infectious diseases of the oral cavity in which oral biofilms play a causative role. Moreover, oral biofilms are widely studied as model systems for bacterial adhesion, biofilm development, and biofilm resistance to antibiotics, due to their widespread presence and accessibility. Despite descriptions of initial plaque formation on the tooth surface, studies on mature plaque and plaque structure below the gum are limited to landmark studies from the 1970s, without appreciating the breadth of microbial diversity in the plaque. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization to localize in vivo the most abundant species from different phyla and species associated with periodontitis on seven embedded teeth obtained from four different subjects. The data showed convincingly the dominance of Actinomyces sp., Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Spirochaetes, and Synergistetes in subgingival plaque. The latter proved to be new with a possibly important role in host-pathogen interaction due to its localization in close proximity to immune cells. The present study identified for the first time in vivo that Lactobacillus sp. are the central cells of bacterial aggregates in subgingival plaque, and that Streptococcus sp. and the yeast Candida albicans form corncob structures in supragingival plaque. Finally, periodontal pathogens colonize already formed biofilms and form microcolonies therein. These in vivo observations on oral biofilms provide a clear vision on biofilm architecture and the spatial distribution of predominant species. PMID:20195365

Zijnge, Vincent; van Leeuwen, M. Barbara M.; Degener, John E.; Abbas, Frank; Thurnheer, Thomas; Gmür, Rudolf; M. Harmsen, Hermie J.

2010-01-01

409

The N-Acetylmuramic Acid 6-Phosphate Etherase Gene Promotes Growth and Cell Differentiation of Cyanobacteria under Light-Limiting Conditions? †  

PubMed Central

Inactivation of sll0861 in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 or the homologous gene alr2432 in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 had no effect on the growth of these organisms at a light intensity of 30 ?mol photons m?2 s?1 but reduced their growth at a light intensity of 5 or 10 ?mol photons m?2 s?1. In Anabaena, inactivation of the gene also significantly reduced the rate of heterocyst differentiation under low-light conditions. The predicted products of sll0861 and alr2432 and homologs of these genes showed similarity to N-acetylmuramic acid 6-phosphate etherase (MurQ), an enzyme involved in peptidoglycan recycling, in Escherichia coli. E. coli murQ and the cyanobacterial homologs could functionally substitute for each other. We hypothesize that murQ in cyanobacteria promotes low-light adaptation through reutilization of peptidoglycan degradation products. PMID:20139182

Jiang, Haibo; Kong, Renqiu; Xu, Xudong

2010-01-01

410

Expression of VjbR under Nutrient Limitation Conditions Is Regulated at the Post-Transcriptional Level by Specific Acidic pH Values and Urocanic Acid  

PubMed Central

VjbR is a LuxR homolog that regulates transcription of many genes including important virulence determinants of the facultative intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus. This transcription factor belongs to a family of regulators that participate in a cell-cell communication process called quorum sensing, which enables bacteria to respond to changes in cell population density by monitoring concentration of self produced autoinducer molecules. Unlike almost all other LuxR-type proteins, VjbR binds to DNA and activates transcription in the absence of any autoinducer signal. To investigate the mechanisms by which Brucella induces VjbR-mediated transcriptional activation, and to determine how inappropriate spatio-temporal expression of the VjbR target genes is prevented, we focused on the study of expression of vjbR itself. By assaying different parameters related to the intracellular lifestyle of Brucella, we identified a restricted set of conditions that triggers VjbR protein expression. Such conditions required the convergence of two signals of different nature: a specific pH value of 5.5 and the presence of urocanic acid, a metabolite involved in the connection between virulence and metabolism of Brucella. In addition, we also observed an urocanic acid, pH-dependent expression of RibH2 and VirB7, two additional intracellular survival-related proteins of Brucella. Analysis of promoter activities and determination of mRNA levels demonstrated that the urocanic acid-dependent mechanisms that induced expression of VjbR, RibH2, and VirB7 act at the post-transcriptional level. Taken together, our findings support a model whereby Brucella induces VjbR-mediated transcription by modulating expression of VjbR in response to specific signals related to the changing environment encountered within the host. PMID:22530016

Arocena, Gastón M.; Zorreguieta, Angeles; Sieira, Rodrigo

2012-01-01

411

Differential Induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 by Benzo[a]pyrene in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines and by Tobacco Smoking in Oral Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Polyaromatic hydrocarbons, including benzo[a]pyrene (BP), are major tobacco carcinogens. Their carcinogenic effects require metabolic activation by cytochrome p450 (CYP) enzymes. Relative CYP isoform expression is related to tissue-specific tobacco-related squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) susceptibility. There have been conflicting reports regarding relative CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 oral expression, and information regarding CYP1B1 expression in oral tissues is limited. OBJECTIVE To quantify BP- and tobacco-induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in oral SCC cells and oral mucosa. STUDY DESIGN Real-time qPCR was performed to measure 1) BP-induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA expression in seven oral/other head and neck SCC cell lines 2) CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA expression in gingiva from 22 smokers and 24 nonsmokers. RESULTS SCC lines exhibited either similar induction of both isoforms or preferential CYP1A1 induction (CYP1A1-to-CYP1B1 ratios 0.8-4.3). In contrast, gingival tissues from smokers exhibited preferential CYP1B1 induction. Marked interindividual variation in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression was observed among smokers. CONCLUSIONS In vitro conditions may not account for factors that modulate expression in vivo. Interindividual variation in inducible CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression may account in part for variation in tobacco-related oral SCC risk. PMID:19576839

Chi, Angela C.; Appleton, Kathryn; Henriod, Joel B.; Krayer, Joe W.; Marlow, Nicole M.; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Sigmon, Ryan C.; Kurtz, David T.

2009-01-01

412

Missed oral feeding opportunities and preterm infants' time to achieve full oral feedings and neonatal intensive care unit discharge.  

PubMed

Objective?To examine the association of missed oral feeding opportunities among preterm infants with achievement of full oral feedings and length of hospitalization. Study Design?A secondary analysis of clinical trial data was conducted. Study infants included in the analysis (N?=?89) were randomized to one of four standardized feeding progression approaches; detailed records on all feedings were maintained. The proportion of oral feeding opportunities reported as missed due to factors unrelated to the infant's clinical condition was calculated for each infant. Results?The proportion of missed oral feeding opportunities per infant ranged from 0 to 0.12; 30 infants experienced one or more missed oral feeding opportunity. Each 1% increase in the proportion of missed oral feeding opportunities extended the time to achieve full oral feeding by 1.45 days (p?=?0.007) and time to discharge by 1.36 days (p?=?0.047). Conclusion?Preterm infants' missed oral feeding opportunities may adversely affect feeding outcomes and extend hospitalization. PMID:24683073

Tubbs-Cooley, Heather L; Pickler, Rita H; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen K

2015-01-01

413

Oral submucous fibrosis: etiology, pathogenesis, and future research.  

PubMed Central

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), a precancerous condition of the oral cavity, has been studied by a number of workers in the field. The available epidemiological data showed a clear-cut geographical and ethnic predisposition, which suggested that certain customs/habits prevalent among the population groups in south-east Asia might be possible etiological factors. However, none of these customs was shown to be causally linked and the association in many cases was 'casual'. This led some workers to consider the importance of systemic predisposition, in addition to the effects of local factors on the oral mucosa. More research is needed to elucidate this problem. PMID:7867145

Rajendran, R.

1994-01-01

414

Addressing geriatric oral health concerns through national oral health policy in India  

PubMed Central

There is an escalating demand for geriatric oral healthcare in all developed and developing countries including India. Two-thirds of the world’s elderly live in developing countries. This is a huge population that must receive attention from policy-makers who will be challenged by the changing demands for social and health services including oral health services. Resources are limited thus rather than being aspirational in wanting to provide all treatment needed for everybody, this critique presents a road map of how we might answer the present and future geriatric oral health concerns in a most efficient manner in a developing country. Viewing the recent Indian demographic profile and the trends in oral health, pertinent policy subjects have been discussed concerning the oral health needs of the elderly and also the associated challenges which include strategies to improve quality of life, strategies to train and educate the dental workforce and above all the role of healthcare systems towards realization of better aged society in India and other developing countries.

Singh, Abhinav; Purohit, Bharathi M

2015-01-01

415

Addressing geriatric oral health concerns through national oral health policy in India.  

PubMed

There is an escalating demand for geriatric oral healthcare in all developed and developing countries including India. Two-thirds of the world's elderly live in developing countries. This is a huge population that must receive attention from policy-makers who will be challenged by the changing demands for social and health services including oral health services. Resources are limited thus rather than being aspirational in wanting to provide all treatment needed for everybody, this critique presents a road map of how we might answer the present and future geriatric oral health concerns in a most efficient manner in a developing country. Viewing the recent Indian demographic profile and the trends in oral health, pertinent policy subjects have been discussed concerning the oral health needs of the elderly and also the associated challenges which include strategies to improve quality of life, strategies to train and educate the dental workforce and above all the role of healthcare systems towards realization of better aged society in India and other developing countries. PMID:25584351

Singh, Abhinav; Purohit, Bharathi M

2015-01-01

416

Infant Oral Health Care  

PubMed Central

The family physician/pediatrician who sees a child from birth as part of the well-baby visit program is in the best position to identify early dental problems and to educate the family about early oral preventive health care. Since children under three years of age are not seen routinely by dentists, they are at risk of developing dental disease. This paper briefly covers the areas of infant oral pathology, early preventive care, teething, suckling habits, and dental trauma in the toddler. The physician will then be in a better position to recommend to parents when they should seek dental advice and treatment for their young children. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21253204

Sigal, Michael J.; Levine, Norman

1988-01-01

417

Noma (cancrum oris) associated with oral myiasis in an adult.  

PubMed

Noma is a devastating oro-facial necrotic condition affecting debilitated subjects. Oral myiasis is an infectious disease caused by deposition of larval flies in oral wounds and lesions. Oro-facial noma-myiasis association has not been previously reported in the literature. The aim of this paper is to report a case of noma associated with myiasis in a 65-year-old Brazilian male. PMID:12945598

Aguiar, A M M; Enwonwu, C O; Pires, F R

2003-05-01

418

Oral Cavity Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Oral Cavity Lip C000–C009, Base of Tongue C019, Other Parts of Tongue C020–C029, Gum C030–C039, Floor of Mouth C040–C049, Palate C050–C059, Other Parts of Mouth C060–C069 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967,

419

Oral and Dental Findings of Dyskeratosis Congenita  

PubMed Central

Dyskeratosis congenital (DC) is a rare condition characterized by reticulate skin hyperpigmentation, mucosal leukoplakia, and nail dystrophy. More serious features are bone marrow involvement with pancytopenia and a predisposition to malignancy. The purpose of this case report is to describe the oral and dental findings in children with DC syndrome. A 10-year-old male diagnosed with DC was admitted because of extensive caries and toothache. Inadequate oral hygiene and extensive caries were observed in oral examination of the patient. Plaque accumulation was seen in gingival border of maxillary teeth. Papillary atrophy on the tongue was observed. Short and blunted roots of mandible incisors and upper and lower molars were determined on the radiographic examination. Dryness on the lips and commisuras, ectropion on his eyes, and epiphora were observed. Hematologic tests were performed and showed aplastic anemia at the age of 2. At the age of 4, the bone marrow transplantation was performed. Dermatological findings occurred after the bone marrow transplantation. The skin of the patient was thin, dry, and wrinkled in some areas. He had palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and syndactylia on his fingers. Endodontic treatment procedures were applied and other extensive caries are still being restored. The patient will be given full preventive care during regular follow-up. Oral hygiene was improved to the optimum level. PMID:25610666

Barlak, Pelin; Seymen, Figen

2014-01-01

420

Rationale for the prevention of oral diseases in primary health care: an international collaborative study in oral health education.  

PubMed

Ensuring that members of society are healthy and reaching their full potential requires the prevention of oral diseases through the promotion of oral health and well-being. The present article identifies the best policy conditions of effective public health and primary care integration and the actors who promote and sustain these efforts. In this review, arguments and recommendations are provided to introduce an oral health collaborative promotion programme called Live.Learn.Laugh. phase 2, arising from an unique partnership between FDI World Dental Federation, the global company Unilever plc and an international network of National Dental Associations, health-care centres, schools and educators populations. PMID:25209645

Bourgeois, Denis M; Phantumvanit, Prathip; Llodra, Juan Carlos; Horn, Virginie; Carlile, Monica; Eiselé, Jean-Luc

2014-10-01

421

Modulation of inflammatory gene expression by a bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract and single anthocyanins considering their limited stability under cell culture conditions.  

PubMed

Studies with nonintestinal models indicate that anthocyanin-rich extracts can modulate inflammatory gene expression and may help prevent development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This work investigated the influence of a bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract (BE) and comprising anthocyanins on pro-inflammatory genes in IFN-?/IL-1?/TNF-? stimulated human colon epithelial cells (T84) by qRT-PCR and cytokine arrays. Moreover, the stability of selected anthocyanins under cell culture conditions was examined to assess their anti-inflammatory properties. BE and single anthocyanins significantly inhibited the expression and secretion of IBD-associated pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-?, IP-10, I-TAC, sICAM-1, GRO-?) in the stimulated cells. The anti-inflammatory activity thereby strongly depends on the aglycon structure (hydroxylation and methylation pattern) and the sugar moiety. In contrast to anthocyanidins, which were highly unstable in cell culture medium, suggesting that their degradation products might contribute to the inhibitory effects assigned to the parent compounds, anthocyanins have higher stability and may directly contribute to BE's effects. PMID:22913378

Triebel, Sven; Trieu, Hai-Linh; Richling, Elke

2012-09-12

422

Inhibiting Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90) Limits the Formation of Liver Cysts Induced by Conditional Deletion of Pkd1 in Mice  

PubMed Central

Polycystic liver disease (PLD) occurs in 75–90% of patients affected by autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), which affects 1?400–1,000 adults and arises from inherited mutations in the PKD1 or PKD2 genes. PLD can lead to bile duct obstructions, infected or bleeding cysts, and hepatomegaly, which can diminish quality of life. At present, no effective, approved therapy exists for ADPKD or PLD. We recently showed that inhibition of the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) with a small molecule inhibitor, STA-2842, induced the degradation of multiple HSP90-dependent client proteins that contribute to ADPKD pathogenesis and slowed the progression of renal cystogenesis in mice with conditional deletion of Pkd1. Here, we analyzed the effects of STA-2842 on liver size and cystic burden in Pkd-/- mice with established PLD. Using magnetic resonance imaging over time, we demonstrate that ten weeks of STA-2842 treatment significantly reduced both liver mass and cystic index suggesting selective elimination of cystic tissue. Pre-treatment cystic epithelia contain abundant HSP90; the degree of reduction in cysts was accompanied by inhibition of proliferation-associated signaling proteins EGFR and others, and induced cleavage of caspase 8 and PARP1, and correlated with degree of HSP90 inhibition and with inactivation of ERK1/2. Our results suggest that HSP90 inhibition is worth further evaluation as a therapeutic approach for patients with PLD. PMID:25474361

Hensley, Harvey H.; Cai, Kathy Q.; Egleston, Brian L.; Proia, David A.; Seeger-Nukpezah, Tamina; Golemis, Erica A.

2014-01-01

423

Posaconazole dose depends on dosage form; limit magnesium sulfate premix to 20 gram bags; vancomycin injection for oral use given intramuscularly; phenylephrine injection needs dilution for intravenous bolus use; similar drug names confused.  

PubMed

These medication errors have occurred in health care facilities at least once. They will happen again-perhaps where you work. Through education and alertness of personnel and procedural safeguards, they can be avoided. You should consider publishing accounts of errors in your newsletters and/or presenting them at your inservice training programs. Your assistance is required to continue this feature. The reports described here were received through the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) Medication Errors Reporting Program. Any reports published by ISMP will be anonymous. Comments are also invited; the writers' names will be published if desired. ISMP may be contacted at the address shown below. Errors, close calls, or hazardous conditions may be reported directly to ISMP through the ISMP Web site (www.ismp.org), by calling 800-FAIL-SAFE, or via e-mail at ismpinfo@ismp.org. ISMP guarantees the confidentiality and security of the information received and respects reporters' wishes as to the level of detail included in publications. PMID:25477608

Cohen, Michael R; Smetzer, Judy L

2014-10-01

424

Classification of oral cancers using Raman spectroscopy of serum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oral cancers are the sixth most common malignancy worldwide, with low 5-year disease free survival rates, attributable to late detection due to lack of reliable screening modalities. Our in vivo Raman spectroscopy studies have demonstrated classification of normal and tumor as well as cancer field effects (CFE), the earliest events in oral cancers. In view of limitations such as requirement of on-site instrumentation and stringent experimental conditions of this approach, feasibility of classification of normal and cancer using serum was explored using 532 nm excitation. In this study, strong resonance features of ?-carotenes, present differentially in normal and pathological conditions, were observed. In the present study, Raman spectra of sera of 36 buccal mucosa, 33 tongue cancers and 17 healthy subjects were recorded using Raman microprobe coupled with 40X objective using 785 nm excitation, a known source of excitation for biomedical applications. To eliminate heterogeneity, average of 3 spectra recorded from each sample was subjected to PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out-cross-validation. Findings indicate average classification efficiency of ~70% for normal and cancer. Buccal mucosa and tongue cancer serum could also be classified with an efficiency of ~68%. Of the two cancers, buccal mucosa cancer and normal could be classified with a higher efficiency. Findings of the study are quite comparable to that of our earlier study, which suggest that there exist significant differences, other than ?- carotenes, between normal and cancerous samples which can be exploited for the classification. Prospectively, extensive validation studies will be undertaken to confirm the findings.

Sahu, Aditi; Talathi, Sneha; Sawant, Sharada; Krishna, C. Murali

2014-03-01

425

Antimicrobial Activity of Antrodia camphorata Extracts against Oral Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) is a unique, endemic and extremely rare mushroom species native to Taiwan, and both crude extracts of and purified chemical compounds from A. camphorata have been reported to have a variety of significant beneficial effects, such as anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activity. However, reports on the effects of A. camphorata against dental pathogens have been limited. Oral health is now recognized as important for overall general health, including conditions such as dental caries, periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) are the most common bacteria associated with dental plaque and periodontopathic diseases, respectively. Thus, our study examined the ability of five various crude extracts of A. camphorata to inhibit the growth of dental bacteria and anti-adherence in vitro. Among the extracts, the ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts exhibited the lowest MICs against P. gingivalis and S. mutans (MIC?=?4?16 µg/mL). The MIC of the aqueous extract was greater than 2048 µg/mL against both P. gingivalis and S. mutans. In vitro adherence of S. mutans was significantly inhibited by the addition of either the ethyl acetate extract or chloroform extract (MIC?=?16?24 µg/mL), while the ethanol extract (MIC?=?32?64 µg/mL) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity. Based on the result of this study, the ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of A. camphorata may be good candidates for oral hygiene agents to control dental caries and periodontopathic conditions. PMID:25144619

Lien, Hsiu-Man; Tseng, Chin-Jui; Huang, Chao-Lu; Lin, Yu-Ting; Chen, Chia-Chang; Lai, Ya-Yun

2014-01-01

426

Bile Salts Affect Expression of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Genes for Virulence and Iron Acquisition, and Promote Growth under Iron Limiting Conditions  

PubMed Central

Bile salts exhibit potent antibacterial properties, acting as detergents to disrupt cell membranes and as DNA-damaging agents. Although bacteria inhabiting the intestinal tract are able to resist bile’s antimicrobial effects, relatively little is known about how bile influences virulence of enteric pathogens. Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important pathogen of humans, capable of causing severe diarrhea and more serious sequelae. In this study, the transcriptome response of E. coli O157:H7 to bile was determined. Bile exposure induced significant changes in mRNA levels of genes related to virulence potential, including a reduction of mRNA for the 41 genes making up the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island. Bile treatment had an unusual effect on mRNA levels for the entire flagella-chemotaxis regulon, resulting in two- to four-fold increases in mRNA levels for genes associated with the flagella hook-basal body structure, but a two-fold decrease for “late” flagella genes associated with the flagella filament, stator motor, and chemotaxis. Bile salts also caused increased mRNA levels for seventeen genes associated with iron scavenging and metabolism, and counteracted the inhibitory effect of the iron chelating agent 2,2’-dipyridyl on growth of E. coli O157:H7. These findings suggest that E. coli O157:H7 may use bile as an environmental signal to adapt to changing conditions associated with the small intestine, including adaptation to an iron-scarce environment. PMID:24058617

Hamner, Steve; McInnerney, Kate; Williamson, Kerry; Franklin, Michael J.; Ford, Timothy E.

2013-01-01

427

New Oral Anticoagulants for Atrial Fibrillation  

PubMed Central

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in the U.S. Anticoagulation is recommended for stroke prevention in AF patients with intermediate-to-high stroke risk (i.e., patients with a CHADS2 score of 1 or greater). Warfarin was previously the only option for oral anticoagulation in these patients, but three new oral anticoagulants have become available as alternatives for warfarin in patients with nonvalvular AF. The advantages of the newer agents include a rapid onset, predictable pharmacokinetics, and no need for routine anticoagulation monitoring. Dabigatran (Pradaxa) and apixaban (Eliquis) have demonstrated improved efficacy compared with warfarin. Rivaroxaban (Xarelto) was non-inferior to warfarin for stroke prevention in AF. Apixaban demonstrated a reduced incidence of major bleeding compared with warfarin and a reduction in all-cause mortality. Limitations to the use of the new oral anticoagulants include the lack of a reversal agent; an inability to use the therapies in specific patient populations (such as those with severe renal or hepatic impairment); limited experience with drug–drug and drug–disease interactions; and a lack of available coagulation tests to quantify their effects. Although the newer agents have higher acquisition costs, the benefits of cost savings may be derived from the potential for decreasing the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke and intracranial bleeding and reducing the need for anticoagulation monitoring. Benefits and risks should be carefully weighed before these agents are prescribed for patients presenting with new-onset AF. PMID:24672216

Shafeeq, Hira; Tran, Tran H.

2014-01-01

428

Oral burn contractures in children.  

PubMed

Oral burn contractures in children present major reconstructive problem. Only few reports in literature discussed oral burns in children. Electrical, chemical, and thermal agents are the main causative agents for oral burns. Oral contractures can be classified into anterior, posterior, and total. Anterior contractures are usually caused by electrical burns and involve the oral commissure, lips, anterior buccal sulcus and surrounding mucosa, and anterior tongue. Posterior oral contractures are caused by caustic ingestion and involve the posterior buccal mucosa, posterior tongue, retro-molar area and oro-pharynx. Total oral contractures involve the lips, tongue, oral cavity, and oro-pharyngeal mucosa and are caused by lye caustic ingestion. This report reviews three children; one with posterior, two with total oral cavity contracture. All cases were managed by linear release of scar contracture and skin grafting followed by a prolonged intra-oral splinting with a fixed mouth-block and commissural splint. A successful outcome was observed in all cases. PMID:14595182

Hashem, Fuad K; Al Khayal, Zikra

2003-11-01

429

Hepatitis B vaccination and associated oral manifestations: a non-systematic review of literature and case reports.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B vaccine has been administered in children and adults routinely to reduce the incidence of the disease. Even though, hepatitis B vaccine is considered as highly safe, some adverse reactions have been reported. A literature search was carried out in PubMed, accessed via the National Library of Medicine PubMed interface, searching used the following keywords: Hepatitis B vaccine and complications from 1980 to 2014. A total of 1147 articles were obtained out of which articles, which discuss the complications occurring orally or occurring elsewhere in the body, which have the potential to manifest orally after hepatitis B vaccination were selected. A total of 82 articles were identified which included 58 case series or case reports, 15 review articles, 4 cross sectional studies, 3 prospective cohort studies, one retrospective cohort study and a case control study. After reviewing the literature, we observed that complications seen after Hepatitis B vaccination are sudden infant death syndrome, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, vasculititis optic neuritis, anaphylaxis, systemic lupus erytymatosus, lichen planus and neuro-muscular disorder. Of these complications, some are manifested orally or have the potential to manifest orally. Although, most of the complications are self-limiting, some are very serious conditions, which require hospitalization with immediate medical attention. PMID:25506472

Tarakji, B; Ashok, N; Alakeel, R; Azzeghaibi, Sn; Umair, A; Darwish, S; Mahmoud, Rs; Elkhatat, E

2014-11-01

430

Esophageal melanocytosis in oral opium consumption.  

PubMed

Esophageal melanocytosis is a rare and benign condition, characterized by melanocytic proliferation of the esophageal squamous epithelium with heavy melanin deposition. The etiology and pathogenesis has not been exactly known but it seems to be a chronic stimulus such as gastroesophageal reflux. This condition is very rare and about 35 cases have been reported so far, most of which have been from India and Japan. Herein, we present a case of esophageal melanocytosis in a patient with long history of oral opium consumption. To the best of our knowledge, such a history has not been reported. PMID:24719715

Geramizadeh, Bita; Asadian, Fatemeh; Taghavi, Alireza

2014-01-01

431

Transmembrane transport of peptide type compounds: prospects for oral delivery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synthesis and delivery of potential therapeutic peptides and peptidomimetic compounds has been the focus of intense research over the last 10 years. While it is widely recognized that numerous limitations apply to oral delivery of peptides, some of the limiting factors have been addressed and their mechanisms elucidated, which has lead to promising strategies. This article will briefly summarize the challenges, results and current approaches of oral peptide delivery and give some insight on future strategies. The barriers determining peptide bioavailability after oral administration are intestinal membrane permability, size limitations, intestinal and hepatic metabolism and in some cases solubility limitations. Poor membrane permeabilities of hydrophilic peptides might be overcome by structurally modifying the compounds, thus increasing their membrane partition characteristics and/or their affinity to carrier proteins. Another approach is the site-specific delivery of the peptide to the most permeable parts of the intestine. The current view on size limitation for oral drug delivery has neglected partition considerations. Recent studies suggest that compounds with a molecular weight up to 4000 might be significantly absorbed, assuming appropriate partition behavior and stability. Metabolism, probably the most significant factor in the absorption fate of peptides, might be controlled by coadministration of competitive enzyme inhibitors, structural modifications and administration of the compound as a well absorbed prodrug that is converted into the therapeutically active agent after its absorption. For some peptides poor solubility might present a limitation to oral absorption, an issue that has been addressed by mechanistically defining and therefore improving formulation parameters. Effective oral peptide delivery requires further development in understanding these complex mechanisms in order to maximize the therapeutic potential of this class of compounds.

Lipka, E.; Crison, J.; Amidon, G. L.

1996-01-01

432

Oral tuberculosis: unusual radiographic findings  

PubMed Central

Oral tuberculosis and its radiographic findings are not commonly encountered in an oral and maxillofacial radiology practice. Literature has occasional mention of the radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis, which are still ambiguous. When affected, it is manifested majorly in the oral mucosa and rarely in the jaw bones. Here, we report certain unusual radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis which have been rarely mentioned in the literature. Four illustrative cases describe bony resorption, condylar resorption, resorption of the inferior border of the mandible and rarefaction of the alveolar bone as radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis. Follow up of the first case demonstrated regeneration of the condylar head after anti-Kochs therapy was completed, a hitherto unreported phenomenon. The importance of including tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of some of the unusual radiographic manifestations is emphasized. PMID:21493882

Sansare, K; Gupta, A; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F

2011-01-01

433

Role of Ayurveda in management of oral health  

PubMed Central

Oral diseases continue to be a major health problem world-wide. Oral health is integral to general well-being and relates to the quality-of-life that extends beyond the functions of the craniofacial complex. The standard Western medicine has had only limited success in the prevention of periodontal disease and in the treatment of a variety of oral diseases. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used in traditional medicine are considered to be good alternatives to synthetic chemicals. The botanicals in the Ayurvedic material medica have been proven to be safe and effective, through several hundred to several thousand years of use. The exploration of botanicals used in traditional medicine may lead to the development of novel preventive or therapeutic strategies for oral health. The present scientific evidence based review is focused on the possible role of Ayurveda in the management of various orofacial disorders. PMID:24600192

Torwane, Nilesh Arjun; Hongal, Sudhir; Goel, Pankaj; Chandrashekar, B. R.

2014-01-01

434

Oligotyping analysis of the human oral microbiome  

PubMed Central

The Human Microbiome Project provided a census of bacterial populations in healthy individuals, but an understanding of the biomedical significance of this census has been hindered by limited taxonomic resolution. A high-resolution method termed oligotyping overcomes this limitation by evaluating individual nucleotide positions using Shannon entropy to identify the most information-rich nucleotide positions, which then define oligotypes. We have applied this method to comprehensively analyze the oral microbiome. Using Human Microbiome Project 16S rRNA gene sequence data for the nine sites in the oral cavity, we identified 493 oligotypes from the V1-V3 data and 360 oligotypes from the V3-V5 data. We associated these oligotypes with species-level taxon names by comparison with the Human Oral Microbiome Database. We discovered closely related oligotypes, differing sometimes by as little as a single nucleotide, that showed dramatically different distributions among oral sites and among individuals. We also detected potentially pathogenic taxa in high abundance in individual samples. Numerous oligotypes were preferentially located in plaque, others in keratinized gingiva or buccal mucosa, and some oligotypes were characteristic of habitat groupings such as throat, tonsils, tongue dorsum, hard palate, and saliva. The differing habitat distributions of closely related oligotypes suggest a level of ecological and functional biodiversity not previously recognized. We conclude that the Shannon entropy approach of oligotyping has the capacity to analyze entire microbiomes, discriminate between closely related but distinct taxa and, in combination with habitat analysis, provide deep insight into the microbial communities in health and disease. PMID:24965363

Eren, A. Murat; Borisy, Gary G.; Huse, Susan M.; Mark Welch, Jessica L.

2014-01-01

435

Oligotyping analysis of the human oral microbiome.  

PubMed

The Human Microbiome Project provided a census of bacterial populations in healthy individuals, but an understanding of the biomedical significance of this census has been hindered by limited taxonomic resolution. A high-resolution method termed oligotyping overcomes this limitation by evaluating individual nucleotide positions using Shannon entropy to identify the most information-rich nucleotide positions, which then define oligotypes. We have applied this method to comprehensively analyze the oral microbiome. Using Human Microbiome Project 16S rRNA gene sequence data for the nine sites in the oral cavity, we identified 493 oligotypes from the V1-V3 data and 360 oligotypes from the V3-V5 data. We associated these oligotypes with species-level taxon names by comparison with the Human Oral Microbiome Database. We discovered closely related oligotypes, differing sometimes by as little as a single nucleotide, that showed dramatically different distributions among oral sites and among individuals. We also detected potentially pathogenic taxa in high abundance in individual samples. Numerous oligotypes were preferentially located in plaque, others in keratinized gingiva or buccal mucosa, and some oligotypes were characteristic of habitat groupings such as throat, tonsils, tongue dorsum, hard palate, and saliva. The differing habitat distributions of closely related oligotypes suggest a level of ecological and functional biodiversity not previously recognized. We conclude that the Shannon entropy approach of oligotyping has the capacity to analyze entire microbiomes, discriminate between closely related but distinct taxa and, in combination with habitat analysis, provide deep insight into the microbial communities in health and disease. PMID:24965363

Eren, A Murat; Borisy, Gary G; Huse, Susan M; Mark Welch, Jessica L

2014-07-15

436

Proliferation and apoptosis markers in oral submucous fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Premalignant/potentially malignant-oral lesions and conditions such as oral submucous fibrosis are known to transform into oral cancer. The malignant transformation is often associated with changes at the genetic level that in turn is reflected by the altered expression of proteins related to cell cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis. Aim: To evaluate the expression of p53, Ki67 (MIB), bcl2, and bax in oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: To assess the immunohistochemical expression of p53, Ki67 (MIB), bcl2, and bax in 50 cases of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and ten each of normal and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Results: The labeling indices (LI) of OSF and OSCC were comparable for p53 and Ki67.The p53 LI ranged from 7.9 to 71.9 in OSF and 65.2 to 85.9 in OSCC, and for Ki67 it ranged from 4.39 to 43.23, 18.35 to 42.33, respectively. Conclusion: The p53, Ki67, and bax profiles of OSF and OSCC were altered compared to the normal and these markers could be used as surrogate markers of malignant transformation in OSF. PMID:22529572

Ranganathan, K; Kavitha, R

2011-01-01

437

Oral complications in cancer patients  

SciTech Connect

Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications.

Carl, W.

1983-02-01

438

Measurement of Warfarin in the Oral Fluid of Patients Undergoing Anticoagulant Oral Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background Patients on warfarin therapy undergo invasive and expensive checks for the coagulability of their blood. No information on coagulation levels is currently available between two controls. Methodology A method was developed to determine warfarin in oral fluid by HPLC and fluorimetric detection. The chromatographic separation was performed at room temperature on a C-18 reversed-phase column, 65% PBS and 35% methanol mobile phase, flow rate 0.7 mL/min, injection volume 25 µL, excitation wavelength 310 nm, emission wavelength 400 nm. Findings The method was free from interference and matrix effect, linear in the range 0.2–100 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.2 ng/mL. Its coefficient of variation was <3% for intra-day measurements and <5% for inter-day measurements. The average concentration of warfarin in the oral fluid of 50 patients was 2.5±1.6 ng/mL (range 0.8–7.6 ng/mL). Dosage was not correlated to INR (r?=??0.03, p?=?0.85) but positively correlated to warfarin concentration in the oral fluid (r?=?0.39, p?=?0.006). The correlation between warfarin concentration and pH in the oral fluid (r?=?0.37, p?=?0.009) confirmed the importance of pH in regulating the drug transfer from blood. A correlation between warfarin concentration in the oral fluid and INR was only found in samples with pH values ?7.2 (r?=?0.84, p?=?0.004). Conclusions Warfarin diffuses from blood to oral fluid. The method allows to measure its concentration in this matrix and to analyze correlations with INR and other parameters. PMID:22164240

Ghimenti, Silvia; Lomonaco, Tommaso; Onor, Massimo; Murgia, Laura; Paolicchi, Aldo; Fuoco, Roger; Ruocco, Lucia; Pellegrini, Giovanni; Trivella, Maria Giovanna; Di Francesco, Fabio

2011-01-01

439

Route 66 Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The folks at Missouri State University have interviewed a range of business owners along the celebrated Route 66 to tell the amazing story of what life was like living along this American landmark. Visitors can read through interviews with a variety of people, including the long-time owner of the Boots Motel in Carthage, Missouri and Sheldon and Julia Chaney, owner of a popular gas station. It's the type of popular oral history that makes for excellent reading and contemplation. They plan on adding more material in the future, so curious visitors would do well to make return visits to see what's added next.

440

Oral and oropharyngeal cancer.  

PubMed

Oral and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is a complex and often relentless malignancy prone to local invasion and dissemination. Despite advances in understanding of the disease and improved therapeutic interventions, it continues to be diagnosed at an advanced stage and the survival rate remains poor. The financial cost of treating OPC may be the highest of all cancers in the United States and survivors often experience major detriments to quality of life. Major risk factors for OPC are tobacco, alcohol, areca nut, and human papillomavirus infection. This article updates medical practitioners on the causes, presentation, diagnosis, and management of OPC. PMID:25443678

Huber, Michaell A; Tantiwongkosi, Bundhit

2014-11-01

441

Arla Jones Oral History  

E-print Network

:00:06 ALBIN: Okay. So we're now recording. It is March 10, 2008, and I am here with Arla Jones, and Radish is running around the room. 00:00:17 JONES: With a chew toy. 00:00:18 ALBIN: And we are here once again to do an oral history. And I... York to get—I'm trying to make sure she's not going to pee on anything, [Radish, the dog.] 10 So I met Kim. And we were friends for three years before we even figured out anything. I mean what happened was Kim was working in the gift shop. I had...

Jones, Arla; Albin, Tami

2010-10-06

442

[Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].  

PubMed

The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies. PMID:21773665

Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

2011-02-01

443

Improving oral hygiene for patients.  

PubMed

Systematic reviews and patient safety initiatives recommend that oral hygiene should be part of routine patient care. However, evidence suggests it is often neglected in hospitals and care homes. Research recommends encouraging beliefs that support oral hygiene, and teaching nurses appropriate skills, as necessary prerequisites to implementing best practice in hospital wards. This article describes a pilot study of an educational workshop on oral hygiene. Results from the pilot study suggest that this workshop is a feasible intervention for a service-wide trial. The literature suggests that other interventions are required to complement this approach if nurses are to make oral hygiene a priority in daily patient care. PMID:25563127

Bonetti, Debbie; Hampson, Victoria; Queen, Kerry; Kirk, Donna; Clarkson, Jan; Young, Linda

2015-01-01

444

Oral squamous cell carcinoma associated with myiasis.  

PubMed

Myiasis is a general term for infection by fly larvae feeding on the host's necrotic or living tissue. Although infestation by fly larvae is much more prevalent in animals, it is a relatively frequent in occurrence. Oral myiasis is a rare pathology in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene. Larvae cause itching and irritation due to their crawling movements and can destroy vital tissues, inducing serious or even life-threatening haemorrhage. The treatment is a mechanical removal of the maggots one by one; however, a systemic treatment with macrolide antibiotics, have been recently used for treatment. We present a case report of a 70-year-old man indigent, alcohol-dependent with an extensive necrotic wound in mandible and fetid odour. The prevention of human myiasis is by education, but unfortunately in the developing countries some people live in low social condition, predisposing the occurrence of the infestation. PMID:23266777

Dharshiyani, Sandhya Chunilal; Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Wanjari, Panjab Vitthalrao; Parwani, Rajkumar N

2012-01-01

445

Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity.  

PubMed

The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ) and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer. PMID:25313728

Anand, Richa; Dhingra, Chandan; Prasad, Sumanth; Menon, Ipseeta

2014-01-01

446

Oral malignant melanoma: A case report with review of literature  

PubMed Central

Oral mucosal melanoma is a rare malignancy with the tendency to metastasize and locally invade tissues more readily than other malignant tumor of the oral cavity. It occurs approximately four times more frequently in the oral mucosa of the upper jaw usually on the palate or alveolar gingiva. The chameleonic presentation of malignant melanoma, its asymptomatic condition, rarity of the lesion, poor prognosis and the necessity of a highly specialized treatment are factors that should be seriously considered by the involved health care provider. Herein we report a rare and interesting case of oral malignant melanoma of the maxillary anterior gingiva, which was clinically and histopathologically diagnosed with a brief review of literature, has been discussed. PMID:25191086

Manigandan, T.; Sagar, G. Vikram; Amudhan, A.; Hemalatha, V. T.; Babu, N. Aravinda

2014-01-01

447

[Intra-oral and peri-oral piercing].  

PubMed

Oral Piercing is a practice that is gaining acceptance in the western world as a sign of individuality, marginality, decoration, or group membership. In a recent large-scale survey among Israeli young adults, more than half of the study population was not aware of any of the complications of oral piercing. Pain, bleeding, edema, inhalation, dental and gingival trauma, allergic reaction, contact lesions, impaired mastication, deglutition, and speech, are all potential complications of intra-oral and peri-oral piercing. Piercing can induce local as well as distant site infection and inflammation such as Ludwig's angina, endocarditis and cerebellar abscess. Moreover, Piercing is recognized as a potential vector of viral transmitting. Nevertheless, not all piercers have adequate knowledge in infection control techniqu