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1

Oral and IP caffeine pharmacokinetics under a chronic food-limitation condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

For food-limited rats, serum caffeine was proportional to IP caffeine doses (10–40 mg\\/kg) for Cmax and area under the curve [AUC(0–24h], whereas the three dimethylxanthine (DMX) metabolites of caffeine were disproportional over the dose range. Steady-state concentrations of caffeine and the three metabolites were evident at the 11th day of chronic, daily caffeine IP 20 mg\\/kg doses. Both caffeine and

Chyan E. Lau; Fang Ma; John L. Falk

1995-01-01

2

Estimation of growth parameters for some oral bacteria grown in continuous culture under glucose-limiting conditions.  

PubMed Central

The coexistence of bacteria in natural environments can often be explained in terms of competition for a growth-limiting substrate(s), and the outcome of such competition depends upon relevant growth parameters such as substrate affinity and yield. Dental plaque bacteria are frequently carbon and energy limited. Growth parameters for seven oral Streptococcus species and one Actinomyces viscosus strain were estimated under glucose-limited conditions in continuous culture. In all strains, mixed-acid fermentation occurred at low growth rates, while amounts of lactate increased at higher growth rates. Two important growth parameters, mumax and Y glucose, were very similar in the two serotype c Streptococcus mutans strains (T8 and Ingbritt), one of the serotype d/g Streptococcus mutans strains (OMZ65), and the two Streptococcus milleri strains (699B3 and B448). Two other serotype d/g S. mutans strains (KIR and B13) were divergent from this group and had lower mumax values and a lower Y glucose. The maintenance energy coefficients were lower in the S. mutans serotype c strains, and the highest values were observed in the S. milleri strains. While A. viscosus had a lower mumax, its lower maintenance rate and significantly higher yield indicate that it deals much more efficiently with glucose than do the streptococci. The most striking feature of amino acid utilization was that arginine was completely consumed by S. milleri strains; similarly, A. viscosus used up all available asparagine as did one of the S. milleri strains at faster growth rates. It is suggested that the ability of strains of S. milleri and S. sanguis to utilize arginine in addition to carbohydrate as a source of energy may explain why such organisms increase in proportion in the plaque of subjects consuming diets almost devoid of fermentable carbohydrate.

Rogers, A H; de Jong, M H; Zilm, P S; van der Hoeven, J S

1986-01-01

3

Physical Limitations Can Affect Oral Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

Physical Limitations Can Affect Oral Hygiene Difficulty With Hearing Visual Impairments Orthopedic Problems Chewing and Swallowing Difficulties Changes in ... your mouth and teeth despite pain or movement limitations. These include: Toothbrushes with enlarged handles Electric toothbrushes ...

4

Neuromuscular Diseases and Conditions (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

Neuromuscular Diseases and Conditions Bell's Palsy Epilepsy Multiple Sclerosis Cerebral Palsy Muscular Dystrophy Parkinson's Disease Huntington's Disease Myasthenia Gravis Spina Bifida Bell's Palsy Oral Effects Bell's palsy is a temporary paralysis of ...

5

Flavor preference conditioning by oral self-administration of ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral self-administration and operant tasks have been used successfully to confirm ethanol?s positive reinforcing effects\\u000a in rats. However, in flavor conditioning tasks, ethanol is typically found to have aversive effects. The present studies explored\\u000a this apparent paradox by examining the change in value of a flavor paired with orally self-administered ethanol in two different\\u000a limited-access procedures. Rats were food-deprived and

Christopher L. Cunningham; Jill S. Niehus

1997-01-01

6

34 CFR 34.9 - Conditions for an oral hearing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conditions for an oral hearing. 34.9 Section 34.9 Education...WAGE GARNISHMENT § 34.9 Conditions for an oral hearing. (a) We provide an oral hearing if youâ (1) Request an oral...

2013-07-01

7

[Acute conditions of the oral cavity].  

PubMed

Acute conditions are mainly caused by inflammatory and infectious reactions in the dental pulp, periodontal tissues, periapical bone and the tissues around partially impacted teeth. Pain may also be related to traumatic injuries to the teeth and jaws as well as sequelae after oral surgery. Emergency treatment involves incision of abscesses, root canal treatment, irrigation with antiseptics, immobilisation of teeth or fractured bones, and prescription of analgetics. Antibiotics are only indicated in cases in which there is a risk that an infection spreads to adjacent regions or a risk of fever and malaise. PMID:21044556

Bindslev, Preben Hørsted; Schou, Søren

2010-11-01

8

STDs and Related Conditions (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

... to avoid non-emergency dental treatment. Hepatitis Oral Effects Hepatitis rarely affects the mouth or teeth. At the Dentist Hepatitis ... patches" if the patch is white-gray in color. At the Dentist Avoid non-emergency dental ... Virus Oral Effects The most common disease associated with Epstein-Barr ...

9

The limits of oral history: ethics and methodology amid highly politicized research settings.  

PubMed

In recent years, oral history has been celebrated by its practitioners for its humanizing potential, and its ability to democratize history by bringing the narratives of people and communities typically absent in the archives into conversation with that of the political and intellectual elites who generally write history. And when dealing with the narratives of ordinary people living in conditions of social and political stability, the value of oral history is unquestionable. However, in recent years, oral historians have increasingly expanded their gaze to consider intimate accounts of extreme human experiences, such as narratives of survival and flight in response to mass atrocities. This shift in academic and practical interests begs the questions: Are there limits to oral historical methods and theory? And if so, what are these limits? This paper begins to address these questions by drawing upon fourteen months of fieldwork in Rwanda and Bosnia-Hercegovina, during which I conducted multiple life history interviews with approximately one hundred survivors, ex-combatants, and perpetrators of genocide and related mass atrocities. I argue that there are limits to the application of oral history, particularly when working amid highly politicized research settings. PMID:22175095

Jessee, Erin

2011-01-01

10

38 CFR 4.150 - Schedule of ratings-dental and oral conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Schedule of ratings-dental and oral conditions. 4.150 Section...RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Dental and Oral Conditions § 4.150 Schedule of ratingsâdental and oral conditions. Rating...

2013-07-01

11

Adhesion of oral Candida albicans isolates to denture acrylic following limited exposure to antifungal agents.  

PubMed

Candidal adherence to denture acrylic surfaces is implicated as the first step in the pathogenesis of Candida-associated denture stomatitis, the most prevalent form of oral candidosis in the West. This condition is treated by topically administered antifungal agents, mainly belonging to the polyenes and azoles. As the intraoral concentrations of antifungals fluctuate considerably due to the dynamics of the oral environment, the effect of short exposure to sublethal concentrations of antifungals on the adhesion of Candida albicans to denture acrylic surfaces was investigated. Seven oral C. albicans isolates were exposed to four-eight times minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of five antifungal drugs, nystatin, amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine, ketoconazole and fluconazole, for 1 h. After removing the drug (by repeated washing) the adhesion of these isolates to acrylic strips was assessed by an in vitro adhesion assay. Exposure to antifungal agents significantly reduced the adherence of all seven C. albicans isolates to denture acrylic. The mean percentage reductions of adhesion after limited exposure to nystatin, amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine, ketoconazole and fluconazole were 86.48, 90.85, 66.72, 65.88 and 47.42%, respectively. These findings indicate that subtherapeutic doses of antifungals may modulate oral candidal colonization. Further, these results may have an important bearing on dosage regimens currently employed in treating oral candidosis. PMID:9877331

Ellepola, A N; Samaranayake, L P

1998-12-01

12

Influence of Musculoskeletal Conditions on Oral Health Among Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Both musculoskeletal disorders and diseases of the oral cavity are common and potentially serious problems among older persons, yet little attention has been given to the links between them. Several musculoskeletal diseases, including osteoporosis, Paget’s disease, and arthritic disorders, may directly involve the oral cavity and contiguous structures. Drugs used to treat musculoskeletal diseases, including corticosteroids and bisphosphonates, increase the risk of suppression of the immune system and osteonecrosis of the jaw, respectively. Many people with disabling osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and other conditions have difficulty practicing good oral hygiene and traveling to dental offices for professional help. Various inexpensive measures can help such individuals, including education of their caregivers and provision of antimicrobial mouthwashes and special toothbrushes.

Kelsey, Jennifer L.; Lamster, Ira B.

2008-01-01

13

Immune activation paired with intraoral sucrose conditions oral rejection.  

PubMed

The effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LiCl on conditioned taste aversion acquisition using intraoral infusions as the method of taste delivery was examined. Rats received two pairings of an intraorally delivered sucrose (5 ml) taste with the effects of a systemic injection of LPS, LiCl or NaCl. The magnitude of conditioning was quantified by scoring taste reactivity responses to a brief intraoral infusion of sucrose in the absence of any drug injection. Rats previously conditioned with LiCl or LPS displayed clear evidence of conditioned aversion with increased oral rejection responses relative to saline controls. Our results suggest activation of the immune system with LPS can condition consummatory aspects of ingestion when this conditioning involves intraoral fluid presentation. PMID:15371751

Cross-Mellor, Shelley K; Hoshooley, Jennifer S; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

2004-10-01

14

14 CFR 135.227 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.227 Icing conditions...icing conditions. (f) If current weather reports and briefing information relied...encountered during the flight because of changed weather conditions since the forecast, the...

2013-01-01

15

Limitations in Life Participation and Independence Due to Secondary Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effects of secondary conditions across adults with autism, Down syndrome, and cerebral palsy were explored in terms of overall limitation in life participation and independence, changes over time, and the degree and nature of limitation in specific secondary conditions. Information was obtained for 35 adults with autism, 49 with Down…

Koritsas, Stella; Iacono, Teresa

2009-01-01

16

Oral methylphenidate establishes a conditioned place preference in rats  

PubMed Central

Emerging data suggest that illicit methylphenidate abuse is a growing problem. Although abuse of the drug typically occurs by the intranasal route, oral (per os; p.o.) methylphenidate also has abuse potential. The present study compared the effects of p.o. and intraperitoneal (i.p.) methylphenidate in rats using the conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. Young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to consume oyster crackers injected initially with saline. Next, rats were randomly assigned to receive p.o. or i.p. methylphenidate (3 or 10 mg/kg) or saline immediately or 30 min prior to 30-min conditioning trials. Methylphenidate or saline were each paired 4 times with an end compartment; preference for the methylphenidate-paired compartment was then assessed on a drug-free session. When given immediately prior to conditioning, significant CPP was obtained with both 3 and 10 mg/kg of i.p. methylphenidate, but only with 10 mg/kg of p.o. methylphenidate. When given 30 min prior to conditioning, there was no evidence of CPP for any dose of i.p. or p.o. methylphenidate. These findings are the first demonstration that p.o. methylphenidate has rewarding effects, although i.p. methylphenidate is obtained at a 3 mg/kg dose which did not establish CPP with p.o. administration. The lack of CPP following 30 min pretreatment also suggests that conditioning may require the CS to be associated with a US of ascending, rather than descending, brain levels of methylphenidate. These results are consistent with clinical evidence of the reduced abuse liability of p.o. methylphenidate relative to methylphenidate taken by other (e.g., intranasal) routes.

Wooters, Thomas E.; Walton, Matthew T.; Bardo, Michael T.

2010-01-01

17

Suitability of limited sampling strategy to cyclosporine A oral formulation.  

PubMed

Therapeutic drug monitoring of cyclosporine A in renal transplant patients is normally performed by measuring pre-dose trough levels or doing area under the curve profiles from all possible sampling points. On the basis of good correlation between predicted area under the curve from limited sampling points and actual area under the curve (literature survey), a limited sampling strategy at 1, 3 and 5 hr was used and extended this strategy as a criteria for pilot evaluation of modified cyclosporine A formulations. Hemodialysis patients served as subjects for the study. Panimun Bioral was used as a test formulation while Sandimmun Neoral as standard reference. The study revealed that both formulations had similar restricted AUC0-5h profiles. PMID:12557917

Singh, S; Sharma, D R; Singh, A

2000-08-01

18

Oral Condition and Its Relationship to Nutritional Status in the Institutionalized Elderly Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between the oral condition and nutritional status of all institutionalized elderly people in Florianópolis, Brazil. Of the population of 232 institutionalized individuals, the sample consisted of 187 elderly people. In the oral evaluation, the criteria used was the number of functional units present in the oral cavity, classifying the participants

Michelle Soares Rauen; Emília Addison Machado Moreira; Maria Cristina Marino Calvo; Adriana Soares Lobo

2006-01-01

19

Mouthwash Use and Oral Conditions in the Risk of Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interviews with 866 patients with cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx and 1249 controls of similar age and sex from the general population in four areas of the United States revealed increased risks associated with the regular use of mouthwash. Risks of oral cancer were elevated by 40% among male and 60% among female mouthwash users, after adjusting for

Deborah M. Winn; William J. Blot; Joseph K. McLaughlin; Donald F. Austin; Raymond S. Greenberg; Susan Preston-Martin; Janet B. Schoenberg; Joseph F. Fraumeni

1991-01-01

20

Relationship between oral function and general condition among Japanese nursing home residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between oral function and general condition among Japanese nursing home residents. The hypothesis was that oral function is one of the most important factors for the maintenance of general condition in dependent elderly. Seventy-nine residents of a nursing home in Japan participated in this study (54 women and 25 men,

Yasunori Sumi; Hiroko Miura; Masahiro Nagaya; Shuichiro Nagaosa; Osami Umemura

2009-01-01

21

Necessary conditions in limit theorems for cumulative processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that sufficient conditions in terms of moments for cumulative processes (additive functionals of regenerative processes) to satisfy the central limit theorem and the weak law of large numbers established in Glynn and Whitt (Stochastic Process. Appl. 47 (1993) 299–314) are also necessary, as previously conjectured.

Peter W. Glynn; Ward Whitt

2002-01-01

22

Health Condition, Impairment, Activity Limitations: Relationships With Emotions and Control Cognitions in People With Disabling Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To gain a better understanding of the influence of the health condition on emotions and control cognitions by using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. The relations between health condition, impairment, activity limitations, and emotions or control cognitions were investigated in people with 1 of 2 different disabling conditions, chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP) or

Carin Schröder; Marie Johnston; Val Morrison; Laurien Teunissen; Nicolette Notermans; Nico van Meeteren

2007-01-01

23

Trends in activity-limiting chronic conditions among children.  

PubMed Central

Data from the National Health Interview Survey indicate that the prevalence of activity-limiting chronic conditions among children under age 17 years doubled between 1960 and 1981, from 1.8 to 3.8 per cent. Approximately 40 per cent of the overall rise in prevalence occurred before 1970. Most of the increase in prevalence during this early period can be attributed to changes in questionnaire design and aging of the child population following the "baby boom" years. The factors responsible for increases in reported cases of activity limitation following 1970 are more difficult to specify and evaluate. During this later period, the increase in prevalence was restricted to less severe levels of limitations. While prevalence levels rose for a variety of conditions during this period, respiratory conditions and mental and nervous system disorders demonstrated the largest changes. It appears that much of the increase in reported cases of activity limitations during the 1970s can be attributed to shifting perceptions on the part of parents, educators, and physicians.

Newacheck, P W; Budetti, P P; Halfon, N

1986-01-01

24

29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Y of... - Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions A Appendix A to Subpart Y of Part 1926 Labor...Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions Note: The requirements applicable to...

2013-07-01

25

Oral Mucosal Conditions and Risk Factors among Elderly in a Turkish School of Dentistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Prevalence studies are important to determine the oral health status and treatment needs of elderly people. Our aim was to obtain data for the prevalence of oral mucosal conditions (OMC) in a Turkish elderly sample and to compare our results with different geographic regions. Objective: The purpose of this clinical-based study was to determine the prevalence of OMC and

Nesrin Dundar; Betul Ilhan Kal

2007-01-01

26

Feasibility and benefits of methanogenesis under oxygen-limited conditions  

SciTech Connect

Methanogenic and aerobic (or microaerophilic) biological processes are often considered mutually exclusive and separated as biological wastewater treatment options. However, under oxygen-limited conditions, both aerobic respiration and methanogenesis can be practically accomplished by a single mixed culture. This paper describes sustained batch culture, oxygen-limited methanogenic serum bottle and bench-scale systems. Serum bottle cultures exhibited methanogenic activity similar to or greater than that of a strictly anaerobic culture maintained in parallel. The COD removal efficiencies of anaerobic, oxygen-limited, and aerobic bench-scale reactors receiving 30,000 mg/l of sucrose were all greater than 93%, a system receiving 1 g O{sub 2}/L{sub R}-day achieved a lower final effluent COD than the strictly anaerobic reactor. After a shock-load of sucrose, the pH recovered in low-aeration batch reactors in 28--34 days, whereas anaerobic pH did not recover after 52 days of observation. In the future, methanogenesis under limited-aeration may be employed as an energy efficient treatment option to achieve low final COD concentrations, minimal biosolids generation, and mineralization of a broad range of specific organic chemicals.

Zitomer, D.H.; Shrout, J.D. [Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States)

1998-12-31

27

Paediatric life-limiting conditions: coping and adjustment in siblings.  

PubMed

A total of 31 siblings, aged between 5 and 16 years, of children with a life-limiting condition, participated in a longitudinal, mixed method study. Data collection included standardised psychometric measures and visual and participatory qualitative methods. Emotional functioning and perceptions of self-worth were normative on standardised measures. Qualitative data indicated distinct psychosocial strategies that appeared to underpin functioning, positioning themselves as adults within the family, adopting a role of 'social glue' in key relationships and thereby diminishing their own needs, and compartmentalising home and school life. Some strategies appeared adaptive in the short term but may be limiting in the longer term. The implications for professionals working to support families are discussed. PMID:22947892

Brennan, Cathy; Hugh-Jones, Siobhan; Aldridge, Jan

2012-09-04

28

Cariogenic microorganisms and oral conditions in asthmatic children.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the caries risk of asthmatic patients on the basis of mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli levels in saliva samples as well as the index of oral hygiene and dental caries (DMFT index). The study population was composed of 80 asthmatic children, aged 3-15 years, who use specific medication, and 80 matched, healthy control children. The parents were interviewed about oral health-related factors. The World Health Organization criteria were used for dental examinations. The Köhler and Bratthal methodology was used to detect salivary MS levels and dilutions of saliva were done for lactobacilli counting. No differences between asthma and control groups were observed for caries prevalence in children aged 3-6 and 7-10 years, except in severe cases in the younger group. However, higher caries prevalence for permanent dentition was observed in 11- to 15-year-old asthmatic children. An increased dental biofilm was observed in the asthma group, as well as salivary levels of MS. No differences were observed in levels of lactobacilli. No statistical correlations were found between medication, frequency of treatment, method of consumption and caries experience, dental biofilm and salivary levels of MS or lactobacilli. However, there was a correlation between MS levels and treatment duration. The logistic regression revealed that MS level is an important risk factor for increased caries experience. Asthma should be evaluated as a risk factor for caries experience because it can increase the levels of MS and the dental biofilm. PMID:21822017

Botelho, M P J; Maciel, S M; Cerci Neto, A; Dezan, C C; Fernandes, K B P; de Andrade, F B

2011-08-03

29

Oral mucosal conditions in preschool children of low socioeconomic status: prevalence and determinant factors.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of oral mucosal conditions and associated factors among 541 preschoolers of low socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Sociodemographic data and information on harmful oral habits were gathered with the use of a questionnaire. A clinical exam was performed for the determination of oral mucosal conditions, dental caries and level of oral hygiene. Data analysis involved statistical analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney test, chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and multivariate regression (p < 0.05, 95 % CI). The prevalence of oral mucosal conditions was 40.7 %. The most prevalent oral mucosal conditions were coated tongue (23.4 %), melanotic macules (14.4 %), oral ulcers (11.8 %), Fordyce's spots (8.1 %), angular cheilitis (3.0 %), geographic tongue (2.8 %), linea alba (1.5 %) and fistula (1.3 %). Children between 3 and 5 years of age had a greater chance of exhibiting coated tongue (OR, 2.55; 95 % CI, 1.6-4.1), melanotic macules (OR, 4.07; 95 % CI, 2.3-7.2) and Fordyce's spots (OR, 12.70; 95 % CI, 7.2-28.6). The female gender had a greater chance of exhibiting melanotic macules (OR, 2.23; 95 % CI, 1.3-1.8). Coated tongue was more prevalent among children from low-income families (OR, 2.35; 95 % CI, 1.3-4.3) and those with inadequate oral hygiene (OR, 4.65; 95 % CI, 2.9-7.4). Caries constituted a predictive factor for oral ulcers (OR, 2.15; 95 % CI, 1.2-3.9) and fistula (OR, 12.00; 95 % CI, 1.4-11.3). Bruxism (teeth clenching/grinding) was a predictive factor for angular cheilitis (OR, 5.55; 95 % CI, 1.9-16.3). The determinant factors for oral mucosal conditions were the female gender, age between 3 and 5 years, inadequate oral hygiene, low household income, residence in rural areas and presence of dental caries and bruxism. PMID:23354789

Vieira-Andrade, Raquel Gonçalves; Martins-Júnior, Paulo Antônio; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Stella, Paulo Eduardo Melo; Marinho, Sandra Aparecida; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia

2013-01-26

30

Survey of medical ethnobotanicals for dental and oral medicine conditions and pathologies.  

PubMed

Ethnomedical questionnaires were distributed in Chicago, Costa Rica, and Colombia to identify the most common over-the-counter (OTC) plant or plant-based products advocated for treating oral pain, ulcerative conditions, and cancer within these locations. Over 100 plants or plant-based herbal preparations and commercial products, purchased from local botanical markets and pharmacies, were advocated for the treatment of oral medicine conditions. Locally familiar and common language names were attributed to the plant products at the time of purchase. Plant products or plant-based commercial products containing plant-based essential oils, anesthetic constituents, and or chemical compounds recommended as OTC oral medicine preparations were systematized, tabulated, and correlated with the published phytotherapeutic literature. Though pharmacognostic research is available for some of the species collected, further ethnographic research is needed to correlate common names with the accurate taxonomic identification for each plant species. Furthermore, epidemiological research is needed to verify the use and standardized dosage for OTC ethnomedicine preparations for oral medicine conditions. Pharmacognostic research and clinical trails which can verify taxonomy, dose, safety, active principles, and efficacy of these OTC oral medicine products must be enhanced in order to verify the claimed validity in contemporary, global, oral medicine practice. PMID:16735102

Colvard, Michael D; Cordell, Geoffrey A; Villalobos, Rodrigo; Sancho, Gina; Soejarto, Doel D; Pestle, William; Echeverri, Tatiana Lobo; Perkowitz, Kathleen M; Michel, Joanna

2006-04-18

31

[A limited turbidostat yeast culture under heat shock conditions].  

PubMed

A response of limited turbidostat S. cerevisiae 14 culture on rapid increase in temperature from optimal 30 degrees to supraoptimal 37.5 degrees C. The temporal thermotolerance was absent in glucose and phosphate-limited cultures. Limitation of nitrogen, Mg, betaalanine, biotin, and, to a certain extent, potassium did not decrease the thermotolerance. The pattern of changes in age composition and specific optical density was found to be similar in limited and unlimited cultures. The glucose and phosphate expenditures at 37.5 degrees C were estimated. The response to heat shock was found to depend on the nature of the limiting factor and the extent of limiting. PMID:2685073

Kaliuzhin, V A

32

Flavor preferences conditioned by oral monosodium glutamate in mice.  

PubMed

The prototypic umami substance monosodium glutamate (MSG) reinforces preferences for its own flavor, as well as preferences for flavors associated with it, by conditioning processes. Mice of 3 inbred strains (C57BL/6J (B6), 129P3/J, and FVB/NJ) and 2 taste-knockout (KO) groups derived from the B6 lineage were initially indifferent to 200mM MSG, but this evaluation was altered by forced exposure to MSG. B6 and KO mice acquired an MSG preference, 129 mice remained indifferent, and FVB mice avoided MSG. The shifts in preference imply a postoral basis for MSG effects, suggesting that it could produce preferences for associated flavors. New mice were trained with a conditioned stimulus (CS+) flavor mixed in 200mM MSG and a CS- flavor in water. Similar to the parent B6 strain, mice missing the T1r3 element of an umami receptor or the downstream signaling component Trpm5 learned to prefer the CS+ flavor and subsequently showed similar preferences for MSG in an ascending concentration series. Consistent with their responses to forced exposure, the 129 strain did not acquire a significant CS+ preference, and the FVB strain avoided the CS+ flavor. The 129 and FVB strains showed little attraction in the ascending MSG concentration series. Together, these data indicate that the postoral effects of MSG can modulate responses to its own and MSG-paired flavors. The basis for strain differences in the responses to MSG is not certain, but the taste-signaling elements T1r3 and Trpm5, which are also present in the gut, are not required for mediation of this flavor learning. PMID:24122321

Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

2013-10-11

33

Glycopyrrolate oral solution: for chronic, severe drooling in pediatric patients with neurologic conditions.  

PubMed

Chronic drooling (sialorrhea) is a common dysfunction in children with neurologic disorders such as cerebral palsy. Glycopyrrolate oral solution, an anticholinergic agent, is the first drug treatment approved in the US for drooling in children with neurologic conditions. This article reviews the clinical efficacy and tolerability of glycopyrrolate oral solution in pediatric patients with neurologic conditions and provides an overview of the pharmacological properties of the drug. In a phase III, randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial, children (aged 3-16 years; n = 36) with problem drooling associated with neurologic conditions and receiving glycopyrrolate oral solution had a significantly (p < 0.01) greater modified Teacher's Drooling Scale (mTDS) response rate at 8 weeks (primary endpoint) than those receiving placebo (73.7% vs 17.6%). At 24 weeks in an additional, noncomparative, phase III study, 52.3% of glycopyrrolate oral solution recipients (aged 3-18 years; n = 137) had an mTDS response (primary endpoint); the response rate was consistently above 50% at all 4-weekly timepoints, aside from the first assessment at week 4 (40.3%). In general, glycopyrrolate oral solution was well tolerated in clinical trials. The majority of adverse events were within expectations as characteristic anticholinergic outcomes. PMID:22646067

Garnock-Jones, Karly P

2012-08-01

34

[Limited add-on value of oral glucose-lowering agents in type 1 diabetes].  

PubMed

Management of type 1 diabetes essentially relies upon intensive insulin therapy adjusted according to careful home blood glucose monitoring. The potential role of oral antidiabetic agents is controversial and what so ever is limited in type 1 diabetes. Nevertheless, metformin may still be useful in the presence of obesity and/or insulin resistance while acarbose could reduce the amplitude of glycaemic fluetuations, namely postprandial hyperglycaemia and late postmeal glycaemic nadir. Both drugs may also minimize weight gain that results from intensive insulin therapy. Finally, inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (glitpins), by inhibiting glucagon secretion, and inhibitors of renal SGLT2 cotransporters, thus promoting glucosuria independently of insulin, might also be beneficial in type 1 diabetes, although specific studies are still ongoing to verify this hypothesis. PMID:23444823

Scheen, A J

2013-01-01

35

Intra-oral compartment pressures: a biofunctional model and experimental measurements under different conditions of posture.  

PubMed

Oral posture is considered to have a major influence on the development and reoccurrence of malocclusion. A biofunctional model was tested with the null hypotheses that (1) there are no significant differences between pressures during different oral functions and (2) between pressure measurements in different oral compartments in order to substantiate various postural conditions at rest by intra-oral pressure dynamics. Atmospheric pressure monitoring was simultaneously carried out with a digital manometer in the vestibular inter-occlusal space (IOS) and at the palatal vault (sub-palatal space, SPS). Twenty subjects with normal occlusion were evaluated during the open-mouth condition (OC), gently closed lips (semi-open compartment condition, SC), with closed compartments after the generation of a negative pressure (CCN) and swallowing (SW). Pressure curve characteristics were compared between the different measurement phases (OC, SC, CCN, SW) as well as between the two compartments (IOS, SPS) using analysis of variance and Wilcoxon matched-pairs tests adopting a significance level of ? = 0.05. Both null hypotheses were rejected. Average pressures (IOS, SPS) in the experimental phases were 0.0, -0.08 (OC); -0.16, -1.0 (SC); -48.79, -81.86 (CCN); and -29.25, -62.51 (SW)?mbar. CCN plateau and peak characteristics significantly differed between the two compartments SPS and IOS. These results indicate the formation of two different intra-oral functional anatomical compartments which provide a deeper understanding of orofacial biofunctions and explain previous observations of negative intra-oral pressures at rest. PMID:20127264

Engelke, Wilfried; Jung, Klaus; Knösel, Michael

2010-02-02

36

Oral health conditions and frailty in Mexican community-dwelling elderly: a cross sectional analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Oral health is an important component of general well-being for the elderly. Oral health-related problems include loss of teeth, nonfunctional removable dental prostheses, lesions of the oral mucosa, periodontitis, and root caries. They affect food selection, speaking ability, mastication, social relations, and quality of life. Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that confers vulnerability to negative health-related outcomes. The association between oral health and frailty has not been explored thoroughly. This study sought to identify associations between the presence of some oral health conditions, and frailty status among Mexican community-dwelling elderly. Methods Analysis of baseline data of the Mexican Study of Nutritional and Psychosocial Markers of Frailty, a cohort study carried out in a representative sample of people aged 70 and older residing in one district of Mexico City. Frailty was defined as the presence of three or more of the following five components: weight loss, exhaustion, slowness, weakness, and low physical activity. Oral health variables included self-perception of oral health compared with others of the same age; utilization of dental services during the last year, number of teeth, dental condition (edentate, partially edentate, or completely dentate), utilization and functionality of removable partial or complete dentures, severe periodontitis, self-reported chewing problems and xerostomia. Covariates included were gender, age, years of education, cognitive performance, smoking status, recent falls, hospitalization, number of drugs, and comorbidity. The association between frailty and dental variables was determined performing a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Final models were adjusted by socio-demographic and health factors Results Of the 838 participants examined, 699 had the information needed to establish the criteria for diagnosis of frailty. Those who had a higher probability of being frail included women (OR?=?1.9), those who reported myocardial infarction (OR?=?3.8), urinary incontinence (OR?=?2.7), those who rated their oral health worse than others (OR?=?3.2), and those who did not use dental services (OR?=?2.1). For each additional year of age and each additional drug consumed, the probability of being frail increased 10% and 30%, respectively. Conclusions Utilization of dental services and self-perception of oral health were associated with a higher probability of being frail.

2012-01-01

37

14 CFR 125.221 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or snow. (3) The certificate holder has an approved deicing/anti-icing program that complies with § 121.629(c...conditions, unlessâ (1) The aircraft has functioning deicing or anti-icing equipment protecting each propeller,...

2013-01-01

38

33 CFR 330.4 - Conditions, limitations, and restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...conditions or revocations. (f) Endangered species. No activity is authorized...existence of a threatened or endangered species as listed or proposed for listing under the Federal Endangered Species Act (ESA), or to...

2013-07-01

39

42 CFR 410.34 - Mammography services: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Mammography services: Conditions for and limitations...Other Health Services § 410.34 Mammography services: Conditions for and limitations...definitions apply: (1) Diagnostic mammography means a radiologic...

2009-10-01

40

42 CFR 410.34 - Mammography services: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mammography services: Conditions for and limitations...Other Health Services § 410.34 Mammography services: Conditions for and limitations...definitions apply: (1) Diagnostic mammography means a radiologic...

2010-10-01

41

14 CFR 135.227 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pilot may take off an aircraft that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any rotor...conditions: (1) Takeoffs may be made with frost adhering to the wings, or stabilizing or control surfaces, if the frost has been polished to make it...

2010-01-01

42

14 CFR 135.227 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pilot may take off an aircraft that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any rotor...conditions: (1) Takeoffs may be made with frost adhering to the wings, or stabilizing or control surfaces, if the frost has been polished to make it...

2009-01-01

43

Concurrent excitors limit the extinction of conditioned fear in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a human fear conditioning experiment, with on-line expectancy ratings and electrodermal responding as indices of fear, two neutral stimuli (pictures of geometric shapes) were first established as reliable predictors of an electric shock. In the subsequent extinction phase, the two stimuli were repeatedly presented in compound, without the shock. The final test phase consisted of individual stimulus presentations again,

Bram Vervliet; Debora Vansteenwegen; Dirk Hermans; Paul Eelen

2007-01-01

44

Rivaroxaban: a novel oral anticoagulant for the prevention and treatment of several thrombosis-mediated conditions.  

PubMed

The development of rivaroxaban (XARELTO®) is an important new medical advance in the field of oral anticoagulation. Thrombosis-mediated conditions constitute a major burden for patients, healthcare systems, and society. For more than 60 years, the prevention and treatment of these conditions have been dominated by oral vitamin K antagonists (such as warfarin) and the injectable heparins. Thrombosis can lead to several conditions, including deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, and/or death. Prevention and treatment of thrombosis with an effective, convenient-to-use oral anticoagulant with a favorable safety profile is critical, especially in an aging society in which the risk of thrombosis, and the potential for bleeding complications, is increasing. Rivaroxaban acts to prevent and treat thrombosis by potently inhibiting coagulation Factor Xa in the blood. Factor Xa converts prothrombin to thrombin, which initiates the formation of blood clots by converting fibrinogen to clot-forming fibrin and leads to platelet activation. After a large and novel clinical development program in over 75,000 patients to date, rivaroxaban has received approval for multiple indications in the United States, European Union, and other countries worldwide to prevent and treat several thrombosis-mediated conditions. This review will highlight some of the unique aspects of the rivaroxaban development program. PMID:23701516

Sarich, Troy C; Peters, Gary; Berkowitz, Scott D; Misselwitz, Frank; Nessel, Christopher C; Burton, Paul; Cook-Bruns, Nancy; Lensing, Anthonie W A; Haskell, Lloyd; Perzborn, Elisabeth; Kubitza, Dagmar; Moore, Kenneth T; Jalota, Sanjay; Weber, Juergen; Pan, Guohua; Sun, Xiang; Westermeier, Torsten; Nadel, Andrea; Oppenheimer, Leonard; DiBattiste, Peter M

2013-05-23

45

42 CFR 424.90 - Court ordered assignments: Conditions and limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ordered assignments: Conditions and limitations...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...CONTINUED) CONDITIONS FOR MEDICARE PAYMENT...certified copy of the court order and...reassignment that meets the conditions of paragraph...

2012-10-01

46

Oral Bioavailability of Gatifloxacin in Healthy Volunteers under Fasting and Fed Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of gatifloxacin given as a single oral dose of 400 mg under fasting and fed conditions was determined in 18 healthy male volunteers in an open, two-way, randomised cross-over study. Concomitant food intake did not significantly alter the peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) or the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of gatifloxacin.

Alain Mignot; Michel Guillaume; Karin Göhler; Hans-Jürgen Stahlberg

2002-01-01

47

Antibacterial effect of silver-zeolite on oral bacteria under anaerobic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of silver-zeolite (SZ) against oral bacteria under anaerobic conditions.Methods: The antibacterial activity of SZ was evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using two-fold serial dilutions of SZ in Brain Heart Infusion broth. Release of Ag+ into the broth was measured by an atomic absorption technique.Results: SZ

K Kawahara; K Tsuruda; M Morishita; M Uchida

2000-01-01

48

Oral Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing\\/recovering from chemo-\\/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases.

Irène Hitz Lindenmüller; J. Thomas Lambrecht

2011-01-01

49

Gut microbiota limits heavy metals burden caused by chronic oral exposure.  

PubMed

Environmental exposure to pollutants such as heavy metal(s) is responsible for various altered physiological functions which are detrimental for health. The gut microbiota is critical for intestinal homeostasis but its role on xenobiotic handling is not fully understood, especially when continuous sub-chronic exposure is addressed. We first confirmed the essential role of the intestinal microbiome to limit heavy metal body burden by using germ-free mice following 6-weeks oral exposure. Significant increases of cadmium and lead absorption and dissemination in blood and target organs were measured in germ-free mice when compared with conventional specific pathogen free (SPF) mice. Besides the "barrier" function of the luminal microbiota, this may involve specific host-genes such as metallothioneins, which are differentially expressed in the gastrointestinal tract of each group of mice. Considering genes relevant for divalent metal transporters and oxidative pathways, significant differences in basal gene expression were measured between control and germ-free mice. Moreover, the magnitude of induction of these genes upon stimulation by heavy metals varied greatly depending on the dose and type of metal as well as the microbial status of the animal. Collectively, these data illustrate the complex host-microbes interplay occurring with environmental pollutants inside the gut. PMID:23916686

Breton, Jérôme; Daniel, Catherine; Dewulf, Joëlle; Pothion, Stéphanie; Froux, Nathalie; Sauty, Mathieu; Thomas, Patrick; Pot, Bruno; Foligné, Benoît

2013-08-02

50

[Reactogenicity and immunological effectiveness of an oral cholera chemical vaccine in a limited controlled experiment with human revaccination].  

PubMed

Oral cholera chemical vaccine in the doses tested (2 and 3 tablets) proved to be areactogenic, harmless and immunologically effective in a controlled limited trial in 150 volunteers. By the results of titration of specific antitoxins and vibriocidal antibodies in the blood serum, as well as of coproantibodies a dose of 2 tablets was chosen as the optimal one. PMID:371293

Sumarokov, A A; Ivanov, N R; Lelikov, V L; Dzhaparidze, M N; Karaeva, L T

1978-01-01

51

Association between Genetic Polymorphism of Tumor Necrosis Factor-a and Risk of Oral Submucous Fibrosis, a Precancerous Condition of Oral Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many cytokines have been thought to play important roles in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), an areca nut chewing-specific pre-cancerous condition characterized by the deposition of collagen in oral submucosa. Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), situated in the class III region of human leukocyte antigen (HLA), is a mediator with multiple functions, including the regulation of inflammatory reaction and

C.-J. Chiu; C.-P. Chiang; M.-L. Chang; H.-M. Chen; L.-J. Hahn; L.-L. Hsieh; Y.-S. Kuo; C.-J. Chen

2001-01-01

52

Liquid chromatography under limiting conditions of adsorption and limiting conditions of desorption for separation of complex polymers. The role of “flower-like” interactions of macromolecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Liquid chromatography of polymers under limiting conditions (LC-LC) of enthalpic, interactions employs different velocities\\u000a of small (eluent or auxiliary liquid) molecules and large (sample) molecules within a HPLC column. Slowly moving small molecules\\u000a of a liquid act as a “barrier” hindering fast progression of large molecules eluting with exclusion retention mechanism. Under\\u000a specific (“limiting”) conditions the low molar mass barrier

M. Šnauko; D. Berek

2003-01-01

53

Stability of vaccinia-vectored recombinant oral rabies vaccine under field conditions: a 3-year study.  

PubMed

Rabies is an incurable zoonotic disease caused by rabies virus, a member of the rhabdovirus family. It is transmitted through the bite of an infected animal. Control methods, including oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programs, have led to a reduction in the spread and prevalence of the disease in wildlife. This study evaluated the stability of RABORAL, a recombinant vaccinia virus vaccine that is used in oral rabies vaccination programs. The vaccine was studied in various field microenvironments in order to describe its viability and facilitate effective baiting strategies. Field microenvironments influenced the stability of this vaccine in this study. This study emphasizes the importance of understanding how vaccines perform under varying field conditions in order to plan effective baiting strategies. PMID:22468025

Hermann, Joseph R; Fry, Alethea M; Siev, David; Slate, Dennis; Lewis, Charles; Gatewood, Donna M

2011-10-01

54

Stability of vaccinia-vectored recombinant oral rabies vaccine under field conditions: A 3-year study  

PubMed Central

Rabies is an incurable zoonotic disease caused by rabies virus, a member of the rhabdovirus family. It is transmitted through the bite of an infected animal. Control methods, including oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programs, have led to a reduction in the spread and prevalence of the disease in wildlife. This study evaluated the stability of RABORAL, a recombinant vaccinia virus vaccine that is used in oral rabies vaccination programs. The vaccine was studied in various field microenvironments in order to describe its viability and facilitate effective baiting strategies. Field microenvironments influenced the stability of this vaccine in this study. This study emphasizes the importance of understanding how vaccines perform under varying field conditions in order to plan effective baiting strategies.

Hermann, Joseph R.; Fry, Alethea M.; Siev, David; Slate, Dennis; Lewis, Charles; Gatewood, Donna M.

2011-01-01

55

New Dipyridamole Salt with Improved Dissolution and Oral Bioavailability under Hypochlorhydric Conditions.  

PubMed

  The aim of this study was to develop new dipyridamole (DP) salts with pH-independent solubility for improving oral bioavailability under hypochlorhydria. Salt screening was carried out using nine counterions by the temperature gradient method. Six DP salts were obtained, and there was marked improvement in dissolution behavior for all DP salts in a neutral medium. Most DP salts were stable under accelerated conditions. On the basis of the dissolution and stability data, DP tosylate (DP/TS) was selected as a promising DP salt. The pharmacokinetics of DP and the promising DP salt were assessed in normal rats and omeprazole-treated rats as a hypochlorhydric model. After oral administration of DP/TS (10 mg-DP/kg) in normal rats, enhanced DP exposures with increased Cmax and AUC0-3 were observed compared with those with DP by ca. 2.8- and 1.7-fold, respectively. There was ca. 1 h delay of Tmax and ca. 62% reduction of AUC0-3 for DP in omeprazole-treated rats compared with those for DP in normal rats; however, oral absorption for DP/TS under hypochlorhydria was almost identical to that in normal rats. The newly developed DP/TS might provide better therapeutic efficacy in clinical use for hypochlorhydric patients. PMID:23419355

Taniguchi, Chika; Inoue, Ryo; Kato, Masashi; Yamashita, Kazuhiro; Kawabata, Yohei; Wada, Koichi; Yamada, Shizuo; Onoue, Satomi

2013-02-19

56

Acoustic Microscopy Analyses to Determine Good vs. Failed Tissue Engineered Oral Mucosa Under Normal or Thermally Stressed Culture Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) ultrasonic profilometry to determine acceptable vs. failed tissue engineered\\u000a oral mucosa. Specifically, ex vivo-produced oral mucosal equivalents (EVPOMEs) under normal or thermally stressed culture conditions were scanned with the SAM\\u000a operator blinded to the culture conditions. As seeded cells proliferate, they fill in and smooth out the surface irregularities;\\u000a they then stratify and

Frank Winterroth; Junho Lee; Shiuhyang Kuo; J. Brian Fowlkes; Stephen E. Feinberg; Scott J. Hollister; Kyle W. Hollman

2011-01-01

57

42 CFR 410.23 - Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and limitations on coverage...Services § 410.23 Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and limitations on coverage...Individual with a family history of glaucoma. (iii) African-Americans age...

2009-10-01

58

42 CFR 410.23 - Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and limitations on coverage...Services § 410.23 Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and limitations on coverage...Individual with a family history of glaucoma. (iii) African-Americans age...

2010-10-01

59

Autofluorescence guided diagnostic evaluation of suspicious oral mucosal lesions: opportunities, limitations, and pitfalls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wide-filed autofluorescence examination is currently considered as a standard of care for screening and diagnostic evaluation of early neoplastic changes of the skin, cervix, lung, bladder, gastrointestinal tract and oral cavity. Naturally occurring fluorophores within the tissue absorb UV and visible light and can re-emit some of this light at longer wavelengths in the form of fluorescence. This non-invasive tissue autofluorescence imaging is used in optical diagnostics, especially in the early detection of cancer. Usually, malignant transformation is associated with thickening of the epithelium, enhanced cellular density due to increased nuclear cytoplasmic ratio which may attenuate the excitation leading to a decrease in collagen autofluorescence. Hence, dysplastic and cancerous tissues often exhibit decreased blue-green autofluorescence and appear darker compared to uninvolved mucosa. Currently, there are three commercially available devices to examine tissue autofluorescence in the oral cavity. In this study we used the oral cancer screening device IdentafiTM 3000 to examine the tissue reflectance and autofluorescence of PML and confounding lesions of the oral cavity. Wide-field autofluorescence imaging enables rapid inspection of large mucosal surfaces, to aid in recognition of suspicious lesions and may also help in discriminate the PML (class 1) from some of the confounding lesions (class II). However, the presence of inflammation or pigments is also associated with loss of stromal autofluorescence, and may give rise to false-positive results with widefield fluorescence imaging. Clinicians who use these autofluorescence based oral cancer screening devices should be aware about the benign oral mucosal lesions that may give false positivity so that unnecessary patient's anxiety and the need for scalpel biopsy can be eliminated.

Vigneswaran, Nadarajah

2011-02-01

60

Shakedown limits for a general yield condition: implementation and application for a Von Mises yield condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the generalisation of the programming method for the determination of optimal upper bound shakedown limits for an elastic\\/perfectly plastic solid given by Ponter and Carter (1997). The method is based on similar principles to the `Elastic Compensation' method which has been used in design calculations for a number of years. A convergence proof for a general yield

Alan R. S. Ponter; Markus Engelhardt

2000-01-01

61

Impact of cooling condition and filling ratio on heat transfer limit of cryogenic thermosyphon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the heat transfer limits of two cryogenic thermosyphons with different cooling conditions and filling ratios are experimentally studied and discussed. The cryogenic thermosyphons are fabricated with the same inner structures and their heat transfer performances are tested. The heat transfer limit of the cryogenic thermosyphon can reach 180.0 W through improving the cooling condition at moderate filling ratios. Meanwhile, it is found that the dry-out limit occurs not only at low filling ratios, but also at high filling ratios in the case of poor cooling condition. The mechanism behind the dry-out limit at high filling ratios is analyzed and the critical heat flux is predicted by a model that describes the heat and mass balance of the working fluid. A fluctuating period is observed in the vicinity of the boiling limit, and the critical heat flux corresponding to the boiling limit is predicted by an empirical correlation.

Long, Z. Q.; Zhang, P.

2012-01-01

62

Prosthetic rehabilitation of edentulous patient with limited oral access: A clinical report  

PubMed Central

Microstomia may result from surgical treatment of orofacial neoplasms, cleft lips, maxillofacial trauma, burns, radiotherapy or scleroderma. A maximal oral opening that is smaller than the size of a complete denture can make prosthetic treatment challenging. This clinical report presents the prosthodontic management of a total edentulous patient with microstomia. Sectional mandibular and maxillary trays and foldable mandibular and maxillary denture were fabricated for the total edentulous patient.

Kumar, Sandeep; Arora, Aman; Yadav, Reena

2012-01-01

63

Variations in the Social Impact of Oral Conditions Among Older Adults in South Australia, Ontario, and North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies among older adults have demonstrated that oral disease frequently leads to dysfunction, discomfort, and disability. This study aimed to assess variations in the social impact of oral conditions among six strata of people aged 65 years and older: residents of metropolitan Adelaide and rural Mt Gambier, South Australia; residents of metropolitan Toronto-North York and non-metropolitan Simcoe-Sudbury counties, Ontario,

G. D. Slade; A. J. Spencer; D. Locker; R. J. Hunt; R. P. Strauss; J. D. Beck

1996-01-01

64

Subchronic oral toxicity of microcystin in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) exposed to Microcystis under laboratory conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subchronic oral toxicity of microcystin in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) was investigated in this study. The fish (mean body weight of 322±36g, n=10) were orally exposed to Microcystis by feeding with bloom scum at a dose of 50?g microcystins\\/kg body weight under laboratory conditions for 28 days. Growth assay results showed that microcystin could completely inhibit the growth

Xiao-Yu Li; Ik-Kyo Chung; Jung-In Kim; Jin-Ae Lee

2004-01-01

65

Development of a Multispecies Oral Bacterial Community in a Saliva-Conditioned Flow Cell  

PubMed Central

Microbial communities within the human oral cavity are dynamic associations of more than 500 bacterial species that form biofilms on the soft and hard tissues of the mouth. Understanding the development and spatial organization of oral biofilms has been facilitated by the use of in vitro models. We used a saliva-conditioned flow cell, with saliva as the sole nutritional source, as a model to examine the development of multispecies biofilm communities from an inoculum containing the coaggregation partners Streptococcus gordonii, Actinomyces naeslundii, Veillonella atypica, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Biofilms inoculated with individual species in a sequential order were compared with biofilms inoculated with coaggregates of the four species. Our results indicated that flow cells inoculated sequentially produced biofilms with larger biovolumes compared to those biofilms inoculated with coaggregates. Individual-species biovolumes within the four-species communities also differed between the two modes of inoculation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with genus- and species-specific probes revealed that the majority of cells in both sequentially and coaggregate-inoculated biofilms were S. gordonii, regardless of the inoculation order. However, the representation of A. naeslundii and V. atypica was significantly higher in biofilms inoculated with coaggregates compared to sequentially inoculated biofilms. Thus, these results indicate that the development of multispecies biofilm communities is influenced by coaggregations preformed in planktonic phase. Coaggregating bacteria such as certain streptococci are especially adapted to primary colonization of saliva-conditioned surfaces independent of the mode of inoculation and order of addition in the multispecies inoculum. Preformed coaggregations favor other bacterial strains and may facilitate symbiotic relationships.

Foster, Jamie S.; Kolenbrander, Paul E.

2004-01-01

66

Interactive BASIC Program to Calculate Shallow Water, Limited Fetch Wave Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents an interactive BASIC computer program for calculating shallow water, limited fetch wave conditions. The program uses the procedures outlined in the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers Shore Protection Manual (1984). The program was originally ...

J. R. Weggel S. L. Douglass

1985-01-01

67

Can conditions experienced during migration limit the population levels of birds?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of migratory birds are usually considered to be limited by conditions in breeding or wintering areas, but some\\u000a might be limited by conditions encountered on migration. This could occur at stopover sites where competition for restricted\\u000a food supplies can reduce subsequent survival or breeding success, or during the flights themselves, when adverse weather can\\u000a occasionally kill large numbers of

Ian Newton

2006-01-01

68

The incidence of serious hemodynamic changes in physically-limited patients following oral dipyridamole challenge before thallium-201 scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Dipyridamole has liberalized referrals for stress TI-201 chloride (thallium) studies at the Iowa City Veterans Administration Medical Center. Seventy-five percent of referrals now receive dipyridamole and, unlike patients who tolerate conventional exercise testing, these patients are often quite debilitated. Therefore, the hemodynamic consequences of dipyridamole were reviewed in 120 consecutive, physically-limited patients referred for thallium scintigraphy following an average oral dose of 5.4 mg/kg. Each patient's blood pressure was measured every 5 minutes for 1 hour after dipyridamole and compared with several clinical factors to determine if blood pressure change was predictable. In all patients, blood pressure changed from 136 +/- 21/83 +/- 15 (mean +/- 1 SD) to 117 +/- 25/72 +/- 15 following dipyridamole administration. One hundred nine of the 120 patients had a blood pressure decline from 137 +/- 21/82 +/- 12 to 113 +/- 21/70 +/- 13. Of the 109, 43% (N = 47) had a systolic blood pressure decline greater than 20 mmHg, 16% (n = 18) greater than 40 mmHg, and 13% (n = 14) greater than 50 mmHg. Thirteen percent (n = 14) required emergent reversal of the dipyridamole with aminophylline. Significant hypotension is relatively common but generally unpredictable after oral dipyridamole. Therefore, patient eligibility criteria should be carefully considered; strict hemodynamic monitoring must be routine in the usual patient undergoing thallium scintigraphy after oral dipyridamole challenge.

Kahn, D.; Argenyi, E.A.; Berbaum, K.; Rezai, K. (Veterans Administration Hospital, Iowa City, IA (USA))

1990-10-01

69

Limited oral bioavailability and active epithelial excretion of paclitaxel (Taxol) caused by P-glycoprotein in the intestine  

PubMed Central

In mice, the mdr1a and mdr1b genes encode drug-transporting proteins that can cause multidrug resistance in tumor cells by lowering intracellular drug levels. These P-glycoproteins are also found in various normal tissues such as the intestine. Because mdr1b P-glycoprotein is not detectable in the intestine, mice with a homozygously disrupted mdr1a gene [mdr1a(?/?) mice] do not contain functional P-glycoprotein in this organ. We have used these mdr1a(?/?) mice to study the effect of gut P-glycoprotein on the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel. The area under the plasma concentration-time curves was 2- and 6-fold higher in mdr1a(?/?) mice than in wild-type (wt) mice after i.v. and oral drug administration, respectively. Consequently, the oral bioavailability in mice receiving 10 mg paclitaxel per kg body weight increased from only 11% in wt mice to 35% in mdr1a(?/?) mice. The cumulative fecal excretion (0–96 hr) was markedly reduced from 40% (after i.v. administration) and 87% (after oral administration) of the administered dose in wt mice to below 3% in mdr1a(?/?) mice. Biliary excretion was not significantly different in wt and mdr1a(?/?) mice. Interestingly, after i.v. drug administration of paclitaxel (10 mg/kg) to mice with a cannulated gall bladder, 11% of the dose was recovered within 90 min in the intestinal contents of wt mice vs. <3% in mdr1a(?/?) mice. We conclude that P-glycoprotein limits the oral uptake of paclitaxel and mediates direct excretion of the drug from the systemic circulation into the intestinal lumen.

Sparreboom, Alex; van Asperen, Judith; Mayer, Ulrich; Schinkel, Alfred H.; Smit, Johan W.; Meijer, Dirk K. F.; Borst, Piet; Nooijen, Willem J.; Beijnen, Jos H.; van Tellingen, Olaf

1997-01-01

70

Cell surface hydrophobicity of oral Candida dubliniensis isolates following limited exposure to sub-therapeutic concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate.  

PubMed

Candidal adhesion has been implicated as the initial step in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis and cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) has been implicated in adhesion to mucosal surfaces. Candida dubliniensis is an opportunistic pathogen associated with recurrent oral candidiasis. Chlorhexidine gluconate is by far the commonest antiseptic mouth wash prescribed in dentistry. At dosage intervals the intraoral concentration of this antiseptic fluctuates considerably and reaches sub-therapeutic levels due to the dynamics of the oral cavity. Hence, the organisms undergo only a limited exposure to the antiseptic during treatment. The impact of this antiseptic following such exposure on CSH of C. dubliniensis isolates has not been investigated. Hence, the main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of brief exposure to sub-therapeutic concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate on the CSH of C. dubliniensis isolates. Twelve oral isolates of C. dubliniensis were briefly exposed to three sub-therapeutic concentrations of 0.005%, 0.0025% and 0.00125% chlorhexidine gluconate for 30 min. Following subsequent removal of the drug, the CSH of the isolates was determined by a biphasic aqueous-hydrocarbon assay. Compared with the controls, exposure to 0.005% and 0.0025% chlorhexidine gluconate suppressed the relative CSH of the total sample tested by 44.49% (P < 0.001) and 21.82% (P < 0.018), respectively, with all isolates being significantly affected. Although exposure to 0.00125% of chlorhexidine gluconate did not elicit a significant suppression on the total sample tested (7.01%; P > 0.05), four isolates of the group were significantly affected. These findings imply that exposure to sub-therapeutic concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate may suppress CSH of C. dublinienis isolates, thereby reducing its pathogenicity and highlights further the pharmacodynamics of chlorhexidine gluconate. PMID:22533484

Ellepola, Arjuna N B; Joseph, Bobby K; Khan, Z U

2012-04-26

71

Nonlinear quintic Schrodinger equations with complex initial conditions, limited time response  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a perturbing nonlinear quintic Schrodinger equation is studied under limited time interval, complex initial conditions and zero Neumann conditions. The perturbation and Picard approximation methods together with the eigenfunction expansion and variational of parameters methods are used to introduce an approximate solution for the perturbative nonlinear case for which a power series solution is proved to exist.

Magdy A. El-Tawil; H. El Zoheiry; Sherif E. Nasr

2010-01-01

72

Pontine Stimulation Overcomes Developmental Limitations in the Neural Mechanisms of Eyeblink Conditioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pontine neuronal activation during auditory stimuli increases ontogenetically between postnatal days (P) P17 and P24 in rats. Pontine neurons are an essential component of the conditioned stimulus (CS) pathway for eyeblink conditioning, providing mossy fiber input to the cerebellum. Here we examined whether the developmental limitation in pontine…

Freeman, John H., Jr; Rabinak, Christine A.; Campolattaro, Matthew M.

2005-01-01

73

Hydrodynamic modelling of aquatic suction performance and intra-oral pressures: limitations for comparative studies  

PubMed Central

The magnitude of sub-ambient pressure inside the bucco-pharyngeal cavity of aquatic animals is generally considered a valuable metric of suction feeding performance. However, these pressures do not provide a direct indication of the effect of the suction act on the movement of the prey item. Especially when comparing suction performance of animals with differences in the shape of the expanding bucco-pharyngeal cavity, the link between speed of expansion, water velocity, force exerted on the prey and intra-oral pressure remains obscure. By using mathematical models of the heads of catfishes, a morphologically diverse group of aquatic suction feeders, these relationships were tested. The kinematics of these models were fine-tuned to transport a given prey towards the mouth in the same way. Next, the calculated pressures inside these models were compared. The results show that no simple relationship exists between the amount of generated sub-ambient pressure and the force exerted on the prey during suction feeding, unless animals of the same species are compared. Therefore, for evaluating suction performance in aquatic animals in future studies, the focus should be on the flow velocities in front of the mouth, for which a direct relationship exists with the hydrodynamic force exerted on prey.

Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Aerts, Peter; Herrel, Anthony

2006-01-01

74

Oral Assessment and Postgraduate Medical Examinations: Establishing Conditions for Validity, Reliability and Fairness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this review was to examine the practice of oral assessment in postgraduate medical education in the context of the core assessment constructs of validity, reliability and fairness. Although oral assessment has a long history in the certification process of medical specialists and is a well-established part of such proceedings for a…

Memon, Muhammed Ashraf; Joughin, Gordon Rowland; Memon, Breda

2010-01-01

75

Oral Mucositis and Outcomes of Autologous Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation Following High-Dose Melphalan Conditioning for Multiple Myeloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship be- tween oral mucositis (OM) and adverse clinical and economic outcomes of autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) following high-dose melphalan (Alkeran) conditioning in patients with multiple myeloma. A retrospective study of 115 consecutive autologous HSCT recipients with multiple myeloma who received high-dose melphalan conditioning before transplantation was undertaken at a

Montserrat Vera-Llonch; Gerry Oster; Colleen M. Ford; John Lu; Stephen Sonis

2007-01-01

76

SAICAR Stimulates Pyruvate Kinase Isoform M2 and Promotes Cancer Cell Survival in Glucose -Limited Conditions  

PubMed Central

Pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2) plays an important role in the growth and metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells in stress conditions. Here, we report that SAICAR (succinylaminoimidazolecarboxamide ribose-5?-phosphate, an intermediate of the de novo purine nucleotide synthesis pathway) specifically stimulates PKM2. Upon glucose starvation, cellular SAICAR concentration increases in an oscillatory manner and stimulates PKM2 activity in cancer cells. Changes in SAICAR levels in cancer cells alter cellular energy level, glucose uptake, and lactate production. The SAICAR-PKM2 interaction also promotes cancer cell survival in glucose-limited conditions. SAICAR accumulation is not observed in normal adult epithelial cells or lung fibroblasts regardless of glucose conditions. This allosteric regulation may explain how cancer cells coordinate different metabolic pathways to optimize their growth in the nutrient-limited conditions commonly observed in the tumor microenvironment.

Keller, Kirstie E.; Tan, Irene S.; Lee, Young-Sam

2012-01-01

77

Flavor preferences conditioned by post-oral infusion of monosodium glutamate in rats.  

PubMed

Monosodium glutamate (MSG), the prototypical umami source, can enhance preference for associated flavors in humans and rodents. Although MSG flavor preference has been attributed to its taste, vagally-mediated post-oral detection has also been demonstrated. Recent studies showed that water-restricted rats acquired a preference for a flavor paired with intragastric (IG) infusion of 60 mM MSG in rats. The present study extends this work by comparing MSG-based flavor conditioning in water- and food-restricted rats and testing the persistence of flavor preferences. Rats with IG catheters drank flavored solutions paired with volume-matched infusions of 60 mM MSG or water in daily 30-min sessions. Two training/test cycles were conducted, each with eight one-bottle training sessions followed by two two-bottle preference tests without infusions. Food- and water-restricted groups displayed similar preferences for the MSG-paired flavor. When non-reinforced testing was continued after the second cycle, the food-restricted group sustained its preference across three 2-day tests, but water-restricted rats lost their preference. Other food-restricted rats learned to prefer a flavor paired with intraduodenal infusion, indicating that gastric stimulation by MSG is not required. A third experiment showed that adding 2 mM of the nucleotide inosine monophosphate to the IG infusion of MSG did not significantly enhance flavor conditioning. Because MSG-based flavor preferences can be obtained with infusions that bypass the stomach, the site for detecting MSG reinforcement may be intestinal. PMID:21605576

Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

2011-05-13

78

The Inviscid Limit for the Navier-Stokes Equations with Slip Condition on Permeable Walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the Navier-Stokes equations in a 2D-bounded domain with general non-homogeneous Navier slip boundary conditions prescribed on permeable boundaries, and study the vanishing viscosity limit. We prove that solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations converge to solutions of the Euler equations satisfying the same Navier slip boundary condition on the inflow region of the boundary. The convergence is strong in Sobolev's spaces , which correspond to the spaces of the data.

Chemetov, N. V.; Cipriano, F.

2013-10-01

79

Limits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will see how the idea of a limit can be presented both in formal epsilon-delta-style terms, and using corresponding animations. After calculating a limit for a simple example function, we point out that limits do not always exist.

Liao, David

80

Emittance Limitation of a Conditioned Beam in a Strong Focusing FEL Undulator  

SciTech Connect

Various methods have been proposed to condition an electron beam in order to reduce its emittance effect and to improve the short-wavelength free electron laser (FEL) performance. In this paper, we show that beam conditioning does not result in a complete elimination of the emittance effect in an alternating-gradient focusing FEL undulator. Using a one-dimensional model and a three-dimensional simulation code, we derive a criteria for the emittance limitation of a perfectly conditioned beam that depends on the focusing structure.

Huang, Z.; Stupakov, G.; Reiche, S.

2006-03-24

81

Genetic differentiation in Plantago major L. in growth and P uptake under conditions of P limitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study possible adaptive mechanisms inbred lines from three populations of Plantago major from sites that were found to differ in P availability were compared. In a pot experiment the growth and P uptake either in the presence or absence of Glomus fasciculatum was determined. Under these P-limited conditions it was shown by partitioning the relative growth rate (RGR, in

R. Baas; M. L. Beusichem

1990-01-01

82

Influence of the weld conditions on the forming-limit strains of tailor-welded blanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the present work is to study experimentally the influence of just the weld conditions, namely the weld region, weld orientation, and weld location, on the forming-limit strains of steel laser-welded blanks. Transverse and longitudinal weld orient- ations are considered for this study. The weld location includes both centre and offset weld positions in the transverse weld

R Ganesh Narayanan; K Narasimhan

2008-01-01

83

Dead-Zone Limiter: An Application of Conditional Tests in Nonparametric Detection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The concept of a conditional statistical test is applied to obtain a nonparametric detector based on the dead-zone limiter nonlinearity. The resulting detector is easily implemented, and its performance is shown to be superior to that of the sign detector...

S. A. Kassam J. B. Thomas

1975-01-01

84

Turbulent Diffusion Combustion under Conditions of Limited Ventilation: Flame Projection Through an Opening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of turbulent diffuse flame in a compartment with a vertical opening is studied experimentally and numerically. Flame projection through the opening observed under conditions of limited natural-convective ventilation is considered. The measurements are performed in a laboratory box designed for compartment-fire simulation. The critical (minimum) flow rate of the fuel sufficient for flame projection is determined, as well as

A. Yu. Snegirev; G. M. Makhviladze; V. A. Talalov; A. V. Shamshin

2003-01-01

85

LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY OF MACROMOLECULES UNDER LIMITING CONDITIONS OF ADSORPTION. I. PRINCIPLES OF THE METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel separation method for macromolecules, viz. liquid chromatography under limiting conditions of adsorption (LC LCA), is presented. LC LCA is designed for discrimination of complex polymers. It combines exclusion and adsorption mechanisms so that they mutually compensate. This results in the absence of separation of macromolecules according to their size or molar mass. In LC LCA, the eluent is

Dušan Berek

1999-01-01

86

Model-based condition monitoring of PEM fuel cell using Hotelling T 2 control limit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a variety of design and control strategies have been proposed to improve the performance of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems, temporary faults in such systems still might occur during operations due to the complexity of the physical process and the functional limitations of some components. The development of an effective condition monitoring system that can detect these

X. Xue; J. Tanga; N. Sammes; Y. Ding

2006-01-01

87

Plasma, oral fluid and sweat wipe ecstasy concentrations in controlled and real life conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a double-blind placebo controlled study on psychomotor skills important for car driving (Study 1), a 75mg dose of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) was administered orally to 12 healthy volunteers who were known to be recreational MDMA-users. Toxicokinetic data were gathered by analysis of blood, urine, oral fluid and sweat wipes collected during the first 5h after administration. Resultant plasma concentrations varied

Nele Samyn; Gert De Boeck; Michelle Wood; Caroline T. J Lamers; Dick De Waard; Karel A Brookhuis; Alain G Verstraete; Wim J Riedel

2002-01-01

88

Probabilistic evaluation of limiting conditions of operations outage times for diesel generators  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of two approaches for quantitative evaluation of Limiting Conditions of Operations for Outage Times for Diesel Generators. The first approach calculates the core damage frequency conditional on the state of the Emergency ac System (EAC). These conditional frequencies can be used to determine appropriate Allowable Outage Times (AOTs). Four representative EAC systems are analysed; one with four, two with three and one with two diesel generators. The results indicate that there is substantial variability of conditional core damage probabilities within the states of a given EAC system. The variability is attributed to asymmetries in the loads of various diesels of the EAC. The second approach calculates the average unavailability of various EAC configurations and the expected reactor shutdown time given that the AOTs are predetermined at a given level. Three typical configurations (1/2, 2/3 and 1/3) were analysed for various testing schemes, levels of diesel reliabilities, repair rates and AOTs.

Papazoglou, I.A.; Bozoki, G.E.; Sun, Y.H.

1985-01-01

89

Enhancement of chemotaxis in Spirochaeta aurantia grown under conditions of nutrient limitation.  

PubMed Central

Spirochaeta aurantia M1 cells were grown in a chemostat under conditions of energy and carbon source limitation. The chemotactic responses of the chemostat-grown cells were compared with those of S. aurantia cells grown in batch culture in the presence of excess energy and carbon source. Chemotactic responses were measured by determining the number of cells that entered a capillary tube containing a solution of attractant. S. aurantia cells grown in the chemostat under energy and carbon source limitation exhibited enhanced chemotactic responses and detected lower concentrations of attractant, as compared with cells grown in batch culture. The chemotactic response toward an attractant was specifically enhanced when that attractant was the growth-limiting energy and carbon source. The medium used contained either D-glucose or D-xylose as the sole energy and carbon source. Cells had the greatest chemotactic response toward glucose when grown at a dilution rate (D) of 0.045 h-1 under glucose limitation and toward xylose when grown at D = 0.06 h-1 under xylose limitation. When cells were grown under glucose limitation (D = 0.045 h-1), they sensed concentrations of attractant (glucose) ca. 1,000 times lower than those sensed by batch-grown cells. A similar enhancement of sensing ability (toward xylose) was observed in cells grown under xylose limitation. The results indicated that S. aurantia cells are able to regulate their chemosensory system in response to nutrient limitation. Maximum enhancement of chemotaxis occurs in cells growing at very low concentrations of energy and carbon source. Most likely, this property provides the spirochetes with competitive advantages when the availability of nutrients becomes severely limited in their habitats.

Terracciano, J S; Canale-Parola, E

1984-01-01

90

Carbon dioxide assimilation by Thiobacillus novellus under nutrient-limited mixotrophic conditions.  

PubMed Central

The contribution of CO2 to cell material synthesis in Thiobacillus novellus under nutrient-limited conditions was estimated by comparing 14CO2 uptake rates of steady-state autotrophic cultures with that of heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultures at a given dilution rate. Under heterotrophic conditions, some 13% of the cell carbon was derived from CO2; this is similar to the usual anaplerotic CO2 fixation in batch cultures of heterotrophic bacteria. Under mixotrophic conditions, the contribution of CO2 to cell material synthesis increased with increasing S2O3 2- -to-glucose ratio in the medium inflow; at a ratio of 10, ca. 32% of the cell carbon was synthesized from CO2. We speculate that the use of CO2 as carbon source, even when the glucose provided is sufficient to fulfill the biosynthetic needs, may augment the growth rate of the bacterium under such nutrient-limited conditions and could therefore be of survival value in nature. Some of the CO2 assimilated was excreted into the medium as organic compounds under all growth conditions, but in large amounts only in autotrophic environments as very low dilution rates.

Perez, R C; Matin, A

1982-01-01

91

Limiting current in a relativistic diode under the condition of magnetic insulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum emission current density is calculated for a time-independent, relativistic, cycloidal electron flow in a diode that is under the condition of magnetic insulation. Contrary to conventional thinking, this maximum current is not determined by the space charge limited condition on the cathode, even when the emission velocity of the electrons is assumed to be zero. The self electric and magnetic fields associated with the cycloidal flow are completely accounted for. This maximum current density is confirmed by a two-dimensional, fully electromagnetic and fully relativistic particle-in-cell code.

Lopez, Mike; Lau, Y. Y.; Luginsland, John W.; Jordan, David W.; Gilgenbach, Ronald M.

2003-11-01

92

Respite support for children with a life-limiting condition and their parents: a literature review.  

PubMed

Most children with a life-limiting condition are cared for in the family home by their parents, who require professional support to provide this care. Owing to advances in medicine and medical technology these children are living longer and, given the often relentless and all-encompassing nature of caring for children with life-limiting conditions, respite (facilitation of short breaks) is considered central to quality palliative care provision for children and their families. However, there is still ambiguity in exactly what is meant by the term 'respite', what constitutes respite care, whether the services currently provided meet the needs of the child and family, and how respite is best provided. This paper reviews the literature relating to respite as a component of children's palliative care. Themes from the literature are identified and discussed. Challenges for the providers of respite care are identified and suggestions made regarding the future development of responsive and family-focused respite care. PMID:22584313

Ling, Julie

2012-03-01

93

Periodontal conditions, oral Candida albicans and salivary proteins in type 2 diabetic subjects with emphasis on gender  

PubMed Central

Background The association between periodontal conditions, oral yeast colonisation and salivary proteins in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is not yet documented. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between these variables in type 2 diabetic subjects with reference to gender. Methods Fifty-eight type 2 diabetic subjects (23 males and 35 females) with random blood glucose level ? 11.1 mmol/L were investigated. Periodontal conditions (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP], probing pocket depth [PD] (4 to 6 mm and ? 6 mm), oral yeasts, salivary immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgG and total protein concentrations, and number of present teeth were determined. Results Periodontal conditions (PI [p < 0.00001], BOP [p < 0.01] and PD of 4 to 6 mm [p < 0.001], salivary IgG (?g)/mg protein (p < 0.001) and salivary total protein concentrations (p < 0.05) were higher in type 2 diabetic females with Candida albicans (C. albicans) colonisation compared to males in the same group. Type 2 diabetic females with C. albicans colonisation had more teeth compared to males in the same group (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Clinical and salivary parameters of periodontal inflammation (BOP and IgG (?g)/mg protein) were higher in type 2 diabetic females with oral C. albicans colonisation compared to males in the same group. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the association of gender with these variables in subjects with T2D.

Javed, Fawad; Klingspor, Lena; Sundin, Ulf; Altamash, Mohammad; Klinge, Bjorn; Engstrom, Per-Erik

2009-01-01

94

General boundary conditions for a Dirac particle in a box and their non-relativistic limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most general relativistic boundary conditions (BCs) for a `free' Dirac particle in a one-dimensional box are discussed. It is verified that in the Weyl representation there is only one family of BCs, labelled with four parameters. This family splits into three sub-families in the Dirac representation. The energy eigenvalues as well as the corresponding non-relativistic limits of all these

Vidal Alonso; Salvatore DeVincenzo

1997-01-01

95

Formation of novel anionic trehalosetetraesters from Rhodococcus erythropolis under growth limiting conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paraffin oxidizing bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis was cultivated in shake flasks on a mixture of C14 - C15 n-alkanes or kerosene under growth limiting conditions. For example, nitrogen deficiency caused the formation of new glycolipids in fermentation broth. These lipids proved to be so far unknown substances were identified as a,a-trehalose-2,3,4,2'-tetraesters. The main component is esterified with two decanoyl, one

E. Ristau; F. Wagner

1983-01-01

96

INTRA-ORAL CANCER--The Use of Skin Grafts in the Management of the Condition  

PubMed Central

Seventy-two patients with 78 intra-oral cancers were treated by surgical excision and repair was carried out with free split-thickness skin grafts. Examination of removed specimens confirmed the precancerous character of the surrounding mucous membranes and emphasized the importance of removing them completely if that is practical. With the free skin graft this wider excision is possible with less impairment of function. It may also prevent the questionable “local recurrence” or second primary adjacent to the scar, and even multiple primaries in the same region of the oral cavity. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.

Sharp, George S.; Helsper, James T.

1964-01-01

97

The use of 1-aminobenzotriazole in differentiating the role of CYP-mediated first pass metabolism and absorption in limiting drug oral bioavailability: a case study.  

PubMed

Preliminary studies in our laboratory demonstrated low oral bioavailability of Drug X in male Sprague Dawley rats. However, the factors responsible for the observed poor bioavailability were not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of cytochrome P450(s) metabolism to the observed poor oral bioavailability of Drug X in male Sprague-Dawley rats in the presence of 1-aminobenzotriazole, a non-specific irreversible inhibitor of cytochrome P450s. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-treated with or without oral 1-aminobenzotriazole (50 mg/kg) two hours prior to receiving a single intravenous or oral dose of Drug X (3 mg/kg). Blood samples were collected from animals at different time points over six hours following Drug X dosing. Plasma concentrations of Drug X were determined using LC/MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic data obtained from an intravenous dose study in rats suggested that Drug X exhibited a high clearance (55 mL/min/kg) and moderate volume of distribution (1.3 L/kg) with short half-life in rats (0.7 hr). Oral dosing of Drug X to rats resulted in low oral bioavailability (19%). 1-aminobenzotriazole pre-treatment of male Sprague Dawley rats followed by an intravenous dose of Drug X resulted in a decrease in plasma clearance by 71% and an increase in half-life by 100%, without affecting the volume of distribution. Furthermore, the oral bioavailability of Drug X increased markedly with 1-aminobenzotriazole pre-treatment. However, the fraction absorbed of Drug X did not significantly change with 1-aminobenzotriazole pre-treatment. The results of this study indicated that CYP-mediated metabolism played a major role in limiting the oral bioavailability of Drug X in rats. The data suggests that 1-aminobenzotriazole can be used as an effective tool in assessing the factors contributing to the poor oral bioavailability of drugs. PMID:19356080

El-Kattan, Ayman F; Poe, Julie; Buchholz, Lisa; Thomas, Hayden V; Brodfuehrer, Joanne; Clark, Alan

2008-04-01

98

Oral health condition and treatment needs among young athletes with intellectual disabilities in Indonesia.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Data on the oral situation of young people with intellectual disabilities are scarce, especially data of children from a developing country. AIM: To describe and to evaluate the oral treatment needs of Special Olympics Special Smiles Athletes in Indonesia between 2004 and 2009. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study data were collected through interviews and clinical examinations using the Special Olympics Special Smiles CDC protocol. PARTICIPANTS: Indonesian Special Smiles athletes; their mean age was 13.46 years ± 2.97. RESULTS: More than 70% of athletes had visible untreated decay. Almost 30% (29.8%) of the athletes had gingival inflammation. Pain in the oral cavity was reported by 28.6%. Athletes who had untreated decay reported 6.67 times (95% CI OR; 4.00-11.14) more pain compared to those who did not have untreated decay. Athletes living in provinces on Java Island had 1.54 times (95% CI OR; 1.15-2.07) more untreated decay compared to the athletes who live in provinces in outer Java Island. 21.63% of the screened athletes were referred to the dentist for urgent treatment. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that there is an elevated oral treatment need in Indonesian Special Smiles population. PMID:23163957

Trihandini, Indang; Wiradidjaja Adiwoso, Adiningrum; Erri Astoeti, Tri; Marks, Luc

2012-11-19

99

Self-monitoring of oral anticoagulation: does it work outside trial conditions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Patient self-monitoring (PSM) of oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT) can improve anticoagulant control, but poor uptake and high dropout rates have prompted suggestions that PSM is suitable for only a minority of patients in the UK. Aims: To determine whether PSM could be a viable alternative to regular hospital anticoagulant clinic atten- dance, if offered from the start of treatment.

C Gardiner; I Longair; M A Pescott; H Erwin; J Hills; S J Machin; H Cohen

2010-01-01

100

Enhanced efficacy of an attenuated Flavobacterium psychrophilum strain cultured under iron-limited conditions.  

PubMed

An attenuated strain of Flavobacterium psychrophilum (CSF259-93B.17) has shown potential as a vaccine for prevention of bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Because BCWD outbreaks can result in high mortality in other salmonid species, specifically coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum), the live-attenuated strain was tested as a vaccine in this species. Additionally, we hypothesized that culture of the vaccine strain under iron-limited conditions would lead to improved protection against BCWD. To test this hypothesis, coho salmon were either injection or immersion immunized with CSF259-93B.17 cultured in iron-replete or iron-limited medium. Resultant antibody titers were low and not significantly different between the two treatments regardless of vaccine delivery method (P > 0.05). Following injection challenge with a virulent F. psychrophilum strain, mortality for injection vaccinated fish was significantly reduced compared to the control but did not differ by treatment (P > 0.05). Relative percent survival (RPS) was high in both treatments (90% in iron-replete, 98% in iron-limited medium). Fish immunized by immersion with CSF259-93B.17 grown in iron-replete medium exhibited lower mortality (29.3%; RPS 46%) when compared to mock immunized fish, but this was not significant. However, mortality was significantly lower in fish immunized with CSF259-93B.17 grown in iron-limited medium (14.7%; RPS 73%) when compared to mock immunized fish. The results demonstrate that the live-attenuated F. psychrophilum strain can confer protection to coho salmon and vaccine efficacy is enhanced by culturing the strain under iron-limited conditions. PMID:23989039

Long, Amy; Fehringer, Tyson R; Swain, Marissa A; Lafrentz, Benjamin R; Call, Douglas R; Cain, Kenneth D

2013-08-26

101

Liquid Lithium Limiter for Carbon Wall Conditioning on RFX-mod  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Liquid Lithium Limiter (Li3) with capillary porous system originally developed for the FTU tokamak, has been tested for the first time on the Reversed Field Pinch RFX-mod, a machine equipped with a first wall completely covered by graphite tiles. The operation in limiter configuration was restricted by a defect on the limiter, which coupled with the plasma wall interaction with a relatively limited power (2-3 MW/m^2) caused a damage to the device. The Li3 has then been operated as an evaporator, being the Lithium depositions preceded by prolonged glow discharges in Helium to remove the Hydrogen trapped into the graphite. The enhanced retention capability and the lowered recycling factor of the first wall obtained with this treatments in respect to standard operational conditions, allowed a good degree of control on the density of the RFP discharges and to reach high density regimes at high current (n/nGreenwald ˜ 0.8 at plasma current ˜ 1.6 MA).

Cavazzana, R.; Scarin, P.; Spizzo, G.; Agostini, M.; de Masi, G.; Marrelli, L.; Puiatti, M. E.; Mazzitelli, G.

2012-10-01

102

Flavor preferences conditioned by post-oral infusion of monosodium glutamate in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monosodium glutamate (MSG), the prototypical umami source, can enhance preference for associated flavors in humans and rodents. Although MSG flavor preference has been attributed to its taste, vagally-mediated post-oral detection has also been demonstrated. Recent studies showed that water-restricted rats acquired a preference for a flavor paired with intragastric (IG) infusion of 60mM MSG in rats. The present study extends

Karen Ackroff; Anthony Sclafani

2011-01-01

103

Oral care.  

PubMed

Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. PMID:21325845

Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

2011-02-10

104

Exploring the limits and utility of operant conditioning in the treatment of drug addiction  

PubMed Central

This article describes a research program to develop an operant treatment for cocaine addiction in low-income, treatment-resistant methadone patients. The treatment's central feature is an abstinence reinforcement contingency in which patients earn monetary reinforcement for providing cocaine-free urine samples. Success and failure of this contingency appear to be an orderly function of familiar parameters of operant conditioning. Increasing reinforcement magnitude and duration can increase effectiveness, and sustaining the contingency can prevent relapse. Initial development of a potentially practical application of this technology suggests that it may be possible to integrate abstinence reinforcement into employment settings using salary for work to reinforce drug abstinence. This research illustrates the potential utility and current limitations of an operant approach to the treatment of drug addiction. Similar research programs are needed to explore the limits of the operant approach and to develop practical applications that can be used widely in society for the treatment of drug addiction.

Silverman, Kenneth

2004-01-01

105

On eddy accumulation with limited conditional sampling to measure air-surface exchange  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of turbulence data collected at a height of 12.3 m above grasslands was carried out to illustrate some of the limitations and possible improvements in methods to compute vertical fluxes of trace substances by the eddy accumulation technique with conditional sampling. The empirical coefficient used in the technique has a slight dependence on atmospheric stability, which can be minimized by using a threshold vertical velocity equal to approximately 0.75{sigma}{sub w}, below which chemical sampling is suspended. This protocol results in a smaller chemical sample but increases the differences in concentrations by approximately 70%. For effective conditional sampling when mass is being accumulated in a trap or reservoir, the time of sampling during updrafts versus downdrafts should be measured and used to adjust estimates of the mean concentrations.

Wesely, M.L.; Hart, R.L.

1994-01-01

106

A vegetation sensitivity approximation for gross primary production in water limited conditions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most severe impact of climate change on vegetation growth and agriculture is likely to occur under water-limited conditions. Under such conditions the plants optimize the inward flux of CO2 and the outward flux of water vapor (the transpiration) by regulating the size of the stomata openings. Higher temperature increases water loss through transpiration, forcing the plants to diminish the stomata openings, which decreases photosynthesis. This is counteracted by higher CO2 concentration, which allows plants to maintain the inward flux of CO2 through the smaller openings. These two counteracting effects, combined with the change in precipitation, determine the net change of biological productivity in a changed climate. Here, a vegetation sensitivity approximation (VSA) is introduced, in order to understand and estimate the combined effect of changed temperature, CO2-concentration and precipitation on gross primary production (GPP) to first order. According to the VSA, we have: ( ) ?CO2atm ? GP P = ?0 P Here ?CO2atm is the atmospheric CO2 concentration, ?0 is the baseline for atmospheric CO2 concentration, P is precipitation and ? is defined by: -s- ? = 1 - 11°C where s is the climate sensitivity i.e. the increase in temperature when atmospheric CO2 is doubled. The VSA is based on the physical laws of gas flux through the stomata openings, and is only valid under water-limited conditions. It assumes that the temperature depends logarithmically on the CO2 concentration with a given climate sensitivity. Transpiration is assumed to be a constant fraction of precipitation, which is reasonable under water-limited conditions. The VSA is compared to simulations with the dynamic vegetation model LPJ. The agreement is reasonable, and the deviations can be understood by comparison with Köppen's definition of arid climate: in an arid climate growth increases more according to LPJ than according to the VSA, and in non-arid conditions the reverse is true. Both the VSA and the LPJ simulations generally show increased growth with increasing CO2 levels and the resulting temperature increase, assuming precipitation to be unchanged. Thus, for constant precipitation the negative temperature effect is more than compensated by the positive effect of CO2.

Claesson, Jonas; Nycander, Jonas

2013-04-01

107

Sorbed-Phase Remediation under Diffusion-Limited Conditions: The Role of Equilibrium Driving Forces and Initial Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For sorbed organic contaminants, slow diffusion from regions that are impermeable to fluid convection can be a principal limitation to contaminant "availability" during remediation, whether by pump-and-treat or transformation mechanisms, and whether under natural or "enhanced" conditions. Moreover, and as highlighted in the summary description of this AGU session, "efforts to account for diffusion limitations in the field are fraught with error because of physical and chemical heterogeneities, and nonlinear responses of diffusion to system perturbations." In particular, the definitions of rate parameters (coefficients) will depend strongly on the rate mechanisms that are assumed, and numerical estimates of their values will be dependent not only upon the heterogeneous chemistry and physics of the systems studied, but also upon assumptions made in regard to (1) the equilibrium thermodynamics (driving force for mass transfer), (2) the initial conditions of the system (e.g., at the on-set of a desorption study), and (3) the details of the experimental boundary conditions over the course of the observations. In this presentation, we will review some of our own experimental and modeling efforts that have aimed to quantify and "account" for diffusion effects in comparably well-characterized systems for which we have attempted to independently understand the above factors. Examples include organic chemical sorption and desorption in batch systems (finite bath uptake and infinite bath release from aquifer sands and surface soils), column systems (column studies involving macropore transport through sorbing solids of low-permeability), and a field scenario (diffusive contaminant release from a fine-grained aquitard into an overlying aquifer). Our emphasis will be on: (1) illustrating how issues of sorption nonlinearity, spatial heterogeneity, and sorption non-equilibrium (at the on-set of desorption) can interplay to cause very complex desorption/remediation behavior; and (2) demonstrating that such behavior is very difficult to interpret (much less predict) if the complicating factors are not properly accounted through independent experimental investigation. In light of our results, we pose questions regarding the extent to which "interpretive" modeling of phenomenological results is useful and to which prediction is possible. Although we doubt that geologic heterogeneities can ever be characterized to a level that allows mechanistic (or predictive) modeling of field-scale behavior, at least a qualitative understanding of the conceptual issues is nonetheless important in remediation design and risk assessment. For any "new" site of soil or sediment contamination, understanding of organic contaminant fate will always be incomplete without careful evaluation of the heterogeneity of the solid matrix and (we suggest) specific study of sorption on selected materials through the use of "probe" chemicals. Although the selection of the most important solids for study will always be a major question, continued basic research with selected materials can help guide the selection.

Ball, W. P.; Sabbah, I.; Paraskewich, M. R.

2002-12-01

108

Clinico-epidemiological profile of oral potentially malignant and malignant conditions among areca nut, tobacco and alcohol users in Eastern India: A hospital based study  

PubMed Central

Context: With an increase in the abuse of various oral habitual products in India over the past few decades; the incidence of oral potentially malignant conditions as leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) rates have also increased. No recent study has been conducted reporting the scenario of oral cancer and potentially malignant conditions in Eastern India (specifically Kolkata). Aims: The present study was conducted at Dr. R. Ahmed Dental College, Kolkata during 2010-2011 to find a possible correlation between the effects of the different oral habits, age, sex and the different types of oral mucosal lesions among patients reported to the hospital. This study also enabled us to see the predilection of the various histopathological stages of the lesions for different sites of the oral cavity. Subjects and Methods: The study group consisted of 698 patients having either oral potentially malignant or malignant lesion. The control group consisted of 948 patients who had reported to the hospital for different oral/dental problems and had the habit of tobacco, areca nut and/or alcohol usage for at least 1 year. Statistical Analysis: The unadjusted odds ratio, the 95% confidence interval, and the P value were calculated to correlate patients with/without different kinds of habit and having/not having various kinds of oral lesions. Results: Our study shows that for males having the habit of taking smokeless tobacco or mixed habit poses the highest risk for developing SCC. For females, significant risk of developing SCC was found in patients habituated to processed areca nut chewing. Conclusion: This study presents probably for the first time in recent years the occurrence of oral potentially malignant and malignant conditions amongst patients having deleterious habits in a hospital based population of Kolkata.

Ray, Jay Gopal; Ganguly, Madhurima; Rao, BH Sripathi; Mukherjee, Sanjit; Mahato, Basudev; Chaudhuri, Keya

2013-01-01

109

Microbial lipid production by Rhodosporidium toruloides under sulfate-limited conditions.  

PubMed

Novel biochemical approaches remain to be developed to improve microbial lipid technology. This study demonstrated that sulfate limitation was effective to promote accumulating substantial amounts of intracellular lipid by the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides Y4. When it was cultivated using a medium with an initial carbon-to-sulfur (C/S) molar ratio of 46,750, cellular lipid content reached up to 58.3%. The time courses of cell growth, lipid accumulation and nutrient depletion were analyzed and discussed in terms of lipid biosynthesis. Moreover, lipid accumulation under sulfate-limited conditions was effective regardless of the presence of a high concentration of nitrogen sources. Thus, lipid contents almost held constant at near 57% in the media with an initial C/S molar ratio of 11,380 although the carbon-to-nitrogen molar ratio ranged from 28.3 to 5.7. Taken together, our results established the sulfate-limitation approach to control lipid biosynthesis, which should be valuable to explore nitrogen-rich raw materials as the feedstock for lipid production. PMID:20934330

Wu, Siguo; Zhao, Xin; Shen, Hongwei; Wang, Qian; Zhao, Zongbao K

2010-09-17

110

Paclitaxel, carboplatin, and oral etoposide: a phase II trial in limited-stage small cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Carboplatin/etoposide is an active regimen in the treatment of small cell lung cancer. This phase II trial evaluated whether adding paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) to this two-drug combination might increase its efficacy. Since April 1996, 55 patients were entered into the ongoing protocol. To date, 35 patients are evaluable for efficacy and toxicity. Most of the evaluable patients are male (28). The patients' median age is 60 years (range, 36 to 74 years); 32 patients have Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ratings of 1, and the balance are Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0. All patients had limited-stage disease. Patients received paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 via 1-hour intravenous infusion on day 1, carboplatin dosed to an area under the concentration-time curve of 5, also on day 1, and oral etoposide 100 mg on days 2 through 8. Overall, 31 patients responded to paclitaxel/carboplatin/etoposide therapy, including complete response in 13 patients (37.1%) and partial response in 18 patients (51.4%). Disease was stable in three patients (8.6%) and disease progressed in one (2.0%). Hematologic toxicity included neutropenia (World Health Organization grade 3 in 24.1% of patients, grade 4 in 31.3%), anemia (4% grade 3, no grade 4), and thrombocytopenia (3.2% grade 3, 2.1% grade 4). Nonhematologic adverse events included minor nausea/vomiting (1.5% grade 3, 9.2% grade 2), polyneuropathy (2.3% grade 2, 17.5% grade 1), and myalgia/arthralgia (8.2% grade 2, 16.4% grade 1). Paclitaxel/carboplatin/etoposide is active in small cell lung cancer with moderate toxicity and good subjective tolerance. There were no life-threatening hematologic or nonhematologic complications in this phase II trial. PMID:9331141

Gatzemeier, U; Jagos, U; Kaukel, E; Koschel, G; von Pawel, J

1997-08-01

111

[Possibilities and limitations of the surgery of the eye's posterior segment under the outpatient conditions].  

PubMed

The goal of this article was to analyze possibilities of the vitreoretinal surgery under the outpatient conditions and to set its limitations. During the period January 1st-September 30th, 2004, there were performed 95 operations of 78 eyes in 77 patients. Number of men and women was practically equal; the age ranged 17-86 years (average 62.6 years). We operated on mostly the retinal detachment. These as well as other procedures, including also the extreme surgery with relaxing retinectomy, extraction of the subretinal tractions and membranes, silicone oil implantation or extraction, or operations combined with the cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation. Surgeries were performed under local anesthesia combined with analgesia and sedation introduced by anesthesiologist, who was always present and monitored the patient. Surgeries were performed by means of A.V.I. lens and Biom as well, with the assistance of a doctor, and later on, solely of a theatre nurse. The surgeon performed the operations by herself and long-term followed up the patients. The variety of vitreoretinal procedures did not differ from those performed at the departments of ophthalmology at university hospitals. The retinal detachment surgery was more often performed by means of cryosurgical procedure than pars plana vitrectomy undoubtedly because of early recognition of the beginning detachment. All vitreoretinal procedures may be performed on the outpatient basis. The only limiting factors are the physical condition of the patient and an acute ocular disease demanding urgent surgery in a facility with permanent service. Vitreoretinal surgery in outpatient facility performed under local anesthesia is well tolerated by the patients and the postoperative care under outpatient conditions is of equal quality as in inpatient facilities. PMID:16491636

Dolezalová, J; Karel, I; Záhlava, J; Lesták, J

2006-01-01

112

A historical glimpse of toothpick use: etiquette, oral and medical conditions.  

PubMed

This article traces various historical and geographical aspects of multicultural toothpick use, dating back from prehistoric times to the present. This behavior appears to be one of the oldest and best documented of all human habits. Toothpicks (composed of bone, ivory, metal, plastic, quills, wood or other substances) have been used for ceremonial, oral hygiene and religious purposes. Throughout the ages, the act of toothpicking has been both encouraged and discouraged. In the 19-20th centuries, it was generally viewed as a disgusting breach of social etiquette and a significant threat to oral and general health. Authors of numerous dental articles have cautioned that indiscriminate toothpick use can lead to halitosis, dental caries, injury to the interdental papilla, mouth ulcers, allergic reactions, embedment of the device in the back of the mouth or throat, gingival abscesses, sensitive teeth, or abraded enamel, dentin or cementum of both permanent and primary dentitions. Additionally, both the dental and medical literature report anecdotal cases of life-threatening injuries and death caused by toothpick ingestion. PMID:12846259

Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

2003-07-01

113

Strong diffusion limit in the realistic magnetosphere: Dependence on geomagnetic condition and spatial location  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract<p label="1">As an essential concept of resonant wave-particle interactions, the strong diffusion <span class="hlt">limit</span> DSD is an important variable to explore the efficiency of wave-induced pitch angle scattering for particle precipitation loss to the atmosphere. Determined by the size of equatorial loss cone on a given field line and the bounce period at a given energy, the value of DSD sets a lower <span class="hlt">limit</span> to the precipitation timescale for loss cone filling, regardless of the strength of wave-particle interactions. However, no efforts have ever been made to evaluate DSD in the realistic magnetosphere considering the impact of various geomagnetic activities. To perform a systematic exploration of the dependence of DSD on geomagnetic <span class="hlt">condition</span>, spatial location, and global magnetic field model, we have numerically computed DSD using the dipolar and non-dipolar Tsyganenko magnetic field models under three representative (quiet, moderate, and active) geomagnetic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Use of more realistic Tsyganenko magnetic field models introduces non-negligible or considerable differences in DSD magnitude from that obtained using a dipolar field. The difference can be over an order of magnitude at the field lines with equatorial crossings ?6 Re during geomagnetically disturbed times. We also report that in the realistic magnetosphere both DSD magnitude and its variations have a strong dependence on the spatial location. Computed DSD shows the maximum tending to occur on the dayside (MLT = 12 and 16) and the minimum DSD more likely to occur at MLT = 00. Compared to the dipolar results, largest deviation in DSD occurs for MLT = 00, 04, and 20, while DSD variations on the dayside are relatively small. Our results demonstrate that accurate evaluation of DSD besides scattering rates in the realistic magnetosphere, especially at high spatial locations and under geomagnetically disturbed <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for which a dipolar approximation fails, can make an important contribution to quantifying the wave effect on particle resonant diffusion, which should be incorporated into future modeling efforts for comprehending the role of resonant wave-particle interactions and the dynamics of magnetospheric electrons under a variety of geomagnetic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhou, Chen; Yang, Guobin; Ni, Binbin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Hu, Ze-Jun; Shi, Run</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994NucFu..34.1641M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flow reversal in the throat of the pump <span class="hlt">limiter</span> ALT-II during high density <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experiments have been performed to measure the conductance for backstreaming particles in the throat of the pump <span class="hlt">limiter</span> ALT-II on TEXTOR under different discharge <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. The flow inside the throat is analysed by injecting a steady helium flux towards the neutralizer plate and by measuring the helium partial pressure. The amount of helium escaping into the plasma volume has been found to be strongly dependent on the local electron density and electron temperature. At low densities the backstreaming conductance corresponds to the classical value, at medium densities its value is reduced, whereas at the highest densities (>5*1018 m-3) an increasing flow of escaping helium is found. It is shown that a reversal of the plasma flow in the throat of ALT-II can be established by exposing one blade (the other 7 retracted) to high density discharges with additional heating</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mank, G.; Tokar, M. Z.; Finken, K. H.; Boedo, J. A.; Euringer, H.; Gray, D. S.; Grewe, T.; Reiter, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21551939"> <span id="translatedtitle">Medicare's policy to <span class="hlt">limit</span> payment for hospital-acquired <span class="hlt">conditions</span>: the impact on safety net providers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 2008, Medicare implemented a policy <span class="hlt">limiting</span> reimbursement to hospitals for treating avoidable hospital-acquired <span class="hlt">conditions</span> (HACs). Although the policy will expand nationally to Medicaid programs in 2011, little is known about the impact on safety-net hospitals. Using data from the 2006 American Hospital Association Annual Survey and MEDPAR, we compared the incidence of cases that met the HACs criteria at safety-net and non-safety-net hospitals. We found that safety-net hospitals had an average of 65.5 HACs per 1,000 Medicare discharges compared with 57.6 at non-safety-net hospitals. Hospitals in the lowest quintile for financial margins had higher rates of HACs on average than other hospitals. Safety-net hospitals and hospitals with the lowest financial margins may be more likely than others to be affected by policies that reduce payment for HACs. PMID:21551939</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McHugh, Megan; Martin, Timothy C; Orwat, John; Dyke, Kevin Van</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23955479"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of fludarabine on the pharmacokinetics of <span class="hlt">oral</span> busulfan during pretransplant <span class="hlt">conditioning</span> for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study evaluated the influence of fludarabine on the pharmacokinetics of busulfan administered <span class="hlt">orally</span> to patients receiving a <span class="hlt">conditioning</span> regimen for hematopoietic allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Twenty-six patients treated with <span class="hlt">oral</span> busulfan (1?mg/kg/6?h for 4 days) were divided into two groups according to the concomitant administration of fludarabine (n?=?11; 30?mg/m(2) for 5 days) or subsequent administration of cyclophosphamide (n?=?15; 60?mg/kg for 2 days). Serial blood samples were collected on Day 4 of busulfan administration. Plasma busulfan concentrations were determined by HPLC-UV and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using the WinNonlin program. Patients concomitantly treated with fludarabine showed reduced apparent clearance of busulfan (110.5?mL/h/kg vs. 157.4?mL/h/kg) and higher AUC0-6 (area under the plasma concentrations vs. time curve) than patients subsequently treated with cyclophosphamide (7.9?µg?h/mL vs. 5.7?µg?h/mL). No association was observed between busulfan AUC0-6 and clinical evolution of the patients. Although plasma busulfan concentrations were higher in patients receiving concomitant fludarabine, myelosuppression-related toxicity was less frequent than in patients treated with busulfan and cyclophosphamide. The results suggest that patients treated with fludarabine should receive 30% lower busulfan doses during <span class="hlt">conditioning</span> protocols for HSCT. PMID:23955479</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de Castro, Francine Attié; Lanchote, Vera Lucia; Voltarelli, Julio Cesar; Colturato, Virgílio Antônio Rensi; Simões, Belinda Pinto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19778968"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of PvdQ in Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence under iron-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">PvdQ, an acylase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, has been shown to have at least two functions. It can act as a quorum quencher due to its ability to degrade long-chain N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs), e.g. 3-oxo-C12-HSL, leading to a decrease in virulence factors. In addition, PvdQ is involved in iron homeostasis by playing a role in the biosynthesis of pyoverdine, the major siderophore of P. aeruginosa. In accordance with earlier studies on RNA level, we could show at the protein level that PvdQ is only expressed when iron is present at very low concentrations. We therefore set out to investigate the two functions of PvdQ under iron-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Gene deletion of pvdQ does not affect growth of P. aeruginosa but abrogates pyoverdine production, and results in an accumulation of 3-oxo-C12-HSL. Phenotypic analyses of our DeltapvdQ mutant at low iron concentrations revealed that this mutant is impaired in swarming motility and biofilm formation. Additionally, a plant and a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model demonstrated that the deletion of pvdQ resulted in reduced virulence. None of the phenotypes in the present study could be linked to the presence or absence of AHLs. These results clearly indicate that under iron-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> PvdQ plays a major role in swarming motility, in biofilm development and in infection that is more likely to be linked to the pyoverdine pathway rather than the LasI/LasR/3-oxo-C12-HSL quorum-sensing circuit. PMID:19778968</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nadal Jimenez, Pol; Koch, Gudrun; Papaioannou, Evelina; Wahjudi, Mariana; Krzeslak, Joanna; Coenye, Tom; Cool, Robbert H; Quax, Wim J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11790406"> <span id="translatedtitle">Differential effect of free intake versus <span class="hlt">oral</span> perfusion of sucrose in <span class="hlt">conditioned</span> taste aversion in rats.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Five experiments were designed to investigate LiCl-induced <span class="hlt">conditioned</span> taste aversion (CTA) obtained in rats whether after free intake of a sucrose solution (active mode) or after forced administration through an intraoral cannula (passive mode). It was found in Experiment 1 that actively <span class="hlt">conditioned</span> rats showed a slower extinction rate as revealed by repeated two-bottle tests (active testing) as opposed to passively <span class="hlt">conditioned</span> ones. As these rats underwent a mode change between <span class="hlt">conditioning</span> and testing, the differential extinction rate might have arisen from this change inducing a generalization decrement effect or acting as a contextual shift. In Experiment 2, no evidence for any generalization decrement was found. The possibility that the mode of sucrose delivery could have contextual properties in CTA through a "renewal test" after extinction and a latent inhibition experiment was further tested in Experiments 3 and 4. When active testing followed passive extinction, a CTA was afresh obtained in rats actively <span class="hlt">conditioned</span> in active <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Latent inhibition was attenuated in rats preexposed in passive <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and <span class="hlt">conditioned</span> in active <span class="hlt">conditions</span> (i.e., when a shift in the drinking mode occurred between preexposure and <span class="hlt">conditioning</span>). In Experiment 5, intraoral perfusion was used in both groups. The active subjects had to nose poke for intraoral administration of sucrose. The yoked control passive subjects received simultaneously the same amount of sucrose. The levels of CTA differed also from the actively to the passively <span class="hlt">conditioned</span> subjects. Results are discussed in terms of free intake activity acting as a contextual modulator of CTA. PMID:11790406</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fouquet, N; Oberling, P; Sandner, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17766304"> <span id="translatedtitle">Haze, clouds and <span class="hlt">limited</span> sky visibility: polarotactic orientation of crickets under difficult stimulus <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Field crickets (Gryllus campestris L.) are able to detect the orientation of the electric vector (e-vector) of linearly polarized light. They presumably use this sense to exploit the celestial polarization pattern for course control or navigation. Polarization vision in crickets can be tested by eliciting a spontaneous polarotactic response. Previously, wide and 100% polarized stimuli were employed to induce this behavior. However, field crickets live on meadows where the observation of the sky is strongly <span class="hlt">limited</span> by surrounding vegetation. Moreover, degrees of polarization (d) in the natural sky are much lower than 100%. We have therefore investigated thresholds for the behavioral response to polarized light under <span class="hlt">conditions</span> mimicking those experienced by the insects in the field. We show that crickets are able to rely on polarized stimuli of just 1 degrees diameter. We also provide evidence that they exploit polarization down to an (average) polarization level of less than 7%, irrespective of whether the stimulus is homogeneous, such as under haze, or patched, such as a sky spotted by clouds. Our data demonstrate that crickets can rely on skylight polarization even under unfavorable celestial <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, emphasizing the significance of polarized skylight orientation for insects. PMID:17766304</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Henze, Miriam J; Labhart, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvB..87h5207D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for space-charge-<span class="hlt">limited</span> conduction in organic photovoltaic cells at open-circuit <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ac admittance of solar cells under illumination is investigated under open-circuit <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Open-circuit <span class="hlt">conditions</span> are imposed by inserting a probe capacitor into the circuit. The capacitance and conductance of the cells are investigated as function of frequency and continuous illumination intensity. Results are compared with numerical and analytical modeling of charge recombination and transport. In bulk heterojunction solar cells with [6,6]-Phenyl-C61(C71)-butyric acid methyl ester as acceptor and poly(3-hexylthiophene) or poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] as electron donor, the high-frequency capacitance C and conductance G follow a power-law dependence on intensity of white light I, with G(I) ? I3/4 and C(I) ? I1/4. The modeling shows that these dependencies can be explained in terms of space-charge-<span class="hlt">limited</span> current in combination with Langevin type recombination of carriers. For poly[2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl[4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Di Nuzzo, Daniele; van Reenen, Stephan; Janssen, René A. J.; Kemerink, Martijn; Meskers, Stefan C. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title29-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title29-vol5-part1910-subpartT-appA.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart T of... - Examples of <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Which May Restrict or <span class="hlt">Limit</span> Exposure to Hyperbaric <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...function caused by alcohol or drug use. <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> requiring continuous medication for control (e.g., antihistamines, steroids, barbiturates, moodaltering drugs, or insulin). Meniere's disease. Hemoglobinopathies. Obstructive or...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title29-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title29-vol8-part1926-subpartY-appA.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Y of... - Examples of <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Which May Restrict or <span class="hlt">Limit</span> Exposure to Hyperbaric <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Hyperbaric <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> A Appendix A to Subpart Y of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor...REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Diving Pt. 1926, Subpt. Y, App. A Appendix A to Subpart Y of Part 1926âExamples of <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Which May...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title29-vol8/pdf/CFR-2009-title29-vol8-part1926-subpartY-appA.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Y of... - Examples of <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Which May Restrict or <span class="hlt">Limit</span> Exposure to Hyperbaric <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Hyperbaric <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> A Appendix A to Subpart Y of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor...REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Diving Pt. 1926, Subpt. Y, App. A Appendix A to Subpart Y of Part 1926âExamples of <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Which May...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhyC..471.1317D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation on current-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> performance of the YBCO thin-film wire considering electric coupling <span class="hlt">condition</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The basic way to improve the performance of a superconducting current <span class="hlt">limiter</span> is to apply and evaluate a superconducting device that is appropriate to the superconducting current <span class="hlt">limiter</span>. Among the many types of superconducting devices, the YBCO thin film wire has excellent current-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> performance that is appropriate for actual system application. For the application of the YBCO thin film wire to superconducting current <span class="hlt">limiters</span>, its current-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> performance as a unit device must be accurately evaluated, and measures to improve its current-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> performance must be sought. Accordingly, to evaluate the current-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> performance of the YBCO thin film wire, this study was conducted to evaluate its resistance-increasing trend, Vmax, Tr, Imax, Iqt, and current-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> rate as a unit device, after which the electric coupling <span class="hlt">condition</span> that consists of a core and windings was used to evaluate the current-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> performance of the YBCO thin film wire.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Du, H.-I.; Han, B.-S.; Kim, Y.-J.; Lee, D.-H.; Song, S.-S.; Han, T.-H.; Han, S.-C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2000-title21-vol5/pdf/CFR-2000-title21-vol5-sec310-500.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 310.500 - Digoxin products for <span class="hlt">oral</span> use; <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for marketing.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...<span class="hlt">conditions</span> for marketing. 310.500 Section 310.500 Food and Drugs FOOD...tablets: Any person marketing digoxin products...shall submit to the Food and Drug Administration...unchanged by massive weight loss, suggesting...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2001-title21-vol5/pdf/CFR-2001-title21-vol5-sec310-500.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 310.500 - Digoxin products for <span class="hlt">oral</span> use; <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for marketing.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...<span class="hlt">conditions</span> for marketing. 310.500 Section 310.500 Food and Drugs FOOD...tablets: Any person marketing digoxin products...shall submit to the Food and Drug Administration...unchanged by massive weight loss, suggesting...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2002-title21-vol5/pdf/CFR-2002-title21-vol5-sec310-500.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 310.500 - Digoxin products for <span class="hlt">oral</span> use; <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for marketing.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...<span class="hlt">conditions</span> for marketing. 310.500 Section 310.500 Food and Drugs FOOD...tablets: Any person marketing digoxin products...shall submit to the Food and Drug Administration...unchanged by massive weight loss, suggesting...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title29-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title29-vol5-part1910-subpartT-appA.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart T to... - Examples of <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Which May Restrict or <span class="hlt">Limit</span> Exposure to Hyperbaric <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...to Part 1910âExamples of <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Which May Restrict...depending on severity, presence of residual effects, response to therapy, number of occurrences, diving mode...e.g., antihistamines, steroids, barbiturates,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title29-vol5/pdf/CFR-2009-title29-vol5-part1910-subpartT-appA.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart T to... - Examples of <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Which May Restrict or <span class="hlt">Limit</span> Exposure to Hyperbaric <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...to Part 1910âExamples of <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Which May Restrict...depending on severity, presence of residual effects, response to therapy, number of occurrences, diving mode...e.g., antihistamines, steroids, barbiturates,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14..191B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phytoplankton copper requirement under iron <span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">condition</span> in the coastal Bay of Bengal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Copper, a redox reactive transition metal, plays a vital role in many cellular redox reactions. Recent investigations show that many eukaryotic microorganisms including marine and coastal diatom utilize copper to perform a high affinity iron acquisition mechanism and the requirement of copper increases with decreasing iron concentrations. However, very less information is available about the role of copper in diatom physiology. Here we report for the first time about the copper utilization by coastal diatom during iron <span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">condition</span> in the Bay of Bengal coast. The diatom Chaetoceros gracilis was isolated from the Visakhapatnam coast and was grown in different copper concentrations (15nM -1000nM). The concentration of total chlorophyll, the growth rate, the concentration of biogenic silica, the ratio of biogenic silica to particulate organic carbon and the ratio of total chlorophyll to particulate organic carbon were found to be increased with increasing copper concentration up to 125nM and decreased thereafter reaching a minimum value at 1000nM. 13C of Particulate organic carbon varied inversely with increasing copper concentrations indicating the signature of enhanced carbon fixation which is in agreement with the enhanced biomass and growth rate. However, to get a better understanding about the role of copper behind the enhanced growth, we had incubated the cells simultaneously in iron replete, copper replete and in varying copper concentration in presence of 200nM of iron. Surprisingly, in all cases significant enhancement in growth and biomass production was observed. The cells grown in only iron and added with copper showed very similar increase whereas, in presence of iron increasing copper concentration did not show any enhancement effect. Increased growth and biomass production in response to iron addition shows that phytoplankton growth is <span class="hlt">limited</span> by iron in the study area. Furthermore, this observation indicates that in case of iron <span class="hlt">limitation</span> the coastal diatom perform a high affinity iron acquisition mechanism where copper plays a vital role. Down regulation of high affinity iron acquisition mechanism was indicated by unaltered growth when copper was added in presence of iron. Collectively, our present study shows that copper likely plays an important role in the physiology of coastal diatom apart from the toxicological studies conducted earlier. A detailed investigation is needed to understand the high affinity iron acquisition mechanism existing in coastal diatom from the study area.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Biswas, H.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Kumar, P. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30146413"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> pemphigoid</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective. Cicatricial pemphigoid (CP) is an autoimmune blistering disease characterized by anti-basement membrane zone (BMZ) antibodies with a varied heterogeneous clinical spectrum. We sought to characterize a subset of patients with disease <span class="hlt">limited</span> to the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity.Study Design. Twenty-nine random patients with vesiculobullous disease <span class="hlt">limited</span> to the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity were studied. We identified patients by clinical criteria, the presence of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Narciss Mobini; Neville Nagarwalla; A. Razzaque Ahmed</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1477-7525-8-34.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Self-reported halitosis and emotional state: impact on <span class="hlt">oral</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and treatments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: Halitosis represents a common dental <span class="hlt">condition</span>, although sufferers are often not conscious of it. The aim of this study was to examine behavior in a sample of Italian subjects with reference to self-reported halitosis and emotional state, and specifically the presence of dental anxiety. METHODS: The study was performed on Italian subjects (N = 1052; range 15-65 years). A</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Salvatore Settineri; Carmela Mento; Simona C Gugliotta; Ambra Saitta; Antonella Terranova; Giuseppe Trimarchi; Domenico Mallamace</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14982371"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microbial degradation of chlorobenzene under oxygen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> leads to accumulation of 3-chlorocatechol.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Five bacterial strains (Acidovorax facilis B517, Cellulomonas turbata B529, Pseudomonas veronii B547, Pseudomonas veronii B549, and Paenibacillus polymyxa B550) isolated on chlorobenzene as the sole source of carbon and energy were screened for the accumulation of the putative metabolic intermediate 3-chlorocatechol during growth on chlorobenzene under oxygen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in the presence and absence of nitrate (1 mM). 3-Chlorocatechol accumulated in the growth media of all five strains, but accumulation was significantly less in cultures of A. facilis B517 compared to the other four strains. The presence of nitrate did not influence the biological conversion pattern. However, biologically produced nitrite reacted with 3-chlorocatechol chemically, a reaction that masked the accumulation of 3-chlorocatechol. For P. veronii B549, a clear relationship between the presence of 3-chlorocatechol in the medium and low oxygen concentrations was demonstrated. The assumption is made that accumulation of 3-chlorocatechol is due to the low enzymatic turnover of the 3-chlorocatechol cleaving enzyme, catechol-1,2-dioxygenase, at low oxygen concentrations. PMID:14982371</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vogt, Carsten; Simon, Dieter; Alfreider, Albin; Babel, Wolfgang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/804696"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Condition</span> for production of circulating proton beam with intensity greater than space charge <span class="hlt">limit</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Transverse e-p instability in proton rings could be damped by increasing the beam density and the rate of secondary particles production above the threshold level, with the corresponding decrease of unstable wavelength {lambda} below the transverse beam size h (increase of beam density n{sub b} and ion density n{sub i} above the threshold level: n{sub b} + n{sub i} > {beta}{sup 2}/(r{sub e} h{sup 2}), where r{sub e} = e{sup 2}/mc{sup 2}). Such island of stability can be reached by a fast charge-exchange injection without painting and enhanced generation of secondary plasma, which was demonstrated in a small scale Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia. With successful damping of e-p instability, the intensity of circulating proton beam, with a space charge neutralization was increased up to 6 times above a space charge <span class="hlt">limit</span>. Corresponding tune shift without space charge neutralization should be up to {Delta}v=0.85 x 6 (in the ring with v = 0.85). In this paper, they review experimental observations of transverse instability of proton beams in various rings. they also discuss methods which can be used to damp the instability. Such experimental data could be useful for verification of computer simulation tools developed for the studies of the space charge and instabilities in realistic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vadim Dudnikov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-11-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23163337"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genetic requirements for Moraxella catarrhalis growth under iron-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Iron sequestration by the human host is a first line defence against respiratory pathogens like Moraxella catarrhalis, which consequently experiences a period of iron starvation during colonization. We determined the genetic requirements for M.?catarrhalis BBH18 growth during iron starvation using the high-throughput genome-wide screening technology genomic array footprinting (GAF). By subjecting a large random transposon mutant library to growth under iron-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, mutants of the MCR_0996-rhlB-yggW operon, rnd, and MCR_0457 were negatively selected. Growth experiments using directed mutants confirmed the GAF phenotypes with ?yggW (putative haem-shuttling protein) and ?MCR_0457 (hypothetical protein) most severely attenuated during iron starvation, phenotypes which were restored upon genetic complementation of the deleted genes. Deletion of yggW resulted in similar attenuated phenotypes in three additional strains. Transcriptional profiles of ?yggW and ?MCR_0457 were highly altered with 393 and 192 differentially expressed genes respectively. In all five mutants, expression of nitrate reductase genes was increased and of nitrite reductase decreased, suggesting an impaired aerobic respiration. Alteration of iron metabolism may affect nasopharyngeal colonization as adherence of all mutants to respiratory tract epithelial cells was attenuated. In conclusion, we elucidated the genetic requirements for M.?catarrhalis growth during iron starvation and characterized the roles of the identified genes in bacterial growth and host interaction. PMID:23163337</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de Vries, Stefan P W; Burghout, Peter; Langereis, Jeroen D; Zomer, Aldert; Hermans, Peter W M; Bootsma, Hester J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-19/pdf/2013-03657.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 11554 - Special <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane, <span class="hlt">Limit</span> Pilot Forces for Sidestick Control</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Special <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane, <span class="hlt">Limit</span> Pilot Forces...special <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for the Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 airplane. This airplane will...applied for a type certificate for their new Model EMB-550 airplane. The Model...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhyB..371..257J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Equation of state for solids with high accuracy and satisfying the <span class="hlt">limitation</span> <span class="hlt">condition</span> at high pressure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An equation of state (EOS) with high accuracy is proposed to strictly satisfy the Fermi gas <span class="hlt">limitation</span> <span class="hlt">condition</span> at high pressure. The EOS (SJX EOS) is a modification of the effective Rydberg (ER2) EOS. Instead of Holzapfel's method to directly modify the ER2 EOS, one modifying term is added to the ER2 EOS to make it not only satisfy the high pressure <span class="hlt">limitation</span> <span class="hlt">condition</span>, but also to avoid the disadvantages occurring in the Holzapfel and ‘adapted polynomial expansion of the order 3’ (AP3) EOSs. The two-parameter ER2, Holzapfel, and three-parameter SJX, AP3, Kumari and Dass (KD) EOSs are applied to 50 materials to fit all experimental compression data available. The five EOSs also are applied to 37 of the 50 materials to fit experimental compression data at low-pressure ranges. The results show that for all pressure ranges the AP3 EOS gives the best fitting results; the SJX, ER2, Holzapfel and KD EOSs sequentially give inferior results. Otherwise, it is shown that the values of B0, B0? and B0? are different for different EOSs and also, within one EOS, for high and low-pressure ranges. The SJX EOS gives the best consistency between the values obtained by fitting all experimental data available, and the experimental data at low-pressure ranges, respectively. The AP3 EOS gives the worst results. The differences of the values of B0, B0? and B0? obtained for the ER2, Holzapfel and KD EOSs with those obtained for the SJX EOS are large at high-pressure ranges, but decrease at low-pressure ranges. At present, the newest experimental compression data, within the widest compression range, are available for solid n-H2. The values of B0, B0? and B0? fitted by using the SJX EOS are almost in agreement with these experimental data. The ER2 EOS gives inferior values, and other EOSs give fairly bad results. For the predicted compression curves and the cohesive energy, the SJX EOS gives the best results; the AP3 EOS gives the worst results, even for many solids the AP3 EOS cannot give physically correct results for the cohesive energy. The analysis shows that for such solids, the variation of pressure and energy versus compression ratio calculated by using the AP3 EOS would oscillate, physically incorrectly. Although the AP3 EOS has the best fitting ability to the pressures, it has the worst predicting ability, and fails to be a universal EOS. The SJX EOS is recommended and can be taken as a candidate of universal EOSs to predict compression curves of solids in a wide pressure range only using the values of B0, B0? and B0? obtained from low-pressure data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiuxun, Sun; Qiang, Wu; Lingcang, Cai; Fuqian, Jing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23980114"> <span id="translatedtitle">Secreted Pyomelanin of Legionella pneumophila Promotes Bacterial Iron Uptake and Growth under Iron-<span class="hlt">Limiting</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Iron acquisition is critical to the growth and virulence of Legionella pneumophila. Previously, we found that L. pneumophila uses both a ferrisiderophore pathway and ferrous iron transport to obtain iron. We now report that two molecules secreted by L. pneumophila, homogentisic acid (HGA) and its polymerized variant (HGA-melanin, a pyomelanin), are able to directly mediate the reduction of various ferric iron salts. Furthermore, HGA, synthetic HGA-melanin, and HGA-melanin derived from bacterial supernatants enhanced the ability of L. pneumophila and other species of Legionella to take up radiolabeled iron. Enhanced iron uptake was not observed with a ferrous iron transport mutant. Thus, HGA and HGA-melanin mediate ferric iron reduction, with the resulting ferrous iron being available to the bacterium for uptake. Upon further testing of L. pneumophila culture supernatants, we found that significant amounts of ferric and ferrous iron were associated with secreted HGA-melanin. Importantly, a pyomelanin-containing fraction obtained from a wild-type culture supernatant was able to stimulate the growth of iron-starved legionellae. That the corresponding supernatant fraction obtained from a nonpigmented mutant culture did not stimulate growth demonstrated that HGA-melanin is able to both promote iron uptake and enhance growth under iron-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Indicative of a complementary role in iron acquisition, HGA-melanin levels were inversely related to the levels of siderophore activity. Compatible with a role in the ecology and pathogenesis of L. pneumophila, HGA and HGA-melanin were effective at reducing and releasing iron from both insoluble ferric hydroxide and the mammalian iron chelates ferritin and transferrin. PMID:23980114</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zheng, Huaixin; Chatfield, Christa H; Liles, Mark R; Cianciotto, Nicholas P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2885324"> <span id="translatedtitle">Refractive ocular <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and reasons for spectacles renewal in a resource-<span class="hlt">limited</span> economy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Although a leading cause of visual impairment and a treatable cause of blindness globally, the pattern of refractive errors in many populations is unknown. This study determined the pattern of refractive ocular <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, reasons for spectacles renewal and the effect of correction on refractive errors in a resource-<span class="hlt">limited</span> community. Methods A retrospective review of case records of 1,413 consecutive patients seen in a private optometry practice, Nigeria between January 2006 and July 2007. Results A total number of 1,216 (86.1%) patients comprising of (486, 40%) males and (730, 60%) females with a mean age of 41.02 years SD 14.19 were analyzed. The age distribution peaked at peri-adolescent and the middle age years. The main ocular complaints were spectacles loss and discomfort (412, 33.9%), blurred near vision (399, 32.8%) and asthenopia (255, 20.9%). The mean duration of ocular symptoms before consultation was 2.05 years SD 1.92. The most common refractive errors include presbyopia (431, 35.3%), hyperopic astigmatism (240, 19.7%) and presbyopia with hyperopia (276, 22.7%). Only (59, 4.9%) had myopia. Following correction, there were reductions in magnitudes of the blind (VA<3/60) and visually impaired (VA<6/18-3/60) patients by (18, 58.1%) and (89, 81.7%) respectively. The main reasons for renewal of spectacles were broken lenses/frame/scratched lenses/lenses' falling off (47, 63.4%). Conclusions Adequate correction of refractive errors reduces visual impairment and avoidable blindness and to achieve optimal control of refractive errors in the community, services should be targeted at individuals in the peri-adolescent and the middle age years.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title42-vol2/pdf/CFR-2009-title42-vol2-sec410-37.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> for and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> on coverage.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>...Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>...definitions apply: (1) Colorectal cancer screening tests means...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" 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showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title42-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title42-vol2-sec410-37.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> for and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> on coverage.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>...Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>...definitions apply: (1) Colorectal cancer screening tests means...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19894083"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">limited</span> potentiation of blood pressure in response to <span class="hlt">oral</span> tyramine by the anti-Parkinson brain selective multifunctional monoamine oxidase-AB inhibitor, M30.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the <span class="hlt">limitations</span> of non-selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors as anti-depressant or anti-Parkinson drugs is their ability to potentiate the cardiovascular effect of <span class="hlt">oral</span> tyramine, resulting from inhibition of systemic MAO-A and release of noradrenaline. We have investigated the cardiovascular effect of <span class="hlt">oral</span> tyramine in response to the novel multifunctional, brain selective MAO-AB inhibitor, M30 [5-(N-methyl-N-propargylaminomethyl)-8-hydroxyquinoline], and compared it to the classical non-selective inhibitor tranylcypromine (TCP) in rats. We also measured MAO-A and B in the striatum, hippocampus, liver, and small intestine and determined brain levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin. At the doses employed, intraperitoneal (i.p.) M30 (5 and 10 mg/kg) selectively inhibited brain MAO-A and B by more than 85%, with little inhibition of liver and small intestine enzymes while raising striatal levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin. In contrast to TCP (10 mg/kg, i.p.), which fully inhibits both enzymes in the brain and systemic organs and significantly potentiates the tyramine pressor effect, M30 had a <span class="hlt">limited</span> pressor effect as compared to it and controls. The <span class="hlt">limited</span> potentiation of tyramine pressor effect by M30, its ability to raise brain levels of aminergic neurotransmitters together with its neuroprotective and neurorestorative activities make this drug potentially important as an anti-depressant and anti-Parkinsonian agent, for which it is being developed. PMID:19894083</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gal, Shunit; Abassi, Zaid A; Youdim, Moussa B H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23910472"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation and staging of squamous cell carcinoma of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity and oropharynx: <span class="hlt">limitations</span> despite technological breakthroughs.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Squamous cell carcinoma of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity (SCCOC) and squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx (SCCOP) represent two distinct disease entities. SCCOC continues to be related to tobacco risk factors, and the current anatomic staging system provides useful prognostic value. Most patients with SCCOP in Western countries now have HPV-associated tumors, and tumor HPV status is considered the most important prognostic factor. Smoking status is emerging as an important prognostic factor for HPV-driven SCCOP, independent of tumor HPV status. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and FDG-PET/CT imaging are diagnostic staging tools useful in select patients with SCCOC and SCCOP. PMID:23910472</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zafereo, Mark E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2013109429"> <span id="translatedtitle">Individuals Living in the Community with Chronic <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> and Functional <span class="hlt">Limitations</span>: A Closer Look.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The analyses rely on the 2006 Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (MEPS) which represents the non-institutionalized U.S. population. Having only information on the noninstitutionalized is an important <span class="hlt">limitation</span> for studying chronic disease and disability s...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title34-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title34-vol3-sec675-20.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">34 CFR 675.20 - Eligible employers and general <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and <span class="hlt">limitation</span> on employment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...work performed. Those jobs include, but are not <span class="hlt">limited</span> to, work performed when the student isâ (i) Enrolled in an internship; (ii) Enrolled in a practicum; or (iii) Employed in a research, teaching, or other assistantship. (2) A...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26512388"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dilution <span class="hlt">limits</span> of n-butane\\/air mixtures under <span class="hlt">conditions</span> relevant to HCCI combustion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The role of a spark discharge in extending the operating <span class="hlt">limits</span> of homogeneous change compression ignition (HCCI) combustion has been investigated using engine experiments and computational flame modeling. The flammability <span class="hlt">limits</span> of ultra-dilute n-butane\\/air mixtures are calculated over ranges of temperature, pressure, and dilution levels relevant to HCCI operation. The results suggest that with the elevated temperatures required to achieve</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y Huang; C. J Sung; J. A Eng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title45-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title45-vol1-sec146-111.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">45 CFR 146.111 - <span class="hlt">Limitations</span> on preexisting <span class="hlt">condition</span> exclusion period.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... (i) Facts. Individual C has asthma and is treated for that <span class="hlt">condition</span> several...months later, C is hospitalized for asthma. (ii) Conclusion. In this Example...<span class="hlt">condition</span> exclusion with respect to C 's asthma because care relating to C 's...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40152049"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Condition</span> and size of damselflies: a field study of food <span class="hlt">limitation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Based on evidence from field manipulations, several authors have recently suggested that interference competition among larval odonates reduces individual growth rates and biomass by reducing foraging rates. This study was designed to test the effects of food shortage on “<span class="hlt">condition</span>” (relative mass per unit head width) of larval Ischnura verticalis (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) under laboratory <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and to use these results</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert L. Baker</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=classical+AND+conditioning&pg=7&id=EJ746271"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Analysis of Sequential Variables in Pavlovian <span class="hlt">Conditioning</span> Employing Extended and <span class="hlt">Limited</span> Acquisition Training</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Sequential theory's memory model of learning has been successfully applied in response contingent instrumental <span class="hlt">conditioning</span> experiments (Capaldi, 1966, 1967, 1994; Capaldi & Miller, 2003). However, it has not been systematically tested in nonresponse contingent Pavlovian <span class="hlt">conditioning</span> experiments. The present experiments attempted to determine if…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miller, Ronald Mellado; Capaldi, E. John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41013771"> <span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring strategies for re-establishment of ecological reference <span class="hlt">conditions</span>: Possibilities and <span class="hlt">limitations</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ecological status of an environment should be evaluated by comparison with local “reference <span class="hlt">conditions</span>”, here defined as the pre-industrial ecological status of the 19th century. This pilot study illustrates how micropalaeontological monitoring, using benthic foraminifera (protists) and associated geochemical parameters preserved in inner Oslofjord (Norway) sediments, characterise local reference <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. In order to optimise the usefulness of the ecological</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elisabeth Alve; Aivo Lepland; Jan Magnusson; Kristian Backer-Owe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15733209"> <span id="translatedtitle">In silico predictions of drug solubility and permeability: two rate-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> barriers to <span class="hlt">oral</span> drug absorption.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aqueous drug solubility and intestinal drug permeability are two of the most important factors influencing drug absorption. If the developability of a drug is to be included in the lead optimization, new experimental and computational models of solubility and permeability are needed. These models must have the capacity to handle a large amount of data. Nowadays, epithelial cell culture models such as Caco-2 are routinely used to assess intestinal drug permeability and transport in drug discovery settings. The permeability values obtained from the Caco-2 cell monolayers have been traditionally used to devise in silico models for the prediction of drug absorption. In this paper, the use of molecular surface areas as descriptors of permeability and solubility will be reviewed. Moreover, a virtual filter for the prediction of <span class="hlt">oral</span> drug developability based on the successful combination of in vitro and in silico models of drug permeability and aqueous drug solubility will be discussed. PMID:15733209</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bergström, Christel A S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10794923"> <span id="translatedtitle">Factors <span class="hlt">limiting</span> the <span class="hlt">oral</span> bioavailability of N-acetylglucosaminyl-N-acetylmuramyl dipeptide (GMDP) and enhancement of absorption in rats by delivery in a water-in-oil microemulsion.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The bioavailability (BA) of radio-labelled N-acetylglucosaminyl-N-acetylmuramyl dipeptide (GMDP) was low when administered by <span class="hlt">oral</span> gavage as an aqueous solution to conscious male Sprague-Dawley rats (8.3+/-4.4% (mean+/-S.D., n=3)). To assess the likely factors contributing to the poor BA of GMDP, the stability of GMDP in the lumen of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract was examined in vitro, using ex vivo GI contents. GMDP was degraded by the contents of the small intestine, caecum and large intestine but was more stable in stomach contents. The permeability coefficient (p(app)) of GMDP in isolated sections of rabbit ileum was 1.67x10(-6) cm/s in the mucosal to serosal direction and was not significantly different in the serosal to mucosal direction, indicating that GMDP is poorly permeable and passively transported across the intestinal wall. First pass metabolism was considered to be unlikely to be the primary <span class="hlt">limitation</span> to the <span class="hlt">oral</span> bioavailability of GMDP and therefore, that the <span class="hlt">oral</span> bioavailability of GMDP was likely <span class="hlt">limited</span> by instability in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract and low intestinal permeability. A water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion formulation subsequently developed to address these problems was trialed in a preliminary bioavailability study in rats and enhanced the bioavailability of GMDP ten-fold when administered intraduodenally, indicating that w/o microemulsions may represent a viable mechanism for enhancing the bioavailability of poorly GI-stable and poorly permeable peptide-based molecules. PMID:10794923</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lyons, K C; Charman, W N; Miller, R; Porter, C J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-04-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23086999"> <span id="translatedtitle">SAICAR stimulates pyruvate kinase isoform M2 and promotes cancer cell survival in glucose-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2) plays an important role in the growth and metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells in stress <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Here, we report that SAICAR (succinylaminoimidazolecarboxamide ribose-5'-phosphate, an intermediate of the de novo purine nucleotide synthesis pathway) specifically stimulates PKM2. Upon glucose starvation, cellular SAICAR concentration increased in an oscillatory manner and stimulated PKM2 activity in cancer cells. Changes in SAICAR amounts in cancer cells altered cellular energy level, glucose uptake, and lactate production. The SAICAR-PKM2 interaction also promoted cancer cell survival in glucose-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. SAICAR accumulation was not observed in normal adult epithelial cells or lung fibroblasts, regardless of glucose <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. This allosteric regulation may explain how cancer cells coordinate different metabolic pathways to optimize their growth in the nutrient-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> commonly observed in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:23086999</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Keller, Kirstie E; Tan, Irene S; Lee, Young-Sam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/45479197"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigations of Internal Flow Fields of Constant-Area Mixing-Tubes under Starting-<span class="hlt">Limit</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Flow fields in the constant-area mixing tubes of ejector jets were investigated under the starting-<span class="hlt">limit</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of an aerodynamic choking mode by performing numerical simulations and cold flow experiments. Pressure recovery was almost completed in the shock-train region. The length of the shock-train region (Lst) was measured under various <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Lst was proportional to the mass flow rate ratio of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eijiro Kitamura; Sadatake Tomioka; Noboru Sakuranaka; Syuichi Watanabe; Goro Masuya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD720670"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flow and Fracture of Materials According to a New <span class="hlt">Limiting</span> <span class="hlt">Condition</span> of Yelding.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In general the theories on '<span class="hlt">conditions</span> of plastification' known up till now (Tresca, v. Mises, and others) have only taken into consideration the characteristics of resistance to simple tension and compression, when dealing with structures called upon to ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Stassi-D'Alia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1967-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title42-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title42-vol2-sec410-12.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">42 CFR 410.12 - Medical and other health services: Basic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and <span class="hlt">limitations</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medical and other health services: Basic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>...HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.12...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61361695"> <span id="translatedtitle">Factors <span class="hlt">limiting</span> endurance of armor, artillery, and infantry units under simulated NBC <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The war of the future will require 72-hour operations in environments contaminated with nuclear\\/biological\\/chemical (NBC) agents. The 1985 P2NBC2 (Physiological and Psychological Effects of NBC and Extended Operations on Combined Arms Crews) Program assessed soldier endurance and performance under simulated NBC <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. A total of 175 soldiers were observed during four tests differing in design, site, climatic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, and performance</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. M. Rauch; W. J. Tharion; L. E. Banderet; A. R. Lussier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=medical+AND+prevention&pg=2&id=EJ1002398"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of a Theory-Driven E-Learning Intervention for Future <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Healthcare Providers on Secondary Prevention of Disordered Eating Behaviors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|<span class="hlt">Oral</span> healthcare providers have a clinical opportunity for early detection of disordered eating behaviors because they are often the first health professionals to observe overt <span class="hlt">oral</span> and physical signs. Curricula regarding early recognition of this <span class="hlt">oral</span>/systemic medical <span class="hlt">condition</span> are <span class="hlt">limited</span> in <span class="hlt">oral</span> health educational programs. Web-based learning…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">DeBate, Rita D.; Severson, Herbert H.; Cragun, Deborah L.; Gau, Jeff M.; Merrell, Laura K.; Bleck, Jennifer R.; Christiansen, Steve; Koerber, Anne; Tomar, Scott L.; Brown, Kelli R. McCormack; Tedesco, Lisa A.; Hendricson, William</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6777113"> <span id="translatedtitle">Root Water Extraction and <span class="hlt">Limiting</span> Soil Hydraulic <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Estimated by Numerical Simulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Root density, soil hydraulic functions, and hydraulic head gra- dients play an important role in the determination of transpiration- rate-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> soil water contents. We developed an implicit numerical root water extraction model to solve the Richards equation for the modeling of radial root water extraction. The average soil water con- tent at the moment root water potential dropped below a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Quirijn de Jong van Lier; Klaas Metselaar; Jos C. van Dam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=172720"> <span id="translatedtitle">DEVELOPMENTAL SEQUENCES FOR SIMULATING CROP PHENOLOGY FOR WATER-<span class="hlt">LIMITING</span> <span class="hlt">CONDITIONS</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phenological responses are one of many diverse adaptations of plants to <span class="hlt">limited</span> soil water. Understanding and predicting how plants respond phenologically to varying levels of soil water is important in improving the efficacy of management practices. However, the complete developmental sequence of...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23672188"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of electromagnetic shielding with polyaniline nanopowders produced in solvent-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nanoparticle synthesis (~10-50 nm) of HCl-doped polyaniline elucidates the impact of <span class="hlt">limiting</span> solvent (water) and oxidizing agent (ammonium peroxydisulfate) on morphology (XRD and TEM), chemical structure (FTIR), conductivity (two-point DC) and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness (SE) in microwave frequencies (i.e., X-band S-parameter measurements). Detailed comparison of these properties with respect to three distinct polymerization environments indicate that a solvent-free or <span class="hlt">limited</span> solvent polymerization accomplished through a wet grinding solid-phase reaction produces superior conductivity (27 S/cm) with intermediate crystallinity (66%) for the highest EM shielding-an order of magnitude improvement over conventional polymerization with respect to EM power transmission reduction for all loadings per shielding area (0.04 to 0.17 g/cm(2)). By contrast, the classic oxidation of aniline in a well-dispersed aqueous reaction phase with an abundance of available oxidant in free solution yielded low conductivity (3.3 S/cm), crystallinity (54%), and SE, whereas similar solvent-rich reactions with <span class="hlt">limiting</span> oxidizer produced similar conductivity (2.9 S/cm) and significantly lower SE with the highest crystallinity (72%). This work is the first to demonstrate that <span class="hlt">limiting</span> solvent and oxidizer enhances electromagnetic interactions for shielding microwaves in polyaniline nanopowders. This appears connected to having the highest overall extent of oxidation achieved in the wet solid-phase reaction. PMID:23672188</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tantawy, Hesham Ramzy; Aston, D Eric; Smith, Jacob R; Young, Jeffrey L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=177436"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogenase does not confer significant benefits to Azotobacter vinelandii growing diazotrophically under <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of glucose <span class="hlt">limitation</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The presumed beneficial effect of hydrogenase on growth of diazotrophic bacteria was reinvestigated with carbon-<span class="hlt">limited</span> chemostat cultures of the hydrogenase-deficient mutant hoxKG of Azotobacter vinelandii and its parent. The results revealed that hydrogen recycling was too low to benefit the cellular energy metabolism or activities of nitrogenase and respiration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Linkerhagner, K; Oelze, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ajoh.org/jdocument/Vol2/article1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health in the African Region: Progress and perspectives of the Regional Strategy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">SUMMARY Objectives: According to The World <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Report 2003, <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases remain a major public health problem worldwide. However, <span class="hlt">oral</span> health is seen as a very low priority in the African Region, where extreme poverty means that the <span class="hlt">limited</span> resources available to the health sector are directed towards life-threatening <span class="hlt">conditions</span> such as HIV\\/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. The mission of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Charlotte Faty Ndiaye</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/22929046"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calculation of <span class="hlt">limiting</span> current density of metal electrodeposition on vertical plane electrode under <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of natural convection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An approximate analytical solution of problem of ion transfer near a vertical plane electrode surface is obtained for the metal electrodeposition proceeding at the <span class="hlt">limiting</span> current from electrolyte containing ions of three types under the <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of natural convection. In contrast to previous studies, no transport numbers are used here, and the migration transfer of electroactive electrolyte component is taken</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">V. M. Volgin; A. D. Davydov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35990625"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Limitations</span> of the rheological mucoadhesion method: The effect of the choice of <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and the rheological synergism parameter</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work demonstrates several <span class="hlt">limitations</span> of the simple rheological method that is widely used to investigate mucoadhesion of polymer gels. We establish the importance of the choice of <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and the synergism parameter for the results obtained in comparative studies. Dynamic rheological measurements were performed on gels based on four slightly different poly(acrylic acid) (Carbopol) polymers and their corresponding mixtures</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Helene Hägerström; Katarina Edsman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21474621"> <span id="translatedtitle">Teenagers' and parents' views on a short-break service for children with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>: a qualitative study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Few opportunities exist outside the home for children and teenagers with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> to have a break in a setting specifically designed and adequately staffed and resourced to meet their complex clinical, practical and emotional needs; until recently provision focused primarily on providing respite for parents/carers. Based on policy recommendations, a short-break service was established with the aim of working in partnership with families and voluntary and statutory agencies to provide a fun break for children and teenagers with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and complement the range of services available. This qualitative study used interviews and focus groups to determine teenagers' and parents' views of the service. Three themes emerged: accessibility and communication; needs and boundaries; and shaping the service. Teenagers enjoyed regular planned residential breaks, access to skilled staff and bespoke facilities to support their needs, opportunities to meet others with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and fun time away from home, thereby giving parents peace of mind, a regular planned break from care-giving, opportunities to meet other parents and to spend exclusive time with their other children. If specialist short-break services become part of the national range of services available, children and teenagers with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and their parents and siblings could all benefit. PMID:21474621</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Swallow, Veronica; Forrester, Tracey; Macfadyen, Ann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35910429"> <span id="translatedtitle">The rate-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> enzyme in phosphatidylcholine synthesis is associated with nuclear speckles under stress <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) is the most abundant phospholipid in eukaryotic membranes and its biosynthetic pathway is generally controlled by CTP:Phosphocholine Cytidylyltransferase (CCT), which is considered the rate-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> enzyme. CCT is an amphitropic protein, whose enzymatic activity is commonly associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) translocation; however, most of the enzyme is intranuclearly located. Here we demonstrate that CCT? is concentrated in the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nicolás O. Favale; María C. Fernández-Tome; Lucila G. Pescio; Norma B. Sterin-Speziale</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49473870"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microbial lipid production by Rhodosporidium toruloides under sulfate-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Novel biochemical approaches remain to be developed to improve microbial lipid technology. This study demonstrated that sulfate <span class="hlt">limitation</span> was effective to promote accumulating substantial amounts of intracellular lipid by the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides Y4. When it was cultivated using a medium with an initial carbon-to-sulfur (C\\/S) molar ratio of 46,750, cellular lipid content reached up to 58.3%. The time</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Siguo Wu; Xin Zhao; Hongwei Shen; Qian Wang; Zongbao K. Zhao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD646291"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Diurnal Rhythm of Functions of Humans in <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> of <span class="hlt">Limited</span> Mobility.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The diurnal rhythm of man's physiological functions is a complex reaction that developed in the process of phylogenic and ontogenic adaptation of living organisms to the <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of vital activity on earth. According to certain of the literature it is i...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. E. Panferova</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1966-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://agron.scijournals.org/cgi/reprint/93/5/1148.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Maize and Sorghum Simulations with CERES-Maize, SORKAM, and ALMANAC under Water-<span class="hlt">Limiting</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">mize risks associated with unpredictable weather condi- tions. Crop models offer hope as tools to optimize such While crop models often are tested against long-term mean grain management practices. Robust crop models can provide yields, models for aiding decision making must accurately simulate grain yields in extreme climatic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. In this study, we evaluated a quantitative means to predict crop</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yun Xie; James R. Kiniry; Vernon Nedbalek; Wesley D. Rosenthal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57522816"> <span id="translatedtitle">‘Building democracy’ through foreign aid: The <span class="hlt">limitations</span> of United States political <span class="hlt">conditionalities</span>, 1992–96</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article examines the record of the United States government in promoting democratic reform through the manipulation of development aid flows between 1992 and 1996. The first section reviews the origins of the policy of political <span class="hlt">conditionality</span> and the subsequent changes in the US Agency for International Development. The next section evaluates the policy's execution by considering trends in the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steven W. Hook</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29939935"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of medical <span class="hlt">conditions</span> on the functional <span class="hlt">limitations</span> of Mexican-American elderly</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examined the relationship of self-reported functional status to common medical <span class="hlt">conditions</span> using a probability sample of 3050 noninstitutionalized Mexican-American men and women aged 65 or older and residing in the Southwestern United States (Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas). All subjects were interviewed in person (n = 2,873) or by proxy (n = 177) in their homes during</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kyriakos S. Markides; Christine A. Stroup-Benham; James S. Goodwin; Linda C. Perkowski; Michael Lichtenstein; Laura A. Ray</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48147009"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical Modelling of a Pulse Combustion Burner: <span class="hlt">Limiting</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> of Stable Operation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a Numerical modelling of pulse combustors may give important guidelines on how design parameters should be chosen. This paper\\u000a gives a mathematical analysis of a simple model for thermal pulse combustion and determines <span class="hlt">conditions</span> under which this model\\u000a can describe stable pulse operation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. A. Heerbeek; M. B. Gijzen; C. Vuik; M. R. Fonteijne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/tlnwuppnv1ntllyy.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Learned perceptual associations influence visuomotor programming under <span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>: cues as surface patterns</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">.   The present set of three experiments was designed to extend the findings that visuomotor programming can make use of learned\\u000a size information under some, but not all, <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. An association was established between the size of square wooden blocks\\u000a and a perceptual cue in all experiments. In Experiment 1 the perceptual cue to size was a small two-dimensional drawing</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Angela M. Haffenden; Melvyn A. Goodale</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JMFM..tmp...36B"> <span id="translatedtitle">The 3-D Inviscid <span class="hlt">Limit</span> Result Under Slip Boundary <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>. A Negative Answer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We show that, in general, the solutions to the initial-boundary value problem for the Navier-Stokes equations under a widely adopted Navier-type slip boundary <span class="hlt">condition</span> do not converge, as the viscosity goes to zero, to the solution of the Euler equations under the classical zero-flux boundary <span class="hlt">condition</span>, and same smooth initial data, in any arbitrarily small neighborhood of the initial time. Convergence does not hold with respect to any space-topology which is sufficiently strong as to imply that the solution to the Euler equations inherits the complete slip type boundary <span class="hlt">condition</span>. In our counter-example ? is a sphere, and the initial data may be infinitely differentiable. The crucial point here is that the boundary is not flat. In fact (see Beirão da Veiga et al. in J. Math. Anal. Appl. doi:<ExternalRef> <RefSource>10.1016/j.jmaa.2010.10.045</RefSource> <RefTarget Address="10.1016/j.jmaa.2010.10.045" TargetType="DOI"/> </ExternalRef>, 2010) if { ? = mathbb R^3_+,} convergence holds in {C([0,T]; W^{k,p}(mathbb R^3_+))}, for arbitrarily large k and p. For this reason, the negative answer given here was not expected.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beirão da Veiga, H.; Crispo, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5607190"> <span id="translatedtitle">Factors <span class="hlt">limiting</span> endurance of armor, artillery, and infantry units under simulated NBC <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The war of the future will require 72-hour operations in environments contaminated with nuclear/biological/chemical (NBC) agents. The 1985 P2NBC2 (Physiological and Psychological Effects of NBC and Extended Operations on Combined Arms Crews) Program assessed soldier endurance and performance under simulated NBC <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. A total of 175 soldiers were observed during four tests differing in design, site, climatic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, and performance demands. In all but one of the iterations where the full chemical-protective ensemble (MOPP 4) was used without cooling, soldier endurance fell far short of the projected requirement. Psychological data were analyzed to determine which factors were associated with the incidence of casualties. The findings showed that perceived intensity of symptoms resembling the hyperventilation syndrome was significantly greater in soldiers classified as Casualties. Five of these symptoms (painful breathing, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, headache, and nausea) showed Casualty-Survivor differences in all tests. Symptom intensity was attributed to two factors. (1) External <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Thermal stress exacerbated the five basic symptoms, induced others (tetany and paresthesia), and decreased endurance. Periodic relief from respirator use attenuated these symptoms and enhanced endurance. (2) Individual differences. Significant Casualty-Survivor differences in anxiety, depression, and cognitive strategy scores indicated that perception of hyperventilation symptoms and endurance were related to personality variables. Hyperventilation symptoms could incapacitate the soldier or induce removal of the protective mask under actual chemical attack.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rauch, T.M.; Tharion, W.J.; Banderet, L.E.; Lussier, A.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-03-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPhD...40.5446C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bearing performance <span class="hlt">limits</span> with grease lubrication: the interaction of bearing design, operating <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and grease properties</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The majority of rolling element bearings in use today are lubricated by grease. Grease is a two-phase lubricant with complex rheological properties and poses severe challenges for the prediction for lubricating performance. Grease lubricated contacts are liable to starvation and as a result the film thickness is reduced, which can result in surface damage or premature bearing failure. It is important to know when starvation occurs and the effect of grease type, bearing design and operation on lubrication replenishment. The influence of bearing design and operation in controlling lubricant supply to the contact zone is examined in this paper. The aim is to develop a starvation parameter capable of predicting the operating <span class="hlt">limits</span> for a particular bearing/grease system. A number of bearing design parameters are examined in the paper; these include cage design, ball spin and bearing size. Ball spin and cage effects can be efficient mechanisms for maintaining the lubricant supply to the track. Increased bearing size, line contact geometries and high load result in reduced lubricant replenishment of the contact. Using this analysis it will be possible to establish operating <span class="hlt">limits</span> for families of bearings.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cann, P. M. E.; Lubrecht, A. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23390028"> <span id="translatedtitle">The novel <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulants.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">After the introduction of warfarin, long-term <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulation treatment remained unchanged for more than 50 years. Most recently, with the development and approval of new <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulants, the treatment of medical <span class="hlt">conditions</span> that require thrombosis prophylaxis and long-term anticoagulation has become more complex. In the case of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention after orthopedic surgery, the new <span class="hlt">oral</span> agents will be less costly than the parenteral alternative. In other settings (such as atrial fibrillation or treatment of acute VTE), the new agents will offer additional convenience at higher cost, but the degree to which they will reduce clinically important events such as thrombosis or bleeding will be <span class="hlt">limited</span>, especially for patients on optimally controlled warfarin. As the use of the new <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulants becomes more widespread, it will be important for all clinicians to have a basic understanding of their pharmacology, advantages, and <span class="hlt">limitations</span>. Although the need to measure or reverse the effect of these drugs will arise infrequently, clinicians--especially hematologists--will desire evidence-based recommendations about how to manage such scenarios, which will require research studies. PMID:23390028</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rojas-Hernandez, Cristhiam M; Garcia, David A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20086789"> <span id="translatedtitle">Osgood-schlatter disease: practical treatment for a self-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">condition</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Osgood-Schlatter disease is one of the most common causes of knee pain in active adolescents. It is a generally benign disturbance at the junction of the patellar tendon and the tibial tubercle apophysis, and treatment during its 12- to 24-month course should be matched to severity. Mild symptoms require only patient education and moderation of activity, but severe symptoms call for a period of rest (or, rarely, immobilization) followed by aggressive quadriceps strengthening. Other <span class="hlt">conditions</span> such as Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease may occur simultaneously, and long-term effects can include a prominence on the anterior knee or painful kneeling. PMID:20086789</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wall, E J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21834420"> <span id="translatedtitle">Respite care needs for families of children with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Framework for Respite in Partnership with Parents (FRiPP), developed by the Jessie May Trust is a tool to enable a standardised and equitable allocation of a <span class="hlt">limited</span> resource. FRiPP reduces the opportunity for subjective allocation of respite-based care stemming from the professional-led model of telling families what they need. The tool is aimed at engaging families in identifying and articulating the support they require. After a successful pilot and evaluation, FRiPP is now used for all families on the Jessie May Trust's caseload. The authors reflect on the tool's development and implementation process in the context of promoting and protecting partnership working. PMID:21834420</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bowman, Janet; Butcher, Ruth; Dolby, Sue</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21331292"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Administration of Semicarbazide <span class="hlt">Limits</span> Weight Gain together with Inhibition of Fat Deposition and of Primary Amine Oxidase Activity in Adipose Tissue.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An enzyme hitherto named semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), involved in the oxidation of primary amines, is abundantly expressed in adipocytes. Although SSAO physiological functions remain unclear, several molecules inhibiting its activity have been described to <span class="hlt">limit</span> fat accumulation in preadipocyte cultures or to reduce body weight gain in obese rodents. Here, we studied whether <span class="hlt">oral</span> administration of semicarbazide, a prototypical SSAO inhibitor, <span class="hlt">limits</span> fat deposition in mice. Prolonged treatment with semicarbazide at 0.125% in drinking water <span class="hlt">limited</span> food and water consumption, hampered weight gain, and deeply impaired fat deposition. The adiposomatic index was reduced by 31%, while body mass was reduced by 15%. Such treatment completely inhibited SSAO, but did not alter MAO activity in white adipose tissue. Consequently, the insulin-like action of the SSAO substrate benzylamine on glucose transport was abolished in adipocytes from semicarbazide-drinking mice, while their insulin sensitivity was not altered. Although semicarbazide is currently considered as a food contaminant with deleterious effects, the SSAO inhibition it induces appears as a novel concept to modulate adipose tissue development, which is promising for antiobesity drug discovery. PMID:21331292</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mercader, Josep; Iffiú-Soltész, Zsuzsa; Bour, Sandy; Carpéné, Christian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3038600"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Administration of Semicarbazide <span class="hlt">Limits</span> Weight Gain together with Inhibition of Fat Deposition and of Primary Amine Oxidase Activity in Adipose Tissue</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An enzyme hitherto named semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), involved in the oxidation of primary amines, is abundantly expressed in adipocytes. Although SSAO physiological functions remain unclear, several molecules inhibiting its activity have been described to <span class="hlt">limit</span> fat accumulation in preadipocyte cultures or to reduce body weight gain in obese rodents. Here, we studied whether <span class="hlt">oral</span> administration of semicarbazide, a prototypical SSAO inhibitor, <span class="hlt">limits</span> fat deposition in mice. Prolonged treatment with semicarbazide at 0.125% in drinking water <span class="hlt">limited</span> food and water consumption, hampered weight gain, and deeply impaired fat deposition. The adiposomatic index was reduced by 31%, while body mass was reduced by 15%. Such treatment completely inhibited SSAO, but did not alter MAO activity in white adipose tissue. Consequently, the insulin-like action of the SSAO substrate benzylamine on glucose transport was abolished in adipocytes from semicarbazide-drinking mice, while their insulin sensitivity was not altered. Although semicarbazide is currently considered as a food contaminant with deleterious effects, the SSAO inhibition it induces appears as a novel concept to modulate adipose tissue development, which is promising for antiobesity drug discovery.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mercader, Josep; Iffiu-Soltesz, Zsuzsa; Bour, Sandy; Carpene, Christian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5386843"> <span id="translatedtitle">Uses and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> of drillstring tension and torque models for monitoring hole <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents the results of the application of a tension/torque model to directional wells drilled worldwide. The final inclination of the wells ranged from 25 to 70{sup 0}, and the tension/torque model was effectively used in these cases to aid in planning the directional program before spudding, to monitor the wells during drilling, and to analyze particular drilling problems after completion. The first set of examples represents the situations to which the tension/torque model can be routinely applied. A second set of examples shows how real-time monitoring of drilling <span class="hlt">conditions</span> can be combined with the model to develop a base-line so that deviations from expected behavior can be analyzed and explained. A final set of examples shows how a tension/torque model can be effectively used to determine the actual cause of a particular drilling problem after a well is completed. This paper also compares field data with model predictions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brett, J.F.; Holt, C.A.; Smith, D.L. (Amoco Production Co., Denver, CO (US)); Beckett, A.D. (Alcorn Intl. (PH))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012WRR....48.4530T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Natural <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for more <span class="hlt">limited</span> osmotic abnormal fluid pressures in sedimentary basins</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chemical osmosis is considered a plausible cause of abnormal pressures in shale formations of sedimentary basins. A set of experimental data on chemical osmosis was recently obtained for different shales, mainly in the framework of studies on radioactive waste repositories in deep argillaceous formations. Based on these data, large, osmotically induced overpressures up to tens of MPa were predicted by [2009] under appropriate <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. However, such large overpressures have not been found in sedimentary basins such that the reasons for this disparity between predictions and observations need to be clarified. Accordingly, two natural causes for lower than expected osmotic pressure were investigated: the effect of the complex composition of natural waters, including both monovalent and divalent cations, on the osmotic efficiency and the resulting abnormal pressures, and the presence of steady state rather than transient-state salinity distributions. For this purpose, an electrical triple-layer model accounting for multi-ionic solutions was developed and used to calculate the osmotic efficiency at different proportions of monovalent and divalent cations. The calculated decrease of the osmotic efficiency when Ca2+ is introduced in a Na+-clay system yields a noticeable decrease in the ability of the shale to generate overpressures. A discussion addresses the generation of abnormal pressures at steady state <span class="hlt">conditions</span> found in sedimentary basins, i.e., with a linear distribution of the concentration across the formation. The persistence of moderate overpressures was predicted because of the nonlinearity associated with the dependence of the chemo-osmotic efficiency on the concentration and the porosity. Finally, a case study of the moderate excess hydraulic head measured in the Toarcian/Domerian argillaceous formation of Tournemire (SE of France) was investigated. The analysis indicated an osmotic origin for the excess head and illustrated the influence of the pore water composition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tremosa, Joachim; GonçAlvèS, Julio; Matray, Jean-Michel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3220154"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Myiasis is a relatively rare <span class="hlt">condition</span> arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical <span class="hlt">condition</span>, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative <span class="hlt">oral</span> lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pereira, Treville; Tamgadge, Avinash P.; Chande, Mayura S.; Bhalerao, Sudhir; Tamgadge, Sandhya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23046061"> <span id="translatedtitle">Detection of Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein Antibodies in <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Fluid Specimens From Pigs Infected Under Experimental <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Using a Blocking ELISA.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In commercial swine populations, influenza is an important component of the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) and a pathogen with major economic impact. Previously, a commercial blocking ELISA (FlockChek(™) Avian Influenza Virus MultiS-Screen(®) Antibody Test Kit, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Westbrook, ME, USA) designed to detect influenza A nucleoprotein (NP) antibodies in avian serum was shown to accurately detect NP antibodies in swine serum. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this assay could detect NP antibodies in swine <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid samples. Initially, the procedure for performing the NP-blocking ELISA on <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid was modified from the serum testing protocol by changing sample dilution, sample volume, incubation time and incubation temperature. The detection of NP antibody was then evaluated using pen-based <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid samples (n = 182) from pigs inoculated with either influenza A virus subtype H1N1 or H3N2 under experimental <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and followed for 42 days post inoculation (DPI). NP antibodies in <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid were detected from DPI 7 to 42 in all inoculated groups, that is, the mean sample-to-negative (S/N) ratio of influenza-inoculated pigs was significantly different (P < 0.0001) from uninoculated controls (unvaccinated or vaccinated-uninoculated groups) through this period. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> fluid versus serum S/N ratios from the same pen showed a correlation of 0.796 (Pearson's correlation coefficient, P < 0.0001). The results showed that <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid samples from influenza virus-infected pigs contained detectable levels of NP antibodies for ?42 DPI. Future research will be required to determine whether this approach could be used to monitor the circulation of influenza virus in commercial pig populations. PMID:23046061</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Panyasing, Y; Goodell, C K; Wang, C; Kittawornrat, A; Prickett, J R; Schwartz, K J; Ballagi, A; Lizano, S; Zimmerman, J J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.jstor.org/stable/3784651"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Conditions</span> and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> on learning in the adaptive management of mallard harvests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 1995, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service adopted a protocol for the adaptive management of waterfowl hunting regulations (AHM) to help reduce uncertainty about the magnitude of sustainable harvests. To date, the AHM process has focused principally on the midcontinent population of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), whose dynamics are described by 4 alternative models. Collectively, these models express uncertainty (or disagreement) about whether harvest is an additive or a compensatory form of mortality and whether the reproductive process is weakly or strongly density-dependent. Each model is associated with a probability or 'weight,' which describes its relative ability to predict changes in population size. These Bayesian probabilities are updated annually using a comparison of population size predicted under each model with that observed by a monitoring program. The current AHM process is passively adaptive, in the sense that there is no a priori consideration of how harvest decisions might affect discrimination among models. We contrast this approach with an actively adaptive approach, in which harvest decisions are used in part to produce the learning needed to increase long-term management performance. Our investigation suggests that the passive approach is expected to perform nearly as well as an optimal actively adaptive approach, particularly considering the nature of the model set, management objectives and constraints, and current regulatory alternatives. We offer some comments about the nature of the biological hypotheses being tested and describe some of the inherent <span class="hlt">limitations</span> on learning in the AHM process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, F.A.; Kendall, W.L.; Dubovsky, J.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20647050"> <span id="translatedtitle">The rate-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> enzyme in phosphatidylcholine synthesis is associated with nuclear speckles under stress <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) is the most abundant phospholipid in eukaryotic membranes and its biosynthetic pathway is generally controlled by CTP:Phosphocholine Cytidylyltransferase (CCT), which is considered the rate-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> enzyme. CCT is an amphitropic protein, whose enzymatic activity is commonly associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) translocation; however, most of the enzyme is intranuclearly located. Here we demonstrate that CCT? is concentrated in the nucleoplasm of MDCK cells. Confocal immunofluorescence revealed that extracellular hypertonicity shifted the diffuse intranuclear distribution of the enzyme to intranuclear domains in a foci pattern. One population of CCT? foci colocalised and interacted with lamin A/C speckles, which also contained the pre-mRNA processing factor SC-35, and was resistant to detergent and salt extraction. The lamin A/C silencing allowed us to visualise a second more labile population of CCT? foci that consisted of lamin A/C-independent foci non-resistant to extraction. We demonstrated that CCT? translocation is not restricted to its redistribution from the nucleus to the ER and that intranuclear redistribution must thus be considered. We suggest that the intranuclear organelle distribution of CCT? is a novel mechanism for the regulation of enzyme activity. PMID:20647050</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Favale, Nicolás O; Fernández-Tome, María C; Pescio, Lucila G; Sterin-Speziale, Norma B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=197105"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparative studies of S-layer proteins from Bacillus stearothermophilus strains expressed during growth in continuous culture under oxygen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> and non-oxygen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The specific properties of S-layer proteins from three different Bacillus stearothermophilus strains revealing oblique, square, or hexagonal lattice symmetry were preserved during growth in continuous culture on complex medium only under oxygen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in which glucose was used as the sole carbon source. When oxygen <span class="hlt">limitation</span> was relieved, amino acids became metabolized, cell density increased, and different S-layer proteins from wild-type strains became rapidly replaced by a new common type of S-layer protein with an apparent subunit molecular weight of 97,000 which assembled into an identical oblique (p2) lattice type. During switching from wild-type strains to variants, patches of the S-layer lattices characteristics for wild-type strains, granular regions, and areas with oblique lattice symmetry could be observed on the surface of individual cells from all organisms. The granular regions apparently consisted of mixtures of the S-layer proteins from the wild-type strains and the newly synthesized p2 S-layer proteins from the variants. S-layer proteins from wild-type strains possessed identical N-terminal regions but led to quite different cleavage products upon peptide mapping, indicating that they are encoded by different genes. Chemical analysis including N-terminal sequencing and peptide mapping showed that the oblique S-layer lattices synthesized under increased oxygen supply were composed of identical protein species. Images</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sara, M; Sleytr, U B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47792495"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of Probabilistic Safety Assessment to Parameters of Operational <span class="hlt">Limits</span> and <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> of the Opal Research Reactor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper gives a brief explanation of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), the meaning and application of Operational\\u000a <span class="hlt">Limits</span> and <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> (OL&Cs) for facilities and describes the application of PSA to the derivation of OL&C parameters such\\u000a as Completion Times. ANSTO’s Research Reactor OPAL is used as a case study but the authors conclude that the methodology,\\u000a based on NUREG\\/CR-6141, could</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. J. Bastin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/tw1582426528882m.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Use of an analytical model to study <span class="hlt">limitations</span> on net photosynthesis in Arbutus unedo under field <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">From field gas-exchange measurements on Arbutus unedo growing in Portugal, parameter values necessary to apply an analytical, physiologicallybased model of C3 photosynthesis were obtained. The model successfully simulated measured diurnal photosynthetic responses in Arbutus during periods without water stress, under both natural and CO2-saturating <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. The model was used to analyze those factors <span class="hlt">limiting</span> primary productivity during each of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. C. Harley; J. D. Tenhunen; O. L. Lange</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/23265890"> <span id="translatedtitle">Separation of parent homopolymers from diblock copolymers by liquid chromatography under <span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of desorption 3. Role of column packing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The novel separation method, liquid chromatography under <span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of desorption, LC LCD enables rapid one-step discrimination of both parent homopolymers from diblock copolymers. The low-molecular admixtures\\/impurities can be base-line separated, as well. The general rules for selection of the LC LCD columns are reviewed. Bare silica gel column packings are discussed in detail. Selected examples of separation are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dušan Berek</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12619913"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vestibular lesions selectively abolish body rotation-induced, but not lithium-induced, <span class="hlt">conditioned</span> taste aversions (<span class="hlt">oral</span> rejection responses) in rats.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pairing a novel taste with provocative vestibular stimulation results in <span class="hlt">conditioned</span> taste aversions in both rats and humans. Vestibular system involvement in gustatory <span class="hlt">conditioning</span> was examined in sham-lesioned or labyrinthectomized rats. Three <span class="hlt">conditioning</span> trials consisted of 30 min access to asaccharin (0.1%) solution followed by 30 min of rotation (70 rpm) or sham rotation. In a taste reactivity test with saccharin, rotated sham-lesioned rats, but not labyrinthectomized rats, exhibited increased <span class="hlt">oral</span> rejection reactions compared with control rats. When <span class="hlt">conditioned</span> with lithium chloride, both labyrinthectomized and sham-lesioned rats displayed robust <span class="hlt">conditioned</span> rejection reactions. The finding that normal vestibular function is necessary in obtaining rotation-induced <span class="hlt">conditioned</span> taste aversions supports the face and construct validity of a rat model of motion sickness. PMID:12619913</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter; Parker, Linda A; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Burton, Page; Fudge, Melissa A; Cross-Mellor, Shelley K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B33C0468G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of Bacterial Weathering Ability in Nutrient <span class="hlt">Limited</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> on Biotite</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bacterial and fungal communities facilitate the weathering of minerals in oligotrophic soils. The bacterial communities reside in biofilms, consisting of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) such as lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nuclei acids. Biotite, a 2:1 aluminosilicate mica, is a common primary mineral found in these low nutrient soils and is a source of potassium, magnesium and iron for both microorganisms and plants. Studies show that bacteria, when incubated with biotite flakes, can remove iron, potassium, and magnesium at higher quantities and increased rates compared to abiotic controls (Balogh-Brunstad et al., 2008; Calvaruso et al., 2006; Hopf et al. 2008; Uroz et al., 2007 and 2009). How this happens mechanistically is still unclear and this study seeks to shed light on this issue. We hypothesize that weathering by bacteria is selective; i.e., that the mechanism will depend on the <span class="hlt">limiting</span> nutrient. Using a drip flow biofilm reactor, biofilms are grown on biotite coupons under non-turbulent, low sheer flow, with four different nutrient treatments. The nutrient treatments include a complete nutrient solution and the same solution without K, Mg, or Fe. In each treatment, we determine the concentration and cumulative release of each cation in the effluent. Congruent dissolution of biotite indicates that weathering is nonselective whereas incongruent dissolution suggests that the bacteria alter the weathering mechanism for a specific nutrient. The bacteria are selected from a bacterial inoculum collected from the roots of young White Pine (Pinus strobus) trees in the Saint Joseph National Forest, Idaho. The bacteria are isolated on plates and the best weathering species are selected using a microplate bioassay technique to determine the concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, and protons colorimetrically.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grant, M. R.; Harsh, J. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16903053"> <span id="translatedtitle">Small rodent winter survival: snow <span class="hlt">conditions</span> <span class="hlt">limit</span> access to food resources.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1. In Fennoscandia during winter small rodents spend most of their time in the subnivean space, between the snow cover and the ground. The subnivean space is probably not a uniform habitat, but broken into accessible and inaccessible patches by ice covering the vegetation. This might reduce access to otherwise available food resources. 2. To test whether ice formations reduce access to food and thus <span class="hlt">limit</span> winter survival of small rodents, we conducted an experiment where we increased subnivean space by adding corrugated aluminium sheets on the ground before onset of winter. The sheets prevented ice formation, thus mimicking natural occurring subnivean space, and providing more room for animals living in the subnivean space to forage. 3. During the experiment 142 Microtus oeconomus were passive induced transponder (PIT)-tagged, and a system consisting of fixed tube-shaped antennas and PIT-tag readers were used to provide data to analyse winter survival and individual subnivean space use. The extent of winter grazing was measured after snow melt by examining percentage area grazed. 4. The treatment resulted in increased survival which corresponded well with significantly higher space use and more grazing under the sheets. 5. Females showed a positive correlation between probability of survival and body mass while no such effect was observed in males. 6. The results suggest that the snow cover reduces survival in winter by physically enclosing the vegetation in ice and thus reducing access to otherwise available food resources. The amount of ice and its configuration might vary between years due to changing weather patterns. Our results offer a mechanistic explanation for variations in winter survival and suggest incorporating climate variables in future small rodent models. 7. Directional and long-term changes in climate might result in increased ice formation in the subnivean system. Such deterioration may lead to reduced winter survival and act by stabilizing population dynamics and dampening vole cyclicity. PMID:16903053</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Korslund, Lars; Steen, Harald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21301025"> <span id="translatedtitle">3D scalar model as a 4D perfect conductor <span class="hlt">limit</span>: Dimensional reduction and variational boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Under dimensional reduction, a system in D spacetime dimensions will not necessarily yield its D-1-dimensional analog version. Among other things, this result will depend on the boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and the dimension D of the system. We investigate this question for scalar and Abelian gauge fields under boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span> that obey the symmetries of the action. We apply our findings to the Casimir piston, an ideal system for detecting boundary effects. Our investigation is not <span class="hlt">limited</span> to extra dimensions and we show that the original piston scenario proposed in 2004, a toy model involving a scalar field in 3D (2+1) dimensions, can be obtained via dimensional reduction from a more realistic 4D electromagnetic (EM) system. We show that for perfect conductor <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, a D-dimensional EM field reduces to a D-1 scalar field and not its lower-dimensional version. For Dirichlet boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, no theory is recovered under dimensional reduction and the Casimir pressure goes to zero in any dimension. This ''zero Dirichlet'' result is useful for understanding the EM case. We then identify two special systems where the lower-dimensional version is recovered in any dimension: systems with perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) and Neumann boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. We show that these two boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span> can be obtained from a variational procedure in which the action vanishes outside the bounded region. The fields are free to vary on the surface and have zero modes, which survive after dimensional reduction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Edery, Ariel [Physics Department, Bishop's University, 2600 College Street, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1M 0C8 (Canada); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Kohn Hall, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Graham, Noah [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Kohn Hall, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States); MacDonald, Ilana [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Physics Department, Bishop's University, 2600 College Street, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1M 0C8 (Canada)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/33811386"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of <span class="hlt">condition</span> of surgical margins on local recurrence and disease-specific survival in <span class="hlt">oral</span> and oropharyngeal cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: The clearance of surgical margins at the primary site is widely thought to influence the subsequent course of the disease in patients operated on for <span class="hlt">oral</span> and oropharyngeal carcinoma. In some reports the adverse impact of close or involved margins was not negated by postoperative radiotherapy. These findings, in addition to descriptive histopathological studies, have led some authors to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J McMahon; C. J O’Brien; I Pathak; R Hamill; E McNeil; N Hammersley; S Gardiner; E Junor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48204301"> <span id="translatedtitle">Controlled drug release for <span class="hlt">oral</span> <span class="hlt">condition</span> by a novel device based on ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The application of drug delivery systems in <span class="hlt">oral</span> environment is relatively a new area of research with the exception of release of fluoride ions from polyalkenoate cements and their predecessor silicate cements. The present study addresses development of a novel device based on ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA), a biocompatible material which enables constant drug release over several days to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Kalachandra; Lin Dongming; S. Offenbacher</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=204933"> <span id="translatedtitle">Growth and metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in chemostat cultures under carbon-, nitrogen-, or carbon- and nitrogen-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aerobic chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were performed under carbon-, nitrogen-, and dual carbon- and nitrogen-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. The glucose concentration was kept constant, whereas the ammonium concentration was varied among different experiments and different dilution rates. It was found that both glucose and ammonium were consumed at the maximal possible rate, i.e., the feed rate, over a range of medium C/N ratios and dilution rates. To a small extent, this was due to a changing biomass composition, but much more important was the ability of uncoupling between anabolic biomass formation and catabolic energy substrate consumption. When ammonium started to <span class="hlt">limit</span> the amount of biomass formed and hence the anabolic flow of glucose, this was totally or at least partly compensated for by an increased catabolic glucose consumption. The primary response when glucose was present in excess of the minimum requirements for biomass production was an increased rate of respiration. The calculated specific oxygen consumption rate, at D = 0.07 h-1, was more than doubled when an additional nitrogen <span class="hlt">limitation</span> was imposed on the cells compared with that during single glucose <span class="hlt">limitation</span>. However, the maximum respiratory capacity decreased with decreasing nitrogen concentration. The saturation level of the specific oxygen consumption rate decreased from 5.5 to 6.0 mmol/g/h under single glucose <span class="hlt">limitation</span> to about 4.0 mmol/g/h at the lowest nitrogen concentration tested. The combined result of this was that the critical dilution rate, i.e., onset of fermentation, was as low as 0.10 h-1 during growth in a medium with a low nitrogen concentration compared with 0.20 h-1 obtained under single glucose <span class="hlt">limitation</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Larsson, C; von Stockar, U; Marison, I; Gustafsson, L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24010603"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Australian Dekkera bruxellensis strains grown under oxygen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> on model wine composition and aroma.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spoilage of red wine by the yeast species Dekkera bruxellensis is a common problem for the global wine industry. When <span class="hlt">conditions</span> are conducive for growth of these yeasts in wine, they efficiently convert non-volatile hydroxycinnamic acids into aroma-active ethylphenols, thereby reducing the quality of the wine. It has been demonstrated previously that dissolved oxygen is a key factor which stimulates D. bruxellensis growth in wine. We demonstrate that whereas the presence of oxygen accelerates the growth of this species, oxygen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> favour 4-ethylphenol production. Consequently, we evaluated wine spoilage potential of three D. bruxellensis strains (AWRI1499, AWRI1608 and AWRI1613) under oxygen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Each strain was cultured in a chemically-defined wine medium and the fermentation products were analysed using HPLC and HS-SPME-GC/MS. The strains displayed different growth characteristics but were equally capable of producing ethylphenols. On the other hand, significant differences were observed for 18 of the remaining 33 metabolites analysed and duo-trio sensory analysis indicated significant aroma differences between wines inoculated with AWRI1499 and AWRI1613. When these wines were spiked with low concentrations of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol, no sensorial differences could be perceived. Together these data suggest that the three predominant D. bruxellensis strains previously isolated during a large survey of Australian wineries do not differ substantively in their capacity to grow in, and spoil, a model wine medium. PMID:24010603</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Curtin, Chris D; Langhans, Geoffrey; Henschke, Paul A; Grbin, Paul R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20936422"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dekkera/Brettanomyces yeasts for ethanol production from renewable sources under oxygen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> and low-pH <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Industrial fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates to ethanol requires microorganisms able to utilise a broad range of carbon sources and generate ethanol at high yield and productivity. D. bruxellensis has recently been reported to contaminate commercial ethanol processes, where it competes with Saccharomyces cerevisiae [4, 26]. In this work Brettanomyces/Dekkera yeasts were studied to explore their potential to produce ethanol from renewable sources under <span class="hlt">conditions</span> suitable for industrial processes, such as oxygen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> and low-pH <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Over 50 strains were analysed for their ability to utilise a variety of carbon sources, and some strains grew on cellobiose and pentoses. Two strains of D. bruxellensis were able to produce ethanol at high yield (0.44 g g(-1) glucose), comparable to those reported for S. cerevisiae. B. naardenensis was shown to be able to produce ethanol from xylose. To obtain ethanol from synthetic lignocellulosic hydrolysates we developed a two-step fermentation strategy: the first step under aerobic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for fast production of biomass from mixtures of hexoses and pentoses, followed by a second step under oxygen <span class="hlt">limitation</span> to promote ethanol production. Under these <span class="hlt">conditions</span> we obtained biomass and ethanol production on synthetic lignocellulosic hydrolysates, with ethanol yields ranging from 0.2 to 0.3 g g(-1) sugar. Hexoses, xylose and arabinose were consumed at the end of the process, resulting in 13 g l(-1) of ethanol, even in the presence of furfural. Our studies showed that Brettanomyces/Dekkera yeasts have clear potential for further development for industrial processes aimed at production of ethanol from renewable sources. PMID:20936422</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Galafassi, Silvia; Merico, Annamaria; Pizza, Francesca; Hellborg, Linda; Molinari, Francesco; Piškur, Jure; Compagno, Concetta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23001663"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen response of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 grown under carbon-sufficient, nitrogen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> enological <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discrete additions of oxygen play a critical role in alcoholic fermentation. However, few studies have quantitated the fate of dissolved oxygen and its impact on wine yeast cell physiology under enological <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. We simulated the range of dissolved oxygen concentrations that occur after a pump-over during the winemaking process by sparging nitrogen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> continuous cultures with oxygen-nitrogen gaseous mixtures. When the dissolved oxygen concentration increased from 1.2 to 2.7 ?M, yeast cells changed from a fully fermentative to a mixed respirofermentative metabolism. This transition is characterized by a switch in the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and an activation of NADH shuttling from the cytosol to mitochondria. Nevertheless, fermentative ethanol production remained the major cytosolic NADH sink under all oxygen <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, suggesting that the <span class="hlt">limitation</span> of mitochondrial NADH reoxidation is the major cause of the Crabtree effect. This is reinforced by the induction of several key respiratory genes by oxygen, despite the high sugar concentration, indicating that oxygen overrides glucose repression. Genes associated with other processes, such as proline uptake, cell wall remodeling, and oxidative stress, were also significantly affected by oxygen. The results of this study indicate that respiration is responsible for a substantial part of the oxygen response in yeast cells during alcoholic fermentation. This information will facilitate the development of temporal oxygen addition strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations. PMID:23001663</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aceituno, Felipe F; Orellana, Marcelo; Torres, Jorge; Mendoza, Sebastián; Slater, Alex W; Melo, Francisco; Agosin, Eduardo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3497381"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen Response of the Wine Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 Grown under Carbon-Sufficient, Nitrogen-<span class="hlt">Limited</span> Enological <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discrete additions of oxygen play a critical role in alcoholic fermentation. However, few studies have quantitated the fate of dissolved oxygen and its impact on wine yeast cell physiology under enological <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. We simulated the range of dissolved oxygen concentrations that occur after a pump-over during the winemaking process by sparging nitrogen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> continuous cultures with oxygen-nitrogen gaseous mixtures. When the dissolved oxygen concentration increased from 1.2 to 2.7 ?M, yeast cells changed from a fully fermentative to a mixed respirofermentative metabolism. This transition is characterized by a switch in the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and an activation of NADH shuttling from the cytosol to mitochondria. Nevertheless, fermentative ethanol production remained the major cytosolic NADH sink under all oxygen <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, suggesting that the <span class="hlt">limitation</span> of mitochondrial NADH reoxidation is the major cause of the Crabtree effect. This is reinforced by the induction of several key respiratory genes by oxygen, despite the high sugar concentration, indicating that oxygen overrides glucose repression. Genes associated with other processes, such as proline uptake, cell wall remodeling, and oxidative stress, were also significantly affected by oxygen. The results of this study indicate that respiration is responsible for a substantial part of the oxygen response in yeast cells during alcoholic fermentation. This information will facilitate the development of temporal oxygen addition strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aceituno, Felipe F.; Orellana, Marcelo; Torres, Jorge; Mendoza, Sebastian; Slater, Alex W.; Melo, Francisco</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21965410"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pyruvate and lactate metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under fermentation, oxygen <span class="hlt">limitation</span>, and fumarate respiration <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe that derives energy by coupling organic matter oxidation to the reduction of a wide range of electron acceptors. Here, we quantitatively assessed the lactate and pyruvate metabolism of MR-1 under three distinct <span class="hlt">conditions</span>: electron acceptor-<span class="hlt">limited</span> growth on lactate with O(2), lactate with fumarate, and pyruvate fermentation. The latter does not support growth but provides energy for cell survival. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of that needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensable for growth, the respiration of fumarate does not contribute significantly to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, whereby the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle did not contribute significantly. Pyruvate dehydrogenase was not involved in lactate metabolism under <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of O(2) <span class="hlt">limitation</span> but was required for anaerobic growth, likely by supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. The results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination of substrate-level phosphorylation and respiration, where pyruvate serves as an electron donor and an electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by a recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H-independent d-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). The results further indicate that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by the generation of proton motive force. PMID:21965410</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pinchuk, Grigoriy E; Geydebrekht, Oleg V; Hill, Eric A; Reed, Jennifer L; Konopka, Allan E; Beliaev, Alexander S; Fredrickson, Jim K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=183062"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metabolic and energetic control of Pseudomonas mendocina growth during transitions from aerobic to oxygen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in chemostat cultures.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several metabolic fluxes were analyzed during gradual transitions from aerobic to oxygen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in chemostat cultures of Pseudomonas mendocina growing in synthetic medium at a dilution rate of 0.25 h-1. P. mendocina growth was glucose <span class="hlt">limited</span> at high oxygen partial pressures (70 and 20% pO2) and exhibited an oxidative type of metabolism characterized by respiratory quotient (RQ) values of 1.0. A similar RQ value was obtained at low pO2 (2%), and detectable levels of acetic, formic, and lactic acids were determined in the extracellular medium. RQs of 0.9 +/- 0.12 were found at 70% pO2 for growth rates ranging from 0.025 to 0.5 h-1. At high pO2, the control coefficients of oxygen on catabolic fluxes were 0.19 and 0.22 for O2 uptake and CO2 production, respectively. At low pO2 (2%), the catabolic and anabolic fluxes were highly controlled by oxygen. P. mendocina showed a mixed-type fermentative metabolism when nitrogen was flushed into chemostat cultures. Ethanol and acetic, lactic, and formic acids were excreted and represented 7.5% of the total carbon recovered. Approximately 50% of the carbon was found as uronic acids in the extracellular medium. Physiological studies were performed under microaerophilic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> (nitrogen flushing) in continuous cultures for a wide range of growth rates (0.03 to 0.5 h-1). A cell population, able to exhibit a near-maximum theoretical yield of ATP (YmaxATP = 25 g/mol) with a number of ATP molecules formed during the transfer of an electron towards oxygen along the respiration chain (P/O ratio) of 3, appears to have adapted to microaerophilic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Verdoni, N; Aon, M A; Lebeault, J M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3233039"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pyruvate and Lactate Metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under Fermentation, Oxygen <span class="hlt">Limitation</span>, and Fumarate Respiration <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>?†</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe that derives energy by coupling organic matter oxidation to the reduction of a wide range of electron acceptors. Here, we quantitatively assessed the lactate and pyruvate metabolism of MR-1 under three distinct <span class="hlt">conditions</span>: electron acceptor-<span class="hlt">limited</span> growth on lactate with O2, lactate with fumarate, and pyruvate fermentation. The latter does not support growth but provides energy for cell survival. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of that needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensable for growth, the respiration of fumarate does not contribute significantly to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, whereby the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle did not contribute significantly. Pyruvate dehydrogenase was not involved in lactate metabolism under <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of O2 <span class="hlt">limitation</span> but was required for anaerobic growth, likely by supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. The results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination of substrate-level phosphorylation and respiration, where pyruvate serves as an electron donor and an electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by a recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H-independent d-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). The results further indicate that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by the generation of proton motive force.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Hill, Eric A.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Konopka, Allan E.; Beliaev, Alexander S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/320998"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> non-dystrophic bullous eruption mainly <span class="hlt">limited</span> to the gingivae: a mechano bullous response. A variant of cicatricial mucous membrane pemphigoid?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fourteen patients with recurrent blistering entirely restricted to the mouth have been observed for up to 7 years. Their average age was 52 years, and there was a predilection for females (ratio 2-5:1). Patients presented with thick-roofed blisters and denuded, red, boggy areas of mucosa. The area of maximal involvement with the labial gingiva, and whilst the blisters would arise spontaneously, mechanical trauma was the obvious provocative factor in all patients. Gentle friction on normal looking mucosa would produce a bulla which became blood filled. Re-epithelialization usually occurred within 1-3 weeks, with no scarring. Biopsies showed subepithelial bullae, and direct immunofluorescence was positive in the basement membrane zone of 2 of the 5 cases examined. The most striking feature was the extreme fragility of the epithelial attachment to the underlying corium, as shown by a useful clinical test with a probe. In 10 patients, the <span class="hlt">condition</span> gradually remitted and the probe test became difficult to perform. The term acquired <span class="hlt">oral</span> non-dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa was considered for the diagnosis, although a forme fruste of cicatricial mucous membrane pemphigoid remained an alternative. PMID:320998</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Forman, L; Nally, F F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3269348"> <span id="translatedtitle">Safety and efficacy of glycopyrrolate <span class="hlt">oral</span> solution for management of pathologic drooling in pediatric patients with cerebral palsy and other neurologic <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of <span class="hlt">oral</span> glycopyrrolate solution 1 mg/5 mL for 24 weeks in pediatric patients with chronic moderate-to- severe drooling associated with cerebral palsy and other neurologic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Methods In this multicenter, open-label, 24-week study, males and females aged 3–18 years weighing at least 27 lb received <span class="hlt">oral</span> glycopyrrolate solution, starting at 0.02 mg/kg three times daily and titrated in increments of 0.02 mg/kg every 5–7 days for 4 weeks to an optimal maintenance dose or a maximum dose of 0.1 mg/kg, but not exceeding 3 mg three times daily. Safety was assessed by description and tabulation of all adverse events. The primary efficacy endpoint was response, defined as at least a three-point change from baseline to week 24 on the modified Teacher’s Drooling Scale. Results Of 137 intent-to-treat participants, 10 (7.3%) received the maximum dose of 0.1 mg/kg three times daily; 122 (89%) had at least one treatment-emergent adverse event, 47% related to <span class="hlt">oral</span> glycopyrrolate solution, with most being mild-to-moderate in intensity. The most commonly reported treatment-emergent adverse events were constipation (20.4%), vomiting (17.5%), diarrhea (17.5%), pyrexia (14.6%), dry mouth (10.9%), flushing (10.9%), and nasal congestion (10.9%). Nineteen patients (13.9%) discontinued treatment due to an adverse event, but no adverse event was specifically associated with discontinuation. Two patients had clinically significant toxicity grade shifts, one each in platelet count and calcium concentration. No deaths occurred on treatment; deaths of three patients (multisystem organ failure, anoxic encephalopathy, and aspiration pneumonia) within 30 days of their last dose were not considered to be treatment-related. At 24 weeks, 52.3% (95% confidence interval 43.7–60.9) of patients were responders, with at least a three-point decrease in modified Teacher’s Drooling Scale from baseline, with 83.5% of parents/caregivers and 85.8% of investigators rating <span class="hlt">oral</span> glycopyrrolate solution as being worthwhile. Conclusion <span class="hlt">Oral</span> glycopyrrolate solution 1 mg/5 mL for chronic moderate-to-severe drooling associated with cerebral palsy or other neurologic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> was well tolerated over 24 weeks by pediatric patients aged 3–18 years.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zeller, Robert S; Davidson, Jennifer; Lee, Hak-Myung; Cavanaugh, Paul F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/l604w338j3365r52.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discriminative ability of the generic and <span class="hlt">condition</span>-specific Child-<span class="hlt">Oral</span> Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP) by the Limpopo-Arusha School Health (LASH) Project: A cross-sectional study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background  Generic and <span class="hlt">condition</span>-specific (CS) <span class="hlt">oral</span>-health-related quality-of-life (OHRQoL) instruments assess the impacts of general\\u000a <span class="hlt">oral</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and specific <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases. Focusing schoolchildren from Arusha and Dar es Salaam, in Tanzania, this study\\u000a compared the discriminative ability of the generic Child OIDP with respect to dental caries and periodontal problems across\\u000a the study sites. Secondly, the discriminative ability of the generic-and the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hawa S Mbawalla; Matilda Mtaya; Joyce R Masalu; Pongsri Brudvik; Anne N Astrom</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3134229"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quality of life information and trust in physicians among families of children with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: To examine information that parents of children with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> want to discuss with children’s physicians to assist decision-making, and whether the desire for this information is associated with parents’ trust in physicians. Study design: A cross-sectional study using a telephone survey. Patients and methods: Subjects comprised a random sample of 266 parents whose children were enrolled in Florida’s Medicaid Program. Parents were asked if they wanted to discuss information related to their children’s treatment, including quality of life (QOL), pain relief, spiritual beliefs, clinical diagnosis/laboratory data, changes in the child’s behavior due to treatment, changes in the child’s appearance due to treatment, chances of recovery, and advice from the physician and family/friends. The Wake Forest Physician Trust Scale was used to measure parents’ trust in physicians. We tested the relationships between parents’ age, race/ethnicity, education, parent-reported children’s health status, and the desired information. We also tested whether the desire for information was associated with greater trust in physicians. Results: Most parents wanted information on their children’s QOL (95%), followed by chance of recovery (88%), and pain relief (84%). Compared with nonHispanic whites, nonHispanic blacks and Hispanics showed a greater desire for information and a chance to discuss QOL information had greater trust in their children’s physicians than other information after adjusting for covariates (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Among children with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, QOL is the most frequently desired information that parents would like to receive from physicians as part of shared decision-making. Parents’ desire for QOL information is associated with greater trust in their children’s physicians.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, I-Chan; Kenzik, Kelly M; Sanjeev, Tuli Y; Shearer, Patricia D; Revicki, Dennis A; Nackashi, John A; Shenkman, Elizabeth A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016543"> <span id="translatedtitle">Use of the Priestley-Taylor evaporation equation for soil water <span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in a small forest clearcut</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Priestley-Taylor equation, a simplification of the Penman equation, was used to allow calculations of evapotranspiration under <span class="hlt">conditions</span> where soil water supply <span class="hlt">limits</span> evapotranspiration. The Priestley-Taylor coefficient, ??, was calculated to incorporate an exponential decrease in evapotranspiration as soil water content decreases. The method is appropriate for use when detailed meteorological measurements are not available. The data required to determine the parameter for the ?? coefficient are net radiation, soil heat flux, average air temperature, and soil water content. These values can be obtained from measurements or models. The dataset used in this report pertains to a partially vegetated clearcut forest site in southwest Oregon with soil depths ranging from 0.48 to 0.70 m and weathered bedrock below that. Evapotranspiration was estimated using the Bowen ratio method, and the calculated Priestley-Taylor coefficient was fitted to these estimates by nonlinear regression. The calculated Priestley-Taylor coefficient (?????) was found to be approximately 0.9 when the soil was near field capacity (0.225 cm3 cm-3). It was not until soil water content was less than 0.14 cm3 cm-3 that soil water supply <span class="hlt">limited</span> evapotranspiration. The soil reached a final residual water content near 0.05 cm3 cm-3 at the end of the growing season. ?? 1991.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Flint, A. L.; Childs, S. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3385256"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of addition of ketamine, fentanyl and saline with Propofol induction on hemodynamics and laryngeal mask airway insertion <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in <span class="hlt">oral</span> clonidine premedicated children</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: The aim of this double-blind, prospective, randomized, controlled study was to compare the effect of addition of ketamine; fentanyl and saline with propofol anesthesia on hemodynamic profile and laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in <span class="hlt">oral</span> clonidine premedicated children. Methods: 180 children (age 2 - 10 years) were at first given <span class="hlt">oral</span> clonidine (4 ?g/kg) 90 minutes before operation, and then were randomly allocated to receive either ketamine 0.5 mg/kg (n=60), fentanyl 1 ?g/kg (n=60) or 0.9% normal saline (n=60) before induction with propofol 3.0 mg/kg. Insertion of LMA was performed within 1 minute of injection of propofol. Heart rate and mean blood pressure were noted 1 min before induction (baseline), immediately after induction, before and after insertion of LMA for up to 3 min. Following LMA insertion, 6 subjective end points were noted-mouth opening, coughing, swallowing, patient's movement, laryngospasm, and ease of an insertion. LMA insertion summed score was prepared depending upon these variables. Results: LMA insertion summed score was nearly similar in ketamine and fentanyl group, which were significantly better than saline group (P<0.004). Mean blood pressure and heart rate were maintained in ketamine than with fentanyl or saline group. Incidence of prolonged apnea (>120 secs.) was higher in fentanyl group compared to ketamine and saline group. Conclusion: Even in <span class="hlt">oral</span> clonidine premedicated children, addition of ketamine with propofol provides hemodynamic stability and comparable <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for LMA insertion like fentanyl propofol with significantly less prolonged apnea.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ghatak, Tanmoy; Singh, Dinesh; Kapoor, Rajni; Bogra, Jaishree</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BoLMe.148..541L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Vertical Turbulent Heat Flux <span class="hlt">Limit</span> in Stable <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> with a Local Equilibrium, Turbulence Closure Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Assuming that the vertical turbulent heat flux vanishes at extremely stable <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, one should expect its maximal absolute value to occur somewhere at moderate stability, between a neutral and extremely stable equilibrium. Consequently, in some situations duality of solutions may be encountered (e.g. two different values of temperature difference associated with the same values of heat flux and wind speed). A quantitative analysis of this feature with a local equilibrium Reynolds-stress model is presented. The fixed-wind / fixed-shear maximum has been identified both in the bulk and in single-point flux-gradient relationships (that is, in the vertical temperature gradient and wind-shear parameter domain). The value of the Richardson number corresponding to this maximum is derived from the model equations. To study the possible feedback in strongly stable <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, weak and intense cooling scenarios have been simulated with a one-dimensional numerical, high-resolution atmospheric boundary-layer model. Despite the rapid cooling, flow decoupling at the surface has not been observed; instead, a stability-<span class="hlt">limited</span> heat flux is maintained, with a gradual increase of the Richardson number towards the top of the turbulent layer, with some signs of oscillatory behaviour at intermediate heights. Vertical changes of wind shear and the Brunt-Väisälä frequency display a remarkably non-monotonic character, with some signs of a gradually developing instability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">?obocki, Lech</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23616079"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of thresholds of potential concern and <span class="hlt">limits</span> of acceptable change in the <span class="hlt">condition</span> assessment of a significant wetland.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose a framework in which thresholds of potential concern (TPCs) and <span class="hlt">limits</span> of acceptable change (LACs) are used in concert in the assessment of wetland <span class="hlt">condition</span> and vulnerability and apply the framework in a case study. The lower Murrumbidgee River floodplain (the 'Lowbidgee') is one of the most ecologically important wetlands in Australia and the focus of intense management intervention by State and Federal government agencies. We used a targeted management stakeholder workshop to identify key values that contribute to the ecological significance of the Lowbidgee floodplain, and identified LACs that, if crossed, would signify the loss of significance. We then used conceptual models linking the <span class="hlt">condition</span> of these values (wetland vegetation communities, waterbirds, fish species and the endangered southern bell frog) to measurable threat indicators, for which we defined a management goal and a TPC. We applied this framework to data collected across 70 wetland storages', or eco-hydrological units, at the peak of a prolonged drought (2008) and following extensive re-flooding (2010). At the suggestion of water and wetland mangers, we neither aggregated nor integrated indices but reported separately in a series of chloropleth maps. The resulting assessment clearly identified the effect of rewetting in restoring indicators within TPC in most cases, for most storages. The scale of assessment was useful in informing the targeted and timely management intervention and provided a context for retaining and utilising monitoring information in an adaptive management context. PMID:23616079</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rogers, Kerrylee; Saintilan, Neil; Colloff, Matthew J; Wen, Li</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3016284"> <span id="translatedtitle">Age is not a <span class="hlt">limiting</span> factor for brachytherapy for carcinoma of the node negative <span class="hlt">oral</span> tongue in patients aged eighty or older</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background To examine the role of brachytherapy for aged patients 80 or more in the trend of rapidly increasing number. Methods We examined the outcomes for elderly patients with node negative <span class="hlt">oral</span> tongue cancer (T1-3N0M0) treated with brachytherapy. The 21 patients (2 T1, 14 T2, and 5 T3 cases) ranged in age from 80 to 89 years (median 81), and their cancer was pathologically confirmed. All patients underwent definitive radiation therapy, with low dose rate (LDR) Ra-226 brachytherapy (n = 4; median 70Gy), with Ir-192 (n = 12; 70Gy), with Au-198 (n = 1) or with high dose rate (HDR) Ir-192 brachytherapy (n = 4; 60 Gy). Eight patients also underwent external radiotherapy (median 30 Gy). The period of observation ranged from 13 months to 14 years (median 2.5 years). We selected 226 population matched younger counterpart from our medical chart. Results Definitive radiation therapy was completed for all 21 patients (100%), and acute grade 2-3 mucositis related to the therapy was tolerable. Local control (initial complete response) was attained in 19 of 21 patients (90%). The 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 91%, (100% for T1, 83% for T2 and 80% for T3 tumors after 2 years). These figures was not inferior to that of younger counterpart (82% at 5-year, n.s.). The cause-specific survival rate was 83% and the regional control rate 84% at the 2-years follow-up. However, 12 patients died because of intercurrent diseases or senility, resulting in overall survival rates of 55% at 2 years and 34% at 5 years. Conclusion Age is not a <span class="hlt">limiting</span> factor for brachytherapy for appropriately selected elderly patients, and brachytherapy achieved good local control with acceptable morbidity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23926782"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of fipronil <span class="hlt">oral</span> dosing to cattle for control of adult and larval sand flies under controlled <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease endemic to the Indian subcontinent. The Phlebotomus genus of sand flies is the vector for VL in the Old World, with the vector on the Indian Subcontinent being Phlebotomus argentipes. Cattle are a commodity in this region and a frequent host source of P. argentipes bloodmeals. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a single <span class="hlt">oral</span> dose fipronil against adult and larval P. argentipes. Ten Bos indicus cattle were used during the study in a controlled environment. The study was conducted in Bihar, India, and involved adult and larval bioassays using laboratory-reared P. argentipes. The results were positive in that they led to up to 100% mortality in both adult and larval sand flies over a 21-d period after a single dose of fipronil. PMID:23926782</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Poché, Richard M; Garlapati, Rajesh; Singh, Mutum I; Poché, David M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..117.3307E"> <span id="translatedtitle">HOx budgets during HOxComp: A case study of HOx chemistry under NOx-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent studies have shown that measured OH under NOx-<span class="hlt">limited</span>, high-isoprene <span class="hlt">conditions</span> are many times higher than modeled OH. In this study, a detailed analysis of the HOx radical budgets under low-NOx, rural <span class="hlt">conditions</span> was performed employing a box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCMv3.2). The model results were compared with HOx radical measurements performed during the international HOxComp campaign carried out in Jülich, Germany, during summer 2005. Two different air masses influenced the measurement site denoted as high-NOx (NO, 1-3 ppbv) and low-NOx (NO, < 1 ppbv) periods. Both modeled OH and HO2 diurnal profiles lay within the measurement range of all HOx measurement techniques, with correlation slopes between measured and modeled OH and HO2 around unity. Recently discovered interference in HO2 measurements caused by RO2 cross sensitivity was found to cause a 30% increase in measured HO2 during daytime on average. After correction of the measured HO2 data, the model HO2 is still in good agreement with the observations at high NOx but overpredicts HO2 by a factor of 1.3 to 1.8 at low NOx. In addition, for two different set of measurements, a missing OH source of 3.6 ± 1.6 and 4.9 ± 2.2 ppb h-1 was estimated from the experimental OH budget during the low-NOx period using the corrected HO2 data. The measured diurnal profile of the HO2/OH ratio, calculated using the corrected HO2, is well reproduced by the MCM at high NOx but is significantly overestimated at low NOx. Thus, the cycling between OH and HO2 is better described by the model at high NOx than at low NOx. Therefore, similar comprehensive field measurements accompanied by model studies are urgently needed to investigate HOx recycling under low-NOx <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elshorbany, Y. F.; Kleffmann, J.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Kurtenbach, R.; Wiesen, P.; Brauers, T.; Bohn, B.; Dorn, H.-P.; Fuchs, H.; Holland, F.; Rohrer, F.; Tillmann, R.; Wegener, R.; Wahner, A.; Kanaya, Y.; Yoshino, A.; Nishida, S.; Kajii, Y.; Martinez, M.; Kubistin, D.; Harder, H.; Lelieveld, J.; Elste, T.; Plass-Dülmer, C.; Stange, G.; Berresheim, H.; Schurath, U.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23059582"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neutral zone and <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> submucous fibrosis is a premalignant <span class="hlt">condition</span> in which rigidity of the lip, tongue, and palate results in reduced mouth opening and tongue movement. <span class="hlt">Limited</span> mouth opening, mucosal rigidity, and reduced salivary flow makes prosthodontic procedures difficult in these patients and affects the stability, retention, and the support of removable prostheses. The burning sensation in the mouth that these patients experience reduces the tolerance to prostheses. We report a case of <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis where the conventional neutral zone technique with certain modifications was utilized to rehabilitate a completely edentulous patient with this <span class="hlt">condition</span>. PMID:23059582</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Afroz, Shaista; Rahman, Sajjad Abdur; Rajawat, Indresh; Verma, A K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12694887"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Limitations</span> of the rheological mucoadhesion method: the effect of the choice of <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and the rheological synergism parameter.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work demonstrates several <span class="hlt">limitations</span> of the simple rheological method that is widely used to investigate mucoadhesion of polymer gels. We establish the importance of the choice of <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and the synergism parameter for the results obtained in comparative studies. Dynamic rheological measurements were performed on gels based on four slightly different poly(acrylic acid) (Carbopol) polymers and their corresponding mixtures with porcine stomach mucin and bovine submaxillary gland mucin. The rationale for the comparison of the polymers had a large influence on the results obtained. The method does not give the same ranking order when two different comparison strategies are used. Moreover, we show that the results obtained are also sensitive to where in the 'rheological range' the comparison is made, e.g., at which value of G'. Positive values of the synergism parameters are, for example, only seen with weak gels. The choice of synergism parameter also has a bearing on the results obtained, and here we suggest a new refined relative parameter, the log ratio (log(G'(mix)/G'(p))). We also investigated the adhesion of the gel preparations to porcine nasal mucosa, using tensile strength measurements. Increased gel strength resulted in stronger adhesion, which is in contrast to the results from the rheological method, where the positive values of the synergism parameters were seen only with weak gels. On the basis of the <span class="hlt">limitations</span> demonstrated and discussed, we recommend that the rheological method should not be used as a stand-alone method for the studying of mucoadhesive properties of polymer gels. PMID:12694887</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hägerström, Helene; Edsman, Katarina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23349021"> <span id="translatedtitle">Areca nut-induced buccal mucosa fibroblast contraction and its signaling: a potential role in <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis--a precancer <span class="hlt">condition</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Betel quid (BQ) chewing is an <span class="hlt">oral</span> habit that increases the risk of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer and <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis (OSF), a precancerous <span class="hlt">condition</span> showing epithelial atrophy and tissue fibrosis. Persistent fibroblast contraction may induce the fibrotic contracture of tissue. In this study, we found that areca nut extract (ANE) (200-1200 µg/ml) stimulated buccal mucosa fibroblast (OMF)-populated collagen gel contraction. Arecoline but not arecaidine-two areca alkaloids, slightly induced the OMF contraction. Exogenous addition of carboxylesterase (2U/ml) prevented the arecoline- but not ANE-induced OMF contraction. OMF expressed inositol triphosphate (IP3) receptors. ANE-induced OMF (800 µg/ml) contraction was inhibited by U73122 [phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor] and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (IP3 receptor antagonist), respectively. Ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid and verapamil, two calcium mobilization modulators, also suppressed the ANE-induced OMF contraction. ANE induced calcium/calmodulin kinase II and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation in OMF. Moreover, W7 (a Ca(2+)/calmodulin inhibitor), HA1077 (Rho kinase inhibitor), ML-7 (MLC kinase inhibitor) and cytochalasin B (actin filament polymerization inhibitor) inhibited the ANE-induced OMF contraction. Although ANE elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in OMF, catalase, superoxide dismutase and N-acetyl-L-cysteine showed no obvious effect on ANE-elicited OMF contraction. These results indicate that BQ chewing may affect the wound healing and fibrotic processes in OSF via inducing OMF contraction by ANE and areca alkaloids. AN components-induced OMF contraction was related to PLC/IP3/Ca(2+)/calmodulin and Rho signaling pathway as well as actin filament polymerization, but not solely due to ROS production. PMID:23349021</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang, Mei-Chi; Lin, Li-Deh; Wu, Hui-Lin; Ho, Yuan-Soon; Hsien, Hsiang-Chi; Wang, Tong-Mei; Jeng, Po-Yuan; Cheng, Ru-Hsiu; Hahn, Liang-Jiunn; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> 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href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3502147"> <span id="translatedtitle">The course of physical functional <span class="hlt">limitations</span> and occupational <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in a middle-aged working population in France</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Physical functional <span class="hlt">limitations</span> (PFL) have mainly been studied in older populations. The aim of this study was to better understand the course of PFL and associations with occupational factors by gender in a middle-aged working population. Methods The data came from 16,950 workers in the ESTEV (Enquête Santé Travail et Vieillissement) cohort in France. PFL were assessed using the physical abilities section of the Nottingham Health Profile. Occupational <span class="hlt">conditions</span> were measured with a self-administered questionnaire covering physical and psychosocial factors in 1990 and 1995. Multivariate analyses were used to assess the associations. Results The PFL appearance rate in 1995 was the same by gender (6.3%); the rate of PFL recovery was higher in men (23.9% versus 20.9%). Age was an independent factor of PFL at age 47?years or older in both genders after adjusting for confounding factors. The PFL appearance rate in 1995 was higher with physical occupational exposure in 1990, such as awkward work with a dose relation in both genders, while the PFL recovery rate decreased significantly only for men. Exposure to psychosocial occupational <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, such as having the means to produce quality work in 1990, was significantly associated with a decreased PFL appearance rate in 1995 in both genders, and having high decision latitude in 1990 was associated with a decreased PFL appearance rate in 1995 only in men. Changes in exposure to occupational factors between 1990 and 1995 were associated with the PFL appearance and recovery rates in 1995 in both genders. Conclusions After five years, the course of PFL in this working population changed and was associated with physical and psychosocial occupational factors. Relationships were stronger for the PFL appearance rate in both genders and were weaker for recovery from PFL, mainly among women.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20943803"> <span id="translatedtitle">Personal resuscitation plans and end of life planning for children with disability and life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span>/life-threatening <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article discusses the need for person-specific planning for the increasing numbers of disabled children with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> and life-threatening <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. It describes the system developed in Nottingham for this client group to have a family-held personal resuscitation plan, (PRP) which is developed with the child and family by their lead paediatrician. The PRP is an emergency medical care plan which supports the provision of the most appropriate level of intervention for the child whether they are at home, school, short break unit or hospital. The PRP template is presented with advice on implementation and case examples. Feedback from families, medical and nursing staff is that PRPs are useful and empowering. The system supports timely discussions about appropriate care in an emergency and the communication of decisionsmade jointly by the child, family and medical team to all concerned. A flexible and person-specific PRP stating what interventions to do such as airway clearance, facial oxygen, trial of bag and mask ventilation is preferable to a do not attempt resuscitation form which is an 'all or nothing system' and can seem very negative to families. A PRP in the home can support appropriate action from local rapid response teams set up to review unexpected child deaths. PMID:20943803</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wolff, A; Browne, J; Whitehouse, W P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23247774"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contrast-enhanced ultrasound performed under urgent <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Indications, review of the technique, clinical examples and <span class="hlt">limitations</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is an imaging technique with various indications, most of which refer to scheduled examinations. However, CEUS can also be performed under urgent <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for the investigation of many different clinical questions. This article reviews basic physics of ultrasound contrast agents and examines the commonest urgent clinical applications of CEUS. These include, among others, abdominal solid organ trauma and infarcts, scrotal and penile pathology and blood vessel imaging. Patients can be examined with a very short time delay at their bedside, without exposure to ionising radiation or risk of anaphylactic reaction and renal failure, while contraindications are minimal. CEUS technique is described for various urgent indications and imaging examples from our department's experience are presented. Safety matters and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> of CEUS are also mentioned. Teaching Points • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) can be performed urgently for various clinical applications. • Abdominal indications include solid organ trauma and infarcts. • CEUS in abdominal organ trauma correlates well with CT and can replace it for patient follow-up. • CEUS images testicular torsion, infection and infarction, as well as testicular and penile trauma. • Blood vessels can be assessed with CEUS for obstruction, aneurysm, thrombosis and dissection. PMID:23247774</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cokkinos, Demosthenes D; Antypa, Eleni; Kalogeropoulos, Ioannis; Tomais, Dimitrios; Ismailos, Emmanuel; Matsiras, Ioannis; Benakis, Stylianos; Piperopoulos, Ploutarchos N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3296283"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> tolerance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary The gut-associated lymphoid tissue is the largest immune organ in the body and is the primary route by which we are exposed to antigens. Tolerance induction is the default immune pathway in the gut, and the type of tolerance induced relates to the dose of antigen fed: anergy/deletion (high dose) or regulatory T-cell (Treg) induction (low dose). <span class="hlt">Conditioning</span> of gut dendritic cells (DCs) by gut epithelial cells and the gut flora, which itself has a major influence on gut immunity, induces CD103+ retinoic acid-dependent DC that induces Tregs. A number of Tregs are induced at mucosal surfaces. Th3 type Tregs are transforming growth factor-? dependent and express latency-associated peptide (LAP) on their surface and were discovered in the context of <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance. Tr1 type Tregs (interleukin-10 dependent) are induced by nasal antigen and forkhead box protein 3+ iTregs are induced by <span class="hlt">oral</span> antigen and by <span class="hlt">oral</span> administration of aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> or nasal antigen ameliorates autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in animal models by inducing Tregs. Furthermore, anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody is active at mucosal surfaces and <span class="hlt">oral</span> or nasal anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody induces LAP+ Tregs that suppresses animal models (experimental autoimmune encephalitis, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, lupus, arthritis, atherosclerosis) and is being tested in humans. Although there is a large literature on treatment of animal models by mucosal tolerance and some positive results in humans, this approach has yet to be translated to the clinic. The successful translation will require defining responsive patient populations, validating biomarkers to measure immunologic effects, and using combination therapy and immune adjuvants to enhance Treg induction. A major avenue being investigated for the treatment of autoimmunity is the induction of Tregs and mucosal tolerance represents a non-toxic, physiologic approach to reach this goal.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weiner, Howard L.; da Cunha, Andre Pires; Quintana, Francisco; Wu, Henry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3076704"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Tolerance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is the largest immune organ in the body and is the primary route by which we are exposed to antigens. Tolerance induction is the default immune pathway in the gut, and the type of tolerance induced relates to the dose of antigen fed: anergy/deletion (high dose) or regulatory T-cell (Treg) induction (low dose). <span class="hlt">Conditioning</span> of gut dendritic cells by gut epithelial cells and the gut flora, which itself has a major influence on gut immunity, induces a CD103+ retinoic acid-dependent dendritic cell that induces Tregs. A number of Tregs are induced at mucosal surfaces. Th3 type Tregs are transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) dependent and express latency-associated peptide (LAP) on their surface and were discovered in the context of <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance. Tr1 type Tregs (interleukin-10 dependent) are induced by nasal antigen and Foxp3 iTregs are induced by <span class="hlt">oral</span> antigen and by <span class="hlt">oral</span> administration of aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> or nasal antigen ameliorates autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in animal models by inducing Tregs. Furthermore, anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody is active at mucosal surfaces and <span class="hlt">oral</span> or nasal anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody induces a LAP+ Tregs that suppresses animal models (experimental autoimmune encephalitis, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, lupus, arthritis, atherosclerosis) and is being tested in humans. Although there is a large literature on treatment of animal models by mucosal tolerance and some positive results in humans, this approach has yet to be translated to the clinic. The successful translation will require defining responsive patient populations, validating biomarkers to measure immunologic effects, and using combination therapy and immune adjuvants to enhance Treg induction. A major avenue being investigated for the treatment of autoimmunity is the induction of Tregs and mucosal tolerance represents a non-toxic, physiologic approach to reach this goal.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weiner, Howard L.; Cunha, Andre Pires da; Quintana, Francisco; Wu, Henry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21709615"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> mucositis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> mucositis remains one of the most common and troubling side effects of standard chemoradiation regimens used for the treatment of head and neck cancer. Virtually all patients who receive cumulative radiation doses of more than 30 Gy that includes <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosal fields will develop the <span class="hlt">condition</span>. Not only does mucositis cause extreme discomfort, often necessitating opioid analgesia, but it is also associated with increased use of health resources and cost of treatment. The incremental cost of mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer is more than $17 000 (US). Much has been learned about the pathobiology that underlies the <span class="hlt">condition</span>. The departure from the historical paradigm of direct cell death as being the primary cause for mucosal injury in favor of a more comprehensive view of the impact of chemoradiation on all the cells of the mucosa, has resulted in a picture of mucositis pathogenesis, which is biologically broad based. Although there are currently few treatment options for <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis at the moment, the recognition that its underlying biology is complex has provided a range of treatment options that are currently being developed. PMID:21709615</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sonis, Stephen T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1742467"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> candidiasis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity caused by an overgrowth of Candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic candidiasis, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors include impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, and extremes of life, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndrome, malignancies, and immunosuppressive <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Management involves taking a history, an examination, and appropriate antifungal treatment with a few requiring samples to be taken for laboratory analysis. In certain high risk groups antifungal prophylaxis reduces the incidence and severity of infections. The prognosis is good in the great majority of cases.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Akpan, A; Morgan, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13012737"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Real-time scheduling is both based on a broad theoretical background and available through a multitude of tools and infrastructures. The central input parameters to this discipline are the demand for execution time and the real- time <span class="hlt">conditions</span> given as deadlines or periods. The former has attracted a lot of research efforts, mainly in the scope of worst case execution time</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dieter Z</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MAP...119....1M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Limited</span> area NWP and regional climate modeling: a test of the relaxation vs Eta lateral boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With very few exceptions, just about all <span class="hlt">limited</span> area models (LAMs) used in operational NWP and regional climate modeling use the Davies (Q J R Meteorol Soc 102:405-418, 1976) relaxation lateral boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span> (LBCs), even though they make no effort to respect the basic mathematics of the problem. While in the early stages of the primitive equation LAM development in the seventies numerous schemes have been proposed and tested, LAM communities have eventually for the most part settled on the relaxation LBCs with few questions asked. An exception is the Eta model used extensively at NCEP and several other centers, in which the Mesinger (Contrib Atmos Phys 50:200-210, 1977) LBCs are used, designed and based on knowledge available before the introduction of the relaxation scheme. They prescribe variables along the outermost row of grid points only; all of them at the inflow points and one less at the outflow points where the tangential velocity components are extrapolated from inside of the model domain. Additional schemes are in place to suppress separation of gravity-wave solutions on C-subgrids of the model's E-grid. A recent paper of Veljovic et al. (Meteor Zeitschrift 19:237-246, 2010) included three 32-day forecasts done with both the Eta and the relaxation LBCs and the comparison of some of their verification results. Here we extend this experiment by three additional forecasts to arrive at an ensemble of six members run with both schemes, and present a more complete discussion of results. We in addition show results of one of these forecasts in which the linear change of relaxation coefficients was replaced by the change following the recommendation of Lehmann (Meteorol Atmos Phys 52:1-14, 1993). We feel that the results of our two verification schemes strongly suggest the advantage of the Eta over the conventional relaxation scheme, thereby raising doubts as to the justification for its use.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mesinger, Fedor; Veljovic, Katarina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MAP...tmp...48M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Limited</span> area NWP and regional climate modeling: a test of the relaxation vs Eta lateral boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With very few exceptions, just about all <span class="hlt">limited</span> area models (LAMs) used in operational NWP and regional climate modeling use the Davies (Q J R Meteorol Soc 102:405-418, 1976) relaxation lateral boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span> (LBCs), even though they make no effort to respect the basic mathematics of the problem. While in the early stages of the primitive equation LAM development in the seventies numerous schemes have been proposed and tested, LAM communities have eventually for the most part settled on the relaxation LBCs with few questions asked. An exception is the Eta model used extensively at NCEP and several other centers, in which the Mesinger (Contrib Atmos Phys 50:200-210, 1977) LBCs are used, designed and based on knowledge available before the introduction of the relaxation scheme. They prescribe variables along the outermost row of grid points only; all of them at the inflow points and one less at the outflow points where the tangential velocity components are extrapolated from inside of the model domain. Additional schemes are in place to suppress separation of gravity-wave solutions on C-subgrids of the model's E-grid. A recent paper of Veljovic et al. (Meteor Zeitschrift 19:237-246, 2010) included three 32-day forecasts done with both the Eta and the relaxation LBCs and the comparison of some of their verification results. Here we extend this experiment by three additional forecasts to arrive at an ensemble of six members run with both schemes, and present a more complete discussion of results. We in addition show results of one of these forecasts in which the linear change of relaxation coefficients was replaced by the change following the recommendation of Lehmann (Meteorol Atmos Phys 52:1-14, 1993). We feel that the results of our two verification schemes strongly suggest the advantage of the Eta over the conventional relaxation scheme, thereby raising doubts as to the justification for its use.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mesinger, Fedor; Veljovic, Katarina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411911M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Limited</span> area NWP and regional climate modeling: A test of the relaxation vs Eta lateral boundary <span class="hlt">condition</span> schemes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With very few exceptions, just about all <span class="hlt">limited</span> area models (LAMs) used in operational NWP and regional climate modeling use the Davies relaxation lateral boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span> (LBCs), even though from the mathematical point of view they are not the best choice one can make. While in the early stages of the primitive equation LAM development in the seventies numerous schemes have been proposed and tested, LAM communities have eventually for the most part settled on the relaxation LBCs with few questions asked. An exception is the Eta model used extensively at NCEP and numerous other centers, in which the Mesinger (1977) LBCs are used. They prescribe variables along the outermost row of grid points only; all of them at the inflow points and one less at the outflow points where the tangential velocity components are extrapolated from inside of the model domain. Additional schemes are in place to suppress separation of gravity-wave solutions on C-subgrids of the model's E grid. A recent paper of Veljovic et al. (2010) included three 32-day forecasts done with both the Eta and the relaxation LBCs and the comparison of some of their verification results. This experiment was subsequently extended by three additional forecasts to arrive at an ensemble of six members run with both schemes, along with a more complete analysis of results. Results of two verification schemes used as well as the inspection of forecast wind fields strongly suggest an advantage of the Eta over the conventional and costlier relaxation scheme, thereby raising doubts as to the justification for its use.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mesinger, F.; Veljovic, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8972546"> <span id="translatedtitle">Progressive ratio and behavioral economic evaluation of the reinforcing efficacy of <span class="hlt">orally</span> delivered phencyclidine and ethanol in monkeys: effects of feeding <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of feeding <span class="hlt">conditions</span> on the reinforcing efficacy of <span class="hlt">orally</span>-delivered drugs was evaluated using a progressive-ratio (PR) paradigm and a behavioral economic analysis of demand. Seven monkeys self-administered phencyclidine (PCP) (0.06, 0.12, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/ml) or ethanol (2, 4, 8, 16, and 32% wt/vol) and concurrent water from two drinking spouts under concurrent PR schedules. The ratios increased from 8 to 4096, and 40 liquid deliveries were available after completion of each ratio schedule. The entire range of drug concentrations was presented in nonsystematic order under two feeding <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, food restriction and food satiation. Drug maintained responses, deliveries and break points were significantly greater than those maintained by water. Food restriction significantly increased the rate of PCP-maintained responses, deliveries and PR break points over the food satiation baseline. There was also a significant interaction between feeding <span class="hlt">condition</span> and drug concentration. Although ethanol-maintained responses, liquid deliveries and break points consistently increased in five of seven monkeys during food restriction, only drug concentration produced significant differences in these measures. Using break point as a measure of reinforcing efficacy, food restriction increased the reinforcing efficacy of PCP and had a more pronounced effect at higher drug unit prices. PMID:8972546</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rodefer, J S; Carroll, M E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9771462"> <span id="translatedtitle">Glucose utilization rate and pancreatic hormone response to <span class="hlt">oral</span> glucose loads are influenced by the migratory <span class="hlt">condition</span> and fasting in the garden warbler (Sylvia borin).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Substrate utilization and regulatory mechanisms of metabolism were studied in migratory garden warblers by measuring plasma levels of glucose, free fatty acids (FFAs), beta-hydroxybutyrate, insulin and glucagon in response to <span class="hlt">oral</span> glucose loads. Three different physiological states were examined: (a) the autumnal migratory period on a high and (b) on a fasted low body mass level, and (c) the postmigratory period with low body mass. Glucose tolerance was better in the postmigratory lean than fat <span class="hlt">condition</span>. However, total food deprivation of 5-7 days with fat birds reaching their lean body mass further reduced the glucose utilization rate. Initial levels of FFAs were highest in the starved, intermediate in the fat and lowest in the lean <span class="hlt">condition</span>. Changes in plasma FFAs during glucose tolerance tests were opposite to those of the glucose levels. Ten minutes after the glucose load plasma glucagon levels decreased and insulin increased. These effects were larger in the fat than in the postmigratory lean <span class="hlt">condition</span>. There were no differences between sexes. It appears that during premigratory and migratory periods glucose utilization may be inhibited by a more favorable oxidation of fatty acids as would be predicted by the glucose fatty acid cycle. However, the inhibition of glucose utilization seems to be counterregulated by stronger responses of insulin and glucagon. These results may be important also in the consideration of food selection during premigratory periods and refueling abilities of birds crossing ecological barriers. PMID:9771462</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Totzke, U; Hübinger, A; Bairlein, F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/Candidiasis/thrush/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Candidiasis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... http://www.usa.gov . <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Candidiasis Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis ("Thrush") Candidiasis that develops in the mouth or ... other Fungal topics, visit the Fungal Homepage. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Candidiasis Topics Definition What is <span class="hlt">oral</span> candidiasis? Symptoms Redness ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13067569"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A shallow, RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)- contaminated aquifer at Naval Submarine Base Bangor has been characterized as predominantly manganese-reducing, anoxic with local pockets of oxic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. The potential contribution of microbial RDX degradation to localized decreases observed in aquifer RDX concentrations was assessed in sediment microcosms amended with (U- 14 C) RDX. Greater than 85% mineralization of 14 C-RDX to 14 CO2</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul M. Bradley; Richard S. Dinicola</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22226761"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dose confirmation and non-interference evaluations of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> efficacy of a combination of milbemycin oxime and spinosad against the dose <span class="hlt">limiting</span> parasites, adult cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) and hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum), in dogs.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two separate controlled and blinded studies were conducted to confirm the dose and non-interference of spinosad and milbemycin oxime (MO) administered <span class="hlt">orally</span> in combination or alone to dogs for the treatment and control of experimentally induced flea infestations (Ctenocephalides felis) and adult hookworm infections (Ancylostoma caninum). For each study, dogs were allocated randomly based on pre-treatment adult flea and hookworm egg counts to one of four treatment groups of 10 animals each. In each study, spinosad and MO in combination, using the lower half (30-45 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-0.75 mg/kg MO) of the US commercial dose band (30-60 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-1.0mg/kg MO) of each active ingredient, or individually alone using the full dose range, were given <span class="hlt">orally</span> to dogs on Day 0 using a tablet formulation. A placebo control was treated similarly. In one study, on Days -1, 5, 12, 19, 28 and 35 each dog was infested with approximately 100 unfed adult C. felis obtained from the investigator's established flea colony. All dogs were infested via the same method. Forty-eight hour post-infestation flea comb counts were conducted on Days 1, 7, 14, 21, 30 and 37 and were used to determine the knockdown and residual flea activity. In the second study, on Day -27 each of 48 dogs were experimentally inoculated with 100 third-stage infective larvae of the hookworm, A. caninum. Dogs were treated on Day 0 and necropsied on Day 7 or Day 8. All nematodes in the intestinal tract were collected on Day 7 or Day 8, identified and counted by species and stage. Post-treatment, the geometric mean live flea counts were significantly different (p-value<0.0001) between the spinosad/MO combination and the spinosad only treatment groups as compared to the vehicle control group. The flea counts in the MO only group and the control group were not statistically different. The spinosad and MO combination group and the spinosad only treatment group demonstrated significantly different knockdown (100%) and post-treatment residual flea efficacy at Day 30 was 100% for both groups as compared to the vehicle control. The presence of MO in combination with spinosad did not interfere with the flea efficacy of spinosad as compared to the spinosad only group. MO alone did not demonstrate any flea efficacy. Post-treatment, the geometric mean A. caninum worm counts were significantly different (p-value<0.0001) between the spinosad and MO combination group as compared to the vehicle control group. The worm counts in the MO only group and the combination group were not statistically different. The spinosad and MO combination group (99.8% reduction) and the MO only treatment group (99.5% reduction) both demonstrated significantly different hookworm efficacy as compared to the vehicle control group. The presence of spinosad in combination with MO did not interfere with the hookworm efficacy of MO as compared to the MO only group. Spinosad alone did not demonstrate any hookworm efficacy. In summary, flavored spinosad and MO combination tablets administered <span class="hlt">orally</span> to dogs at the lower end (30-45 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-0.75 mg/kg MO) of the US commercial tablet unit dose range (30-60 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-1.0mg/kg MO) were both safe and highly efficacious delivering 100% knockdown and 30 days of residual adult flea control on experimentally infested dogs as well as >99% adult hookworm efficacy evaluated under laboratory <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Interference between either drugs was not demonstrated for both of these dose <span class="hlt">limiting</span> parasites. PMID:22226761</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Snyder, Daniel E; Wiseman, Scott</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/98675"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> hypoglycemic agent update.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The treatment of diabetes is still a problem more than a half-century after the discovery of insulin. Patients are now living significantly longer but until the development of <span class="hlt">oral</span> hypoglycemic agents, the only direct treatment modalities were exercise, diet, and insulin. Before evaluating the effectiveness of treatment, a therapeutic goal must be determined. While there are no absolutely "hard" facts proving that "good control" is beneficial in preventing chronic complications of diabetes, increasing accumulation of "soft" data strongly suggests that normal blood glucose levels are most desirable, when possible, but not at the cost of severe or disabling hypoglycemic reactions. The development of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> agents was a great public health advance in that many persons with early diabetes, but fearful of insulin injections, had less dread of "the pills" and sought treatment. The <span class="hlt">oral</span> agents simplified care but this very simplification process often undermined the need for proper diet and good fundamental care. This often led to mediocre diabetes care. While useful, the <span class="hlt">oral</span> agents have marked <span class="hlt">limitations</span> and in some are effective only temporarily. The presently available <span class="hlt">oral</span> agents are sulfonylureas and require a viable beta-cell system for success. This <span class="hlt">limits</span> the number of diabetics responsive to such treatment. The general indications for tolbutamide, chlorpropamide, acetohexamide and tolazamide are in maturity-onset diabetics, generally beyond the age of 40 with diabetes of less than 10 years. They are contraindicated in juvenile-onset diabetics, in pregnant women, and usually in patients undergoing major surgery, and can become ineffective during periods of extreme stress or during severe infection. They can lower blood glucose levels if used in proper doses in properly selected patients. Contrary to several decades of documentation, it has become popular to suggest that the <span class="hlt">oral</span> agents are not effective. They can be effective but for many reasons apparently were not in their use by the U.G.D.P. researchers. This might not be the fault of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> agent used. If ineffective, they should be discontinued. Many, but not all, patients may respond to diet therapy, which is then the treatment of choice. Obviously insulin, though difficult to use for many persons and in itself able to induce several severe reactions if not used properly, is the only treatment (with diet) for the severe diabetic. There is a large spectrum of patients inbetween in whom the <span class="hlt">oral</span> agents may be useful. The use of phenformin (phenethyl-biguanide) has been effectively curtailed because of many reported cases of lactic acidosis, and while it is doubtful that phenformin alone, in the absence of complicating factors, is the causative factor, it is capable of being an augmenting influence when other <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, such as decreased kidney function, prevail... PMID:98675</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krall, L P; Chabot, V A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32843217"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ximelagatran: a new <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulant</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Vitamin K antagonists are effective <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulants, but they have <span class="hlt">limitations</span> related to a narrow therapeutic range, food and drug interactions, slow onset of action and the need for routine coagulation monitoring. Ximelagatran is a promising new <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulant under investigation in advanced clinical trials. It is a prodrug that is converted after <span class="hlt">oral</span> administration to melagatran, a direct thrombin</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Charles W Francis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29087737"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Limited</span> Role for Retinoic Acid and Retinoic Acid Receptors RAR? and RAR? in Regulating Keratin 19 Expression and Keratinization in <span class="hlt">Oral</span> and Epidermal Keratinocytes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Different types of stratified squamous epithelia--for example, the “orthokeratinized” epidermis, the “parakeratinized” gingiva, and the “nonkeratinized” <span class="hlt">oral</span> lining mucosal epithelia–are formed by intrinsically distinct keratinocyte subtypes. These subtypes exhibit characteristic patterns of keratin protein expression in vivo and in culture. Keratin 19 is an informative subtype-specific marker because the basal cells of only nonkeratinizing epithelia express K19 in vivo and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Margarete Schön; James G. Rheinwald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10738101"> <span id="translatedtitle">Increased safety level of serotype 3 Sabin <span class="hlt">oral</span> poliomyelitis vaccine lots by improved seed virus, and tissue culture and virus infection <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The content of 472U to 472C revertant virus in serotype 3 <span class="hlt">oral</span> poliomyelitis monovalent bulk vaccines can be quantified by MAPREC (Mutant Analysis by PCR and Restriction Enzyme Cleavage). Besides other wildtype reversions identified in propagated type 3 Sabin strain populations, the 472U to 472C reversion correlates most prominently with neurovirulence in the monkey neurovirulence test. Therefore, the results can be used for the discrimination of 'good' and 'bad' vaccines on the molecular level. In international collaborative studies it has been well established that vaccine lots containing revertant genomes below a critical threshold pass the in vivo monkey neurovirulence test (MNVT), while vaccine lots containing more revertants fail the MNVT. In this communication we show that the MAPREC test is a sensitive tool for quality control and the demonstration of consistency in large scale production. Furthermore, MAPREC offers a possibility to assess the effect of changed production <span class="hlt">conditions</span> on the rate of reversion and to find <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for consistent production with low reversion rates. PMID:10738101</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dörsam, V; Weimer, T; Schmeel, A; Hein, B; Enssle, K; Chumakov, K M; Fibi, M R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21940028"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Bacteremia of <span class="hlt">oral</span> origin].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Transient bacteremia from <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity related to <span class="hlt">oral</span> anaerobic bacteria may occur as a result of dental healthcare procedures but also as a result of daily gestures involving the gums (chewing and <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene). The risk of presenting a transient bacteremia is related to <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity bacterial load and to the severity of inflammation in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. Although bacteremia is transient, in patients with immunodeficiency or comorbidity, this bacteremia may cause extra-<span class="hlt">oral</span> infections. The bacteremia rate and the identified bacteria vary from one study to the next, depending on the method used to isolate and identify bacteria. Nevertheless, the risk for bacteremia is determined by the infectious and inflammatory <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of each patient. PMID:21940028</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Perez-Chaparro, P J; Meuric, V; De Mello, G; Bonnaure-Mallet, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2838198"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Double Blind Randomized Crossover Study of <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Thalidomide versus Placebo in Patients with Stage D0 Androgen Dependent Prostate Cancer Following <span class="hlt">Limited</span> Hormonal Ablation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Androgen deprivation is increasingly being used for the treatment of biochemically recurrent prostate cancer. Thalidomide has been shown to have activity in metastatic prostate cancer. Methods 159 patients enrolled in a double-blind randomized trial to determine if thalidomide can improve the efficacy of gonadotropin receptor hormone agonist (GnRH-A) in hormone-responsive patients with a rising PSA after primary definitive therapy for prostate cancer. Patients were randomized to GnRH-A for six months followed by <span class="hlt">oral</span> thalidomide 200 mg per day or placebo (<span class="hlt">Oral</span> Phase A, OPA). At the time of PSA progression, GnRH-A was restarted for six additional months. Patients were then crossed over to the opposite drug and were treated until PSA progression (<span class="hlt">Oral</span> Phase B, OPB). Testosterone (T) and dihydroxytestosterone (DHT) were likewise monitored throughout the study. Results During OPA, the median time to PSA progression was 15 months for thalidomide group compared to 9.6 months on placebo (P=0.21). The median time to PSA progression during OPB for the thalidomide group was 17.1 months versus 6.6 months for the placebo group (P= 0.0002). No differences were observed in time to serum T normalization between the thalidomide arm and placebo arm during both OPA and OPB. Thalidomide was tolerable although dose reductions occurred in 47% (58 of 124 patients). Summary While thalidomide had no effect on T normalization, there was an observed effect on PSA progression during OPB. This is the first study to demonstrate effects of thalidomide and feasibility of intermittent hormonal therapy for biochemically recurrent prostate cancer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Figg, William D.; Hussain, Maha H.; Gulley, James L.; Arlen, Philip M.; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B.; Petrylak, Daniel P.; Higano, Celestia S.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Sartor, Oliver; Dahut, William L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhyC..470.1666D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study on resistance characteristics and operating <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of YBCO thin-film wire for current <span class="hlt">limitation</span> considering insulation layer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The YBCO thin-film wire has a high index value and a fast phase transition speed when a fault current is applied to it. Its critical properties are also superior to those of the existing Bi-Sr-Ca-O wire. Moreover, it can choose its stabilizing layers and control the magnitude of the resistance it generates in with the specific-resistance of the stabilizing layers. Thus, many researchers are studying the application of the Y-Ba-Cu-O(YBCO) thin-film wire to superconducting power machines. Being particularly studied are the properties of the YBCO thin-film wire as a current-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> element material. In this study, to evaluate the basic properties of superconducting current-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> elements that contain insulating layers, test samples were manufactured using the YBCO thin-film wire according to the absence and presence as well as the thickness of the insulating layers. Then a fault current was applied to the test samples to examine their quenching resistance trends and operational properties according to the fault angles. Towards those ends, a current was applied to various YBCO thin-film wires with different stabilizing layers to test their properties, and the YBCO thin-film wire that exhibited superior current-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> performance was selected. Also, a fault current was applied to the selected YBCO thin-film wire with insulating layers to test their properties. Using the test results, the resistance occurrence trends were examined at the critical temperature of 90 K, the perfect quenching temperature of 250 K, and the middle temperature of 180 K. Also, to increase the current <span class="hlt">limiters</span>’ capacity, the element’s operational properties, such as its maximum voltage, maximum current, initial <span class="hlt">limited</span> current, and response time were observed at 90 K, 180 K, and 250 K according to the fault angles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Du, H.-I.; Kim, M.-J.; Kim, Y.-J.; Lee, D.-H.; Han, B.-S.; Song, S.-S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3177673"> <span id="translatedtitle">No evidence of carbon <span class="hlt">limitation</span> with tree age and height in Nothofagus pumilio under Mediterranean and temperate climate <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background and Aims Trees universally decrease their growth with age. Most explanations for this trend so far support the hypothesis that carbon (C) gain becomes <span class="hlt">limited</span> with age; though very few studies have directly assessed the relative reductions of C gain and C demand with tree age. It has also been suggested that drought enhances the effect of C gain <span class="hlt">limitation</span> in trees. Here tests were carried out to determine whether C gain <span class="hlt">limitation</span> is causing the growth decay with tree age, and whether drought accentuates its effect. Methods The balance between C gain and C demand across tree age and height ranges was estimated. For this, the concentration of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in stems and roots of trees of different ages and heights was measured in the deciduous temperate species Nothofagus pumilio. An ontogenetic decrease in NSCs indicates support for C <span class="hlt">limitation</span>. Furthermore, the importance of drought in altering the C balance with ontogeny was assessed by sampling the same species in Mediterranean and humid climate locations in the southern Andes of Chile. Wood density (WD) and stable carbon isotope ratios (?13C) were also determined to examine drought constraints on C gain. Key Results At both locations, it was effectively found that tree growth ultimately decreased with tree age and height. It was found, however, that NSC concentrations did not decrease with tree age or height when WD was considered, suggesting that C <span class="hlt">limitation</span> is not the ultimate mechanism causing the age/height-related declining tree growth. ?13C decreased with tree age/height at the Mediterranean site only; drought effect increased with tree age/height, but this pattern was not mirrored by the levels of NSCs. Conclusions The results indicate that concentrations of C storage in N. pumilio trees do not decrease with tree age or height, and that reduced C assimilation due to summer drought does not alter this pattern.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Piper, Frida I.; Fajardo, Alex</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3342731"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tuberculosis masquerading as <span class="hlt">oral</span> malignancy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tuberculosis of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity is a rare <span class="hlt">condition</span>. A 55-year-old labourer was referred as a case of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer for further management. The patient had no systemic symptoms. Biopsy of the lesion revealed caseating granulomatous inflammation. Chest X-ray and sputum revealed evidence of asymptomatic pulmonary tuberculosis. The purpose of this paper is to sensitize clinicians to consider <span class="hlt">oral</span> tuberculosis as a differential diagnosis in patients with an Non-healing <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity ulcer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kannan, S.; Thakkar, Purvi; Dcruz, Anil K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ChPhL..26h0501Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">GENERAL: Bifurcation of a Saddle-Node <span class="hlt">Limit</span> Cycle with Homoclinic Orbits Satisfying the Small Lobe <span class="hlt">Condition</span> in a Leech Neuron Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mechanism of period-adding cascades with chaos in a reduced leech neuron model is suggested as the bifurcation of a saddle-node <span class="hlt">limit</span> cycle with homoclinic orbits satisfying the “small lobe <span class="hlt">condition</span>", instead of the blue-sky catastrophe. In every spiking adding, the new spike emerges at the end of the spiking phase of the bursters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yooer, Chi-Feng; Xu, Jian-Xue; Zhang, Xin-Hua</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.stomatologia.by/images/specialistam/journal/j-canadian-da/10-2008/Efficacy-of-3-Techniques-in-Removing-Root-Canal-Filling-Material.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Submucous Fibrosis, a Clinically Benign but Potentially Malignant Disease: Report of 3 Cases and Review of the Literature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a premalignant <span class="hlt">condition</span> mainly associated with the practice of chewing betel quid containing areca nut, a habit common among South Asian people. It is characterized by inflammation, increased deposition of submucosal collagen and formation of fibrotic bands in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> and paraoral tissues, which increasingly <span class="hlt">limit</span> mouth opening. Recently, OSF has been reported among South</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sumanth KN</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56417626"> <span id="translatedtitle">Current Guidelines Have <span class="hlt">Limited</span> Applicability to Patients with Comorbid <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>: A Systematic Analysis of Evidence-Based Guidelines</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BackgroundGuidelines traditionally focus on the diagnosis and treatment of single diseases. As almost half of the patients with a chronic disease have more than one disease, the applicability of guidelines may be <span class="hlt">limited</span>. The aim of this study was to assess the extent that guidelines address comorbidity and to assess the supporting evidence of recommendations related to comorbidity.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe conducted</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marjolein Lugtenberg; Jako S. Burgers; Carolyn Clancy; Gert P. Westert; Eric C. Schneider; Peter McCulloch</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.jr.ietejournals.org/temp/IETEJRes57112-6787857_185118.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Steady-state Solution of Fixed-speed Wind Turbines Following Fault <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Through Extrapolation to the <span class="hlt">Limit</span> Cycle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A methodology to efficiently calculate the steady-state solution of fixed-speed induction generator (FSIG) based wind turbines, using a Newton algorithm and a Numerical Differentiation (ND) process for the extrapolation to the <span class="hlt">limit</span> cycle is presented. This approach can be extremely useful in the development of steady-state studies of modern large- scale power systems with significant share of wind power based</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rafael Peña; Aurelio Medina; Olimpo Anaya-Lara; Francisco J. Mújica</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://biomath.ugent.be/~peter/ftp/pvr652.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A calibration methodology and model-based systems analysis for SBR's removing nutrients under <span class="hlt">limited</span> aeration <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A methodology was proposed for the model calibration of nutrient removing lab-scale SBR's under <span class="hlt">limited</span> aeration. Based on in-process measurements and influent wastewater characterization, the ASM2d model was modified by adding an organic nitrogen module linked to the hydrolysis mechanism. After calibration the simulation results showed that enhanced biological nutrient removal occurred during the fill-period and under reduced aeration that</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Güçlü Insel; Gürkan Sin; Dae Sung Lee; Peter A. Vanrolleghem</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mth.uct.ac.za/%7Ebdr/DLRW2006.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Conditions</span> for equivalence between the Hu–Washizu and related formulations, and computational behavior in the incompressible <span class="hlt">limit</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relationship of the Hu–Washizu mixed formulation to other mixed and enhanced formulations is examined in detail, in the context of linear elasticity, with a view to presenting a unified framework for such formulations. The Hu–Washizu formulation is considered in both its classical form and in a modified form that is suited to establishing well-posedness in the incompressible <span class="hlt">limit</span>. Recently</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. K. Djoko; B. P. Lamichhane; B. D. Reddy; B. I. Wohlmuth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24119522"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> mucosal immunity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> keratinocytes and dendritic cells of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa, through molecular pattern recognition receptors, distinguish between commensal and pathogenic microorganisms and mediate the generation of protective immunoinflammatory responses to potentially invading pathogens or mediate immune tolerance toward commensal microorganisms. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> immune tolerance is the result either of lack of activation of T cells in response to immunogenic presentation of antigens or of suppression of activity of effector T cells by regulatory T cells. Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) antibodies at <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosal sites contribute to <span class="hlt">oral</span> immunity by <span class="hlt">limiting</span> colonization of microorganisms and their invasion of the epithelium. Ig isotype class switching to IgA is either dependent on or independent of T helper cells and is facilitated by cytokines secreted by dendritic cells and monocytes. PMID:24119522</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Feller, L; Altini, M; Khammissa, R A G; Chandran, R; Bouckaert, M; Lemmer, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JCrGr.338..267V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental study of the kinetically-<span class="hlt">limited</span> decomposition of ZnGeAs2 and its role in determining optimal <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for thin film growth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To understand the thermochemistry and determine the rate <span class="hlt">limiting</span> steps of ZnGeAs2 thin-film synthesis, experiments were performed to measure the (a) thermal decomposition rate and (b) elemental composition and deposition rate of films produced with pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The decomposition rate is kinetically <span class="hlt">limited</span> with an activation energy of 1.08±0.05 eV and an evaporation coefficient of ˜10-3. We show that ZnGeAs2 thin film synthesis is a metastable process with the kinetically-<span class="hlt">limited</span> decomposition rate playing a dominant role at the elevated temperatures needed to attain epitaxy. Our conclusions are in contrast to those of earlier reports that assumed the growth rate is <span class="hlt">limited</span> by desorption and the resulting low reactant sticking coefficient. The thermochemical analysis presented here can be used to predict optimal <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for ZnGeAs2 film physical vapor deposition and thermal processing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vahidi, M.; Tang, Z. Z.; Tucker, J.; Peshek, T. J.; Zhang, L.; Kopas, C.; Singh, R. K.; van Schilfgaarde, M.; Newman, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36239756"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pre<span class="hlt">Conditioning</span> of Smooth Muscle Cells via Induction of the Heat Shock Response <span class="hlt">Limits</span> Proliferation Following Mechanical Injury</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Arterial smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation is a significant component of post-angioplasty restenosis. We evaluated whether pre-<span class="hlt">conditioning</span> of SMCs, via induction of the heat shock respone prior to actual physical injury, would result in an alteration in cell proliferation following injury. Rat aortic SMCs were pretreated with either chemical or thermal heat shock inducers and then subjected to scrape-wound injuryin</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marvin J. Slepian; Stephen P. Massia; Luke Whitesell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/16329393"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Limit</span> theorems for discrete-time markov chains on the nonnegative integers <span class="hlt">conditioned</span> on recurrence to zero</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider a discrete–time Markov chain X on the state space with stationary one-step transition probabilities such that X is irreducible, transient, aperiodic and skip-free to the left. With denoting the modified Markov chain in which the states are aggregated into a single absorbing state, we study the <span class="hlt">conditional</span> state probabilities of at time n, given that state 0 will</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Erik A. van Doom; Pauline Schrijner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/ypt7q26txf97hkqr.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of Environmental <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> That Favor Hepatotoxic and Neurotoxic Anabaena spp. Strains Cultured under Light <span class="hlt">Limitation</span> at Different Temperatures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Toxic cyanobacterial mass occurrences have caused animal poisonings worldwide and may pose a health hazard for humans. Strains\\u000a of the genus Anabaena are either non-toxic or produce hepatotoxins, microcystins (MCYST), or neurotoxins (such as anatoxin-a). In order to study\\u000a which growth <span class="hlt">conditions</span> favor hepatotoxic vs neurotoxic strains and how production of toxins varies, we compared the responses\\u000a of two microcystin-</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Rapala; K. Sivonen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3327310"> <span id="translatedtitle">Centrosome misorientation mediates slowing of the cell cycle under <span class="hlt">limited</span> nutrient <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in Drosophila male germline stem cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Drosophila male germline stem cells (GSCs) divide asymmetrically, balancing self-renewal and differentiation. Although asymmetric stem cell division balances between self-renewal and differentiation, it does not dictate how frequently differentiating cells must be produced. In male GSCs, asymmetric GSC division is achieved by stereotyped positioning of the centrosome with respect to the stem cell niche. Recently we showed that the centrosome orientation checkpoint monitors the correct centrosome orientation to ensure an asymmetric outcome of the GSC division. When GSC centrosomes are not correctly oriented with respect to the niche, GSC cell cycle is arrested/delayed until the correct centrosome orientation is reacquired. Here we show that induction of centrosome misorientation upon culture in poor nutrient <span class="hlt">conditions</span> mediates slowing of GSC cell proliferation via activation of the centrosome orientation checkpoint. Consistently, inactivation of the centrosome orientation checkpoint leads to lack of cell cycle slowdown even under poor nutrient <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. We propose that centrosome misorientation serves as a mediator that transduces nutrient information into stem cell proliferation, providing a previously unappreciated mechanism of stem cell regulation in response to nutrient <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roth, Therese M.; Chiang, C.-Y. Ason; Inaba, Mayu; Yuan, Hebao; Salzmann, Viktoria; Roth, Caitlin E.; Yamashita, Yukiko M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22357619"> <span id="translatedtitle">Centrosome misorientation mediates slowing of the cell cycle under <span class="hlt">limited</span> nutrient <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in Drosophila male germline stem cells.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Drosophila male germline stem cells (GSCs) divide asymmetrically, balancing self-renewal and differentiation. Although asymmetric stem cell division balances between self-renewal and differentiation, it does not dictate how frequently differentiating cells must be produced. In male GSCs, asymmetric GSC division is achieved by stereotyped positioning of the centrosome with respect to the stem cell niche. Recently we showed that the centrosome orientation checkpoint monitors the correct centrosome orientation to ensure an asymmetric outcome of the GSC division. When GSC centrosomes are not correctly oriented with respect to the niche, GSC cell cycle is arrested/delayed until the correct centrosome orientation is reacquired. Here we show that induction of centrosome misorientation upon culture in poor nutrient <span class="hlt">conditions</span> mediates slowing of GSC cell proliferation via activation of the centrosome orientation checkpoint. Consistently, inactivation of the centrosome orientation checkpoint leads to lack of cell cycle slowdown even under poor nutrient <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. We propose that centrosome misorientation serves as a mediator that transduces nutrient information into stem cell proliferation, providing a previously unappreciated mechanism of stem cell regulation in response to nutrient <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. PMID:22357619</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roth, Therese M; Chiang, C-Y Ason; Inaba, Mayu; Yuan, Hebao; Salzmann, Viktoria; Roth, Caitlin E; Yamashita, Yukiko M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3767140"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> microbiome and <span class="hlt">oral</span> and gastrointestinal cancer risk</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A growing body of evidence implicates human <span class="hlt">oral</span> bacteria in the etiology of <span class="hlt">oral</span> and gastrointestinal cancers. Epidemiological studies consistently report increased risks of these cancers in men and women with periodontal disease or tooth loss, <span class="hlt">conditions</span> caused by <span class="hlt">oral</span> bacteria. More than 700 bacterial species inhabit the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity, including at least 11 bacterial phyla and 70 genera. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> bacteria may activate alcohol and smoking-related carcinogens locally or act systemically, through chronic inflammation. High-throughput genetic-based assays now make it possible to comprehensively survey the human <span class="hlt">oral</span> microbiome, the totality of bacteria in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. Establishing the association of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> microbiome with cancer risk may lead to significant advances in understanding of cancer etiology, potentially opening a new research paradigm for cancer prevention.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Calvin Y.; Hayes, Richard B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2724660"> <span id="translatedtitle">RF Pulses for In Vivo Spectroscopy at High Field Designed under <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> of <span class="hlt">Limited</span> Power Using Optimal Control</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Localized in vivo spectroscopy at high magnetic field strength (> 3 T) is susceptible to localization artifacts such as the chemical shift artifact and the spatial interference artifact for J-coupled spins. This latter artifact results in regions of anomalous phase for J-coupled spins. These artifacts are exacerbated at high magnetic field due to the increased frequency dispersion, coupled with the <span class="hlt">limited</span> RF pulse bandwidths used for localization. Approaches to minimize these artifacts include increasing the bandwidth of the frequency selective excitation pulses, and the use of frequency selective saturation pulses to suppress the signals in the regions with anomalous phase. The goal of this article is to demonstrate the efficacy of optimal control methods to provide broader bandwidth frequency selective pulses for in vivo spectroscopy in the presence of <span class="hlt">limited</span> RF power. It is demonstrated by examples that the use of optimal control methods enable the generation of i) improved bandwidth selective excitation pulses, ii) more efficient selective inversion pulses to be used for generation of spin echoes, and iii) improved frequency selective saturation pulses. While optimal control also allows for the generation of frequency selective spin echo pulses, it is argued that it is more efficient to use dual inversion pulses for broadband generation of spin echoes. Finally, the optimal control routines and example RF pulses are made available for downloading.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matson, Gerald B.; Young, Karl; Kaiser, Lana G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a 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showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1758-5996-2-66.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Insulin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of <span class="hlt">oral</span> insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel <span class="hlt">oral</span> insulin preparation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sanjay Kalra; Bharti Kalra; Navneet Agrawal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17988840"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relative efficacy of water use in five varieties of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. under water-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the present investigation, five varieties of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.) were screened for their water use efficiency under two water regimes, viz., 60% and 100% filed capacity. Drought stress was imposed at 60% field capacity from 30 to 70 days after sowing, while the control pots were maintained at 100% field capacity throughout the period of entire growth. Biomass and yield, leaf area duration, cumulative water transpired water use efficiency, net assimilation rate, mean transpiration rate and harvest index under water deficit level were measured. Water use efficiency significantly increases in all the okra varieties under water-<span class="hlt">limited</span> environment. Drought stress decreased the biomass and yield, leaf area duration, cumulative water transpired, net assimilation rate, mean transpiration rate and harvest index in the okra varieties studied. But among the varieties, variety JK Haritha showed better results. None of the varieties studied had showed increased drought tolerance than the control. PMID:17988840</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sankar, B; Jaleel, C Abdul; Manivannan, P; Kishorekumar, A; Somasundaram, R; Panneerselvam, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-09-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42675175"> <span id="translatedtitle">Racial and Ethnic Differences in General Health Status and <span class="hlt">Limiting</span> Health <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Among American Children: Parental Reports in the 1999 National Survey of America's Families1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives. This research investigates the association between race\\/ethnicity and child health, and examines the role of family structure, family socioeconomic status (SES), and healthcare factors in this association. Five major racial\\/ethnic groups in the US are studied. Two child health outcomes, including parent-rated health and <span class="hlt">limiting</span> health <span class="hlt">condition</span>, are examined. The analysis is stratified into three age groups: age 0–5,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ming Wen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48804042"> <span id="translatedtitle">Soil properties at the tree <span class="hlt">limits</span> of the coniferous forest in response to varying environmental <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in the Tianshan Mountains, Northwest China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The continuous coniferous forest in the Tianshan Mountains primarily consists of Picea schrenkiana. The forest forms an unbroken 1,000 km forest zone extending from west to east on the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains,\\u000a where environmental <span class="hlt">conditions</span> such as precipitation, temperature and terrain vary greatly. To gain insight into the differences\\u000a between soil properties at the upper and lower <span class="hlt">limits</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wenqiang Xu; Xi Chen; Geping Luo; Qing Zhang; Qing Lin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22066225"> <span id="translatedtitle">N2O and NH3 emissions from a bioreactor landfill operated under <span class="hlt">limited</span> aerobic degradation <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The combination of leachate recirculation and aeration to landfill may be an efficient way for in-situ nitrogen removal. However, nitrogenous substances contained in the landfill layer are concomitantly transformed into N2O and NH3, leading to increased emissions into the atmosphere. In the present study, the emissions of N2O and NH3 were measured under <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of fresh or partially stabilized refuse with or without leachate recirculation or intermittent aeration. The results showed that the largest N2O emission (12.4 mg-N/L of the column) was observed in the aerated column loaded with partially stabilized refuse and recycled with the leachate of low C/N ratio; while less than 0.33 mg-N/L of the column was produced in the other columns. N2O production was positively correlated with the prolonged aerobic time and negatively related with the C/N ratio in the recycled leachate. NH3 volatilization increased with enhanced gas flow and concentration of free ammonia in the leachate, and the highest cumulative volatilization quantity was 1.7 mg-N/L of the column. PMID:22066225</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">He, Pinjing; Yang, Na; Gu, Huili; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Liming</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23758805"> <span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic resonance of the heart in a muscular dystrophy patient with an MR <span class="hlt">conditional</span> ICD: assessment of safety, diagnostic value and technical <span class="hlt">limitations</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) studies in patients with pacemakers or implantable cardioverter/defibrillators (ICD) are increasingly required in daily clinical practice. Therefore, in the last years the manufacturers developed not only MR-<span class="hlt">conditional</span> pacemakers, but also MR-<span class="hlt">conditional</span> ICDs. However, the clinical experience regarding the feasibility and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> of MR studies of the heart in patients with ICDs is still <span class="hlt">limited</span>. In particular, there are hardly any CMR studies in the same patients performed prior to and post ICD implantation allowing a one-to-one comparison of the obtained CMR images. This is the first presentation of a CMR study in a patient with the world's first and so far only MR-<span class="hlt">conditional</span> ICD. In our case, a major problem related to the presence of the MR <span class="hlt">conditional</span> ICD was an image artifact caused by the device's generator which hampered the visualization of the midventricular and apical anterior and antero-lateral segments in all sequences performed. Considering previous studies, right chest implantation of the ICD could probably have helped in this setting and may be preferred in future ICD implantations. Our case report nicely illustrates the real clinical need for specially designed implantable devices that ensure safe and high-quality imaging in patients in whom serial CMR is required. PMID:23758805</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Florian, Anca; Ludwig, Anna; Rösch, Sabine; Sechtem, Udo; Yilmaz, Ali</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31244761"> <span id="translatedtitle">Decreased incidence of hepatic veno-occlusive disease and fewer hemostatic derangements associated with intravenous busulfan vs <span class="hlt">oral</span> busulfan in adults <span class="hlt">conditioned</span> with busulfan + cyclophosphamide for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the occurrence of hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in 241 adults <span class="hlt">conditioned</span> with busulfan + cyclophosphamide at a single institute and retrospectively compared 186 patients who received <span class="hlt">oral</span> busulfan (O-Bu group) with 55 patients who received intravenous busulfan (I-Bu group). Various hemostatic parameters were determined at baseline and on days 0, 7, 14,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Je-Hwan Lee; Seong-Jun Choi; Jung-Hee Lee; So-Eun Kim; Chan-Jeoung Park; Hyun-Sook Chi; Moo-Song Lee; Jung-Shin Lee; Woo-Kun Kim; Kyoo-Hyung Lee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21209551"> <span id="translatedtitle">Halitosis: much beyond <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> malodor one of the most common complaints with which patients approaches us thinking it can be detrimental to his self-image and confidence. Even though majority of <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor is of <span class="hlt">oral</span> origin, there are multiple other systemic causes that have to be addressed while we diagnose and treat this <span class="hlt">condition</span>. Most of these patients look up to <span class="hlt">oral</span> care physicians for expert advice, it is critical for us to have the knowledge base and communication techniques to provide quality clinical assessment and implement effective intervention programs. This article reviews the various causes and the diagnostic modalities which will help us treat this multifaceted <span class="hlt">condition</span>. PMID:21209551</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ongole, R; Shenoy, N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3682656"> <span id="translatedtitle">End-of-Life Discussions and Advance Care Planning for Children on Long-Term Assisted Ventilation with Life-<span class="hlt">Limiting</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Families of children with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> who are on long-term assisted ventilation need to undertake end-of-life advance care planning (ACP) in order to align their goals and values with the inevitability of their child's <span class="hlt">condition</span> and the risks it entails. To discuss how best to conduct ACP in this population, we performed a retrospective analysis of end-of-life discussions involving our deceased ventilator-assisted patients between 1987 and 2009. A total of 34 (72 percent) of 47 study patients were the subject of these discussions; many discussions occurred after acute deterioration. They resulted in directives to forgo or <span class="hlt">limit</span> interventions for 21 children (45 percent). We surmise that many families were hesitant to discuss end-of-life issues during periods of relative stability. By offering anticipatory guidance and encouraging contemplation of patients’ goals both in times of stability and during worsening illness, health care providers can better engage patients’ families in ACP. As the child's <span class="hlt">condition</span> progresses, the emphasis can be recalibrated. How families respond to such encouragement can also serve as a gauge of their willingness to pursue ACP.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kun, Sheila S.; Graham, Robert J.; Keens, Thomas G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29564546"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clinical experience with thalidomide in the management of severe <span class="hlt">oral</span> and genital ulceration in <span class="hlt">conditions</span> such as Behçet's disease: use of neurophysiological studies to detect thalidomide neuropathy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVE--To examine the efficacy, dose, and safety profile, including neurophysiological testing of thalidomide used in 59 patients (including 23 with Behçet's disease) to treat severe <span class="hlt">oral</span> or genital ulceration (OGU). METHODS--We identified prospectively subjects (including women of childbearing potential) who had persistent OGU over periods lasting one to 40 years and whose active ulceration was not controlled by other therapies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J M Gardner-Medwin; N J Smith; R J Powell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16362827"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coordinated expression and immunogenicity of an outer membrane protein from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi under iron <span class="hlt">limitation</span>, oxidative stress and anaerobic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Successful pathogens overcome the environmental stresses by the coordinated expression of various genes and eventually proteins. Since, the surface of the microbe is likely to come in contact with the host initially, an attempt was made to identify the outer membrane proteins (OMPs), if any, which may get expressed under more than one environmental <span class="hlt">conditions</span> simulating the in vivo ones. In the present study, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was grown under iron-<span class="hlt">limited</span>, oxidative stress as well as anaerobic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and the OMP profiles were compared. A 69 kDa OMP was found to express with enhanced intensity under the selected stress <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in comparison to normal <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. The phenotypic similarity among the proteins was assessed on the basis of their molecular weight, cross reactivity and HPLC. The protein expressed under oxidative stress and anaerobic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> reacted with the antibodies raised against iron-regulated outer membrane protein (IROMP), indicating the sharing of at least some of the epitopes. A single peak observed after subjecting the pooled 69 kDa protein sample and appearance of a single band on SDS-PAGE thereafter, confirmed the purity and phenotypic similarity of the 69 kDa OMP. Reactivity of pooled 69 kDa protein with 85% of sera from typhoid patients revealed the in vivo expression of this protein. The results of this study indicate the coordination of this phenotype under iron stress, oxidative stress and anaerobic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. In view of the expression of the 69 kDa protein under the selected stress <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and their in vivo immunogenicity, these findings may be relevant for the better understanding of the host-microbe interactions and for the further development of diagnostic and preventive strategies. PMID:16362827</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chanana, V; Majumdar, S; Ray, P; Sharma, M; Rishi, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23648104"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of the physiological response to oxygen <span class="hlt">limited</span> process <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of Pichia pastoris Mut(+) strain using a two-compartment scale-down system.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Inhomogeneities in production-scale bioreactors influence microbial growth and product quality due to insufficient mixing and mass transfer. For this reason, lots of efforts are being made to investigate the effects of gradients that impose stress in large-scale reactors in laboratory scale. We have implemented a scale-down model which allows separating a homogeneous part, a stirred tank reactor (STR), and a plug flow reactor (PFR) which mimics the inhomogeneous regimes of the large-scale fermenters. This scale-down model shows solutions to trigger oxygen <span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in the PFR part of the scale-down setup for physiological analysis. The goal of the study was to investigate the scale-up relevant physiological responses of Pichia pastoris strain to oxygen <span class="hlt">limited</span> process <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in the above mentioned two-compartment bioreactor setup. Experimental results with non-induced cultures show that the specific growth rate significantly decreased with increasing the exposure time to oxygen <span class="hlt">limitation</span>. In parallel more by-products were produced. Examining physiological scalable key parameters, multivariate data analyses solely using on-line data revealed that different exposures to the oxygen <span class="hlt">limitation</span> significantly affected the culture performance. This work with the small scale-downs setup reflects new approaches for a valuable process development tool for accelerating strain characterization or for verifying CFD simulations of large-scale bioreactors. As a novel methodological achievement, the combination of the two-compartment scale-down system with the proposed multivariate techniques of solely using on-line data is a valuable tool for recognition of stress effects on the culture performance for physiological bioprocess scale-up issues. PMID:23648104</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lorantfy, Bettina; Jazini, Mohammadhadi; Herwig, Christoph</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30159249"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changing <span class="hlt">oral</span> care needs in the United States: The continuing need for <span class="hlt">oral</span> medicine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: The purpose of this article is to provide <span class="hlt">oral</span> care providers evidence of <span class="hlt">oral</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and medical compromise that is impacting the <span class="hlt">oral</span> health and <span class="hlt">oral</span> health needs of the public. Design: Data were analyzed based on current epidemiologic data, derived in large part from the Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, the National Center for Health Statistics, National Health</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Craig S. Miller; Joel B. Epstein; Ellis H. Hall; David Sirois</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22629058"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis in children.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis is a rare <span class="hlt">condition</span> in humans and is associated with poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene, severe halitosis, mouth breathing during sleep, mental handicap, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and other <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. In this report, a 14 year-old boy who had an orofacial trauma in the maxillary dentoalveolar region,which was neglected, has been described. There was a deep lacerated wound on the upper vestibule which was infected and maggots were found on the same wound. The clinical features, management, treatment are discussed and relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:22629058</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reddy, M H Raghunath; Das, Nagarajappa; Vivekananda, M R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3354786"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis in children</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis is a rare <span class="hlt">condition</span> in humans and is associated with poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene, severe halitosis, mouth breathing during sleep, mental handicap, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and other <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. In this report, a 14 year-old boy who had an orofacial trauma in the maxillary dentoalveolar region,which was neglected, has been described. There was a deep lacerated wound on the upper vestibule which was infected and maggots were found on the same wound. The clinical features, management, treatment are discussed and relevant literature is reviewed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reddy, M. H. Raghunath; Das, Nagarajappa; Vivekananda, M. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22186388"> <span id="translatedtitle">Factors Influencing Perceived <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health of Japanese Middle- Aged Adults.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships between subjective <span class="hlt">oral</span> health symptoms and clinical <span class="hlt">oral</span> health <span class="hlt">conditions</span> on the perceived <span class="hlt">oral</span> health of 1799 Japanese middle-aged adults. A self-administered questionnaire together with dental examinations was administered. A structural equation modeling analysis with Bayesian estimation was used to examine the factors influencing perceived <span class="hlt">oral</span> health as a latent variable with 4 other latent variables: subjective <span class="hlt">oral</span> health symptoms, clinical tooth <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, clinical periodontal <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, and other clinical <span class="hlt">oral</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. For perceived <span class="hlt">oral</span> health as the endogenous variable, only subjective <span class="hlt">oral</span> health symptoms and clinical tooth <span class="hlt">conditions</span> showed significant relationship. Clinical periodontal <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and other clinical <span class="hlt">oral</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> did not show significant effects on the perceived <span class="hlt">oral</span> health. PMID:22186388</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ueno, Masayuki; Zaitsu, Takashi; Ohara, Satoko; Wright, Clive; Kawaguchi, Yoko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/oralcancer.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... the mouth. Anyone can get <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer, but the risk is higher if you are male, over age 40, use tobacco or alcohol or have a history of head or neck cancer. Frequent sun exposure is also a risk for lip cancer. Symptoms of <span class="hlt">oral</span> ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16700732"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> mucositis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mucositis and xerostomia are the most common <span class="hlt">oral</span> complications of the non-surgical therapy of cancer. Mucositis, a common sequel of radio- (DXR), chemo-(CXR) and radiochemo-therapy in patients with cancer, or patients requiring haemopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT), has a direct and significant impact on the quality of life and cost of care, and also affects survival--because of the risk of infection. Apart from dose reduction, preventive and treatment options for mucositis are scarce, although multiple agents have been tested. Evidence suggests that cryotherapy, topical benzydamine and amifostine might provide some benefit in specific situations. The recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor Palifermin (Kepivance) was recently approved as a mucositis intervention in patients receiving <span class="hlt">conditioning</span> regimens before HSCT for the treatment of haematological malignancies. A number of mechanistically based interventions are in various stages of development. Unfortunately, many other approaches have not been rigorously tested. This paper reviews the clinical features, prevalence, diagnosis, complications, pathogenesis, prophylaxis and management of mucositis. PMID:16700732</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scully, C; Sonis, S; Diz, P D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=93100"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flux Analysis of the Metabolism of Clostridium cellulolyticum Grown in Cellulose-Fed Continuous Culture on a Chemically Defined Medium under Ammonium-<span class="hlt">Limited</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An investigation of cellulose degradation by the nonruminal, cellulolytic, mesophilic bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum was performed in cellulose-fed chemostat cultures with ammonium as the growth-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> nutrient. At any dilution rate (D), acetate was always the main product of the catabolism, with a yield of product from substrate ranging between 37.7 and 51.5 g per mol of hexose equivalent fermented and an acetate/ethanol ratio always higher than 1. As D rose, the acetyl coenzyme A was rerouted in favor of ethanol pathways, and ethanol production could represent up to 17.7% of the carbon consumed. Lactate was significantly produced, but with increasing D, the specific lactate production rate declined, as did the specific rate of production of extracellular pyruvate. The proportion of the original carbon directed towards phosphoglucomutase remained constant, and the carbon surplus was balanced mainly by exopolysaccharide and glycogen biosyntheses at high D values, while cellodextrin excretion occurred mainly at lower ones. With increasing D, the specific rate of carbon flowing down catabolites increased as well, but when expressed as a percentage of carbon it declined, while the percentage of carbon directed through biosynthesis pathways was enhanced. The maximum growth and energetic yields were lower than those obtained in cellulose-<span class="hlt">limited</span> chemostats and were related to an uncoupling between catabolism and anabolism leading to an excess of energy. Compared to growth on cellobiose in ammonium-<span class="hlt">limited</span> chemostats (E. Guedon, M. Desvaux, and H. Petitdemange, J. Bacteriol. 182:2010–2017, 2000), (i) a specific consumption rate of carbon of as high as 26.72 mmol of hexose equivalent g of cells?1 h?1 could not be reached and (ii) the proportions of carbon directed towards cellodextrin, glycogen, and exopolysaccharide pathways were not as high as first determined on cellobiose. While the use of cellobiose allows highlighting of metabolic <span class="hlt">limitation</span> and regulation of C. cellulolyticum under ammonium-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, some of these events should then rather be interpreted as distortions of the metabolism. Growth of cellulolytic bacteria on easily available carbon and nitrogen sources represents <span class="hlt">conditions</span> far different from those of the natural lignocellulosic compounds.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Desvaux, Mickael; Petitdemange, Henri</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23946584"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention of <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic, progressive, potentially malignant <span class="hlt">condition</span> affecting the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity and frequently involving the upper part of the aerodigestive tract including the oropharynx and the upper part of the esophagus. It is characterized by juxtaepithelial inflammatory reaction and progressive fibrosis of lamina propria, leading to stiffening of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa eventually causing trismus. This <span class="hlt">condition</span> is associated with significant morbidity and high risk of malignancy. Over the years, several drugs and combinations have been tried for the treatment of submucous fibrosis, but with <span class="hlt">limited</span> success, because of its unclear molecular pathogenesis. Till date, there are no known effective treatments for OSF. The aim of this article is to emphasize on the molecular changes taking place in OSF and possible therapeutic interventions. PMID:23946584</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoithapprabhunath, Thukanaykanpalayam Ragunathan; Maheswaran, Thangadurai; Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Anusushanth, Abraham; Sindhuja, Pandian; Sitra, Govindasamy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3722713"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention of <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic, progressive, potentially malignant <span class="hlt">condition</span> affecting the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity and frequently involving the upper part of the aerodigestive tract including the oropharynx and the upper part of the esophagus. It is characterized by juxtaepithelial inflammatory reaction and progressive fibrosis of lamina propria, leading to stiffening of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa eventually causing trismus. This <span class="hlt">condition</span> is associated with significant morbidity and high risk of malignancy. Over the years, several drugs and combinations have been tried for the treatment of submucous fibrosis, but with <span class="hlt">limited</span> success, because of its unclear molecular pathogenesis. Till date, there are no known effective treatments for OSF. The aim of this article is to emphasize on the molecular changes taking place in OSF and possible therapeutic interventions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoithapprabhunath, Thukanaykanpalayam Ragunathan; Maheswaran, Thangadurai; Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Anusushanth, Abraham; Sindhuja, Pandian; Sitra, Govindasamy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17653723"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stress-inducible expression of At DREB1A in transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) increases transpiration efficiency under water-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water deficit is the major abiotic constraint affecting crop productivity in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Water use efficiency under drought <span class="hlt">conditions</span> is thought to be one of the most promising traits to improve and stabilize crop yields under intermittent water deficit. A transcription factor DREB1A from Arabidopsis thaliana, driven by the stress inducible promoter from the rd29A gene, was introduced in a drought-sensitive peanut cultivar JL 24 through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer. The stress inducible expression of DREB1A in these transgenic plants did not result in growth retardation or visible phenotypic alterations. T3 progeny of fourteen transgenic events were exposed to progressive soil drying in pot culture. The soil moisture threshold where their transpiration rate begins to decline relative to control well-watered (WW) plants and the number of days needed to deplete the soil water was used to rank the genotypes using the average linkage cluster analysis. Five diverse events were selected from the different clusters and further tested. All the selected transgenic events were able to maintain a transpiration rate equivalent to the WW control in soils dry enough to reduce transpiration rate in wild type JL 24. All transgenic events except one achieved higher transpiration efficiency (TE) under WW <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and this appeared to be explained by a lower stomatal conductance. Under water <span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, one of the selected transgenic events showed 40% higher TE than the untransformed control. PMID:17653723</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Devi, M Jyostna; Reddy, D Srinivas; Lavanya, M; Vadez, Vincent; Serraj, R; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K; Sharma, Kiran K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-07-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a601129.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Zolmitriptan <span class="hlt">Oral</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... with other symptoms such as upset stomach and sensitivity to sound and light). Zolmitriptan is in a ... To take the <span class="hlt">orally</span> disintegrating tablet, use dry hands to peel back the foil packaging. Immediately take ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/oral-thrush/DS00408/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Thrush</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... sugar, which encourages the growth of candida. Vaginal yeast infections. Vaginal yeast infections are caused by the same fungus that causes <span class="hlt">oral</span> thrush. Although a yeast infection isn't dangerous, if you're pregnant ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23198741"> <span id="translatedtitle">Was there a plan? End-of-life care for children with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>: a review of multi-service healthcare records.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: Planning for care at the end of life (EoL) is an essential component of support and care for families of children with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. The purpose of this review was to compare documented EoL planning with published children's palliative care standards, across a range of children's healthcare services and to assess the impact on practice of written guidelines to support EoL care planning. METHOD: A manual retrospective review of healthcare records using a purpose-built form. Inclusion criteria were the records of children with a diagnosed life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> or life-threatening <span class="hlt">condition</span>, who had died before the age of 18 years, between October 2008 and March 2010, within a defined geographical area served by one or more of the participating services. The sample was 114 sets of notes relating to a cohort of 48 children: 24 girls and 24 boys, the majority of whose deaths were cancer related. RESULTS: Examples of good practice were found in the records of individual services. Services had each developed their own systems and documents to support EoL care planning rather than using a unified documentation system. Where documented practice fell short, this was related to a lack of evidence that choice in location of death had been offered, delays in sharing of information between services, and information being buried in the narrative of the notes, making it difficult to find. CONCLUSIONS: Current documented EoL planning varies between services. Those who are infrequently involved in the provision of EoL care may benefit from support by those for whom this is part of their daily working life. These professionals can help prepare staff to engage families in these difficult but important conversations - and encourage them to document them in a way that can be easily and readily accessed and shared. PMID:23198741</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beringer, A J; Heckford, E J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://jdr.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/74/9/1577.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Self-estimation of <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Malodor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bad breath (halitosis, <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor) is a common <span class="hlt">condition</span>, usually the result of microbial putrefaction within the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. Often, people suffering from bad breath remain unaware of it, whereas others remain convinced that they suffer from foul <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor, although there is no evidence for such. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether objective self-measurement of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Rosenbergl; A. Kozlovskyl; I. Gelernter; O. Cherniak; J. Gabbay; R. Baht; I. Eli</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23683483"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biologic agents and <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases -- an update on clinical applications.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biologic agents are targeted immune modulating agents that have been widely used in the treatment of inflammatory and neoplastic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> with favorable results. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the biologic agents that have been used in the treatment of diseases that affect the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa. Identification of relevant data, case reports and case series was performed using the PubMed-MEDLINE database and electronic databases of accredited organizations such as the European Medical Agency, US Food and Drug Administration, and clinicaltrials.gov (USA). According to the literature, the use of biologic agents in patients with <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases is <span class="hlt">limited</span> mainly to patients suffering from refractory forms of immune-mediated diseases of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. Biologic agents were used in all cases as off-label indications. Patient's response varied, but in general biologic agents could be considered as a therapeutic option in patients with no other alternative. A point requiring extra precaution is their safety profile because severe life threatening infections are among their side effects. Another aspect that <span class="hlt">limits</span> their broader use is their high economic cost. We aimed to provide a practical update for the clinicians who deal with <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases, covering as many aspects as possible of the applications of biologic agents in <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases reported to date. PMID:23683483</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Georgakopoulou, Eleni A; Andreadis, Dimitrios; Arvanitidis, Efthymios; Loumou, Panagiota</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48153483"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> submucous fibrosis—A search for Aetiology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Occurrence of <span class="hlt">Oral</span> submucous fibrosis is <span class="hlt">limited</span> to this sub-continent of ours. As per the reported surveys with this disease in view, the incidence is highest in the State of Kerala and all of us in the various states of the country get these cases in varying numbers. The disease is not yet an entity-in text-books, and this <span class="hlt">condition</span> has</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. L. Mukherjee; S. K. Biswas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21921116"> <span id="translatedtitle">A deficiency in the flavoprotein of Arabidopsis mitochondrial complex II results in elevated photosynthesis and better growth in nitrogen-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mitochondrial complex II (succinate dehydrogenase [SDH]) plays roles both in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the respiratory electron transport chain. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), its flavoprotein subunit is encoded by two nuclear genes, SDH1-1 and SDH1-2. Here, we characterize heterozygous SDH1-1/sdh1-1 mutant plants displaying a 30% reduction in SDH activity as well as partially silenced plants obtained by RNA interference. We found that these plants displayed significantly higher CO(2) assimilation rates and enhanced growth than wild-type plants. There was a strong correlation between CO(2) assimilation and stomatal conductance, and both mutant and silenced plants displayed increased stomatal aperture and density. By contrast, no significant differences were found for dark respiration, chloroplastic electron transport rate, CO(2) uptake at saturating concentrations of CO(2), or biochemical parameters such as the maximum rates of carboxylation by Rubisco and of photosynthetic electron transport. Thus, photosynthesis is enhanced in SDH-deficient plants by a mechanism involving a specific effect on stomatal function that results in improved CO(2) uptake. Metabolic and transcript profiling revealed that mild deficiency in SDH results in <span class="hlt">limited</span> effects on metabolism and gene expression, and data suggest that decreases observed in the levels of some amino acids were due to a higher flux to proteins and other nitrogen-containing compounds to support increased growth. Strikingly, SDH1-1/sdh1-1 seedlings grew considerably better in nitrogen-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Thus, a subtle metabolic alteration may lead to changes in important functions such as stomatal function and nitrogen assimilation. PMID:21921116</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fuentes, Daniela; Meneses, Marco; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Araújo, Wagner L; Tapia, Rodrigo; Gómez, Isabel; Holuigue, Loreto; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A; Fernie, Alisdair R; Jordana, Xavier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1698560"> <span id="translatedtitle">IL4 is not required for proliferative responses in B cells stimulated by anti-IgD-dextran conjugates even under <span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of cell-cell interaction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The experiments in this manuscript confirm and extend our previous finding that IL4 has minimal enhancing activity on B cell activation stimulated by anti-Ig-dextran conjugates. The absence of significant IL4-mediated enhancement is seen also under <span class="hlt">conditions</span> which are <span class="hlt">limiting</span> for optimal B cell proliferation. Thus, even when B cells are cultured at low cell densities where cell to cell contact is minimized and are stimulated with picogram per milliliter concentrations of anti-Ig-dextran, IL4 mediates low levels of enhanced proliferation, if at all. The low level of IL4-induced enhancement does not reflect the anti-Ig-dextran-mediated downregulation of IL4 receptors on B cells, since anti-Ig-dextran stimulates an increase in IL4 receptors similar in magnitude to that stimulated by IL4 by itself. To exclude the possibility that anti-Ig-dextran was stimulating IL4 secretion by B cells and thus masking an effect of added IL4, we added inhibiting concentrations of monoclonal anti-IL4 antibody, with the B cells and found that it was without effect on anti-Ig-dextran-stimulated proliferation. Our results suggest that IL4 may not have a prominent role in influencing B cell growth that is stimulated by multivalent T cell-independent antigens. PMID:1698560</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lindsberg, M L; Brunswick, M; Keegan, A; Mond, J J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a682206.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrocortisone <span class="hlt">Oral</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... will decrease your dose gradually to allow your body to adjust before stopping the drug completely. Watch for these side effects if you are gradually decreasing your dose and after you stop taking the tablets or <span class="hlt">oral</span> liquid, even if you switch to an inhalation. If ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a601122.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Triamcinolone <span class="hlt">Oral</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... will decrease your dose gradually to allow your body to adjust before stopping the drug completely. Watch for these side effects if you are gradually decreasing your dose and after you stop taking the tablets or <span class="hlt">oral</span> liquid, even if you switch to an inhalation. If ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a682792.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dexamethasone <span class="hlt">Oral</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... will decrease your dose gradually to allow your body to adjust before stopping the drug completely. Watch for these side effects if you are gradually decreasing your dose and after you stop taking the tablets or <span class="hlt">oral</span> liquid, even if you switch to an inhalation corticosteroid ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41288047"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> history</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recording memories of World War II is an intervention that can humanize geriatric care in addition to the historical significance provided. Participants in this <span class="hlt">oral</span> history project described memories of World War II and expressed themes of patriotism, loss, tense moments, makeshift living, self-sufficiency, and uncertain journey. Their ethnic roots were primarily Scandinavian, Dutch, German, and English. The nursing home</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lois B. Taft; Mary Ellen Stolder; Alice Briolat Knutson; Karolyn Tamke; Jennifer Platt; Tara Bowlds</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44776625"> <span id="translatedtitle">Review of the evidence for <span class="hlt">oral</span> health promotion effectiveness</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dental caries, periodontal diseases, tooth loss and <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancers have significant burden of disease effects *, quality of life and cost implications for the Australian community. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> health promotion is a key approach to addressing these <span class="hlt">conditions</span> endorsed as part of the National <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Plan. Understanding the evidence for effectiveness of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health promotion is integral to strategic planning</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Julie G Satur; Mark G Gussy; Michael V Morgan; Hanny Calache; Clive Wright</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18460398"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> malodour--a review.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Halitosis is a very common <span class="hlt">condition</span> which may affect up to 30% of the population. In most cases the aetiology of the <span class="hlt">condition</span> is from local <span class="hlt">oral</span> causes (<span class="hlt">oral</span> malodour). <span class="hlt">Oral</span> malodour is the result of the action of anaerobic bacteria in producing a range of malodorous molecular species including volatile sulphur compounds. Whilst malodour is often associated with the presence of periodontitis, in many cases there is no such link, and the evidence points to the importance of these anaerobic bacteria in tongue coatings which results in the clinical presentation of <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodour. Management of <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodour is directed at managing and reducing the bacterial load both in periodontitis and in tongue coatings by instituting proper <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene measures, control of tongue flora by brushing or scraping, and possibly the adjunctive use of antiseptic agents. Treatments have also been proposed to neutralise malodorous compounds by chemical agents to mask the presence of the <span class="hlt">condition</span>. Further evidence is required to demonstrate the long-term efficacy of therapies for this troublesome <span class="hlt">condition</span>. PMID:18460398</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hughes, Francis J; McNab, Rod</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23071417"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> calcitonin.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An <span class="hlt">oral</span> formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through ?-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen(®) 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl)-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC) (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ). Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of <span class="hlt">orally</span> administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, <span class="hlt">oral</span> calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis) failed to meet key end points, and in December 2011, Novartis Pharma AG announced that it would not pursue further clinical development of <span class="hlt">oral</span> calcitonin for postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteoarthritis. A unique feature of calcitonin is that it is able to uncouple bone turnover, reducing bone resorption without affecting bone formation and therefore increasing bone mass and improving bone quality. This effect, however, may be dose-dependent, with higher doses inhibiting both resorption and formation. Because so many factors affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcitonin, especially <span class="hlt">orally</span> administered calcitonin, much work remains to be done to explore the full pharmacologic spectrum and potential of calcitonin and determine the optimum dose and timing of administration, as well as water and food intake. PMID:23071417</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hamdy, Ronald C; Daley, Dane N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/vn211qk63j408567.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> antiresorptive therapy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> antiresorptive agents play a pivotal role in the management of osteoporosis. This paper discusses the effects and potential\\u000a future role of newer agents such as ibandronate. Alternative dosing schedules and routes of administration have become available\\u000a and may improve fracture protection, compliance, and tolerability for the long term treatment of a chronic <span class="hlt">condition</span> such\\u000a as osteoporosis. Increasingly these agents</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ira Pande; David J. Hosking</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/24723118"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> antiresorptive therapy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> antiresorptive agents play a pivotal role in the management of osteoporosis. This paper discusses the effects and potential\\u000a future role of newer agents such as ibandronate. Alternative dosing schedules and routes of administration have become available\\u000a and may improve fracture protection, compliance, and tolerability for the long term treatment of a chronic <span class="hlt">condition</span> such\\u000a as osteoporosis. Increasingly these agents</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ira Pande; David J. Hosking</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3256671"> <span id="translatedtitle">The prrAB Two-Component System Is Essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Viability and Is Induced under Nitrogen-<span class="hlt">Limiting</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Mycobacterium tuberculosis prrA-prrB (Rv0903c-Rv0902c) two-component regulatory system is expressed during intracellular growth in human macrophages and is required for early intracellular multiplication in murine macrophages, suggesting its importance in establishing infection. To better understand the function of the prrA-prrB two-component system, we defined the transcriptional characteristics of the prrA and prrB genes during exponential and stationary growth and upon exposure to different environmental stresses and attempted to generate a prrA-prrB deletion mutant. The prrA and prrB genes constitute an operon and are cotranscribed during logarithmic growth, with transcriptional levels decreasing in stationary phase and during hypoxia. Despite the transcriptional differences, PrrA protein levels remained relatively stable throughout growth and in hypoxia. Under <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of nitrogen <span class="hlt">limitation</span>, prrAB transcription was induced, while acidic pH stress and carbon starvation did not significantly alter transcript levels. Deletion of the prrAB operon on the chromosome of M. tuberculosis H37Rv occurred only in the presence of an episomal copy of the prrAB genes, indicating that this two-component system is essential for viability. Characterization of the prrAB locus in M. tuberculosis Mt21D3, a previously described prrA transposon mutant, revealed that this strain is not a true prrA knockout mutant. Rather, Tn5367 transposon insertion into the prrA promoter only decreased prrA and prrB transcription and PrrA levels in Mt21D3 compared to those in the parental Mt103 clinical strain. These data provide the first report describing the essentiality of the M. tuberculosis prrAB two-component system and reveal insights into its potential role in mycobacterial growth and metabolism.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Malhotra, Vandana; Cornelison, Garrett L.; Clark-Curtiss, Josephine E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ecam.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/nep067v1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts and Natural Products with Activity Against <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Bacteria: Potential Application in the Prevention and Treatment of <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Diseases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> diseases are major health problems with dental caries and periodontal diseases among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> health influences the general quality of life and poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> health is linked to chronic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and systemic diseases. The associ- ation between <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases and the <span class="hlt">oral</span> microbiota is well established. Of the more than 750 species of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Enzo A. Palombo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21327511"> <span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulants.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The new <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulants may prove to be one of the most significant innovations in clinical practice in the past 60 years. Apixaban and rivaroxaban are specific inhibitors of Factor Xa while dabigatran inhibits Factor IIa. The predictable pharmacological profile of these new agents will allow physicians to use these drugs without the need for routine coagulation monitoring which is the mainstay of warfarin therapy. In addition, these new agents have not been shown to have any food interactions and <span class="hlt">limited</span> drug-drug interactions due to their minimal metabolism through the CYP450 system. This unique pharmacokinetic profile may usher in for clinicians a new era of managing thromboembolic disorders. In this paper, the pharmacology of these new <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulants are reviewed along with the major clinical trials in venous thromboembolism prevention in total hip and knee replacement orthopedic surgery, the treatment of venous thromboembolic disorders and stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. PMID:21327511</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Galanis, Taki; Thomson, Lynda; Palladino, Michael; Merli, Geno J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/j8khh131m76g27m3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preferential Incorporation of Coloured-carotenoids Occurs in the LH2 Complexes From Non-sulphur Purple Bacteria Under Carotenoid-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of growing Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) acidophila and Rps. palustris in the presence of different concentrations of the carotenoid (Car) biosynthetic inhibitor diphenylamine (DPA) has been investigated. Growth with sub-maximal concentrations of DPA induces Car <span class="hlt">limitation</span>. The exact response to DPA is species dependent. However, both Rps. acidophila and Rps. palustris respond by preferentially incorporating the <span class="hlt">limiting</span> amount of coloured</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrew Gall; Sarah Henry; Shinichi Takaichi; Bruno Robert; Richard J. Cogdell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.aapd.org/upload/articles/raether-11-01.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effectiveness of <span class="hlt">oral</span> chlorhexidine for reducing stomatitis in a pediatric bone marrow transplant population</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Disruption of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosal lining and the lack of normal defense mechanisms predispose bone marrow trans- plant (BMT) patients to life-threatening infections, often caused by <span class="hlt">oral</span> flora. Chlorhexidine, used as an <span class="hlt">oral</span> antiseptic, appears promising in <span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">oral</span> bacteria and fungi, and therefore, may decrease <span class="hlt">oral</span> complications associated with BMT. The purpose of this study was to determine in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniel Raether; Paul O. Walker; Bruce Bostrum; Daniel Weisdorf</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1819868"> <span id="translatedtitle">Depressive Symptoms and <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Contraceptives</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Of 261 women who completed a self-rating scale for measuring depression, 168 were taking <span class="hlt">oral</span> contraceptives and 93 were using physical methods of contraception. Of the group of women taking <span class="hlt">oral</span> contraceptives 6·6% were more severely depressed than any of the control group. There was a significant variation in the depth of depression related to the day of the menstrual cycle in the control group. This association was not found in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> contraceptive group, where premenstrual depression was <span class="hlt">limited</span> to the one or two days preceding menstruation. Women taking a contraceptive containing lynoestrenol 2·5 mg. and mestranol 0·075 mg. showed a significantly increased incidence of pessimism, feelings of dissatisfaction, crying, and tension, compared with women taking other <span class="hlt">oral</span> contraceptives and the control group.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herzberg, Brenda N.; Johnson, Anthony L.; Brown, Susannah</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1970-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49033728"> <span id="translatedtitle">[33] Physiologic homeostasis and stress responses in <span class="hlt">oral</span> biofilms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Studies performed since the early, 1970s have yielded tremendous amounts of information about the physiology, genetics, and interactions of <span class="hlt">oral</span> bacteria. This pioneering work has provided a solid foundation to begin to apply the knowledge and technologies developed using suspended populations for studying <span class="hlt">oral</span> bacteria under <span class="hlt">conditions</span> that more closely mimic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity, in biofilms. Our current</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert A. Burne; Robert G. Quivey; Robert E. Marquis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1433132"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> clonidine for proctalgia fugax.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A report is made of the successful use of <span class="hlt">oral</span> clonidine for proctalgia fugax by the author on himself. The author, a 30 year old otherwise healthy man, has been having attacks of proctalgia fugax for several years. He had hitherto left the <span class="hlt">condition</span> untreated. Last year, in a severe attack, he tried <span class="hlt">oral</span> clonidine 150 micrograms twice a day and found it to be dramatically effective. He was completely relieved in three days and tapered off the drug thereafter. A further attack of proctalgia fugax after a month was again treated successfully with <span class="hlt">oral</span> clonidine. The presumed aetiology of proctalgia fugax is discussed and the possible mechanism of action of clonidine in this <span class="hlt">condition</span> is outlined. Further trials of clonidine appear to be worthwhile for this <span class="hlt">condition</span> which has been described as incurable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Swain, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3666555"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> clonidine for proctalgia fugax.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A report is made of the successful use of <span class="hlt">oral</span> clonidine for proctalgia fugax by the author on himself. The author, a 30 year old otherwise healthy man, has been having attacks of proctalgia fugax for several years. He had hitherto left the <span class="hlt">condition</span> untreated. Last year, in a severe attack, he tried <span class="hlt">oral</span> clonidine 150 micrograms twice a day and found it to be dramatically effective. He was completely relieved in three days and tapered off the drug thereafter. A further attack of proctalgia fugax after a month was again treated successfully with <span class="hlt">oral</span> clonidine. The presumed aetiology of proctalgia fugax is discussed and the possible mechanism of action of clonidine in this <span class="hlt">condition</span> is outlined. Further trials of clonidine appear to be worthwhile for this <span class="hlt">condition</span> which has been described as incurable. PMID:3666555</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Swain, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006Nonli..19.1349R"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the inviscid <span class="hlt">limit</span> for the solutions of two-dimensional incompressible Navier Stokes equations with slip-type boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The inviscid <span class="hlt">limit</span> for two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with external force in a bounded domain is considered. We prove an L?-bound on the vorticity of the velocity. This estimate enables us to prove the existence of solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations. The bound is independent of viscosity and guarantees a strong convergence to the Eulerian <span class="hlt">limit</span>. In the forcing-free case a bounded mean oscillation (BMO) estimate is obtained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rusin, Walter M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3156495"> <span id="translatedtitle">Moral and professional responsibility of <span class="hlt">oral</span> physician toward geriatric patient with interdisciplinary management - The time to act is now!</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mouth is the mirror of overall health. With advancements in <span class="hlt">oral</span> health promotion and preventive measures instituted in developed countries, more people retain their natural teeth into their old age as compared to half a century ago. The effect of aging on <span class="hlt">oral</span> health includes effect on <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa, lips, teeth and other associated structures, and their functional activity leading to impairment of speech, mastication, swallowing and pain leading to anxiety and depression. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> tissues are not <span class="hlt">limited</span> to the teeth and supporting structures (periodontium) but also include salivary glands, temporomandibular joint, orofacial/mastication muscles, oropharyngeal mucosa, and <span class="hlt">oral</span> sensory/motor nerve systems. In India, the second most populous country in the world, there is a rapidly growing population of older adults and there are 70 million elderly people over 60 years of age. Geriatric health problems with respect to the quality of life often remain neglected. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> health care for an increasingly large segment of elderly people will be a fact of life for dentists everywhere. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> health can be both a benchmark for and a determinant of the quality of life rather than the length of life span. Older adults are more susceptible to <span class="hlt">oral</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> or diseases due to an increase in chronic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and physical/mental disabilities. Thus, a careful initial interview ensuring that the dentist is familiar with the patient's health history, followed by a thorough <span class="hlt">oral</span> examination plays a very important role. In this paper, we briefly review the age-related <span class="hlt">oral</span> changes occurring in geriatric patients and the role of <span class="hlt">oral</span> physician in imparting a healthy life to the elderly.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rai, Shalu; Kaur, Mandeep; Goel, Sumit; Bhatnagar, Puneet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=oral+AND+health&pg=7&id=EJ537062"> <span id="translatedtitle">Refugees, Migrants, and <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Migrant and refugee communities must be considered as high-risk groups for poor general and <span class="hlt">oral</span> health. <span class="hlt">Limited</span> access to basic necessities, risky behavior, and a mismatch between services and health belief systems of migrants and refugees are contributing factors. (SLD)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Williams, Sonia; Infirri, Jennifer Sardo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol2-sec42-111.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 42.111 - Sampling plans for reduced <span class="hlt">condition</span> of container inspection, Tables III and III-A; and <span class="hlt">limit</span>...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...III-B. Table IIIâSampling Plans for Reduced <span class="hlt">Condition</span> of Container...Number of containers in lot Type of plan Sample size Acceptable quality levels...No. of containers in lot Type of plan Sample size Acceptable quality...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7229409"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> rehydration therapy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The management of diarrhea is mostly dependent on parenteral administration of fluids and electrolytes, yet for the majority of India's population such facilities are practically unavailable. In addition there are several serious <span class="hlt">limitations</span> to the use of this technique. These include prohibitive cost, the fact that it can only be administered by trained personnel, and that it brings undue distress to both patients and parents. Such procedures should be reserved only for those patients who have severe dehydration, impending shock, electrolyte imbalance, or persistent vomiting. For the others, the majority, <span class="hlt">oral</span> rehydration therapy should be the treatment of choice. The implementation of <span class="hlt">oral</span> rehydration therapy in the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Calcutta alone, has resulted in an annual saving of much money. Another benefit is that the family members can participate in the therapy and can continue it at home. The process of water and solute absorption is accelerated in the presence of glucose and sodium, and its effectiveness has been proven and documented. There are various types of <span class="hlt">oral</span> multi-electrolyte-glucose powders available in India. The mixture recommended by the World Health Organization seems to be the most suitable, and this mixture can be prepared at home by the addition of 3-1/2 grams of common salt, 2-1/2 grams of baking soda, 1-1/2 grams of potassium chloride, and 20 grams of glucose in 1 liter of water. Instructions for the use of <span class="hlt">oral</span> rehydration therapy are outlined, and other types of rehydration therapy are described. PMID:7229409</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jain, A; Khatri, P C; Jain, S; Yadav, S P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-09-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/23286184"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aminoimidazoles as bioisosteres of acylguanidines: novel, potent, selective and <span class="hlt">orally</span> bioavailable inhibitors of the sodium hydrogen exchanger isoform-1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Inhibition of the sodium hydrogen exchanger isoform-1 (NHE-1) has been shown to <span class="hlt">limit</span> damage to the myocardium under ischemic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in animals. While most known NHE-1 inhibitors are acylguanidines, this report describes the design and synthesis of a series of heterocyclic inhibitors of NHE-1 including aminoimidazoles with undiminished in vitro activity and <span class="hlt">oral</span> bioavailability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saleem Ahmad; Khehyong Ngu; Donald W Combs; Shung C Wu; David S Weinstein; Wen Liu; Bang-Chi Chen; Gamini Chandrasena; Charles R Dorso; Mark Kirby; Karnail S Atwal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/details.jsp?query_id=0&page=0&ostiID=4184331"> <span id="translatedtitle">CONTROL <span class="hlt">LIMITER</span> DEVICE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A control-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> device for monltoring a control system is described. The system comprises a conditionsensing device, a <span class="hlt">condition</span>-varying device exerting a control over the <span class="hlt">condition</span>, and a control means to actuate the <span class="hlt">condition</span>-varying device. A control-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> device integrates the total movement or other change of the <span class="hlt">condition</span>-varying device over any interval of time during a continuum of overlapping periods of time, and if the tothl movement or change of the <span class="hlt">condition</span>-varying device exceeds a preset value, the control- <span class="hlt">limiting</span> device will switch the control of the operated apparatus from automatic to manual control.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">DeShong, J.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1960-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3674268"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> health as a predictive factor for <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVES: <span class="hlt">Oral</span> mucositis is a complication frequently associated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, decreasing a patient's quality of life and increasing the occurrence of opportunistic infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and severity of <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis and to assess the correlation of this disease with the <span class="hlt">oral</span> health of an individual at the time of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. METHODS: Before transplantation, patients' <span class="hlt">oral</span> health and inflammatory <span class="hlt">conditions</span> were determined using the gingival index and the plaque index, which are based on gingival bleeding and the presence of dental plaque, respectively. Additionally, the dental health status was determined using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. The monitoring of <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis was based on the World Health Organization grading system and was performed for five periods: from Day 0 to D+5, from D+6 to D+10, from D+11 to D+15, from D+16 to D+20, and from D+21 to D+30. RESULTS: A total of 97 patients (56% male and 44% female) who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo between January 2008 and July 2009 were prospectively examined. The incidence of ulcerative mucositis was highest from days +6 to +10 and from days +11 to +15 in the patients who underwent autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, respectively. CONCLUSION: The data, including the dental plaque and periodontal status data, showed that these <span class="hlt">oral</span> health factors were predictive of the incidence and severity of <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis in a cohort of patients with similar <span class="hlt">conditioning</span> regimens before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coracin, Fabio Luiz; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sergio; Gallottini, Marina H. C.; Saboya, Rosaura; Musqueira, Priscila Tavares; Barban, Alessandra; de Alencar Fischer Chamone, Dalton; Dulley, Frederico Luiz; Nunes, Fabio Daumas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.australianprescriber.com/upload/pdf/articles/889.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">medical management of dental and <span class="hlt">oral</span> pain</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Patients may consult medical practitioners because of painful dental or <span class="hlt">oral</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. medical practitioners need to be aware of common dental and <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases in order to manage the patient's pain, but it is even more important to encourage the patient to see a dentist. Typically there is an underlying disease that must be managed by dental or surgical</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul V Abbott</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41367652"> <span id="translatedtitle">In vitro pullulanase activity of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) <span class="hlt">limit</span>-dextrinase type starch debranching enzyme is modulated by redox <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Expression of a <span class="hlt">limit</span>-dextrinase (LD) type starch debranching enzyme (EC 3.2.1.41) was observed in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) endosperm and germinating grains, indicating a role for the enzyme in both biosynthesis and degradation of starch. A full-length cDNA, TaLD1, encoding LD in wheat developing kernels was isolated and predicted to encode a 98.6kDa mature protein active in amyloplasts. Isolated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anne Repellin; Monica Båga; Ravindra N. Chibbar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1592159"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health in Women During Preconception and Pregnancy: Implications for Birth Outcomes and Infant <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mouth is an obvious portal of entry to the body, and <span class="hlt">oral</span> health reflects and influences general health and well being. Maternal <span class="hlt">oral</span> health has significant implications for birth outcomes and infant <span class="hlt">oral</span> health. Maternal periodontal disease, that is, a chronic infection of the gingiva and supporting tooth structures, has been associated with preterm birth, development of preeclampsia, and delivery of a small-for-gestational age infant. Maternal <span class="hlt">oral</span> flora is transmitted to the newborn infant, and increased cariogenic flora in the mother predisposes the infant to the development of caries. It is intriguing to consider preconception, pregnancy, or intrapartum treatment of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health <span class="hlt">conditions</span> as a mechanism to improve women's <span class="hlt">oral</span> and general health, pregnancy outcomes, and their children's dental health. However, given the relationship between <span class="hlt">oral</span> health and general health, <span class="hlt">oral</span> health care should be a goal in its own right for all individuals. Regardless of the potential for improved <span class="hlt">oral</span> health to improve pregnancy outcomes, public policies that support comprehensive dental services for vulnerable women of childbearing age should be expanded so that their own <span class="hlt">oral</span> and general health is safeguarded and their children's risk of caries is reduced. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> health promotion should include education of women and their health care providers ways to prevent <span class="hlt">oral</span> disease from occurring, and referral for dental services when disease is present.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Edelstein, Burton L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3782970"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Status and the Treatment Needs of Salt Workers at Sambhar Lake, Jaipur, India</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Salt workers are exposed to the adversities of environmental <span class="hlt">conditions</span> such as direct sunlight, salt dust and contact with brine, which have an impact on the health of workers. Since <span class="hlt">oral</span> health is an integral part of the general health, we planned to determine its effect on the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. Objectives: To assess the <span class="hlt">oral</span> health status and the treatment needs among the workers of Sambhar Salts <span class="hlt">Limited</span> at Sambhar Lake, Jaipur, India. Material and Methods: A cross sectional, descriptive survey was conducted among 979 subjects (509 males; 470 females) who were aged between 19–68 years, who were the workers of Sambhar Salts <span class="hlt">Limited</span>, Sambhar Lake, Jaipur, India. An interview on the demographic profile followed a clinical examination for recording the <span class="hlt">oral</span> health status, based on the World Health Organization guidelines. The Chi–square test, t–test, One way Analysis of Variance and a Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Females had a significantly greater prevalence of dental fluorosis (71.7%) and periodontal disease (96.4%) as compared to males (p= 0.001). The mean number of healthy sextants (0.71 ± 0.09) and the mean DMFT (5.19 ± 4.11) were also significantly higher in females as compared to those in males (p=0.001). One surface filling (78.2%), followed by pulp care and restoration (76.1%) were the most prevalent treatment needs. The gender and <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene practices for dental caries and periodontal disease were respectively identified as the best predictors. Conclusion: Considerable percentages of salt workers have demonstrated a higher prevalence of <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases. Higher unmet treatment needs suggest a poor accessibility and availability of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health care, in addition to a low utilization of preventive or therapeutic <span class="hlt">oral</span> health services.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Sharda, Archana Jagat; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Batra, Mehak; Daryani, Hemasha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous 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href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24086913"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">oral</span> health status and the treatment needs of salt workers at sambhar lake, jaipur, India.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Salt workers are exposed to the adversities of environmental <span class="hlt">conditions</span> such as direct sunlight, salt dust and contact with brine, which have an impact on the health of workers. Since <span class="hlt">oral</span> health is an integral part of the general health, we planned to determine its effect on the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. Objectives: To assess the <span class="hlt">oral</span> health status and the treatment needs among the workers of Sambhar Salts <span class="hlt">Limited</span> at Sambhar Lake, Jaipur, India. Material and Methods: A cross sectional, descriptive survey was conducted among 979 subjects (509 males; 470 females) who were aged between 19-68 years, who were the workers of Sambhar Salts <span class="hlt">Limited</span>, Sambhar Lake, Jaipur, India. An interview on the demographic profile followed a clinical examination for recording the <span class="hlt">oral</span> health status, based on the World Health Organization guidelines. The Chi-square test, t-test, One way Analysis of Variance and a Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Females had a significantly greater prevalence of dental fluorosis (71.7%) and periodontal disease (96.4%) as compared to males (p= 0.001). The mean number of healthy sextants (0.71 ± 0.09) and the mean DMFT (5.19 ± 4.11) were also significantly higher in females as compared to those in males (p=0.001). One surface filling (78.2%), followed by pulp care and restoration (76.1%) were the most prevalent treatment needs. The gender and <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene practices for dental caries and periodontal disease were respectively identified as the best predictors. Conclusion: Considerable percentages of salt workers have demonstrated a higher prevalence of <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases. Higher unmet treatment needs suggest a poor accessibility and availability of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health care, in addition to a low utilization of preventive or therapeutic <span class="hlt">oral</span> health services. PMID:24086913</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Sharda, Archana Jagat; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Batra, Mehak; Daryani, Hemasha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3133136"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Has Three High-Affinity Iron-Scavenging Systems Functional under Iron <span class="hlt">Limitation</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> but Dispensable for Pathogenesis?¶</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High-affinity iron scavenging through the use of siderophores is a well-established virulence determinant in mammalian pathogenesis. However, few examples have been reported for plant pathogens. Here, we use a genetic approach to investigate the role of siderophores in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000) virulence in tomato. DC3000, an agronomically important pathogen, has two known siderophores for high-affinity iron scavenging, yersiniabactin and pyoverdin, and we uncover a third siderophore, citrate, required for growth when iron is <span class="hlt">limiting</span>. Though growth of a DC3000 triple mutant unable to either synthesize or import these siderophores is severely restricted in iron-<span class="hlt">limited</span> culture, it is fully pathogenic. One explanation for this phenotype is that the DC3000 triple mutant is able to directly pirate plant iron compounds such as heme/hemin or iron-nicotianamine, and our data indicate that DC3000 can import iron-nicotianamine with high affinity. However, an alternative explanation, supported by data from others, is that the pathogenic environment of DC3000 (i.e., leaf apoplast) is not iron <span class="hlt">limited</span> but is iron replete, with available iron of >1 ?M. Growth of the triple mutant in culture is restored to wild-type levels by supplementation with a variety of iron chelates at >1 ?M, including iron(III) dicitrate, a dominant chelate of the leaf apoplast. This suggests that lower-affinity iron import would be sufficient for DC3000 iron nutrition in planta and is in sharp contrast to the high-affinity iron-scavenging mechanisms required in mammalian pathogenesis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jones, Alexander M.; Wildermuth, Mary C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21441525"> <span id="translatedtitle">The phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 has three high-affinity iron-scavenging systems functional under iron <span class="hlt">limitation</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> but dispensable for pathogenesis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High-affinity iron scavenging through the use of siderophores is a well-established virulence determinant in mammalian pathogenesis. However, few examples have been reported for plant pathogens. Here, we use a genetic approach to investigate the role of siderophores in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000) virulence in tomato. DC3000, an agronomically important pathogen, has two known siderophores for high-affinity iron scavenging, yersiniabactin and pyoverdin, and we uncover a third siderophore, citrate, required for growth when iron is <span class="hlt">limiting</span>. Though growth of a DC3000 triple mutant unable to either synthesize or import these siderophores is severely restricted in iron-<span class="hlt">limited</span> culture, it is fully pathogenic. One explanation for this phenotype is that the DC3000 triple mutant is able to directly pirate plant iron compounds such as heme/hemin or iron-nicotianamine, and our data indicate that DC3000 can import iron-nicotianamine with high affinity. However, an alternative explanation, supported by data from others, is that the pathogenic environment of DC3000 (i.e., leaf apoplast) is not iron <span class="hlt">limited</span> but is iron replete, with available iron of >1 ?M. Growth of the triple mutant in culture is restored to wild-type levels by supplementation with a variety of iron chelates at >1 ?M, including iron(III) dicitrate, a dominant chelate of the leaf apoplast. This suggests that lower-affinity iron import would be sufficient for DC3000 iron nutrition in planta and is in sharp contrast to the high-affinity iron-scavenging mechanisms required in mammalian pathogenesis. PMID:21441525</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jones, Alexander M; Wildermuth, Mary C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.simplestepsdental.com/SS/ihtSSPrint/r.WSIHW000/st.31848/t.32264/pr.3/c.354214.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Respiratory Diseases and <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> (and <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... can make you more likely to get fungal (yeast) infections in your mouth. Finally, these drugs can ... helps to decrease the chance of getting a yeast infection in your mouth. Cromolyn can cause: Nausea ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18613132"> <span id="translatedtitle">An integrated metabolic modeling approach to describe the energy efficiency of Escherichia coli fermentations under oxygen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>: Cellular energetics, carbon flux, and acetate production.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An integrated metabolic model for the production of acetate by growing Escherichia coli on glucose under aerobic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> is presented. The model is based on parameters which are easily determined by experiments. Forming the basis for this integrated metabolic model are the 12 principal precursor metabolites for biosynthetic pathways, the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, the pentose phosphate cycle, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the anapleurotic reactions, the Crabtree effect, the Pasteur effect, and the details of bacterial respiration. The result can be used to explain phenomena often observed in industrial fermentations, i.e., increased acetate production which follows from high glucose uptake rate, a low oxygen concentration, a high specific growth rate, or a combination of these <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. PMID:18613132</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ko, Y F; Bentley, W E; Weigand, W A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-09-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35258404"> <span id="translatedtitle">VTR expression cassettes for engineering <span class="hlt">conditional</span> phenotypes in Pseudomonas: activity of the Pu promoter of the TOL plasmid under <span class="hlt">limiting</span> concentrations of the XylR activator protein</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A simplified procedure to construct recombinant Pseudomonas putida (Pp) and related bacteria, which transcribe <span class="hlt">conditionally</span> specific genes inserted into their chromosome in response to lac inducers such as IPTG, has been developed. The method is based on the so-called VTR expression cassettes. These are three small (1.98-kb) DNA segments engineered as NotI restriction fragments that include a lacIq gene along</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">José Pérez-Martin; Victor de Lorenzo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/behavior/oralsex.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Sex and HIV Risk</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Sex and HIV Risk <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Sex Is Not Risk Free Like all sexual activity, ... HIV or another STD through <span class="hlt">oral</span> sex. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Sex is a Common Practice <span class="hlt">Oral</span> sex involves giving ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22949075"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of imidacloprid and pyrimethanil in shallot (Allium ascalonicum) grown under greenhouse <span class="hlt">conditions</span> using tandem mass spectrometry: establishment of pre-harvest residue <span class="hlt">limits</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, the original Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe method was used for the extraction of imidacloprid and pyrimethanil followed by a rapid clean-up through dispersive solid-phase extraction technique with primary secondary amine sorbent and magnesium sulfate in shallot. Residues were analyzed using LC-tandem mass spectrometry in positive-ion electrospray ionization mode. The <span class="hlt">limits</span> of detection and quantification were estimated to be 0.006 and 0.02?mg/kg, respectively. The samples were fortified at two different concentration levels (0.2 and 1.0?mg/kg), and the recoveries ranged between 79.7 and 83.9% with relative standard deviation values?<?6%. The method was successfully applied for the establishment of the pre-harvest residue <span class="hlt">limits</span> (PHRL). The rate of disappearance of imidacloprid and pyrimethanil on shallot was described with first-order kinetics (imidacloprid, y(2) ?=?0.9670; pyrimethanil, y(2) ?=?0.9841), with half-lives of 2.87 and 2.08?days, respectively. Based on the dissipation patterns of the pesticide residues, the PHRL was recommended at 7.86?mg/kg for 14?days (PHRL14 ) and 1.98?mg/kg for 7?days (PHRL7 ) before harvest for imidacloprid, and 21.64?mg/kg for 7?days (PHRL7 ) and 9.28?mg/kg for 4?days (PHRL4 ) before harvest for pyrimethanil in shallot. PMID:22949075</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Park, Jong-Hyouk; Park, Joon-Seong; Abd El-Aty, A M; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Na, Tae-Woong; Shim, Jae-Han</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=water+AND+fluoridation&id=EJ897114"> <span id="translatedtitle">Review of the Evidence for <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Promotion Effectiveness</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dental caries, periodontal diseases, tooth loss and <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancers have significant burden of disease effects, quality of life and cost implications for the Australian community. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> health promotion is a key approach to addressing these <span class="hlt">conditions</span> endorsed as part of the National <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Plan. Understanding the evidence for effectiveness of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Satur, Julie G.; Gussy, Mark G.; Morgan, Michael V.; Calache, Hanny; Wright, Clive</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fluoridation&id=EJ897114"> <span id="translatedtitle">Review of the Evidence for <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Promotion Effectiveness</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Dental caries, periodontal diseases, tooth loss and <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancers have significant burden of disease effects, quality of life and cost implications for the Australian community. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> health promotion is a key approach to addressing these <span class="hlt">conditions</span> endorsed as part of the National <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Plan. Understanding the evidence for effectiveness of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Satur, Julie G.; Gussy, Mark G.; Morgan, Michael V.; Calache, Hanny; Wright, Clive</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59695601"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> health service systems in Gauteng Province, South Africa</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVES: To describe the provision of restorative care and dental operators' opinion about their <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of service in a South African provincial <span class="hlt">oral</span> health service system. DESIGN: Assessment of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health service over a four-month period. SETTING: Gauteng Province, South Africa. SUBJECTS: Dental operators in public <span class="hlt">oral</span> health service. INTERVENTIONS: Operator interview, collection of treatment statistics, calculation of the mean</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Mickenautsch; M. A. van't Hof; J. E. F. M. Frencken</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23666843"> <span id="translatedtitle">Poverty does not <span class="hlt">limit</span> tobacco consumption in cambodia: quantitative estimate of tobacco use under <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of no income and adult malnutrition.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Current data indicate that under <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of poverty, tobacco is consumed at the expense of basic needs. In a large national sample from Cambodia, we sought to determine whether tobacco consumption declines under extreme <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of no income and malnutrition. Our major findings are as follows: (1) Among men, there was no significant difference in the number of cigarettes smoked for no income (425, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 395-456) versus >US$2 per day (442, 95% CI = 407-477); (2) among women, there was no significant difference in the amount of loose tobacco (ie, betel quid) consumed for no income (539 g, 95% CI = 441-637) versus >US$2 per day (558 g, 95% CI = 143-973); (3) for the contrast of no income + malnutrition versus >US$2 per day + no malnutrition in a linear model, there was no significant difference for men who smoked (462 vs 517 cigarettes/month, P = .82) or women who chewed (316 vs 404 g tobacco/month, P = .34), adjusting for confounders. Among the poorest and malnourished Cambodian adults, lack of resources did not appear to prevent them from obtaining smoked or smokeless tobacco. PMID:23666843</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Singh, Pramil N; Washburn, Dawn; Yel, Daravuth; Kheam, They; Job, Jayakaran S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20974505"> <span id="translatedtitle">Non-Markovian reduced propagator, multiple-time correlation functions, and master equations with general initial <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in the weak-coupling <span class="hlt">limit</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we derive the evolution equation for the reduced propagator, an object that evolves vectors of the Hilbert space of a system S interacting with an environment B in a non-Markovian way. This evolution is <span class="hlt">conditioned</span> to certain initial and final states of the environment. Once an average over these environmental states is made, reduced propagators permit the evaluation of multiple-time correlation functions of system observables. When this average is done stochastically the reduced propagator evolves according to a stochastic Schroedinger equation. In addition, it is possible to obtain the evolution equations of the multiple-time correlation functions which generalize the well-known quantum regression theorem to the non-Markovian case. Here, both methods, stochastic and evolution equations, are described by assuming a weak coupling between system and environment. Finally, we show that reduced propagators can be used to obtain a master equation with general initial <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, and not necessarily an initial vacuum state for the environment. We illustrate the theory with several examples.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vega, Ines de [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental II, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna 38203, Tenerife (Spain); Alonso, Daniel [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental y Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna 38203, Tenerife (Spain)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23567010"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> insulin delivery: how far are we?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> delivery of insulin may significantly improve the quality of life of diabetes patients who routinely receive insulin by the subcutaneous route. In fact, compared with this administration route, <span class="hlt">oral</span> delivery of insulin in diabetes treatment offers many advantages: higher patient compliance, rapid hepatic insulinization, and avoidance of peripheral hyperinsulinemia and other adverse effects such as possible hypoglycemia and weight gain. However, the <span class="hlt">oral</span> delivery of insulin remains a challenge because its <span class="hlt">oral</span> absorption is <span class="hlt">limited</span>. The mainbarriers faced by insulin in the gastrointestinal tract are degradation by proteolytic enzymes and lack of transport across the intestinal epithelium. Several strategies to deliver insulin <span class="hlt">orally</span> have been proposed, but without much clinical or commercial success. Protein encapsulation into nanoparticles is regarded as a promising alternative to administer insulin <span class="hlt">orally</span> because they have the ability to promote insulin paracellular or transcellular transport across the intestinal mucosa. In this review, different delivery systems intended to increase the <span class="hlt">oral</span> bioavailability of insulin will be discussed, with a special focus on nanoparticulate carrier systems, as well as the efforts that pharmaceutical companies are making to bring to the market the first <span class="hlt">oral</span> delivery system of insulin. The toxicological and safety data of delivery systems, the clinical value and progress of <span class="hlt">oral</span> insulin delivery, and the future prospects in this research field will be also scrutinized. PMID:23567010</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fonte, Pedro; Araújo, Francisca; Reis, Salette; Sarmento, Bruno</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22530016"> <span id="translatedtitle">Expression of VjbR under nutrient <span class="hlt">limitation</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> is regulated at the post-transcriptional level by specific acidic pH values and urocanic acid.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">VjbR is a LuxR homolog that regulates transcription of many genes including important virulence determinants of the facultative intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus. This transcription factor belongs to a family of regulators that participate in a cell-cell communication process called quorum sensing, which enables bacteria to respond to changes in cell population density by monitoring concentration of self produced autoinducer molecules. Unlike almost all other LuxR-type proteins, VjbR binds to DNA and activates transcription in the absence of any autoinducer signal. To investigate the mechanisms by which Brucella induces VjbR-mediated transcriptional activation, and to determine how inappropriate spatio-temporal expression of the VjbR target genes is prevented, we focused on the study of expression of vjbR itself. By assaying different parameters related to the intracellular lifestyle of Brucella, we identified a restricted set of <span class="hlt">conditions</span> that triggers VjbR protein expression. Such <span class="hlt">conditions</span> required the convergence of two signals of different nature: a specific pH value of 5.5 and the presence of urocanic acid, a metabolite involved in the connection between virulence and metabolism of Brucella. In addition, we also observed an urocanic acid, pH-dependent expression of RibH2 and VirB7, two additional intracellular survival-related proteins of Brucella. Analysis of promoter activities and determination of mRNA levels demonstrated that the urocanic acid-dependent mechanisms that induced expression of VjbR, RibH2, and VirB7 act at the post-transcriptional level. Taken together, our findings support a model whereby Brucella induces VjbR-mediated transcription by modulating expression of VjbR in response to specific signals related to the changing environment encountered within the host. PMID:22530016</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arocena, Gastón M; Zorreguieta, Angeles; Sieira, Rodrigo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3328445"> <span id="translatedtitle">Expression of VjbR under Nutrient <span class="hlt">Limitation</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Is Regulated at the Post-Transcriptional Level by Specific Acidic pH Values and Urocanic Acid</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">VjbR is a LuxR homolog that regulates transcription of many genes including important virulence determinants of the facultative intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus. This transcription factor belongs to a family of regulators that participate in a cell-cell communication process called quorum sensing, which enables bacteria to respond to changes in cell population density by monitoring concentration of self produced autoinducer molecules. Unlike almost all other LuxR-type proteins, VjbR binds to DNA and activates transcription in the absence of any autoinducer signal. To investigate the mechanisms by which Brucella induces VjbR-mediated transcriptional activation, and to determine how inappropriate spatio-temporal expression of the VjbR target genes is prevented, we focused on the study of expression of vjbR itself. By assaying different parameters related to the intracellular lifestyle of Brucella, we identified a restricted set of <span class="hlt">conditions</span> that triggers VjbR protein expression. Such <span class="hlt">conditions</span> required the convergence of two signals of different nature: a specific pH value of 5.5 and the presence of urocanic acid, a metabolite involved in the connection between virulence and metabolism of Brucella. In addition, we also observed an urocanic acid, pH-dependent expression of RibH2 and VirB7, two additional intracellular survival-related proteins of Brucella. Analysis of promoter activities and determination of mRNA levels demonstrated that the urocanic acid-dependent mechanisms that induced expression of VjbR, RibH2, and VirB7 act at the post-transcriptional level. Taken together, our findings support a model whereby Brucella induces VjbR-mediated transcription by modulating expression of VjbR in response to specific signals related to the changing environment encountered within the host.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arocena, Gaston M.; Zorreguieta, Angeles; Sieira, Rodrigo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23023509"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> direct factor Xa inhibitors.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Vitamin K antagonists, such as warfarin, have been the mainstay of <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulation for many decades. Although effective, warfarin has numerous <span class="hlt">limitations</span>, including a variable dose requirement from patient to patient because of differences in dietary vitamin K intake, common genetic polymorphisms, and multiple drug interactions that affect its pharmacodynamics and metabolism. Consequently, warfarin requires frequent monitoring to ensure that a therapeutic anticoagulant effect has been achieved because excessive anticoagulation can lead to bleeding, and because insufficient anticoagulation can result in thrombosis. Such monitoring is burdensome for patients and physicians and is costly for the health care system. These <span class="hlt">limitations</span> have prompted the development of new <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulants that target either factor Xa or thrombin. Although the path to the development of these drugs has been long, the new drugs are at least as effective and safe as warfarin, but they streamline clinical care because they can be administered in fixed doses without routine coagulation monitoring. This article focuses on rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban, the <span class="hlt">oral</span> factor Xa inhibitors in the most advanced stages of development. After 20 years of discovery research, these agents are already licensed for several indications. Thus, the long path to finding replacements for warfarin has finally reached fruition. Therefore, development of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> factor Xa inhibitors represents a translational science success story. PMID:23023509</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yeh, Calvin H; Fredenburgh, James C; Weitz, Jeffrey I</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1580822"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Limited</span> memory optimal filtering</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Linear and nonlinear optimal filters with <span class="hlt">limited</span> memory length are developed. The filter output is the <span class="hlt">conditional</span> probability density function and, in the linear Gaussian case, is the <span class="hlt">conditional</span> mean and covariance matrix where the <span class="hlt">conditioning</span> is only on a fixed amount of most recent data. This is related to maximum-likelihood least-squares estimation. These filters have application in problems where</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Jazwinski</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1968-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2555376"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> immunization against poliomyelitis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the ten years since attenuated poliovirus was first administered to man for immunization against poliomyelitis, a vast body of experience has grown up and an attempt can now be made to assess the potentialities of <span class="hlt">oral</span> poliovirus vaccine. The author of this paper seeks to answer two main questions: how safe are the strains now under study, and is <span class="hlt">oral</span> vaccine effective in practice under the different <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in which it may be used? From the information gained in large-scale trials involving a total of nearly 70 million people, he concludes that where poliomyelitis is predominantly a disease of infancy and early childhood the vaccines now available are safe both for the individual and for the community. The Sabin strains appear also to be safe for use in areas where the disease affects older children and adults; there is still not enough information to permit final conclusions to be drawn as to the safety of the Koprowski and Lederle strains in such areas. The evaluation of data on the efficacy of rural vaccines is beset with many problems, but the evidence of serological conversion rates suggests that, with one exception, there are no striking differences in efficacy between any of the strains when used in monovalent vaccines. However, 100% conversion cannot be expected in all circumstances from any <span class="hlt">oral</span> vaccine given once only; repeated administration is clearly necessary, although it is still too early to say what the best vaccine schedule may be in any particular set of circumstances. While the problems yet to be solved are legion, great progress has nevertheless been made in the past decade, and the author looks forward to a steady extension of the use of live poliovirus vaccine and even to the eventual possibility of the eradication of poliomyelitis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Payne, A. M.-M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1960-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17948616"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> anticoagulation: preparing for change.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thromboembolic disorders-stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE)--pose a substantial risk for mortality and morbidity. Primarily affecting individuals with atrial fibrillation (AF) in their 7th and 8th decades of life, these disorders will represent a growing burden as aging baby boomers expand the pool of at-risk patients in coming decades, underscoring the need for effective, well tolerated long-term prophylactic therapy. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> warfarin, the current cornerstone of preventative therapy for these <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, is associated with a host of barriers--the need for careful dose titration and monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions, among other--that, despite compelling evidence of efficacy, makes it difficult to implement of this agent in at-risk patients. Effective, well-tolerated, and convenient alternatives are needed to maximize <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulant use and optimize therapy. Several new <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulants in development offer increased pharmacologic specificity, but only one ximelagatran, has reached late Phase III development. An <span class="hlt">oral</span> direct thrombin inhibitor, ximelagatran offers a pharmacologic profile that supports twice daily <span class="hlt">oral</span> administration with minimal drug interactions and a wide therapeutic window that may obviate routine drug-level monitoring, although liver enzyme elevations detected in clinical trials remain an unresolved concern. Further, the results of clinical trials suggest that ximelagatran may be as effective as warfarin in preventing stroke and VTE. PMID:17948616</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nutescu, Edith A; Spyropoulos, Alex C; Cranmer, Kerry W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7168S"> <span id="translatedtitle">The water regime of silver (Betula pendula Roth) and Karelian (Betula pendula var. carelica) birches under sufficient and <span class="hlt">limited</span> soil moisture <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The sensitivity of the silver (Betula pendula Roth) and Karelian (Betula pendula var. carelica) birches to different soil moisture <span class="hlt">conditions</span> was investigated using results of field measurements provided in 2008-11 at forest experimental sites of the Forest Research Institute of Karelian Research Center of RAS in Karelia, Russia. Karelian birch is a specific form of the silver birch and it is characterized by structural abnormalities of trunk tissues (thickenings on the trunk, the marble-like pattern and figured wood) that results in considerable reduction of number of xylem vessels and increase of parenchyma cell number (Novitskaya, 2008). For experimental study several three-, five- and seven-year old trees of the silver and Karelian birches were selected. The transpiration rate of the leaves (E) was determined using the portable photosynthesis system Li-6400XTR (Li-Cor, USA). Leaf water potential of photosynthesizing leaves (?) was measured using the pressure chamber. Amount of available water in leaves (WCf), water deficit (WSD) and saturating leaf water content (WCs) were calculated using the following equations: WCf = (Wf -Wd)/ Wd (gwatergdryweight-1), WSD = (Ws - Wf)/(Ws - Wd) (%), WCs= (Ws- Wf) / Wd (gwatergdryweight-1), where Wf and Wd - fresh and dried leaf biomass, Ws - weight of the leaves at saturation. Comparisons of three and five years old birches showed that the differences between WSD and WCs of the Karelian and silver birch increased with tree age. It can be explained that the Karelian birch has increased parenchyma and significant amount of water can be additionally stored there. Comparisons of WSD and WCs of silver birches of both forms show that the differences between forms increase with growth of water deficit in plants. It was observed in both seasonal and daily patterns. The largest differences were indicated at the afternoon and at the end of growing season (from middle of August until September). These results also show that WSD and WCs of the Karelian birch were some smaller than the silver birch values probably due to some additional "water source" that has the Karelian birch in the bark parenchyma. Analysis of seasonal pattern of E of seven years old birches showed that the daily E of the silver birch is some higher than E of Karelian ones. Comparisons of E of both forms under stressed soil moisture <span class="hlt">conditions</span> showed a higher decrease in E and leaf water content at the afternoon for the silver birch. It also indicates that the Karelian birch can store more water due to some specific features of assimilation mechanisms and xylem structure. Comparison of water potentials of both birch forms didn't reveal any significant differences. However, it was shown that the Karelian birch has usually lower values of ? than the silver birch.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sazonova, T.; Pridacha, V.; Olchev, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24058617"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bile Salts Affect Expression of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Genes for Virulence and Iron Acquisition, and Promote Growth under Iron <span class="hlt">Limiting</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bile salts exhibit potent antibacterial properties, acting as detergents to disrupt cell membranes and as DNA-damaging agents. Although bacteria inhabiting the intestinal tract are able to resist bile's antimicrobial effects, relatively little is known about how bile influences virulence of enteric pathogens. Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important pathogen of humans, capable of causing severe diarrhea and more serious sequelae. In this study, the transcriptome response of E. coli O157:H7 to bile was determined. Bile exposure induced significant changes in mRNA levels of genes related to virulence potential, including a reduction of mRNA for the 41 genes making up the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island. Bile treatment had an unusual effect on mRNA levels for the entire flagella-chemotaxis regulon, resulting in two- to four-fold increases in mRNA levels for genes associated with the flagella hook-basal body structure, but a two-fold decrease for "late" flagella genes associated with the flagella filament, stator motor, and chemotaxis. Bile salts also caused increased mRNA levels for seventeen genes associated with iron scavenging and metabolism, and counteracted the inhibitory effect of the iron chelating agent 2,2'-dipyridyl on growth of E. coli O157:H7. These findings suggest that E. coli O157:H7 may use bile as an environmental signal to adapt to changing <span class="hlt">conditions</span> associated with the small intestine, including adaptation to an iron-scarce environment. PMID:24058617</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hamner, Steve; McInnerney, Kate; Williamson, Kerry; Franklin, Michael J; Ford, Timothy E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3769235"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bile Salts Affect Expression of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Genes for Virulence and Iron Acquisition, and Promote Growth under Iron <span class="hlt">Limiting</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bile salts exhibit potent antibacterial properties, acting as detergents to disrupt cell membranes and as DNA-damaging agents. Although bacteria inhabiting the intestinal tract are able to resist bile’s antimicrobial effects, relatively little is known about how bile influences virulence of enteric pathogens. Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important pathogen of humans, capable of causing severe diarrhea and more serious sequelae. In this study, the transcriptome response of E. coli O157:H7 to bile was determined. Bile exposure induced significant changes in mRNA levels of genes related to virulence potential, including a reduction of mRNA for the 41 genes making up the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island. Bile treatment had an unusual effect on mRNA levels for the entire flagella-chemotaxis regulon, resulting in two- to four-fold increases in mRNA levels for genes associated with the flagella hook-basal body structure, but a two-fold decrease for “late” flagella genes associated with the flagella filament, stator motor, and chemotaxis. Bile salts also caused increased mRNA levels for seventeen genes associated with iron scavenging and metabolism, and counteracted the inhibitory effect of the iron chelating agent 2,2’-dipyridyl on growth of E. coli O157:H7. These findings suggest that E. coli O157:H7 may use bile as an environmental signal to adapt to changing <span class="hlt">conditions</span> associated with the small intestine, including adaptation to an iron-scarce environment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hamner, Steve; McInnerney, Kate; Williamson, Kerry; Franklin, Michael J.; Ford, Timothy E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1579288"> <span id="translatedtitle">Drug Testing in <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Fluid</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid (saliva) for drug testing. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection <span class="hlt">limits</span> required. Drug testing outside laboratory environments has become widespread and provides presumptive results within minutes of collection of specimens. This review focuses on the developments, particularly over the last 10 years, and outlines the roles and applications of testing for drugs in <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid, describes the difficulties associated with this form of testing and illustrates applications of <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid testing for specific drugs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Drummer, Olaf H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30940353"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of epithelial–mesenchymal transition in <span class="hlt">oral</span> squamous cell carcinoma and <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an indispensable mechanism during morphogenesis. Interest and research in EMT are currently at a high level due to its important role in cancer and fibrosis. Emerging evidence suggests that EMT is also a crucial event in <span class="hlt">oral</span> squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). <span class="hlt">Oral</span> submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic debilitating disease and a premalignant <span class="hlt">condition</span> of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hu Yanjia; Jian Xinchun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/964096"> <span id="translatedtitle">Turbulence Considerations for Comparing Ecosystem Exchange over Old-Growth and Clear-Cut Stands For <span class="hlt">Limited</span> Fetch and Complex Canopy Flow <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Carbon dioxide, water vapor and energy fluxes were measured using eddy covariance (EC) methodology over three adjacent forests in southern Washington State to identify stand-level age-effects on ecosystem exchange. The sites represent Douglas-fir forest ecosystems at two contrasting successional stages: old-growth (OG) and early seral (ES). Here we present eddy flux and meteorological data from two early seral stands and the Wind River AmeriFlux old-growth forest during the growing season (March-October) in 2006 and 2007. We show an alternative approach to the usual friction velocity (u*) method for determining periods of adequate atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) mixing based on the ratio of mean horizontal ({bar u}) and vertical ({bar w}) wind flow to a modified turbulent kinetic energy scale (uTKE). This new parameter in addition to footprint modeling showed that daytime CO{sub 2} fluxes (F{sub NEE}) in small clear-cuts (< 10 hectares) can be measured accurately with EC if micrometeorological <span class="hlt">conditions</span> are carefully evaluated. Peak midday CO{sub 2} fluxes (F{sub NEE} = -14.0 to -12.3 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) at OG were measured in April in both 2006 and 2007 before bud break when air and soil temperatures and vapor pressure deficit were relatively low, and soil moisture and light levels were favorable for photosynthesis. At the early seral stands, peak midday CO{sub 2} fluxes (F{sub NEE} = -11.0 to -8.7 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) were measured in June and July while spring-time CO{sub 2} fluxes were much smaller (F{sub NEE} = -3.8 to -3.6 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}). Overall, we measured lower evapotranspiration (OG = 230 mm; ES = 297 mm) higher midday F{sub NEE} (OG F{sub NEE} = -9.0 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}; ES F{sub NEE} = -7.3 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and higher Bowen ratios (OG {beta} = 2.0. ES {beta} = 1.2) at the old-growth forest than at the ES sites during the summer months (May-August). Eddy covariance studies such as ours add critical land-atmosphere exchange data for an abundant, but rarely studied Douglas-fir age class.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wharton, S; Schroeder, M; Paw U, K T; Falk, M; Bible, K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1079888"> <span id="translatedtitle">Two cases of "cannabis acute psychosis" following the administration of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cannabis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal drug and its therapeutic aspects have a growing interest. Short-term psychotic reactions have been described but not clearly with synthetic <span class="hlt">oral</span> THC, especially in occasional users. Case presentations We report two cases of healthy subjects who were occasional but regular cannabis users without psychiatric history who developed transient psychotic symptoms (depersonalization, paranoid feelings and derealisation) following <span class="hlt">oral</span> administration of cannabis. In contrast to most other case reports where circumstances and blood concentrations are unknown, the two cases reported here happened under experimental <span class="hlt">conditions</span> with all subjects negative for cannabis, opiates, amphetamines, cocaine, benzodiazepines and alcohol, and therefore the ingested dose, the time-events of effects on behavior and performance as well as the cannabinoid blood levels were documented. Conclusion While the <span class="hlt">oral</span> route of administration achieves only <span class="hlt">limited</span> blood concentrations, significant psychotic reactions may occur.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Favrat, Bernard; Menetrey, Annick; Augsburger, Marc; Rothuizen, Laura E; Appenzeller, Monique; Buclin, Thierry; Pin, Marie; Mangin, Patrice; Giroud, Christian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22236124"> <span id="translatedtitle">Peptides in <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity is home to numerous viruses and micro-organisms recognized as having a role in various <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases as well as in infections in other parts of the body. Indeed, in general a microbial infection underlies or is believed to underlie the ample spectrum of <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases, from tooth enamel decay to periodontal lesions, from candidiasis to virus-induced <span class="hlt">oral</span> squamous cell carcinomas, and bullous autoimmune <span class="hlt">oral</span> disorders. This clinico-pathological context stresses the need of targeted therapies to specifically kill infectious agents in a complex environment such as the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity, and explains the current interest in exploring peptide-based therapeutic approaches in <span class="hlt">oral</span> and dental research. Here, we review the therapeutic potential of antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37, beta defensins, adrenomedullin, histatins, and of various peptides modulating gene expression and immuno-biological interaction(s) in <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases. PMID:22236124</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lucchese, Alberta; Guida, Agostino; Petruzzi, Massimo; Capone, Giovanni; Laino, Luigi; Serpico, Rosario</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56547745"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clinical recommendations for <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer screening</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Scope and purposeTo address the benefits and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer screening and the use of adjunctive screening aids to visualise and detect potentially malignant and malignant <span class="hlt">oral</span> lesions. Squamous cell carcinomas of the lips and cancers of the oropharynx (including the posterior one-third of the base of the tongue and the tonsils were excluded.MethodologyA specially convened expert panel evaluated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Derek Richards</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21531254"> <span id="translatedtitle">Can <span class="hlt">oral</span> pathogens influence allergic disease?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The hygiene hypothesis contends that fewer opportunities for infections and microbial exposures have resulted in more widespread asthma and atopic disease. Consistent with that hypothesis, decreases in infectious <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases over the past half century have coincided with increases in the prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases. This observation has led some researchers to speculate that exposures to <span class="hlt">oral</span> bacteria, including pathogens associated with periodontal diseases, such as gingivitis and periodontitis, might play a protective role in the development of asthma and allergy. Colonization of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity with bacteria, including some species of periodontal pathogens, begins shortly after birth, and the detection of serum antibodies to <span class="hlt">oral</span> pathogens in early childhood provides evidence of an early immune response to these bacteria. Current knowledge of the immune response to <span class="hlt">oral</span> bacteria and the immunologic pathogenesis of periodontal diseases suggests biologically plausible mechanisms by which <span class="hlt">oral</span> pathogens could influence the risk of allergic disease. However, studies investigating the association between <span class="hlt">oral</span> pathogen exposures and allergic disease are few in number and <span class="hlt">limited</span> by cross-sectional or case-control design, exclusion of young children, and use of surrogate measures of <span class="hlt">oral</span> bacterial colonization. Additional studies, particularly well-designed case-control studies among very young children and prospective birth cohort studies, are needed. PMID:21531254</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arbes, Samuel J; Matsui, Elizabeth C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15760584"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> antiresorptive therapy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> antiresorptive agents play a pivotal role in the management of osteoporosis. This paper discusses the effects and potential future role of newer agents such as ibandronate. Alternative dosing schedules and routes of administration have become available and may improve fracture protection, compliance, and tolerability for the long term treatment of a chronic <span class="hlt">condition</span> such as osteoporosis. Increasingly these agents are being used to reduce bone loss in other diseases associated with high risk for osteoporosis such as organ transplantation and cystic fibrosis. Such studies may act as prototypes for the extended use of this class of drugs in other chronic inflammatory disease states. The innovative, yet disappointing results from combining an antiresorptive agent (alendronate) with the anabolic effects of teriparatide is also discussed. The major problem that remains is the lack of direct comparison between the agents in terms of fracture endpoints. PMID:15760584</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pande, Ira; Hosking, David J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16036092"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> antiresorptive therapy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> antiresorptive agents play a pivotal role in the management of osteoporosis. This paper discusses the effects and potential future role of newer agents such as ibandronate. Alternative dosing schedules and routes of administration have become available and may improve fracture protection, compliance, and tolerability for the long term treatment of a chronic <span class="hlt">condition</span> such as osteoporosis. Increasingly these agents are being used to reduce bone loss in other diseases associated with high risk for osteoporosis such as organ transplantation and cystic fibrosis. Such studies may act as prototypes for the extended use of this class of drugs in other chronic inflammatory disease states. The innovative, yet disappointing results from combining an antiresorptive agent (alendronate) with the anabolic effects of teriparatide is also discussed. The major problem that remains is the lack of direct comparison between the agents in terms of fracture endpoints. PMID:16036092</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pande, Ira; Hosking, David J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3177392"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Disguised Tuberculosis in <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Buccal Mucosa</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a chronic granulomatous disease that can affect any part of the body, including the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> lesions of tuberculosis, though uncommon, are seen in both the primary and secondary stages of the disease. This article presents a case of tuberculosis of the buccal mucosa, manifesting as non-healing, non-painful ulcer. The diagnosis was confirmed based on histopathology, sputum examination and immunological investigation. The patient underwent anti-tuberculosis therapy and her <span class="hlt">oral</span> and systemic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> improved rapidly. Although <span class="hlt">oral</span> manifestations of tuberculosis are rare, clinicians should include them in the differential diagnosis of various types of <span class="hlt">oral</span> ulcers. An early diagnosis with prompt treatment can prevent complications and potential contaminations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nanda, Kanwar Deep Singh; Mehta, Anurag; Marwaha, Mohita; Kalra, Manpreet; Nanda, Jasmine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23570803"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dietary behaviors and <span class="hlt">oral</span>-systemic health in women.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The impact of dietary behaviors and food consumption and their relation to <span class="hlt">oral</span> health are significant public health issues. Women and men exhibit different dietary behaviors. Understanding the influences of dietary behaviors on <span class="hlt">oral</span> health from the perspective of gender disparities, however, is <span class="hlt">limited</span>. This article provides the intersections of dietary factors and <span class="hlt">oral</span>-systemic health for which women are at greater risk than men. Topics include the effect of dietary choices on <span class="hlt">oral</span> health disparities seen in female patients. Interventional strategies at the local and community level that are designed to influence the balance between dietary habits and <span class="hlt">oral</span>-systemic health are discussed. PMID:23570803</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Juhee; DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino; Daley, Ellen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/383667"> <span id="translatedtitle">Current <span class="hlt">limiters</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be <span class="hlt">limited</span> to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to <span class="hlt">limit</span> the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current <span class="hlt">limiters</span>, along with other design features, are used to <span class="hlt">limit</span> the current. Three types of current <span class="hlt">limiters</span>, the fuse blower, the resistor <span class="hlt">limiter</span>, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor <span class="hlt">limiters</span>, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these <span class="hlt">limiters</span>. Two other types of <span class="hlt">limiters</span> were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of <span class="hlt">limiter</span> that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this <span class="hlt">limiter</span> has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor <span class="hlt">limiter</span> is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET <span class="hlt">limiter</span> can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any <span class="hlt">limiter</span>, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3687384"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> mucositis in children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aim of the study <span class="hlt">Oral</span> mucositis is the most commonly reported side effect observed in neoplastic patients treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy of the head and neck region as well as in patients who have received a haematopoietic stem cell transplant. The aim of the study was to assess the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa status in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) during antineoplastic therapy. Material and methods The clinical examination included 78 children aged 2-18 with ALL. The clinical examination was conducted using the dental preset tray. The <span class="hlt">condition</span> of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa was determined using the WHO scale for <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis. Results In the first period of antineoplastic therapy the pathological lesions of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa of the mucositis type were observed among the examined patients. The lesions had various levels of intensity. Pain was found to be the primary symptom of <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis. In this study the following were observed: local erythema of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa in 35%, white pseudomembranous lesions in 18%, erosions in 40% and <span class="hlt">oral</span> ulcerative lesions in 4% of patients who underwent the antineoplastic therapy. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> mucositis was observed in 3.17% of children after 6 months of chemotherapy. Conclusion Local treatment of <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis with polyantibiotic-antifungal mixture, supporting antifungal systemic treatment, and improving the overall peripheral blood <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia improve the <span class="hlt">condition</span> of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22963927"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> and extra-<span class="hlt">oral</span> taste perception.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Of the five basic taste qualities, the molecular mechanisms underlying sweet, bitter, and umami (savory) taste perception have been extensively elucidated, including the taste receptors and downstream signal transduction molecules. Recent studies have revealed that these taste-related molecules play important roles not only in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity but also in a variety of tissues including the respiratory tract, stomach, intestines, pancreas, liver, kidney, testes, and brain. This review covers the current knowledge regarding the physiological roles of taste-related molecules in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> and extra-<span class="hlt">oral</span> tissues. PMID:22963927</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yamamoto, Kurumi; Ishimaru, Yoshiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35734549"> <span id="translatedtitle">Partial nitrification under <span class="hlt">limited</span> dissolved oxygen <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Partial nitrification to nitrite is technically feasible and economically favourable, especially when wastewaters contained high ammonium concentrations or low C\\/N ratios. Partial nitrification can be obtained by selectively inhibiting nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) through appropriate regulation of the pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. The effect of pH, DO levels and temperature on ammonia oxidation rate and nitrite accumulation was</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang Jianlong; Yang Ning</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3084574"> <span id="translatedtitle">Respiratory disease and the role of <span class="hlt">oral</span> bacteria</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relationship between <span class="hlt">oral</span> health and systemic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, including the association between poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene, periodontal disease, and respiratory disease, has been increasingly debated over recent decades. A considerable number of hypotheses have sought to explain the possible role of <span class="hlt">oral</span> bacteria in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases, and some clinical and epidemiological studies have found results favoring such an association. This review discusses the effect of <span class="hlt">oral</span> bacteria on respiratory disease, briefly introduces the putative biological mechanisms involved, and the main factors that could contribute to this relationship. It also describes the role of <span class="hlt">oral</span> care for individuals who are vulnerable to respiratory infections.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gomes-Filho, Isaac S.; Passos, Johelle S.; Seixas da Cruz, Simone</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5649948"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Limiter</span> study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Studies of energy deposition on a mushroom-shaped <span class="hlt">limiter</span> have been performed on ZT-40M. Total energy deposition, estimated power deposition per unit area, the effects of gas puffing and vertical and error field application, and approximate time histories of the extent of the impact area are presented for two different current levels (120 and 190 kA), protrusions into the body of the plasma (+2 - +12 mm from the wall) and <span class="hlt">limiter</span> materials. Photographs of a bare graphite and TiC-coated graphite <span class="hlt">limiter</span> before and after exposure to the plasma are shown. Massive spallation of the TiC-coated <span class="hlt">limiter</span> is observed at the higher current level. Spallation occurs during the discharge and after termination. The degree of spallation is dependent on the current level. The average power deposition on the <span class="hlt">limiter</span> over the discharge is estimated to be less than or equal to 1 MW.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Downing, J.N.; Gordon, R.A.; Thomas, K.S.; Watt, R.G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23220326"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> drug delivery systems using chemical conjugates or physical complexes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> delivery of therapeutics is extremely challenging. The digestive system is designed in a way that naturally allows the degradation of proteins or peptides into small molecules prior to absorption. For systemic absorption, the intact drug molecules must traverse the impending harsh gastrointestinal environment. Technologies, such as enteric coating, with <span class="hlt">oral</span> dosage formulation strategies have successfully provided the protection of non-peptide based therapeutics against the harsh, acidic <span class="hlt">condition</span> of the stomach. However, these technologies showed <span class="hlt">limited</span> success on the protection of therapeutic proteins and peptides. Importantly, inherent permeability coefficient of the therapeutics is still a major problem that has remained unresolved for decades. Addressing this issue in the context, we summarize the strategies that are developed in enhancing the intestinal permeability of a drug molecule either by modifying the intestinal epithelium or by modifying the drug itself. These modifications have been pursued by using a group of molecules that can be conjugated to the drug molecule to alter the cell permeability of the drug or mixed with the drug molecule to alter the epithelial barrier function, in order to achieve the effective drug permeation. This article will address the current trends and future perspectives of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> delivery strategies. PMID:23220326</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Al-Hilal, Taslim A; Alam, Farzana; Byun, Youngro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16299602"> <span id="translatedtitle">Squamous cell carcinoma of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> tissues: a comprehensive review for <span class="hlt">oral</span> healthcare providers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">North Americans in 2004 were projected to die from <span class="hlt">oral</span> and pharyngeal cancer at a rate of 1.2 per hour. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> healthcare providers can be instrumental in reducing the incidence of <span class="hlt">oral</span> and pharyngeal premalignant and malignant lesions by identifying patients with high-risk behavior, educating their patients about the consequences of their high-risk behavior, and by early detection of premalignant and malignant <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. The fact only 34% of the cancers of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity and larynx are localized at the time of diagnosis and evidence that at least one third of the patients diagnosed with an <span class="hlt">oral</span> or pharyngeal malignancy have undergone <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer screening within the past three years suggests the current protocol for the early detection of pre-malignant or malignant changes appears to be deficient. To facilitate early diagnosis, <span class="hlt">oral</span> healthcare providers must take into consideration the capriciousness of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer and must be familiar with the availability and application of diagnostic modalities beyond conventional visual inspection and palpation of <span class="hlt">oral</span> soft tissues. This article provides a comprehensive review of the disease for healthcare professionals. PMID:16299602</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bsoul, Samer A; Huber, Michaell A; Terezhalmy, Geza T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NucFu..52l3011W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observation of a new turbulence-driven <span class="hlt">limit</span>-cycle state in H-modes with lower hybrid current drive and lithium-wall <span class="hlt">conditioning</span> in the EAST superconducting tokamak</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The first high confinement H-mode plasma has been obtained in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with about 1 MW lower hybrid current drive after wall <span class="hlt">conditioning</span> by lithium evaporation and real-time injection of Li powder. Following the L-H transition, a small-amplitude, low-frequency oscillation, termed a <span class="hlt">limit</span>-cycle state, appears at the edge during the quiescent phase with good energy and particle confinement. Detailed measurements by edge Langmuir probes show modulation interaction and strong three-wave coupling between the low-frequency oscillations and high-frequency-broadband (80-500 kHz) turbulences that emerge after the L-H transition or in the inter-ELM phase. The potential fluctuations at the plasma edge are correlated with the <span class="hlt">limit</span>-cycle oscillations, and the fluctuations in the floating potential signals at different toroidal, poloidal and radial locations are strongly correlated with each other, with nearly no phase differences poloidally and toroidally, and finite phase difference radially, thus providing strong evidence for zonal flows. The growth, saturation and disappearance of the zonal flows are strongly correlated with those of the high-frequency turbulence. And the measurements demonstrate that the energy gain of zonal flows is of the same order as the energy loss of turbulence. This strongly suggests the interactions between zonal flows and high-frequency turbulences at the pedestal during the <span class="hlt">limit</span>-cycle state.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, H. Q.; Xu, G. S.; Guo, H. Y.; Wan, B. N.; Naulin, V.; Ding, S. Y.; Yan, N.; Zhang, W.; Wang, L.; Liu, S. C.; Chen, R.; Shao, L. M.; Xiong, H.; Liu, P.; Jiang, M.; Luo, G.-N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28505259"> <span id="translatedtitle">Safe administration of <span class="hlt">oral</span> BU twice daily during <span class="hlt">conditioning</span> for stem cell transplantation in a paediatric population: a comparative study between the standard 4-dose and a 2-dose regimen</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We compared outcome and toxicity in two paediatric groups undergoing SCT and treated with busulphan (BU) by the <span class="hlt">oral</span> route of administration. One group receiving the standard dose of 1 mg\\/kg q.i.d. for a total of 16 doses was compared with age- and disease-matched patients receiving 2 mg\\/kg of BU b.i.d. for a total of eight doses. Seventy-two patients from</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K Mellgren; C Nilsson; A Fasth; J Abrahamsson; J Winiarski; O Ringdén; M Hassan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3416801"> <span id="translatedtitle">Morphine Stimulates Cell Migration of <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Epithelial Cells by Delta-Opioid Receptor Activation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> mucositis is one of the most common side effects of chemoradiation regimens and manifestation can be dose-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> for the therapy, can impair the patient's nutritional <span class="hlt">condition</span> and quality of life due to severe pain. The therapeutic options are <span class="hlt">limited</span>; often only an alleviation of the symptoms such as pain reduction by using systemic opioids is possible. Stimulating opioid receptors on peripheral neurons and dermal tissue, potent analgesic effects are induced e.g. in skin grafted patients. Advantageous effects on the cell migration and, thus, on the wound healing process are described, too. In this study, we investigated whether opioid receptors are also expressed on <span class="hlt">oral</span> epithelial cells and if morphine can modulate their cell migration behavior. The expression of the opioid receptors MOR, DOR and KOR on primary human <span class="hlt">oral</span> epithelial cells was verified. Furthermore, a significantly accelerated cell migration was observed following incubation with morphine. The effect even slightly exceeded the cell migration stimulating effect of TGF-ß: After 14 h of morphine treatment about 86% of the wound area was closed, whereas TGF-ß application resulted in a closed wound area of 80%. With respect to morphine stimulated cell migration we demonstrate that DOR plays a key role and we show the involvement of the MAPK members Erk 1/2 and p38 using Western blot analysis. Further studies in more complex systems in vitro and in vivo are required. Nevertheless, these findings might open up a new therapeutic option for the treatment of <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Charbaji, Nada; Schafer-Korting, Monika; Kuchler, Sarah</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3304224"> <span id="translatedtitle">Probiotics and <span class="hlt">oral</span> health</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Probiotics utilize the naturally occurring bacteria to confer health benefits. Traditionally, probiotics have been associated with gut health, and are being mainly utilized for prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal infections and disease; however, recently, several studies have suggested the use of probiotics for <span class="hlt">oral</span> health purposes. The aim of this review is to understand the potential mechanism of action of probiotic bacteria in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity and summarize their observed effects with respect to <span class="hlt">oral</span> health.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rastogi, Pavitra; Saini, Himani; Dixit, Jaya; Singhal, Rameshwari</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/x057n382205j1646.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Delivery of Taxanes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> treatment with cytotoxic agents is tobe preferred as this administration routeis convenient to patients, reducesadministration costs and facilitates theuse of more chronic treatment regimens. Forthe taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel,however, low <span class="hlt">oral</span> bioavailability haslimited development of treatment by theoral route. Preclinical studies with mdr1aP-glycoprotein knock-out mice, which lackfunctional P-glycoprotein activity in thegut, have shown significant bioavailabilityof <span class="hlt">orally</span> administered paclitaxel.Additional studies</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mirte M. Malingré; Jos H. Beijnen; Jan H. M. Schellens</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3740676"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis in a maxillofacial trauma patient</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Myiasis is a rare disease primarily caused by the invasion of tissue by larvae of certain dipteran flies. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis is still more “rare” and “unique” owing to the fact that <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity rarely provides the necessary habitat conducive for a larval lifecycle. Common predisposing factors are poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene, halitosis, trauma, senility, learning disabilities, physically and mentally challenged <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis can lead to rapid tissue destruction and disfigurement and requires immediate treatment. Treatment consists of manual removal of maggots from the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity after application of chemical agents. Good sanitation, personal and environmental hygiene and cleanliness and special care for debilitated persons are the best methods to prevent <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis. This case report describes the presentation of <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis caused by musca nebulo (common house fly) in a 40-year-old male patient, with recent maxillofacial trauma. The patient was treated by manual removal larvae by topical application of turpentine oil, followed by surgical debridement of the wound and open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vinit, Grandim Balarama Gupta; Jayavelu, Perumal; Shrutha, Santhebachali Prakasha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12787198"> <span id="translatedtitle">Management of <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodour.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Halitosis is a common problem. Its aetiology is multifactorial, but <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodour is usually caused by microbial metabolism from the tongue, saliva or dental plaque. Mouthwashes are only effective against halitosis caused by intraoral factors. The principal causative agents of <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodour are volatile sulphide compounds (VSCs), including hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide. Data suggest that <span class="hlt">oral</span> VSC levels correlate with the depth of periodontal pockets. Trials have shown that both mechanical <span class="hlt">oral</span> care and mouthwash use can reduce halitosis levels. The majority of studies involving mouthwashes have investigated chlorhexidine and essential oil mouthwashes, although comparative studies are sparse. PMID:12787198</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Quirynen, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3084564"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> microbiota and cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain <span class="hlt">oral</span> bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, <span class="hlt">oral</span> microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several <span class="hlt">oral</span> micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> health and the prevalence of <span class="hlt">oral</span> and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in <span class="hlt">oral</span> microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control <span class="hlt">oral</span> microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meurman, Jukka H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9086681"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> malodor: philosophical and practical aspects.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor or bad breath is an unpleasant <span class="hlt">condition</span> experienced by most individuals, it typically results in transient discomfort. At least 50 per cent of the population suffer from chronic <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor, however, and approximately half of these individuals experience a severe problem that creates personal discomfort and social embarrassment. The mouth air of chronic malodor sufferers is tainted with compounds such as hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan and organic acids, which produce a stream of foul air that is gravely offensive to the people in their vicinity. Sufferers often make desperate attempts to mask their <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor with mints and chewing gum, compulsive brushing, and repeatedly rinsing with commercial mouthwashes. While dental diseases have been strongly associated with this <span class="hlt">condition</span>, there is considerable evidence that dentally healthy individuals can exhibit significant levels of mouth odor. Proteolytic activity by microorganisms residing on the tongue and teeth results in foul-smelling compounds, and is the most common cause of <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor. A specialized device called the halimeter is available to measure the volatile sulphur compounds in mouth air. Many of the manufacturers of bad breath remedies claim that their products contain antibacterial mechanisms with sufficient strength to control <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor over long periods of time. None, however, effectively eliminate the problem. Interest in <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor research and clinical treatment has increased in the last few years, and this distressing problem is finally getting the attention it deserves. PMID:9086681</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bosy, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/295483"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> aspects of osteopetrosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The characteristic feature of osteopetrosis is a lack of osteoclastic activity, leading to a series of somatic problems for afflicted persons. The life span of osteopetrotic patients has increased in recent years, thereby making <span class="hlt">oral</span> aspects of the disease more evident. Four children with malignant osteopetrosis, born between 1967 and 1975, were examined. In all patients the anterior teeth were of normal shape, and erupted on schedule. Primary molars and all permanent teeth were greatly distorted, and remained totally or partly embedded in basal bone. Vertical growth of alveolar ridge was very <span class="hlt">limited</span>. Where a fenestration of overlaying mucosa had occurred, a localized progressive osteitis developed, leading to soft tissue inflammation and, in two cases, extraoral mandibular fistulas. Peridontal attachment was very poor, spontaneous exfoliation had occurred in all patients. In two children tooth germs and necrotic bone were surgically removed. No beneficial effect of the treatment was observed. Large doses of antibiotics were needed to control recurring infections. No means of curing progressive osseous destruction of mandibular bone has been found. The general prognosis is poor. PMID:295483</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bjorvatn, K; Gilhuus-Moe, O; Aarskog, D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Amelia%22&pg=4&id=ED111047"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History Review, 1975.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|The contents of this issue of the "<span class="hlt">Oral</span> History Review" include eight articles, <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History Council reports, and lists of the sites of future <span class="hlt">oral</span> history colloquiums, of <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History Association publications in print and in microform, and of contributors. Titles of articles and authors are as follows: "<span class="hlt">Oral</span> History Comes of Age" by Samuel…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hand, Samuel B., Ed.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7722062"> <span id="translatedtitle">Specific and charge interactions mediate collagen recognition by <span class="hlt">oral</span> lactobacilli.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mechanisms by which <span class="hlt">oral</span> lactobacilli, one of the three major genera of cariogenic bacteria, attach to tooth surfaces are unknown. We hypothesize that recognition of collagen, the major component of dentin, may be a mechanism which localizes these bacteria to exposed root surfaces as well as to carious lesions which have penetrated the dentin. We found that the majority of <span class="hlt">oral</span> Lactobacillus spp. strains recognize and bind collagen type I. Binding of 125I-labeled collagen type I to two strains of L. casei rhamnosus has been characterized in some detail. These strains were previously characterized with respect to their attachment to dentin (Switalski and Butcher, 1994). The process of 125I-collagen binding was mediated via specific as well as charge interactions. The putative adhesin-mediated (specific) interaction involved a <span class="hlt">limited</span> number of bacterial surface components (2 x 10(3)/cell). Under <span class="hlt">conditions</span> conducive for non-specific interactions (low ionic strength), the binding was higher by an order of magnitude. Collagen binding strains were found to adhere to collagen-coated surfaces, while strains unable to bind collagen adhered to a much lesser extent. Adherence of bacteria to collagen-coated surfaces could be competitively inhibited with collagen. These interactions may target collagen-binding strains of lactobacilli to dentin collagen in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity and thus play a role in the pathogenesis of root surface and/or coronal caries. Interference with this collagen-mediated attachment of lactobacilli may provide effective means of caries control, particularly in view of the fact that other <span class="hlt">oral</span> acidogenic microbiota also interact with collagen. PMID:7722062</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McGrady, J A; Butcher, W G; Beighton, D; Switalski, L M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://intl-content.nejm.org/cgi/reprint/354/16/1698.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Ondansetron for Gastroenteritis in a Pediatric Emergency Department</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Vomiting <span class="hlt">limits</span> the success of <span class="hlt">oral</span> rehydration in children with gastroenteritis. We conducted a double-blind trial to determine whether a single <span class="hlt">oral</span> dose of ondanse- tron, an antiemetic, would improve outcomes in children with gastroenteritis. Methods We enrolled 215 children 6 months through 10 years of age who were treated in a pediatric emergency department for gastroenteritis and dehydration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stephen B. Freedman; Mark Adler; Roopa Seshadri; Elizabeth C. Powell; J. Milburn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=athletes+AND+as+AND+role+AND+models&pg=5&id=ED291101"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contemporary Heroes as Role Models for <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Language Development.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|<span class="hlt">Oral</span> language has primacy both developmentally and by virtue of use for most individuals in our society; however, the development of <span class="hlt">oral</span> language for many children is left to chance. Although English education journals have resounded with exhortations to teachers about the importance of encouraging children to talk, the recent <span class="hlt">limited</span> research…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davis, Diana F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3808113"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preferred place of death for children and young people with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> and life-threatening <span class="hlt">conditions</span>: A systematic review of the literature and recommendations for future inquiry and policy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Home is often cited as preferred place of death in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. This position, however, usually relies on data concerning adults and not evidence about children. The latter data are scant, primarily retrospective and from parents. Aim: To review the literature on preference for place of death for children and young people with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> or life-threatening illnesses. Design and data sources: The databases MEDLINE, CINAHL and EMBASE were searched from 2004 to 2012, as well as bibliography, key author and grey literature searches. Policy documents, empirical, theoretical and peer-reviewed studies and conference abstracts were included. Articles were assessed for study quality. Results: Nine studies were included from five countries. Six reported a majority of parents (only one study interviewed adolescents) expressing preference for death at home. Other studies differed significantly in their findings; one reporting 35.1% and another 0% preferring death at home. Some parents did not express a preference. Six of the studies included only parents of children who died from cancer while being treated at tertiary centres that offered palliative care services. Such results cannot be generalised to the population of all life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> and life-threatening illnesses. Furthermore, the methods of the studies reviewed failed to accommodate the full range and dynamic character of preference. Conclusion: The evidence base for current policies that stress the need to increase home death rates for children and young people with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> and life-threatening <span class="hlt">conditions</span> is inadequate. Further rigorous research should collect data from parents, children and siblings.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beecham, Emma; Candy, Bridget; Langner, Richard; Jones, Louise</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29690653"> <span id="translatedtitle">Survival of <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Bacteria</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The global distribution of individual species of <span class="hlt">oral</span> bacteria demonstrates their ability to survive among their human hosts. Such an ubiquitous existence is the result of efficient transmission of strains and their persistence in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> environment. Genetic analysis has identified specific clones of pathogenic bacteria causing infection. Presumably, these express virulence-associated characteristics enhancing colonization and survival in their hosts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. H. W. Bowden; I. R. Hamilton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32659111"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tobacco and <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Diseases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is well known that smoking contributes to the development of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease, and there is weighty evidence that it has a considerable influence on <span class="hlt">oral</span> health. Smoking has many negative effects on the mouth, including staining of teeth and dental restorations, reduction of the ability to smell and taste, and the development of <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases such</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jesper Reibel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19395461"> <span id="translatedtitle">Renal <span class="hlt">limited</span> Wegener's granulomatosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Differential diagnosis in patients presenting with fever of unknown origin (FUO) is often difficult because infectious diseases, neoplasms, infective endocarditis or systemic autoimmune diseases may all be responsible for the <span class="hlt">condition</span>. Furthermore, vasculitis may generate typical, atypical or <span class="hlt">limited</span> syndromes depending on the extent of vascular involvement. Here, we report the case of a 73-year-old man with FUO and renal failure due to a rare variant of Wegener's granulomatosis, <span class="hlt">limited</span> to the kidneys. PMID:19395461</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Del Porto, F; Proietta, M; Stoppacciaro, A; Trappolini, M; Menè, P; Aliberti, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.skinsight.com/child/oralCandidiasisThrush.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thrush (<span class="hlt">Oral</span> Candidiasis) in Children</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... A A A In <span class="hlt">oral</span> candidiasis, normal mouth yeast overgrows, causing white, slightly elevated lesions. Overview Thrush ( ... candidiasis), also known as <span class="hlt">oral</span> moniliasis, is a yeast infection of the mouth or throat (the <span class="hlt">oral</span> ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1008619"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the Heat Stress and Establishing the <span class="hlt">Limits</span> for Work in a Hot Mine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The management of the mine at Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia decided to enquire into the following questions with regard to men working underground in hot <span class="hlt">conditions</span>: (a) Which of the various heat stress indices predicts most accurately the effects on workmen of the various heat stress factors which occur in the mine at Mount Isa? (b) How best should the <span class="hlt">limits</span> of heat stress be judged at which the normal 8-hour shift should be reduced to a 6-hour shift, or at which work should be stopped? With these objects in mind, <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperatures were measured on 86 workmen after three hours of ordinary work in the mine and also on 36 occasions on 29 volunteers after three hours of stepping on and off a stool at a work rate of 1,560 ft. lb./min. These men were studied in different environmental heat stresses over the range that occurs in the mine. Dry bulb air temperatures (D.B.), wet bulb temperatures (W.B.), velocity of air movements, and globe temperatures (G.T.) were measured in the micro-climate in which each man worked. An estimate was made of the work rate of the 86 workmen. From these estimates and measurements, the predicted 4-hourly sweat rate (P4SR) and corrected effective temperature (C.E.T.) values were determined for each heat stress <span class="hlt">condition</span>. P4SR values varied between 0·9 and 6·5 and C.E.T. between 70° and 95°F. Correlation coefficients were calculated between <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperatures and W.B.s, C.E.T.s, and P4SRs and are 0·51, 0·64, and 0·75 respectively. Further analysis was confined to C.E.T. and P4SR. Plots of <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature on P4SR for <span class="hlt">conditions</span> where G.T. was more than 10°F. above D.B. were found to fall well below the rest of the plots, indicating that P4SR exaggerates the effect of mean radiant temperature. These data were therefore excluded from the rest of the analysis. Regression equations were calculated for <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature on P4SR and for <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature on C.E.T. for (a) men `on the job', for (i) <span class="hlt">conditions</span> where D.B. was more than 10°F. above W.B. and (ii) for <span class="hlt">conditions</span> where D.B. was less than 10°F. above W.B., and (b) for men `stepping'. This analysis showed that one overall regression line can be used for all three <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature on P4SR, but for <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature on C.E.T. at least two different regression lines would be needed. Also the correlation coefficients between <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature and P4SR were generally higher than between <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature and C.E.T. For the prediction of <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature in the mine at Mount Isa the P4SR index is to be preferred to the C.E.T. scale. These results indicate that the emphasis given to G.T. in the P4SR index is too great. A multi-variance analysis of the P4SR index shows that, in the middle of the range of heat stress <span class="hlt">conditions</span> examined, a unit change in P4SR would be obtained by about the same change in W.B. and G.T. This is at variance with the present results and also with the experimental findings of the M.R.C. Climatic Physiology Unit at Singapore. It appears, therefore, that the P4SR index should be revised in this regard. When it came to setting <span class="hlt">limits</span> of heat stress for a 6-hour shift and for `stop-work', it was decided to base the <span class="hlt">limit</span> for the 6-hour shift on a 1:100 probability of men reaching an <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature of 100·5°F. (rectal temperature of 101·5°F.) and to base the `stop work' <span class="hlt">limit</span> on a 1:2,000 probability of reaching an <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature of 101·5°F. (rectal temperature of 102·5°F.). The reasons for this choice of physiological criteria are given in full in the paper. P4SR values at which these <span class="hlt">limits</span> are reached were determined by calculating 1:100 and 1:2,000 probability belts to the overall regression line of <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature on P4SR. The P4SR value at the intersection of the 1:100 probability <span class="hlt">limit</span> and the <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature of 100·5°F. is 3·8 and the P4SR value at the intersection of the 1:2,000 probability <span class="hlt">limit</span> and the <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature of 101·5°F. is 5·0. These then are the <span class="hlt">limits</span> of heat stress in th</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wyndham, C. H.; Allan, A. McD.; Bredell, G. A. G.; Andrew, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1967-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21749875"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">oral</span> ulceration associated with Morgellons disease: a case report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Morgellons disease is a psycho-dermatologic <span class="hlt">condition</span> in which patients report fibers or filaments "growing" out of their skin. This case report highlights an <span class="hlt">oral</span> ulceration in a young woman associated with Morgellons disease, a <span class="hlt">condition</span> that has not been previously described in the dental literature. An increasing number of individuals are self-reporting this <span class="hlt">condition</span> and <span class="hlt">oral</span> health care providers must be familiar with this disorder. PMID:21749875</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grosskopf, Courtney; Desai, Bhavik; Stoopler, Eric T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/g504786356714083.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dentition, <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene, and risk of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer: a case-control study in Beijing, People's Republic of China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A case-control study of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer was conducted in Beijing, People's Republic of China. The study was hospitalbased and controls were hospital in-patients matched to the cases by age and gender. A total of 404 case\\/control pairs were interviewed. This paper provides data regarding <span class="hlt">oral</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> as risk factors for <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer, with every patient having an intact mouth examined</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tongzhang Zheng; Peter Boyle; Huanfang Hu; Jun Duan; Peijue Jiang; Daquan Ma; Liangpeng Shui; Shiru Niu; Crispian Scully; Brian MacMahon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=avocado&id=ED221332"> <span id="translatedtitle">Literatura <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Hispanica (Hispanic <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Literature).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|As part of a class in Hispanic <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17 "chistes" (jokes), 1…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McAlpine, Dave</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23966202"> <span id="translatedtitle">Examining the Association between <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health and <span class="hlt">Oral</span> HPV Infection.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health in <span class="hlt">oral</span> HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between <span class="hlt">oral</span> health and <span class="hlt">oral</span> HPV infection and the interactive effects of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health, smoking, and <span class="hlt">oral</span> sex on <span class="hlt">oral</span> HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on <span class="hlt">oral</span> HPV and <span class="hlt">oral</span> health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of <span class="hlt">oral</span> HPV infection was associated with four measures of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health, including self-rated <span class="hlt">oral</span> health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, <span class="hlt">oral</span> HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall <span class="hlt">oral</span> health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and <span class="hlt">oral</span> sex. In conclusion, poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> health was an independent risk factor of <span class="hlt">oral</span> HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and <span class="hlt">oral</span> sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene and <span class="hlt">oral</span> health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancers. Cancer Prev Res; 6(9); 917-24. ©2013 AACR. PMID:23966202</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49180355"> <span id="translatedtitle">A review of the prospects for polymeric nanoparticle platforms in <span class="hlt">oral</span> insulin delivery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Success in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> delivery of therapeutic insulin can significantly improve the quality of life of diabetic patients who must routinely receive injections of this drug. However, <span class="hlt">oral</span> absorption of insulin is <span class="hlt">limited</span> by various physiological barriers and remains a major scientific challenge. Various technological solutions have been developed to increase the <span class="hlt">oral</span> bioavailability of insulin. Having received considerable attention,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mei-Chin Chen; Kiran Sonaje; Ko-Jie Chen; Hsing-Wen Sung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ914022.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Methodology in Seeking Stakeholder Perceptions of Effective Technical <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Presentations: An Exploratory Pilot Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Engineering communication studies indicate the importance of <span class="hlt">oral</span> presentations as an indispensable component of workplace <span class="hlt">oral</span> communication activities; however, since there is <span class="hlt">limited</span> literature regarding stakeholder perceptions of effective presentation skills and attributes in technical <span class="hlt">oral</span> presentations or final year engineering project…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bhattacharyya, Ena; Patil, Arun; Sargunan, Rajeswary Appacutty</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28399700"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prophylaxis and treatment of chemo- and radiotherapy-induced <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis – are there new strategies?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> mucositis is a major dose-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> toxic effect of intensive cancer chemotherapy. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> complications may lead to dose reduction or delay in further cancer treatment. Mucositis can be caused directly by cytotoxic effects and indirectly by sustained neutropenia after cytostatic therapy. An impaired mucosal barrier predisposes to life-threatening septic complications during aplasia. The prevalence of an <span class="hlt">oral</span> focus in febrile</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M Karthaus; C Rosenthal; A Ganser</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23244438"> <span id="translatedtitle">Increasing <span class="hlt">oral</span> absorption of polar neuraminidase inhibitors: a prodrug transporter approach applied to oseltamivir analogue.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> absorption is one of the <span class="hlt">limiting</span> factors in utilizing the full potential of polar antiviral agents. The neuraminidase target site requires a polar chemical structure for high affinity binding, thus <span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">oral</span> efficacy of many high affinity ligands. The aim of this study was to overcome this poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> absorption barrier, utilizing prodrug to target the apical brush border peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1). Guanidine oseltamivir carboxylate (GOCarb) is a highly active polar antiviral agent with insufficient <span class="hlt">oral</span> bioavailability (4%) to be an effective therapeutic agent. In this report we utilize a carrier-mediated targeted prodrug approach to improve the <span class="hlt">oral</span> absorption of GOCarb. Acyloxy(alkyl) ester based amino acid linked prodrugs were synthesized and evaluated as potential substrates of mucosal transporters, e.g., PEPT1. Prodrugs were also evaluated for their chemical and enzymatic stability. PEPT1 transport studies included [(3)H]Gly-Sar uptake inhibition in Caco-2 cells and cellular uptake experiments using HeLa cells overexpressing PEPT1. The intestinal membrane permeabilities of the selected prodrugs and the parent drug were then evaluated for epithelial cell transport across Caco-2 monolayers, and in the in situ rat intestinal jejunal perfusion model. Prodrugs exhibited a pH dependent stability with higher stability at acidic pHs. Significant inhibition of uptake (IC(50) <1 mM) was observed for l-valyl and l-isoleucyl amino acid prodrugs in competition experiments with [(3)H]Gly-Sar, indicating a 3-6 times higher affinity for PEPT1 compared to valacyclovir, a well-known PEPT1 substrate and >30-fold increase in affinity compared to GOCarb. The l-valyl prodrug exhibited significant enhancement of uptake in PEPT1/HeLa cells and compared favorably with the well-absorbed valacyclovir. Transepithelial permeability across Caco-2 monolayers showed that these amino acid prodrugs have a 2-5-fold increase in permeability as compared to the parent drug and showed that the l-valyl prodrug (P(app) = 1.7 × 10(-6) cm/s) has the potential to be rapidly transported across the epithelial cell apical membrane. Significantly, only the parent drug (GOCarb) appeared in the basolateral compartment, indicating complete activation (hydrolysis) during transport. Intestinal rat jejunal permeability studies showed that l-valyl and l-isoleucyl prodrugs are highly permeable compared to the <span class="hlt">orally</span> well absorbed metoprolol, while the parent drug had essentially zero permeability in the jejunum, consistent with its known poor low absorption. Prodrugs were rapidly converted to parent in cell homogenates, suggesting their ability to be activated endogenously in the epithelial cell, consistent with the transport studies. Additionally, l-valyl prodrug was found to be a substrate for valacyclovirase (K(m) = 2.37 mM), suggesting a potential cell activation mechanism. Finally we determined the <span class="hlt">oral</span> bioavailability of our most promising candidate, GOC-l-Val, in mice to be 23% under fed <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and 48% under fasted <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. In conclusion, GOC-l-Val prodrug was found to be a very promising antiviral agent for <span class="hlt">oral</span> delivery. These findings indicate that the carrier-mediated prodrug approach is an excellent strategy for improving <span class="hlt">oral</span> absorption of polar neuraminidase inhibitors. These promising results demonstrate that the <span class="hlt">oral</span> peptide transporter-mediated prodrug strategy has enormous promise for improving the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosal cell membrane permeability of polar, poorly absorbed antiviral agents and treating influenza via the <span class="hlt">oral</span> route of administration. PMID:23244438</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gupta, Deepak; Varghese Gupta, Sheeba; Dahan, Arik; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Hilfinger, John; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=oral+AND+health&pg=2&id=EJ904007"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vision and <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Needs of Individuals with Intellectual Disability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over the past 20 years, there has been an increased emphasis on health promotion, including prevention activities related to vision and <span class="hlt">oral</span> health, for the general population, but not for individuals with intellectual disability (ID). This review explores what is known about the prevalence of vision problems and <span class="hlt">oral</span> health <span class="hlt">conditions</span> among…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Owens, Pamela L.; Kerker, Bonnie D.; Zigler, Edward; Horwitz, Sarah M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28857746"> <span id="translatedtitle">Smoking, the <span class="hlt">oral</span> contraceptive pill, and Crohn's disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Both cigarette smoking and the <span class="hlt">oral</span> contraceptive pill have been implicated as aggravating factors in Crohn's disease. Based upon the recent demonstration of multifocal gastrointestinal infarction in Crohn's disease, a possible pathogenic mechanism for this <span class="hlt">condition</span>, we propose how smoking and the <span class="hlt">oral</span> contraceptive pill may potentiate a tendency for focal thrombosis and hence exacerbate the activity of Crohn's disease.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. J. Wakefield; A. M. Sawyerr; M. Hudson; A. P. Dhillon; R. E. Pounder</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.hkam.org.hk/publications/hkmj/article_pdfs/hkm0412p414.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The aetiology and treatment of <span class="hlt">oral</span> halitosis: an update</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Halitosis refers to the <span class="hlt">condition</span> of offensive mouth odour. More than 90% of cases of halitosis originate from the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. The implicated bacteria (Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, and Tannerella forsythensis) are located in stagnant areas in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity, such as the dorsal surface of tongue, periodontal pockets, and interproximal areas. These bacteria proteolyse the amino acids releasing volatile</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">PPC Lee; WY Mak; P Newsome</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9195622"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> mucosal melanomas: the WESTOP Banff workshop proceedings. Western Society of Teachers of <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Pathology.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A workshop to discuss primary <span class="hlt">oral</span> melanomas was convened at the annual Western Society of Teachers of <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Pathology meeting in Bannf, Alberta, Canada. Fifty <span class="hlt">oral</span> melanomas, identified from the files of the participants, were reviewed in order to better understand the clinical features, histologic spectrum, and natural history of these perplexing lesions. Results confirmed that <span class="hlt">oral</span> melanomas occur in adults almost three times more frequently in men than women and have a decided predilection for the palate and gingiva. Some lesions exhibit a clinically detectable and prolonged in situ growth phase, whereas others seem to lack this property and exhibit only or predominantly invasive characteristics. Recurrences, metastases, and death from tumor were characteristic of the follow-up of a <span class="hlt">limited</span> number of patients. Until definitive prospective data are collected that elucidate natural history, <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosal melanomas should be tracked separately from cutaneous lesions. All <span class="hlt">oral</span> pigmented lesions that are not clinically diagnostic should be biopsied. Lesions with equivocal histopathologic features might be referred to as "atypical melanocytic proliferation" and should be excised. Recognition of lesions in an early in situ phase and aggressive treatment should have a favorable effect on prognosis. To enhance future or prospective study of these rare neoplasms, guidelines for reporting <span class="hlt">oral</span> melanomas are suggested. PMID:9195622</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barker, B F; Carpenter, W M; Daniels, T E; Kahn, M A; Leider, A S; Lozada-Nur, F; Lynch, D P; Melrose, R; Merrell, P; Morton, T; Peters, E; Regezi, J A; Richards, S D; Rick, G M; Rohrer, M D; Slater, L; Stewart, J C; Tomich, C E; Vickers, R A; Wood, N K; Young, S K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22672182"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Kaposi sarcoma (KS), an AIDS defining <span class="hlt">condition</span>, remains one of the most commonly HIV-associated neoplasms. While the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has brought about a dramatic decrease in the prevalence and incidence of AIDS-KS worldwide, this has not been the case in resource-poor sub-Saharan African countries, where HIV has reached epidemic proportions and human herpesvirus-8 infection is endemic. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> involvement is a common manifestation of AIDS-associated KS and may be an early presenting finding of HIV infection. The clinical manifestation of <span class="hlt">oral</span> KS can vary and may have an unpredictable course ranging from mild to fulminant. Rapidly progressive facial lymphoedema associated with extensive advanced <span class="hlt">oral</span> KS portends a poor prognosis. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> KS may regress with antiretroviral therapy or may flare up as part of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. The <span class="hlt">oral</span> lesions of AIDS-KS are best managed with HAART together with systemic chemotherapy. This article provides a review of contemporary knowledge of the biology, pathology, clinical features and management of <span class="hlt">oral</span> AIDS-KS. PMID:22672182</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pantanowitz, L; Khammissa, R A G; Lemmer, J; Feller, L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16858138"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> malodor associated with internal resorption.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report a case of <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor associated with internal resorption. A 39-year-old male attended our hospital complaining of <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor. Utilizing organoleptic measurement, the halimeter test and gas chromatography, it was diagnosed as a strong halitosis caused by <span class="hlt">oral</span> origin. The pocket probing depth of tooth 21 was 10 mm, and X-ray examination revealed a vertical bone loss around this tooth. The patient had received periodontal treatment at two dental offices previously, but the periodontal <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor persisted. We performed an initial periodontal preparation, however a deep pocket remained. We therefore performed a surgical inspection including flap reflection, and found that the tooth had a large perforating defect in the distal surface. The extracted tooth had multiple perforating defects covered with granulation tissues on all root surfaces including the root apex. Taking into consideration the anamnesis and X-ray examination of the extracted tooth, internal absorption was considered to have been the cause of the multiple perforating defects. After extraction of the causative tooth, <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor dramatically decreased. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor associated with internal resorption. PMID:16858138</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoneda, Masahiro; Naito, Toru; Suzuki, Nao; Yoshikane, Toru; Hirofuji, Takao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3246241"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">oral</span> metagenome in health and disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity of humans is inhabited by hundreds of bacterial species and some of them have a key role in the development of <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases, mainly dental caries and periodontitis. We describe for the first time the metagenome of the human <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity under health and diseased <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, with a focus on supragingival dental plaque and cavities. Direct pyrosequencing of eight samples with different <span class="hlt">oral</span>-health status produced 1?Gbp of sequence without the biases imposed by PCR or cloning. These data show that cavities are not dominated by Streptococcus mutans (the species originally identified as the ethiological agent of dental caries) but are in fact a complex community formed by tens of bacterial species, in agreement with the view that caries is a polymicrobial disease. The analysis of the reads indicated that the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity is functionally a different environment from the gut, with many functional categories enriched in one of the two environments and depleted in the other. Individuals who had never suffered from dental caries showed an over-representation of several functional categories, like genes for antimicrobial peptides and quorum sensing. In addition, they did not have mutans streptococci but displayed high recruitment of other species. Several isolates belonging to these dominant bacteria in healthy individuals were cultured and shown to inhibit the growth of cariogenic bacteria, suggesting the use of these commensal bacterial strains as probiotics to promote <span class="hlt">oral</span> health and prevent dental caries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Belda-Ferre, Pedro; Alcaraz, Luis David; Cabrera-Rubio, Raul; Romero, Hector; Simon-Soro, Aurea; Pignatelli, Miguel; Mira, Alex</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23179955"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis: case report and review of literature.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">INTRODUCTION: The term myiasis is applied to the injurious action that larvae of certain Diptera cause in vertebrate animals by growing in living or dead tissue. Because of its great destructive potential, appropriate and preventive treatment is necessary. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis is a rare pathology in humans and is associated with poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene, alcoholism, senility, suppurating lesion, severe halitosis, and other <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. METHOD: We have presented a case of <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis in a mentally challenged patient. RESULTS: Reviewing the literature revealed that most of the cases involved the anterior part of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity of male patients living in developing or underdeveloped countries and also that predisposing factors invariably accompanied infestation. PMID:23179955</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kumar, Pramod; Singh, Virendra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://patft1.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-adv.htm&r=1&p=1&f=G&l=50&d=PTXT&S1=%22high+temperature+superconduct%22&OS=%22high+temperature+superconduct%22&RS=%22high+temperature+superconduct%22"> <span id="translatedtitle">Current <span class="hlt">limiting</span> device</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://patft.uspto.gov/netahtml/PTO/search-adv.htm">US Patent & Trademark Office Database</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An electrical current <span class="hlt">limiting</span> device comprises an electrical superconductor for attachment in an electrical circuit. The superconductor achieves a superconducting <span class="hlt">condition</span> at relatively high temperatures. A cooling system includes a motor for flowing a cooled gas past the superconductor so that heat can be removed from the superconductor by a heat transfer process with the cooled gas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-05-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11930907"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> mucosa: variations from normalcy, part II.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This is the second article in a 2-part series on the variations of <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa. We describe the following 5 <span class="hlt">conditions</span> that deviate from normalcy: lateral soft palate fistulas, double lip, fissured tongue, racial gingival pigmentation, and geographic tongue. PMID:11930907</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leston, J M Seoane; Santos, A Aguado; Varela-Centelles, P I; Garcia, Juan Vazquez; Romero, M A; Villamor, L Pias</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21217792"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Streptococcus mutans and <span class="hlt">oral</span> streptococci in dental plaque].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The human <span class="hlt">oral</span> microbial biota represents a highly diverse biofilm. Twenty-five species of <span class="hlt">oral</span> streptococci inhabit the human <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity and represent about 20 % of the total <span class="hlt">oral</span> bacteria. Taxonomy of these bacteria is complex and remains provisional. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> streptococci encompass friends and foes bacteria. Each species has developed specific properties for colonizing the different <span class="hlt">oral</span> sites subjected to constantly changing <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, for competing against competitors, and for resisting external agressions (host immune system, physico-chemical shocks, and mechanical frictions). Imbalance in the indigenous microbial biota generates <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases, and under proper <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, commensal streptococci can switch to opportunistic pathogens that initiate disease in and damage to the host. The group of "mutans streptococci" was described as the most important bacteria related to the formation of dental caries. Streptococcus mutans, although naturally present among the human <span class="hlt">oral</span> microbiota, is the microbial species most strongly associated with carious lesions. This minireview describes the <span class="hlt">oral</span> streptococci ecology and their biofilm life style by focusing on the mutans group, mainly S. mutans. Virulence traits, interactions in the biofilm, and influence of S. mutans in dental caries etiology are discussed. PMID:21217792</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nicolas, Guillaume G; Lavoie, Marc C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a606021.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nicotine <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Inhalation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... <span class="hlt">oral</span> inhalation should be used together with a smoking cessation program, which may include support groups, counseling, or ... inhalation is in a class of medications called smoking cessation aids. It works by providing nicotine to your ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=383509"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dehydration and <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Rehydration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... INCLUDE <span class="hlt">Oral</span> rehydration fluids. These are also called electrolyte solutions. These fluids are made for situations when ... diarrhea. These fluids provide water as well as electrolytes (like salt), which the body loses during vomiting ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://journal.oraltradition.org/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Tradition Journal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stretching back thousands of years, the <span class="hlt">oral</span> traditions that have enriched and documented human existence remain a subject of much fascination. The <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Tradition Journal was founded in 1986 in order to "serve as an international and interdisciplinary forum for discussion of worldwide <span class="hlt">oral</span> traditions and related forms." The journal is based at the University of Missouri, and visitors to the site can search the entire run of the journal on this site by keyword or author. Clicking over to the "Browse the Journal" area, visitors can look over back issues that include special issues on the Serbo-Croatian <span class="hlt">oral</span> tradition, performance literature, and the performance artistry of Bob Dylan. The site is a real treat for anyone interested in the subject, and visitors can also learn how to submit their own work for possible inclusion in a forthcoming volume.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/nu0r155043x4m2g5.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Must early postoperative <span class="hlt">oral</span> intake be <span class="hlt">limited</span> to laparoscopy?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">PURPOSE: This prospective, randomized study was designed to evaluate whether or not early postoperative feeding (claimed as a unique benefit of laparoscopic surgery) is possible after laparotomy and colorectal resection. METHODS: The trial was performed between July 1, 1992 and October 31, 1992 and included all 64 consecutive patients who underwent laparotomy with either a colonic or an ileal resection.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sander R. Binderow; Stephen M. Cohen; Steven D. Wexner; Juan J. Nogueras</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/556652"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiation <span class="hlt">limits</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently several changes were made to the regulations governing the <span class="hlt">limits</span> of allowable exposure to radiation for industrial radiographers and nuclear power plant workers. Even though these regulations effect people who have been trained and educated about radiation`s dangers, changes still bring up many common questions that may not be readily answered by the regulations themselves. This paper will attempt to answer some of the more common and relevant questions that are being asked in industry. Who is involved in setting the regulations and standards? (Who are ``They?``) What are the differences between the old and the new regulations? Why did the regulations change? How do ``They`` know what is safe? Have these standards been changed before? Will there be future changes?</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hassard, M. [Salt Lake Community Coll., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22994253"> <span id="translatedtitle">Innovative primary care training: the Cambridge Health Alliance <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Physician Program.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We evaluated the <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Physician Program, a dental residency sponsored by Harvard Medical School, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, and the Cambridge Health Alliance that offers an innovative model for training dentists to provide <span class="hlt">limited</span> primary care. The didactic and clinical experiences increased residents' medical knowledge and interviewing skills, and faculty assessments supported their role as <span class="hlt">oral</span> physicians. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> physicians could increase patients'-especially patients from underserved groups-access to integrated <span class="hlt">oral</span> and primary care services. PMID:22994253</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Giddon, Donald B; Seymour, Brittany Anne; Swann, Brian; Anderson, Nina K; Jayaratne, Yasas S N; Outlaw, Jason; Kalenderian, Elsbeth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2633938"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mild <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> for Pd-Catalyzed Carboamination of N-Protected Hex-4-enylamines and 1-, 3-, and 4-Substituted Pent-4-enylamines. Scope, <span class="hlt">Limitations</span>, and Mechanism of Pyrrolidine Formation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of the weak base Cs2CO3 in Pd-catalyzed carboamination reactions of N-protected ?aminoalkenes with aryl bromides leads to greatly increased tolerance of functional groups and alkene substitution. Substrates derived from (E)- or (Z)-hex-4-enylamines are stereospecifically converted to 2,1?-disubstituted pyrrolidine products that result from suprafacial addition of the nitrogen atom and the aryl group across the alkene. Transformations of 4-substituted pent-4-enylamine derivatives proceed in high yield to afford 2,2-disubstituted products, and cis-2,5- or trans-2,3-disubstituted pyrrolidines are generated in good yield with excellent diastereoselectivity from N-protected pent-4-enylamines bearing substituents at C1 or C3. The reactions tolerate a broad array of functional groups, including esters, nitro groups, and enolizable ketones. The scope and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> of these transformations are described in detail, along with models that account for the observed product stereochemistry. In addition, deuterium labeling experiments, which indicate these reactions proceed via syn-aminopalladation of intermediate palladium(aryl)(amido)complexes regardless of degree of alkene substitution or reaction <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, are also discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bertrand, Myra Beaudoin; Neukom, Joshua D.; Wolfe, John P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21817279"> <span id="translatedtitle">Percolation <span class="hlt">limit</span> and stability <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for the spin glass state in the spinel families based on the two matrices CuCr(2)S(4) and CuCr(2)Se(4) doped by Sb ions.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The percolation <span class="hlt">limit</span> of the appearance of the spin glass state in the compounds under study has been obtained experimentally. The <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of stability of the spin glass state have been analyzed here on the basis of the de Almeida-Thouless theory for two spinels differing in the magnetic coupling constants. It turned out that for the higher value of the coupling constant the magnetic field influences the freezing temperature more strongly. Moreover, the greater the coupling constant the broader the range of the possible values of freezing temperatures, in other words the greater the temperature range of the appearance of the spin glass states. It was proved that for the stability of the spin glass state the existence of a small magnetic field is necessary. In our case the value of this field is equal to 3.46 × 10(-23)T(G). For the compounds under study the value of the magnetic coupling constant J cannot exceed 130 K for the spin glass state to appear. PMID:21817279</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krok-Kowalski, J; Warczewski, J; Gusin, P; Sliwi?ska, T; Gro?, T; Urban, G; Rduch, P; W?adarz, G; Duda, H; Malicka, E; Pacyna, A; Koroleva, L I</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3460240"> <span id="translatedtitle">A rapid method for the differentiation of yeast cells grown under carbon and nitrogen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> by means of partial least squares discriminant analysis employing infrared micro-spectroscopic data of entire yeast cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper shows the ease of application and usefulness of mid-IR measurements for the investigation of orthogonal cell states on the example of the analysis of Pichia pastoris cells. A rapid method for the discrimination of entire yeast cells grown under carbon and nitrogen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> based on the direct acquisition of mid-IR spectra and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) is described. The obtained PLS-DA model was extensively validated employing two different validation strategies: (i) statistical validation employing a method based on permutation testing and (ii) external validation splitting the available data into two independent sub-sets. The Variable Importance in Projection scores of the PLS-DA model provided deeper insight into the differences between the two investigated states. Hence, we demonstrate the feasibility of a method which uses IR spectra from intact cells that may be employed in a second step as an in-line tool in process development and process control along Quality by Design principles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kuligowski, Julia; Quintas, Guillermo; Herwig, Christoph; Lendl, Bernhard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3753101"> <span id="translatedtitle">Personality and <span class="hlt">oral</span> health</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated age-26 personality characteristics and age-32 <span class="hlt">oral</span> health in a prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand. Personality was measured using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). <span class="hlt">Oral</span> health was measured using the short-form <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), a global measure, and dental examinations. Personality profiles were constructed for 916 individuals (50.8% men) using standardized MPQ scores, and multivariate analyses examined their association with <span class="hlt">oral</span> health. Those reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts had higher Negative Emotionality scores (and lower Constraint and Positive Emotionality MPQ superfactor scores) than those who did not. After controlling for gender, clinical status, and the other two MPQ superfactors, those scoring higher on Negative Emotionality had a greater risk of reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts, as well as 3+ OHIP-14 impacts and worse-than-average <span class="hlt">oral</span> health. They also had a greater risk of having lost at least one tooth from caries and of having 3+ decayed surfaces. Personality characteristics appear to shape self-reports of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health. Personality is also a risk factor for clinical disease status, at least with respect to dental caries and its sequelae. Because the attitudes and values tapped into by personality tests can be altered by brief cognitive interventions, those might be useful in preventive dentistry.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Broadbent, Jonathan M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3760352"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> splint for temporomandibular joint disorders with revolutionary fluid system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) diseases and disorders refer to a complex and poorly understood set of <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, manifested by pain in the area of the jaw and associated muscles and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> in the ability to make the normal movements of speech, facial expression, eating, chewing, and swallowing. The conventional soft occlusal splint therapy is a much safer and effective mode of a conservative line of therapy in comparison to the surgical therapy for temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). The purpose of this article is to review the Aqualizer™, an hydrostatic <span class="hlt">oral</span> splint, as accurate, effective treatment and differential diagnostic tool in TMD that allow treating the patient's pain quickly and accurately saving valuable treatment time. The review article has been prepared doing a literature review from the world-wide web and pubmed/medline.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Srivastava, Rahul; Jyoti, Bhuvan; Devi, Parvathi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17508950"> <span id="translatedtitle">Usefulness of <span class="hlt">oral</span> corticosteroid in Rosai-Dorfman disease.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, is a benign self-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> disorder of unknown aetiology, which is frequently mistaken for lymphoma. There is no consensus as to the proper management of this disorder. In the past, potentially harmful treatments, such as antineoplastic drugs, have been advocated. We describe a 25-year-old woman with RDD who has had a remarkably favourable response to <span class="hlt">oral</span> prednisolone therapy. Our observation strengthens the conclusions of previous case reports as to the effectiveness of corticosteroids in this <span class="hlt">condition</span>. This article is aimed at creating awareness among clinical oncologists about this pseudolymphomatous disorder and emphasizing the therapeutic role of corticosteroids. PMID:17508950</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ocheni, S; Ibegbulam, O G; Okafor, O C; Raveenthiran, V; Nzegwu, M A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3573924"> <span id="translatedtitle">The impact of socioenvironmental characteristics on domains of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health-related quality of life in Brazilian schoolchildren</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Recent researches have pointed out the need to consider the functional and psychosocial dimensions of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health, such as <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health-related Quality of Life (OHRQoL). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health status, socioeconomic factors and home environment of children on the four health domains of Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Brazil with a sample of 286 schoolchildren aged 12 years and their parents. The schoolchildren were clinically examined, and participants were asked to complete the CPQ11-14, as well as a questionnaire about home environment. In addition, a questionnaire was sent to each child’s parents asking them about family socioeconomic status. The chi-square test and Poisson’s regression analysis were performed. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, variables sex, monthly family income, mothers’ education showed a statistically significant association with all health domains of the CPQ11-14. The family structure and presence of bleeding impacted on emotional (p?=?0.0135), and social (p?=?0.0010) well-being health domain scores. Orthodontic treatment need showed a strong negative effect on functional <span class="hlt">limitations</span> domain score (p?=?0.0021). Conclusions Clinical and socio-environmental factors had different impacts on domains of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health-related quality of life, demonstrating the need to consider these <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in planning strategies for the <span class="hlt">oral</span> health of schoolchildren.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17537414"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in <span class="hlt">oral</span> squamous cell carcinoma and <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an indispensable mechanism during morphogenesis. Interest and research in EMT are currently at a high level due to its important role in cancer and fibrosis. Emerging evidence suggests that EMT is also a crucial event in <span class="hlt">oral</span> squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). <span class="hlt">Oral</span> submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic debilitating disease and a premalignant <span class="hlt">condition</span> of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. It is characterized by a generalized submucosal fibrosis. The pathogenesis of the disease is not well established. Epidemiological evidence strongly indicates an association between the betel quid (BQ) chewing habit and OSF. In a simplistic view, OSF represents a failed wound-healing process of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa after chronic, sustained injury. This review highlights the signaling pathways involved in EMT, recent advances in the study of EMT in OSCC, and summarizes the evidence supporting a role for EMT in the pathogenesis of OSF. PMID:17537414</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yanjia, Hu; Xinchun, Jian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-04-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32071762"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of multiple micronutrient supplementation in the management of <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis in Karachi, Pakistan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> submucous fibrosis (OSF) is an <span class="hlt">oral</span> pre?cancerous <span class="hlt">condition</span> characterized by symptoms such as intolerance to spicy food, altered salivation, progressive difficulty in opening the mouth, and signs like vesiculation, ulceration, blanching, rigidity, and stiffening of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa and depapillation and altered mobility of the tongue. It is seen mostly among people of Indian subcontinent origin. The major structural</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rehana Maher; Perin Aga; Newell W. Johnson; Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan; Saman Warnakulasuriya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31610674"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coexpression of colligin and collagen in <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis: plausible role in pathogenesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The high incidence of <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis (OSF), a potentially malignant <span class="hlt">condition</span> of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity, in the Indian subcontinent is causally associated with commonly prevailing habit of chewing areca nut and tobacco. Knowledge of molecular alterations in OSF is meagre. OSF is characterised by progressive accumulation of collagen fibres in lamina propria and <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucosa. Colligin\\/HSP47 is a 47KDa</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J Kaur; M Rao; N Chakravarti; M Mathur; N. K Shukla; B. D Sanwal; R Ralhan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37180614"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative dimensions of histopathological attributes and status of GSTM1–GSTT1 in <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a precancerous <span class="hlt">condition</span> of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity and oropharynx and a significant number of such cases transform into <span class="hlt">oral</span> squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Presently, diagnosis of OSF is done mainly through qualitative histopathological techniques and in the level of diagnostic molecular biology no specific genetic marker is evident. Keeping these facts in mind this study</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mousumi Pal; Susri Ray Chaudhuri; Abhijeet Jadav; Swapna Banerjee; Ranjan Rashmi Paul; Pranab Kumar Dutta; Bhaskar Ghosh; Jyotirmoy Chatterjee; Keya Chaudhuri</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17465250"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cancer treatment-induced <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> mucositis is one of the main complications in non-surgical cancer treatments. It represents the major dose-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> toxicity for some chemotherapeutic agents, for radiotherapy of the head and neck region and for some radiochemotherapy combined treatments. Many reviews and clinical studies have been published in order to define the best clinical protocol for prophylaxis or treatment of mucositis, but a consensus has not yet been obtained. This paper represents an updated review of prophylaxis and treatment of antineoplastic-therapy-related mucositis using a MEDLINE search up to May 2006, in which more than 260 clinical studies have been found. They have been divided according to antineoplastic therapy (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, chemo-radiotherapy, high-dose chemotherapy). The prophylactic or therapeutic use of the analysed agents, the number of enrolled patients and the study design (randomized or not) were also specified for most studies. Accurate pre-treatment assessment of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity hygiene, frequent review of symptoms during treatment, use of traditional mouthwashes to obtain mechanical cleaning of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity and administration of some agents like benzydamine, imidazole antibiotics, tryazolic antimycotics, povidone iodine, keratinocyte growth factor and vitamin E seem to reduce the intensity of mucositis. Physical approaches like cryotherapy, low energy Helium-Neon laser or the use of modern radiotherapy techniques with the exclusion of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity from radiation fields have been shown to be efficacious in preventing mucositis onset. Nevertheless a consensus protocol of prophylaxis and treatment of <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis has not yet been obtained. PMID:17465250</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alterio, Daniela; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja; Fiore, Maria Rosaria; Piperno, Gaia; Ansarin, Mohssen; Orecchia, Roberto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20113721"> <span id="translatedtitle">Novel colorimetric sensor for <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodour.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Volatile sulphur compounds are the primary constituents of <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodour. Quantitative tools for the detection of <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodour are beneficial to evaluate the intensity of malodour, analyse its causes and monitor the effectiveness of customized treatments. We have developed an objective, cost effective, do-it-yourself colorimetric sensor for <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodour quantification. The sensor consisted of a sensing solution, a gas sampling unit for collecting a known volume of mouth air and a photometric detector. The sensing solution was iodine and the depletion of iodine on reaction with hydrogen sulphide was detected colorimetrically using starch. The detection <span class="hlt">limit</span> of the sensor is 0.05 microg L(-1) of hydrogen sulphide, which is fit-for-purpose for <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodour detection in healthy subjects as well as halitosis patients. Volatile sulphur compounds in mouth air were quantified in healthy human volunteers using this portable sensor and the detected levels were in the range of 0.2-0.4 microg L(-1). There was a good correlation between the VSC levels detected by the colorimetric sensor and halimeter (R(2)=0.934). The developed sensor can be easily fabricated in the laboratory, and it shows high potential to be used as a clinical evaluation tool for <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodour assessments. PMID:20113721</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alagirisamy, Nethaji; Hardas, Sarita S; Jayaraman, Sujatha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23905867"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> immunotherapy and tolerance induction in childhood.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Prevalence rates of food allergy have increased rapidly in recent decades. Of concern, rates of increase are greatest among children under 5 yrs of age and for those food allergies that persist into adulthood such as peanut or tree nut allergy and shellfish allergy. Given these trends, the overall prevalence of food allergy will compound over time as the number of children affected by food allergy soars and a greater proportion of food-allergic children are left with persistent disease into adulthood. It is therefore vital to identify novel curative treatment approaches for food allergy. Acquisition of <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance to the diverse array of ingested food antigens and intestinal microbiota is an active immunologic process that is successfully established in the majority of individuals. In subjects who develop food allergy, there is a failure or loss of <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance acquisition to a <span class="hlt">limited</span> number of food allergens. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> immunotherapy (OIT) offers a promising approach to induce specific <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance to selected food allergens and represents a potential strategy for long-term curative treatment of food allergy. This review will summarize the current understanding of <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance and clinical trials of OIT for the treatment of food allergy. PMID:23905867</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tang, M L K; Martino, D J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6012345"> <span id="translatedtitle">FED pumped <span class="hlt">limiter</span> configuration issues</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped <span class="hlt">limiter</span>. <span class="hlt">Limiter</span> design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the <span class="hlt">limiter</span> belt, (2) shape of the <span class="hlt">limiter</span> surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of <span class="hlt">limiter</span> configuration features were sensitivity to plasma-edge <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED <span class="hlt">limiter</span> that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3765426"> <span id="translatedtitle">Risk indicators of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health status among young adults aged 18 years analyzed by negative binomial regression</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background <span class="hlt">Limited</span> information on <span class="hlt">oral</span> health status for young adults aged 18 year-olds is known, and no available data exists in Hong Kong. The aims of this study were to investigate the <span class="hlt">oral</span> health status and its risk indicators among young adults in Hong Kong using negative binomial regression. Methods A survey was conducted in a representative sample of Hong Kong young adults aged 18 years. Clinical examinations were taken to assess <span class="hlt">oral</span> health status using DMFT index and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) according to WHO criteria. Negative binomial regressions for DMFT score and the number of sextants with healthy gums were performed to identify the risk indicators of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health status. Results A total of 324 young adults were examined. Prevalence of dental caries experience among the subjects was 59% and the overall mean DMFT score was 1.4. Most subjects (95%) had a score of 2 as their highest CPI score. Negative binomial regression analyses revealed that subjects who had a dental visit within 3 years had significantly higher DMFT scores (IRR?=?1.68, p?<?0.001). Subjects who brushed their teeth more frequently (IRR?=?1.93, p?<?0.001) and those with better dental knowledge (IRR?=?1.09, p?=?0.002) had significantly more sextants with healthy gums. Conclusions Dental caries experience of the young adults aged 18 years in Hong Kong was not high but their periodontal <span class="hlt">condition</span> was unsatisfactory. Their <span class="hlt">oral</span> health status was related to their dental visit behavior, <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene habit, and <span class="hlt">oral</span> health knowledge.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://content.karger.com/ProdukteDB/produkte.asp?Aktion=ShowPDF&ArtikelNr=228337&Ausgabe=251871&ProduktNr=224164&filename=228337.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of Combined Treatment with <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Clindamycin and <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Rifamp