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Sample records for condition limits oral

  1. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493....1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493....1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§...

  3. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493....1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493....1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§...

  5. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493....1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§...

  6. A review of premalignant oral conditions.

    PubMed

    Huber, Michael A

    2006-06-01

    The value of mass oral cancer screenings has come under scrutiny, as a consequence of a lack of improvement in the long-term outcomes associated with oral carcinoma over the past several decades. However, it is generally accepted that most oral carcinomas are preceded by visible changes to the mucosa and certain high risk lesions have been identified. The responsibility to evaluate the mucosal tissues of the oral cavity clearly falls under the purview of the dentist. The dentist must clearly grasp the distinction between reactive lesions which usually change in 7 to 14 days and malignant and premalignant lesions which do not. Therefore, appropriate diagnostic procedures (i.e., biopsy of the lesion) must be implemented as a matter of course in the evaluation of any lesion that does not respond to usual therapy in 7 to 14 days. PMID:16875017

  7. [Oral condition of infantile acute lymphatic leukemia with microbisme substitute].

    PubMed

    Shinohara, M; Koide, T; Takaishi, Y; Hieda, T; Funakoshi, Y; Inoue, J; Onoe, T; Fukushima, H; Sagawa, H

    1991-01-01

    The oral condition of a 7 year old boy at the 12th and 13th remission induction therapy sessions since contracting acute lymphatic leukemia was investigated clinically and microbiologically. The findings obtained were as follows: 1) The appearance of gingivitis coincided with the decrease of white blood cells 7 to 9 days after administration of the anti-leukopenic drugs. 2) Gingivitis appeared on the same site of the oral cavity at both remission induction therapies sessions. 3) The bleeding from the gingival lesions corresponded to the decrease of blood platelet at both remission induction therapies sessions. Conversely, gingivitis disappeared with the improvement of peripheral blood conditions. 4) The total number of oral bacteria decreased after administration of the antibiotics, although the ratio of Candida in the oral microbial flora increased markedly. 5) Typical symptoms of oral candidiasis were not observed after the appearance of the microbisme substitute. PMID:1784857

  8. [Premalignant lesions and conditions of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Bruaset, I

    1989-04-01

    An overview is presented of the premalignant lesions and conditions of the oral mucosa. The dentist can play an important role in the detection of these lesions, thereby reducing the chance of premalignant transformation. PMID:2622509

  9. Oral bismuth for chronic intractable diarrheal conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Thazhath, Sony S; Haque, Mazhar; Florin, Timothy H

    2013-01-01

    Objective Bismuth has antidiarrheal, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties. We report our single-center experience with oral colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) treatment for patients with chronic intractable diarrhea. Method We interrogated our web-based Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinical and Research database to ascertain clinical details on all patients in our tertiary hospital gastroenterology service treated with CBS between 2000 and 2010. Treatment responses were based on prospective scoring of daily number of liquid stools. Responses were recorded prior to commencement of CBS and at follow-up visits over 12 months. Results Thirty-one patients, mean age 47 years (range 17–79 years) and a mean duration of diarrhea of 22 weeks (range 6–104 weeks), were prescribed CBS at doses ranging from 120 mg to 480 mg/day for ≥1 month. Of these, 23 patients (74%) had an initial clinical response and 12 (39%) who continued with this treatment had a sustained clinical response at 1 year. Twelve patients with pouchitis and four patients with indeterminate colitis had initial responses of 92% and 75%, respectively, and sustained responses of 50% and 75%, respectively. Ulcerative colitis patients (n = 5) responded poorly with respect to both initial and sustained responses. Three patients with microscopic colitis showed encouraging initial response of 100% but did not have any sustained benefit. Three of four patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (dIBS) had an initial response and two (50%) had good sustained responses. There were no serious adverse events. One patient stopped therapy because of nausea. Conclusion This is the largest report of oral bismuth treatment in chronic intractable diarrhea. CBS is cheap and appears to have the potential to be effective for ameliorating diarrheal symptoms in indeterminate colitis, pouchitis, and dIBS. An appropriately powered, blinded, randomized, controlled study appears warranted to establish the position of oral bismuth in routine practice. PMID:23515887

  10. The limits of oral history: ethics and methodology amid highly politicized research settings.

    PubMed

    Jessee, Erin

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, oral history has been celebrated by its practitioners for its humanizing potential, and its ability to democratize history by bringing the narratives of people and communities typically absent in the archives into conversation with that of the political and intellectual elites who generally write history. And when dealing with the narratives of ordinary people living in conditions of social and political stability, the value of oral history is unquestionable. However, in recent years, oral historians have increasingly expanded their gaze to consider intimate accounts of extreme human experiences, such as narratives of survival and flight in response to mass atrocities. This shift in academic and practical interests begs the questions: Are there limits to oral historical methods and theory? And if so, what are these limits? This paper begins to address these questions by drawing upon fourteen months of fieldwork in Rwanda and Bosnia-Hercegovina, during which I conducted multiple life history interviews with approximately one hundred survivors, ex-combatants, and perpetrators of genocide and related mass atrocities. I argue that there are limits to the application of oral history, particularly when working amid highly politicized research settings. PMID:22175095

  11. The limits of oral therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension management

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian-Qian; Jing, Zhi-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease in which remodeling of the small pulmonary arteries leads to a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance and right-sided heart failure. Over the past decade, new treatments for PAH, such as the use of ERAs, PDE-5 inhibitors and prostacyclin analogs, have brought about dramatic improvements in clinical outcomes. Epoprostenol infusion therapy has been shown to improve hemodynamics, functional status, and survival, and it remains the gold standard for treatment of patients with severe PAH. Many agents, approved for PAH are always delivered in pill form. Although oral therapy occupies an important position, it has some drawbacks and limitations in PAH management. For patients in World Health Organization functional class IV and with severe right heart failure, there are few data on the long-term survival of patients treated with oral medications. Further research, exploration, and clinical experience with oral therapy in severe PAH and combination therapy will redefine its position in PAH management. PMID:26648729

  12. The limits of oral therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension management.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian-Qian; Jing, Zhi-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease in which remodeling of the small pulmonary arteries leads to a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance and right-sided heart failure. Over the past decade, new treatments for PAH, such as the use of ERAs, PDE-5 inhibitors and prostacyclin analogs, have brought about dramatic improvements in clinical outcomes. Epoprostenol infusion therapy has been shown to improve hemodynamics, functional status, and survival, and it remains the gold standard for treatment of patients with severe PAH. Many agents, approved for PAH are always delivered in pill form. Although oral therapy occupies an important position, it has some drawbacks and limitations in PAH management. For patients in World Health Organization functional class IV and with severe right heart failure, there are few data on the long-term survival of patients treated with oral medications. Further research, exploration, and clinical experience with oral therapy in severe PAH and combination therapy will redefine its position in PAH management. PMID:26648729

  13. Limited Conditions of Operations Tracking Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-12-17

    The Lco tracking program is a computer based solution for tracking time limited action items for Limited Conditions of Operation (LCO) for nuclear and industrial processes. This use is not limited to any process except those not requiring specific action steps and times. The visual and audible assistance the LCO Tracking Program provides significantly reduces the chance of missing crucial actions required for safe operation of any facility in time of limited operations. The LCOmore » Tracking Program maintains all applicable action steps and times for each limited condition for the facility in its data base. The LCO Tracking Program is used to enter that condition by number, and the data base provides the applicble action steps and starts tracking their times based on the time the LCO was entered. The LCO display graphically displays, by colored bar charts, the time expired/time remaining of each specific action item. At 60% time expired, the bar chart turns yellow to caution personnel and then turns red at 90% time expired. Then an audible alarm is sounded at 95% as a warning, to finish or accomplish the required actions to satisfy the requirements. These warning and alarm limits are modifiable by the user and can be set at different values for each action. The display file is dynamic in function, checking every minute, and responds in real time to changes to the LCO Tracking Form file, providing the visual and audible warnings as to the status of the action steps chosen for display. The LCO Tracking Program efficiently tracks action times in minutes or days, up to 2 years. All current LCO''s are easily documentated using the LCO Tracking Form file with ease of printing and disposition. The Lco Tracking Program is designed as a user friendly program with navigational buttons to simplify use.« less

  14. [An oral function improvement program utilizing health behavior theories ameliorates oral functions and oral hygienic conditions of pre-frail elderly persons].

    PubMed

    Hideo, Sakaguchi

    2014-06-01

    Oral function improvement programs utilizing health behavior theories are considered to be effective in preventing the need for long-term social care. In the present study, an oral function improvement program based upon health behavior theories was designed, and its utility was assessed in 102 pre-frail elderly persons (33 males, 69 females, mean age: 76.9 +/- 5.7) considered to be in potential need of long-term social care and attending a long-term care prevention class in Sayama City, Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The degree of improvement in oral functions (7 items) and oral hygienic conditions (3 items) was assessed by comparing oral health before and after participation in the program. The results showed statistically significant improvements in the following oral functions: (1) lip functions (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllable "Pa"), (2) tongue functions, (3) tongue root motor skills (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllables "Ta" and "Ka"), (4) tongue extension/retraction, (5) side-to-side tongue movement functions, (6) cheek motor skills, and (7) repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST). The following measures of oral hygiene also showed a statistically significant improvement: (1) debris on dentures or teeth, (2) coated tongue, and (3) frequency of oral cleaning. These findings demonstrated that an improvement program informed by health behavior theories is useful in improving oral functions and oral hygiene conditions. PMID:25244722

  15. Chewing xylitol gum improves self-rated and objective indicators of oral health status under conditions interrupting regular oral hygiene.

    PubMed

    Hashiba, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Kenji; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Takeshita, Toru; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Chewing xylitol gum provides oral health benefits including inhibiting Streptococcus mutans plaque. It is thought to be especially effective in conditions where it is difficult to perform daily oral cleaning. Our study aim was to determine the effects of chewing xylitol gum on self-rated and objective oral health status under a condition interfering with oral hygiene maintenance. A randomized controlled intervention trial was conducted on 55 healthy ≥ 20-year-old men recruited from the Japan Ground Self Defense Force who were undergoing field training. Participants were randomly assigned to a test group (chewing gum; n = 27) or a control group (no gum; n = 28) and the researchers were blinded to the group assignments. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores of oral conditions subjectively evaluated oral health, and the stimulated salivary bacteria quantity objectively evaluated oral health 1 day before field training (baseline) and 4 days after the beginning of field training (follow-up). VAS scores of all three oral conditions significantly increased in the control group (malodor: p < 0.001; discomfort: p < 0.001; dryness: p < 0.001), but only two VAS scores increased in the test group (malodor: p = 0.021; discomfort: p = 0.002). The number of salivary total bacteria significantly increased in the control group (p < 0.01), while no significant change was observed in the test group (p = 0.668). Chewing xylitol gum positively affects self-rated and objective oral health status by controlling oral hygiene under conditions that interfere with oral hygiene maintenance. PMID:25744362

  16. Oral condition of patients with leukemia and lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Orbak, R; Orbak, Z

    1997-06-01

    Different oral manifestations, the most prominent characteristics of the different oral symptoms, and oral colonization by Candida albicans were studied in 97 patients with leukemia and lymphoma. Oral manifestations usually occurred in both leukemias and lymphomas. The most common manifestation in both diseases was mucosal pallor. Oral colonization by Candida albicans in all patients was determined by the use of Sebouraud's agar plates and quantitative estimation of the colonization was made on a scale of +1 to +4 according to its presence in the four quadrants of the agar plates. Oral colonization by Candida albicans was between +1 and +4 in the patients with leukemia and was between +1 and +3 in the patients with lymphoma. Professional dental follow-up should be integrated into the medical follow-up. This is important not only for diagnosis of the disease, but also for prevention and treatment of complications during subsequent treatment. PMID:9293702

  17. Efficacy of ozonized olive oil in the management of oral lesions and conditions: A clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Tarun; Arora, Neha; Puri, Gagan; Aravinda, Konidena; Dixit, Avani; Jatti, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    The oral cavity is an open ecosystem that shows a dynamic balance between the entrance of microorganisms (bacterial, viral or fungal), colonization modalities, nutritional balance, and host defenses against their removal. The oral lesions including aphthous ulcerations, herpes labialis, oral candidiasis, oral lichen planus, and angular cheilitis some of the common entities encountered in the clinical practice. A variety of treatment options is available in the literature for all of these lesions and conditions. Topical ozone therapy is a minimally invasive technique that can be used for these conditions without any side effects. Aim and Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of ozonized olive oil in the treatment of oral lesions and conditions. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal study was carried out on 50 patients (aphthous ulcerations, herpes labialis, oral candidiasis, oral lichen planus, and angular cheilitis). The ozonized olive oil was applied twice daily until the lesion regresses for a maximum of 6 months. Results: All the lesions regress in patients with aphthous ulcerations, herpes labialis, oral candidiasis and angular cheilitis or showed improvement in the signs and symptoms in oral lichen planus patients. No toxicity or side effect was observed in any of the patients. Conclusion: Ozone therapy though requires a gaseous form to be more effective, but topical form can also bring out the positive results without any toxicity or side effect. Hence, it can be considered as a minimally invasive therapy for the oral infective and immunological conditions. PMID:27041901

  18. Oral diseases and conditions throughout the lifespan. II. Systemic diseases.

    PubMed

    Beltran-Aguilar, Eugenio D; Beltran-Neira, Roberto J

    2004-01-01

    Oral diseases may affect general health and many systemic disorders have oral manifestations and implications for dental treatment. This article reviews examples of the oral manifestations of systemic diseases, including oral cancer, diabetes mellitus, and infection from HIV. In addition, the plausible link between periconceptional use of folic acid by the mother and the risk of facial clefts is reviewed. The possible associations between oral infections, specifically periodontal diseases, and both cardiovascular disease and the delivery of preterm low birthweight infants also are reviewed. These and other associations present challenges to dentists, who must evaluate the scientific evidence supporting the associations or alleged causality and select effective treatment options. Both of these challenges require in-depth knowledge of the scientific method, criteria to establish causality, and evaluation of the merit of possible treatment options; in turn, these requirements identify dentists as medical professionals who utilize prevention as the first option in health care, use oral tissues and saliva to diagnose systemic diseases, rely on medical facilities to order laboratory tests, and diagnose and treat patients in close collaboration with their medical colleagues. PMID:15101303

  19. Investigation of Dose-Dependent Factors Limiting Oral Bioavailability: Case Study With the PI3K-δ Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Po-Chang; Sutherlin, Daniel; Pang, Jodie; Salphati, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    It is understood that a potential issue for drugs with poor aqueous solubility is low oral absorption. If oral exposure issues arise when working with a low solubility drug candidate, the common action is to rely on enabling formulations to solve the issue. However, this approach becomes troublesome in the pre-clinical setting where compound absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion properties are suboptimal and more factors limiting bioavailability may be at play. A narrow focus on solubility enhancement without a full understanding of compound absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion properties can produce data that cloak the actual phenomena driving exposure. Compound 1 is a potent and selective PI3Kdelta inhibitor with poor aqueous solubility. In a pharmacokinetic study on dogs, exposure was found to be less than dose-linear. Besides the solubility, further investigations were conducted to identify other factors limiting oral exposure. It was observed that these limiting factors are dose dependent. Results from modeling pharmacokinetic under low-dose conditions suggest that exposure is significantly limited by metabolism and no exposure improvements should be expected from enabled formulations. Furthermore, enabling formulations are expected to exert a beneficial influence at higher doses. An in vivo test was conducted in dogs to verify this phenomenon. PMID:27238480

  20. Relation between oral health and nutritional condition in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    RODRIGUES JUNIOR, Humberto Lauro; SCELZA, Miriam F. Zaccaro; BOAVENTURA, Gilson Teles; CUSTÓDIO, Silvia Maria; MOREIRA, Emília Addison Machado; OLIVEIRA, Diane de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Oral health is a prerequisite for a good chewing function, which may have an impact on food choices and nutritional well-being. Objective This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between oral health status and nutritional status in the elderly. Material and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 33 elderly people from the Group for the Elderly Interdisciplinary Geriatrics and Gerontology Program, at Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, RJ, Brazil, completed a questionnaire to collect information on socioeconomic status, eating habits, physical activity and health habits, undertook a clinical oral examination, blood test, and anthropometric measurements, and were allocated into groups according to age. The oral health status was assessed using the index for decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT). The nutritional status was assessed using hemoglobin, hematocrit and albumin concentrations in blood, anthropometric values and the body mass index. Results Tooth loss was the biggest nuisance to the elderly subjects (57.6%), followed by the use of dentures (30.3%) and ill-fitting dentures (33.3%). 66.6% of patients had difficulty in chewing, and 54.5% reported this to be due to prostheses and 13.6% to the absence of teeth. A significant correlation was found between DMFT and the value of suprailiac skinfold thickness (rho=0.380, p=0.029). Conclusion The results support the temporal association between tooth loss and detrimental changes in anthropometry, which could contribute to increased risk of developing chronic diseases. PMID:22437676

  1. Limitations in Life Participation and Independence Due to Secondary Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koritsas, Stella; Iacono, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The effects of secondary conditions across adults with autism, Down syndrome, and cerebral palsy were explored in terms of overall limitation in life participation and independence, changes over time, and the degree and nature of limitation in specific secondary conditions. Information was obtained for 35 adults with autism, 49 with Down syndrome,…

  2. 14 CFR 135.227 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Icing conditions: Operating limitations. 135.227 Section 135.227 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.227 Icing conditions:...

  3. 14 CFR 135.227 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Icing conditions: Operating limitations. 135.227 Section 135.227 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.227 Icing conditions:...

  4. 14 CFR 135.227 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Icing conditions: Operating limitations. 135.227 Section 135.227 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.227 Icing conditions:...

  5. [Oral health-related quality of life associations to periodontal conditions].

    PubMed

    Sári, Kinga Dorottya; Kóródi, Agnes; Mohácsi, Rita; Angyal, János

    2015-09-01

    The clinical form and severity of periodontal of periodontal disorders may have negative effects on oral health related quality of life (OHQoL). The oral health impact profile questionnaire (OHIP-14) is the most frequently used instrument to evaluate the effects of intraoral disorders on the perception of well-being of patients. The modified OHIP-14 was used with 45 people (29 were in the chronic periodontitis and 16 in the control group) to evaluate the effects of periodontal conditions on OHQoL. In the periodontitis group significantly higher level of impact was observed in questions connected to aesthetics, psychological discomfort, physical pain and functional limitation. Higher periodontal probing depth was frequently associated with self-report of pain either in the anterior or posterior dental regions. There was also a significant correlation between the functional limitation and the number of missing teeth, the bleeding on probing and the probing depth. It is concluded that the periodontal disorders may have negative effects on certain parameters of OHQoL, hence during periodontal investigation the dental clinician should ask anamnestic questions in relation to quality of life. PMID:26731965

  6. Oral Health Condition and Treatment Needs of a Group of Nigerian Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oredugba, Folakemi A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried out to determine the oral health condition and treatment needs of a group of individuals with Down syndrome in Nigeria. Method: Participants were examined for oral hygiene status, dental caries, malocclusion, hypoplasia, missing teeth, crowding and treatment needs. Findings were compared with controls across age

  7. Oral Health Condition and Treatment Needs of a Group of Nigerian Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oredugba, Folakemi A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried out to determine the oral health condition and treatment needs of a group of individuals with Down syndrome in Nigeria. Method: Participants were examined for oral hygiene status, dental caries, malocclusion, hypoplasia, missing teeth, crowding and treatment needs. Findings were compared with controls across age…

  8. Efficacy and limitations of oral inotropic agents for the treatment of chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Murai, Koji; Seino, Yoshihiko; Kimata, Nakahisa; Inami, Toru; Murakami, Daisuke; Abe, Junko; Yodogawa, Kenji; Maruyama, Mitsunori; Takano, Masamichi; Ohba, Takayoshi; Ibuki, Chikao; Mizuno, Kyoichi

    2013-01-01

    The heart failure guideline in Japan has stated the necessity of investigating the role of oral inotropic agents in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), which are clinically available only in Japan. A total of 1,846 consecutive patients with heart failure (mean: 69.5 years old, 1,279 males) treated at our institute from November 2009 to August 2010 were investigated retrospectively. Thirty-one patients (1.84%) who had taken oral inotropic agents (pimobendan 27, docarpamine 6, and denopamine 4) were extracted for this study, and the efficacy and limitations of the treatments were analyzed. Following the oral inotropic treatment, the NYHA functional class (P = 0.017), cardiothoracic ratio (P = 0.002) and B-type natriuretic peptide levels (P = 0.011) were significantly improved, and the number of emergency room (ER) visits (P < 0.001) and hospitalizations (P < 0.001) were significantly reduced. The nonsurviving patients (n = 7/31, 22.6%) were significantly older (P = 0.02) and tended to have a larger cardiothoracic ratio (P = 0.084) compared with the survivors. An absence of concomitant beta-blocker therapy was significantly associated with a worse prognosis (oneyear mortality 2/21 versus 5/10, log rank, P = 0.011). Oral inotropic agents brought about improvements in the clinical parameters of CHF and a reduction in ER visits and hospitalizations. However, concomitant beta-blocker therapy should be considered for patients receiving oral inotropic treatment. PMID:23676366

  9. Oral cavity eumycetoma: a rare and unusual condition.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Ahmed Mohamed; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan

    2013-04-01

    In this short communication, we report on a 25-year-old male patient who presented with a longstanding painless swelling under the tongue. It was of a gradual onset and course, but 2 months before presentation it suddenly increased in size. Local examination revealed a tender firm pigmented mass in the midline of the mouth floor. The differential diagnosis included dermoid cyst, salivary glands tumours, mucocele or vascular anomaly. The investigations done were not conclusive. He underwent surgical exploration, and mycetoma was a surgical surprise. Although mycetoma is common problem in the tropics, such a presentation is a rarity. In tropical and subtropical regions, mycetoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of oral cavity masses. PMID:23522651

  10. Influence of oral health condition on swallowing and oral intake level for patients affected by chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mituuti, Cláudia T; Bianco, Vinicius C; Bentim, Cláudia G; de Andrade, Eduardo C; Rubo, José H; Berretin-Felix, Giédre

    2015-01-01

    Background According to the literature, the occurrence of dysphagia is high in cases of stroke, and its severity can be enhanced by loss of teeth and the use of poorly fitting prostheses. Objective To verify that the status of oral health influences the level of oral intake and the degree of swallowing dysfunction in elderly patients with stroke in chronic phase. Methods Thirty elderly individuals affected by stroke in chronic phase participated. All subjects underwent assessment of their oral condition, with classification from the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) and nasoendoscopic swallowing assessment to classify the degree of dysphagia. The statistical analysis examined a heterogeneous group (HG, n=30) and two groups designated by the affected body part, right (RHG, n=8) and left (LHG, n=11), excluding totally dentate or edentulous individuals without rehabilitation with more than one episode of stroke. Results There was a negative correlation between the need for replacement prostheses and the FOIS scale for the HG (P=0.02) and RHG (P=0.01). Differences in FOIS between types of prostheses of the upper dental arch in the LHG (P=0.01) and lower dental arch in the RHG (P=0.04). A negative correlation was found between the number of teeth present and the degree of dysfunction in swallowing liquid in the LHG (P=0.05). There were differences in the performance in swallowing solids between individuals without prosthesis and those with partial prosthesis in the inferior dental arch (P=0.04) for the HG. Conclusion The need for replacement prostheses, type of prostheses, and the number of teeth of elderly patients poststroke in chronic phase showed an association with the level of oral intake and the degree of oropharyngeal dysphagia. PMID:25565784

  11. The use of radiography in the diagnosis of oral conditions in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, W P; Drummond, B K; Brosnan, M G

    2015-12-01

    Radiography can serve as a useful aid in the diagnosis of numerous oral conditions, with a place in nearly all of the disciplines of dentistry. As such it can have a beneficial role in caring for the oral health of children and adolescents. The following review discusses the use of radiography in the diagnosis of oral conditions in children and adolescents, with particular reference to the diagnosis of dental caries, dental trauma, growth and development and in other dental scenarios, along with the importance of incidental findings. The risks associated with radiation exposure from the use of radiography are discussed, how these need to be balanced with the possible benefits associated with such use, as well as how risks could be minimised. Summary recommendations are also presented, providing an overview of the use of radiography for oral diagnosis in various clinical scenarios for children and adolescents. PMID:26761981

  12. Oral mucosal conditions in preschool children of low socioeconomic status: prevalence and determinant factors.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Andrade, Raquel Gonçalves; Martins-Júnior, Paulo Antônio; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Stella, Paulo Eduardo Melo; Marinho, Sandra Aparecida; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of oral mucosal conditions and associated factors among 541 preschoolers of low socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Sociodemographic data and information on harmful oral habits were gathered with the use of a questionnaire. A clinical exam was performed for the determination of oral mucosal conditions, dental caries and level of oral hygiene. Data analysis involved statistical analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney test, chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and multivariate regression (p < 0.05, 95 % CI). The prevalence of oral mucosal conditions was 40.7 %. The most prevalent oral mucosal conditions were coated tongue (23.4 %), melanotic macules (14.4 %), oral ulcers (11.8 %), Fordyce's spots (8.1 %), angular cheilitis (3.0 %), geographic tongue (2.8 %), linea alba (1.5 %) and fistula (1.3 %). Children between 3 and 5 years of age had a greater chance of exhibiting coated tongue (OR, 2.55; 95 % CI, 1.6-4.1), melanotic macules (OR, 4.07; 95 % CI, 2.3-7.2) and Fordyce's spots (OR, 12.70; 95 % CI, 7.2-28.6). The female gender had a greater chance of exhibiting melanotic macules (OR, 2.23; 95 % CI, 1.3-1.8). Coated tongue was more prevalent among children from low-income families (OR, 2.35; 95 % CI, 1.3-4.3) and those with inadequate oral hygiene (OR, 4.65; 95 % CI, 2.9-7.4). Caries constituted a predictive factor for oral ulcers (OR, 2.15; 95 % CI, 1.2-3.9) and fistula (OR, 12.00; 95 % CI, 1.4-11.3). Bruxism (teeth clenching/grinding) was a predictive factor for angular cheilitis (OR, 5.55; 95 % CI, 1.9-16.3). The determinant factors for oral mucosal conditions were the female gender, age between 3 and 5 years, inadequate oral hygiene, low household income, residence in rural areas and presence of dental caries and bruxism. PMID:23354789

  13. Survey of medical ethnobotanicals for dental and oral medicine conditions and pathologies.

    PubMed

    Colvard, Michael D; Cordell, Geoffrey A; Villalobos, Rodrigo; Sancho, Gina; Soejarto, Doel D; Pestle, William; Echeverri, Tatiana Lobo; Perkowitz, Kathleen M; Michel, Joanna

    2006-08-11

    Ethnomedical questionnaires were distributed in Chicago, Costa Rica, and Colombia to identify the most common over-the-counter (OTC) plant or plant-based products advocated for treating oral pain, ulcerative conditions, and cancer within these locations. Over 100 plants or plant-based herbal preparations and commercial products, purchased from local botanical markets and pharmacies, were advocated for the treatment of oral medicine conditions. Locally familiar and common language names were attributed to the plant products at the time of purchase. Plant products or plant-based commercial products containing plant-based essential oils, anesthetic constituents, and or chemical compounds recommended as OTC oral medicine preparations were systematized, tabulated, and correlated with the published phytotherapeutic literature. Though pharmacognostic research is available for some of the species collected, further ethnographic research is needed to correlate common names with the accurate taxonomic identification for each plant species. Furthermore, epidemiological research is needed to verify the use and standardized dosage for OTC ethnomedicine preparations for oral medicine conditions. Pharmacognostic research and clinical trails which can verify taxonomy, dose, safety, active principles, and efficacy of these OTC oral medicine products must be enhanced in order to verify the claimed validity in contemporary, global, oral medicine practice. PMID:16735102

  14. Oral Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer ... Herpes Main Content Title: Oral ...

  15. Oral and Craniofacial Clinical Signs Associated to Genetic Conditions in Human Identification Part I: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Fouad; Aoun, Nicole; el Husseini, Hassan; Jassar, Houssam; Sayah, Fida; Salameh, Ziad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Forensic dentistry is one of the most reliable methods used in human identification when other technique as fingerprint, DNA, visual identification cannot be used. Genetic disorders have several manifestations that can target the intra-oral cavity, the cranio-facial area or any location in the human body. Materials and Methods: A literature search of the scientific database (Medline and Science Direct) for the years 1990 to 2014 was carried out to find out all the available papers that indicate oral, cranio-facial signs, genetic and human identification. Results: A table with 10 genetic conditions was described with oral and cranio-facial signs that can help forensic specialist in human identification. Conclusion: This review showed a correlation between genetics, facial and intra-oral signs that would help forensic ondontologist in the identification procedures. PMID:26028912

  16. 14 CFR 135.227 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... limitations. (a) No pilot may take off an aircraft that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any rotor blade... aircraft has functioning deicing or anti-icing equipment protecting each rotor blade, propeller, windshield... the requirements for certification for flight in icing conditions. (d) No pilot may fly a...

  17. Oral diseases and conditions in community-living older adults with and without dementia.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Jane M; Carter, Knute D; Spencer, A John

    2003-01-01

    This study compared the prevalence and experiences of oral diseases and conditions, as well as tooth loss and retained root status, in community-dwelling older adults with and without dementia. Dental examinations were conducted at baseline and at one-year for randomly selected samples of 116 dentate community-living older adults with dementia and a comparable group of 116 adults without dementia. Participants with dementia had significantly higher experiences of oral diseases and conditions at baseline and one-year compared with participants without dementia: decreased use of dentures; increased prevalence of denture-related oral mucosal lesions; increased plaque accumulation; increased prevalence and experiences of coronal and root caries; and increased numbers of decayed retained tooth roots. These higher experiences of oral diseases and conditions were related to dementia severity, not to specific dementia diagnoses. Participants with dementia already had a compromised oral health status when admitted into institutional long-term care between baseline and one-year; of concern were the high plaque levels on the natural teeth of the group of institutionalized participants with dementia. PMID:12887148

  18. An Analysis and Assessment of Oral Spanish and Oral English Development Among Children with Limited Proficiency in English and/or Spanish: An Evaluation Report for the Wilson School District Bilingual Education Program, Phoenix, Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Atilano A.

    Evaluation was made of the Wilson School District's oral Spanish and oral English development programs for preschool and first-grade children with limited proficiency in English and/or Spanish. The program consisted of 3 major components: an English Oral Language Program (EOLP) for children using nonstandard English, a Spanish Oral Language…

  19. Trends in activity-limiting chronic conditions among children.

    PubMed Central

    Newacheck, P W; Budetti, P P; Halfon, N

    1986-01-01

    Data from the National Health Interview Survey indicate that the prevalence of activity-limiting chronic conditions among children under age 17 years doubled between 1960 and 1981, from 1.8 to 3.8 per cent. Approximately 40 per cent of the overall rise in prevalence occurred before 1970. Most of the increase in prevalence during this early period can be attributed to changes in questionnaire design and aging of the child population following the "baby boom" years. The factors responsible for increases in reported cases of activity limitation following 1970 are more difficult to specify and evaluate. During this later period, the increase in prevalence was restricted to less severe levels of limitations. While prevalence levels rose for a variety of conditions during this period, respiratory conditions and mental and nervous system disorders demonstrated the largest changes. It appears that much of the increase in reported cases of activity limitations during the 1970s can be attributed to shifting perceptions on the part of parents, educators, and physicians. PMID:2936257

  20. Impact of oral health conditions on the quality of life of workers.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Maria Júlia Campos; Greco, Rosangela Maria; Leite, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigênia; de Paula, Marcos Vinícius Queiroz

    2014-12-01

    Occupational health has been the scope of numerous studies, primarily due to the concern that the worker should enjoy good working conditions and a satisfactory quality of life. This study seeks to analyze the impact of oral health on the quality of life of workers at a public university using the simplified version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) and associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 326 workers who responded the questions of OHIP-14 about self-rated health, oral morbidity, and socioeconomic and demographic questions. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to verify the association between the independent variables and OHIP-14. About 40% of the impact of oral health on quality of life can be explained by the variables: education level (p = 0,03), age (p = 0,03), reason for visiting a dentist (p = 0,01), oral health perception (p < 0,01) and satisfaction with teeth and mouth (p < 0,01). The use of OHIP-14 can be useful for planning programs and actions focused on health education for occupational health, prioritizing workers with greater psychosocial impacts caused by oral problems. PMID:25388186

  1. Oral health conditions and cognitive functioning in middle and later adulthood

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of oral health conditions on cognitive functioning on basis of data samples from several European countries. Methods Secondary analyses were conducted of data from wave 2 of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) which includes 14 European countries and is intended to be representative of each country’s middle and later adulthood population. Information on word recall, verbal fluency, and numeracy as well as information on chewing ability and denture wearing status was available for a total of 28,693 persons aged 50+. Multivariate regression analysis was used to detect influences of oral health parameters on cognitive functioning (p < 0.05). Results Persons with good chewing ability or without dentures had significantly better word recall, verbal fluency, and numeracy skills than persons with chewing impairment or with dentures. The observed patterns of parameter estimates imply differential oral health impacts on numeracy compared to word recall and verbal fluency. Conclusions The present study provides novel large-scale epidemiological evidence supportive of an association between oral health and cognitive functioning. Future research should intend to verify the precise causal links between oral health conditions, various cognitive dimensions, and their neural correlates. PMID:24923362

  2. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. Limiting conditions/scale-up

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, R.; Klasson, K.T.; Takriff, M.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a technically and economically feasible process for biologically producing H(sub 2) from synthesis gas while, at the same time, removing harmful sulfur gas compounds. Six major tasks are being studied: 1. Culture development, where the best cultures are selected and conditions optimized for simultaneous hydrogen production and sulfur gas removal; 2. Mass transfer and kinetic studies in which equations necessary for process design are developed; 3. Bioreactor design studies, where the cultures chosen in Task 1 are utilized in continuous reaction vessels to demonstrate process feasibility and define operating conditions; 4. Evaluation of biological synthetic gas conversion under limiting conditions in preparation for industrial demonstration studies; 5. Process scale-up where laboratory data are scaled to larger-size units in preparation for process demonstration in a pilot-scale unit; and 6. Economic evaluation, where process simulations are used to project process economics and identify high cost areas during sensitivity analyses.

  3. Investigation of the Functional Role of P-Glycoprotein in Limiting the Oral Bioavailability of Lumefantrine

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Kanumuri S. R.; Singh, Sheelendra P.; Taneja, Isha

    2014-01-01

    In the quest to explore the reason for the low and variable bioavailability of lumefantrine, we investigated the possible role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in lumefantrine intestinal absorption. An in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion study in rats with the P-gp inhibitor verapamil or quinidine and an ATPase assay with human P-gp membranes indicated that lumefantrine is a substrate of P-gp which limits its intestinal absorption. To confirm these findings, an in vivo pharmacokinetic study was performed in rats. The oral administration of verapamil (10 mg/kg of body weight) along with lumefantrine caused a significant increase in its bioavailability with a concomitant decrease in clearance. The increase in bioavailability of lumefantrine could be due to inhibition of P-gp and/or cytochrome P450 3A in the intestine/liver by verapamil. However, in a rat intestinal microsomal stability study, lumefantrine was found to be resistant to oxidative metabolism. Further, an in situ permeation study clearly showed a significant role of P-gp in limiting the oral absorption of lumefantrine. Thus, the increase in lumefantrine bioavailability with verapamil is attributed in part to the P-gp-inhibitory ability of verapamil. In conclusion, lumefantrine is a substrate of P-gp, and active efflux by P-gp across the intestine partly contributed to the low/variable bioavailability of lumefantrine. PMID:24189249

  4. The challenges and limitations of widespread direct oral anticoagulant treatment: practical suggestions for their best use.

    PubMed

    Palareti, Gualtiero; Poli, Daniela

    2016-02-01

    For many decades vitamin K antagonists (VKA), whilst extremely effective but associated with significant drawbacks, were the only drugs available for chronic anticoagulation. However, recently, novel direct oral anticoagulant drugs, completely different to VKA and at least as effective and safe as VKA, have been introduced in clinical practice and their use is becoming increasingly more widespread. Their availability can extend effective anticoagulant treatment to a larger number of subjects requiring anticoagulation and substantially improve the quality of life of many patients. However, these drugs and their use also have limitations. The aim of this article is to analyze these limitations and the challenges potentially associated with their use, a move crucial to promote proper, effective and safe use of the drugs in everyday practice. PMID:26652975

  5. Oral health conditions and frailty in Mexican community-dwelling elderly: a cross sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral health is an important component of general well-being for the elderly. Oral health-related problems include loss of teeth, nonfunctional removable dental prostheses, lesions of the oral mucosa, periodontitis, and root caries. They affect food selection, speaking ability, mastication, social relations, and quality of life. Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that confers vulnerability to negative health-related outcomes. The association between oral health and frailty has not been explored thoroughly. This study sought to identify associations between the presence of some oral health conditions, and frailty status among Mexican community-dwelling elderly. Methods Analysis of baseline data of the Mexican Study of Nutritional and Psychosocial Markers of Frailty, a cohort study carried out in a representative sample of people aged 70 and older residing in one district of Mexico City. Frailty was defined as the presence of three or more of the following five components: weight loss, exhaustion, slowness, weakness, and low physical activity. Oral health variables included self-perception of oral health compared with others of the same age; utilization of dental services during the last year, number of teeth, dental condition (edentate, partially edentate, or completely dentate), utilization and functionality of removable partial or complete dentures, severe periodontitis, self-reported chewing problems and xerostomia. Covariates included were gender, age, years of education, cognitive performance, smoking status, recent falls, hospitalization, number of drugs, and comorbidity. The association between frailty and dental variables was determined performing a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Final models were adjusted by socio-demographic and health factors Results Of the 838 participants examined, 699 had the information needed to establish the criteria for diagnosis of frailty. Those who had a higher probability of being frail included women (OR = 1.9), those who reported myocardial infarction (OR = 3.8), urinary incontinence (OR = 2.7), those who rated their oral health worse than others (OR = 3.2), and those who did not use dental services (OR = 2.1). For each additional year of age and each additional drug consumed, the probability of being frail increased 10% and 30%, respectively. Conclusions Utilization of dental services and self-perception of oral health were associated with a higher probability of being frail. PMID:22971075

  6. National Survey of Oral/Dental Conditions Related to Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Mexican Adults

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Oral diseases are a major burden on individuals and health systems. The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of tobacco and alcohol were associated with the prevalence of oral/dental problems in Mexican adults. Using data from the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2003, a cross-sectional study part of the World Health Survey, dental information from a representative sample of Mexico (n = 22,229, N = 51,155,740) was used to document self-reported oral/dental problems in the 12 months prior to the survey. Questionnaires were used to collect information related to sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and other risk factors. Three models were generated for each age group (18–30, 31–45 and 46–98 years). The prevalence of oral/dental conditions was 25.7%. Adjusting for sex, schooling, socioeconomic position, diabetes, and self-reported health, those who used tobacco (sometimes or daily) (OR = 1.15, p = 0.070; OR = 1.24, p < 0.01; and OR = 1.16, p < 0.05, for each age group respectively) or alcohol (moderate or high) (OR = 1.26, p < 0.001; OR = 1.18, p < 0.01 and OR = 1.30, p < 0.001, for each age group respectively) had a higher risk of reporting oral/dental problems. Because tobacco and alcohol use were associated with self-reported oral/dental problems in one out of four adults, it appears advisable to ascertain how direct is such link; more direct effects would lend greater weight to adopting measures to reduce consumption of tobacco and alcohol for the specific purpose of improving oral health. PMID:24642844

  7. Oxygen Consumption Rates of Bacteria under Nutrient-Limited Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Timothy E.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Finkel, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Many environments on Earth experience nutrient limitation and as a result have nongrowing or very slowly growing bacterial populations. To better understand bacterial respiration under environmentally relevant conditions, the effect of nutrient limitation on respiration rates of heterotrophic bacteria was measured. The oxygen consumption and population density of batch cultures of Escherichia coli K-12, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 were tracked for up to 200 days. The oxygen consumption per CFU (QO2) declined by more than 2 orders of magnitude for all three strains as they transitioned from nutrient-abundant log-phase growth to the nutrient-limited early stationary phase. The large reduction in QO2 from growth to stationary phase suggests that nutrient availability is an important factor in considering environmental respiration rates. Following the death phase, during the long-term stationary phase (LTSP), QO2 values of the surviving population increased with time and more cells were respiring than formed colonies. Within the respiring population, a subpopulation of highly respiring cells increased in abundance with time. Apparently, as cells enter LTSP, there is a viable but not culturable population whose bulk community and per cell respiration rates are dynamic. This result has a bearing on how minimal energy requirements are met, especially in nutrient-limited environments. The minimal QO2 rates support the extension of Kleiber's law to the mass of a bacterium (100-fg range). PMID:23770901

  8. Feasibility and benefits of methanogenesis under oxygen-limited conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zitomer, D.H.; Shrout, J.D.

    1998-12-31

    Methanogenic and aerobic (or microaerophilic) biological processes are often considered mutually exclusive and separated as biological wastewater treatment options. However, under oxygen-limited conditions, both aerobic respiration and methanogenesis can be practically accomplished by a single mixed culture. This paper describes sustained batch culture, oxygen-limited methanogenic serum bottle and bench-scale systems. Serum bottle cultures exhibited methanogenic activity similar to or greater than that of a strictly anaerobic culture maintained in parallel. The COD removal efficiencies of anaerobic, oxygen-limited, and aerobic bench-scale reactors receiving 30,000 mg/l of sucrose were all greater than 93%, a system receiving 1 g O{sub 2}/L{sub R}-day achieved a lower final effluent COD than the strictly anaerobic reactor. After a shock-load of sucrose, the pH recovered in low-aeration batch reactors in 28--34 days, whereas anaerobic pH did not recover after 52 days of observation. In the future, methanogenesis under limited-aeration may be employed as an energy efficient treatment option to achieve low final COD concentrations, minimal biosolids generation, and mineralization of a broad range of specific organic chemicals.

  9. Conditional peripheral membrane proteins: Facing up to limited specificity

    PubMed Central

    Moravcevic, Katarina; Oxley, Camilla L.; Lemmon, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Regulated relocalization of signaling and trafficking proteins is crucial for the control of many cellular processes, and is driven by a series of domains that respond to alterations at membrane surfaces. The first examples of these domains – conditional peripheral membrane proteins – included C1, C2, PH, PX, and FYVE domains, which specifically recognize single tightly regulated membrane components such as diacylglycerol or phosphoinositides. The structural basis for this recognition is now well understood. Efforts to identify additional domains with similar functions that bind other targets (or participate in unexplained cellular processes) have not yielded many more examples of specific phospholipid-binding domains. Instead, most of the recently discovered conditional peripheral membrane proteins bind multiple targets (each with limited specificity), relying on coincidence detection, and/or recognizing broader physical properties of the membrane such as charge or curvature. This broader range of recognition modes presents significant methodological challenges for a full structural understanding. PMID:22193136

  10. Senescence occurs with hTERT repression and limited telomere shortening in human oral keratinocytes cultured with feeder cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mo K; Kameta, Ayako; Shin, Ki-Hyuk; Baluda, Marcel A; Park, No-Hee

    2004-06-01

    We investigated the phenotypic and molecular alterations in normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK) during in vitro replication in two different culture conditions. The cells were cultured either in chemically defined Keratinocyte Growth Medium (KGM) without feeder layers or in serum-containing flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD) medium with feeder layers. Primary NHOK underwent 22 +/- 3 population doublings (PDs) in KGM and 42 +/- 4 PDs in FAD medium, reflecting 52% increase in replication capacity with feeder layers. In both culture conditions, exponentially replicating NHOK demonstrated telomerase activity and expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene. Telomerase activity and hTERT expression were rapidly diminished in senescing NHOK, which exhibited small decrease of telomere length for the remaining limited cellular replications until the complete arrest of cell division. However, telomere length in senescent NHOK was 6.7 +/- 0.5 kilobase pairs (kbps), significantly longer than that (5.12 kbps) of senescent human fibroblasts. The onset of senescence was accompanied with marked induction of p16(INK4A), and this occurred in both culture systems using either KGM or FAD medium. These results indicate that replicative senescence of NHOK is associated with loss of telomerase activity followed by limited telomere shortening. PMID:15095283

  11. Discrimination of premalignant conditions of oral cancer using Raman spectroscopy of urinary metabolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elumalai, Brindha; Rajasekaran, Ramu; Aruna, Prakasarao; Koteeswaran, Dornadula; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2015-03-01

    Oral cancers are considered to be one of the most commonly occurring malignancy worldwide. Over 70% of the cases report to the doctor only in advanced stages of the disease, resulting in poor survival rates. Hence it is necessary to detect the disease at the earliest which may increase the five year survival rate up to 90%. Among various optical spectroscopic techniques, Raman spectroscopy has been emerged as a tool in identifying several diseased conditions, including oral cancers. Around 30 - 80% of the malignancies of the oral cavity arise from premalignant lesions. Hence, understanding the molecular/spectral differences at the premalignant stage may help in identifying the cancer at the earliest and increase patient's survival rate. Among various bio-fluids such as blood, urine and saliva, urine is considered as one of the diagnostically potential bio-fluids, as it has many metabolites. The distribution and the physiochemical properties of the urinary metabolites may vary due to the changes associated with the pathologic conditions. The present study is aimed to characterize the urine of 70 healthy subjects and 51 pre-malignant patients using Raman spectroscopy under 785nm excitation, to know the molecular/spectral differences between healthy subjects and premalignant conditions of oral malignancy. Principal component analysis based Linear discriminant analysis were also made to find the statistical significance and the present technique yields the sensitivity and specificity of 86.3% and 92.9% with an overall accuracy of 90.9% in the discrimination of premalignant conditions from healthy subjects urine.

  12. [Oral health conditions diagnostic in cerebral palsy individuals of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Patrícia Osório; Garcias, Gilberto de Lima

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral Palsy (CP) is an encephalic static lesion defined as a non-progressive disorder of movements and posture. It is usually associated with epilepsy, speaking, hearing and sight disorders and also mental retardation. Even though, people who have CP need special care for the prevention of factors linked to oral problems, in the odontological context, the literary information is contradictory when it comes to the incidence of oral diseases on patients who have cerebral palsy. In order to determine the oral health and associated factors conditions, an epidemiological research has been made in 41 children who have cerebral palsy. The variables taken into account were: social-economical aspects, risk factors for the development of oral diseases, access to odontological care, caries index, periodontal disease, malocclusion and dental fluorose. Children who were examined showed a higher level of gingivitis and caries experience, mainly on the primary dentition, and also severe malocclusions, factors that indicate the need of early intervention, whether with educational programs or healing assistance. The study has shown that, in addition to the quantitative necessity of care, it is also necessary to improve the quality of these patients' consultations. PMID:19851607

  13. Pesticides water decontamination in oxygen-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Suciu, Nicoleta Alina; Ferrari, Federico; Vasileiadis, Sotirios; Merli, Annalisa; Capri, Ettore; Trevisan, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a laboratory bioreactor, with a functioning principle similar with that of biobed systems but working in oxygen-limited conditions, suitable for decontaminating wastewater mixtures with pesticides. The system is composed by two cylindrical plastic containers. The first one, where the pesticides solution is collected, is open, whereas the second one, where the biomass is disposed, is closed. The pesticides solution was pumped at the biomass surface and subsequently recollected and disposed in the first container. Four pesticides with different physical-chemical characteristics were tested. The results obtained showed a relatively good capacity of the developed prototype to decontaminate waste water containing the mixture of pesticides. The time of the experiment, the number of cycles that the solution made in the system and the environmental temperature have a significantly influence for the decontamination of acetochlor and chlorpyrifos whereas for the decontamination of terbuthylazine and metalaxyl no significant influence was observed. Even if the present prototype could represent a valid solution to manage the water pesticides residues in a farm and to increase the confidence of bystanders and residents, the practical difficulties when replacing the biomass could represent a limit of the system. PMID:23688230

  14. Amyloid Fibrillation of Insulin under Water-Limited Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Tae Su; Lee, Jong Wha; Jin, Kyeong Sik; Kim, Hugh I.

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid fibrillation in water-organic mixtures has been widely studied to understand the effect of protein-solvent interactions on the fibrillation process. In this study, we monitored insulin fibrillation in formamide and its methyl derivatives (formamide, N-methyl formamide, N,N-dimethyl formamide) in the presence and absence of water. These model solvent systems mimic the cellular environment by providing denaturing conditions and a hydrophobic environment with limited water content. Thioflavin T (ThT) assay revealed that binary mixtures of water with formamide and its methyl derivatives enhanced fibrillation rates and β-sheet abundance, whereas organic solvents suppressed insulin fibrillation. We utilized solution small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to investigate the correlation between protein-solvent interactions and insulin fibrillation. SAXS experiments combined with simulated annealing of the protein indicated that the degree of denaturation of the hydrophobic core region at residues B11–B17 determines the fibrillation rate. In addition, DSC experiments suggested a crucial role of hydrophobic interactions in the fibrillation process. These results imply that an environment with limited water, which imitates a lipid membrane system, accelerates protein denaturation and the formation of intermolecular hydrophobic interactions during amyloid fibrillation. PMID:25418175

  15. First-Wall and limiter conditioning in TFTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dylla, H. F.; Blanchard, W. R.; Hawryluk, R. J.; Hill, K. W.; Krawchuk, R. B.; Mueller, D.; Owens, D. K.; Ramsey, A. T.; Sesnic, S.; Tenney, F. H.

    1984-12-01

    A progress report on the experimental studies of vacuum vessel conditioning during the first year of TFTR operation is presented. A previous paper described the efforts expended to condition the TFTR vessel prior to and during the initial plasma start-up experiments. During the start-up phase, discharge cleaning was performed with the vessel at room temperature. For the second phase of TFTR operations, which was directed towards the optimization of ohmically-heated plasmas, the vacuum vessel could be heated to 150°C. The internal configuration of the TFTR vessel was more complex during the second phase with the addition of a TiC/C moveable limiter array, inconel bellows cover plates, and ZrAl getter pumps. A quantitative comparison is given on the effectiveness of vessel bakeout, glow discharge cleaning, and pulse discharge cleaning in terms of total quantity of removed carbon and oxygen, residual gas base pressures and the resulting plasma impurity levels as measured by visible, UV and soft X-ray spectroscopy. The initial experience with hydrogen isotope changeover in TFTR is presented including the results of the attempt to hasten the changeover-time by using a glow discharge to precondition the vessel with the new isotope.

  16. Bacteriophages Limit the Existence Conditions for Conjugative Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Wood, A. Jamie; Dytham, Calvin; Pitchford, Jonathan W.; Truman, Julie; Spiers, Andrew; Paterson, Steve; Brockhurst, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteriophages are a major cause of bacterial mortality and impose strong selection on natural bacterial populations, yet their effects on the dynamics of conjugative plasmids have rarely been tested. We combined experimental evolution, mathematical modeling, and individual-based simulations to explain how the ecological and population genetics effects of bacteriophages upon bacteria interact to determine the dynamics of conjugative plasmids and their persistence. The ecological effects of bacteriophages on bacteria are predicted to limit the existence conditions for conjugative plasmids, preventing persistence under weak selection for plasmid accessory traits. Experiments showed that phages drove faster extinction of plasmids in environments where the plasmid conferred no benefit, but they also revealed more complex effects of phages on plasmid dynamics under these conditions, specifically, the temporary maintenance of plasmids at fixation followed by rapid loss. We hypothesized that the population genetic effects of bacteriophages, specifically, selection for phage resistance mutations, may have caused this. Further mathematical modeling and individual-based simulations supported our hypothesis, showing that conjugative plasmids may hitchhike with phage resistance mutations in the bacterial chromosome. PMID:26037122

  17. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer ... This Page Facebook External link – please review ...

  18. Gut microbiota limits heavy metals burden caused by chronic oral exposure.

    PubMed

    Breton, Jérôme; Daniel, Catherine; Dewulf, Joëlle; Pothion, Stéphanie; Froux, Nathalie; Sauty, Mathieu; Thomas, Patrick; Pot, Bruno; Foligné, Benoît

    2013-10-24

    Environmental exposure to pollutants such as heavy metal(s) is responsible for various altered physiological functions which are detrimental for health. The gut microbiota is critical for intestinal homeostasis but its role on xenobiotic handling is not fully understood, especially when continuous sub-chronic exposure is addressed. We first confirmed the essential role of the intestinal microbiome to limit heavy metal body burden by using germ-free mice following 6-weeks oral exposure. Significant increases of cadmium and lead absorption and dissemination in blood and target organs were measured in germ-free mice when compared with conventional specific pathogen free (SPF) mice. Besides the "barrier" function of the luminal microbiota, this may involve specific host-genes such as metallothioneins, which are differentially expressed in the gastrointestinal tract of each group of mice. Considering genes relevant for divalent metal transporters and oxidative pathways, significant differences in basal gene expression were measured between control and germ-free mice. Moreover, the magnitude of induction of these genes upon stimulation by heavy metals varied greatly depending on the dose and type of metal as well as the microbial status of the animal. Collectively, these data illustrate the complex host-microbes interplay occurring with environmental pollutants inside the gut. PMID:23916686

  19. Oral Myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

  20. Conditions for diffusion-limited and reaction-limited recombination in nanostructured solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari-Rad, Mehdi; Department of Physics, University of Shahrood, Shahrood ; Anta, Juan A.; Arzi, Ezatollah

    2014-04-07

    The performance of Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) and related devices made of nanostructured semiconductors relies on a good charge separation, which in turn is achieved by favoring charge transport against recombination. Although both processes occur at very different time scales, hence ensuring good charge separation, in certain cases the kinetics of transport and recombination can be connected, either in a direct or an indirect way. In this work, the connection between electron transport and recombination in nanostructured solar cells is studied both theoretically and by Monte Carlo simulation. Calculations using the Multiple-Trapping model and a realistic trap distribution for nanostructured TiO{sub 2} show that for attempt-to-jump frequencies higher than 10{sup 11}–10{sup 13} Hz, the system adopts a reaction limited (RL) regime, with a lifetime which is effectively independent from the speed of the electrons in the transport level. For frequencies lower than those, and depending on the concentration of recombination centers in the material, the system enters a diffusion-limited regime (DL), where the lifetime increases if the speed of free electrons decreases. In general, the conditions for RL or DL recombination depend critically on the time scale difference between recombination kinetics and free-electron transport. Hence, if the former is too rapid with respect to the latter, the system is in the DL regime and total thermalization of carriers is not possible. In the opposite situation, a RL regime arises. Numerical data available in the literature, and the behavior of the lifetime with respect to (1) density of recombination centers and (2) probability of recombination at a given center, suggest that a typical DSC in operation stays in the RL regime with complete thermalization, although a transition to the DL regime may occur for electrolytes or hole conductors where recombination is especially rapid or where there is a larger dispersion of energies of electron acceptors.

  1. Bacterial diversity in saliva and oral health-related conditions: the Hisayama Study

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Toru; Kageyama, Shinya; Furuta, Michiko; Tsuboi, Hidenori; Takeuchi, Kenji; Shibata, Yukie; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Akifusa, Sumio; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    This population-based study determined the salivary microbiota composition of 2,343 adult residents of Hisayama town, Japan, using 16S rRNA gene next-generation high-throughput sequencing. Of 550 identified species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 72 were common, in ≥75% of all individuals, as well as in ≥75% of the individuals in the lowest quintile of phylogenetic diversity (PD). These “core” OTUs constituted 90.9 ± 6.1% of each microbiome. The relative abundance profiles of 22 of the core OTUs with mean relative abundances ≥1% were stratified into community type I and community type II by partitioning around medoids clustering. Multiple regression analysis revealed that a lower PD was associated with better conditions for oral health, including a lower plaque index, absence of decayed teeth, less gingival bleeding, shallower periodontal pockets and not smoking, and was also associated with tooth loss. By contrast, multiple Poisson regression analysis demonstrated that community type II, as characterized by a higher ratio of the nine dominant core OTUs, including Neisseria flavescens, was implicated in younger age, lower body mass index, fewer teeth with caries experience, and not smoking. Our large-scale data analyses reveal variation in the salivary microbiome among Japanese adults and oral health-related conditions associated with the salivary microbiome. PMID:26907866

  2. Bacterial diversity in saliva and oral health-related conditions: the Hisayama Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshita, Toru; Kageyama, Shinya; Furuta, Michiko; Tsuboi, Hidenori; Takeuchi, Kenji; Shibata, Yukie; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Akifusa, Sumio; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2016-02-01

    This population-based study determined the salivary microbiota composition of 2,343 adult residents of Hisayama town, Japan, using 16S rRNA gene next-generation high-throughput sequencing. Of 550 identified species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 72 were common, in ≥75% of all individuals, as well as in ≥75% of the individuals in the lowest quintile of phylogenetic diversity (PD). These “core” OTUs constituted 90.9 ± 6.1% of each microbiome. The relative abundance profiles of 22 of the core OTUs with mean relative abundances ≥1% were stratified into community type I and community type II by partitioning around medoids clustering. Multiple regression analysis revealed that a lower PD was associated with better conditions for oral health, including a lower plaque index, absence of decayed teeth, less gingival bleeding, shallower periodontal pockets and not smoking, and was also associated with tooth loss. By contrast, multiple Poisson regression analysis demonstrated that community type II, as characterized by a higher ratio of the nine dominant core OTUs, including Neisseria flavescens, was implicated in younger age, lower body mass index, fewer teeth with caries experience, and not smoking. Our large-scale data analyses reveal variation in the salivary microbiome among Japanese adults and oral health-related conditions associated with the salivary microbiome.

  3. Oral complementary medicine and alternative practitioner use varies across chronic conditions and attitudes to risk

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Robert J; Appleton, Sarah L; Cole, Antonia; Gill, Tiffany K; Taylor, Anne W; Hill, Catherine L

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether chronic conditions and patient factors, such as risk perception and decision-making preferences, are associated with complementary medicine and alternative practitioner use in a representative longitudinal population cohort. Participants and setting Analysis of data from Stage 2 of the North West Adelaide Health Study of 3161 adults who attended a study clinic visit in 20042006. The main outcome measures were the medications brought by participants to the study clinic visit, chronic health conditions, attitudes to risk, levels of satisfaction with conventional medicine, and preferred decision-making style. Results At least one oral complementary medicine was used by 27.9% of participants, and 7.3% were visiting alternative practitioners (naturopath, osteopath). Oral complementary medicine use was significantly associated with arthritis, osteoporosis, and mental health conditions, but not with other chronic conditions. Any pattern of complementary medicine use was generally significantly associated with female gender, age at least 45 years, patient-driven decision-making preferences (odds ratio [OR] 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.081.77), and frequent general practitioner visits (>five per year; OR 3.62, 95% CI: 2.136.17). Alternative practitioner visitors were younger, with higher levels of education (diploma/trade [OR 1.88, 95% CI: 1.282.76], bachelors degree [OR 1.77, 95% CI: 1.112.82], income >$80,000 (OR 2.28, 95% CI: 1.264.11), female gender (OR 3.15, 95% CI: 2.194.52), joint pain not diagnosed as arthritis (OR 1.68, 95% CI: 1.172.41), moderate to severe depressive symptoms (OR 2.15, 95% CI: 1.044.46), and risk-taking behavior (3.26, 1.805.92), or low-to-moderate risk aversion (OR 2.08, 95% CI: 1.264.11). Conclusion Although there is widespread use of complementary medicines in the Australian community, there are differing patterns of use between those using oral complementary medicines and those using alternative practitioners. PMID:21152252

  4. Biological effects of extreme environmental conditions. [considering limits of biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imshenetskiy, A. A.

    1975-01-01

    Actions of extreme physical and chemical space factors on microorganisms and plants are elaborated in order to establish limits for the biosphere. Considered are effects of low and high temperatures; ionizing and ultraviolet radiation; various gases; and effects of vibration, desiccation and acceleration.

  5. Evaluation of the antineoplastic activity of gallic acid in oral squamous cell carcinoma under hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Talita A; Farias, Lucyana C; Fraga, Carlos A; Feltenberger, John D; Melo, Geraldo A; Coletta, Ricardo D; Souza Santos, Sergio H; de Paula, Alfredo M B; Guimaraes, Andre L

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and test a theoretical model that could explain the mechanism of action of gallic acid (GA) in the oral squamous cell carcinoma context for the first time. The theoretical model was developed using bioinformatics and interaction network analysis to evaluate the effect of GA on oral squamous cell carcinoma. In a second step to confirm theoretical results, migration, invasion, proliferation, and gene expression (Col1A1, E-cadherin, HIF-1α, and caspase-3) were performed under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Our study indicated that treatment with GA resulted in the inhibition of cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in neoplastic cells. Observation of the molecular mechanism showed that GA upregulates E-cadherin expression and downregulates Col1A1 and HIF-1α expression, suggesting that GA might be a potential anticancer compound. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that GA significantly reduces cell proliferation, invasion, and migration by increasing E-cadherin and repressing Col1A1. PMID:26849170

  6. 33 CFR 330.4 - Conditions, limitations, and restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... basis for suspension, modification, or revocation as outlined in 33 CFR 330.5. Otherwise, such attempted... comply with the provisions of 33 CFR 325.4. In the latter case, the conditioned 401 water quality... event shall the period exceed one (1) year (see 33 CFR 325.2(b)(1)(ii)). Upon receipt of an...

  7. 33 CFR 330.4 - Conditions, limitations, and restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... basis for suspension, modification, or revocation as outlined in 33 CFR 330.5. Otherwise, such attempted... comply with the provisions of 33 CFR 325.4. In the latter case, the conditioned 401 water quality... event shall the period exceed one (1) year (see 33 CFR 325.2(b)(1)(ii)). Upon receipt of an...

  8. 33 CFR 330.4 - Conditions, limitations, and restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... basis for suspension, modification, or revocation as outlined in 33 CFR 330.5. Otherwise, such attempted... comply with the provisions of 33 CFR 325.4. In the latter case, the conditioned 401 water quality... event shall the period exceed one (1) year (see 33 CFR 325.2(b)(1)(ii)). Upon receipt of an...

  9. 33 CFR 330.4 - Conditions, limitations, and restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... basis for suspension, modification, or revocation as outlined in 33 CFR 330.5. Otherwise, such attempted... comply with the provisions of 33 CFR 325.4. In the latter case, the conditioned 401 water quality... event shall the period exceed one (1) year (see 33 CFR 325.2(b)(1)(ii)). Upon receipt of an...

  10. 33 CFR 330.4 - Conditions, limitations, and restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... basis for suspension, modification, or revocation as outlined in 33 CFR 330.5. Otherwise, such attempted... comply with the provisions of 33 CFR 325.4. In the latter case, the conditioned 401 water quality... event shall the period exceed one (1) year (see 33 CFR 325.2(b)(1)(ii)). Upon receipt of an...

  11. Conditioning in Stuttering Therapy: Applications and Limitations. Publication No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkweather, C. Woodruff, Ed.

    Presented are seven papers given at a conference on the application of behavior modification techniques to the treatment of stuttering. An introduction to the papers gives an overview of behavior modification. The two papers of Part I present two approaches to stuttering therapy, one of which is based on operant conditioning and the other on…

  12. The Limits of Knowledge Management in Contemporary Corporate Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrick, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on Jean-François Lyotard's (1984) seminal study "The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge" to reflect on two macro-level catastrophes: the global financial crisis (GFC) of 2009 (and its continuing effects throughout the Eurozone and elsewhere) and Fukushima. These two case studies probe aspects of these grand…

  13. 14 CFR 125.221 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... airplane that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any propeller, windshield, stabilizing or control surface... pilot may take off an airplane any time conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be... is a check to make sure the wings and control surfaces are free of frost, ice, or snow. (2)...

  14. 14 CFR 125.221 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... airplane that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any propeller, windshield, stabilizing or control surface... pilot may take off an airplane any time conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be... is a check to make sure the wings and control surfaces are free of frost, ice, or snow. (2)...

  15. 14 CFR 125.221 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... airplane that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any propeller, windshield, stabilizing or control surface... pilot may take off an airplane any time conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be... is a check to make sure the wings and control surfaces are free of frost, ice, or snow. (2)...

  16. 14 CFR 125.221 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... airplane that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any propeller, windshield, stabilizing or control surface... pilot may take off an airplane any time conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be... is a check to make sure the wings and control surfaces are free of frost, ice, or snow. (2)...

  17. The Limits of Knowledge Management in Contemporary Corporate Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrick, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on Jean-Franois Lyotard's (1984) seminal study "The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge" to reflect on two macro-level catastrophes: the global financial crisis (GFC) of 2009 (and its continuing effects throughout the Eurozone and elsewhere) and Fukushima. These two case studies probe aspects of these grand

  18. Autofluorescence guided diagnostic evaluation of suspicious oral mucosal lesions: opportunities, limitations, and pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneswaran, Nadarajah

    2011-03-01

    Wide-filed autofluorescence examination is currently considered as a standard of care for screening and diagnostic evaluation of early neoplastic changes of the skin, cervix, lung, bladder, gastrointestinal tract and oral cavity. Naturally occurring fluorophores within the tissue absorb UV and visible light and can re-emit some of this light at longer wavelengths in the form of fluorescence. This non-invasive tissue autofluorescence imaging is used in optical diagnostics, especially in the early detection of cancer. Usually, malignant transformation is associated with thickening of the epithelium, enhanced cellular density due to increased nuclear cytoplasmic ratio which may attenuate the excitation leading to a decrease in collagen autofluorescence. Hence, dysplastic and cancerous tissues often exhibit decreased blue-green autofluorescence and appear darker compared to uninvolved mucosa. Currently, there are three commercially available devices to examine tissue autofluorescence in the oral cavity. In this study we used the oral cancer screening device IdentafiTM 3000 to examine the tissue reflectance and autofluorescence of PML and confounding lesions of the oral cavity. Wide-field autofluorescence imaging enables rapid inspection of large mucosal surfaces, to aid in recognition of suspicious lesions and may also help in discriminate the PML (class 1) from some of the confounding lesions (class II). However, the presence of inflammation or pigments is also associated with loss of stromal autofluorescence, and may give rise to false-positive results with widefield fluorescence imaging. Clinicians who use these autofluorescence based oral cancer screening devices should be aware about the benign oral mucosal lesions that may give false positivity so that unnecessary patient's anxiety and the need for scalpel biopsy can be eliminated.

  19. Is oral bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw an endemic condition?

    PubMed

    Diz, P; Limeres, J; Fedele, S; Seoane, J; Diniz, M; Feijoo, J F

    2012-02-01

    Since the introduction of bisphosphonates to treat diseases that affect bone remodelling, there has been an increasing number of cases of bisphosphonate (BP)-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). Epidemiological data regarding BRONJ vary widely between studies, and a number of potential methodological biases have been detected. In some small preliminary studies, single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with an increased risk of BRONJ among cancer patients have been identified. However, genetic susceptibility to oral BP-related BRONJ has not previously been discussed. We suggest that epidemiological variability could be related to the existence of a susceptibility factor particularly prevalent in the population of a well-defined geographical region. To support our hypothesis we performed a search for published case series, only including those with at least 10 patients detected in a single city or a delimited geographical region; this showed that 55% of reports came from Mediterranean countries such as Italy, Israel, Spain and France. The finding does not appear to be conditioned by publication bias. Furthermore, conditions such as classic Kaposi sarcoma and beta-thalassaemia, though not exclusive to the Mediterranean region, also have a high prevalence in that area. We speculate that some of the patients included in the selected US and Australian series may be of Spanish or Italian descent. With an ageing population, the prevalence of osteoporosis will increase, and the number of cases of oral BP-related BRONJ may rise exponentially. Identification of risk groups with susceptibility to BRONJ will arise caution when prescribing BPs and will allow new preventive and therapeutic strategies to be developed. PMID:22136947

  20. Operating condition limitations of high density QCW arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junghans, Jeremy; Levy, Joseph; Feeler, Ryan

    2012-03-01

    Northrop Grumman Cutting Edge Optronics (NGCEO) has developed a laser diode array package with minimal bar-tobar spacing. These High Density Stack (HDS) packages allow for a power density increase on the order of ~ 2.5x when compared to industry-standard arrays. Power densities as high as 15 kW/cm2 can be achieved when operated at 200 W/bar. This work provides a detailed description of the duty factor, pulse width and power limitations of high density arrays. The absence of the interposing heatsinks requires that all of the heat generated by the interior bars must travel through the adjacent bars to the electrical contacts. This results in limitations to the allowable operating envelope of the HDS arrays. Thermal effects such as wavelength shifts across large HDS arrays are discussed. An overview of recent HDS design and manufacturing improvements is also presented. These improvements result in reliable operation at higher power densities and increased duty factors. A comparison of the effect of bar geometry on HDS performance is provided. Test data from arrays featuring these improvements based on both full 1 cm wide diode bars as well as 3 mm wide mini-bars is also presented.

  1. [Oral hypoglycemic drugs in chronic kidney disease: which limitations in the clinical setting].

    PubMed

    Granata, Antonio; Insalaco, Monica; Di Nicolò, Pierpaolo; Scarfia, Viviana R; Russo, Leo; D'anna, Giuseppe; Lentini, Paolo; Fiorini, Fulvio; Fatuzzo, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    A large amount of recent epidemiological studies have shown the worldwide growth on the incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus type II (DM2), especially in industrialized countries where DM2 is the most frequent cause of chronic kidney disease. Diabetic nephropathy progression to ESRD (End Stage Renal Disease) may be slowed down only with a tight glycemic control, since no hypoglycemic drugs have been shown to possess renoprotective effects. Treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents should be closely and regularly monitored in patients with diabetic nephropathy since the decline of renal function below 60 ml/min of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) could cause multiple pharmacokinetic alterations. It may expose the patient to serious side effects if cautious dose reduction or even withdrawal of these drugs is not considered. Pharmacological approaches to the treatment of diabetes type 2 include the traditional oral hypoglycemic drugs (insulin sensitizers, insulin secretagogues and drugs inhibiting the absorption of glucose), incretin system drugs (orally or intravenously administered) and insulin therapy, if these drugs are insufficient or are contraindicated. The objective of this review is to evaluate the evidence regarding the use of oral hypoglycemic agents (with particular attention to the DPP-4 inhibitors) in diabetes type 2 with chronic kidney disease stage III- IV and ESRD, while in case of eGFR > 60 ml / min no dosage adjustment is usually required. PMID:24671840

  2. Oral Administration of Fermented Probiotics Improves the Condition of Feces in Adult Horses

    PubMed Central

    ISHIZAKA, Saori; MATSUDA, Akira; AMAGAI, Yosuke; OIDA, Kumiko; JANG, Hyosun; UEDA, Yuko; TAKAI, Masaki; TANAKA, Akane; MATSUDA, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effects of probiotics on horses are still controversial. The present study was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study designed to evaluate the ability of probiotics to improve intestinal conditions in adult horses. Fermented probiotics were administered to 10 healthy adult geldings for 28 days. The clinical condition of the horses was monitored daily, and the blood and feces were biochemically analyzed every 14 days. In the probiotic-treated group, the concentration of carboxylic acids in the feces was increased at days 14 and 28. In contrast to the fecal pH in the control group, which increased at days 14 and 28, the fecal pH in the probiotic-treated group did not increase. Additionally, the relative amounts of enteropathogenic bacterial DNA were diminished in the probiotic-treated group. These results suggest that probiotic bacteria proliferated in the equine intestine. No instances of abnormal clinical conditions or abnormal values in blood tests were observed throughout the study. Oral administration of fermented probiotics may have the ability to improve the intestinal environment biochemically and microbiologically without the risk of adverse effects. PMID:25558179

  3. Family history of cancer, personal history of medical conditions and risk of oral cavity cancer in France: the ICARE study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of family history of cancer and personal history of other medical conditions in the aetiology of the oral cavity cancer in France. Methods We used data from 689 cases of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and 3481 controls included in a population-based case–control study, the ICARE study. Odds-ratios (ORs) associated with family history of cancer and personal medical conditions and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression and were adjusted for age, gender, area of residence, education, body mass index, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. Results Personal history of oral candidiasis was related to a significantly increased risk of oral cavity cancer (OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.1-12.1). History of head and neck cancers among the first-degree relatives was associated with an OR of 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-2.8). The risk increased with the number of first-degree relatives with head and neck cancer. Conclusion A family history of head and neck cancer is a marker of an increased risk of oral cavity cancer and should be taken into account to target prevention efforts and screening. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between oral cavity cancer and personal history of candidiasis. PMID:24286495

  4. A double blind, randomised placebo controlled trial of topical 2% viscous lidocaine in improving oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Painful infectious mouth conditions are a common presentation to emergency departments. Although self limiting, painful ulcerative lesions and inflamed mucosa can decrease oral intake and can lead to dehydration. Oral analgesia is of limited efficacy and is often refused by the patient. Despite widespread use of oral 2% viscous lidocaine for many years, there is little evidence for its efficacy as an analgesic and in aiding oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions. This study aims to establish the effectiveness of 2% viscous lidocaine in increasing oral intake in these children by comparing it with placebo. Methods/Design This study is a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial of children between 6 months and 8 years of age with painful infectious mouth conditions defined as gingivostomatitis (herpetic or non herpetic), ulcerative pharyngitis, herpangina and hand foot and mouth disease as assessed by the treating clinician in association with a history of poor oral fluid intake. It will be conducted at a single tertiary paediatric emergency department in Melbourne Australia. 20 patients have already been randomised to receive 2% lidocaine or placebo in a pilot study to determine the sample size in a preplanned adaptive design. A further 80 patients will be randomised to receive either 2% lidocaine or placebo. The placebo agent is identical to lidocaine in terms of appearance, flavour and smell. All clinical and research staff involved, patients and their parents will be blinded to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint is the amount of fluid ingested by each child, expressed in ml/kg, within 60 minutes from the time of administration of the study mixture. Secondary endpoints are the proportion of patients ingesting 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg at 30 and 60 minutes after drug administration and the incidence of adverse events. Longer term outcomes will include the proportion of patients requiring hospital admission and length of emergency department stay. Discussion This trial will define the role of 2% lidocaine in the treatment of painful infectious mouth conditions Trial registration The trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry - ACTRN12609000566235. PMID:22104033

  5. Prosthetic rehabilitation of edentulous patient with limited oral access: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Arora, Aman; Yadav, Reena

    2012-07-01

    Microstomia may result from surgical treatment of orofacial neoplasms, cleft lips, maxillofacial trauma, burns, radiotherapy or scleroderma. A maximal oral opening that is smaller than the size of a complete denture can make prosthetic treatment challenging. This clinical report presents the prosthodontic management of a total edentulous patient with microstomia. Sectional mandibular and maxillary trays and foldable mandibular and maxillary denture were fabricated for the total edentulous patient. PMID:23293498

  6. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart T to... - Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to Hyperbaric Conditions A Appendix A to Subpart T to Part 1910 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor... STANDARDS Commercial Diving Operations Pt. 1910, Subpt. T, App. A Appendix A to Subpart T to Part 1910—Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions The...

  7. Lysis of dysplastic but not normal oral keratinocytes and tissue-engineered epithelia with conditionally replicating adenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Gaballah, Kamis; Hills, Allison; Curiel, David; Hallden, Gunnel; Harrison, Paul; Partridge, Max

    2007-08-01

    There is no effective medical treatment for oral precancer, and surgery to remove these lesions is imprecise because abnormal mucosa extends beyond the visible lesion. Development of vectors for tumor-selective viral replication has been a significant advance, and viral lysis is well suited to destruction of oral precancerous mucosa. To facilitate evaluation of new treatments, we engineered dysplastic oral epithelium using keratinocytes isolated from dysplastic lesions. We show that these model systems recapitulate the key characteristics of the clinical lesions closely, and that topical delivery of the conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRAd) dl922-947 can lyse tissue-engineered epithelia that show mild, moderate, or severe dysplasia, but normal oral epithelia are very resistant to this treatment. The lytic effect is determined by various factors, including the grade and proliferation index of the dysplastic epithelia. The presence of suprabasal cycling cells, expression of the coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR), the transcription cofactor p300, and other aberrations that affect the regulation of the cell cycle or apoptosis and promote viral replication may also be important. The ability of dl922-947 to destroy engineered oral dysplasia was significantly greater than that observed using wild-type adenovirus, d/1520, or viruses modified to bypass cell entry dependent on the presence of CAR. Evidence of infection in clinical dysplastic lesions was also shown ex vivo using tissue explants. We conclude that dl922-947 may provide an efficient molecular cytotoxic to dissolve oral dysplastic lesions. PMID:17671197

  8. Health investment behaviours and oral/gingival health condition, a cross-sectional study among Swedish 19-year olds.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Jessica S; Wennström, Jan L; Lindgren, Björn; Petzold, Max; Östberg, Anna-Lena; Abrahamsson, Kajsa H

    2016-05-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that certain individual, environmental and lifestyle factors are positively associated with beneficial health investment behaviours and oral/periodontal health among adolescents. Methods Five hundred and six randomly selected 19-year old subjects living in two different areas (Fyrbodal and Skaraborg) in the county council of Västra Götaland, Sweden participated in a clinical examination and answered questionnaires covering psycho-social and health behavioural issues. Two oral-health models were estimated with gingivitis score as an objective and self-perceived oral health as a subjective indicator. Three health- investment behaviour models were designed with indicators directly related to oral health and two with indicators related to general health as well. The explanatory variables included gender, upper secondary education programme, native country, living area, general self-efficacy and parents' education level. Results In the objective oral-health model, theoretical studies and living in the Skaraborg area were both positively associated with a lower gingivitis score. For the subjective oral-health indicator, none of the explanatory variables showed statistical significance. In the investment-behaviour model with 'tooth-brushing ≥ 2 times daily' as a health indicator, female gender and theoretical studies showed statistically significant associations. With the indicators 'no/few missed dental appointments', 'no tobacco use' and 'weekly exercise', theoretical studies were statistically significant and positively associated. In the investment model with 'perceived oral health care attention' as an indicator, a high score of general self-efficacy was significantly associated with the feeling of taking good care of the teeth. Conclusions Individual, environmental and lifestyle factors are associated with young individuals' oral health investment behaviours and gingival health conditions. PMID:26599291

  9. Oral Assessment and Postgraduate Medical Examinations: Establishing Conditions for Validity, Reliability and Fairness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Muhammed Ashraf; Joughin, Gordon Rowland; Memon, Breda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine the practice of oral assessment in postgraduate medical education in the context of the core assessment constructs of validity, reliability and fairness. Although oral assessment has a long history in the certification process of medical specialists and is a well-established part of such proceedings for a…

  10. Children's trust in unexpected oral versus printed suggestions: limitations of the power of print.

    PubMed

    Eyden, Julie; Robinson, Elizabeth J; Einav, Shiri

    2014-11-01

    Children have a bias to trust spoken testimony, yet early readers have an even stronger bias to trust print. Here, we ask how enduring is the influence of printed testimony: Can the learning be applied to new scenarios? Using hybrid pictures more dominant in one animal species (e.g., squirrel) than another (e.g., rabbit), we examined 3-6-year-olds' (N = 130) acceptance of an unexpected, non-dominant label suggested only orally or via print. Consistent with previous findings, early readers, but not pre-readers, accepted printed labels more frequently than when spoken. Children were then presented with identical but unlabelled hybrid exemplars and frequently applied the non-dominant labels to these. Despite early readers' prior greater acceptance of text, when oral suggestions were accepted they retained a greater influence. Findings highlight potential implications for educators regarding knowledge being applied to new scenarios: For early readers, unexpected information from text may be fragile, while a greater confidence might be placed in such information gained from spoken testimony. PMID:24986692

  11. Systemic conditions, oral findings and dental management of chronic renal failure patients: general considerations and case report.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Mahmud Juma Abdalla Abdel; Dummer, Claus Dieter; Pinto, Lourenço Schmidt

    2006-01-01

    Chronic renal failure is a relatively common systemic disease. Systemic abnormalities such as anemia, platelet disorders and hypertension as well as oral manifestations including xerostomia, uremic stomatitis, periodontal disease and maxillary and mandibular radiographic alterations can be observed in individuals with chronic renal disease. In view of its frequent occurrence and the need of knowledge by dentists dealing with this condition, this paper discusses the most important issues regarding chronic renal failure, addressing its systemic and oral manifestations and the dental management of chronic renal patients. A case report is presented. PMID:16924347

  12. Effects of Orally Administered Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt on Dry Skin Conditions in Mice and Healthy Female Subjects.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masahiko; Kamimura, Ayako; Watanabe, Fumiko; Kamiya, Toshikazu; Watanabe, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Etsushi; Fukagawa, Mitsuhiko; Hasumi, Keiji; Suzuki, Eriko

    2015-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a coenzyme involved in the redox-cycling system. The supplemental use of PQQ has been examined based on its properties as an antioxidant and redox modulator. Although an animal study on deficiency of PQQ suggested that PQQ contributes to skin conditions, its efficacy in humans has not been reported. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of orally administered PQQ on skin moisture, viscoelasticity, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) both in dry skin mouse models and in healthy female subjects with a subjective symptom of dry skin. In our dry skin mouse model study, oral intake of PQQ (0.0089%, w/w, in the diet for 6 wk) significantly decreased the number of mast cells in the dermis and the number of CD3⁺ T-cells in the epidermis. In our human study, oral intake of PQQ (20 mg/d for 8 wk) significantly inhibited the increase in TEWL on the forearm. Finally, subject questionnaires showed positive impressions for the improvement of skin conditions. These results suggest that oral intake of PQQ improves skin conditions both in female subjects with dry skin and in mice with a compromised skin barrier function. PMID:26226961

  13. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Y of... - Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions A Appendix A to Subpart Y of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor... REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Diving Pt. 1926, Subpt. Y, App. A Appendix A to Subpart Y of Part...

  14. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Y of... - Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions A Appendix A to Subpart Y of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor... REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Diving Pt. 1926, Subpt. Y, App. A Appendix A to Subpart Y of Part...

  15. Relationship between oral clinical conditions and daily performances among young adults in India - a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Batra, Mehak; Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Daryani, Hemasha; Ramesh, Gayathri

    2015-12-01

    Objective of the present study was to investigate relationship between oral health-related quality of life using Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OIDP) scale and specific clinical dental measures. A cross sectional descriptive survey was conducted among 800 students. Oral health status and impacts were assessed using WHO guidelines and OIDP index respectively. Chi square test and multiple logistic regressions were employed for statistical analysis. Participants with caries were significantly (p?0.05) more likely to have an impact on cleaning (OR=2.487) and sleeping and relaxing (OR=8.996). Similarly participants with oral mucosal conditions were more likely to have an impact on eating (OR=3.97), cleaning (OR=2.966) and physical activities (OR=11.190). Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) impacted on cleaning (OR=2.134), emotional stability (OR=3.957) and social contact (OR=3.21). OIDP Index showed acceptable psychometric properties in the context of an oral health survey. Subjects presented a strong and consistent relationship between dental status and perceived impacts. PMID:25814396

  16. Fructose- and glucose-conditioned preferences in FVB mice: strain differences in post-oral sugar appetition.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2014-12-15

    Recent studies indicate that, unlike glucose, fructose has little or no post-oral preference conditioning actions in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. The present study determined whether this is also the case for FVB mice, which overconsume fructose relative to B6 mice. In experiment 1, FVB mice strongly preferred a noncaloric 0.1% sucralose + 0.1% saccharin (S+S) solution to 8% fructose in a 2-day choice test but switched their preference to fructose after separate experience with the two sweeteners. Other FVB mice displayed a stronger preference for 8% glucose over S+S. In a second experiment, ad libitum-fed FVB mice trained 24 h/day acquired a significant preference for a flavor (CS+) paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of 16% fructose over a different flavor (CS-) paired with IG water infusions. IG fructose infusions also conditioned flavor preferences in food-restricted FVB mice trained 1 h/day. IG infusions of 16% glucose conditioned stronger preferences in FVB mice trained 24- or 1 h/day. Thus, fructose has post-oral flavor conditioning effects in FVB mice, but these effects are less pronounced than those produced by glucose. Further studies of the differential post-oral conditioning effects of fructose and glucose in B6 and FVB mice should enhance our understanding of the physiological processes involved in sugar reward. PMID:25320345

  17. Oral conditions in renal disorders and treatment considerations – A review for pediatric dentist

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Megha; Gupta, Mridul; Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the current understanding of the oral and dental aspects of chronic renal disease (CRD). A PubMed literature search was performed and all relevant studies were assessed. As the number of people suffering from CRD increases worldwide, dentists are expected to encounter more patients with CRD who need oral care. In children, CRD can elicit a wide spectrum of oral manifestations in the hard and soft tissues. Bleeding, altered drug metabolism, impaired immune function, and an increased risk of dentally induced bacterial endocarditis are some important features that require attention. Dental management of patients with CRD requires that clinicians appreciate that multiple systems can be affected by the disease. Dentists should consult with nephrologists regarding the specific precautions required for each patient. Medical treatments in these patients may need to be postponed due to an unfavorable oral health status or potential risk of life-threatening infection after surgery. Improving oral hygiene and performing necessary dental and oral treatment before hemodialysis or transplantation may prevent endocarditis and septicemia in these patients. Hence, treatment plans should be formulated to restore the patient’s dentition and protect them from potentially severe infections of dental origin. PMID:26236123

  18. What Conditions Limit Sports Participation? Experience with 10,540 Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnes, Scott A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Researchers evaluated results from five years of preseason examinations on student athletes to determine which conditions limited sports participation. Hypertension, ophthalmologic and genitourinary abnormalities, and musculoskeletal problems were the most common limiting conditions. Preseason examinations need to follow guidelines based on…

  19. Optimal allocation of the limited oral cholera vaccine supply between endemic and epidemic settings

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sean M.; Lessler, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently established a global stockpile of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) to be preferentially used in epidemic response (reactive campaigns) with any vaccine remaining after 1 year allocated to endemic settings. Hence, the number of cholera cases or deaths prevented in an endemic setting represents the minimum utility of these doses, and the optimal risk-averse response to any reactive vaccination request (i.e. the minimax strategy) is one that allocates the remaining doses between the requested epidemic response and endemic use in order to ensure that at least this minimum utility is achieved. Using mathematical models, we find that the best minimax strategy is to allocate the majority of doses to reactive campaigns, unless the request came late in the targeted epidemic. As vaccine supplies dwindle, the case for reactive use of the remaining doses grows stronger. Our analysis provides a lower bound for the amount of OCV to keep in reserve when responding to any request. These results provide a strategic context for the fulfilment of requests to the stockpile, and define allocation strategies that minimize the number of OCV doses that are allocated to suboptimal situations. PMID:26423441

  20. Concurrent access to two concentrations of orally delivered phencyclidine: effects of feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Carroll, M E

    1987-05-01

    Two experiments addressed the effects of food satiation and deprivation on oral self-administration of two concurrently available phencyclidine concentrations. In the first experiment, 8 rhesus monkeys self-administered either of two concentrations of phencyclidine ("PCP, angel dust") and water under concurrent fixed-ratio 16 schedules. One concentration was always held constant (0.25 mg/mL) while a series of other phencyclidine concentrations, ranging from 0 (water) to 1.0 mg/mL, was presented in a nonsystematic order. Initially the monkeys were tested while food satiated, and the procedure was then repeated during food deprivation. The monkeys usually selected the higher concentration within the first few minutes of the session, indicating that taste and/or other immediate postingestional effects were important factors. Contrary to a number of previous reports, there were no consistent differences across subjects in the mean number of liquid deliveries or mean drug intake (mg/kg) during food satiation and deprivation. However, for all monkeys the within-session time course of responding during food satiation consistently differed from that during deprivation. A second experiment assessed whether the failure to find consistent differences in drug intake during food satiation and deprivation had been due to the history of concurrent access to different phencyclidine concentrations or to the extended experience with phencyclidine under food-satiation conditions. Six additional monkeys (Group 2) were exposed to the phencyclidine self-administration procedure (during food satiation and deprivation) for the same length of time as the monkeys in Experiment 1 (Group 1), except they received only concurrent access to phencyclidine (0.25 mg/mL) and water. Both groups then received concurrent access to phencyclidine and water during five repeated cycles of food deprivation and satiation. There were also marked individual differences in Group 2: During food satiation, 2 of the monkeys' responding increased, 1 showed no change, and 3 decreased. Examination of a number of historical variables indicated that the greater the percentage of total sessions spent during food satiation with phencyclidine available (before these experiments began), the greater the amounts of phencyclidine consumed during food satiation and the smaller the differences in phencyclidine intake when the two feeding conditions were compared. PMID:3612021

  1. [Oral health conditions and systemic diseases prevalence in long term institutionalizated elderly. A cross sectional study in Parma province].

    PubMed

    Bonanini, Mauro; Veronesi, Licia; Colucci, Maria Eugenia; Guidotti, Rebecca; Tanzi, Maria Luisa

    2008-01-01

    People aging 74 years and more are in Parma province about 11,5% of residents. Disability conditions and familiar ties loss frequently let the elderly to recovery in long term home care where quality of care became synonymous of quality of life. To best evaluate oral health conditions in institutionalized elderly and their needs of care, we conducted, between August 2002 and July 2003 a cross-sectional study with clinical oral examinations in 200 long-term patients. Number of teeth, tooth remnants, mucosal findings, edentulousness, level of dental hygiene, needs for operative treatment and prevalence of systemic disease associated were evaluated. Subjects' mean age was 84,4 years (interval 57 _ 105); 59% were edentulous. As reported by several authors, a correlation between edentulousness and cardiovascular disease was found even after controlling for confounding variables (age, sex, smoking habit and Alzheimer disease). PMID:18523492

  2. Oral submucous fibrosis: a premalignant condition in a 14-year-old Indian girl.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Anshula; Kiran, Shital; Dhillon, Steffi; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    A 14-year-old Indian girl presented with difficulty in mouth opening and burning sensation while eating. On examination, blanching of the oral mucosa with diffuse white pigmented lesion of size 3.5 to 2 cm along with melanotic pigmentation was seen on the left buccal mucosa posteriorly. The patient was diagnosed with oral submucous fibrosis. A comprehensive treatment plan was made based on conservative management that included motivation and intense counselling of the patient and her parents so that she quits the habit of chewing areca nut and tobacco, along with systemic treatment of vitamin B complex supplements, antioxidants, multivitamins and oral physiotherapy. We present this case to highlight the difficulties faced by the clinical practitioners in providing treatment because of the taboos and myths associated with surgical treatment modality in rural population as well as to emphasise the menace of increasing consumption and availability of tobacco and areca nut to children. PMID:24334472

  3. Oral submucous fibrosis: a premalignant condition in a 14-year-old Indian girl

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Anshula; Kiran, Shital; Dhillon, Steffi; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    A 14-year-old Indian girl presented with difficulty in mouth opening and burning sensation while eating. On examination, blanching of the oral mucosa with diffuse white pigmented lesion of size 3.5 to 2 cm along with melanotic pigmentation was seen on the left buccal mucosa posteriorly. The patient was diagnosed with oral submucous fibrosis. A comprehensive treatment plan was made based on conservative management that included motivation and intense counselling of the patient and her parents so that she quits the habit of chewing areca nut and tobacco, along with systemic treatment of vitamin B complex supplements, antioxidants, multivitamins and oral physiotherapy. We present this case to highlight the difficulties faced by the clinical practitioners in providing treatment because of the taboos and myths associated with surgical treatment modality in rural population as well as to emphasise the menace of increasing consumption and availability of tobacco and areca nut to children. PMID:24334472

  4. Association of Psychosocial Conditions, Oral Health, and Dietary Variety with Intellectual Activity in Older Community-Dwelling Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examined the factors related to intellectual activity in community-dwelling elderly persons. Methods Self-administered questionnaires mailed to all people aged ≥65 years in a dormitory suburb in Japan (n = 15,210). The response rate was 72.2%. Analytical subjects (n = 8,910) were those who lived independently and completely answered questions about independent and dependent variables and covariates. Independent variables included psychosocial conditions (i.e., social activities, hobbies, and a sense that life is worth living (ikigai)), oral health (i.e., dental health behaviors and oral function evaluated by chewing difficulties, swallowing difficulties, and oral dryness), and dietary variety measured using the dietary variety score (DVS). A dependent variable was intellectual activity measured using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Covariates included age, gender, family structure, pensions, body mass index, alcohol, smoking, medical history, self-rated health, medications, cognitive function, depression, and falling. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for poor intellectual activity. Results Poor intellectual activity was reported by 28.9% of the study population. After adjustment for covariates and independent variables, poor intellectual activity was significantly associated with nonparticipation in social activities (OR = 1.90, 95%CI = 1.61–2.24), having neither hobbies nor ikigai (3.13, 2.55–3.84), having neither regular dental visits nor daily brushing (1.70, 1.35–2.14), the poorest oral function (1.61, 1.31–1.98), and the lowest DVS quartile (1.96, 1.70–2.26). Conclusion These results indicate that psychosocial conditions, oral health, and dietary variety are independently associated with intellectual activity in elderly persons. The factors identified in this study may be used in community health programs for maintaining the intellectual activity ability of the elderly. PMID:26360380

  5. Phase stability limit of c-BN under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic pressure conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Jianwei; Du, Jinglian; Wen, Bin Zhang, Xiangyi; Melnik, Roderick; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2014-04-28

    Phase stability limit of cubic boron nitride (c-BN) has been investigated by the crystal structure search technique. It indicated that this limit is ∼1000 GPa at hydrostatic pressure condition. Above this pressure, c-BN turns into a metastable phase with respect to rocksalt type boron nitride (rs-BN). However, rs-BN cannot be retained at 0 GPa owing to its instability at pressure below 250 GPa. For non-hydrostatic pressure conditions, the phase stability limit of c-BN is substantially lower than that under hydrostatic pressure conditions and it is also dramatically different for other pressure mode.

  6. [The use of the new direct oral anticoagulants among older subjects: The limits of the evidence-based medicine?].

    PubMed

    Vogel, T; Lang, P-O; Kaltenbach, G; Karcher, P

    2015-12-01

    The growing use of direct oral anticoagulants, in particular among older subjects, raises questions about the limits of the evidence-based medicine. The phase III studies that have validated the efficacy and the safety profile of these molecules (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban) in their both indications, the venous thromboembolic disease and the non-valvular atrial fibrillation raise concerns in four major fields: the financial support of pharmaceutical companies, the links of interest for many authors with the industry, the study design (exclusively non-inferiority studies), and the poor representativeness of the older subjects included. All these points are discussed, using data of sub-groups studies, post-marketing studies and recent meta-analysis. The lack of data for the very old subjects, with frailty or comorbidities, remains the main concern from these phase III studies. PMID:26526776

  7. Incidence of WHO Stage 3 and 4 Conditions following Initiation of Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Resource Limited Settings

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Andrea J.; Marshall, Catherine S.; Spelman, Tim; Greig, Jane; Elliot, Julian H.; Shanks, Leslie; Du Cros, Philipp; Casas, Esther C.; Da Fonseca, Marcio Silveria; O’Brien, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the incidence of WHO clinical stage 3 and 4 conditions during early anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in resource limited settings (RLS). Design/Setting A descriptive analysis of routine program data collected prospectively from 25 Médecins Sans Frontières supported HIV treatment programs in eight countries between 2002 and 2010. Subjects/Participants 35,349 study participants with median follow-up on ART of 1.33 years (IQR 0.51–2.41). Outcome Measures Incidence in 100 person-years of WHO stage 3 or 4 conditions during 5 periods after ART initiation. Diagnoses of conditions were made according to WHO criteria and relied upon clinical assessments supported by basic laboratory investigations. Results The incidence of any WHO clinical stage 3 or 4 condition over 3 years was 40.02 per 100 person-years (31.77 for stage 3 and 8.25 for stage 4). The incidence of stage 3 and 4 conditions fell by over 97% between months 0–3 and months 25–36 (77.81 to 2.40 for stage 3 and 28.70 to 0.64 for stage 4). During months 0–3 pulmonary tuberculosis was the most common condition diagnosed in adults (incidence 22.24 per 100 person-years) and children aged 5–14 years (25.76) and oral candidiasis was the most common in children <5 years (25.79). Overall incidences were higher in Africa compared with Asia (43.98 versus 12.97 for stage 3 and 8.98 versus 7.05 for stage 4 conditions, p<0.001). Pulmonary tuberculosis, weight loss, oral and oesophageal candidiasis, chronic diarrhoea, HIV wasting syndrome and severe bacterial infections were more common in Africa. Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection, cryptococcosis, penicilliosis and toxoplasmosis were more common in Asia. Conclusions The incidence of WHO stage 3 and 4 conditions during the early period after ART initiation in RLS is high, but greatly reduces over time. This is likely due to both the benefits of ART and deaths of the sickest patients occurring shortly after ART initiation. Access to appropriate disease prevention tools prior to ART, and early initiation of ART, are important for their prevention. PMID:23284857

  8. Some Aspects of Speech Production under Controlled Conditions of Oral Anaesthesia and Auditory Masking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardcastle, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    Reports on the effects of oral anaesthesia and auditory masking on various aspects of speech articulation as objectively quantified by electropalatography and sound spectrography. The results show changes in speech production caused by altered tactile and auditory feedback. (Author/TL)

  9. Al-hijamah and oral honey for treating thalassemia, conditions of iron overload, and hyperferremia: toward improving the therapeutic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    El Sayed, Salah Mohamed; Baghdadi, Hussam; Abou-Taleb, Ashraf; Mahmoud, Hany Salah; Maria, Reham A; Ahmed, Nagwa S; Helmy Nabo, Manal Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Iron overload causes iron deposition and accumulation in the liver, heart, skin, and other tissues resulting in serious tissue damages. Significant blood clearance from iron and ferritin using wet cupping therapy (WCT) has been reported. WCT is an excretory form of treatment that needs more research efforts. WCT is an available, safe, simple, economic, and time-saving outpatient modality of treatment that has no serious side effects. There are no serious limitations or precautions to discontinue WCT. Interestingly, WCT has solid scientific and medical bases (Taibah mechanism) that explain its effectiveness in treating many disease conditions differing in etiology and pathogenesis. WCT utilizes an excretory physiological principle (pressure-dependent excretion) that resembles excretion through renal glomerular filtration and abscess evacuation. WCT exhibits a percutaneous excretory function that clears blood (through fenestrated skin capillaries) and interstitial fluids from pathological substances without adding a metabolic or detoxification burden on the liver and the kidneys. Interestingly, WCT was reported to decrease serum ferritin (circulating iron stores) significantly by about 22.25% in healthy subjects (in one session) and to decrease serum iron significantly to the level of causing iron deficiency (in multiple sessions). WCT was reported to clear blood significantly of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol, uric acid, inflammatory mediators, and immunoglobulin antibodies (rheumatoid factor). Moreover, WCT was reported to enhance the natural immunity, potentiate pharmacological treatments, and to treat many different disease conditions. There are two distinct methods of WCT: traditional WCT and Al-hijamah (WCT of prophetic medicine). Both start and end with skin sterilization. In traditional WCT, there are two steps, skin scarification followed by suction using plastic cups (double S technique); Al-hijamah is a three-step procedure that includes skin suction using cups, scarification (shartat mihjam in Arabic), and second skin suction (triple S technique). Al-hijamah is a more comprehensive technique and does better than traditional WCT, as Al-hijamah includes two pressure-dependent filtration steps versus one step in traditional WCT. Whenever blood plasma is to be cleared of an excess pathological substance, Al-hijamah is indicated. We will discuss here some reported hematological and therapeutic benefits of Al-hijamah, its medical bases, methodologies, precautions, side effects, contraindications, quantitative evaluation, malpractice, combination with oral honey treatment, and to what extent it may be helpful when treating thalassemia and other conditions of iron overload and hyperferremia. PMID:25382989

  10. Variations in the social impact of oral conditions among older adults in South Australia, Ontario, and North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Slade, G D; Spencer, A J; Locker, D; Hunt, R J; Strauss, R P; Beck, J D

    1996-07-01

    Previous studies among older adults have demonstrated that oral disease frequently leads to dysfunction, discomfort, and disability. This study aimed to assess variations in the social impact of oral conditions among six strata of people aged 65 years and older: residents of metropolitan Adelaide and rural Mt Gambier, South Australia; residents of metropolitan Toronto-North York and non-metropolitan Simcoe-Sudbury counties, Ontario, Canada; and blacks and whites in the Piedmont region of North Carolina (NC), United States. Subjects were participants in three oral epidemiological studies of random samples of the elderly populations in the six strata. Some 1,642 participants completed a 49-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) questionnaire which asked about impacts caused by problems with the teeth, mouth, or dentures during the previous 12 months. The percentage of dentate people reporting impacts fairly often or very often was greatest among NC blacks for 41 of the OHIP items. Two summary variables of social impact were used as dependent variables in bivariate and multivariate least-squares regression analyses. Among dentate people, mean levels of social impact were greatest for NC blacks and lowest for NC whites, while people from South Australia and Ontario had intermediate levels of social impact (P < 0.01). Missing teeth, retained root fragments, root-surface decay, periodontal pockets, and problem-motivated dental visits were associated with higher levels of social impact (P < 0.05), although there persisted a two-fold difference in social impact across the six strata after adjustment for those factors Among edentulous people, there was no statistically significant variation in social impact among strata. The findings suggest that there are social and cultural factors influencing oral health and its social impact, and that those factors differ most between dentate blacks and whites in NC. PMID:8876595

  11. Biomass and cellulosic ethanol production of forage sorghum under limited water conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage sorghum is one of the suggested crops to provide feedstock for biofuel production under water-limited conditions due to its stress tolerance and efficient water use; however, research is needed under these conditions to better understand its energy yield potential. This study presents result...

  12. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  13. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  14. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  15. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  16. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  17. 42 CFR 410.23 - Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.23 Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and limitations on... mellitus. (ii) Individual with a family history of glaucoma. (iii) African-Americans age 50 and over....

  18. 42 CFR 410.23 - Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.23 Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and limitations on... mellitus. (ii) Individual with a family history of glaucoma. (iii) African-Americans age 50 and over....

  19. 29 CFR 2590.701-3 - Limitations on preexisting condition exclusion period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Coverage Portability, Nondiscrimination, and Renewability § 2590.701-3 Limitations on preexisting condition... would otherwise apply to an individual under a group health plan is reduced by the number of days of... plan must reduce the preexisting condition exclusion period that applies to D by the number of days...

  20. Conditional cooling limit for a quantum channel going through an incoherent environment

    PubMed Central

    Straka, Ivo; Miková, Martina; Mičuda, Michal; Dušek, Miloslav; Ježek, Miroslav; Filip, Radim

    2015-01-01

    We propose and experimentally verify a cooling limit for a quantum channel going through an incoherent environment. The environment consists of a large number of independent non-interacting and non-interfering elementary quantum systems – qubits. The qubits travelling through the channel can only be randomly replaced by environmental qubits. We investigate a conditional cooling limit that exploits an additional probing output. The limit specifies when the single-qubit channel is quantum, i.e. it preserves entanglement. It is a fundamental condition for entanglement-based quantum technology. PMID:26568362

  1. Conditional cooling limit for a quantum channel going through an incoherent environment.

    PubMed

    Straka, Ivo; Miková, Martina; Mičuda, Michal; Dušek, Miloslav; Ježek, Miroslav; Filip, Radim

    2015-01-01

    We propose and experimentally verify a cooling limit for a quantum channel going through an incoherent environment. The environment consists of a large number of independent non-interacting and non-interfering elementary quantum systems--qubits. The qubits travelling through the channel can only be randomly replaced by environmental qubits. We investigate a conditional cooling limit that exploits an additional probing output. The limit specifies when the single-qubit channel is quantum, i.e. it preserves entanglement. It is a fundamental condition for entanglement-based quantum technology. PMID:26568362

  2. Inhibitory activity in vitro of probiotic lactobacilli against oral Candida under different fermentation conditions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Q; Stamatova, I; Kari, K; Meurman, J H

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that probiotics positively affect oral health by decreasing gum bleeding and/or reducing salivary counts of certain oral pathogens. Our aim was to investigate the inhibitory effect of six probiotic lactobacilli against opportunistic oral Candida species. Sugar utilisation by both lactobacilli and Candida was also assessed. Agar overlay assay was utilised to study growth inhibition of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112, Lactobacillus brevis CD2, Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB86 and L. bulgaricus LB Lact. The inhibitory effect was measured at pH 5.5, 6.4, and 7.2, respectively, and in the presence of five different carbohydrates in growth medium (glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose, and sorbitol). Growth and final pH values were measured at two-hour time points to 24 h. L. rhamnosus GG showed the strongest inhibitory activity in fructose and glucose medium against C. albicans, followed by L. casei Shirota, L. reuteri SD2112 and L. brevis CD2. None of the lactobacilli tested affected the growth of C. krusei. Only L. rhamnosus GG produced slight inhibitory effect on C. glabrata. The lower pH values led to larger inhibition zones. Sugar fermentation profiles varied between the strains. L. casei Shirota grew in the presence of all sugars tested, whereas L. brevis CD2 could utilise only glucose and fructose. All Candida species metabolised the available sugars but the most rapid growth was observed with C. glabrata. The results suggest that commercially available probiotics differ in their inhibitory activity and carbohydrate utilisation; the above properties are modified by different pH values and sugars with more pronounced inhibition at lower pH. PMID:25380800

  3. Conditioning of the graphite bumper limiter for enhanced confinement discharges in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.; LaMarche, P.H.; Ulrickson, M.; Goldston, R.J.; Heifetz, D.B.; Hill, K.W.; Ramsey, A.T.

    1987-05-01

    A strong pumping effect has been observed with plasma operation on the toroidal graphite bumper limiter on TFTR. The pumping effect was induced by conditioning the limiter with a short series (10 to 20) of low density deuterium- or helium-initiated discharges. The density decay constant (tau/sub p/*) for gas-fueled ohmic discharges was reduced from tau/sub p/* > 10 s before conditioning to a minimum value of tau/sub p/* = 0.15 s after conditioning, corresponding to a reduction in the global recycling coefficient from approx.100% to less than 50%. Coincident with the low recycling conditions, low current neutral-beam-fueled discharges show global energy confinement times which are enhanced by a factor of two over results with an unconditioned limiter. Two models are proposed for the observed pumping effects: (1) a depletion model based on pumping of hydrogenic species in the near-surface region of the limiter after depletion of the normally saturated surface layer by (carbon and helium) ion-induced desorption; and (2) a codeposition model based on pumping of hydrogenic species in carbon films sputtered from the limiter by the conditioning process.

  4. Structural modifications of the salivary conditioning film upon exposure to sodium bicarbonate: implications for oral lubrication and mouthfeel.

    PubMed

    Ash, A; Wilde, P J; Bradshaw, D J; King, S P; Pratten, J R

    2016-03-14

    The salivary conditioning film (SCF) that forms on all surfaces in the mouth plays a key role in lubricating the oral cavity. As this film acts as an interface between tongue, enamel and oral mucosa, it is likely that any perturbations to its structure could potentially lead to a change in mouthfeel perception. This is often experienced after exposure to oral hygiene products. For example, consumers that use dentifrice that contain a high concentration of sodium bicarbonate (SB) often report a clean mouth feel after use; an attribute that is clearly desirable for oral hygiene products. However, the mechanisms by which SB interacts with the SCF to alter lubrication in the mouth is unknown. Therefore, saliva and the SCF was exposed to high ionic strength and alkaline solutions to elucidate whether the interactions observed were a direct result of SB, its high alkalinity or its ionic strength. Characteristics including bulk viscosity of saliva and the viscoelasticity of the interfacial salivary films that form at both the air/saliva and hydroxyapatite/saliva interfaces were tested. It was hypothesised that SB interacts with the SCF in two ways. Firstly, the ionic strength of SB shields electrostatic charges of salivary proteins, thus preventing protein crosslinking within the film and secondly; the alkaline pH (≈8.3) of SB reduces the gel-like structure of mucins present in the pellicle by disrupting disulphide bridging of the mucins via the ionization of their cysteine's thiol group, which has an isoelectric point of ≈8.3. PMID:26883483

  5. Reducing Conservatism in Aircraft Engine Response Using Conditionally Active Min-Max Limit Regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Current aircraft engine control logic uses a Min-Max control selection structure to prevent the engine from exceeding any safety or operational limits during transients due to throttle commands. This structure is inherently conservative and produces transient responses that are slower than necessary. In order to utilize the existing safety margins more effectively, a modification to this architecture is proposed, referred to as a Conditionally Active (CA) limit regulator. This concept uses the existing Min-Max architecture with the modification that limit regulators are active only when the operating point is close to a particular limit. This paper explores the use of CA limit regulators using a publicly available commercial aircraft engine simulation. The improvement in thrust response while maintaining all necessary safety limits is demonstrated in a number of cases.

  6. Stroke prevention in the elderly atrial fibrillation patient with comorbid conditions: focus on non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants

    PubMed Central

    Turagam, Mohit K; Velagapudi, Poonam; Flaker, Greg C

    2015-01-01

    Stroke prevention in elderly atrial fibrillation patients remains a challenge. There is a high risk of stroke and systemic thromboembolism but also a high risk of bleeding if anticoagulants are prescribed. The elderly have increased chronic kidney disease, coronary artery disease, polypharmacy, and overall frailty. For all these reasons, anticoagulant use is underutilized in the elderly. In this manuscript, the benefits of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants compared with warfarin in the elderly patient population with multiple comorbid conditions are reviewed. PMID:26366064

  7. A historical glimpse of toothpick use: etiquette, oral and medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

    2003-07-01

    This article traces various historical and geographical aspects of multicultural toothpick use, dating back from prehistoric times to the present. This behavior appears to be one of the oldest and best documented of all human habits. Toothpicks (composed of bone, ivory, metal, plastic, quills, wood or other substances) have been used for ceremonial, oral hygiene and religious purposes. Throughout the ages, the act of toothpicking has been both encouraged and discouraged. In the 19-20th centuries, it was generally viewed as a disgusting breach of social etiquette and a significant threat to oral and general health. Authors of numerous dental articles have cautioned that indiscriminate toothpick use can lead to halitosis, dental caries, injury to the interdental papilla, mouth ulcers, allergic reactions, embedment of the device in the back of the mouth or throat, gingival abscesses, sensitive teeth, or abraded enamel, dentin or cementum of both permanent and primary dentitions. Additionally, both the dental and medical literature report anecdotal cases of life-threatening injuries and death caused by toothpick ingestion. PMID:12846259

  8. Analysis of the influence of parenteral cancer chemotherapy on the health condition of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Rahnama, Mansur; Madej-Czerwonka, Barbara; Jastrzębska-Jamrogiewicz, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study The present study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of oral complications in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Material and methods The study was conducted on a group of 58 patients treated with chemotherapy (study group). The control group consisted of 30 healthy patients. Dental status and oral mucosa were examined using the criteria of the National Cancer Institute Toxicity Criteria Scale. The levels of stimulated and unstimulated saliva flow were analysed. Results In the group of patients treated with chemotherapy, 59% of patients had inflammatory changes of the soft tissues of the mouth, such as erythema, erosions, or ulcers, which were discovered during dental examination. Such changes occurred in only 10% of patients in the control group. Six of the patients treated with chemotherapy reported pain with intensity was so severe that it caused swallowing difficulties. Patients in the study group frequently complained about the presence of dry mouth, taste disturbances, nausea, and vomiting. These symptoms occurred in 70% of patients undergoing oncological treatment. In both stimulated and unstimulated saliva secretion, the rates were significantly lower in patients from the research group, when compared to the control group. PMID:26199575

  9. Methods and background characteristics of the TOHNN study: a population-based study of oral health conditions in northern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Holde, Gro Eirin; Oscarson, Nils; Tillberg, Anders; Marstrander, Peter; Jönsson, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the Tromstannen – Oral Health in Northern Norway (TOHNN) study was to investigate oral health and dental-related diseases in an adult population. This article provides an overview of the background of the study and a description of the sample characteristics and methods employed in data collection. Study design Cross-sectional population-based study including a questionnaire and clinical dental examination. Methods A randomly selected sample of 2,909 individuals (20–79 years old) drawn from the population register was invited to participate in the study. The data were collected between October 2013 and November 2014 in Troms County in northern Norway. The questionnaire focused on oral health-related behaviours and attitudes, oral health-related quality of life, sense of coherence, dental anxiety and symptoms from the temporomandibular joint. The dental examinations, including radiographs, were conducted by 11 dental teams in 5 dental offices. The examination comprised of registration of dental caries, full mouth periodontal status, temporomandibular disorders, mucosal lesions and height and weight. The participants were grouped by age (20–34, 35–49, 50–64 and 65–79) and ethnicity (Norwegian, Sámi, other European and other world). Results From the original sample of 2,909 individuals, 1,986 (68.3%) people participated, of whom 1,019 (51.3%) were women. The highest attendance rate was among women 20–34 years old (80.3%) and the lowest in the oldest age group of women (55.4%). There was no difference in response rate between rural and urban areas. There was a positive correlation between population size and household gross income (p < 0.001) and education level (p < 0.001). The majority of Sámi resided in smaller municipalities. In larger cities, most participants used private dental health care services, whereas, in rural areas, most participants used the public dental health care service. Conclusion The TOHNN study has the potential to generate new knowledge on a wide range of oral health conditions beneficial to the population in Troms County. Due to the high participation rate, generalization both nationally and to the circumpolar area ought to be possible. PMID:26900910

  10. People with limiting long-term conditions report poorer experiences and more problems with hospital care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Long-term conditions have a significant impact on individuals, their families, and the health service. As people with these conditions represent a high proportion of hospital admissions, investigating their experiences of inpatient care has become an important area of investigation. We conducted a secondary analysis of the NHS adult inpatient survey for England to compare the hospital experiences of three groups of patients: those without long-term conditions, those with a single long-term condition, and those with multiple long-term conditions. We were particularly interested in the extent to which these patients received self-management support from hospital staff, so we developed a brief summary tool drawn from salient questions in the survey to aid the comparison. Methods Analysis of data from the 2011 national adult inpatient survey (n = 65,134) to compare the experiences of three groups of patients: those with no limiting long-term conditions (No-LLTC), those with one limiting long-term condition (S-LLTC), and those with two or more limiting long-term conditions (M-LLTC). The main outcome measure was patients’ self-reports of their experience of inpatient care, including staff-patient interactions, information provision, involvement in decisions and support for self-care and overall ratings of care. A short form scale, the Oxford Patient Involvement and Experience scale (OxPIE) was developed from the adult inpatient survey and used to compare the groups using logistic regression. Results There were significant differences between the No-LLTC group in comparison to both the S-LLTC and M-LLTC groups. Patients with limiting long-term conditions reported significantly worse hospital experiences than those without, as measured by OxPIE: S-LLTC odds ratio = 1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.48; M-LLTC odds ratio = 1.64, 95% CI 1.19 – 2.26. Responses to a single global rating question were more positive but not strongly correlated with OxPIE. Conclusions Patients with LLTCs were more critical of their inpatient care than those with no LLTCs. Those with more than one long-term condition reported worse experiences than those with a single limiting condition. Simple rating questions may not be sufficiently sensitive to reflect important aspects of patients’ experience. PMID:24456971

  11. Modelling reference conditions for the upper limit of Posidonia oceanica meadows: a morphodynamic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacchi, Matteo; Misson, Gloria; Montefalcone, Monica; Archetti, Renata; Nike Bianchi, Carlo; Ferrari, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The upper portion of the meadows of the protected Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica occurs in the region of the seafloor mostly affected by surf-related effects. Evaluation of its status is part of monitoring programs, but proper conclusions are difficult to draw due to the lack of definite reference conditions. Comparing the position of the meadow upper limit with the beach morphodynamics (i.e. the distinctive type of beach produced by topography and wave climate) provided evidence that the natural landwards extension of meadows can be predicted. Here we present an innovative predictive cartographic approach able to identify the seafloor portion where the meadow upper limit should naturally lies (i.e. its reference conditions). The conceptual framework of this model is based on 3 essential components: i) Definition of the breaking depth geometry: the breaking limit represents the major constrain for the landward meadow development. We modelled the breaking limit (1 year return time) using the software Mike 21 sw. ii) Definition of the morphodynamic domain of the beach using the surf scaling index ɛ; iii) Definition of the P. oceanica upper limit geometry. We coupled detailed aerial photo with thematic bionomic cartography. In GIS environment, we modelled the seafloor extent where the meadow should naturally lies according to the breaking limit position and the morphodynamic domain of the beach. Then, we added the GIS layer with the meadow upper limit geometry. Therefore, the final output shows, on the same map, both the reference condition and the actual location of the upper limit. It make possible to assess the status of the landward extent of a given P. oceanica meadow and quantify any suspected or observed regression caused by anthropic factors. The model was elaborated and validated along the Ligurian coastline (NW Mediteraanean) and was positively tested in other Mediterranean areas.

  12. 77 FR 69785 - Public Use Limit on Commercial Dog Walking; Revised Disposal Conditions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... Part 1002 Public Use Limit on Commercial Dog Walking; Revised Disposal Conditions AGENCY: The Presidio... consideration, shall remove pet excrement and deposit it in refuse containers. The Trust invites comments on the... requirement throughout Area B that pet excrement be removed and deposited in refuse containers. 1....

  13. 78 FR 6273 - Public Use Limit on Commercial Dog Walking; Revised Disposal Conditions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... consideration, shall remove pet excrement and deposit it in refuse containers. DATES: The comment period for the proposed rule published November 21, 2012 (77 FR 69785-69788) is extended. Comments are due February 25... Part 1002 Public Use Limit on Commercial Dog Walking; Revised Disposal Conditions AGENCY: The...

  14. Organisational Conditions to Boost or Limit Professional Development in the Cypriot Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loizou, Florentia

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I examine which organisational conditions can promote or limit the professional development of teachers in the Cypriot primary school. The discussion builds on findings from a study I conducted about Cypriot primary school teachers' reflective practices (Loizou 2011). The study was qualitative and used semi-structured…

  15. Bacillus spp. from rainforest soil promote plant growth under limited nitrogen conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of PGPR (Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria) isolated from rainforest on different plants under limited nitrogen conditions. Methods and Results: Bacterial isolates from a Peruvian rainforest soil were screened for plant growth promoting effects...

  16. 34 CFR 675.20 - Eligible employers and general conditions and limitation on employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eligible employers and general conditions and limitation on employment. 675.20 Section 675.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Federal Work-Study Program § 675.20...

  17. 34 CFR 675.20 - Eligible employers and general conditions and limitation on employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligible employers and general conditions and limitation on employment. 675.20 Section 675.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Federal Work-Study Program § 675.20...

  18. Integrating palliative care into primary care for patients with chronic, life-limiting conditions.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Ann Selena

    2016-03-15

    As longevity increases, individuals with chronic, life-limiting conditions will live longer with disease burden and functional decline. Nurse practitioners can integrate symptom management, early decision-making, and supportive care into the primary care setting to improve quality of life and decrease economic and emotional impact at the end of life. PMID:26886272

  19. Humic substances enhance growth and respiration in the basidiomycetes Trametes maxima under carbon limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Klein, Olga I; Isakova, Elena P; Deryabina, Yulia I; Kulikova, Natalia A; Badun, Gennadii A; Chernysheva, Maria G; Stepanova, Elena V; Koroleva, Olga V

    2014-06-01

    Humic substances (HS) represent the major reservoir of carbon (C) in ecosystems, and their turnover is crucial for understanding the global C cycle. Although basidiomycetes clearly have a role in HS degradation, much less is known about the effect of HS on fungal traits. We studied the alteration of physiological, biochemical, and morphological characteristics of Trametes maxima in the presence of HS. Both complete medium and minimal (C-limited) medium mimicking natural environmental conditions were used. Adding HS led to increased biomass yield, but under C-limited conditions the effect was more apparent. This result indicated that HS were used as an additional substrate and agreed with data showing a greater penetration of tritium-labeled HS into the cell interior under C-limited conditions. Humic substances induced ultra-structural changes in fungal cells, especially under C limitation, including reducing the thicknesses of the hyphal sheath and cell wall. In the minimal medium, cellular respiration increased nearly three-fold under HS application, while the corresponding effect in complete medium was lower. In addition, in the presence of inhibitors, HS stimulated either the cytochrome or the alternative pathway of respiration, depending on presence or absence of glucose in the medium. Our results suggest that, under conditions mimicking the natural environment, HS may play three major roles: as a surplus substrate for fungal growth, as a factor positively affecting cell morphology, and as an activator of physiological respiration. PMID:24859517

  20. Forming Limits in Sheet Metal Forming for Non-Proportional Loading Conditions - Experimental and Theoretical Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Ofenheimer, Aldo; Buchmayr, Bruno; Kolleck, Ralf

    2005-08-05

    The influence of strain paths (loading history) on material formability is well known in sheet forming processes. Sophisticated experimental methods are used to determine the entire shape of strain paths of forming limits for aluminum AA6016-T4 alloy. Forming limits for sheet metal in as-received condition as well as for different pre-deformation are presented. A theoretical approach based on Arrieux's intrinsic Forming Limit Stress Curve (FLSC) concept is employed to numerically predict the influence of loading history on forming severity. The detailed experimental strain paths are used in the theoretical study instead of any linear or bilinear simplified loading histories to demonstrate the predictive quality of forming limits in the state of stress.

  1. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  2. Growth of Geobacter sulfurreducens under nutrient-limiting conditions in continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Núñez, Abraham; Rothermich, Mary; Sharma, Manju; Lovley, Derek

    2005-05-01

    A system for growing Geobacter sulfurreducens under anaerobic conditions in chemostats was developed in order to study the physiology of this organism under conditions that might more closely approximate those found in the subsurface than batch cultures. Geobacter sulfurreducens could be cultured under acetate-limiting conditions with fumarate or Fe(III)-citrate as the electron acceptor at growth rates between 0.04 and 0.09 h(-1). The molar growth yield was threefold higher with fumarate as the electron acceptor than with Fe(III), despite the lower mid-point potential of the fumarate/succinate redox couple. When growth was limited by availability of fumarate, high steady-state concentrations were detected, suggesting that fumarate is unlikely to be an important electron acceptor in sedimentary environments. The half-saturation constant, Ks, for acetate in Fe(III)-grown cultures (10 microM) suggested that the growth of Geobacter species is likely to be acetate limited in most subsurface sediments, but that when millimolar quantities of acetate are added to the subsurface in order to promote the growth of Geobacter for bioremediation applications, this should be enough to overcome any acetate limitations. When the availability of electron acceptors, rather than acetate, limited growth, G. sulfurreducens was less efficient in incorporating acetate into biomass but had higher respiration rates, a desirable physiological characteristic when adding acetate to stimulate the activity of Geobacter species during in situ uranium bioremediation. These results demonstrate that the ability to study the growth of G. sulfurreducens under steady-state conditions can provide insights into its physiological characteristics that have relevance for its activity in a diversity of sedimentary environments. PMID:15819846

  3. An adaptive confidence limit for periodic non-steady conditions fault detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianzhen; Wu, Hao; Ni, Mengqi; Zhang, Milu; Dong, Jingjing; Benbouzid, Mohamed El Hachemi; Hu, Xiong

    2016-05-01

    System monitoring has become a major concern in batch process due to the fact that failure rate in non-steady conditions is much higher than in steady ones. A series of approaches based on PCA have already solved problems such as data dimensionality reduction, multivariable decorrelation, and processing non-changing signal. However, if the data follows non-Gaussian distribution or the variables contain some signal changes, the above approaches are not applicable. To deal with these concerns and to enhance performance in multiperiod data processing, this paper proposes a fault detection method using adaptive confidence limit (ACL) in periodic non-steady conditions. The proposed ACL method achieves four main enhancements: Longitudinal-Standardization could convert non-Gaussian sampling data to Gaussian ones; the multiperiod PCA algorithm could reduce dimensionality, remove correlation, and improve the monitoring accuracy; the adaptive confidence limit could detect faults under non-steady conditions; the fault sections determination procedure could select the appropriate parameter of the adaptive confidence limit. The achieved result analysis clearly shows that the proposed ACL method is superior to other fault detection approaches under periodic non-steady conditions.

  4. Periodontal conditions and associated factors among adults and the elderly: findings from the first National Oral Health Survey in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Susana M; Alvarez, Ramón; Andrade, Ernesto; Piccardo, Virginia; Francia, Alejandro; Massa, Fernando; Correa, Marcos Britto; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of periodontal conditions in the Uruguayan adult and elderly population and its association with socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics. Data from adults (35-44, n = 358) and elderly (65-74, n = 411) who participated in the first National Oral Health Survey, Uruguay, 2011, were used. The survey included a household questionnaire addressing socioeconomic characteristics, and tobacco use. Bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal pockets (CPI) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were measured by clinical examination. A multivariable analysis was carried out. Considering both age groups, the prevalence of mild/severe periodontal disease was 21.8% and 9.12% for severe periodontal disease. Adjusted analyses revealed an association between high education and all outcomes. Attendance at dental services was negatively associated with BOP and mild to severe periodontitis. Periodontal outcomes were higher in disadvantaged socioeconomic groups. Tobacco consumption has a strong association with periodontal disease in the elderly. PMID:26840821

  5. Recent trends in prevention of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mangalath, Ummar; Aslam, Sachin Aslam; Abdul Khadar, Abdul Hafiz Kooliyat; Francis, Pulikkan George; Mikacha, Muhamed Shaloob Karimbil; Kalathingal, Jubin Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancers often occurs out of long standing potentially malignant lesions and conditions so called premalignant lesions and conditions. Oral precancer is a intermediate state with increased cancer rate which can be recognized and treated obviously with much better prognosis than a full blown malignancy. Oral cancer risk can be lowered or even prevented by simply understanding basic oral hygiene, different bacteria found in the mouth, and how diet influences oral cancers. Currently, research is being done on the relationship between diet and oral cancer. Oral cancer is a very serious disease that can be prevented. Practicing good oral hygiene is key to help keep the oral cavity clean. Limiting the use of tobacco and alcohol products is also important because these are the causes of most oral cancers. Lastly, eating a well balanced diet that has protective affects can reduce the risk of oral cancer. This includes a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and fish and low in high fat and cholesterol meats, rice, and refined grains. PMID:25625069

  6. A water use and growth model for Eucalyptus plantation in water-limited conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Calder, I.R.

    1992-12-31

    To investigate the environmental impact of plantation forestry using fast-growing tree species in southern India, a program of field studies was initiated in 1987 specifically to measure the water use, nutrient uptake and growth rates of the plantations. A water use and growth (WAG) model is proposed for calculating transpiration and growth of Eucalyptus plantation in water-limited conditions. The model is based on the measured relationships between transpiration rate and basal cross-sectional area and soil moisture availability. The volume growth rate (in water-limited conditions) is assumed to be proportional to the volume of water transpired. The model is calibrated using (deuterium tracing) measurements of transpiration and measurements of growth recorded at the Puradal experimental plantation, Karnataka, southern India.

  7. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  8. Role of microRNAs involved in plant response to nitrogen and phosphorous limiting conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Giao N.; Rothstein, Steven J.; Spangenberg, German; Kant, Surya

    2015-01-01

    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs which target and regulate the expression of genes involved in several growth, development, and metabolism processes. Recent researches have shown involvement of miRNAs in the regulation of uptake and utilization of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and more importantly for plant adaptation to N and P limitation conditions by modifications in plant growth, phenology, and architecture and production of secondary metabolites. Developing strategies that allow for the higher efficiency of using both N and P fertilizers in crop production is important for economic and environmental benefits. Improved crop varieties with better adaptation to N and P limiting conditions could be a key approach to achieve this effectively. Furthermore, understanding on the interactions between N and P uptake and use and their regulation is important for the maintenance of nutrient homeostasis in plants. This review describes the possible functions of different miRNAs and their cross-talk relevant to the plant adaptive responses to N and P limiting conditions. In addition, a comprehensive understanding of these processes at molecular level and importance of biological adaptation for improved N and P use efficiency is discussed. PMID:26322069

  9. The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Estupinan-Day, Saskia; Ndiaye, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral mucosal lesions and oropharyngeal cancers, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related oral disease and orodental trauma are major public health problems worldwide and poor oral health has a profound effect on general health and quality of life. The diversity in oral disease patterns and development trends across countries and regions reflects distinct risk profiles and the establishment of preventive oral health care programmes. The important role of sociobehavioural and environmental factors in oral health and disease has been shown in a large number of socioepidemiological surveys. In addition to poor living conditions, the major risk factors relate to unhealthy lifestyles (i.e. poor diet, nutrition and oral hygiene and use of tobacco and alcohol), and limited availability and accessibility of oral health services. Several oral diseases are linked to noncommunicable chronic diseases primarily because of common risk factors. Moreover, general diseases often have oral manifestations (e.g. diabetes or HIV/AIDS). Worldwide strengthening of public health programmes through the implementation of effective measures for the prevention of oral disease and promotion of oral health is urgently needed. The challenges of improving oral health are particularly great in developing countries. PMID:16211157

  10. The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Estupinan-Day, Saskia; Ndiaye, Charlotte

    2005-09-01

    This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral mucosal lesions and oropharyngeal cancers, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related oral disease and orodental trauma are major public health problems worldwide and poor oral health has a profound effect on general health and quality of life. The diversity in oral disease patterns and development trends across countries and regions reflects distinct risk profiles and the establishment of preventive oral health care programmes. The important role of sociobehavioural and environmental factors in oral health and disease has been shown in a large number of socioepidemiological surveys. In addition to poor living conditions, the major risk factors relate to unhealthy lifestyles (i.e. poor diet, nutrition and oral hygiene and use of tobacco and alcohol), and limited availability and accessibility of oral health services. Several oral diseases are linked to noncommunicable chronic diseases primarily because of common risk factors. Moreover, general diseases often have oral manifestations (e.g. diabetes or HIV/AIDS). Worldwide strengthening of public health programmes through the implementation of effective measures for the prevention of oral disease and promotion of oral health is urgently needed. The challenges of improving oral health are particularly great in developing countries. PMID:16211157

  11. Post-oral infusion sites that support glucose-conditioned flavor preferences in rats.

    PubMed

    Ackroff, Karen; Yiin, Yeh-Min; Sclafani, Anthony

    2010-03-01

    Rats learn to prefer a flavored solution (CS+) paired with a gastrointestinal glucose infusion over an alternate flavor (CS-) paired with a non-caloric infusion. Prior work implicates a post-gastric site of glucose action, which is the focus of this study. In Exp. 1, male rats (8-10/group) were infused in the duodenum (ID), mid-jejunum (IJ), or distal ileum (II) with 8% glucose or water as they drank saccharin-sweetened CS+ and CS- solutions, respectively, in one-bottle 30-min sessions. Two-bottle tests (no infusions) were followed by a second train-test cycle. By the second test, the ID and IJ groups preferred the CS+ (69%, 67%) to the CS- but the II group did not (48%). Satiation tests showed that ID and IJ infusions of glucose reduced intake of a palatable solution similarly, while II infusions were ineffective. In Exp. 2, rats (10/group) drank CS solutions in one-bottle, 30-min sessions and were given 2-h ID or hepatic portal vein (HP) infusions. The CS+ and CS- were paired with 10 ml infusions of 10% glucose and 0.9% saline, respectively. Following 8 training sessions, the ID group preferred the CS+ (67%) to the CS- but the HP group did not (47%) in a two-bottle test. The similar CS+ preferences displayed by ID and IJ, but not II groups implicate the jejunum as a critical site for glucose-conditioned preferences. A pre-absorptive glucose action is indicated by the CS+ preference displayed by ID but not HP rats in Exp. 2. Our data were obtained with non-nutritive CS solutions. HP glucose infusions are reported to condition preferences for a flavored food that itself has pre- and post-absorptive actions. Thus, there may be multiple sites for glucose conditioning with the upper or mid-intestines being the first site of action. PMID:20026145

  12. Postural stability limits in manifest and premanifest Huntington's disease under different sensory conditions.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, M; Prince, F; Chouinard, S; Messier, J

    2014-10-24

    Increasing evidence indicates that Huntington's disease (HD) produces postural control impairments even before the clinical diagnosis. It has been suggested that postural disorders of HD patients are explained by deficits in the processing and integration of sensory information, but this hypothesis has been under-explored. In the present study, we evaluated the amplitude of the center of pressure (COP) displacement during maximum leaning in four directions (forward, backward, rightward and leftward) and under three sensory conditions (eyes open, eyes closed and eyes closed standing on foam). We assessed the stability limits in 20 individuals with a positive HD genetic test (12 premanifests; eight manifests HD) and 15 healthy controls. The COP displacements were analyzed during the first and second phases of maintenance of the maximum leaning position. Manifest HD patients showed significantly greater COP ranges than healthy controls in both learning phases and all sensory conditions, but the greatest deterioration of their performance was found in the foam condition. In contrast, premanifest HD patients displayed larger COP ranges than controls only during the second phase of maximum learning, especially in the foam condition. Furthermore, both HD groups had significantly smaller limits of stability than healthy subjects during the second phase of maximum learning. However, their ability to maintain the maximum leaning position was degraded during both learning phases. Together, these findings demonstrate that HD reduces the limits of stability even before the clinical disease onset. Furthermore, our results indicate that dynamic postural tasks with high demand for sensorimotor integration and especially the use of proprioception are highly sensitive to early HD disease processes. This dynamic postural task may become a useful biomarker of HD progression. PMID:25168735

  13. Oral Participation in Shared Reading and Writing by Limited English Proficient Students in a Multiethnic Class Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laframboise, Kathryn; Wynn, Margie

    1994-01-01

    Finds that students were on-task even when they were silent or when there was a lot of noise in the room; reluctance to answer questions of participate in oral interactions were not necessarily the result of a lack of comprehension; and monolingual students were sensitive to the capabilities of the LEP students. (RS)

  14. Impact of Hiv-Associated Conditions on Mortality in People Commencing Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Resource Limited Settings

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Catherine S.; Curtis, Andrea J.; Spelman, Tim; O’Brien, Daniel P.; Greig, Jane; Shanks, Leslie; du Cros, Philipp; Casas, Esther C.; da Fonseca, Marcio Silveira; Athan, Eugene; Elliott, Julian H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify associations between specific WHO stage 3 and 4 conditions diagnosed after ART initiation and all cause mortality for patients in resource-limited settings (RLS). Design, Setting Analysis of routine program data collected prospectively from 25 programs in eight countries between 2002 and 2010. Subjects, Participants 36,664 study participants with median ART follow-up of 1.26 years (IQR 0.55–2.27). Outcome Measures Using a proportional hazards model we identified factors associated with mortality, including the occurrence of specific WHO clinical stage 3 and 4 conditions during the 6-months following ART initiation. Results There were 2922 deaths during follow-up (8.0%). The crude mortality rate was 5.41 deaths per 100 person-years (95% CI: 5.21–5.61). The diagnosis of any WHO stage 3 or 4 condition during the first 6 months of ART was associated with increased mortality (HR: 2.21; 95% CI: 1.97–2.47). After adjustment for age, sex, region and pre-ART CD4 count, a diagnosis of extrapulmonary cryptococcosis (aHR: 3.54; 95% CI: 2.74–4.56), HIV wasting syndrome (aHR: 2.92; 95%CI: 2.21 -3.85), non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection (aHR: 2.43; 95% CI: 1.80–3.28) and Pneumocystis pneumonia (aHR: 2.17; 95% CI 1.80–3.28) were associated with the greatest increased mortality. Cerebral toxoplasmosis, pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, Kaposi’s sarcoma and oral and oesophageal candidiasis were associated with increased mortality, though at lower rates. Conclusions A diagnosis of certain WHO stage 3 and 4 conditions is associated with an increased risk of mortality in those initiating ART in RLS. This information will assist initiatives to reduce excess mortality, including prioritization of resources for diagnostics, therapeutic interventions and research. PMID:23935870

  15. Quantifying the performance of charge-coupled devices in ambient conditions - Oral presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Dungee, Ryan

    2015-08-22

    Telescope surveys have given us a great deal of information about our universe, but the images they capture carry with them an inherent limitation. The question then is how do we take this information to the next level? The answer: the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI). DESI is an instrument that will measure the distance to tens of millions of galaxies in our night sky. This information can be combined with already existing images to construct a three dimensional map of our universe providing a great deal of new opportunities for cosmological research. The DESI guidance system consists of 10 detectors called charge-coupled devices (CCDs). Each CCD is made of silicon atoms that emit electrons when struck with light, the electrons are counted and then used to reconstruct an image. But, CCDs suffer from an issue known as ‘dark current’ which are false counts that come from thermal motions of the silicon atoms. This is particularly problematic since they contribute to the uncertainty of a measurement without contributing to our signal. This causes a drop in the signal to noise ratio, a value that needs to be maximized in order to meet DESI’s high precision requirements. This summer was spent ensuring the DESI guidance system would meet its specifications. Data was collected using a CCD of the same type that would be used on DESI and the effectiveness of dark current removal was tested. Exposures were taken for a wide range of temperatures and exposure lengths and a number of dark current removal methods were implemented. While further testing is required, the initial results are quite promising and the DESI guidance system is on track to meet its specifications

  16. Universal limiting shape of worn profile under multiple-mode fretting conditions: theory and experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Dmitriev, Andrey I.; Voll, Lars B.; Psakhie, Sergey G.; Popov, Valentin L.

    2016-01-01

    We consider multiple-mode fretting wear in a frictional contact of elastic bodies subjected to a small-amplitude oscillation, which may include in-plane and out-of-plane translation, torsion and tilting (“periodic rolling”). While the detailed kinetics of wear depends on the particular loading history and wear mechanism, the final worn shape, under some additional conditions, occurs to be universal for all types and loading and wear mechanisms. This universal form is determined solely by the radius of the permanent stick region and the maximum indentation depth during the loading cycle. We provide experimental evidence for the correctness of the theoretically predicted limiting shape. The existence of the universal limiting shape can be used for designing joints which are resistant to fretting wear. PMID:26979092

  17. Calcification and photosynthesis of the coral acropora cervicornis under calcium limited conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rathfon, Megan; Brewer, Debbie

    1997-01-01

    Differing hypothesis about the function of calcification are based on an interesting dilemma. Is the purpose of calcification mainly a structural and protective one or does calcification serve other functions? Does photosynthesis increase carbonate ion activity and cause calcification or does calcification increase CO2 levels and stimulate photsynthesis? It is proposed that calcification in corals is not dependent upon photosynthesis but upon calcium levels in the water. Under normal ocean conditions, corals convert a certain percentage of energy to photosynthesis and respiration and another percentage to calcification. As corals become nutrient stressed, particularly calcium limited, the ratio of photosynthesis to calcification shifts towards calcification in order to generate protons. The protons generated during calcification may stimulate photosynthesis and aid in the uptake of nutrients and biocarbonates. The results of the calcification experiment show a trend towards increased calcification and decreased photosynthesis when the coral Acropora cervicornis is calcium limited, but the data are inconclusive and further research is needed.

  18. Universal limiting shape of worn profile under multiple-mode fretting conditions: theory and experimental evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Andrey I.; Voll, Lars B.; Psakhie, Sergey G.; Popov, Valentin L.

    2016-03-01

    We consider multiple-mode fretting wear in a frictional contact of elastic bodies subjected to a small-amplitude oscillation, which may include in-plane and out-of-plane translation, torsion and tilting (“periodic rolling”). While the detailed kinetics of wear depends on the particular loading history and wear mechanism, the final worn shape, under some additional conditions, occurs to be universal for all types and loading and wear mechanisms. This universal form is determined solely by the radius of the permanent stick region and the maximum indentation depth during the loading cycle. We provide experimental evidence for the correctness of the theoretically predicted limiting shape. The existence of the universal limiting shape can be used for designing joints which are resistant to fretting wear.

  19. Universal limiting shape of worn profile under multiple-mode fretting conditions: theory and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Dmitriev, Andrey I; Voll, Lars B; Psakhie, Sergey G; Popov, Valentin L

    2016-01-01

    We consider multiple-mode fretting wear in a frictional contact of elastic bodies subjected to a small-amplitude oscillation, which may include in-plane and out-of-plane translation, torsion and tilting ("periodic rolling"). While the detailed kinetics of wear depends on the particular loading history and wear mechanism, the final worn shape, under some additional conditions, occurs to be universal for all types and loading and wear mechanisms. This universal form is determined solely by the radius of the permanent stick region and the maximum indentation depth during the loading cycle. We provide experimental evidence for the correctness of the theoretically predicted limiting shape. The existence of the universal limiting shape can be used for designing joints which are resistant to fretting wear. PMID:26979092

  20. The Agony of Choice: How Plants Balance Growth and Survival under Water-Limiting Conditions1

    PubMed Central

    Claeys, Hannes; Inzé, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    When confronted with water limitation, plants actively reprogram their metabolism and growth. Recently, it has become clear that growing tissues show specific and highly dynamic responses to drought, which differ from the well-studied responses in mature tissues. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in understanding shoot growth regulation in water-limiting conditions. Of special interest is the balance between maintained growth and competitiveness on the one hand and ensured survival on the other hand. A number of master regulators controlling this balance have been identified, such as DELLAs and APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR-type transcription factors. The possibilities of engineering or breeding crops that maintain growth in periods of mild drought, while still being able to activate protective tolerance mechanisms, are discussed. PMID:23766368

  1. Sorbed-Phase Remediation under Diffusion-Limited Conditions: The Role of Equilibrium Driving Forces and Initial Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, W. P.; Sabbah, I.; Paraskewich, M. R.

    2002-12-01

    For sorbed organic contaminants, slow diffusion from regions that are impermeable to fluid convection can be a principal limitation to contaminant "availability" during remediation, whether by pump-and-treat or transformation mechanisms, and whether under natural or "enhanced" conditions. Moreover, and as highlighted in the summary description of this AGU session, "efforts to account for diffusion limitations in the field are fraught with error because of physical and chemical heterogeneities, and nonlinear responses of diffusion to system perturbations." In particular, the definitions of rate parameters (coefficients) will depend strongly on the rate mechanisms that are assumed, and numerical estimates of their values will be dependent not only upon the heterogeneous chemistry and physics of the systems studied, but also upon assumptions made in regard to (1) the equilibrium thermodynamics (driving force for mass transfer), (2) the initial conditions of the system (e.g., at the on-set of a desorption study), and (3) the details of the experimental boundary conditions over the course of the observations. In this presentation, we will review some of our own experimental and modeling efforts that have aimed to quantify and "account" for diffusion effects in comparably well-characterized systems for which we have attempted to independently understand the above factors. Examples include organic chemical sorption and desorption in batch systems (finite bath uptake and infinite bath release from aquifer sands and surface soils), column systems (column studies involving macropore transport through sorbing solids of low-permeability), and a field scenario (diffusive contaminant release from a fine-grained aquitard into an overlying aquifer). Our emphasis will be on: (1) illustrating how issues of sorption nonlinearity, spatial heterogeneity, and sorption non-equilibrium (at the on-set of desorption) can interplay to cause very complex desorption/remediation behavior; and (2) demonstrating that such behavior is very difficult to interpret (much less predict) if the complicating factors are not properly accounted through independent experimental investigation. In light of our results, we pose questions regarding the extent to which "interpretive" modeling of phenomenological results is useful and to which prediction is possible. Although we doubt that geologic heterogeneities can ever be characterized to a level that allows mechanistic (or predictive) modeling of field-scale behavior, at least a qualitative understanding of the conceptual issues is nonetheless important in remediation design and risk assessment. For any "new" site of soil or sediment contamination, understanding of organic contaminant fate will always be incomplete without careful evaluation of the heterogeneity of the solid matrix and (we suggest) specific study of sorption on selected materials through the use of "probe" chemicals. Although the selection of the most important solids for study will always be a major question, continued basic research with selected materials can help guide the selection.

  2. A necessary condition for applying MUSIC algorithm in limited-view inverse scattering problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Taehoon; Park, Won-Kwang

    2015-09-01

    Throughout various results of numerical simulations, it is well-known that MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm can be applied in the limited-view inverse scattering problems. However, the application is somehow heuristic. In this contribution, we identify a necessary condition of MUSIC for imaging of collection of small, perfectly conducting cracks. This is based on the fact that MUSIC imaging functional can be represented as an infinite series of Bessel function of integer order of the first kind. Numerical experiments from noisy synthetic data supports our investigation.

  3. A vegetation sensitivity approximation for gross primary production in water limited conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claesson, Jonas; Nycander, Jonas

    2013-04-01

    The most severe impact of climate change on vegetation growth and agriculture is likely to occur under water-limited conditions. Under such conditions the plants optimize the inward flux of CO2 and the outward flux of water vapor (the transpiration) by regulating the size of the stomata openings. Higher temperature increases water loss through transpiration, forcing the plants to diminish the stomata openings, which decreases photosynthesis. This is counteracted by higher CO2 concentration, which allows plants to maintain the inward flux of CO2 through the smaller openings. These two counteracting effects, combined with the change in precipitation, determine the net change of biological productivity in a changed climate. Here, a vegetation sensitivity approximation (VSA) is introduced, in order to understand and estimate the combined effect of changed temperature, CO2-concentration and precipitation on gross primary production (GPP) to first order. According to the VSA, we have: ( ) ?CO2atm ? GP P = ?0 P Here ?CO2atm is the atmospheric CO2 concentration, ?0 is the baseline for atmospheric CO2 concentration, P is precipitation and ? is defined by: -s- ? = 1 - 11C where s is the climate sensitivity i.e. the increase in temperature when atmospheric CO2 is doubled. The VSA is based on the physical laws of gas flux through the stomata openings, and is only valid under water-limited conditions. It assumes that the temperature depends logarithmically on the CO2 concentration with a given climate sensitivity. Transpiration is assumed to be a constant fraction of precipitation, which is reasonable under water-limited conditions. The VSA is compared to simulations with the dynamic vegetation model LPJ. The agreement is reasonable, and the deviations can be understood by comparison with Kppen's definition of arid climate: in an arid climate growth increases more according to LPJ than according to the VSA, and in non-arid conditions the reverse is true. Both the VSA and the LPJ simulations generally show increased growth with increasing CO2 levels and the resulting temperature increase, assuming precipitation to be unchanged. Thus, for constant precipitation the negative temperature effect is more than compensated by the positive effect of CO2.

  4. The Extracellular Matrix Protein Brevican Limits Time-Dependent Enhancement of Cocaine Conditioned Place Preference.

    PubMed

    Lubbers, Bart R; Matos, Mariana R; Horn, Annemarie; Visser, Esther; Van der Loo, Rolinka C; Gouwenberg, Yvonne; Meerhoff, Gideon F; Frischknecht, Renato; Seidenbecher, Constanze I; Smit, August B; Spijker, Sabine; van den Oever, Michel C

    2016-06-01

    Cocaine-associated environmental cues sustain relapse vulnerability by reactivating long-lasting memories of cocaine reward. During periods of abstinence, responding to cocaine cues can time-dependently intensify a phenomenon referred to as 'incubation of cocaine craving'. Here, we investigated the role of the extracellular matrix protein brevican in recent (1 day after training) and remote (3 weeks after training) expression of cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP). Wild-type and Brevican heterozygous knock-out mice, which express brevican at ~50% of wild-type levels, received three cocaine-context pairings using a relatively low dose of cocaine (5 mg/kg). In a drug-free CPP test, heterozygous mice showed enhanced preference for the cocaine-associated context at the remote time point compared with the recent time point. This progressive increase was not observed in wild-type mice and it did not generalize to contextual-fear memory. Virally mediated overexpression of brevican levels in the hippocampus, but not medial prefrontal cortex, of heterozygous mice prevented the progressive increase in cocaine CPP, but only when overexpression was induced before conditioning. Post-conditioning overexpression of brevican did not affect remote cocaine CPP, suggesting that brevican limited the increase in remote CPP by altering neuro-adaptive mechanisms during cocaine conditioning. We provide causal evidence that hippocampal brevican levels control time-dependent enhancement of cocaine CPP during abstinence, pointing to a novel substrate that regulates incubation of responding to cocaine-associated cues. PMID:26711251

  5. Breed differences in insulin sensitivity and insulinemic responses to oral glucose in horses and ponies of moderate body condition score.

    PubMed

    Bamford, N J; Potter, S J; Harris, P A; Bailey, S R

    2014-04-01

    Breed-related differences may occur in the innate insulin sensitivity (SI) of horses and ponies, an important factor believed to be associated with the risk of laminitis. The aim of this study was to measure the glucose and insulin responses of different breeds of horses and ponies in moderate body condition to a glucose-containing meal and to compare these responses with the indices of SI as determined by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT). Eight Standardbred horses, 8 mixed-breed ponies, and 7 Andalusian-cross horses with a mean ± SEM BCS 5.0 ± 0.3 of 9 were used in this study. Each animal underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in which they were fed a fiber-based ration (2.0 g/kg BW) containing 1.5 g/kg BW added glucose, as well as a standard FSIGT with minimal model analysis. The glucose response variables from the OGTT were similar between groups; however, the peak insulin concentration was higher in ponies (94.1 ± 29.1 μIU/mL; P = 0.003) and Andalusians (85.3 ± 18.6; P = 0.004) than in Standardbreds (21.2 ± 3.5). The insulin area under the curve was also higher in ponies (13.5 ± 3.6 IU · min · L(-1); P = 0.009) and Andalusians (15.0 ± 2.7; P = 0.004) than in Standardbreds (3.1 ± 0.6). Insulin sensitivity, as determined by the FSIGT, was lower in Andalusians (0.99 ± 0.18 × 10(-4)/[mIU · min]) than in Standardbreds (5.43 ± 0.94; P < 0.001) and in ponies (2.12 ± 0.44; P = 0.003) than in Standardbreds. Peak insulin concentrations from the OGTT were negatively correlated with SI (P < 0.001; rs = -0.75). These results indicate that there are clear breed-related differences in the insulin responses of horses and ponies to oral and intravenous glucose. All animals were in moderate body condition, indicating that breed-related differences in insulin dynamics occurred independent of obesity. PMID:24308928

  6. Assessment of bacterial community structure in nitrifying biofilm under inorganic carbon-sufficient and -limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyokwan; Chung, Yun-Chul; Yang, Heejeong; Lee, Changsoo; Aryapratama, Rio; Yoo, Young J; Lee, Seockheon

    2015-01-01

    In this work, nitrification and changes in the composition of the total bacterial community under inorganic carbon (IC)-limited conditions, in a nitrifying moving bed biofilm reactor, was investigated. A culture-independent analysis of cloning and sequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene was applied to quantify the bacterial diversity and to determine bacterial taxonomic assignment. IC concentrations had significant effects on the stability of ammonia-oxidation as indicated by the reduction of the nitrogen conversion rate with high NH4(+)-N loadings. The predominance of Nitrosomonas europaea was maintained in spite of changes in the IC concentration. In contrast, heterotrophic bacterial species contributed to a high bacterial diversity, and to a dynamic shift in the bacterial community structure, under IC-limited conditions. In this study, individual functions of heterotrophic bacteria were estimated based on taxonomic information. Possible key roles of coexisting heterotrophic bacteria are the assimilation of organic compounds of extracellular polymeric substances produced by nitrifiers, and biofilm formation by providing a filamentous structure and aggregation properties. PMID:25560266

  7. Oceanographic Conditions Limit the Spread of a Marine Invader along Southern African Shores.

    PubMed

    Assis, Jorge; Zupan, Mirta; Nicastro, Katy R; Zardi, Gerardo I; McQuaid, Christopher D; Serrão, Ester A

    2015-01-01

    Invasive species can affect the function and structure of natural ecological communities, hence understanding and predicting their potential for spreading is a major ecological challenge. Once established in a new region, the spread of invasive species is largely controlled by their dispersal capacity, local environmental conditions and species interactions. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is native to the Mediterranean and is the most successful marine invader in southern Africa. Its distribution there has expanded rapidly and extensively since the 1970s, however, over the last decade its spread has ceased. In this study, we coupled broad scale field surveys, Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) and Lagrangian Particle Simulations (LPS) to assess the current invaded distribution of M. galloprovincialis in southern Africa and to evaluate what prevents further spread of this species. Results showed that all environmentally suitable habitats in southern Africa have been occupied by the species. This includes rocky shores between Rocky Point in Namibia and East London in South Africa (approx. 2800 km) and these limits coincide with the steep transitions between cool-temperate and subtropical-warmer climates, on both west and southeast African coasts. On the west coast, simulations of drifting larvae almost entirely followed the northward and offshore direction of the Benguela current, creating a clear dispersal barrier by advecting larvae away from the coast. On the southeast coast, nearshore currents give larvae the potential to move eastwards, against the prevalent Agulhas current and beyond the present distributional limit, however environmental conditions prevent the establishment of the species. The transition between the cooler and warmer water regimes is therefore the main factor limiting the northern spread on the southeast coast; however, biotic interactions with native fauna may also play an important role. PMID:26114766

  8. Oceanographic Conditions Limit the Spread of a Marine Invader along Southern African Shores

    PubMed Central

    Nicastro, Katy R.; Zardi, Gerardo I.; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Serrão, Ester A.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive species can affect the function and structure of natural ecological communities, hence understanding and predicting their potential for spreading is a major ecological challenge. Once established in a new region, the spread of invasive species is largely controlled by their dispersal capacity, local environmental conditions and species interactions. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is native to the Mediterranean and is the most successful marine invader in southern Africa. Its distribution there has expanded rapidly and extensively since the 1970s, however, over the last decade its spread has ceased. In this study, we coupled broad scale field surveys, Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) and Lagrangian Particle Simulations (LPS) to assess the current invaded distribution of M. galloprovincialis in southern Africa and to evaluate what prevents further spread of this species. Results showed that all environmentally suitable habitats in southern Africa have been occupied by the species. This includes rocky shores between Rocky Point in Namibia and East London in South Africa (approx. 2800 km) and these limits coincide with the steep transitions between cool-temperate and subtropical-warmer climates, on both west and southeast African coasts. On the west coast, simulations of drifting larvae almost entirely followed the northward and offshore direction of the Benguela current, creating a clear dispersal barrier by advecting larvae away from the coast. On the southeast coast, nearshore currents give larvae the potential to move eastwards, against the prevalent Agulhas current and beyond the present distributional limit, however environmental conditions prevent the establishment of the species. The transition between the cooler and warmer water regimes is therefore the main factor limiting the northern spread on the southeast coast; however, biotic interactions with native fauna may also play an important role. PMID:26114766

  9. Optimization of plant mineral nutrition under growth-limiting conditions in a lunar greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaets, I.; Voznyuk, T.; Kovalchuk, M.; Rogutskyy, I.; Lukashov, D.; Mytrokhyn, O.; Mashkovska, S.; Foing, B.; Kozyrovska, N.

    It may be assumed that the first plants in a lunar base will play a main role in forming a protosoil of acceptable fertility needed for purposively growing second generation plants like wheat, rice, tulips, etc. The residues of the first-generation plants could be composted and transformed by microorganisms into a soil-like substrate within a loop of regenerative life support system. The lunar regolith may be used as a substrate for plant growth at the very beginning of a mission to reduce its cost. The use of microbial communities for priming plants will allow one to facilitate adaption to stressful conditions and to support the plant development under growth limiting conditions. Well-defined plant-associated bacteria were used for growing three cultivars to colonize French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) in anorthosite, a substrate of low bioavailability, analogous to a lunar rock. The consortium was composed of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and the bacterium Paenibacillus sp. IMBG156 which stimulated seed germination, better plant development, and finally, the flowering of inoculated tagetes. In contrast, control plants grew poorly in the anorthosite and practically did not survive until flowering. Analysis of bacterial community composition showed that all species colonized plant roots, however, the rate of colonization depended on the allelopatic characteristics of marigold varieties. Bacteria of consortium were able to liberate some elements (Ca, Fe, Mn, Si, Ni, Cu, Zn) from substrate anorthosite. Plant colonization by mixed culture of bacterial strains resulted in the increase of accumulation of K, Mg, Mn by the plant and in the lowering of the level of toxic metal accumulation. It was assumed that a rationally assembled consortium of bacterial strains promoted germination of marygold seeds and supported the plant development under growth limiting conditions by means of bioleaching plant essential nutritional elements and by protecting the plant against hyperaccumulation of some toxic metals.

  10. Floral resource limitation severely reduces butterfly survival, condition and flight activity in simplified agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A; Van Dyck, Hans

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural intensification has a strong negative impact on farmland biodiversity (including flower-visiting insects), but understanding the mechanisms involved in this requires experimental work. We document the impact of nectar limitation on the performance of a flower-visiting insect, the meadow brown butterfly Maniola jurtina. We conducted two types of experiments: a field experiment in agricultural landscapes with grasslands of different management intensity and an experiment in outdoor flight cages in which the nectar supply was simulated. For the field experiment, we introduced an array of nectar resources in intensively managed, nectar-poor meadows and in extensively managed, flower-rich grasslands and counted flower visitors. Despite higher butterfly abundance in the extensive meadows, our introduced nectar sources were more frequently visited in intensive meadows, indicating the lack of floral resources. The 48-h confinement under nectar-poor conditions in the flight cages had a strong negative effect on body condition, flight activity and lifetime survival compared to butterflies under nectar-rich conditions. Female lifespan was reduced by 22 % and male lifespan even by 43 %. Agricultural landscapes that provide limited amounts of floral nectar, and no high-quality, preferred nectar sources relative to the needs of the flower-visiting species, may create ecological sinks. Regards an insect's performance, the simple presence of nectar is not necessarily functionally adequate. The effectiveness of agri-environmental schemes for flower-visiting insects (e.g. flower strips) could be improved based on ecological and evolutionary insights on the effects of specific nectar quantities and qualities. PMID:26541442

  11. MYB10 and MYB72 Are Required for Growth under Iron-Limiting Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Christine M.; Hindt, Maria N.; Schmidt, Holger; Clemens, Stephan; Guerinot, Mary Lou

    2013-01-01

    Iron is essential for photosynthesis and is often a limiting nutrient for plant productivity. Plants respond to conditions of iron deficiency by increasing transcript abundance of key genes involved in iron homeostasis, but only a few regulators of these genes have been identified. Using genome-wide expression analysis, we searched for transcription factors that are induced within 24 hours after transferring plants to iron-deficient growth conditions. Out of nearly 100 transcription factors shown to be up-regulated, we identified MYB10 and MYB72 as the most highly induced transcription factors. Here, we show that MYB10 and MYB72 are functionally redundant and are required for plant survival in alkaline soil where iron availability is greatly restricted. myb10myb72 double mutants fail to induce transcript accumulation of the nicotianamine synthase gene NAS4. Both myb10myb72 mutants and nas4-1 mutants have reduced iron concentrations, chlorophyll levels, and shoot mass under iron-limiting conditions, indicating that these genes are essential for proper plant growth. The double myb10myb72 mutant also showed nickel and zinc sensitivity, similar to the nas4 mutant. Ectopic expression of NAS4 rescues myb10myb72 plants, suggesting that loss of NAS4 is the primary defect in these plants and emphasizes the importance of nicotianamine, an iron chelator, in iron homeostasis. Overall, our results provide evidence that MYB10 and MYB72 act early in the iron-deficiency regulatory cascade to drive gene expression of NAS4 and are essential for plant survival under iron deficiency. PMID:24278034

  12. Evaluation of a Theory-Driven E-Learning Intervention for Future Oral Healthcare Providers on Secondary Prevention of Disordered Eating Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBate, Rita D.; Severson, Herbert H.; Cragun, Deborah L.; Gau, Jeff M.; Merrell, Laura K.; Bleck, Jennifer R.; Christiansen, Steve; Koerber, Anne; Tomar, Scott L.; Brown, Kelli R. McCormack; Tedesco, Lisa A.; Hendricson, William

    2013-01-01

    Oral healthcare providers have a clinical opportunity for early detection of disordered eating behaviors because they are often the first health professionals to observe overt oral and physical signs. Curricula regarding early recognition of this oral/systemic medical condition are limited in oral health educational programs. Web-based learning…

  13. Genomic sweep and potential genetic rescue during limiting environmental conditions in an isolated wolf population.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jennifer R; Vucetich, Leah M; Hedrick, Philip W; Peterson, Rolf O; Vucetich, John A

    2011-11-22

    Genetic rescue, in which the introduction of one or more unrelated individuals into an inbred population results in the reduction of detrimental genetic effects and an increase in one or more vital rates, is a potentially important management tool for mitigating adverse effects of inbreeding. We used molecular techniques to document the consequences of a male wolf (Canis lupus) that immigrated, on its own, across Lake Superior ice to the small, inbred wolf population in Isle Royale National Park. The immigrant's fitness so exceeded that of native wolves that within 2.5 generations, he was related to every individual in the population and his ancestry constituted 56 per cent of the population, resulting in a selective sweep of the total genome. In other words, all the male ancestry (50% of the total ancestry) descended from this immigrant, plus 6 per cent owing to the success of some of his inbred offspring. The immigration event occurred in an environment where space was limiting (i.e. packs occupied all available territories) and during a time when environmental conditions had deteriorated (i.e. wolves' prey declined). These conditions probably explain why the immigration event did not obviously improve the population's demography (e.g. increased population numbers or growth rate). Our results show that the beneficial effects of gene flow may be substantial and quickly manifest, short-lived under some circumstances, and how the demographic benefits of genetic rescue might be masked by environmental conditions. PMID:21450731

  14. Concerning the W k, p -Inviscid Limit for 3-D Flows Under a Slip Boundary Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beirão da Veiga, H.; Crispo, F.

    2011-03-01

    We consider the 3-D evolutionary Navier-Stokes equations with a Navier slip-type boundary condition, see (1.2), and study the problem of the strong convergence of the solutions, as the viscosity goes to zero, to the solution of the Euler equations under the zero-flux boundary condition. We prove here, in the flat boundary case, convergence in Sobolev spaces W k, p (Ω), for arbitrarily large k and p (for previous results see Xiao and Xin in Comm Pure Appl Math 60:1027-1055, 2007 and Beirão da Veiga and Crispo in J Math Fluid Mech, 2009, doi: 10.1007/s00021-009-0295-4 ). However this problem is still open for non-flat, arbitrarily smooth, boundaries. The main obstacle consists in some boundary integrals, which vanish on flat portions of the boundary. However, if we drop the convective terms (Stokes problem), the inviscid, strong limit result holds, as shown below. The cause of this different behavior is quite subtle. As a by-product, we set up a very elementary approach to the regularity theory, in L p -spaces, for solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations under slip type boundary conditions.

  15. Genomic sweep and potential genetic rescue during limiting environmental conditions in an isolated wolf population

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jennifer R.; Vucetich, Leah M.; Hedrick, Philip W.; Peterson, Rolf O.; Vucetich, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic rescue, in which the introduction of one or more unrelated individuals into an inbred population results in the reduction of detrimental genetic effects and an increase in one or more vital rates, is a potentially important management tool for mitigating adverse effects of inbreeding. We used molecular techniques to document the consequences of a male wolf (Canis lupus) that immigrated, on its own, across Lake Superior ice to the small, inbred wolf population in Isle Royale National Park. The immigrant's fitness so exceeded that of native wolves that within 2.5 generations, he was related to every individual in the population and his ancestry constituted 56 per cent of the population, resulting in a selective sweep of the total genome. In other words, all the male ancestry (50% of the total ancestry) descended from this immigrant, plus 6 per cent owing to the success of some of his inbred offspring. The immigration event occurred in an environment where space was limiting (i.e. packs occupied all available territories) and during a time when environmental conditions had deteriorated (i.e. wolves' prey declined). These conditions probably explain why the immigration event did not obviously improve the population's demography (e.g. increased population numbers or growth rate). Our results show that the beneficial effects of gene flow may be substantial and quickly manifest, short-lived under some circumstances, and how the demographic benefits of genetic rescue might be masked by environmental conditions. PMID:21450731

  16. 76 FR 10213 - Special Conditions: Embraer Model EMB-135BJ (Legacy 650) Airplanes, Limit Engine Torque Loads for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... 650) Airplanes, Limit Engine Torque Loads for Sudden Engine Stoppage AGENCY: Federal Aviation... engine size and the potential torque load imposed by sudden engine-stoppage conditions. The applicable... sudden-engine-stoppage conditions. Discussion The limit engine-torque load imposed by sudden...

  17. Understanding the Disability Dynamics of Youth: Health Condition and Limitation Changes for Youth and Their Influence on Longitudinal Survey Attrition.

    PubMed

    Mann, David R; Honeycutt, Todd

    2016-06-01

    Disability status-experiencing a functional limitation caused by a health condition-is dynamic throughout the life cycle, even during adolescence and young adulthood. We use data from the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to better understand these dynamics, examining how health condition and limitation statuses evolve during adolescence and young adulthood as well as how changes in these characteristics are related to survey nonresponse and attrition. Health condition and limitation dynamics are evident in our data: the proportion of sample members who reported having a limitation in their activities for any interview increased from approximately 12 % during the initial interview (when sample members were 12 to 17 years old) to almost 25 % 13 years later. Multivariate analyses revealed that women are more likely than men to report changes in health condition or limitation status. Those with mild limitations were relatively less likely than those without limitations or with severe limitations to experience changes in limitation status. Somewhat surprisingly, a survival analysis of survey participation outcomes found limited correlation among health conditions, limitations, and either missing a survey interview for the first time or permanently leaving the survey sample. PMID:27083196

  18. Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...

  19. [Successful Intubation in a Patient with Limited Oral Opening by Using a Combination of the Parker Flex-IT™ Stylet and McGRATH® MAC Laryngoscopy].

    PubMed

    Ueshima, Hironobu; Terao, Kazuhisa; Kitamura, Akira

    2015-10-01

    A 74-year-old female patient underwent a coil embolization for an unruptured cerebral aneurysm. A routine anesthetic protocol was devised as there was no risk of a difficult airway. We attempted to intubate by using direct laryngoscopy but were unable to because the mouth only opened approximately one finger-breadth. We then attempted to intubate using Mc-GRATH® MAC laryngoscopy; the McGRATH® MAC laryngoscope could be inserted orally by force, but a tracheal tube and stylet could not been guided into the glottis. We changed the stylet to a Parker Flex-IT™ Stylet (Parker Medical, CO, USA), which can be freely curved by pushing the sum button on the top of the stylet. As a result, easy intubation was possible, and the DLT was maneuvered at a proper angle while examining the vocal cords by using the Parker Flex-IT™ Stylet In conclusion, when a McGRATH® MAC laryngoscope cannot be operated freely in the oral cavity owing to a limited oral opening, we can instead intubate easily and effectively by using a combination of a Parker Flex-IT™ Stylet and the McGRATH® MAC video laryngoscope. PMID:26742408

  20. limited potentiation of blood pressure in response to oral tyramine by the anti-Parkinson brain selective multifunctional monoamine oxidase-AB inhibitor, M30.

    PubMed

    Gal, Shunit; Abassi, Zaid A; Youdim, Moussa B H

    2010-08-01

    One of the limitations of non-selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors as anti-depressant or anti-Parkinson drugs is their ability to potentiate the cardiovascular effect of oral tyramine, resulting from inhibition of systemic MAO-A and release of noradrenaline. We have investigated the cardiovascular effect of oral tyramine in response to the novel multifunctional, brain selective MAO-AB inhibitor, M30 [5-(N-methyl-N-propargylaminomethyl)-8-hydroxyquinoline], and compared it to the classical non-selective inhibitor tranylcypromine (TCP) in rats. We also measured MAO-A and B in the striatum, hippocampus, liver, and small intestine and determined brain levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin. At the doses employed, intraperitoneal (i.p.) M30 (5 and 10 mg/kg) selectively inhibited brain MAO-A and B by more than 85%, with little inhibition of liver and small intestine enzymes while raising striatal levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin. In contrast to TCP (10 mg/kg, i.p.), which fully inhibits both enzymes in the brain and systemic organs and significantly potentiates the tyramine pressor effect, M30 had a limited pressor effect as compared to it and controls. The limited potentiation of tyramine pressor effect by M30, its ability to raise brain levels of aminergic neurotransmitters together with its neuroprotective and neurorestorative activities make this drug potentially important as an anti-depressant and anti-Parkinsonian agent, for which it is being developed. PMID:19894083

  1. Soil texture and climatc conditions for biocrust growth limitation: a meta analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Thomas; Subbotina, Mariia

    2015-04-01

    Along with afforestation, attempts have been made to combat desertification by managing soil crusts, and is has been reported that recovery rates of biocrusts are dependent on many factors, including the type, severity, and extent of disturbance; structure of the vascular plant community; conditions of adjoining substrates; availability of inoculation material; and climate during and after disturbance (Belnap & Eldridge 2001). Because biological soil crusts are known to be more stable on and to prefer fine substrates (Belnap 2001), the question arises as to how successful crust management practices can be applied to coarser soil. In previous studies we observed similar crust biomasses on finer soils under arid and on coarser soils under temperate conditions. We hypothesized that the higher water holding capacity of finer substrates would favor crust development, and that the amount of silt and clay in the substrate that is required for enhanced crust development would vary with changes in climatic conditions. In a global meta study, climatic and soil texture threshold values promoting BSC growth were derived. While examining literature sources, it became evident that the amount of studies to be incorporated into this meta analysis was reversely related to the amount of common environmental parameters they share. We selected annual mean precipitaion, mean temperature and the amount of silt and clay as driving variables for crust growth. Response variable was the "relative crust biomass", which was computed per literature source as the ratio between each individual crust biomass value of the given study to the study maximum value reported. We distinguished lichen, green algal, cyanobacterial and moss crusts. To quantify threshold conditions at which crust biomass responded to differences in texture and climate, we (I) determined correlations between bioclimatic variables, (II) calculated linear models to determine the effect of typical climatic variables with soil clay content and with study site as a random effect. (III) Threshold values of texture and climatc effects were identified using a regression tree. Three mean annual temperature classes for texture dependent BSC growth limitation were identified: (1) <9 °C with a threshold value of 25% silt and clay (limited growth on coarser soils), (2) 9-19 °C, where texture did have no influence on relative crust biomass, and (3) >19 °C at soils with <4 or >17% silt and clay. Because biocrust development is limited under certain climatic and soil texture conditions, it is suggested to consider soil texture for biocrust rehabilitation purposes and in biogeochemical modeling of cryptogamic ground covers. References Belnap, J. & Eldridge, D. 2001. Disturbance and Recovery of Biological Soil Crusts. In: Belnap, J. & Lange, O. (eds.) Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management, Springer, Berlin. Belnap, J. 2001. Biological Soil Crusts and Wind Erosion. In: Belnap, J. & Lange, O. (eds.) Fischer, T., Subbotina, M. 2014. Climatic and soil texture threshold values for cryptogamic cover development: a meta analysis. Biologia 69/11:1520-1530,

  2. Cluster dynamics simulations defining end of dilute limit for fusion relevant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faney, Thibault; Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Wirth, Brian

    2013-10-01

    In fusion reactors, plasma facing components (PFC) and in particular the divertor will be irradiated with high ion fluxes of low energy (100 eV) helium and hydrogen. Tungsten is one of the leading candidate divertor materials for ITER and DEMO fusion reactors. However, the behavior of tungsten under high dose, coupled helium/hydrogen exposure remains to be fully understood. The aim of this study is to understand and predict primary defect production and defect diffusion, clustering and interaction of tungsten surface exposed to low energy helium irradiation at high fluences (1026 He/m2) and temperatures (1000 K). We report results from a spatially-dependent cluster dynamics model based on reaction-diffusion rate theory. The model was improved to be able to include very large helium vacancy clusters expected to form under these irradiation conditions. We also focus on defining the validity of the assumptions of the model (dilute limit assumption, surface morphology changes). We find good agreement between the model and analytical work. We also compare results with molecular dynamics simulations and existing experimental results. We identify the regime in which the dilute limit approximation breaks down and/or the surface morphology changes are dominant and discuss potential solution to overcome these difficulties.

  3. Beneficial Effects of Nickel on Pseudomonas saccharophila under Nitrogen-Limited Chemolithotrophic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Barraquio, Wilfredo L.; Knowles, Roger

    1989-01-01

    Addition of nickel stimulated growth and nitrogenase activity of Pseudomonas saccharophila under nitrogen-limited chemolithotrophic conditions, apparently because of a significant increase in expression of uptake hydrogenase activity. Inhibition of hydrogenase expression by 50 μM EDTA was relieved by nickel over a wide concentration range (1 to 200 μM). Co2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, and Cu2+ stimulated expression of hydrogenase activity, but to a much lesser degree than nickel, and Fe2+, Mg2+, SeO42−, and SeO32− did not increase expression. Nickel in individual combination with Mg2+, Fe2+, SeO32−, and SeO42− resulted in activities that were essentially the same as that with nickel alone. Hydrogenase synthesis required the presence of nickel, and repression by O2 was alleviated by increasing the concentration of added nickel. Cells placed under hydrogenase derepression conditions showed progressive incorporation of radioactive nickel to a much greater extent than did cells which were not derepressed. PMID:16348078

  4. Evidence for space-charge-limited conduction in organic photovoltaic cells at open-circuit conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Nuzzo, Daniele; van Reenen, Stephan; Janssen, René A. J.; Kemerink, Martijn; Meskers, Stefan C. J.

    2013-02-01

    The ac admittance of solar cells under illumination is investigated under open-circuit conditions. Open-circuit conditions are imposed by inserting a probe capacitor into the circuit. The capacitance and conductance of the cells are investigated as function of frequency and continuous illumination intensity. Results are compared with numerical and analytical modeling of charge recombination and transport. In bulk heterojunction solar cells with [6,6]-Phenyl-C61(C71)-butyric acid methyl ester as acceptor and poly(3-hexylthiophene) or poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] as electron donor, the high-frequency capacitance C and conductance G follow a power-law dependence on intensity of white light I, with G(I) ∝ I3/4 and C(I) ∝ I1/4. The modeling shows that these dependencies can be explained in terms of space-charge-limited current in combination with Langevin type recombination of carriers. For poly[2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl[4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl

  5. The impact of the oral condition of children with sickle cell disease on family quality of life.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Maria Luiza da Matta Felisberto; Kawachi, Ichiro; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of oral conditions of children with sickle cell disease (SCD) on their parents' quality of life (QoL). A cross-sectional study was performed with parents of outpatients suffering from SCD at a hematology referral center in Belo Horizonte, MG. A qualified dentist performed an intraoral exam. The Family Impact Scale (FIS) was used to assess the parents' perception of QoL. The parents answered some questions regarding sociodemographic and medical information about their children. The dmft/DMFT score, DAI, gum bleeding and SCD severity were evaluated in terms of their impacts on the overall mean FIS scores and subscale scores. The chance of more frequent impacts was greater in parents of adolescents (OR = 2.04; 95%CI = 1.2, 3.4) than of younger children. Dental caries (dmft/DMFT ≥ 1) had a negative impact on the QoL of parents of younger children and adolescents (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Among the parents of younger children, dental caries and SCD severity significantly affected the subscales for parental activities (PA) and parental emotions (PE) (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively). Among parents of adolescents, dental caries (DMFT) and severe malocclusion adversely affected the PE and PA subscales (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively). SCD severity affected the overall FIS score among young children's parents (p < 0.05). In conclusion, dental caries, age and SCD severity were associated with a negative impact on the QoL of parents of children with SCD. PMID:26910017

  6. Herpes - oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... HSV-2 is spread to the mouth during oral sex, causing oral herpes. Herpes viruses spread most easily ... if someone has oral herpes. Do not have oral sex if you have oral herpes, especially if you ...

  7. Oral Health in Low-Income Older Adults in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Shin; Kim, Hee-Gerl; Hur, Jung-Yi; Yang, Kyeongra

    2016-01-01

    Oral diseases among older adults are prevalent and a major public health problem, but public attention regarding this matter is quite limited. Many older adults experience limited access to oral care services. The study aimed to describe characteristics of oral health conditions, perceived oral health status, and oral health practices and to examine factors related to living status and accessibility to dental health care among 9,660 low-income older adults living in a suburban city in Korea. Approximately 42% of low-income older adults lived alone; 68% perceived their oral health as either excellent or good; and 31% reported difficulty accessing dental services. Lack of accessibility to oral care services was significantly more common in older adults with low incomes, living alone, having poor oral conditions, poor self-perceived oral health, and poor tooth-brushing behavior. Strategies to promote access to dental care services for underserved older adults should be developed to prevent further oral problems and their impact on overall health conditions. PMID:27074406

  8. Parameter identification of the SWAT model on the BANI catchment (West Africa) under limited data condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaibou Begou, Jamilatou; Jomaa, Seifeddine; Benabdallah, Sihem; Rode, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Due to the climate change, drier conditions have prevailed in West Africa, since the seventies, and the consequences are important on water resources. In order to identify and implement management strategies of adaptation to climate change in the sector of water, it is crucial to improve our physical understanding of water resources evolution in the region. To this end, hydrologic modelling is an appropriate tool for flow predictions under changing climate and land use conditions. In this study, the applicability and performance of the recent version of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT2012) model were tested on the Bani catchment in West Africa under limited data condition. Model parameters identification was also tested using one site and multisite calibration approaches. The Bani is located in the upper part of the Niger River and drains an area of about 101, 000 km2 at the outlet of Douna. The climate is tropical, humid to semi-arid from the South to the North with an average annual rainfall of 1050 mm (period 1981-2000). Global datasets were used for the model setup such as: USGS hydrosheds DEM, USGS LCI GlobCov2009 and the FAO Digital Soil Map of the World. Daily measured rainfall from nine rain gauges and maximum and minimum temperature from five weather stations covering the period 1981-1997 were used for model setup. Sensitivity analysis, calibration and validation are performed within SWATCUP using GLUE procedure at Douna station first (one site calibration), then at three additional internal stations, Bougouni, Pankourou and Kouoro1 (multi-site calibration). Model parameters were calibrated at daily time step for the period 1983-1992, then validated for the period 1993-1997. A period of two years (1981-1982) was used for model warming up. Results of one-site calibration showed that the model performance is evaluated by 0.76 and 0.79 for Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) and correlation coefficient (R2), respectively. While for the validation period the performance improved considerably with NS and R2 equal to 0.84 and 0.87, respectively. The degree of total uncertainties is quantified by a minimum P-factor of 0.61 and a maximum R-factor of 0.59. These statistics suggest that the model performance can be judged as very good, especially considering limited data condition and high climate, land use and soil variability in the studied basin. The most sensitive parameters (CN2, OVN and SLSUBBSN) are related to surface runoff reflecting the dominance of this process on the streamflow generation. In the next step, multisite calibration approach will be performed on the BANI basin to assess how much additional observations improve the model parameter identification.

  9. Phytoplankton copper requirement under iron limited condition in the coastal Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, H.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Kumar, P. P.

    2012-04-01

    Copper, a redox reactive transition metal, plays a vital role in many cellular redox reactions. Recent investigations show that many eukaryotic microorganisms including marine and coastal diatom utilize copper to perform a high affinity iron acquisition mechanism and the requirement of copper increases with decreasing iron concentrations. However, very less information is available about the role of copper in diatom physiology. Here we report for the first time about the copper utilization by coastal diatom during iron limited condition in the Bay of Bengal coast. The diatom Chaetoceros gracilis was isolated from the Visakhapatnam coast and was grown in different copper concentrations (15nM -1000nM). The concentration of total chlorophyll, the growth rate, the concentration of biogenic silica, the ratio of biogenic silica to particulate organic carbon and the ratio of total chlorophyll to particulate organic carbon were found to be increased with increasing copper concentration up to 125nM and decreased thereafter reaching a minimum value at 1000nM. 13C of Particulate organic carbon varied inversely with increasing copper concentrations indicating the signature of enhanced carbon fixation which is in agreement with the enhanced biomass and growth rate. However, to get a better understanding about the role of copper behind the enhanced growth, we had incubated the cells simultaneously in iron replete, copper replete and in varying copper concentration in presence of 200nM of iron. Surprisingly, in all cases significant enhancement in growth and biomass production was observed. The cells grown in only iron and added with copper showed very similar increase whereas, in presence of iron increasing copper concentration did not show any enhancement effect. Increased growth and biomass production in response to iron addition shows that phytoplankton growth is limited by iron in the study area. Furthermore, this observation indicates that in case of iron limitation the coastal diatom perform a high affinity iron acquisition mechanism where copper plays a vital role. Down regulation of high affinity iron acquisition mechanism was indicated by unaltered growth when copper was added in presence of iron. Collectively, our present study shows that copper likely plays an important role in the physiology of coastal diatom apart from the toxicological studies conducted earlier. A detailed investigation is needed to understand the high affinity iron acquisition mechanism existing in coastal diatom from the study area.

  10. Performance of Airborne Precision Spacing Under Realistic Wind Conditions and Limited Surveillance Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, Frederick; Santos, Michel; Krueger, William; Houston, Vincent E.

    2011-01-01

    With the expected worldwide increase of air traffic during the coming decade, both the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), as well as Eurocontrol's Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) program have, as part of their plans, air traffic management (ATM) solutions that can increase performance without requiring time-consuming and expensive infrastructure changes. One such solution involves the ability of both controllers and flight crews to deliver aircraft to the runway with greater accuracy than they can today. Previous research has shown that time-based spacing techniques, wherein the controller assigns a time spacing to each pair of arriving aircraft, can achieve this goal by providing greater runway delivery accuracy and producing a concomitant increase in system-wide performance. The research described herein focuses on one specific application of time-based spacing, called Airborne Precision Spacing (APS), which has evolved over the past ten years. This research furthers APS understanding by studying its performance with realistic wind conditions obtained from atmospheric sounding data and with realistic wind forecasts obtained from the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) short-range weather forecast. In addition, this study investigates APS performance with limited surveillance range, as provided by the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) system, and with an algorithm designed to improve APS performance when ADS-B surveillance data is unavailable. The results presented herein quantify the runway threshold delivery accuracy of APS under these conditions, and also quantify resulting workload metrics such as the number of speed changes required to maintain spacing.

  11. Do water-limiting conditions predispose Norway spruce to bark beetle attack?

    PubMed Central

    Netherer, Sigrid; Matthews, Bradley; Katzensteiner, Klaus; Blackwell, Emma; Henschke, Patrick; Hietz, Peter; Pennerstorfer, Josef; Rosner, Sabine; Kikuta, Silvia; Schume, Helmut; Schopf, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Drought is considered to enhance susceptibility of Norway spruce (Picea abies) to infestations by the Eurasian spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus, Coleoptera: Curculionidae), although empirical evidence is scarce. We studied the impact of experimentally induced drought on tree water status and constitutive resin flow, and how physiological stress affects host acceptance and resistance. We established rain-out shelters to induce both severe (two full-cover plots) and moderate (two semi-cover plots) drought stress. In total, 18 sample trees, which were divided equally between the above treatment plots and two control plots, were investigated. Infestation was controlled experimentally using a novel ‘attack box’ method. Treatments influenced the ratios of successful and defended attacks, but predisposition of trees to infestation appeared to be mainly driven by variations in stress status of the individual trees over time. With increasingly negative twig water potentials and decreasing resin exudation, the defence capability of the spruce trees decreased. We provide empirical evidence that water-limiting conditions impair Norway spruce resistance to bark beetle attack. Yet, at the same time our data point to reduced host acceptance byI. typographus with more extreme drought stress, indicated by strongly negative pre-dawn twig water potentials. PMID:25417785

  12. The needs of children with life-limiting conditions: a healthcare-provider-based model.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, James P; Huff, Susan M; Lindsey, Michael L; McMahon, Kathy A; Schumacher, J Donald

    2005-01-01

    Pediatric hospice and palliative care has progressed in recent years with the development of new programs and models of care. Missing from the empirical literature, however is a model of the needs of children. The purpose of the present study was to develop an empirically based conceptual model of the needs of children with life-limiting conditions. Recognizing the value of both qualitative and quantitative data, concept mapping methodology was selected as an effective way to obtain data that reflected both the "big picture" and subtleties of pediatric end-of-life needs. The seven-cluster concept map appeared best in terms of both interpretability and parsimony. This model includes the following clusters of needs: 1) pain, 2) decision making, 3) medical system access and quality, 4) dignity and respect, 5) family-oriented care, 6) spirituality, and 7) psychosocial issues. We believe that the development of a comprehensive model of the needs of such children is a step toward concrete, measurable, and effective support for children and their families. PMID:16082911

  13. Application of Forming Limit Criteria Based on Plastic Instability Condition to Metal Forming Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Seong-Chan; Ku, Tae-Wan; Kim, Jeong; Kang, Beom-Soo; Song, Woo-Jin

    Metal forming processes such as hydroforming and sheet metal forming using tubular material and thin sheet metal have been widely used in lots of industrial fields for manufacturing of various parts that could be equipped with mechanical products. However, it is not easy to design sequential processes properly because there are various design variables that affect formability of the parts. Therefore preliminary evaluation of formability for the given process should be carried out to minimize time consumption and development cost. With the advances in finite element analysis technique over the decades, the formability evaluation using numerical simulation has been conducted in view of strain distribution and final shape. In this paper, the application of forming limit criteria is carried out for the tube hydroforming and sheet metal forming processes using theoretical background based on plastic instability conditions. Consequently, it is confirmed that the local necking and diffuse necking criteria of sheet are suitable for formability evaluation of both hydroforming and sheet metal forming processes.

  14. Condition for production of circulating proton beam with intensity greater than space charge limit.

    SciTech Connect

    Vadim Dudnikov

    2002-11-19

    Transverse e-p instability in proton rings could be damped by increasing the beam density and the rate of secondary particles production above the threshold level, with the corresponding decrease of unstable wavelength {lambda} below the transverse beam size h (increase of beam density n{sub b} and ion density n{sub i} above the threshold level: n{sub b} + n{sub i} > {beta}{sup 2}/(r{sub e} h{sup 2}), where r{sub e} = e{sup 2}/mc{sup 2}). Such island of stability can be reached by a fast charge-exchange injection without painting and enhanced generation of secondary plasma, which was demonstrated in a small scale Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia. With successful damping of e-p instability, the intensity of circulating proton beam, with a space charge neutralization was increased up to 6 times above a space charge limit. Corresponding tune shift without space charge neutralization should be up to {Delta}v=0.85 x 6 (in the ring with v = 0.85). In this paper, they review experimental observations of transverse instability of proton beams in various rings. they also discuss methods which can be used to damp the instability. Such experimental data could be useful for verification of computer simulation tools developed for the studies of the space charge and instabilities in realistic conditions.

  15. Bioconversion of crude glycerol to polyhydroxyalkanoate by Bacillus thuringiensis under non-limiting nitrogen conditions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prasun; Ray, Subhasree; Patel, Sanjay K S; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kalia, Vipin C

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol has emerged as a cheap waste material due to blooming biodiesel manufacturing units worldwide. The need is to exploit the crude glycerol (CG) to produce useful products such as polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Bacillus thuringiensis EGU45 was found to produce 1.5-3.5 gP HA L(-1) from feed containing 1-10% CG (vv(-1)) and nutrient broth (NB, 125 mL) without any acclimatization. B. thuringiensis EGU45 could produce PHA at the rate of 1.54-1.83 g L(-1), from 1% CG (vv(-1)) on media having high nitrogen contents: (i) NB, (ii) NB+0.5% NH4Cl (wv(-1)), and (iii) peptone+yeast extract+0.5% NH4Cl (wv(-1)). B. thuringiensis EGU45 was able to produce co-polymer of P(3HB-co-3HV) with 13.4% 3HV content on high N containing feed supplemented with propionic acid. This is the first report demonstrating the abilities of B. thuringiensis to convert CG into PHA co-polymer under non-limiting N conditions. PMID:25840150

  16. Kinetically limited weathering at low denudation rates in semiarid climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonejans, Jérôme; Vanacker, Veerle; Opfergelt, Sophie; Ameijeiras-Mariño, Yolanda; Christl, Marcus

    2016-02-01

    Biogeochemical cycling within the Critical Zone depends on the interactions between minerals and fluids controlling chemical weathering and physical erosion rates. In this study, we explore the role of water availability in controlling soil chemical weathering in semiarid climatic conditions. Weathering rates and intensities were evaluated for nine soil profiles located on convex ridge crests of three mountain ranges in the Spanish Betic Cordillera. We combine a geochemical mass balance with 10Be cosmogenic nuclides to constrain chemical weathering intensities and long-term denudation rates. As such, this study presents new data on chemical weathering and 10Be-derived denudation for understudied semiarid climate systems. In the Betic Cordillera, chemical weathering intensities are relatively low (~5 to 30% of the total denudation of the soil) and negatively correlated with the magnitude of the water deficit in soils. Chemical mass losses are inversely related to denudation rates (14-109 mm/kyr) and positively to soil thickness (14-58 cm); these results are consistent with kinetic limitation of chemical weathering rates. A worldwide compilation of chemical weathering data suggests that soil water balance may regulate the coupling between chemical weathering and physical erosion by modulating soil solute fluxes. Therefore, future landscape evolution models that seek to link chemical weathering and physical erosion should include soil water flux as an essential driver of weathering.

  17. Do water-limiting conditions predispose Norway spruce to bark beetle attack?

    PubMed

    Netherer, Sigrid; Matthews, Bradley; Katzensteiner, Klaus; Blackwell, Emma; Henschke, Patrick; Hietz, Peter; Pennerstorfer, Josef; Rosner, Sabine; Kikuta, Silvia; Schume, Helmut; Schopf, Axel

    2015-02-01

    Drought is considered to enhance susceptibility of Norway spruce (Picea abies) to infestations by the Eurasian spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus, Coleoptera: Curculionidae), although empirical evidence is scarce. We studied the impact of experimentally induced drought on tree water status and constitutive resin flow, and how physiological stress affects host acceptance and resistance. We established rain-out shelters to induce both severe (two full-cover plots) and moderate (two semi-cover plots) drought stress. In total, 18 sample trees, which were divided equally between the above treatment plots and two control plots, were investigated. Infestation was controlled experimentally using a novel 'attack box' method. Treatments influenced the ratios of successful and defended attacks, but predisposition of trees to infestation appeared to be mainly driven by variations in stress status of the individual trees over time. With increasingly negative twig water potentials and decreasing resin exudation, the defence capability of the spruce trees decreased. We provide empirical evidence that water-limiting conditions impair Norway spruce resistance to bark beetle attack. Yet, at the same time our data point to reduced host acceptance by I. typographus with more extreme drought stress, indicated by strongly negative pre-dawn twig water potentials. PMID:25417785

  18. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Y of... - Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to Hyperbaric Conditions A Appendix A to Subpart Y of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor... REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Diving Pt. 1926, Subpt. Y, App. A Appendix A to Subpart Y of Part 1926—Examples... applicable to construction work under this appendix A are identical to those set forth at appendix A...

  19. The effect of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride paste (CPP-ACPF) on oral and salivary conditions of patients undergoing chemotherapy: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Banava, Sepideh; Houshyari, Mohammad; Safaie, Tahmineh

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral and saliva conditions of patients undergoing chemotherapy is often affected by the medication they receive. Up to now, no appropriate medication that possesses the positive effects of chemotherapy without presenting oral complications has been introduced. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effects of CPP-ACPF paste on the oral and salivary status of patients undergoing chemotherapy. Methods From October 2013 to April 2014, 20 patients in chemotherapy treatment plans and who met the inclusion criteria enrolled in this randomized parallel single-blind controlled clinical trial in Shohada-e-Tajrish Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Patients were divided into two groups: 1) patients received their daily medication of cancer therapy center (group 1, control); 2) patients applied CPP-ACPF Crème (MI paste plus, GC USA) twice a day as instructed (group 2). The baseline status of oral conditions of patients (mucositis, dry mouth, infection, diminished tasting sense, difficulty in food intake, burning sensation of mucosa, saliva and dental plaque pH, rest and stimulated saliva, buffering capacity of saliva) were recorded and reevaluated after 21 and 42 days. The data were analyzed with a Mann-Whitney U-test. Results A total of 20 patients were allocated randomly to groups 1 and 2. The Mann-Whitney U-test showed that application of CPP-ACPF paste twice daily did not cause any significant difference in oral complication of the subject group compared with the control group (p>0.05). Among salivary signs, resting and stimulated saliva rates and saliva buffering capacity had significantly altered in the CPP-ACPF group in day 21 and 42 in comparison with those of the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion Application of CPP-ACPF paste before and during chemotherapy can improve the salivary status of patients undergoing this treatment. PMID:26767110

  20. Metabolomic Profiling of 13 Diatom Cultures and Their Adaptation to Nitrate-Limited Growth Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bromke, Mariusz A.; Sabir, Jamal S.; Alfassi, Fahad A.; Hajarah, Nahid H.; Kabli, Saleh A.; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L.; Ashworth, Matt P.; Méret, Michaël; Jansen, Robert K.; Willmitzer, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    Diatoms are very efficient in their use of available nutrients. Changes in nutrient availability influence the metabolism and the composition of the cell constituents. Since diatoms are valuable candidates to search for oil producing algae, measurements of diatom-produced compounds can be very useful for biotechnology. In order to explore the diversity of lipophilic compounds produced by diatoms, we describe the results from an analysis of 13 diatom strains. With the help of a lipidomics platform, which combines an UPLC separation with a high resolution/high mass accuracy mass spectrometer, we were able to measure and annotate 142 lipid species. Out of these, 32 were present in all 13 cultures. The annotated lipid features belong to six classes of glycerolipids. The data obtained from the measurements were used to create lipidomic profiles. The metabolomic overview of analysed cultures is amended by the measurement of 96 polar compounds. To further increase the lipid diversity and gain insight into metabolomic adaptation to nitrogen limitation, diatoms were cultured in media with high and low concentrations of nitrate. The growth in nitrogen-deplete or nitrogen-replete conditions affects metabolite accumulation but has no major influence on the species-specific metabolomic profile. Thus, the genetic component is stronger in determining metabolic patterns than nitrogen levels. Therefore, lipid profiling is powerful enough to be used as a molecular fingerprint for diatom cultures. Furthermore, an increase of triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation was observed in low nitrogen samples, although this trend was not consistent across all 13 diatom strains. Overall, our results expand the current understanding of metabolomics diversity in diatoms and confirm their potential value for producing lipids for either bioenergy or as feed stock. PMID:26440112

  1. Secreted Pyomelanin of Legionella pneumophila Promotes Bacterial Iron Uptake and Growth under Iron-Limiting Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Huaixin; Chatfield, Christa H.; Liles, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Iron acquisition is critical to the growth and virulence of Legionella pneumophila. Previously, we found that L. pneumophila uses both a ferrisiderophore pathway and ferrous iron transport to obtain iron. We now report that two molecules secreted by L. pneumophila, homogentisic acid (HGA) and its polymerized variant (HGA-melanin, a pyomelanin), are able to directly mediate the reduction of various ferric iron salts. Furthermore, HGA, synthetic HGA-melanin, and HGA-melanin derived from bacterial supernatants enhanced the ability of L. pneumophila and other species of Legionella to take up radiolabeled iron. Enhanced iron uptake was not observed with a ferrous iron transport mutant. Thus, HGA and HGA-melanin mediate ferric iron reduction, with the resulting ferrous iron being available to the bacterium for uptake. Upon further testing of L. pneumophila culture supernatants, we found that significant amounts of ferric and ferrous iron were associated with secreted HGA-melanin. Importantly, a pyomelanin-containing fraction obtained from a wild-type culture supernatant was able to stimulate the growth of iron-starved legionellae. That the corresponding supernatant fraction obtained from a nonpigmented mutant culture did not stimulate growth demonstrated that HGA-melanin is able to both promote iron uptake and enhance growth under iron-limiting conditions. Indicative of a complementary role in iron acquisition, HGA-melanin levels were inversely related to the levels of siderophore activity. Compatible with a role in the ecology and pathogenesis of L. pneumophila, HGA and HGA-melanin were effective at reducing and releasing iron from both insoluble ferric hydroxide and the mammalian iron chelates ferritin and transferrin. PMID:23980114

  2. 7 CFR 301.76-7 - Additional conditions for issuance of certificates and limited permits for regulated articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 301.76-6(b)(1), or with methyl bromide or irradiation, in accordance with 7 CFR part 305 of this... conditions for issuance of a limited permit; regulated nursery stock grown, produced, or maintained at a nursery or other facility located in the quarantined area. In addition to the general conditions...

  3. 76 FR 10489 - Special Conditions: Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited Model 407 Helicopter, Installation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    .../Stabilization Augmentation System (AP/SAS) that has potential failure conditions with more severe adverse... conditions contain the added safety standards the Administrator considers necessary to ensure the failures... independent of this system. However, the possible failure conditions for this system, and their effect...

  4. 29 CFR 2590.701-3 - Limitations on preexisting condition exclusion period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provides coverage for the treatment of diabetes, generally not subject to any lifetime dollar limit. However, if an individual was diagnosed with diabetes before the effective date of coverage under the plan, diabetes coverage is subject to a lifetime limit of $10,000. (ii) Conclusion. In this Example 3, the...

  5. 45 CFR 146.111 - Limitations on preexisting condition exclusion period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... health plan provides coverage for the treatment of diabetes, generally not subject to any lifetime dollar limit. However, if an individual was diagnosed with diabetes before the effective date of coverage under the plan, diabetes coverage is subject to a lifetime limit of $10,000. (ii) Conclusion. In...

  6. 29 CFR 2590.701-3 - Limitations on preexisting condition exclusion period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provides coverage for the treatment of diabetes, generally not subject to any lifetime dollar limit. However, if an individual was diagnosed with diabetes before the effective date of coverage under the plan, diabetes coverage is subject to a lifetime limit of $10,000. (ii) Conclusion. In this Example 3, the...

  7. Oral Administration of Semicarbazide Limits Weight Gain together with Inhibition of Fat Deposition and of Primary Amine Oxidase Activity in Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mercader, Josep; Iffi-Soltsz, Zsuzsa; Bour, Sandy; Carpn, Christian

    2011-01-01

    An enzyme hitherto named semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), involved in the oxidation of primary amines, is abundantly expressed in adipocytes. Although SSAO physiological functions remain unclear, several molecules inhibiting its activity have been described to limit fat accumulation in preadipocyte cultures or to reduce body weight gain in obese rodents. Here, we studied whether oral administration of semicarbazide, a prototypical SSAO inhibitor, limits fat deposition in mice. Prolonged treatment with semicarbazide at 0.125% in drinking water limited food and water consumption, hampered weight gain, and deeply impaired fat deposition. The adiposomatic index was reduced by 31%, while body mass was reduced by 15%. Such treatment completely inhibited SSAO, but did not alter MAO activity in white adipose tissue. Consequently, the insulin-like action of the SSAO substrate benzylamine on glucose transport was abolished in adipocytes from semicarbazide-drinking mice, while their insulin sensitivity was not altered. Although semicarbazide is currently considered as a food contaminant with deleterious effects, the SSAO inhibition it induces appears as a novel concept to modulate adipose tissue development, which is promising for antiobesity drug discovery. PMID:21331292

  8. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Oral Cancer Basic description Cancer can affect any part of the oral cavity, including the lips, tongue, mouth, and throat. There are 2 kinds of oral cancer: oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer. The most ...

  9. Assessment of Oral Conditions and Quality of Life in Morbid Obese and Normal Weight Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Adriana Rodrigues; Sales-Peres, Arsênio; Ceneviva, Reginaldo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the impact of oral disease on the quality of life of morbid obese and normal weight individuals. Cohort was composed of 100 morbid-obese and 50 normal-weight subjects. Dental caries, community periodontal index, gingival bleeding on probing (BOP), calculus, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, dental wear, stimulated salivary flow, and salivary pH were used to evaluate oral diseases. Socioeconomic and the oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) questionnaires showed the quality of life in both groups. Unpaired Student, Fisher’s Exact, Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, and Multiple Regression tests were used (p<0.05). Obese showed lower socio-economic level than control group, but no differences were found considering OIDP. No significant differences were observed between groups considering the number of absent teeth, bruxism, difficult mastication, calculus, initial caries lesion, and caries. However, saliva flow was low, and the salivary pH was changed in the obese group. Enamel wear was lower and dentine wear was higher in obese. More BOP, insertion loss, and periodontal pocket, especially the deeper ones, were found in obese subjects. The regression model showed gender, smoking, salivary pH, socio-economic level, periodontal pocket, and periodontal insertion loss significantly associated to obesity. However, both OIDP and BOP did not show significant contribution to the model. The quality of life of morbid obese was more negatively influenced by oral disease and socio-economic factors than in normal weight subjects. PMID:26177268

  10. Changed oral conditions, between 1963 and 1999, in the population of the Tokelau atolls of the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Cutress, T W

    2001-12-01

    In 1999, an oral health survey was included in an assessment of the community oral health programme of the Tokelau Islands population. This provided a comparison with a similar survey in 1963. In a convenience sample of 386 children and adults, approximately 30 percent of the total population, the deciduous (number of df teeth) and permanent (number of DMF teeth) tooth scores across all age groupings were higher in 1999 compared with 1963. For 15- to 19-year-olds, the mean DMF scores were 8 and 1; and for 35- to 44-year-olds, the scores were 18 and 4 in 1999 and 1963 respectively. The prominent feature of the DMF scores for those over age 25 years was the numbers of missing (M) teeth. The mean number of M teeth at 20-24 years was 5 and 0, and at 35-44 years, 13 and 2 respectively in 1999 and 1963. Periodontal disease was endemic in adults in both surveys. A serious decline in oral health has occurred over the past 35 years. PMID:11887663

  11. Moisture rivals temperature in limiting photosynthesis by trees establishing beyond their cold-edge range limit under ambient and warmed conditions.

    PubMed

    Moyes, Andrew B; Germino, Matthew J; Kueppers, Lara M

    2015-09-01

    Climate change is altering plant species distributions globally, and warming is expected to promote uphill shifts in mountain trees. However, at many cold-edge range limits, such as alpine treelines in the western United States, tree establishment may be colimited by low temperature and low moisture, making recruitment patterns with warming difficult to predict. We measured response functions linking carbon (C) assimilation and temperature- and moisture-related microclimatic factors for limber pine (Pinus flexilis) seedlings growing in a heating × watering experiment within and above the alpine treeline. We then extrapolated these response functions using observed microclimate conditions to estimate the net effects of warming and associated soil drying on C assimilation across an entire growing season. Moisture and temperature limitations were each estimated to reduce potential growing season C gain from a theoretical upper limit by 15-30% (c. 50% combined). Warming above current treeline conditions provided relatively little benefit to modeled net assimilation, whereas assimilation was sensitive to either wetter or drier conditions. Summer precipitation may be at least as important as temperature in constraining C gain by establishing subalpine trees at and above current alpine treelines as seasonally dry subalpine and alpine ecosystems continue to warm. PMID:25902893

  12. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  13. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  14. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  15. An Analysis of Sequential Variables in Pavlovian Conditioning Employing Extended and Limited Acquisition Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ronald Mellado; Capaldi, E. John

    2006-01-01

    Sequential theory's memory model of learning has been successfully applied in response contingent instrumental conditioning experiments (Capaldi, 1966, 1967, 1994; Capaldi & Miller, 2003). However, it has not been systematically tested in nonresponse contingent Pavlovian conditioning experiments. The present experiments attempted to determine if…

  16. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  17. An Analysis of Sequential Variables in Pavlovian Conditioning Employing Extended and Limited Acquisition Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ronald Mellado; Capaldi, E. John

    2006-01-01

    Sequential theory's memory model of learning has been successfully applied in response contingent instrumental conditioning experiments (Capaldi, 1966, 1967, 1994; Capaldi & Miller, 2003). However, it has not been systematically tested in nonresponse contingent Pavlovian conditioning experiments. The present experiments attempted to determine if

  18. 45 CFR 146.111 - Limitations on preexisting condition exclusion period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Individual C has asthma and is treated for that condition several times during the 6-month period before C's... Employer T's plan. Two months later, C is hospitalized for asthma. (ii) Conclusion. In this Example 4, Employer T's plan may impose a preexisting condition exclusion with respect to C's asthma because...

  19. Limited condition dependence of male acoustic signals in the grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus

    PubMed Central

    Franzke, Alexandra; Reinhold, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    In many animal species, male acoustic signals serve to attract a mate and therefore often play a major role for male mating success. Male body condition is likely to be correlated with male acoustic signal traits, which signal male quality and provide choosy females indirect benefits. Environmental factors such as food quantity or quality can influence male body condition and therefore possibly lead to condition-dependent changes in the attractiveness of acoustic signals. Here, we test whether stressing food plants influences acoustic signal traits of males via condition-dependent expression of these traits. We examined four male song characteristics, which are vital for mate choice in females of the grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus. Only one of the examined acoustic traits, loudness, was significantly altered by changing body condition because of drought- and moisture-related stress of food plants. No condition dependence could be observed for syllable to pause ratio, gap duration within syllables, and onset accentuation. We suggest that food plant stress and therefore food plant quality led to shifts in loudness of male grasshopper songs via body condition changes. The other three examined acoustic traits of males do not reflect male body condition induced by food plant quality. PMID:22957192

  20. 76 FR 44245 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Limit Engine Torque Loads for Sudden Engine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... FR 25648). One supportive comment was received and the special conditions are adopted as proposed... Sudden Engine Stoppage AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final special... load imposed by sudden engine stoppage. These special conditions pertain to their effects on...

  1. [Aphthous ulcers and oral ulcerations].

    PubMed

    Vaillant, Loïc; Samimi, Mahtab

    2016-02-01

    Aphthous ulcers are painful ulcerations located on the mucous membrane, generally in the mouth, less often in the genital area. Three clinical forms of aphthous ulcers have been described: minor aphthous ulcers, herpetiform aphthous ulcers and major aphthous ulcers. Many other conditions presenting with oral bullous or vesiculous lesions orulcerations and erosions can be mistaken for aphthous ulcers. Currently, treatment of aphthous ulcers is palliative and symptomatic. Topical treatments (topical anesthetics, topical steroids and sucralfate) are the first line therapy. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is defined by the recurrence of oral aphthous ulcers at least 4 times per year. RAS is often idiopathic but can be associated with gastro-intestinal diseases (i.e. celiac disease, inflammatory bowel diseases), nutritional deficiencies (iron, folates…), immune disorders (HIV infection, neutropenia) and rare syndromes. Behçet's disease is a chronic, inflammatory, disease whose main clinical feature is recurrent bipolar aphthosis. Colchicine associated with topical treatments constitutes a suitable treatment of most RAS. Thalidomide is the most effective treatment of RAS but its use is limited by frequent adverse effects. Oral ulcers can be related to a wide range of conditions that constitute the differential diagnoses of aphthous ulcers. Oral ulcers are classified into three main groups: acute ulcers with abrupt onset and short duration, recurrent ulcers (mainly due to postherpetic erythema multiforme) and chronic ulcers (with slow onset and insidious progression). Acute oral ulcers are due to trauma, bacterial infections (including acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis), deep fungal infection, gastro-intestinal (namely inflammatory bowel disease) or systemic diseases. Chronic oral ulcers may be drug-induced, or due to benign or malignant tumors. Every oral solitary chronic ulcer should be biopsied to rule out squamous cell carcinoma. A solitary palatal ulcer can be related with necrotizing sialometaplasia. PMID:26880080

  2. Oxygen transfer rate during the production of alginate by Azotobacter vinelandii under oxygen-limited and non oxygen-limited conditions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) and dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) play an important role in determining alginate production and its composition; however, no systematic study has been reported about the independent influence of the OTR and DOT. In this paper, we report a study about alginate production and the evolution of the molecular mass of the polymer produced by a wild-type A. vinelandii strain ATCC 9046, in terms of the maximum oxygen transfer rate (OTRmax) in cultures where the dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) was kept constant. Results The results revealed that in the two dissolved oxygen conditions evaluated, strictly controlled by gas blending at 0.5 and 5% DOT, an increase in the agitation rate (from 300 to 700 rpm) caused a significant increase in the OTRmax (from 17 to 100 mmol L-1 h-1 for DOT of 5% and from 6 to 70 mmol L-1 h-1 for DOT of 0.5%). This increase in the OTRmax improved alginate production, as well as the specific alginate production rate (SAPR), reaching a maximal alginate concentration of 3.1 g L-1 and a SAPR of 0.031 g alg g biom-1 h-1 in the cultures at OTRmax of 100 mmol L-1 h-1. In contrast, the mean molecular mass (MMM) of the alginate isolated from cultures developed under non-oxygen limited conditions increased by decreasing the OTRmax, reaching a maximal of 550 kDa at an OTRmax of 17 mmol L-1 h-1 . However, in the cultures developed under oxygen limitation (0.5% DOT), the MMM of the polymer was practically the same (around 200 kDa) at 300 and 700 rpm, and this remained constant throughout the cultivation. Conclusions Overall, our results showed that under oxygen-limited and non oxygen-limited conditions, alginate production and its molecular mass are linked to the OTRmax, independently of the DOT of the culture. PMID:21352581

  3. In vivo effects of the pure aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonist GNF-351 after oral administration are limited to the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhong-Ze; Krausz, Kristopher W; Nagaoka, Kenjiro; Tanaka, Naoki; Gowda, Krishne; Amin, Shantu G; Perdew, Gary H; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose GNF-351 is a potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) antagonist that inhibits dioxin response element-dependent and independent activities. Here, the absorption, metabolism and in vivo?AHR antagonist activity of GNF-351 were investigated. Experimental Approach LC-MS metabolomics was used to analyse GNF-351 metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant drug-metabolizing enzymes were employed to determine the enzymes involved in GNF-351 metabolism. Analysis of target AHR genes was performed to investigate the inhibitory effects of GNF-351 towards AHR activation. Key Results Several phase I metabolites were generated after GNF-351 was incubated with microsomes from human or mouse liver and intestine, including two oxidized GNF-351 and one tri-demethylated GNF-351. Poor absorption from the intestine resulted in no detectable levels of GNF-351 in mouse serum (06?h) and urine (24?h) and almost all GNF-351 was found in the faeces after 24?h. Analysis of faeces further revealed all the in vitro phase I metabolites. Novel metabolites were detected, including one di-oxidized GNF-351, two oxidized and tri-demethylated GNF-351, one dehydrogenated product of oxidized GNF-351, and one sulfation product of di-oxidized GNF-351. Cytochromes P450 were demonstrated to be the major enzymes involved in metabolism of GNF-351. After oral administration to mice, GNF-351 readily inhibited ?-naphthoflavone-induced AHR activation in ileum and colon, but not that in the liver. Conclusion and Implications While poor absorption and extensive metabolism after oral administration limited the in vivo effects of the pure AHR antagonist GNF-351 in liver, it could be used to inhibit AHR activation in intestine and colon. PMID:24417285

  4. Inclusive and Integrated Schooling for Children with Limited Abilities: Problems and Conditions Necessary for Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liubavina, N. V.

    2014-01-01

    For more than twenty years now the system of education in Russia has been adopting the ideas of integrated schooling for children with limited abilities. The absence of positive outcomes has been confirmed by the results of numerous surveys (Malofeev 2007, 2011; Nazarova 1996, 2009). In this article, N. V. Liubavina writes that the time has now…

  5. 40 CFR 122.44 - Establishing limitations, standards, and other permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... limitations guidelines and standards in an NPDES permit to forego sampling of a pollutant found at 40 CFR... case-by-case basis to protect public health and the environment from any adverse effects which may... procedures which account for existing controls on point and nonpoint sources of pollution, the variability...

  6. 40 CFR 122.44 - Establishing limitations, standards, and other permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... limitations guidelines and standards in an NPDES permit to forego sampling of a pollutant found at 40 CFR... case-by-case basis to protect public health and the environment from any adverse effects which may... procedures which account for existing controls on point and nonpoint sources of pollution, the variability...

  7. 40 CFR 122.44 - Establishing limitations, standards, and other permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... limitations guidelines and standards in an NPDES permit to forego sampling of a pollutant found at 40 CFR... case-by-case basis to protect public health and the environment from any adverse effects which may... procedures which account for existing controls on point and nonpoint sources of pollution, the variability...

  8. 40 CFR 122.44 - Establishing limitations, standards, and other permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... limitations guidelines and standards in an NPDES permit to forego sampling of a pollutant found at 40 CFR... case-by-case basis to protect public health and the environment from any adverse effects which may... procedures which account for existing controls on point and nonpoint sources of pollution, the variability...

  9. 40 CFR 122.44 - Establishing limitations, standards, and other permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... limitations guidelines and standards in an NPDES permit to forego sampling of a pollutant found at 40 CFR... case-by-case basis to protect public health and the environment from any adverse effects which may... procedures which account for existing controls on point and nonpoint sources of pollution, the variability...

  10. Oral inflammation in small animals.

    PubMed

    Lommer, Milinda J

    2013-05-01

    The oral cavity can be affected by a wide variety of disorders characterized by inflammation of the gingiva and/or oral mucosa. In dogs and cats, differential diagnoses for generalized oral inflammatory disorders include plaque-reactive mucositis, chronic gingivostomatitis, eosinophilic granuloma complex, pemphigus and pemphigoid disorders, erythema multiforme, and systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition, endodontic or periodontal abscesses, infectious conditions, reactive lesions, and neoplastic conditions may initially present with localized or generalized inflammation of the oral mucosa. Determination of the underlying cause of an oral inflammatory condition relies on a thorough history, complete physical and oral examination, and incisional biopsy and histopathologic examination of lesions. PMID:23643021

  11. Comparative study of oral health among trisomy 21 children living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Part 2, gingival condition

    PubMed Central

    AlSarheed, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trisomy 21 (T21) is a congenital disorder characterized by triplication of Chromosome 21 components. Patients with T21 have an increased risk of acquiring periodontal disease due to their inability to maintain good oral hygiene. Consequently, it is important to determine an approach for disease prevention in this population. Aim The purpose of the study was to assess the periodontal health, through the prevalence of gingivitis and plaque, among children with T21 living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and method This study included 93 children with T21 and 99 age- and gender-matched children without T21 between the ages of 7 and 15 years. Parents were informed about the study and provided informed consent. Trained examiners using standardized tools assessed the prevalence rates of gingivitis and plaque in all children. Results Gingivitis prevalence was elevated among T21 children (46.9%) compared to controls (34%) in all arch sextants except the mandibular middle (P < 0.01). Comparing the two groups, the prevalence of plaque was higher in the maxillary right sextant of the T21 group and the mandibular middle sextant of the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion T21 children have significantly elevated plaque levels, resulting in greater prevalence of gingivitis, compared to healthy children. Preventive measure, such as oral health awareness programs, should be delivered early to parents and continued at school to encourage and motivate children. PMID:26644759

  12. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors licensed under 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter. The... 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter. The guides on limiting conditions for operation for light..., should not exceed 5 curies for each light-water-cooled reactor at a site. 3. Notwithstanding the...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors licensed under 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter. The... 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter. The guides on limiting conditions for operation for light..., should not exceed 5 curies for each light-water-cooled reactor at a site. 3. Notwithstanding the...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors licensed under 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter. The... 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter. The guides on limiting conditions for operation for light..., should not exceed 5 curies for each light-water-cooled reactor at a site. 3. Notwithstanding the...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors licensed under 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter. The... 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter. The guides on limiting conditions for operation for light..., should not exceed 5 curies for each light-water-cooled reactor at a site. 3. Notwithstanding the...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors licensed under 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter. The... 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter. The guides on limiting conditions for operation for light..., should not exceed 5 curies for each light-water-cooled reactor at a site. 3. Notwithstanding the...

  17. 20 CFR 661.310 - Under what limited conditions may a Local Board directly be a provider of core services...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Under what limited conditions may a Local Board directly be a provider of core services, intensive services, or training services, or act as a One-Stop Operator? 661.310 Section 661.310 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...

  18. Photosystem II cycle activity and alternative electron transport in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under dynamic light conditions and nitrogen limitation.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Heiko; Jakob, Torsten; Lavaud, Johann; Wilhelm, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Alternative electron sinks are an important regulatory mechanism to dissipate excessively absorbed light energy particularly under fast changing dynamic light conditions. In diatoms, the cyclic electron transport (CET) around Photosystem II (PS II) is an alternative electron transport pathway (AET) that contributes to avoidance of overexcitation under high light illumination. The combination of nitrogen limitation and high-intensity irradiance regularly occurs under natural conditions and is expected to force the imbalance between light absorption and the metabolic use of light energy. The present study demonstrates that under N limitation, the amount of AET and the activity of CETPSII in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum were increased. Thereby, the activity of CETPSII was linearly correlated with the amount of AET rates. It is concluded that CETPSII significantly contributes to AET in P. tricornutum. Surprisingly, CETPSII was found to be activated already at the end of the dark period under N-limited conditions. This coincided with a significantly increased degree of reduction of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool. The analysis of the macromolecular composition of cells of P. tricornutum under N-limited conditions revealed a carbon allocation in favor of carbohydrates during the light period and their degradation during the dark phase. A possible linkage between the activity of CETPSII and degree of reduction of the PQ pool on the one side and the macromolecular changes on the other is discussed. PMID:26650230

  19. 7 CFR 301.76-5 - General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited permit; provisions for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-5 General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited... Act (7 U.S.C. 7714) 2 to prevent the spread of Asian citrus psyllid; and 2 An inspector may hold...

  20. 7 CFR 301.76-5 - General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited permit; provisions for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-5 General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited... Act (7 U.S.C. 7714) 2 /> to prevent the spread of Asian citrus psyllid; and 2 An inspector may...

  1. 7 CFR 301.76-5 - General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited permit; provisions for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-5 General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited... Act (7 U.S.C. 7714) 2 /> to prevent the spread of Asian citrus psyllid; and 2 An inspector may...

  2. 7 CFR 301.76-5 - General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited permit; provisions for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-5 General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited... Act (7 U.S.C. 7714) 2 /> to prevent the spread of Asian citrus psyllid; and 2 An inspector may...

  3. GCM Simulations of Neoproterozoic "Snowball Earth" Conditions: Implications for the Environmental Limits on Terrestrial Metazoans and Their Extraterrestrial Analogues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohl, L. E.; Chandler, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    The Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth intervals provide excellent opportunities to examine the environmental limits on terrestrial metazoans. A series of GCM simulations was run in order to quantify climatic conditions during these intervals. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. The condition of a finite Markov chain and perturbation bounds for the limiting probabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C. D., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The inequalities bounding the relative error the norm of w- w squiggly/the norm of w are exhibited by a very simple function of E and A. Let T denote the transition matrix of an ergodic chain, C, and let A = I - T. Let E be a perturbation matrix such that T squiggly = T - E is also the transition matrix of an ergodic chain, C squiggly. Let w and w squiggly denote the limiting probability (row) vectors for C and C squiggly. The inequality is the best one possible. This bound can be significant in the numerical determination of the limiting probabilities for an ergodic chain. In addition to presenting a sharp bound for the norm of w-w squiggly/the norm of w an explicit expression for w squiggly will be derived in which w squiggly is given as a function of E, A, w and some other related terms.

  5. Hydrogen isotope exchange and conditioning in graphite limiters used in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    LaMarche, P.H.; Dylla, H.F.; McCarthy, P.J.; Ulrickson, M.

    1986-02-01

    Isotopic exchange experiments performed in TFTR are used to examine the outgassing and diffusive properties of graphite used as the plasma limiter. Changeover from hydrogen to deuterium for different periods ranges from approx.600 to 60 plasma discharges, which appears to be correlated to the limiter temperature. We present a simple analytical model that predicts a fast transient (approx.10 plasma discharges) changeover where the deuterium fueling dilutes the adsorbed and near-surface hydrogen, and a slowly changing term where bulk hydrogen diffuses to the surface. Using this model we can extract an activation energy for diffusion of 0.15 +- 0.02 eV. We hypothesize that interpore diffusion for this porous (approx.15%) material is consistent with our observations. 19 refs.

  6. 45 CFR 146.111 - Limitations on preexisting condition exclusion period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... on genetic information, A has a predisposition towards breast cancer. A was not diagnosed with breast... plan, A is diagnosed with breast cancer. (ii) Conclusion. In this Example, the plan may not impose a preexisting condition exclusion with respect to A's breast cancer because, prior to A's enrollment date, A...

  7. The effect of limiter conditioning on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor edge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kilpatrick, S.J.; Manos, D.M.; Nyberg, I.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stratton, B.C.; Timberlake, J.; Ulrickson, M.J.; Pitcher, C.S.; Dylla, H.F.

    1991-07-01

    Measurements by moveable Langmuir probes and edge spectroscopy diagnostics have documented the conditioning effect of low density helium-initiated discharge sequences on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) edge plasma. Langmuir probe measurements show in general that the edge electron density n{sub e} decreases by less than a factor of 2 while the edge electron temperature T{sub e} doubles. Radial profiles to the plasma boundary show that the density scrape-off length increases somewhat while the temperature scrape-off length decreases substantially. The particle flux density is unaffected. The spectral emission of C 2 decreases by a factor of 2, a much smaller change than that exhibited by the D{sub {alpha}} signal. These results complement previous accounts of the conditioning technique. Comparisons of these He conditioning measurements are made to edge measurements during a deuterium density scan experiment, showing many similarities, and to an existing edge model of the conditioning process, showing qualitative agreement. 20 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Biomass and cellulosic ethanol production of forage sorghum under limited water conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two year field study was conducted to evaluate biofuel production potential of two forage sorghum cultivars differing in brown midrib trait under non-irrigated and deficit irrigation conditions in the semiarid Southern High Plains of the U.S. Cultivar SP1990 (non-bmr = conventional cell wall comp...

  9. Exercise restrictions for patients with inherited cardiac conditions: Current guidelines, challenges and limitations.

    PubMed

    Hammond-Haley, Matthew; Patel, Riyaz S; Providência, Rui; Lambiase, Pier D

    2016-04-15

    Inherited primary arrhythmia syndromes are a clinically heterogeneous group of relatively uncommon but important inherited cardiac conditions that are associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the setting of a structurally normal heart. These include long-QT syndrome (LQTS), Short-QT syndrome (SQTS), Brugada syndrome (BrS) and Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia (CPVT). The cardiomyopathies represent the other major group of inherited cardiac conditions associated with SCD, of which hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common. Exercise is a known trigger of ventricular arrhythmias in many of these conditions, however marked genetic and clinical heterogeneity within individual diseases means that certain patients are at a much greater risk of lethal ventricular arrhythmias during exercise than others. For instance, LQTS type 1 (LQT1) and CPVT patients are at particular risk during exertion, whilst in patients with other genetic variants of LQTS, BrS and SQTS, alternative triggers are more significant precipitants. Many channelopathy (principally Brugada, CPVT) & cardiomyopathy (mainly HCM) patients receive primary or secondary prevention therapy with an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD). Exercising with an ICD in situ carries a range of additional risks including inappropriate shocks and lead complications. This review will focus on the risk of exercise-induced SCD in patients with inherited cardiac conditions, the current clinical guidelines in this area and the special consideration of patients with an ICD. PMID:26897076

  10. The effect of limiter conditioning on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor edge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kilpatrick, S.J.; Pitcher, C.S.; Dylla, H.F.; Manos, D.M.; Nyberg, I.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stratton, B.C.; Timberlake, J.; Ulrickson, M.J. )

    1991-05-01

    Measurements by moveable Langmuir probes and edge spectroscopy diagnostics have documented the conditioning effect of low-density helium-initiated discharge sequences on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor edge plasma. Langmuir probe measurements shown in general that the edge electron density {ital n}{sub {ital e}} decreases by less than a factor of 2 while the edge electron temperature {ital T}{sub {ital e}} doubles. Radial profiles to the plasma boundary show that the density scrape-off length increases somewhat while the temperature scrape-off length decreases substantially. The particle flux density is unaffected. The spectral emission of C II decreases by a factor of 2, a much smaller change than that exhibited by the {ital D}{sub {alpha}} signal. These results complement previous accounts of the conditioning technique. Comparisons of these He conditioning measurements are made to edge measurements during a deuterium density scan experiment, showing many similarities, and to an existing edge model of the conditioning process, showing qualitative agreement.

  11. 42 CFR 410.23 - Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and... coverage. (a) Definitions: As used in this section, the following definitions apply: (1) Direct supervision... procedure. It does not mean the physician must be present in the room when the procedure is performed....

  12. 42 CFR 410.23 - Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and... coverage. (a) Definitions: As used in this section, the following definitions apply: (1) Direct supervision... procedure. It does not mean the physician must be present in the room when the procedure is performed....

  13. 42 CFR 410.23 - Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and... coverage. (a) Definitions: As used in this section, the following definitions apply: (1) Direct supervision... procedure. It does not mean the physician must be present in the room when the procedure is performed....

  14. Polyhydroxyalkanoates from Pseudomonas sp. using synthetic and olive mill wastewater under limiting conditions.

    PubMed

    Kourmentza, C; Ntaikou, I; Lyberatos, G; Kornaros, M

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the ability of bacteria isolated from an enriched mixed culture to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and examining the effect of nitrogen and dual nitrogen-oxygen limitation on PHAs production, by using both synthetic and olive mill wastewater (OMW). PHAs production was performed through batch experiments using both the enriched culture and the isolated strains (belonging to the genus of Pseudomonas) aiming to compare PHAs accumulation capacity, yields and rates. The use of enriched culture and synthetic wastewater under nitrogen limitation resulted in the highest PHA accumulation, i.e. 64.4%gPHAs/g of cell dry mass (CDM). However, when OMW was used, PHAs accumulation significantly decreased, i.e. 8.8%gPHAs/g CDM. The same trend was followed by the isolated strains, nevertheless, their ability to synthesize PHAs was lower. Although, dual nitrogen-oxygen limitation generally slowed down PHAs biosynthesis, in certain strains PHAs production was positively affected. PMID:25542172

  15. Validity conditions for stochastic chemical kinetics in diffusion-limited systems

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Daniel T.; Petzold, Linda R.; Seitaridou, Effrosyni

    2014-01-01

    The chemical master equation (CME) and the mathematically equivalent stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) assume that the reactant molecules in a chemically reacting system are dilute and well-mixed throughout the containing volume. Here we clarify what those two conditions mean, and we show why their satisfaction is necessary in order for bimolecular reactions to physically occur in the manner assumed by the CME and the SSA. We prove that these conditions are closely connected, in that a system will stay well-mixed if and only if it is dilute. We explore the implications of these validity conditions for the reaction-diffusion (or spatially inhomogeneous) extensions of the CME and the SSA to systems whose containing volumes are not necessarily well-mixed, but can be partitioned into cubical subvolumes (voxels) that are. We show that the validity conditions, together with an additional condition that is needed to ensure the physical validity of the diffusion-induced jump probability rates of molecules between voxels, require the voxel edge length to have a strictly positive lower bound. We prove that if the voxel edge length is steadily decreased in a way that respects that lower bound, the average rate at which bimolecular reactions occur in the reaction-diffusion CME and SSA will remain constant, while the average rate of diffusive transfer reactions will increase as the inverse square of the voxel edge length. We conclude that even though the reaction-diffusion CME and SSA are inherently approximate, and cannot be made exact by shrinking the voxel size to zero, they should nevertheless be useful in many practical situations. PMID:24511926

  16. Chrysomya bezziana oral myiasis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gs Vijay; Sowmya, Gs; Shivananda, S

    2011-10-01

    Myiasis is an opportunistic infestation of human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae. Oral myiasis is a rare condition associated with poor oral hygiene, mental disability, halitosis and other conditions. We present a case report of an adult mentally challenged woman with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which three live maggots (larvae) were seen emerging out. The larvae were removed using forceps and the patient was treated with oral ivermectin. The maggots were identified as larvae of the Chrysomya bezziana fly. PMID:22224006

  17. An Individual-Based Diploid Model Predicts Limited Conditions Under Which Stochastic Gene Expression Becomes Advantageous

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Tomotaka; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Osada, Naoki; Araki, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest the existence of a stochasticity in gene expression (SGE) in many organisms, and its non-negligible effect on their phenotype and fitness. To date, however, how SGE affects the key parameters of population genetics are not well understood. SGE can increase the phenotypic variation and act as a load for individuals, if they are at the adaptive optimum in a stable environment. On the other hand, part of the phenotypic variation caused by SGE might become advantageous if individuals at the adaptive optimum become genetically less-adaptive, for example due to an environmental change. Furthermore, SGE of unimportant genes might have little or no fitness consequences. Thus, SGE can be advantageous, disadvantageous, or selectively neutral depending on its context. In addition, there might be a genetic basis that regulates magnitude of SGE, which is often referred to as “modifier genes,” but little is known about the conditions under which such an SGE-modifier gene evolves. In the present study, we conducted individual-based computer simulations to examine these conditions in a diploid model. In the simulations, we considered a single locus that determines organismal fitness for simplicity, and that SGE on the locus creates fitness variation in a stochastic manner. We also considered another locus that modifies the magnitude of SGE. Our results suggested that SGE was always deleterious in stable environments and increased the fixation probability of deleterious mutations in this model. Even under frequently changing environmental conditions, only very strong natural selection made SGE adaptive. These results suggest that the evolution of SGE-modifier genes requires strict balance among the strength of natural selection, magnitude of SGE, and frequency of environmental changes. However, the degree of dominance affected the condition under which SGE becomes advantageous, indicating a better opportunity for the evolution of SGE in different genetic models. PMID:26635872

  18. Trends in self-medication for dental conditions among patients attending oral health outreach programs in coastal Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Arun K.; Rao, Ashwini; Rajesh, Gururaghavendran; Shenoy, Ramya; Pai, Mithun B. H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence, pattern, and awareness of self-medication practices among patients presenting at oral health outreach programs in coastal Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study, based on an interview conducted in randomly selected 400 study subjects from the patients presenting at these oral health outreach programs. Data were collected regarding demographic information and the interview schedule consisting of 14 questions was administered. Results: Prevalence of self-medication was 30%. Respondents’ gender (χ2 = 5.095, P < 0.05), occupation (χ2 = 10.215, P < 0.05), the time from the last dental visit (χ2 = 8.108, P < 0.05), recommendation of drug(s) to family members or friends (χ2 = 75.565, P < 0.001), and the likelihood of self-medication in the next 6 months (χ2 = 80.999, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with self-medication. Male respondents were less likely to have undertaken self-medication (odds ratio = 0.581 [0.361, 0.933]). The frequently self-medicated drug was analgesics (42.5%) for toothache (69.2%). The regression model explained 39.4% (Nagelkerke R2) of the variance in self-medication practices. Conclusions: Prevalence of self-medication was 30% with demographic influence. Hence, this study highlights the policy implications for drug control by government agencies and stresses on the need for dental health education to discourage irrational drug use. PMID:26600642

  19. Scaling Hydrodynamic Boundary Conditions of Microstructured Surfaces in the Thin Channel Limit.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, Georgia A; Gupta, Rohini; Fréchette, Joëlle

    2016-03-15

    Despite its importance in many applications and processes, a complete and unified view on how nano- and microscale asperities influence hydrodynamic interactions has yet to be reached. In particular, the effects of surface structure can be expected to become more dominant when the length scale of the asperities or textures becomes comparable to that of the fluid flow. Here we analyze the hydrodynamic drainage of a viscous silicone oil squeezed between a smooth plane and a surface decorated with hexagonal arrays of lyophilic microsized cylindrical posts. For all micropost arrays studied, the periodicity of the structures was much larger than the separation range of our measurements. In this thin channel geometry, we find the hydrodynamic drainage and separation forces for the micropost arrays cannot be fully described by existing boundary condition models for interfacial slip or a no-slip shifted plane. Instead, our results show that the influence of the microposts on the hydrodynamic drag exhibits three distinct regimes as a function of separation. For large separations, a no slip boundary condition (Reynolds theory) is observed for all surfaces until a critical (intermediate) separation, below which the position of the no-slip plane scales with surface separation until reaching a maximum, just before contact. Below this separation, a sharp decrease in the no-slip plane position then suggests that a boundary condition of a smooth surface is recovered at contact. PMID:26901492

  20. The 3-D Inviscid Limit Result Under Slip Boundary Conditions. A Negative Answer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beirão da Veiga, H.; Crispo, F.

    2012-03-01

    We show that, in general, the solutions to the initial-boundary value problem for the Navier-Stokes equations under a widely adopted Navier-type slip boundary condition do not converge, as the viscosity goes to zero, to the solution of the Euler equations under the classical zero-flux boundary condition, and same smooth initial data, in any arbitrarily small neighborhood of the initial time. Convergence does not hold with respect to any space-topology which is sufficiently strong as to imply that the solution to the Euler equations inherits the complete slip type boundary condition. In our counter-example Ω is a sphere, and the initial data may be infinitely differentiable. The crucial point here is that the boundary is not flat. In fact (see Beirão da Veiga et al. in J Math Anal Appl 377:216-227, 2011) if { Ω = mathbb R^3_+,} convergence holds in {C([0,T]; W^{k,p}(mathbb R^3_+))}, for arbitrarily large k and p. For this reason, the negative answer given here was not expected.

  1. Factors limiting endurance of armor, artillery, and infantry units under simulated NBC conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, T.M.; Tharion, W.J.; Banderet, L.E.; Lussier, A.R.

    1986-03-13

    The war of the future will require 72-hour operations in environments contaminated with nuclear/biological/chemical (NBC) agents. The 1985 P2NBC2 (Physiological and Psychological Effects of NBC and Extended Operations on Combined Arms Crews) Program assessed soldier endurance and performance under simulated NBC conditions. A total of 175 soldiers were observed during four tests differing in design, site, climatic conditions, and performance demands. In all but one of the iterations where the full chemical-protective ensemble (MOPP 4) was used without cooling, soldier endurance fell far short of the projected requirement. Psychological data were analyzed to determine which factors were associated with the incidence of casualties. The findings showed that perceived intensity of symptoms resembling the hyperventilation syndrome was significantly greater in soldiers classified as Casualties. Five of these symptoms (painful breathing, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, headache, and nausea) showed Casualty-Survivor differences in all tests. Symptom intensity was attributed to two factors. (1) External conditions. Thermal stress exacerbated the five basic symptoms, induced others (tetany and paresthesia), and decreased endurance. Periodic relief from respirator use attenuated these symptoms and enhanced endurance. (2) Individual differences. Significant Casualty-Survivor differences in anxiety, depression, and cognitive strategy scores indicated that perception of hyperventilation symptoms and endurance were related to personality variables. Hyperventilation symptoms could incapacitate the soldier or induce removal of the protective mask under actual chemical attack.

  2. Teleportation of qubit states through dissipative channels: Conditions for surpassing the no-cloning limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Bartkiewicz, Karol; Liu, Yu-Xi; Miranowicz, Adam

    2007-10-01

    We investigate quantum teleportation through dissipative channels and calculate teleportation fidelity as a function of damping rates. It is found that the average fidelity of teleportation and the range of states to be teleported depend on the type and rate of the damping in the channel. Using the fully entangled fraction, we derive two bounds on the damping rates of the channels: one is to beat the classical limit and the second is to guarantee the nonexistence of any other copy with better fidelity. The effect of the initially distributed maximally entangled state on the process is presented; the concurrence and the fully entangled fraction of the shared states are discussed. We intend to show that prior information on the dissipative channel and the range of qubit states to be teleported is helpful for the evaluation of the success of teleportation, where success is defined as surpassing the fidelity limit imposed by the fidelity of the 1-to-2 optimal cloning machine for the specific range of qubits.

  3. Bearing performance limits with grease lubrication: the interaction of bearing design, operating conditions and grease properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cann, P. M. E.; Lubrecht, A. A.

    2007-09-01

    The majority of rolling element bearings in use today are lubricated by grease. Grease is a two-phase lubricant with complex rheological properties and poses severe challenges for the prediction for lubricating performance. Grease lubricated contacts are liable to starvation and as a result the film thickness is reduced, which can result in surface damage or premature bearing failure. It is important to know when starvation occurs and the effect of grease type, bearing design and operation on lubrication replenishment. The influence of bearing design and operation in controlling lubricant supply to the contact zone is examined in this paper. The aim is to develop a starvation parameter capable of predicting the operating limits for a particular bearing/grease system. A number of bearing design parameters are examined in the paper; these include cage design, ball spin and bearing size. Ball spin and cage effects can be efficient mechanisms for maintaining the lubricant supply to the track. Increased bearing size, line contact geometries and high load result in reduced lubricant replenishment of the contact. Using this analysis it will be possible to establish operating limits for families of bearings.

  4. Teleportation of qubit states through dissipative channels: Conditions for surpassing the no-cloning limit

    SciTech Connect

    Oezdemir, Sahin Kaya; Bartkiewicz, Karol; Liu, Yu-xi; Miranowicz, Adam

    2007-10-15

    We investigate quantum teleportation through dissipative channels and calculate teleportation fidelity as a function of damping rates. It is found that the average fidelity of teleportation and the range of states to be teleported depend on the type and rate of the damping in the channel. Using the fully entangled fraction, we derive two bounds on the damping rates of the channels: one is to beat the classical limit and the second is to guarantee the nonexistence of any other copy with better fidelity. The effect of the initially distributed maximally entangled state on the process is presented; the concurrence and the fully entangled fraction of the shared states are discussed. We intend to show that prior information on the dissipative channel and the range of qubit states to be teleported is helpful for the evaluation of the success of teleportation, where success is defined as surpassing the fidelity limit imposed by the fidelity of the 1-to-2 optimal cloning machine for the specific range of qubits.

  5. [Juvenile idiopathic arthritis and oral health].

    PubMed

    Kobus, Agnieszka; Kierklo, Anna; Sielicka, Danuta; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common autoimmune inflammatory disease of connective tissue in children. It is characterized by progressive joint destruction which causes preserved changes in the musculoskeletal system. The literature describes fully clinical symptoms and radiological images in different subtypes of JIA. However, there is still a limited number of studies reporting on the medical condition of the oral cavity of ill children. JIA can affect hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity by: the general condition of the child's health, arthritis of the upper limbs, as the result of the pharmacotherapy, changes in secretion and composition of saliva, inflammation of the temporomandibular joint and facial deformity. The study summarizes the available literature on the condition of the teeth and periodontal and oral hygiene in the course of JIA. The presence of diverse factors that modify the oral cavity, such as facial growth, functioning of salivary glands, or the supervision and care provided by adults, prevents clear identification if JIA leads to severe dental caries and periodontal disease. Despite conflicting results in studies concerning the clinical oral status, individuals with JIA require special attention regarding disease prevention and maintenance of oral health. PMID:27180959

  6. Pregnancy Cravings Can Harm Your Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Overal Health Oral Warning Signs Can Indicate Serious Medical Conditions Serious diseases, including diabetes, cancer, and ... Affect My Oral Health? Periodontal Disease and Pregnancy games Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral ...

  7. Unravelling Carbon Fixation under Nutrient limited Conditions - a Water Column Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Helmuth; Craig, Susanne; Shadwick, Elizabeth H.; Li, William K.; Greenan, Blair J. W.

    2014-05-01

    Phytoplankton plays a critical role in the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) by the ocean, and is comprised of a spectrum of cell sizes that are strongly regulated by oceanographic conditions. Elevated CO2 fixation relative to nutrient availability, also called carbon overconsumption, has been observed in various mid to high latitude systems, such as the Baltic and North Seas, the North Atlantic Ocean, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago or the Scotian Shelf. We shed light on this phenomenon relying on an extensive data set of water column observations of the CO2 system and phytoplankton cell counts from the Scotian Shelf, a temperate shelf sea. We show that in the summertime, the population of numerically abundant small cells, which favour warmer, nutrient poor conditions, accounts for approximately 20% of annual carbon uptake. At the broader scale, the neglection of this "non-Redfieldian" contribution typically leads to an underestimation of net community production by approximately 20% to 50%. These small cells are not well represented by chlorophyll a - the ubiquitously used proxy of phytoplankton biomass - but rather, are strongly correlated with surface water temperature. Given the persistent near-zero nutrient concentrations during the summer, it appears that small cells drive carbon overconsumption, and suggest that their role in carbon fixation will become increasingly important in a warming, increasingly stratified ocean.

  8. Central carbon metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in anaerobic, oxygen-limited and fully aerobic steady-state conditions and following a shift to anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Marilyn G; Rintala, Eija; Tamminen, Anu; Simolin, Helena; Salusjärvi, Laura; Toivari, Mervi; Kokkonen, Juha T; Kiuru, Jari; Ketola, Raimo A; Jouhten, Paula; Huuskonen, Anne; Maaheimo, Hannu; Ruohonen, Laura; Penttilä, Merja

    2008-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-1A was grown in glucose-limited chemostat culture with 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.8% or 20.9% O2 in the inlet gas (D=0.10 h(-1), pH 5, 30 degrees C) to determine the effects of oxygen on 17 metabolites and 69 genes related to central carbon metabolism. The concentrations of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) metabolites and all glycolytic metabolites except 2-phosphoglycerate+3-phosphoglycerate and phosphoenolpyruvate were higher in anaerobic than in fully aerobic conditions. Provision of only 0.5-1% O2 reduced the concentrations of most metabolites, as compared with anaerobic conditions. Transcription of most genes analyzed was reduced in 0%, 0.5% or 1.0% O2 relative to cells grown in 2.8% or 20.9% O2. Ethanol production was observed with 2.8% or less O2. After steady-state analysis in defined oxygen concentrations, the conditions were switched from aerobic to anaerobic. Metabolite and transcript levels were monitored for up to 96 h after the transition, and this showed that more than 30 h was required for the cells to fully adapt to anaerobiosis. Levels of metabolites of upper glycolysis and the TCA cycle increased following the transition to anaerobic conditions, whereas those of metabolites of lower glycolysis generally decreased. Gene regulation was more complex, with some genes showing transient upregulation or downregulation during the adaptation to anaerobic conditions. PMID:17425669

  9. Natural conditions for more limited osmotic abnormal fluid pressures in sedimentary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremosa, Joachim; GonçAlvèS, Julio; Matray, Jean-Michel

    2012-04-01

    Chemical osmosis is considered a plausible cause of abnormal pressures in shale formations of sedimentary basins. A set of experimental data on chemical osmosis was recently obtained for different shales, mainly in the framework of studies on radioactive waste repositories in deep argillaceous formations. Based on these data, large, osmotically induced overpressures up to tens of MPa were predicted by [2009] under appropriate conditions. However, such large overpressures have not been found in sedimentary basins such that the reasons for this disparity between predictions and observations need to be clarified. Accordingly, two natural causes for lower than expected osmotic pressure were investigated: the effect of the complex composition of natural waters, including both monovalent and divalent cations, on the osmotic efficiency and the resulting abnormal pressures, and the presence of steady state rather than transient-state salinity distributions. For this purpose, an electrical triple-layer model accounting for multi-ionic solutions was developed and used to calculate the osmotic efficiency at different proportions of monovalent and divalent cations. The calculated decrease of the osmotic efficiency when Ca2+ is introduced in a Na+-clay system yields a noticeable decrease in the ability of the shale to generate overpressures. A discussion addresses the generation of abnormal pressures at steady state conditions found in sedimentary basins, i.e., with a linear distribution of the concentration across the formation. The persistence of moderate overpressures was predicted because of the nonlinearity associated with the dependence of the chemo-osmotic efficiency on the concentration and the porosity. Finally, a case study of the moderate excess hydraulic head measured in the Toarcian/Domerian argillaceous formation of Tournemire (SE of France) was investigated. The analysis indicated an osmotic origin for the excess head and illustrated the influence of the pore water composition.

  10. Water-Limiting Conditions Alter the Structure and Biofilm-Forming Ability of Bacterial Multispecies Communities in the Alfalfa Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Bogino, Pablo; Abod, Ayelén; Nievas, Fiorela; Giordano, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms are microbial communities that adhere to biotic or abiotic surfaces and are enclosed in a protective matrix of extracellular compounds. An important advantage of the biofilm lifestyle for soil bacteria (rhizobacteria) is protection against water deprivation (desiccation or osmotic effect). The rhizosphere is a crucial microhabitat for ecological, interactive, and agricultural production processes. The composition and functions of bacterial biofilms in soil microniches are poorly understood. We studied multibacterial communities established as biofilm-like structures in the rhizosphere of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) exposed to 3 experimental conditions of water limitation. The whole biofilm-forming ability (WBFA) for rhizospheric communities exposed to desiccation was higher than that of communities exposed to saline or nonstressful conditions. A culture-dependent ribotyping analysis indicated that communities exposed to desiccation or saline conditions were more diverse than those under the nonstressful condition. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of selected strains showed that the rhizospheric communities consisted primarily of members of the Actinobacteria and α- and γ-Proteobacteria, regardless of the water-limiting condition. Our findings contribute to improved understanding of the effects of environmental stress factors on plant-bacteria interaction processes and have potential application to agricultural management practices. PMID:24223979

  11. Water-limiting conditions alter the structure and biofilm-forming ability of bacterial multispecies communities in the alfalfa rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Bogino, Pablo; Abod, Ayelén; Nievas, Fiorela; Giordano, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms are microbial communities that adhere to biotic or abiotic surfaces and are enclosed in a protective matrix of extracellular compounds. An important advantage of the biofilm lifestyle for soil bacteria (rhizobacteria) is protection against water deprivation (desiccation or osmotic effect). The rhizosphere is a crucial microhabitat for ecological, interactive, and agricultural production processes. The composition and functions of bacterial biofilms in soil microniches are poorly understood. We studied multibacterial communities established as biofilm-like structures in the rhizosphere of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) exposed to 3 experimental conditions of water limitation. The whole biofilm-forming ability (WBFA) for rhizospheric communities exposed to desiccation was higher than that of communities exposed to saline or nonstressful conditions. A culture-dependent ribotyping analysis indicated that communities exposed to desiccation or saline conditions were more diverse than those under the nonstressful condition. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of selected strains showed that the rhizospheric communities consisted primarily of members of the Actinobacteria and α- and γ-Proteobacteria, regardless of the water-limiting condition. Our findings contribute to improved understanding of the effects of environmental stress factors on plant-bacteria interaction processes and have potential application to agricultural management practices. PMID:24223979

  12. Conditions and limitations on learning in the adaptive management of mallard harvests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, F.A.; Kendall, W.L.; Dubovsky, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1995, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service adopted a protocol for the adaptive management of waterfowl hunting regulations (AHM) to help reduce uncertainty about the magnitude of sustainable harvests. To date, the AHM process has focused principally on the midcontinent population of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), whose dynamics are described by 4 alternative models. Collectively, these models express uncertainty (or disagreement) about whether harvest is an additive or a compensatory form of mortality and whether the reproductive process is weakly or strongly density-dependent. Each model is associated with a probability or 'weight,' which describes its relative ability to predict changes in population size. These Bayesian probabilities are updated annually using a comparison of population size predicted under each model with that observed by a monitoring program. The current AHM process is passively adaptive, in the sense that there is no a priori consideration of how harvest decisions might affect discrimination among models. We contrast this approach with an actively adaptive approach, in which harvest decisions are used in part to produce the learning needed to increase long-term management performance. Our investigation suggests that the passive approach is expected to perform nearly as well as an optimal actively adaptive approach, particularly considering the nature of the model set, management objectives and constraints, and current regulatory alternatives. We offer some comments about the nature of the biological hypotheses being tested and describe some of the inherent limitations on learning in the AHM process.

  13. On the choice of limiters in a numerical approximation of a chemotaxis system with non-linear boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencheva, G.

    2012-10-01

    A mathematical model for haematopoietic stem cells migration towards their niche in the bone marrow has been proposed in the literature. It consists of a chemotaxis system of partial differential equations with nonlinear boundary conditions and an additional ordinary differential equation on a part of the computational boundary. The aim in the current paper is first to answer some of the open questions of a recently introduced finite volume scheme for this chemotaxis system of differential equations and second to investigate the influence of the boundary conditions on the choice of flux limiters (the generalized minmod, Koren, van Leer limiters are investigated) used to ensure positivity and non-oscillating nature of the numerical solution.

  14. Determination of Bacterial Weathering Ability in Nutrient Limited Conditions on Biotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, M. R.; Harsh, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    Bacterial and fungal communities facilitate the weathering of minerals in oligotrophic soils. The bacterial communities reside in biofilms, consisting of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) such as lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nuclei acids. Biotite, a 2:1 aluminosilicate mica, is a common primary mineral found in these low nutrient soils and is a source of potassium, magnesium and iron for both microorganisms and plants. Studies show that bacteria, when incubated with biotite flakes, can remove iron, potassium, and magnesium at higher quantities and increased rates compared to abiotic controls (Balogh-Brunstad et al., 2008; Calvaruso et al., 2006; Hopf et al. 2008; Uroz et al., 2007 and 2009). How this happens mechanistically is still unclear and this study seeks to shed light on this issue. We hypothesize that weathering by bacteria is selective; i.e., that the mechanism will depend on the limiting nutrient. Using a drip flow biofilm reactor, biofilms are grown on biotite coupons under non-turbulent, low sheer flow, with four different nutrient treatments. The nutrient treatments include a complete nutrient solution and the same solution without K, Mg, or Fe. In each treatment, we determine the concentration and cumulative release of each cation in the effluent. Congruent dissolution of biotite indicates that weathering is nonselective whereas incongruent dissolution suggests that the bacteria alter the weathering mechanism for a specific nutrient. The bacteria are selected from a bacterial inoculum collected from the roots of young White Pine (Pinus strobus) trees in the Saint Joseph National Forest, Idaho. The bacteria are isolated on plates and the best weathering species are selected using a microplate bioassay technique to determine the concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, and protons colorimetrically.

  15. Profiling of spatial metabolite distributions in wheat leaves under normal and nitrate limiting conditions

    PubMed Central

    Allwood, J. William; Chandra, Surya; Xu, Yun; Dunn, Warwick B.; Correa, Elon; Hopkins, Laura; Goodacre, Royston; Tobin, Alyson K.; Bowsher, Caroline G.

    2015-01-01

    The control and interaction between nitrogen and carbon assimilatory pathways is essential in both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic tissue in order to support metabolic processes without compromising growth. Physiological differences between the basal and mature region of wheat (Triticum aestivum) primary leaves confirmed that there was a change from heterotrophic to autotrophic metabolism. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy confirmed the suitability and phenotypic reproducibility of the leaf growth conditions. Principal Component–Discriminant Function Analysis (PC–DFA) revealed distinct clustering between base, and tip sections of the developing wheat leaf, and from plants grown in the presence or absence of nitrate. Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight/Mass Spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) combined with multivariate and univariate analyses, and Bayesian network (BN) analysis, distinguished different tissues and confirmed the physiological switch from high rates of respiration to photosynthesis along the leaf. The operation of nitrogen metabolism impacted on the levels and distribution of amino acids, organic acids and carbohydrates within the wheat leaf. In plants grown in the presence of nitrate there was reduced levels of a number of sugar metabolites in the leaf base and an increase in maltose levels, possibly reflecting an increase in starch turnover. The value of using this combined metabolomics analysis for further functional investigations in the future are discussed. PMID:25680480

  16. Identification of environmental factors limiting plant uptake of metaldehyde seed treatments under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Simms, Louise C; Dawson, Julian J C; Paton, Graeme I; Wilson, Michael J

    2006-05-17

    Slugs are serious pests of oilseed rape (canola) and wheat with most damage occurring just after sowing and seedling emergence. As an alternative to the use of bait pellets, molluscicidal seed treatments have been shown to protect seeds and seedlings from slug damage in laboratory and semi-field experiments. However, protection offered to plants in field trials was diminished and shortlived in comparison with laboratory experiments. To determine why field efficacy was reduced, we grew seedlings under a range of environmental conditions, with appropriate controls, that simulated differences between laboratory and field experiments. We then measured the metaldehyde content of plant seedlings using a previously unpublished methodology described herein, which, unlike previous methods, did not first depolymerize the metaldehyde to acetaldehyde. We confirmed that naturally abundant plant-derived acetaldehyde could not interfere with our measurements of metaldehyde, even if depolymerization took place within the column. Our data suggest that reduced field efficacy results from microbial breakdown and/or loss of active ingredient caused by percolating soil water. Once the seedlings had emerged, neither volatalization nor simulated rainwater reduced the metaldehyde content of seedlings. Our findings will help develop superior seed treatment formulations to overcome these constraints. PMID:19127739

  17. Comparative studies of S-layer proteins from Bacillus stearothermophilus strains expressed during growth in continuous culture under oxygen-limited and non-oxygen-limited conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Sára, M; Sleytr, U B

    1994-01-01

    The specific properties of S-layer proteins from three different Bacillus stearothermophilus strains revealing oblique, square, or hexagonal lattice symmetry were preserved during growth in continuous culture on complex medium only under oxygen-limited conditions in which glucose was used as the sole carbon source. When oxygen limitation was relieved, amino acids became metabolized, cell density increased, and different S-layer proteins from wild-type strains became rapidly replaced by a new common type of S-layer protein with an apparent subunit molecular weight of 97,000 which assembled into an identical oblique (p2) lattice type. During switching from wild-type strains to variants, patches of the S-layer lattices characteristics for wild-type strains, granular regions, and areas with oblique lattice symmetry could be observed on the surface of individual cells from all organisms. The granular regions apparently consisted of mixtures of the S-layer proteins from the wild-type strains and the newly synthesized p2 S-layer proteins from the variants. S-layer proteins from wild-type strains possessed identical N-terminal regions but led to quite different cleavage products upon peptide mapping, indicating that they are encoded by different genes. Chemical analysis including N-terminal sequencing and peptide mapping showed that the oblique S-layer lattices synthesized under increased oxygen supply were composed of identical protein species. Images PMID:7961489

  18. Language and Traits of Autism Spectrum Conditions: Evidence of Limited Phenotypic and Etiological Overlap

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Mark J.; Charman, Tony; Robinson, Elise B.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Happé, Francesca; Dale, Philip S.; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Language difficulties have historically been viewed as integral to autism spectrum conditions (ASC), leading molecular genetic studies to consider whether ASC and language difficulties have overlapping genetic bases. The extent of genetic, and also environmental, overlap between ASC and language is, however, unclear. We hence conducted a twin study of the concurrent association between autistic traits and receptive language abilities. Internet-based language tests were completed by ~3,000 pairs of twins, while autistic traits were assessed via parent ratings. Twin model fitting explored the association between these measures in the full sample, while DeFries-Fulker analysis tested these associations at the extremes of the sample. Phenotypic associations between language ability and autistic traits were modest and negative. The degree of genetic overlap was also negative, indicating that genetic influences on autistic traits lowered language scores in the full sample (mean genetic correlation = −0.13). Genetic overlap was also low at the extremes of the sample (mean genetic correlation = 0.14), indicating that genetic influences on quantitatively defined language difficulties were largely distinct from those on extreme autistic traits. Variation in language ability and autistic traits were also associated with largely different nonshared environmental influences. Language and autistic traits are influenced by largely distinct etiological factors. This has implications for molecular genetic studies of ASC and understanding the etiology of ASC. Additionally, these findings lend support to forthcoming DSM-5 changes to ASC diagnostic criteria that will see language difficulties separated from the core ASC communication symptoms, and instead listed as a clinical specifier. PMID:25088445

  19. Solubility limits in Mn-Mg ferrites system under hydrothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemeda, O. M.; Mostafa, N. Y.; Abd Elkader, O. H.; Ahmed, M. A.

    2014-09-01

    In the present investigation, we successfully synthesized a pure MnFe2O4 ferrite by the hydrothermal method. Moreover, the effect of Mg ion content on the formation of Mn1-xMgxFe2O4 particles (with x varying from 0.1 to 1.0) was also investigated using XRD, SEM, TEM and Mossbauer Spectroscopy. Phases formed in the system Mn1-xMgxFe2O4; 0.0≤x≤1.0 were investigated under hydrothermal conditions at 453 K.The produced phases were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scanning, transmission microscopy and Mossbauer spectroscopy. The information of composition, cation distribution in the spinel structure and the particle size of the products were obtained. The spinel ferrites; Mn1-xMgxFe2O4 were formed in the range 0.0≤x≤0.3. However, sample with x>0.3 showed semi-crystalline magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) and hematite (Fe2O3) beside the ferrite phase. For x=1.0, only magnesium hydroxide and hematite are formed without any ferrites. Particles of uniform size around 10-20 nm were obtained in the spinel structure of Mn1-xMgxFe2O4 with x=0.0 and 0.1. The corresponding average crystallite size for each sample was 40.3 nm and 39.2 nm respectively. In addition, the Mossbauer spectra were analyzed into two subspectra, one for the tetrahedral A-site and the other for the octahedral B-site. The Mossbauer parameters were determined and discussed for the studied system. The cation distribution was estimated from the analysis of the Mossbauer spectra as well as the X-ray diffraction patterns. The results showed that Mg ions occupy mainly B-site while both Mn and Fe ions are distributed between A- and B-sites.

  20. Language and traits of autism spectrum conditions: evidence of limited phenotypic and etiological overlap.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark J; Charman, Tony; Robinson, Elise B; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E; Happé, Francesca; Dale, Philip S; Ronald, Angelica

    2014-10-01

    Language difficulties have historically been viewed as integral to autism spectrum conditions (ASC), leading molecular genetic studies to consider whether ASC and language difficulties have overlapping genetic bases. The extent of genetic, and also environmental, overlap between ASC and language is, however, unclear. We hence conducted a twin study of the concurrent association between autistic traits and receptive language abilities. Internet-based language tests were completed by ~3,000 pairs of twins, while autistic traits were assessed via parent ratings. Twin model fitting explored the association between these measures in the full sample, while DeFries-Fulker analysis tested these associations at the extremes of the sample. Phenotypic associations between language ability and autistic traits were modest and negative. The degree of genetic overlap was also negative, indicating that genetic influences on autistic traits lowered language scores in the full sample (mean genetic correlation = -0.13). Genetic overlap was also low at the extremes of the sample (mean genetic correlation = 0.14), indicating that genetic influences on quantitatively defined language difficulties were largely distinct from those on extreme autistic traits. Variation in language ability and autistic traits were also associated with largely different nonshared environmental influences. Language and autistic traits are influenced by largely distinct etiological factors. This has implications for molecular genetic studies of ASC and understanding the etiology of ASC. Additionally, these findings lend support to forthcoming DSM-5 changes to ASC diagnostic criteria that will see language difficulties separated from the core ASC communication symptoms, and instead listed as a clinical specifier. PMID:25088445

  1. A strong conditional mutualism limits and enhances seed dispersal and germination of a tropical palm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klinger, R.; Rejmanek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Seed predation and seed dispersal can have strong effects on early life history stages of plants. These processes have often been studied as individual effects, but the degree to which their relative importance co-varies with seed predator abundance and how this influences seed germination rates is poorly understood. Therefore, we used a combination of observations and field experiments to determine the degree to which germination rates of the palm Astrocaryum mexicanum varied with abundance of a small mammal seed predator/disperser, Heteromysdesmarestianus, in a lowland tropical forest. Patterns of abundance of the two species were strongly related; density of H. desmarestianus was low in sites with low density of A. mexicanum and vice versa. Rates of predation and dispersal of A. mexicanum seeds depended on abundance of H. desmarestianus; sites with high densities of H. desmarestianus had the highest rates of seed predation and lowest rates of seed germination, but a greater total number of seeds were dispersed and there was greater density of seedlings, saplings, and adults of A. mexicanum in these sites. When abundance of H. desmarestianus was experimentally reduced, rates of seed predation decreased, but so did dispersal of A. mexicanum seeds. Critically, rates of germination of dispersed seeds were 5 times greater than undispersed seeds. The results suggest that the relationship between A. mexicanum and H. desmarestianus is a conditional mutualism that results in a strong local effect on the abundance of each species. However, the magnitude and direction of these effects are determined by the relative strength of opposing, but related, mechanisms. A. mexicanum nuts provide H. desmarestianus with a critical food resource, and while seed predation on A. mexicanum nuts by H. desmarestianus is very intense, A. mexicanum ultimately benefits because of the relatively high germination rates of its seeds that are dispersed by H. desmarestianus. ?? The Author(s) 2010.

  2. Arsenic-induced phosphate limitation under experimental Early Proterozoic oceanic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi Fru, Ernest; Hemmingsson, Christoffer; Holm, Mikaela; Chiu, Beverly; Iñiguez, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of phosphorus concentrations associated with modern hydrothermal Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides and ancient Fe(III) oxide-rich iron formations, is used to estimate bioavailable Precambrian marine phosphorus (P) concentrations. This led to the proposition of a low dissolved P budget of ˜10-25% of present-day levels, before ˜1.9 billion years ago. Estimates incorporating ancient marine Si levels ≥ 0.67 mM instead suggested global dissolved P levels greater than today. Here we unite current experimental models that have considered NaCl solutions containing elevated dissolved Fe(II), Si, Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions in the incorporation of P in Precambrian marine Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides, in addition to arsenic as a hydrothermal proxy. We show that the coprecipitation of dissolved P and Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides from arsenic-rich marine waters produces an average P distribution coefficient of ˜0.072 (± 0.01) μM-1. This is comparable to the ˜ 0.07 μM-1 predicted for Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides in modern arsenic-rich, submarine hydrothermal settings, from which the lower Early Proterozoic dissolved marine P concentrations were predicted. As/P molar ratios below modern seawater ratios removed the negative feedback effect high Si impose on P scavenging by Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides. The binding of As(III) to Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides exhibits a lower competitive influence on P fixation. As(V) that likely became prominent in the surficially oxidized Early Proterozoic oceans induced dissolved P limitation because of preferential P sequestration at the expense of dissolved As(V) enrichment. The control of As on P scavenging by the precipitating Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides is strong regardless of common seawater cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+). The data suggest that the application of Si and Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides as an ancient seawater P proxy should consider chemical variability between depositional basins, taking into account the rather strong role hydrothermal arsenic has on the distribution of P in Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides. We propose that the generalized lower dissolved P budgets estimated from Early Proterozoic iron formations are consistent with oceans thought to be at least 3-4 times more hydrothermally active than at present.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of single oral dose trazodone: a randomized, two-period, cross-over trial in healthy, adult, human volunteers under fed condition

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Prashant; Agrawal, Yadvendra K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the bioequivalence of single dose trazodone hydrochloride USP 100 mg tablets administered as an oral dose under fed condition. Methods:This study was an open-label, balanced, randomized, two-sequence, two-treatment, two-period, single oral dose, crossover bioequivalence study in healthy, adult, human subjects under fed conditions. After an overnight fast of at least 10 h, the subjects were served a high fat and high calorie vegetarian breakfast, which they were required to consume within 30 min. A single oral dose (100 mg) of either the test or the reference product was administered to the subjects. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) from time zero to last measurable concentration (AUC0−t) and extrapolated to infinity (AUC0−∞) were compared by an analysis of variance using log-transformed data. Bioequivalence was concluded if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the adjusted geometric mean (gMean) ratios for Cmax and AUC were within the predetermined range of 80–125%, in accordance with regulatory requirements. Results:For the test formulation, the trazodone gMean Cmax was 1480.9 ng/mL (vs. 1520.2 ng/mL for reference), AUC0−t was 18193.0 ng·h/mL (vs. 18209.8 ng·h/mL) and AUC0−∞ was 19346.3 ng·h/mL (vs. 19393.4 ng·h/mL). The 90% CIs for the ratio (test/reference) were 93.0–102.0% for Cmax, 96.7–103.2% for AUC0−t and 96.1–103.5% for AUC0−∞. There were no deaths or serious adverse events during the conduct of the study. Conclusion:Test product when compared with the Reference product meets the bioequivalence criteria with respect to the extent of absorption of trazodone under fed condition. PMID:26483693

  4. Benefits and limitations of pig slurry to reclaim bare mine soils under Mediterranean semiarid conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Acosta, Jose A.; Kabas, Sebla; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Ángeles Muñoz, M.

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the effects of pig slurry application on reclamation of mine soils from Cartagena-La Unión Mining District (SE Spain) were investigated in a field experiment. Exchangeable metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, soluble carbon, microbial biomass and three enzyme activities were periodically monitored during 67 days. In addition, one year after the application of the pig slurry, soil and developed vegetation was sampled. Results showed that only exchangeable Cd and Zn significantly decreased in the amended plots, mainly for Cd, with decreases of 98%. The rest of metals and chemical properties did not change with time after application of amendments, showing values not significantly different than those present before pig slurry application. Soluble carbon, microbial biomass carbon and the enzyme activities increased after the application of pig slurry. However, after various days these parameters started a decreasing trend until reaching values similar to the control from approximately day 25. Thus, mainly precipitation as phosphate from the waste was very effective for Cd immobilization. No increments were observed in soil organic carbon because the organic carbon applied with the slurry was too low to be significantly detected. Nonetheless, pig slurry is a good fertilizer owing to the high quantity of nutrients provided, needed to promote the development of vegetation. One year after application, a native vegetation cover (25-30%) was reached by spontaneous colonization. Triggered plant growth by the effect of amendment improved soil conditions, particularly by the help of the medium created by their rhizosphere systems. Increments in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, and decreases in the exchangeable metals fraction concentration were observed in rhizospheric soils when compared to the bare soils. This improvement in soil quality mediated by vegetation was more efficient than the direct effect of the amendment. In conclusion, the use of pig slurry to reclaim bare contaminated soils by heavy metals brings indirect positive effects by triggering a vegetation cover which can stabilize metals and increase soil quality (phytostabilization). Keywords: heavy metals, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, phytoremediation.

  5. Doppler-broadened NICE-OHMS beyond the cavity-limited weak absorption condition - II: Experimental verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmaninger, Thomas; Silander, Isak; Ma, Weiguang; Axner, Ove

    2016-01-01

    Doppler-broadened (Db) noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry (NICE-OHMS) is normally described by an expression, here termed the conventional (CONV) description, that is restricted to the conventional cavity-limited weak absorption condition (CCLWA), i.e. when the single pass absorbance is significantly smaller than the empty cavity losses, i.e. when α0 L < < π / F. To describe NICE-OHMS signals beyond this limit two simplified extended descriptions (termed the extended locking and extended transmission description, ELET, and the extended locking and full transmission description, ELFT), which are assumed to be valid under the relaxed cavity-limited weak absorption condition (RCLWA), i.e. when α0 L < π / F, and a full description (denoted FULL), presumed to be valid also when the α0 L < π / F condition does not hold, have recently been derived in an accompanying work (Ma W, et al. Doppler-broadened NICE-OHMS beyond the cavity-limited weak absorption condition - I. Theoretical Description. J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jqsrt.2015.09.007). The present work constitutes an experimental verification and assessment of the validity of these, performed in the Doppler limit for a set of Fα0 L / π values (up to 3.5); it is shown under which conditions the various descriptions are valid. It is concluded that for samples with Fα0 L / π up to 0.01, all descriptions replicate the data well. It is shown that the CONV description is adequate and provides accurate assessments of the signal strength (and thereby the analyte concentration) up to Fα0 L / π of around 0.1, while the ELET is accurate for Fα0 L / π up to around 0.3. The ELFT description mimics the Db NICE-OHMS signal well for Fα0 L / π up to around unity, while the FULL description is adequate for all Fα0 L / π values investigated. Access to these descriptions both increases considerably the dynamic range of the technique and facilitates calibration using certified reference gases, which thereby significantly broadens the applicability of the Db NICE-OHMS technique.

  6. In vivo confocal microscopy for the oral cavity: Current state of the field and future potential.

    PubMed

    Maher, N G; Collgros, H; Uribe, P; Ch'ng, S; Rajadhyaksha, M; Guitera, P

    2016-03-01

    Confocal microscopy (CM) has been shown to correlate with oral mucosal histopathology in vivo. The purposes of this review are to summarize what we know so far about in vivo CM applications for oral mucosal pathologies, to highlight some current developments with CM devices relevant for oral applications, and to formulate where in vivo CM could hold further application for oral mucosal diagnosis and management. Ovid Medline® and/or Google® searches were performed using the terms 'microscopy, confocal', 'mouth neoplasms', 'mouth mucosa', 'leukoplakia, oral', 'oral lichen planus', 'gingiva', 'cheilitis', 'taste', 'inflammatory oral confocal', 'mucosal confocal' and 'confocal squamous cell oral'. In summary, inclusion criteria were in vivo use of any type of CM for the human oral mucosa and studies on normal or pathological oral mucosa. Experimental studies attempting to identify proteins of interest and microorganisms were excluded. In total 25 relevant articles were found, covering 8 main topics, including normal oral mucosal features (n=15), oral dysplasia or neoplasia (n=7), inflamed oral mucosa (n=3), taste impairment (n=3), oral autoimmune conditions (n=2), pigmented oral pathology/melanoma (n=1), delayed type hypersensitivity (n=1), and cheilitis glandularis (n=1). The evidence for using in vivo CM in these conditions is poor, as it is limited to mainly small descriptive studies. Current device developments for oral CM include improved probe design. The authors propose that future applications for in vivo oral CM may include burning mouth syndrome, intra-operative mapping for cancer surgery, and monitoring and targeted biopsies within field cancerization. PMID:26786962

  7. Oral hypoglycemic agent update.

    PubMed

    Krall, L P; Chabot, V A

    1978-07-01

    The treatment of diabetes is still a problem more than a half-century after the discovery of insulin. Patients are now living significantly longer but until the development of oral hypoglycemic agents, the only direct treatment modalities were exercise, diet, and insulin. Before evaluating the effectiveness of treatment, a therapeutic goal must be determined. While there are no absolutely "hard" facts proving that "good control" is beneficial in preventing chronic complications of diabetes, increasing accumulation of "soft" data strongly suggests that normal blood glucose levels are most desirable, when possible, but not at the cost of severe or disabling hypoglycemic reactions. The development of the oral agents was a great public health advance in that many persons with early diabetes, but fearful of insulin injections, had less dread of "the pills" and sought treatment. The oral agents simplified care but this very simplification process often undermined the need for proper diet and good fundamental care. This often led to mediocre diabetes care. While useful, the oral agents have marked limitations and in some are effective only temporarily. The presently available oral agents are sulfonylureas and require a viable beta-cell system for success. This limits the number of diabetics responsive to such treatment. The general indications for tolbutamide, chlorpropamide, acetohexamide and tolazamide are in maturity-onset diabetics, generally beyond the age of 40 with diabetes of less than 10 years. They are contraindicated in juvenile-onset diabetics, in pregnant women, and usually in patients undergoing major surgery, and can become ineffective during periods of extreme stress or during severe infection. They can lower blood glucose levels if used in proper doses in properly selected patients. Contrary to several decades of documentation, it has become popular to suggest that the oral agents are not effective. They can be effective but for many reasons apparently were not in their use by the U.G.D.P. researchers. This might not be the fault of the oral agent used. If ineffective, they should be discontinued. Many, but not all, patients may respond to diet therapy, which is then the treatment of choice. Obviously insulin, though difficult to use for many persons and in itself able to induce several severe reactions if not used properly, is the only treatment (with diet) for the severe diabetic. There is a large spectrum of patients inbetween in whom the oral agents may be useful. The use of phenformin (phenethyl-biguanide) has been effectively curtailed because of many reported cases of lactic acidosis, and while it is doubtful that phenformin alone, in the absence of complicating factors, is the causative factor, it is capable of being an augmenting influence when other conditions, such as decreased kidney function, prevail... PMID:98675

  8. Oral submucous fibrosis in a 9-year-old Indian girl

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Anuradha; Airen Sarkar, Priyanka; Shigli, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a premalignant condition strongly associated with the practice of chewing areca nut, a habit common among South Asian population. It is characterised by inflammation, increased deposition of submucosal collagen and formation of fibrotic bands in the oral and paraoral tissues, which increasingly limit mouth opening. A case of OSMF occurring in a 9-year-old Indian girl is presented. This paper discusses the aetiology, clinical presentation and treatment modalities of oral submucous fibrosis. PMID:22679326

  9. Oil viscosity limitation on dispersibility of crude oil under simulated at-sea conditions in a large wave tank.

    PubMed

    Trudel, Ken; Belore, Randy C; Mullin, Joseph V; Guarino, Alan

    2010-09-01

    This study determined the limiting oil viscosity for chemical dispersion of oil spills under simulated sea conditions in the large outdoor wave tank at the US National Oil Spill Response Test Facility in New Jersey. Dispersant effectiveness tests were completed using crude oils with viscosities ranging from 67 to 40,100 cP at test temperature. Tests produced an effectiveness-viscosity curve with three phases when oil was treated with Corexit 9500 at a dispersant-to-oil ratio of 1:20. The oil viscosity that limited chemical dispersion under simulated at-sea conditions was in the range of 18,690 cP to 33,400 cP. Visual observations and measurements of oil concentrations and droplet size distributions in the water under treated and control slicks correlated well with direct measurements of effectiveness. The dispersant effectiveness versus oil viscosity relationship under simulated at sea conditions at Ohmsett was most similar to those from similar tests made using the Institut Francais du Pétrole and Exxon Dispersant Effectiveness (EXDET) test methods. PMID:20723943

  10. The behavior of fuel-lean premixed flames in a standard flammability limit tube under controlled gravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wherley, B. L.; Strehlow, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Fuel-lean flames in methane-air mixtures from 4.90 to 6.20 volume percent fuel and propane-air mixtures from 1.90 to 3.00 volume percent fuel were studied in the vicinity of the limit for a variety of gravity conditions. The limits were determined and the behavior of the flames studied for one g upward, one g downward, and zero g propagation. Photographic records of all flammability tube firings were obtained. The structure and behavior of these flames were detailed including the variations of the curvature of the flame front, the skirt length, and the occurrence of cellular instabilities with varying gravity conditions. The effect of ignition was also discussed. A survey of flame speeds as a function of mixture strength was made over a range of lean mixture compositions for each of the fuels studied. The results were presented graphically with those obtained by other researchers. The flame speed for constant fractional gravity loadings were plotted as a function of gravity loadings from 0.0 up to 2.0 g's against flame speeds extracted from the transient gravity flame histories for corresponding gravity loadings. The effects of varying gravity conditions on the extinguishment process for upward and downward propagating flames were investigated.

  11. Pulse decomposition-based analysis of PAT/TAT error caused by negative lobes in limited-view conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liang-Bing; Tao, Chao; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Li, Xian-Li; Zhang, Hai-Tao

    2015-02-01

    Pulse decomposition has been proven to be efficient to analyze complicated signals and it is introduced into the photo-acoustic and thermo-acoustic tomography to eliminate reconstruction distortions caused by negative lobes. During image reconstruction, negative lobes bring errors in the estimation of acoustic pulse amplitude, which is closely related to the distribution of absorption coefficient. The negative lobe error degrades imaging quality seriously in limited-view conditions because it cannot be offset so well as in full-view conditions. Therefore, a pulse decomposition formula is provided with detailed deduction to eliminate the negative lobe error and is incorporated into the popular delay-and-sum method for better reconstructing the image without additional complicated computation. Numerical experiments show that the pulse decomposition improves the image quality obviously in the limited-view conditions, such as separating adjacent absorbers, discovering a small absorber despite disturbance from a big absorber nearby, etc. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB921504), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274167, 11274171, 61201450, 61201495, and 61302175), and the Chongqing Science and Technology Commission of China (Grant Nos. 2012jjA40058 and 2012jjA40006).

  12. Towards lag phase of microbial populations at growth-limiting conditions: The role of the variability in the growth limits of individual cells.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Juan S; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

    2016-05-01

    The water activity (aw) growth limits of unheated and heat stressed Listeria monocytogenes individual cells were studied. The aw limits varied from 0.940 to 0.997 and 0.951 to 0.997 for unheated and heat stressed cells, respectively. Due to the above variability a decrease in aw results in the presence of a non-growing fraction in the population leading to an additional pseudo-lag in population growth. In this case the total apparent lag of the population is the sum of the physiological lag of the growing cells (time required to adjust to the new environment) and the pseudo-lag. To investigate the effect of aw on the above lag components, the growth kinetics of L. monocytogenes on tryptone soy agar with aw adjusted to values ranging from 0.997 to 0.940 was monitored. The model of B&R was fitted to the data for the estimation of the apparent lag. In order to estimate the physiological lag of the growing fraction of the inoculum, the model was refitted to the growth data using as initial population level the number of cells that were able to grow (estimated from the number of colonies formed on the agar at the end of storage) and excluding the rest data during the lag. The results showed that for the unheated cells the apparent lag was almost identical to the physiological lag for aw values ranging from 0.997 to 0.970, as the majority of the cells in the initial population was able to grow in these conditions. As the aw decreased from 0.970 to 0.940 however, the number of cells in the population which were able to grow, decreased resulting to an increase in the pseudo-lag. The maximum value of pseudo-lag was 13.1h and it was observed at aw=0.940 where 10% of the total inoculated cells were able to grow. For heat stressed populations a pseudo-lag started to increase at higher aw conditions (0.982) compared to unheated cells. In contrast to the apparent lag, a linear relation between physiological lag and aw was observed for both unheated and heat stressed cells. PMID:26900994

  13. Growth and metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in chemostat cultures under carbon-, nitrogen-, or carbon- and nitrogen-limiting conditions.

    PubMed

    Larsson, C; von Stockar, U; Marison, I; Gustafsson, L

    1993-08-01

    Aerobic chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were performed under carbon-, nitrogen-, and dual carbon- and nitrogen-limiting conditions. The glucose concentration was kept constant, whereas the ammonium concentration was varied among different experiments and different dilution rates. It was found that both glucose and ammonium were consumed at the maximal possible rate, i.e., the feed rate, over a range of medium C/N ratios and dilution rates. To a small extent, this was due to a changing biomass composition, but much more important was the ability of uncoupling between anabolic biomass formation and catabolic energy substrate consumption. When ammonium started to limit the amount of biomass formed and hence the anabolic flow of glucose, this was totally or at least partly compensated for by an increased catabolic glucose consumption. The primary response when glucose was present in excess of the minimum requirements for biomass production was an increased rate of respiration. The calculated specific oxygen consumption rate, at D = 0.07 h-1, was more than doubled when an additional nitrogen limitation was imposed on the cells compared with that during single glucose limitation. However, the maximum respiratory capacity decreased with decreasing nitrogen concentration. The saturation level of the specific oxygen consumption rate decreased from 5.5 to 6.0 mmol/g/h under single glucose limitation to about 4.0 mmol/g/h at the lowest nitrogen concentration tested. The combined result of this was that the critical dilution rate, i.e., onset of fermentation, was as low as 0.10 h-1 during growth in a medium with a low nitrogen concentration compared with 0.20 h-1 obtained under single glucose limitation. PMID:8335637

  14. The HITECH Act and electronic health records' limitation in coordinating care for children with complex chronic conditions.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jason E

    2014-01-01

    While the HITECH Act was implemented to promote the use of electronic health records to improve the quality and coordination of healthcare, the limitations established to the setting of the hospital or physician's office affect the care coordination for those who utilize many health-related services outside these settings, including children with complex and chronic conditions. Incentive-based support or nationally supported electronic health record systems for allied and other healthcare professionals are necessary to see the full impact that electronic health records can have on care coordination for individuals who utilize many skilled healthcare services that are not associated with a hospital or physician's office. PMID:24925039

  15. CD36 gene deletion reduces fat preference and intake but not post-oral fat conditioning in mice.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, A; Ackroff, K; Abumrad, N A

    2007-11-01

    Several findings suggest the existence of a "fatty" taste, and the CD36 fatty acid translocase is a candidate taste receptor. The present study compared fat preference and acceptance in CD36 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice using nutritive (triglyceride and fatty acid) and nonnutritive (Sefa Soyate oil) emulsions. In two-bottle tests (24 h/day) naive KO mice, unlike WT mice, displayed little or no preference for dilute soybean oil, linoleic acid, or Sefa Soyate emulsions. At high concentrations (2.5-20%), KO mice developed significant soybean oil preferences, although they consumed less oil than WT mice. The postoral actions of fat likely conditioned these preferences. KO mice, like WT mice, learned to prefer a flavored solution paired with intragastric soybean oil infusions. These findings support CD36 mediation of a gustatory component to fat preference but demonstrate that it is not essential for fat-conditioned flavor preferences. The finding that oil-naive KO mice failed to prefer a nonnutritive oil, assumed to provide texture rather than taste cues, requires explanation. Finally, CD36 deletion decreased fat consumption and enhanced the ability of the mice to compensate for the calories provided by their optional fat intake. PMID:17804586

  16. [Oral manifestations of systemic diseases].

    PubMed

    Fistarol, S K; Itin, P H

    2009-11-01

    Many systemic diseases may present with oral manifestations and the oral mucosa may act as a mirror of internal involvement. We discuss the most common, specific and unspecific, as the most peculiar oral mucosal manifestations of systemic disease in the different organ systems. The most prevalent conditions of the oral mucosa in the course of HIV infection and marker lesions of multisystemic genodermatoses are elucidated. PMID:19855944

  17. A Comparison Between the Burn Condition of Deuterium-Tritium and Deuterium-Helium-3 Reaction and Stability Limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motevalli, Seyed Mohammad; Fadaei, Fereshteh

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear reaction of deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion by the usual magnetic or inertial confinement suffers from a number of difficulties and problems caused by tritium handling, neutron damage to materials and neutron-induced radioactivity, etc. The study of the nuclear synthesis reaction of deuterium-helium-3 (D-3He) at low collision energies (below 1 keV) is of interest for its applications in nuclear physics and astrophysics. Spherical tokamak (ST) reactors have a low aspect ratio and can confine plasma with β≈1. These capabilities of ST reactors are due to the use of the alternative D-3He reaction. In this work, the burn condition of D-3He reaction was calculated by using zero-dimensional particles and power equations, and, with the use of the parameters of the ST reactor, the stability limit of D-3He reaction was calculated and then the results were compared with those of D-T reaction. The obtained results show that the burn conditions of D-3He reaction required a higher temperature and had a much more limited temperature range in comparison to those of D-T reaction.

  18. Oxygen Response of the Wine Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 Grown under Carbon-Sufficient, Nitrogen-Limited Enological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Aceituno, Felipe F.; Orellana, Marcelo; Torres, Jorge; Mendoza, Sebastián; Slater, Alex W.; Melo, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Discrete additions of oxygen play a critical role in alcoholic fermentation. However, few studies have quantitated the fate of dissolved oxygen and its impact on wine yeast cell physiology under enological conditions. We simulated the range of dissolved oxygen concentrations that occur after a pump-over during the winemaking process by sparging nitrogen-limited continuous cultures with oxygen-nitrogen gaseous mixtures. When the dissolved oxygen concentration increased from 1.2 to 2.7 μM, yeast cells changed from a fully fermentative to a mixed respirofermentative metabolism. This transition is characterized by a switch in the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and an activation of NADH shuttling from the cytosol to mitochondria. Nevertheless, fermentative ethanol production remained the major cytosolic NADH sink under all oxygen conditions, suggesting that the limitation of mitochondrial NADH reoxidation is the major cause of the Crabtree effect. This is reinforced by the induction of several key respiratory genes by oxygen, despite the high sugar concentration, indicating that oxygen overrides glucose repression. Genes associated with other processes, such as proline uptake, cell wall remodeling, and oxidative stress, were also significantly affected by oxygen. The results of this study indicate that respiration is responsible for a substantial part of the oxygen response in yeast cells during alcoholic fermentation. This information will facilitate the development of temporal oxygen addition strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations. PMID:23001663

  19. Simulating Biodegradation Under Mixing-limited Conditions Using Michaelis-Menten (Monod) Kinetic Expressions in a Particle Tracking Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, D.; Benson, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the typical method of adding mass-action reaction terms to the advection-dispersion equation overestimates the field-scale reaction rates. The mismatch is usually attributed to poor mixing. A recent method, based on a purely Langragian particle tracking (PT) theoretical development, successfully reproduces the results of mixing-limited bimolecular reaction (A+B → C) from two benchmark experiments. In this numerical method, the reactants are represented by particles. The reactions are determined by a combination of two probabilities that govern whether: 1) reactant particles are collocated during a short time interval, and 2) two collocated particles favorably transform into a reaction. We extend the application of the PT method to biodegradation, which is commonly characterized by more complex Michaelis-Menten (Monod) chemical kinetics. The advantage of the PT method is that it explains the variation of reaction rate based on mixing-controlled particle collisions instead of using empirical parameters. The PT method is not only able to match the Michaelis-Menten (Monod) equation under ideal conditions, but also is able to capture the characteristics of non-ideal conditions such as imperfect mixing, disequilibrium, and limited availability of the active sites. Furthermore, for the ultimate goal of applying the Langragian PT method directly to the field scale problems, this method is implemented to the simulation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) biodegradation at the Schoolcraft, Michigan, site, where the hydraulic properties and reaction kinetics are well understood.

  20. Competition for cellobiose among three predominant ruminal cellulolytic bacteria under substrate-excess and substrate-limited conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Y; Weimer, P J

    1997-01-01

    The ruminal cellulolytic bacteria Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1 and Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 coexisted in substrate-excess coculture with about equal population size, but R. flavefaciens outcompeted F. succinogenes for cellobiose in the substrate-limited cocultures whether the two strains were coinoculated or a steady-state culture of F. succinogenes was challenged by R. flavefaciens. This outcome of competition between these two strains is due to a classical pure and simple competition mechanism based on affinity for cellobiose. Although the population size of F. succinogenes was much higher (> 70%) than that of another cellulolytic species, Ruminococcus albus 7 in substrate-excess coculture, F. succinogenes was replaced by a population of R. albus in the substrate-limited coculture in both coinoculation and challenge experiments. R albus outcompeted F. succinogenes, apparently due to selection in the chemostat of a population of R. albus with a higher affinity for cellobiose. R. albus also outcompeted R. flavefaciens under substrate-limited conditions. PMID:9023951

  1. Pyruvate and lactate metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under fermentation, oxygen limitation, and fumarate respiration conditions.

    PubMed

    Pinchuk, Grigoriy E; Geydebrekht, Oleg V; Hill, Eric A; Reed, Jennifer L; Konopka, Allan E; Beliaev, Alexander S; Fredrickson, Jim K

    2011-12-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe that derives energy by coupling organic matter oxidation to the reduction of a wide range of electron acceptors. Here, we quantitatively assessed the lactate and pyruvate metabolism of MR-1 under three distinct conditions: electron acceptor-limited growth on lactate with O(2), lactate with fumarate, and pyruvate fermentation. The latter does not support growth but provides energy for cell survival. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of that needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensable for growth, the respiration of fumarate does not contribute significantly to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory conditions, S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, whereby the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle did not contribute significantly. Pyruvate dehydrogenase was not involved in lactate metabolism under conditions of O(2) limitation but was required for anaerobic growth, likely by supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. The results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination of substrate-level phosphorylation and respiration, where pyruvate serves as an electron donor and an electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by a recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H-independent d-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). The results further indicate that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by the generation of proton motive force. PMID:21965410

  2. Testing phenotypic trade-offs in the chemical defence strategy of Scots pine under growth-limiting field conditions.

    PubMed

    Villari, Caterina; Faccoli, Massimo; Battisti, Andrea; Bonello, Pierluigi; Marini, Lorenzo

    2014-09-01

    Plants protect themselves from pathogens and herbivores through fine-tuned resource allocation, including trade-offs among resource investments to support constitutive and inducible defences. However, empirical research, especially concerning conifers growing under natural conditions, is still scarce. We investigated the complexity of constitutive and induced defences in a natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand under growth-limiting conditions typical of alpine environments. Phenotypic trade-offs at three hierarchical levels were tested by investigating the behaviour of phenolic compounds and terpenoids of outer bark and phloem. We tested resource-derived phenotypic correlations between (i) constitutive and inducible defences vs tree ring growth, (ii) different constitutive defence metabolites and (iii) constitutive concentration and inducible variation of individual metabolites. Tree ring growth was positively correlated only with constitutive concentration of total terpenoids, and no overall phenotypic trade-offs between different constitutive defensive metabolites were found. At the lowest hierarchical level tested, i.e., at the level of relationship between constitutive and inducible variation of individual metabolites, we found that different compounds displayed different behaviours; we identified five different defensive metabolite response types, based on direction and strength of the response, regardless of tree age and growth rate. Therefore, under growth-limiting field conditions, Scots pine appears to utilize varied and complex outer bark and phloem defence chemistry, in which only part of the constitutive specialized metabolism is influenced by tree growth, and individual components do not appear to be expressed in a mutually exclusive manner in either constitutive or inducible metabolism. PMID:25194142

  3. The Fungal Biome of the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Retuerto, Mauricio; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Organisms residing in the oral cavity (oral microbiota) contribute to health and disease, and influence diseases like gingivitis, periodontitis, and oral candidiasis (the most common oral complication of HIV-infection). These organisms are also associated with cancer and other systemic diseases including upper respiratory infections. There is limited knowledge regarding how oral microbes interact together and influence the host immune system. Characterizing the oral microbial community (oral microbiota) in health and disease represents a critical step in gaining insight into various members of this community. While most of the studies characterizing oral microbiota have focused on bacterial community, there are few encouraging studies characterizing the oral mycobiome (the fungal component of the oral microbiota). Our group recently characterized the oral mycobiome in health and disease focusing on HIV. In this chapter we will describe the methods used by our group for characterization of the oral mycobiome. PMID:26519069

  4. Oral Mucocele

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Oral Mucocele Information for adults A A A This image displays a mucocele inside the lip. Overview An oral mucocele is a harmless, fluid-containing (cyst-like) swelling ...

  5. Potassium Transporter KUP7 Is Involved in K(+) Acquisition and Translocation in Arabidopsis Root under K(+)-Limited Conditions.

    PubMed

    Han, Min; Wu, Wei; Wu, Wei-Hua; Wang, Yi

    2016-03-01

    Potassium (K(+)) is one of the essential macronutrients for plant growth and development. K(+) uptake from environment and K(+) translocation in plants are conducted by K(+) channels and transporters. In this study, we demonstrated that KT/HAK/KUP transporter KUP7 plays crucial roles in K(+) uptake and translocation in Arabidopsis root. The kup7 mutant exhibited a sensitive phenotype on low-K(+) medium, whose leaves showed chlorosis symptoms compared with wild-type plants. Loss of function of KUP7 led to a reduction of K(+) uptake rate and K(+) content in xylem sap under K(+)-deficient conditions. Thus, the K(+) content in kup7 shoot was significantly reduced under low-K(+) conditions. Localization analysis revealed that KUP7 was predominantly targeted to the plasma membrane. The complementation assay in yeast suggested that KUP7 could mediate K(+) transport. In addition, phosphorylation on S80, S719, and S721 was important for KUP7 activity. KUP7 was ubiquitously expressed in many organs/tissues, and showed a higher expression level in Arabidopsis root. Together, our data demonstrated that KUP7 is crucial for K(+) uptake in Arabidopsis root and might be also involved in K(+) transport into xylem sap, affecting K(+) translocation from root toward shoot, especially under K(+)-limited conditions. PMID:26851373

  6. Moglichkeiten und Grenzen von Modellen zur Beschreibung der Mundlichen Sprachkonpetenz Bilingualer precher (Possibilities and Limitations of Models for Describing the Oral Language Competence of Bilingual Speakers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiliari, Angeliki

    A model for describing the oral language competence of bilingual speakers is presented. The model provides for the evaluation of the speaker on the phonological (based on native-speaker judgment), morphological (based on the formal written language), syntactic (based, in part on the complexity of the constructions used) and semantic pragmatic…

  7. Roles of NMDA and dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the acquisition and expression of flavor preferences conditioned by oral glucose in rats.

    PubMed

    Dela Cruz, J A D; Coke, T; Icaza-Cukali, D; Khalifa, N; Bodnar, R J

    2014-10-01

    Animals learn to prefer flavors associated with the intake of sugar (sucrose, fructose, glucose) and fat (corn oil: CO) solutions. Conditioned flavor preferences (CFP) have been elicited for sugars based on orosensory (flavor-flavor: e.g., fructose-CFP) and post-ingestive (flavor-nutrient: e.g., intragastric (IG) glucose-CFP) processes. Dopamine (DA) D1, DA D2 and NMDA receptor antagonism differentially eliminate the acquisition and expression of fructose-CFP and IG glucose-CFP. However, pharmacological analysis of fat (CO)-CFP, mediated by both flavor-flavor and flavor-nutrient processes, indicated that acquisition and expression of fat-CFP were minimally affected by systemic DA D1 and D2 antagonists, and were reduced by NMDA antagonism. Therefore, the present study examined whether systemic DA D1 (SCH23390), DA D2 (raclopride) or NMDA (MK-801) receptor antagonists altered acquisition and/or expression of CFP induced by oral glucose that should be mediated by both flavor-flavor and flavor-nutrient processes. Oral glucose-CFP was elicited following by training rats to drink one novel flavor (CS+, e.g., cherry) mixed in 8% glucose and another flavor (CS-, e.g., grape) mixed in 2% glucose. In expression studies, food-restricted rats drank these solutions in one-bottle sessions (2 h) over 10 days. Subsequent two-bottle tests with the CS+ and CS- flavors mixed in 2% glucose occurred 0.5 h after systemic administration of vehicle (VEH), SCH23390 (50-800 nmol/kg), raclopride (50-800 nmol/kg) or MK-801 (50-200 μg/kg). Rats displayed a robust CS+ preference following VEH treatment (94-95%) which was significantly though marginally attenuated by SCH23390 (67-70%), raclopride (77%) or MK-801 (70%) at doses that also markedly reduced overall CS intake. In separate acquisition studies, rats received VEH, SCH23390 (50-400 nmol/kg), raclopride (50-400 nmol/kg) or MK-801 (100 μg/kg) 0.5 h prior to ten 1-bottle training trials with CS+/8%G and CS-/2%G training solutions that was followed by six 2-bottle CS+ vs. CS- tests in 2% glucose conducted without injections. The significant and persistent CS+ preferences observed in the VEH (94-98%) group was significantly reduced by rats receiving SCH23390 at 400 nmol/kg (65-73%), raclopride at 200 or 400 nmol/kg (76-82%) or MK-801 at 100 μg/kg (68-69%). Thus, systemic DA D1 and DA D2 receptor antagonism produced smaller reductions in the expression of oral glucose-CFP relative to fructose-CFP or IG-glucose-CFP. Correspondingly, systemic DA D1, DA D2 and NMDA receptor antagonism also produced smaller reductions in the acquisition of oral glucose-CFP relative to fructose-CFP or IG-glucose-CFP. These data suggest, but do not prove, that the magnitude and persistence of these receptor antagonist effects upon sugar-CFP might depend upon the individual or combined engagement of flavor-flavor and flavor-nutrient processes. PMID:25065714

  8. Oral electricity.

    PubMed

    Certosimo, A J; O'Connor, R P

    1996-01-01

    "Oral electricity," "electrogalvanism," or "galvanic currents" has long been recognized as a potential source of oral pain and discomfort. This phenomenon of oral galvanism results from the difference in electrical potential between dissimilar restorative metals located in the mouth. In this case report, the literature is reviewed, and an interesting case study'is presented. The patient's clinical presentation, and the duration and constancy of the oral symptoms, pose diagnostic challenges. A simple, yet effective treatment regimen is proposed. PMID:8957826

  9. Oral Insulin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation. PMID:21059246

  10. Prevalence of life-limiting conditions in children and young people in England: time trends by area type.

    PubMed

    Norman, Paul; Fraser, Lorna

    2014-03-01

    Palliative care services in England lack data on the number of children with 'life limiting conditions' (LLCs). Recent research determined that the prevalence of LLCs in children in England was double previous estimates. We build on this by analysing time-trends in the prevalence of LLCs by small area deprivation and geodemographic area types. Prevalence is highest for children aged less than one year but time trends show no increase for the youngest age group but significant increases for older children. These increases are mirrored by a decrease in all cause mortality for children suggesting improved survival. Rates are highest in more deprived areas and those typified by multicultural populations. Increasing prevalence and number of cases over time may require increased paediatric palliative care service provision in the future. PMID:24468834

  11. Doppler-broadened NICE-OHMS beyond the cavity-limited weak absorption condition - I. Theoretical description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Weiguang; Silander, Isak; Hausmaninger, Thomas; Axner, Ove

    2016-01-01

    Doppler-broadened (Db) noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry (NICE-OHMS) is conventionally described by an expression (here referred to as the CONV expression) that is restricted to the case when the single-pass absorbance, α0L, is much smaller than the empty cavity losses, π/F [here termed the conventional cavity-limited weak absorption (CCLWA) condition]. This limits the applicability of the technique, primarily its dynamic range and calibration capability. To remedy this, this work derives extended descriptions of Db NICE-OHMS that are not restricted to the CCLWA condition. First, the general principles of Db NICE-OHMS are scrutinized in some detail. Based solely upon a set of general assumptions, predominantly that it is appropriate to linearize the Beer-Lambert law, that the light is modulated to a triplet, and that the Pound-Drever-Hall sidebands are fully reflected, a general description of Db NICE-OHMS that is not limited to any specific restriction on α0L vs. π/F, here referred to as the FULL description, is derived. However, this description constitutes a set of equations to which no closed form solution has been found. Hence, it needs to be solved numerically (by iterations), which is inconvenient. To circumvent this, for the cases when α0L<π/F but without the requirement that the stronger CCLWA condition needs to be fulfilled, a couple of simplified extended expressions that are expressible in closed analytical form, referred to as the extended locking and extended transmission description, ELET, and the extended locking and full transmission description, ELFT, have been derived. An analysis based on simulations validates the various descriptions and assesses to which extent they agree. It is shown that in the CCLWA limit, all extended descriptions revert to the CONV expression. The latter one deviates though from the extended ones for α0L around and above 0.1π/F. The two simplified extended descriptions agree with the FULL description for a larger range of α0 L than the CONV expression, viz. for the ELET description for α0L up to 0.3π/F and for ELFT for α0L up to 0.6 or 1.0 π/F (depending on the mode of detection). It is then demonstrated that the conventional view of Db NICE-OHMS, which states that the out-of-phase and the in-phase signals can be referred to as a pure absorption and dispersion signal, respectively, breaks down when the CCLWA condition does not hold. In this case, the out-of-phase signal is additionally affected by the phase shifts of the laser components (i.e. dispersion) while the in-phase signal is also influenced by their attenuation. Access to new descriptions broadens considerably the dynamic range of Db NICE-OHMS and facilitates calibration using standard references samples, and thereby its applicability.

  12. Pyruvate and Lactate Metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under Fermentation, Oxygen Limitation, and Fumarate Respiration Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Hill, Eric A.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2011-12-30

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe growing by coupling organic matter oxidation to reduction of wide range of electron acceptors. Here we quantitatively assessed lactate and pyruvate metabolism of these bacteria under three distinct conditions: electron acceptor limited growth on lactate with O2 and fumarate, and pyruvate fermentation, which does not sustain growth but allows cells to survive for prolonged period. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of all ATP needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensible for growth, respiration of fumarate does not contribute much to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory conditions S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, and TCA cycle did not contribute significantly to substrate oxidation. Pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction was not involved in lactate metabolism under O2 limitation, however was important for anaerobic growth probably supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. Unexpectedly, obtained results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination between substrate-level phosphorylation and a respiratory process, where pyruvate serves as electron donor and electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H independent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). Based on involved enzymes localization we hypothesize that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by proton motive force generation.

  13. Pyruvate and Lactate Metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under Fermentation, Oxygen Limitation, and Fumarate Respiration Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Hill, Eric A.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2011-12-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe that derives energy by coupling organic matter oxidation to the reduction of wide range of electron acceptors. Here, we quantitatively assessed lactate and pyruvate metabolism of MR-1 under three distinct conditions: electron acceptor limited growth on lactate with O2; lactate with fumarate; and pyruvate fermentation. The latter does not support growth but provides energy for cell survival. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of that needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensible for growth, respiration of fumarate does not contribute significantly to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory conditions S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, whereby the TCA cycle did not contribute significantly. Pyruvate dehydrogenase was not involved in lactate metabolism under O2 limitation but was required for anaerobic growth likely by supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. The results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination of substrate-level phosphorylation and respiration, where pyruvate serves as electron donor and electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H independent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). The results further indicate that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by proton motive force generation.

  14. Simulating biodegradation under mixing-limited conditions using Michaelis-Menten (Monod) kinetic expressions in a particle tracking model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Dong; Benson, David A.

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that effective field-scale bioremediation reactions rates are significantly lower than batch- or lab-scale rates, when the same law of mass action is used to represent the reaction at both scales. The mismatch is usually attributed to poor mixing of reactants brought about by heterogeneity. A recent method, based on a purely Lagrangian particle tracking (PT) theoretical development, successfully reproduces the effects of mixing-limited bimolecular reaction (A + B → C) from two benchmark experiments. In this numerical method, the reactants are represented by particles, and the small-scale physics are directly translated into a combination of two probabilities that govern whether: (1) reactant particles are collocated during a short time interval, and (2) two collocated particles favorably transform into a reaction. The latter is due to thermodynamics and is independent of scale of mixing. The former directly accounts for the degree of mixing in any system. We extend the application of the PT method to biodegradation, which is commonly characterized by more complex Michaelis-Menten (Monod) chemical kinetics. The advantage of the PT method is that it explains the variation of reaction rate based on mixing-controlled particle collisions instead of using empirical parameters. The PT method not only matches the Michaelis-Menten (Monod) equation under ideal conditions, but also captures the characteristics of non-ideal conditions such as imperfect mixing, disequilibrium, and limited availability of the active sites. We show these using hypothetical systems and also successfully apply the method to a column study of carbon tetrachloride biodegradation.

  15. Use of the Priestley-Taylor evaporation equation for soil water limited conditions in a small forest clearcut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, A.L.; Childs, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Priestley-Taylor equation, a simplification of the Penman equation, was used to allow calculations of evapotranspiration under conditions where soil water supply limits evapotranspiration. The Priestley-Taylor coefficient, ??, was calculated to incorporate an exponential decrease in evapotranspiration as soil water content decreases. The method is appropriate for use when detailed meteorological measurements are not available. The data required to determine the parameter for the ?? coefficient are net radiation, soil heat flux, average air temperature, and soil water content. These values can be obtained from measurements or models. The dataset used in this report pertains to a partially vegetated clearcut forest site in southwest Oregon with soil depths ranging from 0.48 to 0.70 m and weathered bedrock below that. Evapotranspiration was estimated using the Bowen ratio method, and the calculated Priestley-Taylor coefficient was fitted to these estimates by nonlinear regression. The calculated Priestley-Taylor coefficient (?????) was found to be approximately 0.9 when the soil was near field capacity (0.225 cm3 cm-3). It was not until soil water content was less than 0.14 cm3 cm-3 that soil water supply limited evapotranspiration. The soil reached a final residual water content near 0.05 cm3 cm-3 at the end of the growing season. ?? 1991.

  16. Performance limitation and the role of core temperature when wearing light-weight workwear under moderate thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Philipp; Burtscher, Martin; Heinrich, Dieter; Bottoni, Giuliamarta; Caven, Barnaby; Bechtold, Thomas; Teresa Herten, Anne; Hasler, Michael; Faulhaber, Martin; Nachbauer, Werner

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to achieve an understanding about the relationship between heat stress and performance limitation when wearing a two-layerfire-resistant light-weight workwear (full-clothed ensemble) compared to an one-layer short sports gear (semi-clothed ensemble) in an exhaustive, stressful situation under moderate thermal condition (25°C). Ten well trained male subjects performed a strenuous walking protocol with both clothing ensembles until exhaustion occurred in a climatic chamber. Wearing workwear reduced the endurance performance by 10% (p=0.007) and the evaporation by 21% (p=0.003), caused a more pronounced rise in core temperature during submaximal walking (0.7±0.3 vs. 1.2±0.4°C; p≤0.001) and from start till exhaustion (1.4±0.3 vs. 1.8±0.5°C; p=0.008), accelerated sweat loss (13±2 vs. 15±3gmin(-1); p=0.007), and led to a significant higher heart rate at the end of cool down (103±6 vs. 111±7bpm; p=0.004). Correlation analysis revealed that core temperature development during submaximal walking and evaporation may play important roles for endurance performance. However, a critical core temperature of 40°C, which is stated to be a crucial factor for central fatigue and performance limitation, was not reached either with the semi-clothed or the full-clothed ensemble (38.3±0.4 vs. 38.4±0.5°C). Additionally, perceived exertion did not increase to a higher extent parallel with the rising core temperature with workwear which would substantiate the critical core temperature theory. In conclusion, increased heat stress led to cardiovascular exercise limitation rather than central fatigue. PMID:25526658

  17. Photobiomodulation in oral medicine: a review.

    PubMed

    Pandeshwar, Padma; Roa, Mahesh Datta; Das, Reshma; Shastry, Shilpa P; Kaul, Rachna; Srinivasreddy, Mahesh B

    2016-05-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) or low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in dentistry is an evolving science, with an increasing number of controlled clinical studies exploring its potential as a treatment modality. The present study provides an outline of the biologic mechanism of PBM and summarizes the findings of clinical studies of PBM for specific applications in oral medicine. Controversies and drawbacks associated with PBM, which require further research, are also identified. Current literature reports the potential of PBM in various applications in oral medicine. Furthermore, well-documented research confirms its efficacy in certain conditions, such as oral mucositis, recurrent herpes simplex infection, and burning mouth syndrome. The absence of any reported adverse effects is an advantage over conventional therapeutic modalities. While PBM has proved to be effective for some specific applications, it is not a panacea. The paucity in standardized studies, coupled with ambiguity over the laser parameters, has limited its credibility as a therapeutic modality. PMID:25720555

  18. Accumulation of cellobiose lipids under nitrogen-limiting conditions by two ustilaginomycetous yeasts, Pseudozyma aphidis and Pseudozyma hubeiensis.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2013-02-01

    Some basidiomycetous yeast strains extracellularly produce cellobiose lipids (CLs), glycolipid biosurfactants which have strong fungicidal activity. The representative CL producer Ustilago maydis produces CLs together with the other glycolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs); the preference of the two glycolipids is affected considerably by the nitrogen source. To develop new CL producers, 12 MEL producers were cultured under the nitrogen-limited conditions. Pseudozyma aphidis and Pseudozyma. hubeiensis were characterized as new CL producers. CL production was induced on three strains, P. aphidis, Pseudozyma graminicola, and P. hubeiensis under these conditions. The putative homologous genes of U. maydis cyp1, which encodes a P450 monooxygenase, essential for CL biosynthesis, were partially amplified from their genomic DNA. The nucleotide sequences of the gene fragments from P. hubeiensis and P. aphidis shared identities with U. maydis cyp1 of 99% and 78%, respectively. Furthermore, all of the deduced translation products are tightly clustered in the phylogenic tree of the monooxygenase. These results suggest that the genes involved with CL biosynthesis must be widely distributed in the basidiomycetous fungi as well as the MEL biosynthesis genes, and thus, the genus Pseudozyma has great potential as a biosurfactant producer. PMID:22985214

  19. The Activity of Nodules of the Supernodulating Mutant Mtsunn Is not Limited by Photosynthesis under Optimal Growth Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cabeza, Ricardo A.; Lingner, Annika; Liese, Rebecca; Sulieman, Saad; Senbayram, Mehmet; Tränkner, Merle; Dittert, Klaus; Schulze, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Legumes match the nodule number to the N demand of the plant. When a mutation in the regulatory mechanism deprives the plant of that ability, an excessive number of nodules are formed. These mutants show low productivity in the fields, mainly due to the high carbon burden caused through the necessity to supply numerous nodules. The objective of this study was to clarify whether through optimal conditions for growth and CO2 assimilation a higher nodule activity of a supernodulating mutant of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) can be induced. Several experimental approaches reveal that under the conditions of our experiments, the nitrogen fixation of the supernodulating mutant, designated as sunn (super numeric nodules), was not limited by photosynthesis. Higher specific nitrogen fixation activity could not be induced through short- or long-term increases in CO2 assimilation around shoots. Furthermore, a whole plant P depletion induced a decline in nitrogen fixation, however this decline did not occur significantly earlier in sunn plants, nor was it more intense compared to the wild-type. However, a distinctly different pattern of nitrogen fixation during the day/night cycles of the experiment indicates that the control of N2 fixing activity of the large number of nodules is an additional problem for the productivity of supernodulating mutants. PMID:24727372

  20. Oral manifestations of HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Reznik, David A

    HIV-related oral conditions occur in a large proportion of patients, and frequently are misdiagnosed or inadequately treated. Dental expertise is necessary for appropriate management of oral manifestations of HIV infection or AIDS, but many patients do not receive adequate dental care. Common or notable HIV-related oral conditions include xerostomia, candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, periodontal diseases such as linear gingival erythema and necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis, Kaposi's sarcoma, human papilloma virus-associated warts, and ulcerative conditions including herpes simplex virus lesions, recurrent aphthous ulcers, and neutropenic ulcers. PMID:16377852

  1. Comparison of the flexural strength of two dual cure adhesive resin cements under oral simulated conditions: an in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, P; Nair, A; Regish, K M; Viswambaran, M; Kumar, M

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the flexural strength of the newly developed self-adhesive dual cure resin cement and compare it with conventional resin cement under oral simulated conditions. A conventional resin cement (Calibra) and self adhesive resin cement (RelyX U100) were selected and 40 specimens of each cement were fabricated for the study. Half of these specimens were polymerized directly whereas the other half were polymerized through 2 mm of porcelain disc. Specimens were tested after 24hrs and after 30 days immersion in artificial saliva. A three point bending test was performed using universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. Overall RelyX U100 showed higher mean flexural strength compared to Calibra (141.55 MPa, 119.46MPa, respectively). When the specimens of both the cements were light cured through 2 mm porcelain disc, their flexural strength decreased significantly. The mean flexural strength of both self adhesive and conventional dual cure adhesive resin cements was increased significantly after storage in artificial saliva for 30 days at 37 degreeC. Among the two dual cure resin cements, the self adhesive dual cure cement (RelyX U100) showed increased overall mean flexural strength as compared to conventional resin cement (Calibra) under all the curing and storage protocols. PMID:23888528

  2. Cytotoxicity of HBD3 for dendritic cells, normal human epidermal keratinocytes, hTERT keratinocytes, and primary oral gingival epithelial keratinocytes in cell culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Leelakanok, Nattawut; Fischer, Carol L; Bates, Amber M; Guthmiller, Janet M; Johnson, Georgia K; Salem, Aliasger K; Brogden, Kim A; Brogden, Nicole K

    2015-12-01

    Human β-defensin 3 (HBD3) is a prominent host defense peptide. In our recent work, we observed that HBD3 modulates pro-inflammatory agonist-induced chemokine and cytokine responses in human myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), often at 20.0 μM concentrations. Since HBD3 can be cytotoxic in some circumstances, it is necessary to assess its cytotoxicity for DCs, normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs), human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) keratinocytes, and primary oral gingival epithelial (GE) keratinocytes in different cell culture conditions. Cells, in serum free media with resazurin and in complete media with 10% fetal bovine serum and resazurin, were incubated with 5, 10, 20, and 40 μM HBD3. Cytotoxicity was determined by measuring metabolic conversion of resazurin to resorufin. The lethal dose 50 (LD50, mean μM±Std Err) values were determined from the median fluorescent intensities of test concentrations compared to live and killed cell controls. The LD50 value range of HBD3 was 18.2-35.9 μM in serum-free media for DCs, NHEKs, hTERT keratinocytes, and GE keratinocytes, and >40.0 μM in complete media. Thus, HBD3 was cytotoxic at higher concentrations, which must be considered in future studies of HBD3-modulated chemokine and cytokine responses in vitro. PMID:26367466

  3. Oral health and HIV.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, David I

    2004-01-01

    Most oral health problems can be found in people who are either HIV positive or negative. Yet there are some important differences. A few conditions are seen almost exclusively in people with HIV, while some that are found in both populations are more problematic for people with HIV, especially those with advanced disease. A diminished immune system can alter the course of oral disease and require more aggressive treatment to prevent minor troubles from escalating into major health problems. Over 30 different oral manifestations of HIV disease have been reported since the beginning of the AIDS epidemic. This article will address several of the most common of these oral health issues. As with any health condition faced by HIV positive people, early identification and treatment should be emphasized. In many cases, referral to a dentist should be made as soon as possible. PMID:15104067

  4. Compounded oral ketamine.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Jack P; Hahn, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The nonnarcotic nonaddictive neuropathic pain reliever ketamine, which was synthesized in the early 1960s by Parke-Davis, was first administered to human patients in 1965. Used by the U. S. military as a field anesthetic during the Vietnam War, it slowly became popular as both an induction and maintenance agent for the general anesthesia required during brief surgical procedures. The use of ketamine in the past has been limited primarily to intravenous administration in hospitalized patients. Very recently, several published reports have described the use of low-dose ketamine for the relief of pain, refractory depression, and anxiety in patients with or without cancer. Because chronic pain, depression, and anxiety often occur in hospice patients with or without cancer and in palliative care patients who are not eligible for hospice, the discovery of new and effective uses for an established drug to treat those conditions has excited interest in the palliative care community. We support that interest with this case report, which describes our experience in treating a 44-year-old male hospice patient with severe constant anxiety, fear, and depression in addition to multiple near-terminal comorbid physical conditions that produce chronic pain. Prior treatments prescribed to resolve this patient's pain, anxiety, and depression had proven ineffective. However, a single low-dose (0.5 mg/kg) subcutaneous test injection of ketamine provided dramatic relief from those symptoms for 80 hours, although the anesthetic effects of that drug are not of long duration. This good outcome has been sustained to date by daily treatment with a compounded flavored oral ketamine solution (40 mg/5 mL) that is not commercially available. Flavoring the solution masks the bitter taste of ketamine and renders the treatment palatable. We found ketamine to be a well-tolerated and effective treatment for the triad of severe anxiety, chronic pain, and severe depression in a hospice patient with multiple comorbid conditions. To our knowledge, this report chronicles the first use of compounded oral ketamine for home-based palliative or hospice care in Louisiana. A formulation for a flavored oral ketamine solution is provided for easy reference. PMID:23072195

  5. Planning ahead with children with life-limiting conditions and their families: development, implementation and evaluation of My Choices

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The United Kingdom has led the world in the development of childrens palliative care. Over the past two decades, the illness trajectories of children with life-limiting conditions have extended with new treatments and better home-based care. Future planning is a critically under-researched aspect of childrens palliative care globally. This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of innovative child and parent-held palliative care planning resources. The resources were designed to facilitate parent and child thinking and engagement in future planning, and to determine care preferences and preferred locations of care for children with life-limiting conditions from diagnosis onwards. These resources fill a significant gap in palliative care planning before the end-of-life phase. Methods Drawing on contemporaneous research on producing evidence-based childrens health information, we collaborated with leading childrens not-for-profit organisations, parents, children, and professionals. A set of resources (My Choices booklets) were developed for parents and children and evaluated using interviews (parents, children, professionals) and questionnaires (professionals) and an open web-based consultation. Results Parents and children responded in three ways: Some used the booklets to produce detailed written plans with clear outcomes and ideas about how best to achieve desired outcomes. Others preferred to use the booklet to help them think about potential options. Remaining parents found it difficult to think about the future and felt there was no point because they perceived there to be no suitable local services. Professionals varied in confidence in their ability to engage with families to plan ahead and identified many challenges that prevented them from doing so. Few families shared their plans with professionals. Parents and children have far stronger preferences for home-care than professionals. Conclusion The My Choices booklets were revised in light of findings, have been endorsed by Together for Short Lives, and are free to download in English and Welsh for use by parents and young people globally. More work needs to be done to support families who are not yet receptive to planning ahead. Professionals would benefit from more training in person-centred approaches to future planning and additional communications skills to increase confidence and ability to engage with families to deliver sensitive palliative care planning. PMID:23384400

  6. Methods for automatized detection of rapid changes in lateral boundary condition fields for NWP limited area models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor, M.

    2015-08-01

    Three-hourly temporal resolution of lateral boundary data for limited area models (LAMs) can be too infrequent to resolve rapidly moving storms. This problem is expected to be worse with increasing horizontal resolution. In order to detect intensive disturbances in surface pressure moving rapidly through the model domain, a filtered surface pressure field (MCUF) is computed operationally in the ARPEGE global model of Météo France. The field is distributed in the coupling files along with conventional meteorological fields used for lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) for the operational forecast using limited area model ALADIN (Aire Limitée Adaptation dynamique Développement InterNational) in the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia (DHMZ). Here an analysis is performed of the MCUF field for the LACE coupling domain for the period from 23 January 2006, when it became available, until 15 November 2014. The MCUF field is a good indicator of rapidly moving pressure disturbances (RMPDs). Its spatial and temporal distribution can be associated with the usual cyclone tracks and areas known to be supporting cyclogenesis. An alternative set of coupling files from the IFS operational run in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is also available operationally in DHMZ with 3-hourly temporal resolution, but the MCUF field is not available. Here, several methods are tested that detect RMPDs in surface pressure a posteriori from the IFS model fields provided in the coupling files. MCUF is computed by running ALADIN on the coupling files from IFS. The error function is computed using one-time-step integration of ALADIN on the coupling files without initialization, initialized with digital filter initialization (DFI) or scale-selective DFI (SSDFI). Finally, the amplitude of changes in the mean sea level pressure is computed from the fields in the coupling files. The results are compared to the MCUF field of ARPEGE and the results of same methods applied to the coupling files from ARPEGE. Most methods give a signal for the RMPDs, but DFI reduces the storms too much to be detected. The error functions without filtering and amplitude have more noise, but the signal of a RMPD is also stronger. The methods are tested for NWP LAM ALADIN, but could be applied to other LAMs and benefit the performance of climate LAMs.

  7. Conditional knockdown of BCL2A1 reveals rate-limiting roles in BCR-dependent B-cell survival.

    PubMed

    Sochalska, M; Ottina, E; Tuzlak, S; Herzog, S; Herold, M; Villunger, A

    2016-04-01

    Bcl2 family proteins control mitochondrial apoptosis and its members exert critical cell type and differentiation stage-specific functions, acting as barriers against autoimmunity or transformation. Anti-apoptotic Bcl2a1/Bfl1/A1 is frequently deregulated in different types of blood cancers in humans but its physiological role is poorly understood as quadruplication of the Bcl2a1 gene locus in mice hampers conventional gene targeting strategies. Transgenic overexpression of A1, deletion of the A1-a paralogue or constitutive knockdown in the hematopoietic compartment of mice by RNAi suggested rate-limiting roles in lymphocyte development, granulopoiesis and mast cell activation. Here we report on the consequences of conditional knockdown of A1 protein expression using a reverse transactivator (rtTA)-driven approach that highlights a critical role for this Bcl2 family member in the maintenance of mature B-cell homeostasis. Furthermore, we define the A1/Bim (Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death) axis as a target of key kinases mediating B-cell receptor (BCR)-dependent survival signals, such as, spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and Brutons tyrosine kinase (Btk). As such, A1 represents a putative target for the treatment of B-cell-related pathologies depending on hyperactivation of BCR-emanating survival signals and loss of A1 expression accounts, in part, for the pro-apoptotic effects of Syk- or Btk inhibitors that rely on the 'BH3-only' protein Bim for cell killing. PMID:26450454

  8. Biotin production under limiting growth conditions by Agrobacterium/Rhizobium HK4 transformed with a modified Escherichia coli bio operon.

    PubMed

    Shaw; Lehner; Fuhrmann; Kulla; Brass; Birch; Tinschert; Venetz; Venetz; Sanchez; Tonella; Hochstrasser

    1999-06-01

    The E. coli biotin (bio) operon was modified to improve biotin production by host cells: (a) the divergently transcribed wild-type bio operon was re-organized into one transcriptional unit; (b) the wild-type bio promoter was replaced with a strong artificial (tac) promoter; (c) a potential stem loop structure between bioD and bioA was removed; and (d) the wild-type bioB ribosomal binding site (RBS) was replaced with an artificial RBS that resulted in improved bioB expression. The effects of the modifications on the bio operon were studied in E. coli by measuring biotin and dethiobiotin production, and bio gene expression with mini-cells and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The modified E. coli bio operon was introduced into a broad host-range plasmid and used to transform Agrobacterium/Rhizobium HK4, which then produced 110 mg L-1 of biotin in a 2-L fermenter, growing on a defined medium with diaminononanoic acid as the starting material. Biotin production was not growth-phase dependent in this strain, and the rate of production remained high under limiting (maintenance) and zero growth conditions. PMID:10455485

  9. Strain localization in brittle-ductile shear zones: fluid abundant vs fluid limited conditions (an example from Wyangala area, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruzeniece, L.; Piazolo, S.

    2015-04-01

    This study focuses on physiochemical processes occurring in a brittle-ductile shear zone at both fluid-present and fluid-limited conditions. In the studied shear zone (Wyangala, SE Australia), a coarse-grained two feldspar-quartz-biotite granite is transformed into a medium grained orthogneiss at the shear zone margins and a fine-grained quartz-muscovite phyllonite in the central parts. The orthogneiss displays cataclasis of feldspar and crystal-plastic deformation of quartz. Quartz accommodates most of the deformation and is extensively recrystallized showing distinct crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO). Feldspar-to-muscovite, biotite-to-muscovite and albitization reactions occur locally at porphyroclasts' fracture surfaces and margins. However, the bulk rock composition shows very little change in respect to the wall rock composition. In contrast, in the shear zone centre quartz occurs as large, weakly deformed porphyroclasts, in sizes similar to that in the wall rock, suggesting that it has undergone little deformation. Feldspars and biotite are almost completely reacted to muscovite, which is arranged in a fine-grained interconnected matrix. Muscovite-rich layers contain significant amounts of fine-grained intermixed quartz with random CPO. These domains are interpreted to have accommodated most of the strain. Bulk rock chemistry data shows a significant increase in SiO2 and depletion in NaO content compared to the wall rock composition. We suggest that the high and low strain fabrics represent markedly different scenarios and cannot be interpreted as a simple sequential development with respect to strain. We suggest that the fabrics and mineralogical changes in the shear zone centre have formed due to fluid influx probably along an initially brittle fracture. Here, hydration reactions dramatically changed the rheological properties of the rock. In the newly produced muscovite-quartz layers creep cavitation associated with grain boundary sliding and fluid pumping resulted in strain localization, further fluid influx and subsequent substantial changes in bulk chemistry. Strain partitioning between the "soft" muscovite-quartz layers and "hard" original igneous quartz grains allows preservation of the igneous quartz grains. In contrast, in the shear zone margins the amount of fluid and reactions was limited; here deformation was mainly accommodated by recrystallization of the igneous quartz grains. The studied shear zone exemplifies the role of syn-deformational fluids and fluid-induced reactions on the dominance of deformation processes and subsequent contrasting rheological behaviour at micron- to meter scale.

  10. Menopause and oral health

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Vanita; Suri, Varun

    2014-01-01

    Different phases of a woman's life: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause have varied influence on her oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production, affecting their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels directly affect the oral cavity. A few oral conditions and or diseases are seen more frequently during post menopausal years. Role of hormones affecting the health of oro-dental tissues, as well as treatment by HRT in ameliorating these conditions is not clear. There is paucity of randomized controlled trials in this field and more data is needed, before the recommendations for oral health care in post menopausal women can be made. A gynecologist sitting in menopausal clinic should be aware of oral changes happening during this period, and dental needs of these women and should refer them to the dental specialists accordingly. On the other hand, a dentist should also be sensitized about the menopausal status of the woman, her HRT status and special preventive and treatment needs. PMID:25316996

  11. Oral cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Chunduri, Nagendra S; Goteki, Venkateswarulu; Gelli, Vamsi; Madasu, Krishnaveni

    2013-03-01

    Cysticercosis is a common disease in developing countries, but oral lesions caused by this parasitic infestation are rare. We report here a rare case of oral cysticercosis in a 17 year old male who sought treatment for an asymptomatic nodule of the lower lip that had previously been diagnosed as a mucocele. PMID:23691623

  12. Limited area NWP and regional climate modeling: A test of the relaxation vs Eta lateral boundary condition schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesinger, F.; Veljovic, K.

    2012-04-01

    With very few exceptions, just about all limited area models (LAMs) used in operational NWP and regional climate modeling use the Davies relaxation lateral boundary conditions (LBCs), even though from the mathematical point of view they are not the best choice one can make. While in the early stages of the primitive equation LAM development in the seventies numerous schemes have been proposed and tested, LAM communities have eventually for the most part settled on the relaxation LBCs with few questions asked. An exception is the Eta model used extensively at NCEP and numerous other centers, in which the Mesinger (1977) LBCs are used. They prescribe variables along the outermost row of grid points only; all of them at the inflow points and one less at the outflow points where the tangential velocity components are extrapolated from inside of the model domain. Additional schemes are in place to suppress separation of gravity-wave solutions on C-subgrids of the model's E grid. A recent paper of Veljovic et al. (2010) included three 32-day forecasts done with both the Eta and the relaxation LBCs and the comparison of some of their verification results. This experiment was subsequently extended by three additional forecasts to arrive at an ensemble of six members run with both schemes, along with a more complete analysis of results. Results of two verification schemes used as well as the inspection of forecast wind fields strongly suggest an advantage of the Eta over the conventional and costlier relaxation scheme, thereby raising doubts as to the justification for its use.

  13. 30 CFR 203.42 - What conditions and limitations apply to royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells? 203.42 Section 203.42 Mineral Resources BUREAU... Deep Gas Wells on Leases Not Subject to Deep Water Royalty Relief § 203.42 What conditions and limitations apply to royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells? The conditions...

  14. Why Is Oral Health Important for Women?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Overal Health Oral Warning Signs Can Indicate Serious Medical Conditions Serious diseases, including diabetes, cancer, and ... Test May Help Dentists Check for Breast Cancer games Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral ...

  15. Why Is Oral Health Important for Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Overal Health Oral Warning Signs Can Indicate Serious Medical Conditions Serious diseases, including diabetes, cancer, and ... Energy Drinks Responsible for Irreversible Damage to Teeth games Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral ...

  16. ABCs of Oral Health: Nutrition - Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oral Warning Signs Can Indicate Serious Medical Conditions Serious diseases, including diabetes, cancer, and eating disorders, can manifest as signs and symptoms inside of the ... Nutrition - Adults Nutrition - Children games Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral ...

  17. Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Lithiation of 1,4-Difluorobenzene under Nonequilibrium Conditions: Role of Monomer-, Dimer-, and Tetramer-Based Intermediates and Lessons about Rate Limitation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lithiation of 1,4-difluorobenzene with lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in THF at ?78 C joins the ranks of a growing number of metalations that occur under conditions in which the rates of aggregate exchanges are comparable to the rates of metalation. As such, a substantial number of barriers vie for rate limitation. Rate studies reveal that rate-limiting steps and even the choice of reaction coordinate depend on subtle variations in concentration. Deuteration shifts the rate-limiting step and markedly alters the concentration dependencies and overall rate law. This narrative is less about ortholithiation per se and more about rate limitation and the dynamics of LDA aggregate exchange. PMID:25000303

  18. Methods for automatized detection of rapid changes in lateral boundary condition fields for NWP limited area models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor, M.

    2015-03-01

    Three hourly temporal resolution of lateral boundary data can be too low to properly resolve rapidly moving storms. This problem is expected to be worse with increasing horizontal resolution. In order to detect intensive disturbances in surface pressure moving rapidly through the model domain, a filtered surface pressure field (MCUF) is computed operationally in the ARPEGE global model of Météo France. The field is distributed in the coupling files along with conventional meteorological fields used for lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) for the operational forecast using limited area model ALADIN in the Meteorological and hydrological service of Croatia (DHMZ). Here an analysis is performed of the MCUF field for the LACE coupling domain for the period since 23 January 2006, when it became available, until 15 November 2014. The MCUF field is a good indicator of rapidly moving pressure disturbances (RMPDs). Its spatial and temporal distribution can be associated to the usual cyclone tracks and areas known to be supporting cyclogenesis. Other global models do not compute such field. Alternative set of coupling files from IFS operational run in ECMWF is also available operationally in DHMZ with 3 hourly temporal resolution but the MCUF field is not available. Here, several methods are tested that detect RMPDs in surface pressure a posteriori from the IFS model fields provided in the coupling files. MCUF is computed by running ALADIN on the coupling files from IFS. The error function is computed using one time step integration of ALADIN on the coupling files without initialization, initialized with DFI or SSDFI. Finally, the amplitude of changes in the mean sea level pressure is computed from the fields in the coupling files. The results are compared to the MCUF field of ARPEGE and the results of same methods applied to the coupling files from ARPEGE. Most methods give a signal for the rapidly moving pressure disturbances (RMPDs), but DFI reduces the storms too much to be detected. Error function without filtering and amplitude have more noise, but the signal of a RMPD is also stronger. The methods are tested for NWP LAM, but could be applied to and benefit the performance of climate LAMs.

  19. Aerobactin Mediates Virulence and Accounts for Increased Siderophore Production under Iron-Limiting Conditions by Hypervirulent (Hypermucoviscous) Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Ruth; MacDonald, Ulrike; Metzger, Daniel; Maltese, Lauren M.; Drake, Eric J.; Gulick, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Hypervirulent (hypermucoviscous) Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) strains are an emerging variant of classical K. pneumoniae (cKP) that cause organ and life-threatening infection in healthy individuals. An understanding of hvKP-specific virulence mechanisms that enabled evolution from cKP is limited. Observations by our group and previously published molecular epidemiologic data led us to hypothesize that hvKP strains produced more siderophores than cKP strains and that this trait enhanced hvKP virulence. Quantitative analysis of 12 hvKP strains in iron-poor minimal medium or human ascites fluid showed a significant and distinguishing 6- to 10-fold increase in siderophore production compared to that for 14 cKP strains. Surprisingly, high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-mass spectrometry and characterization of the hvKP strains hvKP1, A1142, and A1365 and their isogenic aerobactin-deficient (?iucA) derivatives established that aerobactin accounted for the overwhelming majority of increased siderophore production and that this was not due to gene copy number. Further, aerobactin was the primary factor in conditioned medium that enhanced the growth/survival of hvKP1 in human ascites fluid. Importantly the ex vivo growth/survival of hvKP1 ?iucA was significantly less than that of hvKP1 in human ascites fluid, and the survival of outbred CD1 mice challenged subcutaneously or intraperitoneally with hvKP1 was significantly less than that of mice challenged with hvKP1 ?iucA. The lowest subcutaneous and intraperitoneal challenge inocula of 3 102 and 3.2 101 CFU, respectively, resulted in 100% mortality, demonstrating the virulence of hvKP1 and its ability to cause infection at a low dose. These data strongly support that aerobactin accounts for increased siderophore production in hvKP compared to cKP (a potential defining trait) and is an important virulence factor. PMID:24664504

  20. Oral lichen planus: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Sankari, S. Leena; Masthan, K. M. K.; Rajesh, E.

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is an immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disease that is triggered by varied etiological agents. The oral lichenoid reaction is considered a variant of the disease that needs to be clearly diagnosed as a separate entity from oral lichen planus and treated. They follow a strict cause-effector relationship, protocols that suggest the differentiation. Lichen planus has varied clinical forms in the oral mucosa and cutaneously that has different prognosis. This condition also arises in association with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus. There have been cases reported in the esophagus, larynx, scalp, nail, cutaneous areas, especially arms and wrists, trunk. There is reported malignant transformation that essentiates careful examination, treatment protocol and regular follow-up sessions. This article throws light on the disease condition of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction that is essential for the differentiation and treatment. PMID:26015696

  1. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Murat ?nan; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

  2. Pediatric soft tissue oral lesions.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Andres; Haberland, Christel M; Baker, Suher

    2014-04-01

    This article provides an overview of common color changes and soft tissue oral nodular abnormalities in children and adolescents. The clinical presentation and treatment options to address these conditions are presented in a concise approach, highlighting key features relevant to the oral health care professional. PMID:24655531

  3. Teaching Vocabulary by Oral Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heltai, Pal

    1989-01-01

    Examines the conditions under which oral translation from a first language to a second language can be used as an exercise to build vocabulary. Depending upon the teaching situation, oral translation can be made both interesting and useful while being compatible with communicative approaches to language teaching. (Author/CB)

  4. Oral vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qing; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    Oral vaccines are safe and easy to administer and convenient for all ages. They have been successfully developed to protect from many infectious diseases acquired through oral transmission. We recently found in animal models that formulation of oral vaccines in a nanoparticle-releasing microparticle delivery system is a viable approach for selectively inducing large intestinal protective immunity against infections at rectal and genital mucosae. These large-intestine targeted oral vaccines are a potential substitute for the intracolorectal immunization, which has been found to be effective against rectogenital infections but is not feasible for mass vaccination. Moreover, the newly developed delivery system can be modified to selectively target either the small or large intestine for immunization and accordingly revealed a regionalized immune system in the gut. Future applications and research endeavors suggested by the findings are discussed. PMID:23493163

  5. Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Periodontists: Dentists who treat gum disease and place dental implants. Oral surgeons: Dentists who operate on your mouth and supporting tissues. Orthodontists: Dentists who straighten teeth and align jaws. Endodontists: Dentists who perform root ...

  6. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... possible signs of cancer. Some parts of the pharynx are not visible during an oral cancer exam. ... dentist about whether a specialist should check your pharynx. This pamphlet was developed by the National Institute ...

  7. Oral calcitonin.

    PubMed

    Maricic, Michael J

    2012-03-01

    Both injectable and nasal spray calcitonins have been utilized in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis for over 25years. More widespread use of calcitonin in the treatment of osteoporosis has been hampered in part due to poor patient acceptability and compliance and the inability of patients to take this medication as an oral pill. In recent years, an oral preparation of calcitonin has been developed that combines the active peptide hormone with a caprylic acid derivative to enhance bioavailability. Clinical trials with oral calcitonin in patients with osteoarthritis are currently being conducted. A recent phase 3 study failed to demonstrate significant vertebral fracture reduction, and as a result the clinical program for oral calcitonin in osteoporosis is under review for further consideration. PMID:22281725

  8. [Oral manifestations in HIV infection].

    PubMed

    Steinsvoll, Svein; Herlofson, Bente Brokstad

    2006-04-27

    In this review article, oral lesions in relation to HIV infection are presented and discussed. Lesions such as oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia and necrotising gingivitis or periodontitis may be the first sign of an HIV infection or of its progression. Almost all HIV-infected patients will contract oral diseases. Dentists and physicians play an essential role in early recognition of signs and symptoms of HIV disease or of its progression. Only through such recognition can appropriate definitive diagnostic testing be conducted and appropriate therapeutic intervention for the condition be considered. It is pivotal that both dentists and physicians are familiar with the most frequently occurring oral symptoms of HIV infection. PMID:16670745

  9. 76 FR 12274 - Special Conditions: Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited Model 206B and 206L Series Helicopters...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... failure conditions with more severe adverse consequences than those envisioned by the existing applicable... considers necessary to ensure the failures and their effects are sufficiently analyzed and contained. DATES... possible failure conditions for this system, and their effect on the continued safe flight and landing...

  10. Pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention of oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Yoithapprabhunath, Thukanaykanpalayam Ragunathan; Maheswaran, Thangadurai; Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Anusushanth, Abraham; Sindhuja, Pandian; Sitra, Govindasamy

    2013-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic, progressive, potentially malignant condition affecting the oral cavity and frequently involving the upper part of the aerodigestive tract including the oropharynx and the upper part of the esophagus. It is characterized by juxtaepithelial inflammatory reaction and progressive fibrosis of lamina propria, leading to stiffening of the oral mucosa eventually causing trismus. This condition is associated with significant morbidity and high risk of malignancy. Over the years, several drugs and combinations have been tried for the treatment of submucous fibrosis, but with limited success, because of its unclear molecular pathogenesis. Till date, there are no known effective treatments for OSF. The aim of this article is to emphasize on the molecular changes taking place in OSF and possible therapeutic interventions. PMID:23946584

  11. Understanding of polyhydroxybutyrate production under carbon and phosphorus-limited growth conditions in non-axenic continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Cavaillé, Laëtitia; Albuquerque, Maria; Grousseau, Estelle; Lepeuple, Anne-Sophie; Uribelarrea, Jean-Louis; Hernandez-Raquet, Guillermina; Paul, Etienne

    2016-02-01

    In a waste into resource strategy, a selection of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-accumulating organisms from activated sludge was achieved in an open continuous culture under acetic acid and phosphorus limitation. Once the microbial population was selected at a dilution rate (D), an increase in phosphorus limitation degree was applied in order to study the intracellular phosphorus plasticity of selected bacteria and the resulting capacity to produce PHB. Whatever D, all selected populations were able to produce PHB. At a D, the phosphorus availability determined the phosphorus-cell content which in turn fixed the amount of cell. All the remaining carbon was thus directed toward PHB. By decreasing D, microorganisms adapted more easily to higher phosphorus limitation leading to higher PHB content. A one-stage continuous reactor operated at D=0.023h(-)(1) gave reliable high PHB productivity with PHB content up to 80%. A two-stage reactor could ensure better productivity while allowing tuning product quality. PMID:26638135

  12. Competition for cellulose among three predominant ruminal cellulolytic bacteria under substrate-excess and substrate-limited conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Y; Odt, C L; Weimer, P J

    1997-01-01

    Three predominant ruminal cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1, and Ruminococcus albus 7) were grown in different binary combinations to determine the outcome of competition in either cellulose-excess batch culture or in cellulose-limited continuous culture. Relative populations of each species were estimated by using signature membrane-associated fatty acids and/or 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Both F. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens coexisted in cellulose-excess batch culture with similar population sizes (58 and 42%, respectively; standard error, 12%). By contrast, under cellulose limitation R. flavefaciens predominated (> 96% of total cell mass) in coculture with F. succinogenes, regardless of whether the two strains were inoculated simultaneously or whether R. flavefaciens was inoculated into an established culture of F. succinogenes. The predominance of R. flavefaciens over F. succinogenes under cellulose limitation is in accord with the former's more rapid adherence to cellulose and its higher affinity for cellodextrin products of cellulose hydrolysis. In batch cocultures of F. succinogenes and R. albus, the populations of the two species were similar. However, under cellulose limitation, F. succinogenes was the predominant strain (approximately 80% of cell mass) in cultures simultaneously coinoculated with R. albus. The results from batch cocultures of R. flavefaciens and R. albus were not consistent within or among trials: some experiments yielded monocultures of R. albus (suggesting production of an inhibitory agent by R. albus), while others contained substantial populations of both species. Under cellulose limitation, R. flavefaciens predominated over R. albus (85 and 15%, respectively), as would be expected by the former's greater adherence to cellulose. The retention of R. albus in the cellulose-limited coculture may result from a combination of its ability to utilize glucose (which is not utilizable by R. flavefaciens), its demonstrated ability to adapt under selective pressure in the chemostat to utilization of lower concentrations of cellobiose, a major product of cellulose hydrolysis, and its possible production of an inhibitory agent. PMID:9023950

  13. Strategies for maintaining fruit quality in northern highbush blueberry under water limited conditions: deficit irrigation and reduced crop loads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many commercial blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) fields are irrigated, but mandatory water restrictions may soon limit the availability of irrigation water in several important blueberry growing regions such as California and eastern Washington. New strategies are needed to maintain fruit quality with less...

  14. 7 CFR 301.76-6 - Additional conditions for issuance of certificates and limited permits for regulated articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... with methyl bromide in accordance with 7 CFR part 305 of this chapter. (2) The article is shipped in a... treated with irradiation in accordance with 7 CFR part 305 of this chapter at an irradiation facility that... were treated in accordance with 7 CFR part 305 of this chapter. (3) A copy of the limited permit...

  15. The Condition of Vocational Education for Limited English-Proficient Persons in Selected Areas of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedenberg, Joan E.

    This report examines the practices of vocational education programs that serve limited English-proficient (LEP) students without the benefit of federal bilingual vocational training funds. Visits were made to seven areas of the United States with large numbers of LEP persons: South Florida, Southern California, Connecticut, Metropolitan New York,…

  16. 7 CFR 301.76-7 - Additional conditions for issuance of certificates and limited permits for regulated articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CFR part 305 of this chapter. (2) The nursery stock is inspected by an inspector in accordance with... limited permits for regulated articles moved interstate from areas quarantined for citrus greening. 301.76... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus...

  17. 7 CFR 301.76-7 - Additional conditions for issuance of certificates and limited permits for regulated articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR part 305 of this chapter. (2) The nursery stock is inspected by an inspector in accordance with... limited permits for regulated articles moved interstate from areas quarantined for citrus greening. 301.76... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus...

  18. 7 CFR 301.76-7 - Additional conditions for issuance of certificates and limited permits for regulated articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accordance with 7 CFR part 305 of this chapter. (2) The nursery stock is inspected by an inspector in... limited permits for regulated articles moved interstate from areas quarantined for citrus greening. 301.76... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus...

  19. 7 CFR 301.76-6 - Additional conditions for issuance of certificates and limited permits for regulated articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 in accordance with 7 CFR part 305 of this chapter. 3 EPA and State and local environmental... irradiation in accordance with 7 CFR part 305 of this chapter at an irradiation facility that is not located... accordance with 7 CFR part 305 of this chapter. (3) A copy of the limited permit is attached to the...

  20. No evidence of carbon limitation with tree age and height in Nothofagus pumilio under Mediterranean and temperate climate conditions

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Frida I.; Fajardo, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Trees universally decrease their growth with age. Most explanations for this trend so far support the hypothesis that carbon (C) gain becomes limited with age; though very few studies have directly assessed the relative reductions of C gain and C demand with tree age. It has also been suggested that drought enhances the effect of C gain limitation in trees. Here tests were carried out to determine whether C gain limitation is causing the growth decay with tree age, and whether drought accentuates its effect. Methods The balance between C gain and C demand across tree age and height ranges was estimated. For this, the concentration of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in stems and roots of trees of different ages and heights was measured in the deciduous temperate species Nothofagus pumilio. An ontogenetic decrease in NSCs indicates support for C limitation. Furthermore, the importance of drought in altering the C balance with ontogeny was assessed by sampling the same species in Mediterranean and humid climate locations in the southern Andes of Chile. Wood density (WD) and stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) were also determined to examine drought constraints on C gain. Key Results At both locations, it was effectively found that tree growth ultimately decreased with tree age and height. It was found, however, that NSC concentrations did not decrease with tree age or height when WD was considered, suggesting that C limitation is not the ultimate mechanism causing the age/height-related declining tree growth. δ13C decreased with tree age/height at the Mediterranean site only; drought effect increased with tree age/height, but this pattern was not mirrored by the levels of NSCs. Conclusions The results indicate that concentrations of C storage in N. pumilio trees do not decrease with tree age or height, and that reduced C assimilation due to summer drought does not alter this pattern. PMID:21852277

  1. Emerging oral drugs for erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Briganti, Alberto; Salonia, Andrea; Gallina, Andrea; Suardi, Nazareno; Rigatti, Patrizio; Montorsi, Francesco

    2004-05-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common medical condition that affects the sexual life of millions of men worldwide. Many drugs are now available for the treatment of ED, with oral pharmacotherapy representing the first-line option for most patients. Sildenafil citrate, an inhibitor of the enzyme phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), is the most widely prescribed oral agent and has a very satisfactory efficacy-safety profile in all patient categories. Tadalafil (Cialis; Eli Lilly & Co., ICOS) and vardenafil (Levitra; Bayer Pharmaceuticals, GlaxoSmithKline) are new PDE5 inhibitors that have recently been approved worldwide. Both have been associated with significant positive efficacy-safety profiles. Apomorphine sublingual is a dopamine D1 and D2 receptor agonist, which has been approved for marketing in Europe. It is best selected for treating patients with mild-to-moderate ED, but it is seldom used in clinical practice due to its limited efficacy and side effects, particularly nausea. Patients who do not respond to oral pharmacotherapy or who are unable to use it are appropriate candidates for intracavernosal and intraurethral therapy. The efficacy of second-line treatment is high, but the attrition rate remains significant. For the purpose of this review, clinical and pharmacological analysis focuses on the recent advances in the field of oral therapy, including PDE5 inhibitors and sublingual apomorphine. PMID:15155143

  2. 30 CFR 203.42 - What conditions and limitations apply to royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells? 203.42 Section 203.42 Mineral Resources BUREAU... limitations apply to royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells? The conditions and... or deeper, your lease cannot earn an RSV under § 203.41 as a result of drilling any subsequent...

  3. 30 CFR 203.42 - What conditions and limitations apply to royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells? 203.42 Section 203.42 Mineral Resources BUREAU... limitations apply to royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells? The conditions and... or deeper, your lease cannot earn an RSV under § 203.41 as a result of drilling any subsequent...

  4. 30 CFR 203.42 - What conditions and limitations apply to royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells? 203.42 Section 203.42 Mineral Resources BUREAU... limitations apply to royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells? The conditions and... or deeper, your lease cannot earn an RSV under § 203.41 as a result of drilling any subsequent...

  5. 30 CFR 203.42 - What conditions and limitations apply to royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells? 203.42 Section 203.42 Mineral Resources... ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General Royalty Relief for Drilling Deep Gas Wells on Leases Not Subject to Deep Water Royalty Relief § 203.42 What conditions and limitations apply to royalty relief...

  6. The Importance of Awareness and Communication for the Inclusion of Young People with Life-Limiting and Life-Threatening Conditions in Mainstream Schools and Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asprey, Anthea; Nash, Tricia

    2006-01-01

    Anthea Asprey and Tricia Nash both belong to the Children's Hospice South West Research Group, based at the University of Exeter. In this article, they report one aspect of a research project designed to determine the adequacy of support for young people with life-limiting and life-threatening conditions in the education system. They describe here…

  7. 78 FR 11554 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane, Limit Pilot Forces for Sidestick Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ...-550 airplanes was published in the Federal Register on November 20, 2012, (77 FR 69571). No comments... must comply with the fuel vent and exhaust emission requirements of 14 CFR part 34 and the noise... section 611 of Public Law 92-574, the ``Noise Control Act of 1972.'' The FAA issues special conditions,...

  8. 26 CFR 20.2056(b)-3 - Marital deduction; interest of spouse conditioned on survival for limited period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... examples: Example (1). A decedent bequeathed his entire estate to his spouse on condition that she survive... assumed for the purpose of this example that no other factor which would cause the interest to be nondeductible is present.) Example (2). The facts are the same as in example (1) except that the will...

  9. 26 CFR 20.2056(b)-3 - Marital deduction; interest of spouse conditioned on survival for limited period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate § 20.2056(b)-3 Marital deduction; interest of spouse... decedent to his surviving spouse subject to the condition that she does not die as a result of a common... passed to the spouse would be regarded as a nondeductible interest. If the surviving spouse in fact...

  10. 26 CFR 20.2056(b)-3 - Marital deduction; interest of spouse conditioned on survival for limited period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate § 20.2056(b)-3 Marital deduction; interest of spouse... decedent to his surviving spouse subject to the condition that she does not die as a result of a common... passed to the spouse would be regarded as a nondeductible interest. If the surviving spouse in fact...

  11. 26 CFR 20.2056(b)-3 - Marital deduction; interest of spouse conditioned on survival for limited period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate § 20.2056(b)-3 Marital deduction; interest of spouse... decedent to his surviving spouse subject to the condition that she does not die as a result of a common... passed to the spouse would be regarded as a nondeductible interest. If the surviving spouse in fact...

  12. 26 CFR 20.2056(b)-3 - Marital deduction; interest of spouse conditioned on survival for limited period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate § 20.2056(b)-3 Marital deduction; interest of spouse... decedent to his surviving spouse subject to the condition that she does not die as a result of a common... passed to the spouse would be regarded as a nondeductible interest. If the surviving spouse in fact...

  13. Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum of the Skin with Involvement of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Flávia Sayuri; Berbert, Alceu Luiz Camargo Villela; Mantese, Sônia Antunes de Oliveira; Loyola, Adriano Mota; Cardoso, Sérgio Vitorino; de Faria, Paulo Rogério

    2013-01-01

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is an inherited multisystemic disease of elastic fibers that primarily affects the skin and retina. A case of primary PXE of the skin with late involvement of the upper lip is reported. A 55-year-old woman with a previous diagnosis of PXE affecting her skin developed a lesion on her lower lip. An oral examination identified a yellowish macule of undefined limits. A biopsy from her lip was taken and both light and transmission electron microscopies confirmed the presence of fragmented elastic fibers and calcifications on her mucosa, which was compatible with the diagnosis of oral PXE. Since the manifestation of oral PXE is rare in this region, dental practitioners must be aware that this systemic condition may produce oral lesions, which sometimes may mimic other benign diseases of the oral cavity like Fordyce granules. So, the establishment of an appropriate diagnosis is necessary to provide adequate information and attention to the patient. PMID:23762643

  14. Design of a smartphone-camera-based fluorescence imaging system for the detection of oral cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uthoff, Ross

    Shown is the design of the Smartphone Oral Cancer Detection System (SOCeeDS). The SOCeeDS attaches to a smartphone and utilizes its embedded imaging optics and sensors to capture images of the oral cavity to detect oral cancer. Violet illumination sources excite the oral tissues to induce fluorescence. Images are captured with the smartphone's onboard camera. Areas where the tissues of the oral cavity are darkened signify an absence of fluorescence signal, indicating breakdown in tissue structure brought by precancerous or cancerous conditions. With this data the patient can seek further testing and diagnosis as needed. Proliferation of this device will allow communities with limited access to healthcare professionals a tool to detect cancer in its early stages, increasing the likelihood of cancer reversal.

  15. [Oral ecosystem in elderly people].

    PubMed

    Lacoste-Ferré, Marie-Hélène; Hermabessière, Sophie; Jézéquel, Fabienne; Rolland, Yves

    2013-06-01

    The mouth is a complex natural cavity which constitutes the initial segment of the digestive tract. It is an essential actor of the vital functions as nutrition, language, communication. The whole mouth (teeth, periodontium, mucous membranes, tongue) is constantly hydrated and lubricated by the saliva. At any age, a balance becomes established between the bacterial proliferations, the salivary flow, the adapted tissular answer: it is the oral ecosystem. The regulation of this ecosystem participates in the protection of the oral complex against current inflammatory and infectious pathologies (caries, gingivitis, periodontitis, candidiasis). In elderly, the modification of the salivary flow, the appearance of specific pathologies (root caries, edentulism, periodontitis), the local conditions (removable dentures), the development of general pathologies, the development of general pathologies (diabetes, hypertension, immunosuppression, the insufficient oral care are so many elements which are going to destabilize the oral ecosystem, to favor the formation of the dental plaque and to weaken oral tissues. The preservation of this ecosystem is essential for elderly: it allows to eat in good conditions and so to prevent the risks of undernutrition. The authors describe the oral physiopathology (oral microflora, salivary secretion) and the strategies to be adopted to protect the balance of the oral ecosystem in geriatric population. PMID:23803630

  16. Metabolic regulation of Escherichia coli and its phoB and phoR genes knockout mutants under phosphate and nitrogen limitations as well as at acidic condition

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The phosphorus compounds serve as major building blocks of many biomolecules, and have important roles in signal transduction. The phosphate is involved in many biochemical reactions by the transfer of phosphoryl groups. All living cells sophisticatedly regulate the phosphate uptake, and survive even under phosphate-limiting condition, and thus phosphate metabolism is closely related to the diverse metabolism including energy and central carbon metabolism. In particular, phosphorylation may play important roles in the metabolic regulation at acidic condition and nitrogen limiting condition, which typically appears at the late growth phase in the batch culture. Moreover, phosphate starvation is a relatively inexpensive means of gene induction in practice, and the phoA promoter has been used for overexpression of heterologous genes. A better understanding of phosphate regulation would allow for optimization of such processes. Results The effect of phosphate (P) concentration on the metabolism in Escherichia coli was investigated in terms of fermentation characteristics and gene transcript levels for the aerobic continuous culture at the dilution rate of 0.2 h-1. The result indicates that the specific glucose consumption rate and the specific acetate production rate significantly increased, while the cell concentration decreased at low P concentration (10% of the M9 medium). The increase in the specific glucose uptake rate may be due to ATP demand caused by limited ATP production under P-limitation. The lower cell concentration was also caused by less ATP production. The less ATP production by H+-ATPase may have caused less cytochrome reaction affecting in quinone pool, and caused up-regulation of ArcA/B, which repressed TCA cycle genes and caused more acetate production. In the case of phoB mutant (and also phoR mutant), the fermentation characteristics were less affected by P-limitation as compared to the wild type where the PhoB regulated genes were down-regulated, while phoR and phoU changed little. The phoR gene knockout caused phoB gene to be down-regulated as well as PhoB regulated genes, while phoU and phoM changed little. The effect of pH together with lower P concentration on the metabolic regulation was also investigated. In accordance with up-regulation of arcA gene expression, the expressions of the TCA cycle genes such as sdhC and mdh were down-regulated at acidic condition. The gene expression of rpoS was up-regulated, and the expression of gadA was up-regulated at pH 6.0. In accordance with this, PhoB regulated genes were up-regulated in the wild type under P-rich and P-limited conditions at pH 6.0 as compared to those at pH 7.0. Moreover, the effect of nitrogen limitation on the metabolic regulation was investigated, where the result indicates that phoB gene was up-regulated, and PhoB regulated genes were also up-regulated under N-limitation, as well as nitrogen-regulated genes. Conclusion The present result shows the complicated nature of the metabolic regulation for the fermentation characteristics upon phosphate limitation, acidic condition, and nitrogen limitation based on the transcript levels of selected genes. The result implies that the regulations under phosphate limitation, acidic condition, and nitrogen limitation, which occur typically at the late growth phase of the batch culture, are interconnected through RpoS and RpoD together with Pho genes. PMID:21599905

  17. [Oral candidiasis: clinical features and control].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2010-10-01

    Candidiasis is the most commonly encountered fungal infection, and oral candidiasis is often observed as a local opportunistic infection. Oral candidiasis is clinically divided into three types: acute forms, chronic forms, and Candida-associated lesions. Candida adhesion and multiplication are largely regulated by the local and systemic factors of the host. The local factors include impairment of the oral mucosal integrity, which is usually impaired by hyposalivation, anticancer drugs/radiation for head and neck cancers, denture wearing, a decrease in the oral bacterial population, and poor oral hygiene. Among Candida species, oral candidiasis is mostly caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans), C. glabrata, or C. tropicalis. Oral Candida induces a variety of symptoms, such as oral mucosal inflammation manifesting as an uncomfortable feeling, pain, erythema, erosion, taste abnormalities, and hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Candida overgrowth in the oral cavity may disseminate to distant organs. Therefore, in order to avoid the sequelae of systemic candidiasis, oral candidiasis should be rapidly controlled. Oral candidiasis is usually treated by the local application of antifungal drugs. However, oral candidiasis occasionally escapes the control of such local treatment due to the development of multi-drug resistant Candida strains and species or due to the suppression of salivation or cellular immune activity. When drug-resistant strains are suspected as the pathogens and when the host is generally compromised, the oral administration of combinations of antifungal drugs, enhancement of cellular immune activity, and improvement of the nutritional condition are recommended. PMID:21077293

  18. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... notice signs of oral cancer during regular checkups. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) also make note of unusual or abnormal ... 186,000 members and affiliates who are audiologists; speech-language pathologists; speech, language, and hearing scientists; audiology and speech- ...

  19. Effects of tungsten and titanium oxide nanoparticles on the diazotrophic growth and metals acquisition by Azotobacter vinelandii under molybdenum limiting condition.

    PubMed

    Allard, Patrick; Darnajoux, Romain; Phalyvong, Karine; Bellenger, Jean-Philippe

    2013-02-19

    The acquisition of essential metals, such as the metal cofactors (molybdenum (Mo) and iron (Fe)) of the nitrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the reduction of dinitrogen (N(2)) to ammonium, is critical to N(2) fixing bacteria in soil. The release of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) to the environment could be detrimental to N(2) fixing bacteria by introducing a new source of toxic metals and by interfering with the acquisition of essential metals such as Mo. Since Mo has been reported to limit nonsymbiotic N(2) fixation in many ecosystems from tropical to cold temperate, this question is particularly acute in the context of Mo limitation. Using a combination of microbiology and analytical chemistry techniques, we have evaluated the effect of titanium (Ti) and tungsten (W) oxide nanoparticles on the diazotrophic growth and metals acquisition in pure culture of the ubiquitous N(2) fixing bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii under Mo replete and Mo limiting conditions. We report that under our conditions (≤10 mg·L(-1)) TiO(2) NPs have no effects on the diazotrophic growth of A. vinelandii while WO(3) NPs are highly detrimental to the growth especially under Mo limiting conditions. Our results show that the toxicity of WO(3) NPs to A. vinelandii is due to an interference with the catechol-metalophores assisted uptake of Mo. PMID:23339336

  20. Influence of Propolis on Hygiene, Gingival Condition, and Oral Microflora in Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate Treated with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances

    PubMed Central

    Machorowska-Pieniążek, Agnieszka; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Król, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 3% ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) on hygiene, gingival and microbiological status of oral cavity in patients with cleft lip and palate treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. The study included forty-one nonsyndromic complete unilateral of bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects with fixed appliance on at least 10 teeth. Twenty-one subjects were instructed to brush their teeth three times a day using toothpaste with propolis. Control group included twenty subjects who were asked to brush their teeth three times a day using a toothpaste without propolis. API, OPI, GI, and supragingival bacterial plaque were taken from each subject twice: baseline and after using the toothpaste for 35 days. The final examinations showed statistically significant decrease in OPI, GI, and the percentage of the Actinomyces spp. and Capnocytophaga spp. compared with baseline in propolis group subjects. The improvement in oral health in these patients confirms antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative properties of propolis. PMID:23762106

  1. A Method for Rapid Determination of the Icing Limit of a Body in Terms of the Stream Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, Edmund E.; Serafini, John S.

    1953-01-01

    The effects of existing frictional heating were analyzed to determine the conditions under which ice formations on aircraft surfaces can be prevented. A method is presented for rapidly determining by means of charts the combination of-Mach number, altitude, and stream temperature which will maintain an ice-free surface in an icing cloud. The method can be applied to both subsonic and supersonic flow. The charts presented are for Mach numbers up to 1.8 and pressure altitudes from sea level to 45,000 feet.

  2. The corrective effects of warning on false memories in the DRM paradigm are limited to full attention conditions.

    PubMed

    Peters, Maarten J V; Jelicic, Marko; Gorski, Benny; Sijstermans, Kevin; Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald

    2008-10-01

    Effects of attention control and forewarning on the activation and monitoring of experimentally induced false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm were investigated in a young adult sample (N=77). We found that reducing the degree of attention during encoding led to a decrease in veridical recall and an increase in non-presented critical lure intrusions. This effect could not be counteracted by a forewarning instruction. However, these findings did not emerge in a (retrieval supportive) recognition task. It seems that divided attention increases false recall when attention control and forewarning have to compete for limited cognitive resources in a generative free recall as opposed to a retrieval supportive recognition task. Forewarning instructions do not always protect young adults against experimentally induced false memories. PMID:18804192

  3. Differential regulation of two types of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase in membrane lipid remodeling under phosphate-limited conditions in sesame plants

    PubMed Central

    Shimojima, Mie; Watanabe, Takahide; Madoka, Yuka; Koizumi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Masayuki P.; Masuda, Kyojiro; Yamada, Kyoji; Masuda, Shinji; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi) limitation causes drastic lipid remodeling in plant membranes. Glycolipids substitute for the phospholipids that are degraded, thereby supplying Pi needed for essential biological processes. Two major types of remodeling of membrane lipids occur in higher plants: whereas one involves an increase in the concentration of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol in plastids to compensate for a decreased concentration of phosphatidylglycerol, the other involves digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) synthesis in plastids and the export of DGDG to extraplastidial membranes to compensate for reduced abundances of phospholipids. Lipid remodeling depends on an adequate supply of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), which is a substrate that supports the elevated rate of DGDG synthesis that is induced by low Pi availability. Regulation of MGDG synthesis has been analyzed most extensively using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, although orthologous genes that encode putative MGDG synthases exist in photosynthetic organisms from bacteria to higher plants. We recently hypothesized that two types of MGDG synthase diverged after the appearance of seed plants. This divergence might have both enabled plants to adapt to a wide range of Pi availability in soils and contributed to the diversity of seed plants. In the work presented here, we found that membrane lipid remodeling also takes place in sesame, which is one of the most common traditional crops grown in Asia. We identified two types of MGDG synthase from sesame (encoded by SeMGD1 and SeMGD2) and analyzed their enzymatic properties. Our results show that both genes correspond to the Arabidopsis type-A and -B isoforms of MGDG synthase. Notably, whereas Pi limitation up-regulates only the gene encoding the type-B isoform of Arabidopsis, low Pi availability up-regulates the expression of both SeMGD1 and SeMGD2. We discuss the significance of the different responses to low Pi availability in sesame and Arabidopsis. PMID:24312111

  4. Tectonic drift versus climatic variations: rhodoliths as indicators of limits between tropical and nontropical sedimentary conditions: examples from Pacific Miocene

    SciTech Connect

    Bourrouilh-le Jan, F.G.

    1986-05-01

    Modern examples show that rhodoliths or red algal nodules are forming around the 18/sup 0/C winter isocline and that huge amounts of these red coralline algae are living and accumulating in the subtidal zones, from -60 m to sea level, of temperate seas, such as the English Channel and Rockall. In the Pacific Ocean, several high carbonate platforms, so-called uplifted atolls, show uniform, extended, and thick accumulation of rhodoliths. These accumulations have been recognized in the Solomon Islands (Rennell) and in the Loyalty Islands (Mare and Lifu, New Caledonia), but also in the Vanuatu (Vila), in the Austral Archipelago (Rurutu), where their age can be proved or estimated as middle Miocene. They are also mentioned in the literature on the Emperor Rise (northwest Pacific). On other high carbonate islands, such as Makatea (Tuamotu), red algae and rhodolith formations appear at the top of a sedimentary pile of lower Miocene coral accumulation. The same observations and perhaps the same age can be said for Nauru (central Pacific). Such a wide distribution, from the east to the west part of the Pacific Ocean and between the tropics, seems to be due to climate variations during the Miocene, more than tectonic drift due to oceanic spreading. Temperate conditions shown by this shallow platform sedimentation, just under the coral growth conditions, seem to be confirmed by isotopic studies on pelagic and benthic Foraminifera and could confirm the existence of climate variations affecting the surface water of the Pacific in an extensive area that does not consider the presence of trenches, arcs, and ridges.

  5. An analytical model for relating global terrestrial carbon assimilation with climate and surface conditions using a rate limitation framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuting; Donohue, Randall J.; McVicar, Tim R.; Roderick, Michael L.

    2015-11-01

    We develop an analytical model for estimating mean annual terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) based on a rate limitation framework. Actual GPP (climatological mean from 1982 to 2010) is calculated as a function of the balance between two GPP potentials defined by the climate (i.e., precipitation and solar radiation) and a third parameter that encodes other environmental variables and modifies the GPP-climate relationship. The model was tested using observed GPP from 94 flux sites and modeled GPP (using the model tree ensemble approach) at 48,654 (0.5°) grid cells globally. Results show that the model could account for the spatial GPP patterns, with a root-mean-square error of 0.70 and 0.65 g C m-2 d-1 and R2 of 0.79 and 0.92 for the flux site and grid cell scales, respectively. This analytical GPP model shares a similar form with the Budyko hydroclimatological model, which opens the possibility of a general analytical framework to analyze the linked carbon-water-energy cycles.

  6. Tenax extraction for exploring rate-limiting factors in methyl-β-cyclodextrin enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs under denitrifying conditions in a red paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yongming; Jiang, Xin; Kengara, Fredrick Orori

    2014-01-15

    The effectiveness of anaerobic bioremediation systems for PAH-contaminated soil may be constrained by low contaminants bioaccessibility due to limited aqueous solubility and lack of suitable electron acceptors. Information on what is the rate-limiting factor in bioremediation process is of vital importance in the decision in what measures can be taken to assist the biodegradation efficacy. In the present study, four different microcosms were set to study the effect of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and nitrate addition (N) on PAHs biodegradation under anaerobic conditions in a red paddy soil. Meanwhile, sequential Tenax extraction combined with a first-three-compartment model was employed to evaluate the rate-limiting factors in MCD enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs. Microcosms with both 1% (w/w) MCD and 20mM N addition produced maximum biodegradation of total PAHs of up to 61.7%. It appears rate-limiting factors vary with microcosms: low activity of degrading microorganisms is the vital rate-limiting factor for control and MCD addition treatments (CK and M treatments); and lack of bioaccessible PAHs is the main rate-limiting factor for nitrate addition treatments (N and MN treatments). These results have practical implications for site risk assessment and cleanup strategies. PMID:24239261

  7. The transcriptional activator NrpA is crucial for inducing nitrogen fixation in Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 under nitrogen-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Weidenbach, Katrin; Ehlers, Claudia; Schmitz, Ruth A

    2014-08-01

    With the aim of unraveling their potential involvement in the regulation of nitrogen metabolism in Methanosarcina mazei strain Gö1, we characterized five genes that are differentially transcribed in response to changing nitrogen availability and encoding putative transcriptional regulators. Study of the respective mutant strains under nitrogen-limited conditions revealed a growth delay for M. mazei MM0444::pac and MM1708::pac, and strongly reduced diazotrophic growth for MM0872::pac, whereas the absence of MM2441 or MM2525 did not affect growth behaviour. Transcriptome analyses further demonstrated that only MM1708 - encoding a CxxCG zinc finger protein - plays a regulatory role in nitrogen metabolism, most likely by specifically enhancing transcription of the N2 fixation (nif) operon under nitrogen-limited conditions. In agreement with this, a palindromic binding motif was predicted in silico in the nifH promoter region, nine nucleotides upstream of the BRE box, and confirmed to bind purified maltose-binding protein-MM1708 by electromobility shift assays. As MM1708 itself is under the control of the global nitrogen repressor NrpR, this adds a secondary level to the transcriptional regulation of the nif genes, and is most likely crucial for maximal nif induction under nitrogen-limited conditions. This is in accordance with the finding that protein expression of NifH is highly reduced in the absence of MM1708 under nitrogen-limited conditions. On the basis of our findings, we hypothesize that, in M. mazei, nitrogen fixation is controlled by a hierarchical network of two transcriptional regulators, the global nitrogen repressor NrpR, and the newly identified activator NrpA (MM1708), thereby providing tight control of N2 fixation. PMID:24930989

  8. Final Rules for Grandfathered Plans, Preexisting Condition Exclusions, Lifetime and Annual Limits, Rescissions, Dependent Coverage, Appeals, and Patient Protections Under the Affordable Care Act. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2015-11-18

    This document contains final regulations regarding grandfathered health plans, preexisting condition exclusions, lifetime and annual dollar limits on benefits, rescissions, coverage of dependent children to age 26, internal claims and appeal and external review processes, and patient protections under the Affordable Care Act. It finalizes changes to the proposed and interim final rules based on comments and incorporates subregulatory guidance issued since publication of the proposed and interim final rules. PMID:26595941

  9. Studies in oral leukoplakias

    PubMed Central

    Pindborg, J. J.; Kiær, Joyce; Gupta, P. C.; Chawla, T. N.

    1967-01-01

    Oral carcinoma has been shown to be correlated with the use of tobacco in various parts of India. In a large-scale dental survey conducted in Lucknow, Bombay and Bangalore various precancerous conditions were investigated and studied for their possible relation to smoking and chewing habits. This paper reports the prevalence of oral leukoplakia among 10 000 dental-clinic patients in Lucknow and the correlation of the condition with the use of tobacco and betel nut in the study population. The results show that leukoplakia is far more prevalent among users of tobacco, betel nut or both than among non-users. A strikingly high frequency was found among smokers of the local cigarette, the bidi. PMID:5300044

  10. Conditional inactivation of MRG15 gene function limits survival during larval and adult stages of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongjun; Li, Yishi; Yang, Junsheng; Tominaga, Kaoru; Pereira-Smith, Olivia M.; Tower, John

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian MRG15 gene encodes a chromodomain protein predicted to bind to chromatin via methylated histone tails. Human MORF4 encodes a related but truncated protein that is capable of promoting cellular senescence in a subset of human tumor cell lines. Drosophila contains a single homolog of human MRG15, called DmMRG15. Null mutation of MRG15 is embryonic lethal in mice and Drosophila, making study of MRG15 requirements in adults difficult. In these studies the DmMRG15 gene was over-expressed in Drosophila, during developmental stages and in adults, using a doxycycline-regulated system (Tet-on). In addition an inverted-repeated construct was designed to inactivate DmMRG15 via the RNAi pathway, and RNAi constructs were expressed using both the Tet-on system and Geneswitch system. The DmMRG15 protein was readily expressed in adult flies in a doxycycline-dependent manner. A truncated form of DmMRG15 (called DmMT1) was designed to mimic the structure of human MORF4, and expression of this mutant protein or the inverted repeat constructs inhibited fertility in females. Conditional expression of the DmMRG15 inverted-repeat constructs during larval development or in adults caused reductions in survival. These experiments indicate that Drosophila DmMRG15 gene function is required for female fertility, larval survival and adult life span, and provide reagents that should be useful for further dissecting the role of DmMRG15 in cell proliferation and aging. PMID:20600782

  11. Pace of glacial retreat and limits on paleoclimate conditions for the Pine Creek Glacier, Montana, during the Pinedale Glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huss, E.; Laabs, B. J.; Leonard, E. M.; Licciardi, J. M.; Plummer, M. A.; Caffee, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    The timing of glaciation and the changes in climate that occurred both during and after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the Rocky Mountains are not well defined. Given the sensitivity of mountain glaciers to factors such as temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation, reconstructions of the history and extent of paleo-glaciers can be used to infer paleoclimate. Pine Creek Valley, located in the Absaroka Mountains in southwestern Montana, is an ideal setting for this type of research because it was occupied by a discrete valley glacier, the extent of which is precisely known during the LGM. To determine the pace and timing of ice retreat in this valley, glacially polished bedrock surfaces along the path of deglaciation were sampled at several points for cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure dating. The ages obtained range from 17.9 ± 0.8 to 13.2 ± 0.5 ka. When combined with the reconstructed ice extent during the LGM and subsequent deglaciation, these ages yield maximum and minimum retreat rates of 3.1 m/yr and 1.1 m/yr, respectively. These values constrain how long it took the glacier to retreat into a well-defined cirque from the terminal moraines. Paleoclimate conditions for the LGM were estimated using a two-dimensional, numerical, combined energy and mass balance and ice flow model. Previous qualitative inferences of paleoclimate in southern Montana indicate climate during the local LGM was colder and drier than modern values. If precipitation values were held constant or reduced for the Pine Creek glacier, the model suggests a temperature depression of at least 8°C.

  12. Quantitative Immunoexpression of EGFR in Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders: Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jyothi Meka, Naga; Ugrappa, Sridevi; Velpula, Nagalaxmi; Kumar, Sravan; Naik Maloth, Kotya; Kodangal, Srikanth; Ch, Lalitha; Goyal, Stuti

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Many oral squamous cell carcinomas develop from potentially malignant disorders (PMDs)which include a variety of lesions and conditions characterized by an increased risk for malignant transformation. Thisstudy evaluated the quantitative expression of EGFR in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis to predict the malignant risk in compliance with the intensity of staining with EGFR. Materials and methods. Thirty subjects were included in the study, consisting of 10 oral leukoplakia (OL), 10 oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and 10 normal oral mucosa (NOM) as the control group. Owing to the histopathological confirmation of precancerous state of tissue, 4-?m-thick sections of tissue were taken from paraffin-embedded wax blocks for immunohistochemical staining for EGFR. Results. All the control cases showed positive expression for EGFR, while 20% of oral leukoplakia and 40% of OSMF cases showed strong expression (3+), 40% of OL and 30% of OSMF cases showed weak expression (2+), and 40% of OLand 30% of OSMF cases showed poor expression (1+) compared to controls (P=0.012). Conclusion. EGFR expression levels in the premalignant lesion appear to be a sensitive factor in predicting the neoplastic potential. This suggests that EGFR may serve as a biological marker to identify high-risk subgroups and guide prophylactic therapy with chemopreventive drugs or surgical intervention to prevent progression to carcinoma. Hence, further investigations in the direction of chemopreventive trials with a larger sample size are suggested to determine its role in the head and neck tumorigenesis. PMID:26697149

  13. Hydration and endocrine responses to intravenous fluid and oral glycerol.

    PubMed

    van Rosendal, S P; Strobel, N A; Osborne, M A; Fassett, R G; Coombes, J S

    2015-06-01

    Athletes use intravenous (IV) saline in an attempt to maximize rehydration. The diuresis from IV rehydration may be circumvented through the concomitant use of oral glycerol. We examined the effects of rehydrating with differing regimes of oral and IV fluid, with or without oral glycerol, on hydration, urine, and endocrine indices. Nine endurance-trained men were dehydrated by 4% bodyweight, then rehydrated with 150% of the fluid lost via four protocols: (a) oral = oral fluid only; (b) oral glycerol = oral fluid with added glycerol (1.5 g/kg); (c) IV = 50% IV fluid, 50% oral fluid; and (d) IV with oral glycerol = 50% IV fluid, 50% oral fluid with added glycerol (1.5 g/kg), using a randomized, crossover design. They then completed a cycling performance test. Plasma volume restoration was highest in IV with oral glycerol > IV > oral glycerol  > oral. Urine volume was reduced in both IV trials compared with oral. IV and IV with oral glycerol resulted in lower aldosterone levels during rehydration and performance, and lower cortisol levels during rehydration. IV with oral glycerol resulted in the greatest fluid retention. In summary, the IV conditions resulted in greater fluid retention compared with oral and lower levels of fluid regulatory and stress hormones compared with both oral conditions. PMID:25943662

  14. Oral administration of fermented milk supplemented with synbiotics can influence the physiological condition of Wistar rats in a dose-sensitive and sex-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    MIAO, Junjie; LANG, Chunhui; KANG, Zhiyuan; ZHU, Hong; WANG, Shijie; LI, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Fermented milk supplemented with two probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM) and a prebiotic (isomaltooligosaccharide) was orally administered to Wistar rats for 30 days using three dosages. A commercial yogurt was used as a placebo. After treatment, the total protein, hemoglobin, and albumin levels in serum were significantly increased in female rats compared with those in the control group (p<0.05), whereas no significant change occurred in the male rats. A significant decrease in serum glucose levels was observed in male rats administered a low dosage of the tested fermented milk (p<0.05). The serum triglyceride level was significantly decreased in both male and female rats (p<0.05). No significant differences were found between rats groups in body weight, food intake, food utilization rate, red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea nitrogen, creatinine, and total cholesterol. These results suggest that the fermented milk supplemented with synbiotics altered the nutritive status of the host animal and contributed to their health. However, such potent health-promoting effects could be deeply associated with the dose and sex specific. Therefore, different physiological targets and population characteristics should be managed with different combinations of probiotics and prebiotics. PMID:27200262

  15. Oral administration of fermented milk supplemented with synbiotics can influence the physiological condition of Wistar rats in a dose-sensitive and sex-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Miao, Junjie; Lang, Chunhui; Kang, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Shijie; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Fermented milk supplemented with two probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM) and a prebiotic (isomaltooligosaccharide) was orally administered to Wistar rats for 30 days using three dosages. A commercial yogurt was used as a placebo. After treatment, the total protein, hemoglobin, and albumin levels in serum were significantly increased in female rats compared with those in the control group (p<0.05), whereas no significant change occurred in the male rats. A significant decrease in serum glucose levels was observed in male rats administered a low dosage of the tested fermented milk (p<0.05). The serum triglyceride level was significantly decreased in both male and female rats (p<0.05). No significant differences were found between rats groups in body weight, food intake, food utilization rate, red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea nitrogen, creatinine, and total cholesterol. These results suggest that the fermented milk supplemented with synbiotics altered the nutritive status of the host animal and contributed to their health. However, such potent health-promoting effects could be deeply associated with the dose and sex specific. Therefore, different physiological targets and population characteristics should be managed with different combinations of probiotics and prebiotics. PMID:27200262

  16. Oral Appliances for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this review was to determine the clinical effectiveness of oral appliances compared to ‘no treatment’, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), or surgery for the management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population OSA is characterized by repeated occurrences of upper airway collapse and obstruction during sleep. The condition leads to excessive daytime sleepiness, diminished quality of life, and increased risks of accidents, cardiovascular disease and death. In the general population, the prevalence of OSA is estimated to be 4% in men and 2% in women. Risk factors for OSA include obesity, male gender, increasing age, alcohol use, sedative use, and a family history of OSA. Description of Oral Appliances Oral appliances for OSA fall into two broad categories: mandibular advancement splints (MAS), also known as mandibular repositioning devices, and tongue repositioning or retaining devices. The aim of MAS devices is to advance the mandible forward slightly to enlarge the upper airway and prevent it from collapsing. Similarly, tongue repositioning devices suction the tongue forward to prevent it from falling back and obstructing the airway during sleep. The alternatives to oral appliances include continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices, surgery, drug therapy, positional devices, and lifestyle modification. CPAP is the gold standard of treatment, but despite its effectiveness, compliance rates for CPAP have declined because required systems are noisy and because wearing the mask can be uncomfortable, causing claustrophobia in some users. Evidence-Based Analysis Methods Research Questions Are oral appliances effective in improving sleep-disordered breathing in patients with OSA compared to alternative treatments? Are there safety concerns with oral appliances? What is the evidence regarding patient preference, quality of life, and compliance for oral appliances? If effective, are oral appliances cost effective? Literature Search A literature search was conducted up to February 2009. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with more than 20 adults with OSA were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcomes of interest were the Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI), measures of daytime sleepiness, patient preference, compliance, and adverse events. Summary of Findings Five systematic reviews and 16 RCTs that met the inclusion criteria were identified. The systematic reviews consistently concluded that CPAP was more effective than oral appliances at improving sleep disordered breathing, although there may be a niche area for the latter, especially among those with mild OSA as CPAP is difficult to tolerate by some users. Based on the results of the RCTs analyzed for this review, MAS devices are less effective than CPAP when AHI is used as the outcome of interest. MAS devices were shown to decrease AHI levels, but whether this reduction is clinically meaningful is uncertain. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was not able to achieve statistical significance in comparisons of MAS versus CPAP and MAS versus placebo. Nonetheless, after treatment with either MAS or CPAP, patients seem to be able to achieve normal ESS levels. The ESS has substantial limitations including its subjective nature and low construct validity (i.e. it is unclear if the scale is an accurate measure of sleepiness). Adverse events among patients with MAS devices in the RCTs were common, but mostly mild and transient. Jaw discomfort was the most commonly reported adverse event. Based on the results of the RCTs, compliance does not seem to be better or worse with MAS or CPAP. Similarly, there is no clear patient preference for MAS or CPAP among the studies reporting preference and satisfaction. Keywords Obstructive sleep apnea, oral appliances, mandibular advancement splints, tongue repositioning devices PMID:23074535

  17. Immunologically mediated oral diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jimson, Sudha; Balachader, N.; Anita, N.; Babu, R.

    2015-01-01

    Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect immunoflouresence, immune precipitation and immunoblotting. Therapeutic agents should be selected after thorough evaluation of immune status through a variety of tests and after determining any aggravating or provoking factors. Early and appropriate diagnosis is important for proper treatment planning contributing to better prognosis and better quality of life of patient. PMID:26015713

  18. Chemoprevention of oral cancer: Green tea experience

    PubMed Central

    Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi; Krishnamurthy, Arvind

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer has a well characterized progression from premalignant oral epithelial changes to invasive cancer, making oral squamous cell carcinoma an optimal disease for chemoprevention interventions prior to malignant transformation. The primary goal of chemoprevention here is to reverse, suppress, or inhibit the progression of premalignant lesions to cancer. Due to the extended duration of oral pathogenesis, its chemoprevention using natural products has been found promising due to their decreased dose and limited toxicity profiles. This review discusses with an emphasis on the clinical trials using green tea extract (GTE) in chemoprevention of oral premalignant lesions along with use of GTE as a chemopreventive agent in various other cancers as well. It is worthwhile to include green tea extract in an oral screening program for evaluating the premalignant lesions comparing the results between the treated and untreated group. Given the wide acceptance of green tea, its benefits may help in effective chemoprevention oral cancer. PMID:24678188

  19. Confronting Oral Health Disparities Among American Indian/Alaska Native Children: The Pediatric Oral Health Therapist

    PubMed Central

    Nash, David A.; Nagel, Ron J.

    2005-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) children are disproportionately affected by oral disease compared with the general population of American children. Additionally, AIAN children have limited access to professional oral health care. The Indian Health Service (IHS) and AIAN tribal leaders face a significant problem in ensuring care for the oral health of these children. We discuss the development and deployment of a new allied oral health professional, a pediatric oral health therapist. This kind of practitioner can effectively extend the ability of dentists to provide for children not receiving care and help to confront the significant oral health disparities existing in AIAN children. Resolving oral health disparities and ensuring access to oral health care for American Indians and Alaska Natives is a moral issue—one of social justice. PMID:16006412

  20. A Comprehensive Approach to Assess Arabidopsis Survival Phenotype in Water-Limited Condition Using a Non-invasive High-Throughput Phenomics Platform.

    PubMed

    Vello, Emilio; Tomita, Akiko; Diallo, Amadou Oury; Bureau, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid rise in global population and the challenges caused by climate changes, the maximization of plant productivity and the development of sustainable agriculture strategies are vital for food security. One of the resources more affected in this new environment will be the limitation of water. In this study, we describe the use of non-invasive technologies exploiting sensors for visible, fluorescent, and near-infrared lights to accurately screen survival phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to water-limited conditions. We implemented two drought protocols and a robust analysis methodology that enabled us to clearly assess the wilting or dryness status of the plants at different time points using a phenomics platform. In conclusion, our approach has shown to be very accurate and suitable for experiments where hundred of samples have to be screened making a manual evaluation unthinkable. This approach can be used not only in functional genomics studies but also in agricultural applications. PMID:26697051

  1. A Comprehensive Approach to Assess Arabidopsis Survival Phenotype in Water-Limited Condition Using a Non-invasive High-Throughput Phenomics Platform

    PubMed Central

    Vello, Emilio; Tomita, Akiko; Diallo, Amadou Oury; Bureau, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid rise in global population and the challenges caused by climate changes, the maximization of plant productivity and the development of sustainable agriculture strategies are vital for food security. One of the resources more affected in this new environment will be the limitation of water. In this study, we describe the use of non-invasive technologies exploiting sensors for visible, fluorescent, and near-infrared lights to accurately screen survival phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to water-limited conditions. We implemented two drought protocols and a robust analysis methodology that enabled us to clearly assess the wilting or dryness status of the plants at different time points using a phenomics platform. In conclusion, our approach has shown to be very accurate and suitable for experiments where hundred of samples have to be screened making a manual evaluation unthinkable. This approach can be used not only in functional genomics studies but also in agricultural applications. PMID:26697051

  2. Raisins and oral health.

    PubMed

    Wong, Allen; Young, Douglas A; Emmanouil, Dimitris E; Wong, Lynne M; Waters, Ashley R; Booth, Mark T

    2013-06-01

    Traditionally, raisins have been thought to promote dental caries due to their suspected "stickiness" and sugar content. Current research identifies some evidence contrary to traditional thought, suggesting that raisins may not contribute to dental caries. This article reviews new findings with regards to raisins and the 3 conditions that are thought to contribute to the formation of dental caries; low oral pH, adherence of food to teeth, and biofilm (bacterial) behavior. The studies reviewed concluded that raisin: consumption alone does not drop oral pH below the threshold that contributes to enamel dissolution, do not remain on the teeth longer than other foods, and contain a variety of antioxidants that inhibit Streptococcus Mutans, bacteria that is a primary cause of dental caries. Further research in this area should be considered. PMID:23789933

  3. Effect of Fuel Composition, Engine Operating Variables, and Spark-Plug Type and Condition on Preignition-Limited Performance of an R-2800 Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfender, John F.

    1946-01-01

    The preignition characteristics of the R-2800 cylinder, as effected by fuel consumption, engine operating variables, and spark plug type and condition, were evaluated. The effects on preignition-limited performance of various percentages of aromatics (benzene, toluene, cumene, xylene) in a base fuel of triptane were investigated. Two paraffins (triptane and S + 6.0 ml TEL/gal) and two refinery blends (28-R and 33-R) were preignition rated. The effect of changes in the following engine operating variables on preignition limit was determined: inlet-air temperature, rear spark plug gasket temperature, engine speed, spark advance, tappet clearance, and oil consumption. Preignition limits of the R-2800 cylinder using Champion C34S and C35S and AC-LS86, LS87, and LS88 spark plugs were established and the effect of spark plug deterioration was investigated. No definite trends in preignition-limited indicated mean effective pressure were indicated for aromatics as a class when increased percentages of different aromatics were added to a base fuel of triptane. Three types of fuel (aromatics, paraffins, and refinery blends) showed a preignition range for this cylinder from 65 to 104 percent when based on the performance of S plus 6.0 ml TEL per gallon as 100 percent. The R-2800 cylinder is therefore relatively insensitive to fuel composition when compared to a CFR F-4 engine, which had a pre-ignition range from 72 to 100 percent for the same fuels. Six engine operating variables were investigated with the following results: preignition-limited indicated mean effective pressure decreased, with increases in engine speed, rear spark plug gasket temperature, inlet-air temperature, and spark advance beyond 20 F B.T.C. and was unaffected by rate of oil consumption or by tappet clearance. Spark plugs were rated over a range of preignition-limited indicated mean effective pressure from 200 to 390 pounds per square inch at a fuel-air ratio of 0.07 in the following order of increased resistance to preignition: AC-LS97, AC-LS88, Champion C358, AC-LS86, and Champion C34S. Spark plug deterioration in the form of cracks in the porcelain had been broken away from the center electrode and were retained in the spark plug cavity, the preignition limit was decreased as much as 57 percent. When the broken pieces had been removed, the preignition limit increased from that of the undamaged porcelain as the weight of removed porcelain was increased.

  4. Method to identify potential phosphorus rate-limiting conditions in post-denitrification biofilm reactors within systems designed for simultaneous low-level effluent nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Joshua P; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Daigger, Glen T; deBarbadillo, Christine; Murthy, Sudhir; Sørensen, Kim H; Stinson, Beverly

    2012-12-01

    Water-quality standards requiring simultaneous low level effluent N and P concentrations are increasingly common in Europe and the United States of America. Moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) and biologically active filters (BAFs) have been used as post-denitrification biofilm reactors in processes designed and operated for this purpose (Boltz et al., 2010a). There is a paucity of information describing systematic design and operational protocols that will minimize the potential for phosphorus rate-limited conditions as well as a lack of information describing the interaction between these post-denitrification biofilm reactors and unit processes that substantially alter phosphorus speciation (e.g., chemically enhanced clarification). In this paper, a simple mathematical model for estimating the threshold below which P becomes rate-limiting, and the model is presented and evaluated by comparing its predictions with operational data from post-denitrification MBBRs and BAFs. Ortho-phosphorus (PO(4)-P), which is the dissolved reactive component of total phosphorus, was a primary indicator of P rate-limiting conditions in the evaluated post-denitrification biofilm reactors. The threshold below which PO(4)-P becomes the rate-limiting substrate is defined: S(PO4-P):S(NOx-N) = 0.0086 g P/g N and S(PO4-P):S(M) = 0.0013 g P/g COD. Additional analyses indicate J(NOx-N)(avg) =0.48 g/m2/d when S(PO4-P):S(NOx-N) > 0.0086, and J(NOx-N)(avg) = 0.06 g/m2/d when S(PO4-P):S(NOx-N) < 0.0086. Effluent nitrate-nitrogen plus nitrite-nitrogen concentration (S(NOx-N)) from the evaluated post-denitrification biofilm reactors began to rapidly increase when S(PO4-P):S(NOx-N) was 0.01, approximately (consistent with the rate-limitation threshold of S(PO4-P):S(NOx-N) < 0.0086 predicted by the mathematical model described in this paper). Depending on the processes used at a given WWTP, optimizing chemically enhanced clarification to increase the amount of PO(4)-P that remains in the clarifiers effluent stream, dosing phosphoric acid in the MBBR or BAF influent stream, and/or optimizing secondary process EBPR may overcome phosphorus rate-limitations in the biofilm-based post-denitrification process. PMID:23058109

  5. OD(X/sup 2/II) and SD(X/sup 2/II) from reactions of D atoms with OCS under bulk and precursor geometry limited conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Haeusler, D.; Rice, J.; Wittig, C.

    1987-10-08

    Reactions of D atoms with OCS were studied by 193-nm pulsed laser photolysis of DBr as a nearly monoenergetic D-atom source. Nascent OD(X/sup 2/II) and SD(X/sup 2/II) rotational, vibrational, spin-orbit, and ..lambda..-doublet populations were obtained under single-collision bulk conditions at 300 K. The SD channel is favored energetically (..delta.. H = -43 +/- 13 and 230 +/- 13 kJ mol/sup -1/ for the SD and OD channels, respectively) and is the dominant pathway ((SD)/(OD) = 5 +/- 2). Nascent OD(X/sup 2/II) products were also obtained from a precursor geometry limited (PGL) reaction by using the weakly bound van der Waals complex SCO-DBr. The OD(X/sup 2/II) rotational distributions are the same for both bulk and PGL conditions and can be reproduced by using a statistical model. Due to experimental difficulties, SD(X/sup 2/II) distributions could not be obtained under PGL conditions. The SD(X/sup 2/II) distribution obtained under bulk conditions is very nonstatistical, suggesting that this species is not formed via a long-lived DSCO intermediate complex in which vibrational energy is randomized.

  6. Controls on dissolved organic matter (DOM) degradation in a headwater stream: the influence of photochemical and hydrological conditions in determining light-limitation or substrate-limitation of photo-degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cory, R. M.; Harrold, K. H.; Neilson, B. T.; Kling, G. W.

    2015-11-01

    We investigated how absorption of sunlight by chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) controls the degradation and export of DOM from Imnavait Creek, a beaded stream in the Alaskan Arctic. We measured concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), as well as concentrations and characteristics of CDOM and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM), during ice-free periods of 2011-2012 in the pools of Imnavait Creek and in soil waters draining to the creek. Spatial and temporal patterns in CDOM and FDOM in Imnavait Creek were analyzed in conjunction with measures of DOM degradation by sunlight and bacteria and assessments of hydrologic residence times and in situ UV exposure. CDOM was the dominant light attenuating constituent in the UV and visible portion of the solar spectrum, with high attenuation coefficients ranging from 86 ± 12 m-1 at 305 nm to 3 ± 1 m-1 in the photosynthetically active region (PAR). High rates of light absorption and thus light attenuation by CDOM contributed to thermal stratification in the majority of pools in Imnavait Creek under low-flow conditions. In turn, thermal stratification increased the residence time of water and DOM, and resulted in a separation of water masses distinguished by contrasting UV exposure (i.e., UV attenuation by CDOM with depth resulted in bottom waters receiving less UV than surface waters). When the pools in Imnavait Creek were stratified, DOM in the pool bottom water closely resembled soil water DOM in character, while the concentration and character of DOM in surface water was reproduced by experimental photo-degradation of bottom water. These results, in combination with water column rates of DOM degradation by sunlight and bacteria, suggest that photo-degradation is the dominant process controlling DOM fate and export in Imnavait Creek. A conceptual model is presented showing how CDOM amount and lability interact with incident UV light and water residence time to determine whether photo-degradation is "light-limited" or "substrate-limited". We suggest that degradation of DOM in CDOM-rich streams or ponds similar to Imnavait is typically light-limited under most flow conditions. Thus, export of DOM from this stream will be less under conditions that increase the light available for DOM photo-degradation (i.e., low flows, sunny days).

  7. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections.

    PubMed

    Saini, Rajiv; Saini, Santosh; Sharma, Sugandha

    2010-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:20300419

  8. Flux Analysis of the Metabolism of Clostridium cellulolyticum Grown in Cellulose-Fed Continuous Culture on a Chemically Defined Medium under Ammonium-Limited Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Desvaux, Mickaël; Petitdemange, Henri

    2001-01-01

    An investigation of cellulose degradation by the nonruminal, cellulolytic, mesophilic bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum was performed in cellulose-fed chemostat cultures with ammonium as the growth-limiting nutrient. At any dilution rate (D), acetate was always the main product of the catabolism, with a yield of product from substrate ranging between 37.7 and 51.5 g per mol of hexose equivalent fermented and an acetate/ethanol ratio always higher than 1. As D rose, the acetyl coenzyme A was rerouted in favor of ethanol pathways, and ethanol production could represent up to 17.7% of the carbon consumed. Lactate was significantly produced, but with increasing D, the specific lactate production rate declined, as did the specific rate of production of extracellular pyruvate. The proportion of the original carbon directed towards phosphoglucomutase remained constant, and the carbon surplus was balanced mainly by exopolysaccharide and glycogen biosyntheses at high D values, while cellodextrin excretion occurred mainly at lower ones. With increasing D, the specific rate of carbon flowing down catabolites increased as well, but when expressed as a percentage of carbon it declined, while the percentage of carbon directed through biosynthesis pathways was enhanced. The maximum growth and energetic yields were lower than those obtained in cellulose-limited chemostats and were related to an uncoupling between catabolism and anabolism leading to an excess of energy. Compared to growth on cellobiose in ammonium-limited chemostats (E. Guedon, M. Desvaux, and H. Petitdemange, J. Bacteriol. 182:2010–2017, 2000), (i) a specific consumption rate of carbon of as high as 26.72 mmol of hexose equivalent g of cells−1 h−1 could not be reached and (ii) the proportions of carbon directed towards cellodextrin, glycogen, and exopolysaccharide pathways were not as high as first determined on cellobiose. While the use of cellobiose allows highlighting of metabolic limitation and regulation of C. cellulolyticum under ammonium-limited conditions, some of these events should then rather be interpreted as distortions of the metabolism. Growth of cellulolytic bacteria on easily available carbon and nitrogen sources represents conditions far different from those of the natural lignocellulosic compounds. PMID:11525976

  9. Dentist Should Advise Vegetarians on Good Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Overal Health Oral Warning Signs Can Indicate Serious Medical Conditions Serious diseases, including diabetes, cancer, and ... You, and Your Mouth, Are What You Eat games Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral ...

  10. How Does What I Eat Affect My Oral Health?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Overal Health Oral Warning Signs Can Indicate Serious Medical Conditions Serious diseases, including diabetes, cancer, and ... You, and Your Mouth, Are What You Eat games Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral ...

  11. Phycobilisome-Deficient Strains of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Have Reduced Size and Require Carbon-Limiting Conditions to Exhibit Enhanced Productivity1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lea-Smith, David J.; Bombelli, Paolo; Dennis, John S.; Scott, Stuart A.; Smith, Alison G.; Howe, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing excessive light harvesting in photosynthetic organisms may increase biomass yields by limiting photoinhibition and increasing light penetration in dense cultures. The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 harvests light via the phycobilisome, which consists of an allophycocyanin core and six radiating rods, each with three phycocyanin (PC) discs. Via targeted gene disruption and alterations to the promoter region, three mutants with two (pcpcT→C) and one (ΔCpcC1C2:pcpcT→C) PC discs per rod or lacking PC (olive) were generated. Photoinhibition and chlorophyll levels decreased upon phycobilisome reduction, although greater penetration of white light was observed only in the PC-deficient mutant. In all strains cultured at high cell densities, most light was absorbed by the first 2 cm of the culture. Photosynthesis and respiration rates were also reduced in the ΔCpcC1C2:pcpcT→C and olive mutants. Cell size was smaller in the pcpcT→C and olive strains. Growth and biomass accumulation were similar between the wild-type and pcpcT→C under a variety of conditions. Growth and biomass accumulation of the olive mutant were poorer in carbon-saturated cultures but improved in carbon-limited cultures at higher light intensities, as they did in the ΔCpcC1C2:pcpcT→C mutant. This study shows that one PC disc per rod is sufficient for maximal light harvesting and biomass accumulation, except under conditions of high light and carbon limitation, and two or more are sufficient for maximal oxygen evolution. To our knowledge, this study is the first to measure light penetration in bulk cultures of cyanobacteria and offers important insights into photobioreactor design. PMID:24760817

  12. Phycobilisome-Deficient Strains of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Have Reduced Size and Require Carbon-Limiting Conditions to Exhibit Enhanced Productivity.

    PubMed

    Lea-Smith, David J; Bombelli, Paolo; Dennis, John S; Scott, Stuart A; Smith, Alison G; Howe, Christopher J

    2014-04-23

    Reducing excessive light harvesting in photosynthetic organisms may increase biomass yields by limiting photoinhibition and increasing light penetration in dense cultures. The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 harvests light via the phycobilisome, which consists of an allophycocyanin core and six radiating rods, each with three phycocyanin (PC) discs. Via targeted gene disruption and alterations to the promoter region, three mutants with two (pcpcT?C) and one (?CpcC1C2:pcpcT?C) PC discs per rod or lacking PC (olive) were generated. Photoinhibition and chlorophyll levels decreased upon phycobilisome reduction, although greater penetration of white light was observed only in the PC-deficient mutant. In all strains cultured at high cell densities, most light was absorbed by the first 2 cm of the culture. Photosynthesis and respiration rates were also reduced in the ?CpcC1C2:pcpcT?C and olive mutants. Cell size was smaller in the pcpcT?C and olive strains. Growth and biomass accumulation were similar between the wild-type and pcpcT?C under a variety of conditions. Growth and biomass accumulation of the olive mutant were poorer in carbon-saturated cultures but improved in carbon-limited cultures at higher light intensities, as they did in the ?CpcC1C2:pcpcT?C mutant. This study shows that one PC disc per rod is sufficient for maximal light harvesting and biomass accumulation, except under conditions of high light and carbon limitation, and two or more are sufficient for maximal oxygen evolution. To our knowledge, this study is the first to measure light penetration in bulk cultures of cyanobacteria and offers important insights into photobioreactor design. PMID:24760817

  13. Characterization of three main degradation products from novel oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban under stress conditions by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wingert, Nathalie R; Dos Santos, Natália O; Nunes, Matheus A G; Gomes, Patrícia; Müller, Edson I; Flores, Érico M M; Steppe, Martin

    2016-05-10

    Drugs of long-term use may cause the accumulation of chemical compounds in human body. Therefore, the evaluation and structure characterization of synthesis and degradation impurities is substantial to guarantee drug safety and successful pharmaceutical therapy. The present work evaluated the anticoagulant rivaroxabana (RIV) under stress conditions in order to elucidate the chemical structure of major degradation products (DPs) formed after drug exposition to acid and alkaline hydrolysis, and UVC radiation. Analyses were performed in UPLC coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight MS. ESI was applied in positive mode, and C18 Agilent(®) column (2.1×50mm, 1.8μm) used for separation of compounds. RIV molecular íon [M+H](+) (m/z 436.07) was fragmented under 20kV, best energetic condition to obtain clear and reproducible fragmentation pattern, assisting identification of RIV DPs. With support from UPLC separation and specific detection by MS/MS, three main degradation products (DP-1, DP-2, and DP-3) formed under stress conditions were successfully characterized. Presented study agrees with requirements for analytical assessment of impurities in pharmaceutical formulations, ensuring quality of pharmaceutical substances. PMID:26855380

  14. Burden of poor oral health in older age: findings from a population-based study of older British men

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, S E; Whincup, P H; Watt, R G; Tsakos, G; Papacosta, A O; Lennon, L T; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Evidence of the extent of poor oral health in the older UK adult population is limited. We describe the prevalence of oral health conditions, using objective clinical and subjective measures, in a population-based study of older men. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting and participants A representative sample of men aged 71–92 years in 2010–2012 from the British Regional Heart Study, initially recruited in 1978–1980 from general practices across Britain. Physical examination among 1660 men included the number of teeth, and periodontal disease in index teeth in each sextant (loss of attachment, periodontal pocket, gingival bleeding). Postal questionnaires (completed by 2147 men including all participants who were clinically examined) included self-rated oral health, oral impacts on daily life and current perception of dry mouth experience. Results Among 1660 men clinically examined, 338 (20%) were edentulous and a further 728 (43%) had <21 teeth. For periodontal disease, 233 (19%) had loss of attachment (>5.5 mm) affecting 1–20% of sites while 303 (24%) had >20% sites affected. The prevalence of gingival bleeding was 16%. Among 2147 men who returned postal questionnaires, 35% reported fair/poor oral health; 11% reported difficulty eating due to oral health problems. 31% reported 1–2 symptoms of dry mouth and 20% reported 3–5 symptoms of dry mouth. The prevalence of edentulism, loss of attachment, or fair/poor self-rated oral health was greater in those from manual social class. Conclusions These findings highlight the high burden of poor oral health in older British men. This was reflected in both the objective clinical and subjective measures of oral health conditions. The determinants of these oral health problems in older populations merit further research to reduce the burden and consequences of poor oral health in older people. PMID:26715480

  15. Controls on dissolved organic matter (DOM) degradation in a headwater stream: the influence of photochemical and hydrological conditions in determining light-limitation or substrate-limitation of photo-degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cory, R. M.; Harrold, K. H.; Neilson, B. T.; Kling, G. W.

    2015-07-01

    We investigated how absorption of sunlight by chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) controls the degradation and export of DOM from Imnavait Creek, a beaded stream in the Alaskan Arctic. We measured concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), as well as concentrations and characteristics of CDOM and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM), during ice-free periods of 2011-2012 in the pools of Imnavait Creek and in soil waters draining to the creek. Spatial and temporal patterns in CDOM and FDOM in Imnavait Creek were analyzed in conjunction with measures of DOM degradation by sunlight and bacteria and assessments of hydrologic residence times and in situ UV exposure. CDOM was the dominant light attenuating constituent in the UV and visible portion of the solar spectrum, with high attenuation coefficients ranging from 86 ± 12 m-1 at 305 nm to 3 ± 1 m-1 in the photosynthetically active region (PAR). High rates of light absorption and thus light attenuation by CDOM contributed to thermal stratification in the majority of pools in Imnavait Creek under low-flow conditions. In turn, thermal stratification increased the residence time of water and DOM, and resulted in a separation of water masses distinguished by contrasting UV exposure (i.e., UV attenuation by CDOM with depth resulted in bottom waters receiving less UV than surface waters). When the pools in Imnavait Creek were stratified, DOM in the pool bottom water closely resembled soil water DOM in character, while the concentration and character of DOM in surface water was reproduced by experimental photo-degradation of bottom water. These results, in combination with water column rates of DOM degradation by sunlight and bacteria, suggest that photo-degradation is the dominant process controlling DOM fate and export in Imnavait Creek. A conceptual model is presented showing how CDOM amount and lability interact with incident UV light and water residence time to determine whether photo-degradation is "light-limited" or "substrate-limited". We suggest that degradation, and thus export, of DOM in CDOM-rich streams or ponds similar to Imnavait is typically light-limited under most flow conditions.

  16. In Vitro Activity of Miltefosine against Candida albicans under Planktonic and Biofilm Growth Conditions and In Vivo Efficacy in a Murine Model of Oral Candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Vila, Taissa Vieira Machado; Chaturvedi, Ashok K; Rozental, Sonia; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L

    2015-12-01

    The generation of a new antifungal against Candida albicans biofilms has become a major priority, since biofilm formation by this opportunistic pathogenic fungus is usually associated with an increased resistance to azole antifungal drugs and treatment failures. Miltefosine is an alkyl phospholipid with promising antifungal activity. Here, we report that, when tested under planktonic conditions, miltefosine displays potent in vitro activity against multiple fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant C. albicans clinical isolates, including isolates overexpressing efflux pumps and/or with well-characterized Erg11 mutations. Moreover, miltefosine inhibits C. albicans biofilm formation and displays activity against preformed biofilms. Serial passage experiments confirmed that miltefosine has a reduced potential to elicit resistance, and screening of a library of C. albicans transcription factor mutants provided additional insight into the activity of miltefosine against C. albicans growing under planktonic and biofilm conditions. Finally, we demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of topical treatment with miltefosine in the murine model of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Overall, our results confirm the potential of miltefosine as a promising antifungal drug candidate, in particular for the treatment of azole-resistant and biofilm-associated superficial candidiasis. PMID:26416861

  17. Phosphorus as a driver of nitrogen limitation and sustained eutrophic conditions in Bolinao and Anda, Philippines, a mariculture-impacted tropical coastal area.

    PubMed

    Ferrera, Charissa M; Watanabe, Atsushi; Miyajima, Toshihiro; San Diego-McGlone, Maria Lourdes; Morimoto, Naoko; Umezawa, Yu; Herrera, Eugene; Tsuchiya, Takumi; Yoshikai, Masaya; Nadaoka, Kazuo

    2016-04-15

    The dynamics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) was studied in mariculture areas around Bolinao and Anda, Philippines to examine its possible link to recurring algal blooms, hypoxia and fish kills. They occur despite regulation on number of fish farm structures in Bolinao to improve water quality after 2002, following a massive fish kill in the area. Based on spatiotemporal surveys, coastal waters remained eutrophic a decade after imposing regulation, primarily due to decomposition of uneaten and undigested feeds, and fish excretions. Relative to Redfield ratio (16), these materials are enriched in P, resulting in low N/P ratios (~6.6) of regenerated nutrients. Dissolved inorganic P (DIP) in the water reached 4μM during the dry season, likely exacerbated by increase in fish farm structures in Anda. DIP enrichment created an N-limited condition that is highly susceptible to sporadic algal blooms whenever N is supplied from freshwater during the wet season. PMID:26936120

  18. Microwave-Assisted Superheating and/or Microwave-Specific Superboiling (Nucleation-Limited Boiling) of Liquids Occurs under Certain Conditions but is Mitigated by Stirring.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Anthony; Hunt, Jacob; Stiegman, Albert; Dudley, Gregory B

    2015-01-01

    Temporary superheating and sustained nucleation-limited "superboiling" of unstirred liquids above the normal atmospheric boiling point have been documented during microwave heating. These phenomena are reliably observed under prescribed conditions, although the duration (of superheating) and magnitude (of superheating and superboiling) vary according to system parameters such as volume of the liquid and the size and shape of the vessel. Both phenomena are mitigated by rapid stirring with an appropriate stir bar and/or with the addition of boiling chips, which provide nucleation sites to support the phase-change from liquid to gas. With proper experimental design and especially proper stirring, the measured temperature of typical organic reaction mixtures heated at reflux will be close to the normal boiling point temperature of the solvent, whether heated using microwave radiation or conventional convective heat transfer. These observations are important to take into consideration when comparing reaction rates under conventional and microwave heating. PMID:26690096

  19. Impact of sea-level rise on cross-shore sediment transport on fetch-limited barrier reef island beaches under modal and cyclonic conditions.

    PubMed

    Baldock, T E; Golshani, A; Atkinson, A; Shimamoto, T; Wu, S; Callaghan, D P; Mumby, P J

    2015-08-15

    A one-dimensional wave model is combined with an analytical sediment transport model to investigate the likely influence of sea-level rise on net cross-shore sediment transport on fetch-limited barrier reef and lagoon island beaches. The modelling considers if changes in the nearshore wave height and wave period in the lagoon induced by different water levels over the reef flat are likely to lead to net offshore or onshore movement of sediment. The results indicate that the effects of SLR on net sediment movement are highly variable and controlled by the bathymetry of the reef and lagoon. A significant range of reef-lagoon bathymetry, and notably shallow and narrow reefs, appears to lead hydrodynamic conditions and beaches that are likely to be stable or even accrete under SLR. Loss of reef structural complexity, particularly on the reef flat, increases the chance of sediment transport away from beaches and offshore. PMID:26093817

  20. Oral and Cutaneous Melanoma: Similarities and Differences

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Rafaela Nogueira; Santos, Cassio Roberto Rocha; Lima, Nadia Lages; Verli, Flaviana Dornela; Marinho, Sandra Aparecida

    2010-01-01

    Melanomas are malignant lesions stemming from the disorganized proliferation of melanocytes. This condition is more common on skin, but may also be detected in mucosa, such as in the oral cavity. The aim of the present study was to report similarities and differences between oral and cutaneous melanoma. Keywords Melanoma; Skin; Mouth; Diagnosis PMID:21629531

  1. Functional Characterization of the Rice UDP-glucose 4-epimerase 1, OsUGE1: A Potential Role in Cell Wall Carbohydrate Partitioning during Limiting Nitrogen Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Guevara, David R.; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Yaish, Mahmoud W.; Mei-Bi, Yong; Rothstein, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Plants grown under inadequate mineralized nitrogen (N) levels undergo N and carbon (C) metabolic re-programming which leads to significant changes in both soluble and insoluble carbohydrate profiles. However, relatively little information is available on the genetic factors controlling carbohydrate partitioning during adaptation to N-limitation conditions in plants. A gene encoding a uridine-diphospho-(UDP)-glucose 4-epimerase (OsUGE-1) from rice (Oryza sativa) was found to be N-responsive. We developed transgenic rice plants to constitutively over-express the OsUGE-1 gene (OsUGE1-OX1–2). The transgenic rice lines were similar in size to wild-type plants at the vegetative stage and at maturity regardless of the N-level tested. However, OsUGE1-OX lines maintained 18–24% more sucrose and 12–22% less cellulose in shoots compared to wild-type when subjected to sub-optimal N-levels. Interestingly, OsUGE1-OX lines maintained proportionally more galactose and glucose in the hemicellulosic polysaccharide profile of plants compared to wild-type plants when grown under low N. The altered cell wall C-partitioning during N-limitation in the OsUGE1-OX lines appears to be mediated by OsUGE1 via the repression of the cellulose synthesis associated genes, OsSus1, OsCesA4, 7, and 9. This relationship may implicate a novel control point for the deposition of UDP-glucose to the complex polysaccharide profiles of rice cell walls. However, a direct relationship between OsUGE1 and cell wall C-partitioning during N-limitation requires further investigation. PMID:24788752

  2. Budesonide Oral

    MedlinePlus

    Budesonide is used to treat Crohn's disease (a condition in which the body attacks the lining of ... tract, causing pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and fever). Budesonide is in a class of medications called corticosteroids. ...

  3. Torsemide Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... high blood pressure. Torsemide is used to treat edema (fluid retention; excess fluid held in body tissues) ... your doctor.Torsemide controls high blood pressure and edema but does not cure these conditions. Continue to ...

  4. 28 CFR 80.9 - No oral opinion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false No oral opinion. 80.9 Section 80.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.9 No oral opinion. No oral clearance, release or other statement purporting to limit the enforcement discretion of the Department of Justice...

  5. On the effects of assembly compression on the performance of liquid-feed DMFCs under methanol-limiting conditions: A 2D numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Salaberri, P. A.; Vera, M.

    2015-07-01

    The influence of assembly compression on the performance of liquid-feed DMFCs under methanol-limiting conditions is explored by means of a 2D/1D multiphysics across-the-channel model. The numerical formulation incorporates a comprehensive 2D description of the anode GDL, including two-phase phenomena, non-uniform anisotropic transport properties, and electrical contact resistances at the GDL/BPP interface. GDL effective properties are evaluated using empirical data corresponding to Toray® carbon paper. A simplified but physically sound 1D description, locally coupled to the 2D anode GDL model, is adopted to describe transport processes in the MPLs, membrane and cathode GDL, whereas the catalyst layers are treated as infinitely thin surfaces. Good agreement is found between the numerical results and previous experimental data. The interplay between assembly compression, bipolar plate material, and channel configuration is also investigated. The results show that there is an optimum GDL compression ratio in terms of overall power density, the optimal compression level being strongly dependent on bipolar plate material. Beyond the optimum, the detrimental effect of compression is larger in non-parallel flow fields due to the additional reduction of methanol transported by under-rib convection. The results suggest that, under certain conditions, this transport mechanism could be more important than diffusion in the anode of liquid-feed DMFCs.

  6. [Prevention of oral cancer].

    PubMed

    Roodenburg, J L; Vermey, A; Nauta, J M

    1994-05-01

    Etiology control is the most important primary prevention of oral cancer. The use of tobacco and alcohol increases the risk of a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa. The dentist can play an important role in the secondary prevention or screening for premalignant lesions, asymptomatic malignancies and second primary tumours of the oral cavity. Because of their age, edentulous patients run a high risk of oral cancer. Therefore, a regular oral check-up of these patients should be recommended. PMID:11830977

  7. Protein expression and transcription profiles of three strains of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida under normal and iron-limited culture conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aeromonas salmonicida is an important fish pathogen that produces a wide and varied array of virulence factors. Here we used iron deprivation by addition of the chelator 2’2-dipyridyl to induce the expression of several such virulence factors in three isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida (one avirulent and two virulent). By using SDS-PAGE followed by mass spectrometry, we identified proteins that appeared differentially expressed under these conditions. The differential transcription of the identified gene products were subsequently measured by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Results Our initial screening using SDS-PAGE identified five proteins that appeared differentially expressed in virulent and avirulent isolates or, within the same isolates, between bacteria cultivated under iron-rich or iron-deprived conditions. The transcription of the genes coding for these proteins were subsequently quantified by RT-qPCR. Results of this analysis demonstrated that the gene coding for alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC), a protein involved in oxidative stress response, was transcribed at a higher rate in the virulent strain as compared to the avirulent strain. Additionally, it was observed that addition of an iron chelator to the culture medium lead to a reduction of the transcription levels of the regulatory histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS). This was consistent in all three isolates. On the other hand, the transcription levels of the virulence array protein (VapA) and the protein ATP-synthetase F (ATPF) displayed only limited changes, despite being the dominant component of a protein fraction that displayed changes during the preliminary SDS-PAGE screening. This was true regardless of the culture conditions and of the isolates considered. Finally, transcription of the enzyme enolase was upregulated in the iron-deprived broths in all isolates. Conclusions We identified several genes differentially expressed under culture conditions known to lead to the overexpression of virulence factors. In addition, we identified alkyl hydroperoxide as being overexpressed in the virulent isolates compared to the avirulent isolates. The results from this study will contribute to enhance our understanding of the virulence of A. salmonicida and may suggest new directions for further research. PMID:24872729

  8. The Effects of a Phonological Awareness Intervention on the Oral English Proficiency of Spanish-Speaking Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giambo, Debra A.; McKinney, James D.

    2004-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether a phonological awareness intervention promoted oral English proficiency more than a story-reading condition for Spanish-speaking kindergarten children, most of whom were limited English proficient. A second aim was to determine the extent to which change in English proficiency over the course…

  9. Desmopressin Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to control the symptoms of a certain type of diabetes insipidus ('water diabetes'; condition in which the body produces an abnormally large amount of urine). Desmopressin is also used to control ... or after certain types of surgery. Desmopressin is also used to control ...

  10. Oral and craniofacial manifestations of multiple sclerosis: implications for the oral health care provider.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G-Q; Meng, Y

    2015-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a complex neurological condition affecting sensory and motor nerve transmission. Its progression and symptoms are unpredictable and vary from person to person as well as over time. Symptoms of orofacial pain, trigeminal neuralgia, spasticity, spasms, tremor, fatigue, depression and progressive disability, impact on the individual's ability to maintain oral health, cope with dental treatment and access dental services. Also, many of the medications used in the symptomatic management of the condition have the potential to cause dry mouth and associated oral disease. There is no cure for multiple sclerosis, and treatment focuses on prevention of disability and maintenance of quality of life. The oral health care team plays an essential role in ensuring that oral health impacts positively on general health. This review highlights the epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, oral and craniofacial manifestations and their management, and oral health care considerations in patients with MS. PMID:26698259

  11. Oral Cysticercosis- A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Palakurthy, Pavan; Muddana, Keerthi; Nandan, Rateesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cysticercosis, a helminthic disease commonly seen in India, Latin America, Eastern Europe and Southern Africa, results from extraintestinal encystation of the larval form of Taenia solium. It is a condition in which man acts as intermediate host instead of definitive host. The most frequent sites of cysticercosis are subcutaneous layers, brain, muscles, heart, liver, lungs, and peritoneum. Oral cysticercosis is considered rare and cause cystic swellings or nodules in the mouth and a precise clinical diagnosis is not usually established. Here, we report a case of oral cysticercosis in a 32-year-old female occurring in the mentalis muscle presenting as asymptomatic nodule. PMID:26266222

  12. The Oral Health Status and the Treatment Needs of Salt Workers at Sambhar Lake, Jaipur, India

    PubMed Central

    Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Sharda, Archana Jagat; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Batra, Mehak; Daryani, Hemasha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Salt workers are exposed to the adversities of environmental conditions such as direct sunlight, salt dust and contact with brine, which have an impact on the health of workers. Since oral health is an integral part of the general health, we planned to determine its effect on the oral cavity. Objectives: To assess the oral health status and the treatment needs among the workers of Sambhar Salts Limited at Sambhar Lake, Jaipur, India. Material and Methods: A cross sectional, descriptive survey was conducted among 979 subjects (509 males; 470 females) who were aged between 19–68 years, who were the workers of Sambhar Salts Limited, Sambhar Lake, Jaipur, India. An interview on the demographic profile followed a clinical examination for recording the oral health status, based on the World Health Organization guidelines. The Chi–square test, t–test, One way Analysis of Variance and a Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Females had a significantly greater prevalence of dental fluorosis (71.7%) and periodontal disease (96.4%) as compared to males (p= 0.001). The mean number of healthy sextants (0.71 ± 0.09) and the mean DMFT (5.19 ± 4.11) were also significantly higher in females as compared to those in males (p=0.001). One surface filling (78.2%), followed by pulp care and restoration (76.1%) were the most prevalent treatment needs. The gender and oral hygiene practices for dental caries and periodontal disease were respectively identified as the best predictors. Conclusion: Considerable percentages of salt workers have demonstrated a higher prevalence of oral diseases. Higher unmet treatment needs suggest a poor accessibility and availability of oral health care, in addition to a low utilization of preventive or therapeutic oral health services. PMID:24086913

  13. Competition for glucose between Candida albicans and oral bacteria grown in mixed culture in a chemostat.

    PubMed

    Basson, N J

    2000-11-01

    The competition for glucose as a growth-limiting substrate between Candida albicans and a mixed community of oral bacteria was investigated. A chemostat was operated under glucose-limiting and glucose excess conditions at a dilution rate of 0.05/h. A mixed population of oral bacteria was established and after a steady state had been reached the chemostat was inoculated with C. albicans. Seven bacterial species Streptococcus sanguis, S. sobrinus, S. mitis, Lactobacillus casei, Veillonella dispar, Eubacterium saburreum and Fusobacterium nucleatum - were able to establish stable populations under glucose-limiting conditions. The yeast was unable to grow with the bacteria under glucose limitation. Only three bacterial species, S. sobrinus, L. casei and E. saburreum, became established under glucose-excess conditions. C. albicans was also able to become established in the glucose-excess chemostat and could grow and maintain a steady state in a mixed culture with these organisms. L. casei, S. mitis and S. sobrinus had faster glucose consumption rates than C. albicans. All the bacteria, except for E nucleatum, had maximum specific growth rates higher than C. albicans. The results suggest that glucose may act as a growth-limiting substrate for C. albicans in the establishment and growth of the yeast in a mixed community of oral bacteria. PMID:11073150

  14. A deficiency in the flavoprotein of Arabidopsis mitochondrial complex II results in elevated photosynthesis and better growth in nitrogen-limiting conditions.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Daniela; Meneses, Marco; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Araújo, Wagner L; Tapia, Rodrigo; Gómez, Isabel; Holuigue, Loreto; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A; Fernie, Alisdair R; Jordana, Xavier

    2011-11-01

    Mitochondrial complex II (succinate dehydrogenase [SDH]) plays roles both in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the respiratory electron transport chain. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), its flavoprotein subunit is encoded by two nuclear genes, SDH1-1 and SDH1-2. Here, we characterize heterozygous SDH1-1/sdh1-1 mutant plants displaying a 30% reduction in SDH activity as well as partially silenced plants obtained by RNA interference. We found that these plants displayed significantly higher CO(2) assimilation rates and enhanced growth than wild-type plants. There was a strong correlation between CO(2) assimilation and stomatal conductance, and both mutant and silenced plants displayed increased stomatal aperture and density. By contrast, no significant differences were found for dark respiration, chloroplastic electron transport rate, CO(2) uptake at saturating concentrations of CO(2), or biochemical parameters such as the maximum rates of carboxylation by Rubisco and of photosynthetic electron transport. Thus, photosynthesis is enhanced in SDH-deficient plants by a mechanism involving a specific effect on stomatal function that results in improved CO(2) uptake. Metabolic and transcript profiling revealed that mild deficiency in SDH results in limited effects on metabolism and gene expression, and data suggest that decreases observed in the levels of some amino acids were due to a higher flux to proteins and other nitrogen-containing compounds to support increased growth. Strikingly, SDH1-1/sdh1-1 seedlings grew considerably better in nitrogen-limiting conditions. Thus, a subtle metabolic alteration may lead to changes in important functions such as stomatal function and nitrogen assimilation. PMID:21921116

  15. Oral health and older adults.

    PubMed

    DeBiase, Christina B; Austin, Shari L

    2003-01-01

    The population of individuals aged 65 and older is growing dramatically and is expected to increase 126% by 2011, compared to only a 42% rise in the population of the United States as a whole. The fastest growing segment of the older adult population is persons aged 85 and older (Figure 1). Although many members of this generation lead healthy independent lives, the challenge faced by oral health care professionals is providing care to the chronically ill and/or homebound or institutionalized older adult, particularly the oldest old and those with limited finances. Effective communication skills are essential when dealing with older adults and their families. Collaboration between medical/allied health professionals and oral health care professionals is also critical in order to accurately assess and manage the oral health needs of the aging patient. A preventive approach to oral health with sensitivity to the physical, mental, and social status of the patient is the focus of this course. Marketing strategies to alleviate common barriers to seeking oral health care among this age group are provided. PMID:12861793

  16. Review of the Evidence for Oral Health Promotion Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satur, Julie G.; Gussy, Mark G.; Morgan, Michael V.; Calache, Hanny; Wright, Clive

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries, periodontal diseases, tooth loss and oral cancers have significant burden of disease effects, quality of life and cost implications for the Australian community. Oral health promotion is a key approach to addressing these conditions endorsed as part of the National Oral Health Plan. Understanding the evidence for effectiveness of…

  17. Review of the Evidence for Oral Health Promotion Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satur, Julie G.; Gussy, Mark G.; Morgan, Michael V.; Calache, Hanny; Wright, Clive

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries, periodontal diseases, tooth loss and oral cancers have significant burden of disease effects, quality of life and cost implications for the Australian community. Oral health promotion is a key approach to addressing these conditions endorsed as part of the National Oral Health Plan. Understanding the evidence for effectiveness of

  18. Oral Insulin Delivery: How Far Are We?

    PubMed Central

    Fonte, Pedro; Arajo, Francisca; Reis, Salette; Sarmento, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Oral delivery of insulin may significantly improve the quality of life of diabetes patients who routinely receive insulin by the subcutaneous route. In fact, compared with this administration route, oral delivery of insulin in diabetes treatment offers many advantages: higher patient compliance, rapid hepatic insulinization, and avoidance of peripheral hyperinsulinemia and other adverse effects such as possible hypoglycemia and weight gain. However, the oral delivery of insulin remains a challenge because its oral absorption is limited. The main barriers faced by insulin in the gastrointestinal tract are degradation by proteolytic enzymes and lack of transport across the intestinal epithelium. Several strategies to deliver insulin orally have been proposed, but without much clinical or commercial success. Protein encapsulation into nanoparticles is regarded as a promising alternative to administer insulin orally because they have the ability to promote insulin paracellular or transcellular transport across the intestinal mucosa. In this review, different delivery systems intended to increase the oral bioavailability of insulin will be discussed, with a special focus on nanoparticulate carrier systems, as well as the efforts that pharmaceutical companies are making to bring to the market the first oral delivery system of insulin. The toxicological and safety data of delivery systems, the clinical value and progress of oral insulin delivery, and the future prospects in this research field will be also scrutinized. PMID:23567010

  19. Oral insulin delivery: how far are we?

    PubMed

    Fonte, Pedro; Araújo, Francisca; Reis, Salette; Sarmento, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Oral delivery of insulin may significantly improve the quality of life of diabetes patients who routinely receive insulin by the subcutaneous route. In fact, compared with this administration route, oral delivery of insulin in diabetes treatment offers many advantages: higher patient compliance, rapid hepatic insulinization, and avoidance of peripheral hyperinsulinemia and other adverse effects such as possible hypoglycemia and weight gain. However, the oral delivery of insulin remains a challenge because its oral absorption is limited. The mainbarriers faced by insulin in the gastrointestinal tract are degradation by proteolytic enzymes and lack of transport across the intestinal epithelium. Several strategies to deliver insulin orally have been proposed, but without much clinical or commercial success. Protein encapsulation into nanoparticles is regarded as a promising alternative to administer insulin orally because they have the ability to promote insulin paracellular or transcellular transport across the intestinal mucosa. In this review, different delivery systems intended to increase the oral bioavailability of insulin will be discussed, with a special focus on nanoparticulate carrier systems, as well as the efforts that pharmaceutical companies are making to bring to the market the first oral delivery system of insulin. The toxicological and safety data of delivery systems, the clinical value and progress of oral insulin delivery, and the future prospects in this research field will be also scrutinized. PMID:23567010

  20. Treatment of oral mucositis due to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bagán-Sebastián, José V

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The management of oral mucositis is a challenge, due to its complex biological nature. Over the last 10 years, different strategies have been developed for the management of oral mucositis caused by chemotherapy in cancer patients. Material and Methods An exhaustive search was made of the PubMed-Medline, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases, crossing the key words “oral mucositis”, “prevention” and “treatment” with the terms “chemotherapy” and “radiotherapy” by means of the boolean operators “AND” and “NOT”. A total of 268 articles were obtained, of which 96 met the inclusion criteria. Results Several interventions for the prevention of oral mucositis, such as oral hygiene protocols, amifostine, benzidamine, calcium phosphate, cryotherapy and iseganan, among others, were found to yield only limited benefits. Other studies have reported a decrease in the appearance and severity of mucositis with the use of cytoprotectors (sucralfate, oral glutamine, hyaluronic acid), growth factors, topical polyvinylpyrrolidone, and low power laser irradiation. Conclusions Very few interventions of confirmed efficacy are available for the management of oral mucositis due to chemotherapy. However, according to the reviewed literature, the use of palifermin, cryotherapy and low power laser offers benefits, reducing the incidence and severity of oral mucositis – though further studies are needed to confirm the results obtained. Key words:Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis Treatment. PMID:27034762

  1. Initial Piloted Simulation Evaluation of the Reference-H High-Speed Civil Transport Design During Takeoff and Recovery From Limit Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Louis J.

    1999-01-01

    An initial assessment of a proposed High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) was conducted in the fall of 1995 at the NASA Langley Research Center. This configuration, known as the Industry Reference-H (Ref.-H), was designed by the Boeing Aircraft Company as part of their work in the High Speed Research program. It included a conventional tail, a cranked-arrow wing, four mixed-flow turbofan engines, and capacity for transporting approximately 300 passengers. The purpose of this assessment was to evaluate and quantify operational aspects of the Reference-H configuration from a pilot's perspective with the additional goal of identifying design strengths as well as any potential configuration deficiencies. This study was aimed at evaluating the Ref.-H configuration at many points of the aircraft's envelope to determine the suitability of the vehicle to accomplish typical mission profiles as well as emergency or envelope-limit conditions. Pilot-provided Cooper-Harper ratings and comments constituted the primary vehicle evaluation metric. The analysis included simulated real-time piloted evaluations, performed in a 6 degree of freedom motion base NASA Langley Visual-Motion Simulator, combined with extensive bath analysis. The assessment was performed using the third major release of the simulation data base (known as Ref.-H cycle 2B).

  2. 'Why does it happen like this?' Consulting with users and providers prior to an evaluation of services for children with life limiting conditions and their families.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Anne; Brown, Erica; Coad, Jane; Staniszewska, Sophie; Hacking, Suzanne; Chesworth, Brigit; Chambers, Lizzie

    2015-09-01

    Children with life limiting conditions and their families have complex needs. Evaluations must consider their views and perspectives to ensure care is relevant, appropriate and acceptable. We consulted with children, young people, their parents and local professionals to gain a more informed picture of issues affecting them prior to preparing a bid to evaluate services in the area. Multiple methods included focus groups, face-to-face and telephone interviews and participatory activities. Recordings and products from activities were analysed for content to identify areas of relevance and concern. An overarching theme from parents was 'Why does it happen like this?' Services did not seem designed to meet their needs. Whilst children and young people expressed ideas related to quality of environment, services and social life, professionals focused on ways of meeting the families' needs. The theme that linked families' concerns with those of professionals was 'assessing individual needs'. Two questions to be addressed by the evaluation are (1) to what extent are services designed to meet the needs of children and families and (2) to what extent are children, young people and their families consulted about what they need? Consultations with families and service providers encouraged us to continue their involvement as partners in the evaluation. PMID:24270996

  3. Quantitative proteomic view on secreted, cell surface-associated, and cytoplasmic proteins of the methicillin-resistant human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus under iron-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Hempel, Kristina; Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Moche, Martin; Hecker, Michael; Becher, Drte

    2011-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is capable of colonizing and infecting humans by its arsenal of surface-exposed and secreted proteins. Iron-limited conditions in mammalian body fluids serve as a major environmental signal to bacteria to express virulence determinants. Here we present a comprehensive, gel-free, and GeLC-MS/MS-based quantitative proteome profiling of S. aureus under this infection-relevant situation. (14)N(15)N metabolic labeling and three complementing approaches were combined for relative quantitative analyses of surface-associated proteins. The surface-exposed and secreted proteome profiling approaches comprise trypsin shaving, biotinylation, and precipitation of the supernatant. By analysis of the outer subproteomic and cytoplasmic protein fraction, 1210 proteins could be identified including 221 surface-associated proteins. Thus, access was enabled to 70% of the predicted cell wall-associated proteins, 80% of the predicted sortase substrates, two/thirds of lipoproteins and more than 50% of secreted and cytoplasmic proteins. For iron-deficiency, 158 surface-associated proteins were quantified. Twenty-nine proteins were found in altered amounts showing particularly surface-exposed proteins strongly induced, such as the iron-regulated surface determinant proteins IsdA, IsdB, IsdC and IsdD as well as lipid-anchored iron compound-binding proteins. The work presents a crucial subject for understanding S. aureus pathophysiology by the use of methods that allow quantitative surface proteome profiling. PMID:21323324

  4. Clonotype and repertoire changes drive the functional improvement of HIV-specific CD8 T cell populations under conditions of limited antigenic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Janbazian, Loury; Price, David A.; Canderan, Glenda; Filali-Mouhim, Abdelali; Asher, Tedi E.; Ambrozak, David R.; Scheinberg, Phillip; Boulassel, Mohamad Rachid; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Koup, Richard A.; Douek, Daniel C.; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Trautmann, Lydie

    2011-01-01

    Persistent exposure to cognate antigen leads to the functional impairment and exhaustion of HIV-specific CD8 T cells. Antigen withdrawal, due either to antiretroviral treatment or the emergence of epitope escape mutations, causes HIV-specific CD8 T cell responses to wane over time. However, this process does not continue to extinction, and residual CD8 T cells likely play an important role in the control of HIV replication. Here, we conducted a longitudinal analysis of clonality, phenotype and function to define the characteristics of HIV-specific CD8 T cell populations that persist under conditions of limited antigenic stimulation. Antigen decay was associated with dynamic changes in the TCR repertoire, increased expression of CD45RA and CD127, decreased expression of PD-1 and the emergence of poly-functional HIV-specific CD8 T cells. High definition analysis of individual clonotypes revealed that the antigen loss-induced gain of function within HIV-specific CD8 T cell populations could be attributed to two non-exclusive mechanisms: (i) functional improvement of persisting clonotypes; and, (ii) recruitment of particular clonotypes endowed with superior functional capabilities. PMID:22210916

  5. Metabolic and transcriptomic response of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain EC1118 after an oxygen impulse under carbon-sufficient, nitrogen-limited fermentative conditions.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Marcelo; Aceituno, Felipe F; Slater, Alex W; Almonacid, Leonardo I; Melo, Francisco; Agosin, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    During alcoholic fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to continuously changing environmental conditions, such as decreasing sugar and increasing ethanol concentrations. Oxygen, a critical nutrient to avoid stuck and sluggish fermentations, is only discretely available throughout the process after pump-over operation. In this work, we studied the physiological response of the wine yeast S. cerevisiae strain EC1118 to a sudden increase in dissolved oxygen, simulating pump-over operation. With this aim, an impulse of dissolved oxygen was added to carbon-sufficient, nitrogen-limited anaerobic continuous cultures. Results showed that genes related to mitochondrial respiration, ergosterol biosynthesis, and oxidative stress, among other metabolic pathways, were induced after the oxygen impulse. On the other hand, mannoprotein coding genes were repressed. The changes in the expression of these genes are coordinated responses that share common elements at the level of transcriptional regulation. Beneficial and detrimental effects of these physiological processes on wine quality highlight the dual role of oxygen in 'making or breaking wines'. These findings will facilitate the development of oxygen addition strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations. PMID:24387769

  6. [Trade-offs in oral drug product development].

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hiromu; Sako, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Drug products are developed to meet multiple targets, thereby increasing their value. Pharmaceutical scientists encounter several trade-offs during the development of novel oral formulations. These trade-offs are generated by their desire to supply the highest possible quality products under the prevailing conditions of limited time and cost, and feasible options. When there are two incompatible factors, it is sometimes difficult to dismiss one element. This is because a quality target product profile (QTPP) is critical for each product being developed, and all elements should basically be satisfied with the criteria. Therefore, technological innovation becomes important to overcome the trade-offs. This article introduces examples of such innovations which have been successful in doing this, as well as some encountered in the oral formulation development and in the selection of proper dosage forms. Based on these examples, points to be considered in order to produce the drug product are thoroughly discussed. PMID:25747218

  7. Drug Testing in Oral Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the oral cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in oral fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection limits required. Drug testing outside laboratory environments has become widespread and provides presumptive results within minutes of collection of specimens. This review focuses on the developments, particularly over the last 10 years, and outlines the roles and applications of testing for drugs in oral fluid, describes the difficulties associated with this form of testing and illustrates applications of oral fluid testing for specific drugs. PMID:17268583

  8. Nanoparticles for oral delivery: Targeted nanoparticles with peptidic ligands for oral protein delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Yeonhee; Cho, Yong Woo; Park, Kinam

    2012-01-01

    As the field of biotechnology has advanced, oral protein delivery has also made significant progress. Oral delivery is the most common method of drug administration with high levels of patient acceptance. Despite the preference of oral delivery, administration of therapeutic proteins has been extremely difficult. Increasing the bioavailability of oral protein drugs to the therapeutically acceptable level is still a challenging goal. Poor membrane permeability, high molecular weight, and enzymatic degradation of protein drugs have remained unsolved issues. Among diverse strategies, nanotechnology has provided a glimpse of hope in oral delivery of protein drugs. Nanoparticles have advantages, such as small size, high surface area, and modification using functional groups for high capacity or selectivity. Nanoparticles with peptidic ligands are especially worthy of notice because they can be used for specific targeting in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This article reviews the transport mechanism of the GI tract, barriers to protein absorption, current status and limitations of nanotechnology for oral protein delivery system. PMID:23123292

  9. Micronutrients and Oral Clefts

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, C.M.; Chowchuen, B.; Pitiphat, W.; DeRouen, T.; Pisek, A.; Godfrey, K.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about oral clefts in developing countries. We aimed to identify micronutrient-related and environmental risk factors for oral clefts in Thailand. We tested hypotheses that maternal exposure during the periconceptional period to multivitamins or liver consumption would decrease cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL ± P) risk and that menstrual regulation supplements would increase CL ± P risk. We conducted a multisite hospital-based case-control study in Thailand. We enrolled cases with CL ± P and 2 live births as controls at birth from the same hospital. Mothers completed a questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Eighty-six cases and 172 controls were enrolled. Mothers who took a vitamin (adjusted OR, 0.39; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.94) or ate liver (adjusted OR, 0.26; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.57) were less likely than those who did not to have an affected child. Mothers who took a menstrual regulation supplement were more likely than mothers who did not to have an affected child. Findings did not differ for infants with a family history of other anomalies or with isolated CL ± P. If replicated, our finding that liver decreases CL ± P risk could offer a low-cost primary prevention strategy. PMID:24097855

  10. Strain localization in brittle-ductile shear zones: fluid-abundant vs. fluid-limited conditions (an example from Wyangala area, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruzeniece, L.; Piazolo, S.

    2015-07-01

    This study focuses on physiochemical processes occurring in a brittle-ductile shear zone at both fluid-present and fluid-limited conditions. In the studied shear zone (Wyangala, SE Australia), a coarse-grained two-feldspar-quartz-biotite granite is transformed into a medium-grained orthogneiss at the shear zone margins and a fine-grained quartz-muscovite phyllonite in the central parts. The orthogneiss displays cataclasis of feldspar and crystal-plastic deformation of quartz. Quartz accommodates most of the deformation and is extensively recrystallized, showing distinct crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO). Feldspar-to-muscovite, biotite-to-muscovite and albitization reactions occur locally at porphyroclasts' fracture surfaces and margins. However, the bulk rock composition shows very little change in respect to the wall rock composition. In contrast, in the shear zone centre quartz occurs as large, weakly deformed porphyroclasts in sizes similar to that in the wall rock, suggesting that it has undergone little deformation. Feldspars and biotite are almost completely reacted to muscovite, which is arranged in a fine-grained interconnected matrix. Muscovite-rich layers contain significant amounts of fine-grained intermixed quartz with random CPO. These domains are interpreted to have accommodated most of the strain. Bulk rock chemistry data show a significant increase in SiO2 and depletion in NaO content compared to the wall rock composition. We suggest that the high- and low-strain microstructures in the shear zone represent markedly different scenarios and cannot be interpreted as a simple sequential development with respect to strain. Instead, we propose that the microstructural and mineralogical changes in the shear zone centre arise from a local metasomatic alteration around a brittle precursor. When the weaker fine-grained microstructure is established, the further flow is controlled by transient porosity created at (i) grain boundaries in fine-grained areas deforming by grain boundary sliding (GBS) and (ii) transient dilatancy sites at porphyroclast-matrix boundaries. Here a growth of secondary quartz occurs from incoming fluid, resulting in significant changes in bulk composition and eventually rheological hardening due to the precipitation-related increase in the mode and grain size of quartz. In contrast, within the shear zone margins the amount of fluid influx and associated reactions is limited; here deformation mainly proceeds by dynamic recrystallization of the igneous quartz grains. The studied shear zone exemplifies the role of syn-deformational fluids and fluid-induced reactions on the dominance of deformation processes and subsequent contrasting rheological behaviour at micron to metre scale.

  11. Increased belowground C release during initial plant development of Populus deltoides x nigra grown under light and C reserve limited conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studer, Mirjam S.; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.; Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Abiven, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    Plants might be a key factor for the long-term stabilisation of carbon (C) in the soil, e.g. through enhanced physical protection of root-derived C against microbial decomposition in soil aggregates. On the other hand C released by the plants into the soil might promote the decomposition of native soil organic matter (SOM) through the stimulation of microbial activity. We measured the C budget of developing plant-soil systems (Populus deltoides x nigra, Cambisol soil) in the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions. In order to distinguish plant-derived from native C in the SOM and the soil CO2 efflux, we labelled the poplar shoots continuously with 13C-CO2 from first emergence of leaves (sprouting from stem cuttings). Throughout the experiment the CO2 fluxes (photosynthetic assimilation, dark respiratory loss, soil CO2 efflux) were measured frequently (every 30 min) and the 13C was traced in the soil CO2 efflux (1-2 times a week). After 10 weeks the plant-soil systems were destructively harvested and the distribution of the 13C distribution was analysed. The plants developed slowly (compared to previous experiments), most likely due to limitation in C reserves (long term cutting storage) and C supply (low light intensities). The amount of 13C recovered in the roots, microbial biomass and soil CO2 efflux was directly correlated with the leaf area of the different plant individuals. After 3-4 weeks of plant development we observed a high peak in the total soil CO2 efflux. During this time the relative belowground C release was increased massively over the basal rate of 17 % of net C assimilated, whereby the variability between the plant individuals was large. The smallest plants, i.e. the plants that were most resource limited, obtained the highest belowground C release accounting at the peak time for up to 57 % of net assimilated C. We hypothesize that the plants released specific compounds, which either directly (enzymatically) or indirectly (priming) enhanced the decomposition of native SOM as a survival mechanisms (e.g. mine for nutrients). The results of this study confirm linear correlations between aboveground plant traits (leaf area) and belowground C allocation into roots, microbial biomass and plant-derived respiration. However it also highlights that plant-soil systems are not permanently in a steady state. C allocation patterns can change massively when the plant is under stress, which affects other fluxes within the terrestrial C cycle, such as the microbial decomposition of SOM.

  12. Oral Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... OCF Funded Research Partners OCF funded Peer Reviewed Science Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Clinical Trial ... The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national public service, non-profit entity designed to reduce ...

  13. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment. PMID:26125159

  14. The prrAB Two-Component System Is Essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Viability and Is Induced under Nitrogen-Limiting Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Vandana; Cornelison, Garrett L.; Clark-Curtiss, Josephine E.

    2012-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis prrA-prrB (Rv0903c-Rv0902c) two-component regulatory system is expressed during intracellular growth in human macrophages and is required for early intracellular multiplication in murine macrophages, suggesting its importance in establishing infection. To better understand the function of the prrA-prrB two-component system, we defined the transcriptional characteristics of the prrA and prrB genes during exponential and stationary growth and upon exposure to different environmental stresses and attempted to generate a prrA-prrB deletion mutant. The prrA and prrB genes constitute an operon and are cotranscribed during logarithmic growth, with transcriptional levels decreasing in stationary phase and during hypoxia. Despite the transcriptional differences, PrrA protein levels remained relatively stable throughout growth and in hypoxia. Under conditions of nitrogen limitation, prrAB transcription was induced, while acidic pH stress and carbon starvation did not significantly alter transcript levels. Deletion of the prrAB operon on the chromosome of M. tuberculosis H37Rv occurred only in the presence of an episomal copy of the prrAB genes, indicating that this two-component system is essential for viability. Characterization of the prrAB locus in M. tuberculosis Mt21D3, a previously described prrA transposon mutant, revealed that this strain is not a true prrA knockout mutant. Rather, Tn5367 transposon insertion into the prrA promoter only decreased prrA and prrB transcription and PrrA levels in Mt21D3 compared to those in the parental Mt103 clinical strain. These data provide the first report describing the essentiality of the M. tuberculosis prrAB two-component system and reveal insights into its potential role in mycobacterial growth and metabolism. PMID:22081401

  15. The ZmASR1 Protein Influences Branched-Chain Amino Acid Biosynthesis and Maintains Kernel Yield in Maize under Water-Limited Conditions1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Virlouvet, Laetitia; Jacquemot, Marie-Pierre; Gerentes, Denise; Corti, Hlne; Bouton, Sophie; Gilard, Franoise; Valot, Benot; Trouverie, Jacques; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Falque, Matthieu; Damerval, Catherine; Rogowsky, Peter; Perez, Pascual; Noctor, Graham; Zivy, Michel; Coursol, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    Abscisic acid-, stress-, and ripening-induced (ASR) proteins were first described about 15 years ago as accumulating to high levels during plant developmental processes and in response to diverse stresses. Currently, the effects of ASRs on water deficit tolerance and the ways in which their physiological and biochemical functions lead to this stress tolerance remain poorly understood. Here, we characterized the ASR gene family from maize (Zea mays), which contains nine paralogous genes, and showed that maize ASR1 (ZmASR1) was encoded by one of the most highly expressed paralogs. Ectopic expression of ZmASR1 had a large overall impact on maize yield that was maintained under water-limited stress conditions in the field. Comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of wild-type and ZmASR1-overexpressing leaves led to the identification of three transcripts and 16 proteins up- or down-regulated by ZmASR1. The majority of them were involved in primary and/or cellular metabolic processes, including branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis. Metabolomic and transcript analyses further indicated that ZmASR1-overexpressing plants showed a decrease in BCAA compounds and changes in BCAA-related gene expression in comparison with wild-type plants. Interestingly, within-group correlation matrix analysis revealed a close link between 13 decreased metabolites in ZmASR1-overexpressing leaves, including two BCAAs. Among these 13 metabolites, six were previously shown to be negatively correlated to biomass, suggesting that ZmASR1-dependent regulation of these 13 metabolites might contribute to regulate leaf growth, resulting in improvement in kernel yield. PMID:21852416

  16. Use of 90° Hopkin’s Telescopic Examination as an OPD Tool to Clinically Evaluate and Record Oral Cavity Lesions: Our Experience in Early Detection, Especially in Patients with Limited Mouth Opening

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Karan; Patel, Daxesh; Patel, Purvi; Toprani, Rajendra; Patel, Kaustubh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Restricted mouth opening due to premalignant lesions like oral sub-mucous fibrosis, malignancies of oral cavity and postoperative status is very common in Indian patients. It is very difficult to evaluate, document and biopsy the lesions due to inability to access, vast area and diversity of premalignant lesions and subject variations. 90° Hopkin’s slender out-patient examination telescope was found useful tool in this. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of magnified view and reach of a slender telescope to document and examine the oral cavity for any premalignant and malignant lesions, especially for patients with restricted mouth opening and to study its impact on management. Materials and Methods A 900 Hopkin’s telescope was used to evaluate and document oral cavity examination in the Out Patients Department (OPD). The data of first 2000 patients was analysed. Results Difficult to reach areas, where mouth opening was severely restricted was the significant subset. A total of 1394 patients approached OPD for primary diagnosis at our tertiary cancer care centre. Six hundred and six patients were the ones in follow up after treatment in form of Surgery, Chemotherapy or Radiotherapy, or combination. Five twenty three patients (of 1394) with mouth opening ≤ 20mm formed the study group. Telescope guided biopsies were also taken in 50 patients from 56 sites. Serial recordings were compared objectively in premalignant, treatment evaluation and close watch groups. An increase of 5.6% in rate of diagnosis of malignancy was made possible with the help of telescopic examination in patients with mouth opening ≤ 20mm. Conclusion A 900 Hopkin’s telescopic examination is a useful tool to evaluate and record oral cavity lesions, especially in patients with restricted mouth openings. It is a useful tool for screening high risk group, giving definite advantage of objective evaluation and recording of the lesion. It can also be used to objectively evaluate response of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and as a teaching tool for the fellows. PMID:26266199

  17. Understanding Oral Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, W. Jay

    2012-01-01

    A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral…

  18. Women's oral health issues.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, B J

    2000-09-01

    Hormonal fluctuations affect more than a woman's reproductive system. They have a surprisingly strong influence on the oral cavity. Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause all influence women's oral health and the way in which a dentist should approach their treatment. This paper will review aspects of a woman's life when hormonal fluctuations may affect oral tissues. PMID:11324047

  19. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... find out more. Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans ... find out more. Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans ...

  20. Poor oral health, a potential new geriatric syndrome.

    PubMed

    van der Putten, Gert-Jan; de Baat, Cees; De Visschere, Luc; Schols, Jos

    2014-02-01

    This article presents a brief introduction to the medical aspects of ageing and age-related diseases, and to some geriatric syndromes, followed by a discussion on their impact on general and oral healthcare provision to community-dwelling older people. Recent investigations suggest that inflammation constitutes a biological foundation of ageing and the onset of age-related diseases. Multimorbidity and polypharmacy, together with alterations in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, make older people at risk of adverse medication reactions. A side effect of several medications is causing xerostomia and hyposalivation, and both the type and number of medications used are relevant. New options of general healthcare provision to community-dwelling older people are the use of mobility aids and assistive technology devices, domiciliary health care, respite care and telecare. Their oral health status may be jeopardised by frailty, disability, care dependency and limited access to professional oral health care. Recommendations for improvement are the following: better integrating oral health care into general health care, developing and implementing an oral healthcare guideline, providing customised oral hygiene care aids, domiciliary oral healthcare provision, visiting dental hygienists and/or nurses, oral hygiene telecare, easily and safely accessible dental offices, transforming dentistry into medical oral health care and upgrading dentists to oral physicians. In case oral healthcare providers do not take the responsibility of persuading society of the importance of adequate oral health, weakened oral health of community-dwelling older people will become a potential new geriatric syndrome. PMID:24446975

  1. Can oral pathogens influence allergic disease?

    PubMed

    Arbes, Samuel J; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2011-05-01

    The hygiene hypothesis contends that fewer opportunities for infections and microbial exposures have resulted in more widespread asthma and atopic disease. Consistent with that hypothesis, decreases in infectious oral diseases over the past half century have coincided with increases in the prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases. This observation has led some researchers to speculate that exposures to oral bacteria, including pathogens associated with periodontal diseases, such as gingivitis and periodontitis, might play a protective role in the development of asthma and allergy. Colonization of the oral cavity with bacteria, including some species of periodontal pathogens, begins shortly after birth, and the detection of serum antibodies to oral pathogens in early childhood provides evidence of an early immune response to these bacteria. Current knowledge of the immune response to oral bacteria and the immunologic pathogenesis of periodontal diseases suggests biologically plausible mechanisms by which oral pathogens could influence the risk of allergic disease. However, studies investigating the association between oral pathogen exposures and allergic disease are few in number and limited by cross-sectional or case-control design, exclusion of young children, and use of surrogate measures of oral bacterial colonization. Additional studies, particularly well-designed case-control studies among very young children and prospective birth cohortstudies, are needed. PMID:21531254

  2. Oral Allergy Syndrome: An Update for Stomatologists

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) is an allergic reaction in the oral cavity subsequent to the consumption of food such as fruits, nuts, and vegetables. It occurs mainly due to homology of proteins of pollen to the proteins of fruits and vegetables. In OAS, the immune system produces antibodies that are directed against the proteins of pollen and structurally similar proteins in food, hence, resulting in allergic symptoms limited mainly to the oral cavity. In this review, we have summarized the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of OAS as an update for stomatologists. PMID:26633978

  3. Essentials of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  4. Killed oral cholera vaccines: history, development and implementation challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Maria Liza Antoinette; Aldaba, Josephine G.; Nair, G. Balakrish

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is still a major global health problem, affecting mainly people living in unsanitary conditions and who are at risk for outbreaks of cholera. During the past decade, outbreaks are increasingly reported from more countries. From the early killed oral cholera vaccine, rapid improvements in vaccine development occurred as a result of a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, pathogenesis of cholera infection and immunity. The newer-generation oral killed cholera vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective in field trials conducted in cholera endemic areas. Likewise, they have been shown to be protective when used during outbreak settings. Aside from providing direct protection to vaccinated individuals, recent studies have demonstrated that these killed oral vaccines also confer indirect protection through herd immunity. Although new-generation oral cholera vaccines should not be considered in isolation from other preventive approaches in countries where they are most needed, especially improved water quality and sanitation, these vaccines serve as immediately available public health tools for preventing further morbidity and mortality from cholera. However, despite its availability for more than two decades, use of these vaccines has not been optimized. Although there are limitations of the currently available oral cholera vaccines, recent data show that the vaccines are safe, feasible to use even in difficult circumstances and able to provide protection in various settings. Clear identification of the areas and target population groups who will benefit from the use of the cholera vaccines will be required and strategies to facilitate accessibility and usage of these vaccines in these areas and population groups will need to be developed. PMID:25177492

  5. Killed oral cholera vaccines: history, development and implementation challenges.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Anna Lena; Gonzales, Maria Liza Antoinette; Aldaba, Josephine G; Nair, G Balakrish

    2014-09-01

    Cholera is still a major global health problem, affecting mainly people living in unsanitary conditions and who are at risk for outbreaks of cholera. During the past decade, outbreaks are increasingly reported from more countries. From the early killed oral cholera vaccine, rapid improvements in vaccine development occurred as a result of a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, pathogenesis of cholera infection and immunity. The newer-generation oral killed cholera vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective in field trials conducted in cholera endemic areas. Likewise, they have been shown to be protective when used during outbreak settings. Aside from providing direct protection to vaccinated individuals, recent studies have demonstrated that these killed oral vaccines also confer indirect protection through herd immunity. Although new-generation oral cholera vaccines should not be considered in isolation from other preventive approaches in countries where they are most needed, especially improved water quality and sanitation, these vaccines serve as immediately available public health tools for preventing further morbidity and mortality from cholera. However, despite its availability for more than two decades, use of these vaccines has not been optimized. Although there are limitations of the currently available oral cholera vaccines, recent data show that the vaccines are safe, feasible to use even in difficult circumstances and able to provide protection in various settings. Clear identification of the areas and target population groups who will benefit from the use of the cholera vaccines will be required and strategies to facilitate accessibility and usage of these vaccines in these areas and population groups will need to be developed. PMID:25177492

  6. Oral microbial habitat a dynamic entity

    PubMed Central

    Faran Ali, Syed Muhammad; Tanwir, Farzeen

    2012-01-01

    Oral microbial habitat is composed of wide variety of species. These species play a significant role in maintaining the well being of the oral cavity by contributing in various ways. However the proper functioning of these oral microbes can be detrimental for the human oral cavity if the conditions are not suitable such as redox potential (Eh), pH of a site, the activity of the host defenses, and the presence of antimicrobial agents. The oral microbial community represents the best-characterized group associated with the human host. There are strong correlations between the qualitative composition of the oral microbiota and clinically healthy or diseased states. Amongst the bacteria of more than 700 species now identified within the human oral microbiota, it is the streptococci that are numerically predominant. Interactions between mucosal surfaces and microbial microbiota are key to host defense, health, and disease. These surfaces are exposed to high numbers of microbes and must be capable of distinguishing between those that are beneficial or avirulent and those that will invade and cause disease. Our understanding of the mechanisms involved in these discriminatory processes has recently begun to expand as new studies bring to light the importance of epithelial cells and novel immune cell subsets such as T(h)17 T cells in these processes. In this review article we have tried to find out the factors responsible for maintaining oral microbial habitat intact and the reasons which cause changes in its composition. PMID:25737863

  7. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5...

  12. The mucosal immune system in the oral cavity—an orchestra of T cell diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Rui-Qing; Zhang, Dun-Fang; Tu, Eric; Chen, Qian-Ming; Chen, WanJun

    2014-01-01

    The mucosal immune system defends against a vast array of pathogens, yet it exhibits limited responses to commensal microorganisms under healthy conditions. The oral-pharyngeal cavity, the gateway for both the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, is composed of complex anatomical structures and is constantly challenged by antigens from air and food. The mucosal immune system of the oral-pharyngeal cavity must prevent pathogen entry while maintaining immune homeostasis, which is achieved via a range of mechanisms that are similar or different to those utilized by the gastrointestinal immune system. In this review, we summarize the features of the mucosal immune system, focusing on T cell subsets and their functions. We also discuss our current understanding of the oral-pharyngeal mucosal immune system. PMID:25105816

  13. Oral health in the elderly with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Marzenna B; Fedele, Denise; Forman, Lloyd J; Pomerantz, Sherry C

    2002-01-01

    Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is a common endocrine disease affecting the elderly in particular. Long-term complications involve the vasculature; vision, renal, and neural function; and the periodontium. Knowledge about the oral health of the elderly and the effects of NIDDM is limited. The objective of this study was to compare the oral health of patients aged 60+ years, who have NIDDM, with patients who do not have NIDDM. To evaluate oral health, we recorded retention and condition of the teeth, periodontal health, and condition of the oral mucosa. We also assessed oral hygiene, smoking history, regularity of dental checkups, and medication use. The study group was selected from among patients who came to the ambulatory care clinic at University of Medicine and Dentistry, New Jersey, Center for Aging with a diagnosis of NIDDM. The control group, which did not have NIDDM, was selected from among the same patient group and was matched for age and gender. Patients with severe dementia, those having fewer than 10 teeth or those who were in need of antibiotic prophylaxis were excluded from the study. Patients underwent a short interview and a clinical evaluation. Our study involved 32 elderly adults with NIDDM and 40 elderly adults who did not have NIDDM. Both groups had similar oral hygiene levels and regularity of professional dental care. In addition, the plasma glucose levels among the study group were well controlled. This study did not show statistically significant differences in oral health parameters between participants with diabetes and those in a control group. PMID:12240893

  14. Myofibroblasts in oral lesions: A review

    PubMed Central

    Pinisetti, Soujanya; Manyam, Ravikanth; Suresh, Babburi; Aparna, V

    2014-01-01

    Myofibroblasts (MFs) are modified fibroblasts that express features of smooth muscle differentiation and were first observed in granulation tissue during wound healing. These cells play a key role in physiologic and pathologic processes like wound healing and tumorigenesis. The presence of MFs has been reported in normal oral tissues and pathologic conditions like reactive lesions, benign tumors, locally aggressive tumors and malignancies affecting the oral cavity. This article briefly reviews the important hallmarks related to the discovery, characterization and tissue distribution of MFs in oral health and disease. PMID:24959038

  15. Myofibroblasts in oral lesions: A review.

    PubMed

    Pinisetti, Soujanya; Manyam, Ravikanth; Suresh, Babburi; Aparna, V

    2014-01-01

    Myofibroblasts (MFs) are modified fibroblasts that express features of smooth muscle differentiation and were first observed in granulation tissue during wound healing. These cells play a key role in physiologic and pathologic processes like wound healing and tumorigenesis. The presence of MFs has been reported in normal oral tissues and pathologic conditions like reactive lesions, benign tumors, locally aggressive tumors and malignancies affecting the oral cavity. This article briefly reviews the important hallmarks related to the discovery, characterization and tissue distribution of MFs in oral health and disease. PMID:24959038

  16. Evaluation of a suspicious oral mucosal lesion.

    PubMed

    Williams, P Michele; Poh, Catherine F; Hovan, Allan J; Ng, Samson; Rosin, Miriam P

    2008-04-01

    Dentists who encounter a change in the oral mucosa of a patient must decide whether the abnormality requires further investigation. In this paper, we describe a systematic approach to the assessment of oral mucosal conditions that are thought likely to be premalignant or an early cancer. These steps, which include a comprehensive history, step-by-step clinical examination (including use of adjunctive visual tools), diagnostic testing and formulation of diagnosis, are routinely used in clinics affiliated with the British Columbia Oral Cancer Prevention Program (BC OCPP) and are recommended for consideration by dentists for use in daily practice. PMID:18387268

  17. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tissues: a comprehensive review for oral healthcare providers.

    PubMed

    Bsoul, Samer A; Huber, Michaell A; Terezhalmy, Geza T

    2005-11-15

    North Americans in 2004 were projected to die from oral and pharyngeal cancer at a rate of 1.2 per hour. Oral healthcare providers can be instrumental in reducing the incidence of oral and pharyngeal premalignant and malignant lesions by identifying patients with high-risk behavior, educating their patients about the consequences of their high-risk behavior, and by early detection of premalignant and malignant conditions. The fact only 34% of the cancers of the oral cavity and larynx are localized at the time of diagnosis and evidence that at least one third of the patients diagnosed with an oral or pharyngeal malignancy have undergone oral cancer screening within the past three years suggests the current protocol for the early detection of pre-malignant or malignant changes appears to be deficient. To facilitate early diagnosis, oral healthcare providers must take into consideration the capriciousness of oral cancer and must be familiar with the availability and application of diagnostic modalities beyond conventional visual inspection and palpation of oral soft tissues. This article provides a comprehensive review of the disease for healthcare professionals. PMID:16299602

  18. Oral Motor Intervention Improved the Oral Feeding in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xu; Yi, Li-Juan; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Ma, Li; Ou, Yang-Xiang; Shuai, Ting; Zeng, Zi; Song, Guo-Min

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Oral feeding for preterm infants has been a thorny problem worldwide. To improve the efficacy of oral feeding in preterm infants, oral motor intervention (OMI), which consists of nonnutritive sucking, oral stimulation, and oral support, was developed. Published studies demonstrated that OMI may be as an alternative treatment to solve this problem; however, these results remain controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis (TSA) to objectively evaluate the potential of OMI for improving the current status of oral feeding in preterm infants. A search of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure was performed to capture relevant citations until at the end of October, 2014. Lists of references of eligible studies and reviews were also hand-checked to include any latent studies. Two independent investigators screened literature, extracted data, and assessed the methodology, and then a meta-analysis and TSA was performed by using Reviewer Manager (RevMan) 5.3 and TSA 0.9 beta, respectively. A total of 11 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which included 855 participants, were incorporated into our meta-analysis. The meta-analyses suggested that OMI is associated with the reduced transition time (ie, the time needed from tube feeding to totally oral feeding) (mean difference [MD], −4.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], −5.22 to −2.84), shorten hospital stays (MD, −3.64; 95% CI, −5.57 to −1.71), increased feeding efficiency (MD, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.36–1.27), and intake of milk (MD, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.06–0.21) rather than weight gain. Results of TSA for each outcomes of interest confirmed these pooled results. With present evidences, OMI can be as an alternative to improve the condition of transition time, length of hospital stays, feeding efficiency, and intake of milk in preterm infants. However, the pooled results may be impaired due to low quality included, and thus, well-designed and large RCTs were needed to further established effects. PMID:26252313

  19. Radiation Induced Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    PS, Satheesh Kumar; Balan, Anita; Sankar, Arun; Bose, Tinky

    2009-01-01

    Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene PMID:20668585

  20. Oral health and elite sport performance.

    PubMed

    Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25263651

  1. Improving Children’s Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Casamassimo, P.S.; Lee, J.Y.; Marazita, M.L.; Milgrom, P.; Chi, D.L.; Divaris, K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the concerted efforts of research and professional and advocacy stakeholders, recent evidence suggests that improvements in the oral health of young children in the United States has not followed the prevailing trend of oral health improvement in other age groups. In fact, oral health disparities in the youngest children may be widening, yet efforts to translate advances in science and technology into meaningful improvements in populations’ health have had limited success. Nevertheless, the great strides in genomics, biological, behavioral, social, and health services research in the past decade have strengthened the evidence base available to support initiatives and translational efforts. Concerted actions to accelerate this translation and implementation process are warranted; at the same time, policies that can help tackle the upstream determinants of oral health disparities are imperative. This article summarizes the proceedings from the symposium on the interdisciplinary continuum of pediatric oral health that was held during the 43rd annual meeting of the American Association for Dental Research, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. This report showcases the latest contributions across the interdisciplinary continuum of pediatric oral health research and provides insights into future research priorities and necessary intersectoral synergies. Issues are discussed as related to the overwhelming dominance of social determinants on oral disease and the difficulty of translating science into action. PMID:25122218

  2. Oral health and elite sport performance

    PubMed Central

    Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25263651

  3. [Oral precancer and cancer].

    PubMed

    López-López, José; Omaña-Cepeda, Carlos; Jané-Salas, Enric

    2015-11-01

    We reviewed the concept of oral precancerous lesions, oral cancer, and the possibility of early diagnosis. With the keywords: premalignant oral lesions prevention, a search was performed over the past 10 years. Also clinical trials are searched from January 2011 until today with the keywords: oral cancer prevention AND dentistry. It is emphasized that there can be no significant changes related to the concept of precancerous lesions and cancer, and those relating to the early diagnosis. Despite the numerous described methods of screening, biopsy remains the most useful test, and therefore it is essential, mainly if we consider the new possibilities of molecular studies. PMID:25638423

  4. What psychosocial factors influence adolescents' oral health?

    PubMed

    Baker, S R; Mat, A; Robinson, P G

    2010-11-01

    Few studies have examined, comprehensively and prospectively, determinants of oral-health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between psychosocial factors and oral health status, health perceptions, and quality of life. Measures of symptom and functional status, health perceptions, quality of life, oral health beliefs, and psychological (sense of coherence, self-esteem, health locus of control) and social factors (parents' income and education) were collected from 439 12- and 13-year-olds at baseline and six-month follow-up, together with a clinical examination at baseline. Structural equation modeling indicated that increased levels of caries and more symptoms predicted more functional limitations, and, cross-sectionally, greater functional impact was associated with worse health perceptions, which were linked to lower quality of life. Sense of coherence was the most important psychosocial predictor. These factors are important in understanding how oral health affects young people's daily lives. PMID:20739689

  5. Oral myiasis in a maxillofacial trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Vinit, Grandim Balarama Gupta; Jayavelu, Perumal; Shrutha, Santhebachali Prakasha

    2013-07-01

    Myiasis is a rare disease primarily caused by the invasion of tissue by larvae of certain dipteran flies. Oral myiasis is still more "rare" and "unique" owing to the fact that oral cavity rarely provides the necessary habitat conducive for a larval lifecycle. Common predisposing factors are poor oral hygiene, halitosis, trauma, senility, learning disabilities, physically and mentally challenged conditions. Oral myiasis can lead to rapid tissue destruction and disfigurement and requires immediate treatment. Treatment consists of manual removal of maggots from the oral cavity after application of chemical agents. Good sanitation, personal and environmental hygiene and cleanliness and special care for debilitated persons are the best methods to prevent oral myiasis. This case report describes the presentation of oral myiasis caused by musca nebulo (common house fly) in a 40-year-old male patient, with recent maxillofacial trauma. The patient was treated by manual removal larvae by topical application of turpentine oil, followed by surgical debridement of the wound and open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture. PMID:23956607

  6. Biochemical acclimation, stomatal limitation and precipitation patterns underlie decreases in photosynthetic stimulation of Soybean (Glycine max) at elevated [CO2] and temperatures under fully open air field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The net effect of elevated [CO2] and temperature on photosynthetic acclimation and plant productivity is poorly resolved. We assessed the effects of canopy warming and fully open air [CO2] enrichment on 1) the acclimation of two biochemical parameters that frequently limit photosynthesis (A), the ma...

  7. The Oral History Review, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Samuel B., Ed.

    The contents of this issue of the "Oral History Review" include eight articles, Oral History Council reports, and lists of the sites of future oral history colloquiums, of Oral History Association publications in print and in microform, and of contributors. Titles of articles and authors are as follows: "Oral History Comes of Age" by Samuel…

  8. Reversal of novel oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Abo-Salem, Elsayed; Becker, Richard C

    2016-04-01

    The development of a new generation of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants represents a potential breakthrough in the management of patients with thrombotic diseases, disorders and conditions. While a large and growing body of evidence from large-scale clinical trials and registries supports a favorable safety profile, having a means to rapidly reverse their anticoagulant effects represents an unmet need among practicing clinicians. Several targeted reversal agents are currently in development and the early results are promising. Idarucizumab is a monoclonal antibody that can immediately and specifically reverse dabigatran. Andexanet alfa is a recombinant modified factor Xa that can bind and reverse oral and parenteral factor Xa inhibitors, including rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban, and low molecular weight heparin. Aripazine is a small molecule that can reverse the action of factor Xa inhibitors and possibly dabigatran as well through non-covalent binding and charge-charge interactions. PMID:26939028

  9. Restricted mouth opening and trismus in oral oncology.

    PubMed

    Satheeshkumar, P S; Mohan, Minu P; Jacob, Jayan

    2014-06-01

    Restricted mouth opening (RMO) and trismus are terms commonly used in oral oncology in instances where there is difficulty in mouth opening. The term trismus in oral oncology is mainly used to indicate the radiation-induced fibrosis of the muscles of mastication. The treatment given for RMO as reported in the literature is given for muscular dysfunction trismus, whereas RMO in oral oncology can occur owing to various reasons other than muscular dysfunction. RMO occurs in various conditions of the oral cavity; in posterior pharyngeal infection, where it is termed reflectory trismus; in oral submucous fibrosis; in oral mucosal disorders; in the use of certain drugs; and in minor dental procedures of the posterior oral cavity. The usage of the term trismus in all RMO cases would complicate the treatment; thus, the word should not be used in all RMO cases. PMID:24842447

  10. Influence of saliva on the oral microbiota.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Philip D; Do, Thuy; Beighton, David; Devine, Deirdre A

    2016-02-01

    Saliva plays a major role in determining the composition and activity of the oral microbiota, via a variety of mechanisms. Molecules, mainly from saliva, form a conditioning film on oral surfaces, thus providing receptors for bacterial attachment. The attached cells use saliva components, such as glycoproteins, as their main source of nutrients for growth. Oral bacteria work sequentially and in a concerted manner to catabolize these structurally complex molecules. Saliva also buffers the pH in the biofilm to around neutrality, creating an environment which is conducive to the growth of many oral bacteria that provide important benefits to the host. Components of the adaptive and innate host defences are delivered by saliva, and these often function synergistically, and at sublethal concentrations, so a complex relationship develops between the host and the resident microbiota. Dysbiosis can occur rapidly if the flow of saliva is perturbed. PMID:26662484

  11. Migraine and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Mousa, G Y

    1982-10-01

    Migraine is a common complaint in optometric practice. Three cases of migrainous patients taking oral contraceptives are presented in this report. The role of oral contraceptives in triggering a migraine attack and possibly elevating the risk of a stroke in a patient with migraine is discussed. The counseling an optometrist can provide in such cases in discussed. PMID:7148975

  12. Oral amelanotic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Adisa, A O; Olawole, W O; Sigbeku, O F

    2012-06-01

    Malignant melanomas of the mucosal regions of the head and neck are extremely rare neoplasms accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas. Approximately half of all head and neck melanomas occur in the oral cavity. Less than 2% of all melanomas lack pigmentation, in the oral mucosa however, up to 75% of cases are amelanotic. No etiologic factors or risk factors have been recognized for oral melanomas. Some authors have suggested that oral habits and selfmedication may be of etiological significance. Oral melanoma is rare but it is relatively frequent in countries like Japan, Uganda, and India. It is rarely identified under the age of 20 years. In Australia where cutaneous melanomas are relatively common primary melanoma of the oral mucosa is rare. The surface architecture of oral melanomas ranges from macular to ulcerated and nodular. The lesion is said to be asymptomatic in the early stages but may become ulcerated and painful in advanced lesions. The diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma is more difficult than that of pigmented lesions. The neoplasm consists of spindle-shaped cells with many mitotic figures and no cytoplasmic melanin pigmentation. Immunohistochemistry using S-100, HMB-45, Melan-A and MART-1 will help in establishing the correct diagnosis. Radical surgery with ample margins and adjuvant chemotherapy are appropriate management protocol for malignant melanoma. Oral melanoma is associated with poor prognosis but its amelanotic variant has even worse prognosis because it exhibits a more aggressive biology and because of difficulty in diagnosis which leads to delayed treatment. PMID:25161399

  13. Oral Transliterating. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troiano, Claire A.

    2010-01-01

    An oral transliterator provides communication access to a person who is deaf or hard of hearing and who uses speechreading and speaking as a means of communicating. The oral transliterator, positioned in front of the speechreader, inaudibly repeats the spoken message, making it as speechreadable as possible. This is called Expressive Oral…

  14. Yield determination and water-use effenciency of wheat under water-limited conditions in the U.S. southern high plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is the most important stress for reducing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield and water-use efficiency (WUE) on the U.S. Southern High Plains. Adoption of cultivars with higher yield and WUE under drought conditions is critical in the area. The objective of this study was to investigate the p...

  15. Yield determination and water use efficiency of wheat under water-limited conditions in the U.S. Southern High Plains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is the most important stress for reducing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield and water use efficiency (WUE) in the U.S. Southern High Plains (SHP). Adoption of cultivars with higher yield and WUE under drought conditions in critical in the area. The objective of this study was to investiga...

  16. 41 CFR 102-36.180 - Is there any limitation/condition to acquiring excess personal property for use by cooperatives?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .../condition to acquiring excess personal property for use by cooperatives? 102-36.180 Section 102-36.180...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 36-DISPOSITION OF EXCESS PERSONAL PROPERTY Acquiring Excess Personal Property for Non-Federal Recipients Cooperatives § 102-36.180 Is there any...

  17. FLAVODIIRON2 and FLAVODIIRON4 Proteins Mediate an Oxygen-Dependent Alternative Electron Flow in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under CO2-Limited Conditions1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Shimakawa, Ginga; Shaku, Keiichiro; Nishi, Akiko; Hayashi, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Katsuhiko; Makino, Amane; Miyake, Chikahiro

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the molecular mechanism of an alternative electron flow (AEF) functioning under suppressed (CO2-limited) photosynthesis in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Photosynthetic linear electron flow, evaluated as the quantum yield of photosystem II [Y(II)], reaches a maximum shortly after the onset of actinic illumination. Thereafter, Y(II) transiently decreases concomitantly with a decrease in the photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate and then recovers to a rate that is close to the initial maximum. These results show that CO2 limitation suppresses photosynthesis and induces AEF. In contrast to the wild type, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 mutants deficient in the genes encoding FLAVODIIRON2 (FLV2) and FLV4 proteins show no recovery of Y(II) after prolonged illumination. However, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 mutants deficient in genes encoding proteins functioning in photorespiration show AEF activity similar to the wild type. In contrast to Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 has no FLV proteins with high homology to FLV2 and FLV4 in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. This lack of FLV2/4 may explain why AEF is not induced under CO2-limited photosynthesis in S. elongatus PCC 7942. As the glutathione S-transferase fusion protein overexpressed in Escherichia coli exhibits NADH-dependent oxygen reduction to water, we suggest that FLV2 and FLV4 mediate oxygen-dependent AEF in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 when electron acceptors such as CO2 are not available. PMID:25540330

  18. FLAVODIIRON2 and FLAVODIIRON4 proteins mediate an oxygen-dependent alternative electron flow in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under CO2-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Shimakawa, Ginga; Shaku, Keiichiro; Nishi, Akiko; Hayashi, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Katsuhiko; Makino, Amane; Miyake, Chikahiro

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to elucidate the molecular mechanism of an alternative electron flow (AEF) functioning under suppressed (CO2-limited) photosynthesis in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Photosynthetic linear electron flow, evaluated as the quantum yield of photosystem II [Y(II)], reaches a maximum shortly after the onset of actinic illumination. Thereafter, Y(II) transiently decreases concomitantly with a decrease in the photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate and then recovers to a rate that is close to the initial maximum. These results show that CO2 limitation suppresses photosynthesis and induces AEF. In contrast to the wild type, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 mutants deficient in the genes encoding FLAVODIIRON2 (FLV2) and FLV4 proteins show no recovery of Y(II) after prolonged illumination. However, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 mutants deficient in genes encoding proteins functioning in photorespiration show AEF activity similar to the wild type. In contrast to Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 has no FLV proteins with high homology to FLV2 and FLV4 in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. This lack of FLV2/4 may explain why AEF is not induced under CO2-limited photosynthesis in S. elongatus PCC 7942. As the glutathione S-transferase fusion protein overexpressed in Escherichia coli exhibits NADH-dependent oxygen reduction to water, we suggest that FLV2 and FLV4 mediate oxygen-dependent AEF in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 when electron acceptors such as CO2 are not available. PMID:25540330

  19. Biochemical acclimation, stomatal limitation and precipitation patterns underlie decreases in photosynthetic stimulation of soybean (Glycine max) at elevated [CO?] and temperatures under fully open air field conditions.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, David M; Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M; Siebers, Matthew H; Gray, Sharon B; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R

    2014-09-01

    The net effect of elevated [CO2] and temperature on photosynthetic acclimation and plant productivity is poorly resolved. We assessed the effects of canopy warming and fully open air [CO2] enrichment on (1) the acclimation of two biochemical parameters that frequently limit photosynthesis (A), the maximum carboxylation capacity of Rubisco (Vc,max) and the maximum potential linear electron flux through photosystem II (Jmax), (2) the associated responses of leaf structural and chemical properties related to A, as well as (3) the stomatal limitation (l) imposed on A, for soybean over two growing seasons in a conventionally managed agricultural field in Illinois, USA. Acclimation to elevated [CO2] was consistent over two growing seasons with respect to Vc,max and Jmax. However, elevated temperature significantly decreased Jmax contributing to lower photosynthetic stimulation by elevated CO2. Large seasonal differences in precipitation altered soil moisture availability modulating the complex effects of elevated temperature and CO2 on biochemical and structural properties related to A. Elevated temperature also reduced the benefit of elevated [CO2] by eliminating decreases in stomatal limitation at elevated [CO2]. These results highlight the critical importance of considering multiple environmental factors (i.e. temperature, moisture, [CO2]) when trying to predict plant productivity in the context of climate change. PMID:25113459

  20. Rare Bone Diseases and Their Dental, Oral, and Craniofacial Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Foster, B.L.; Ramnitz, M.S.; Gafni, R.I.; Burke, A.B.; Boyce, A.M.; Lee, J.S.; Wright, J.T.; Akintoye, S.O.; Somerman, M.J.; Collins, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary diseases affecting the skeleton are heterogeneous in etiology and severity. Though many of these conditions are individually rare, the total number of people affected is great. These disorders often include dental-oral-craniofacial (DOC) manifestations, but the combination of the rarity and lack of in-depth reporting often limit our understanding and ability to diagnose and treat affected individuals. In this review, we focus on dental, oral, and craniofacial manifestations of rare bone diseases. Discussed are defects in 4 key physiologic processes in bone/tooth formation that serve as models for the understanding of other diseases in the skeleton and DOC complex: progenitor cell differentiation (fibrous dysplasia), extracellular matrix production (osteogenesis imperfecta), mineralization (familial tumoral calcinosis/hyperostosis hyperphosphatemia syndrome, hypophosphatemic rickets, and hypophosphatasia), and bone resorption (Gorham-Stout disease). For each condition, we highlight causative mutations (when known), etiopathology in the skeleton and DOC complex, and treatments. By understanding how these 4 foci are subverted to cause disease, we aim to improve the identification of genetic, molecular, and/or biologic causes, diagnoses, and treatment of these and other rare bone conditions that may share underlying mechanisms of disease. PMID:24700690