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Sample records for condition limits oral

  1. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493....1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493....1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, and §§...

  3. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of...

  5. Oral bismuth for chronic intractable diarrheal conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Thazhath, Sony S; Haque, Mazhar; Florin, Timothy H

    2013-01-01

    Objective Bismuth has antidiarrheal, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties. We report our single-center experience with oral colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) treatment for patients with chronic intractable diarrhea. Method We interrogated our web-based Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinical and Research database to ascertain clinical details on all patients in our tertiary hospital gastroenterology service treated with CBS between 2000 and 2010. Treatment responses were based on prospective scoring of daily number of liquid stools. Responses were recorded prior to commencement of CBS and at follow-up visits over 12 months. Results Thirty-one patients, mean age 47 years (range 17–79 years) and a mean duration of diarrhea of 22 weeks (range 6–104 weeks), were prescribed CBS at doses ranging from 120 mg to 480 mg/day for ≥1 month. Of these, 23 patients (74%) had an initial clinical response and 12 (39%) who continued with this treatment had a sustained clinical response at 1 year. Twelve patients with pouchitis and four patients with indeterminate colitis had initial responses of 92% and 75%, respectively, and sustained responses of 50% and 75%, respectively. Ulcerative colitis patients (n = 5) responded poorly with respect to both initial and sustained responses. Three patients with microscopic colitis showed encouraging initial response of 100% but did not have any sustained benefit. Three of four patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (dIBS) had an initial response and two (50%) had good sustained responses. There were no serious adverse events. One patient stopped therapy because of nausea. Conclusion This is the largest report of oral bismuth treatment in chronic intractable diarrhea. CBS is cheap and appears to have the potential to be effective for ameliorating diarrheal symptoms in indeterminate colitis, pouchitis, and dIBS. An appropriately powered, blinded, randomized, controlled study appears warranted to establish the position of oral bismuth in routine practice. PMID:23515887

  6. The limits of oral therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension management

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian-Qian; Jing, Zhi-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease in which remodeling of the small pulmonary arteries leads to a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance and right-sided heart failure. Over the past decade, new treatments for PAH, such as the use of ERAs, PDE-5 inhibitors and prostacyclin analogs, have brought about dramatic improvements in clinical outcomes. Epoprostenol infusion therapy has been shown to improve hemodynamics, functional status, and survival, and it remains the gold standard for treatment of patients with severe PAH. Many agents, approved for PAH are always delivered in pill form. Although oral therapy occupies an important position, it has some drawbacks and limitations in PAH management. For patients in World Health Organization functional class IV and with severe right heart failure, there are few data on the long-term survival of patients treated with oral medications. Further research, exploration, and clinical experience with oral therapy in severe PAH and combination therapy will redefine its position in PAH management. PMID:26648729

  7. Limited Conditions of Operations Tracking Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-12-17

    The Lco tracking program is a computer based solution for tracking time limited action items for Limited Conditions of Operation (LCO) for nuclear and industrial processes. This use is not limited to any process except those not requiring specific action steps and times. The visual and audible assistance the LCO Tracking Program provides significantly reduces the chance of missing crucial actions required for safe operation of any facility in time of limited operations. The LCOmore » Tracking Program maintains all applicable action steps and times for each limited condition for the facility in its data base. The LCO Tracking Program is used to enter that condition by number, and the data base provides the applicble action steps and starts tracking their times based on the time the LCO was entered. The LCO display graphically displays, by colored bar charts, the time expired/time remaining of each specific action item. At 60% time expired, the bar chart turns yellow to caution personnel and then turns red at 90% time expired. Then an audible alarm is sounded at 95% as a warning, to finish or accomplish the required actions to satisfy the requirements. These warning and alarm limits are modifiable by the user and can be set at different values for each action. The display file is dynamic in function, checking every minute, and responds in real time to changes to the LCO Tracking Form file, providing the visual and audible warnings as to the status of the action steps chosen for display. The LCO Tracking Program efficiently tracks action times in minutes or days, up to 2 years. All current LCO''s are easily documentated using the LCO Tracking Form file with ease of printing and disposition. The Lco Tracking Program is designed as a user friendly program with navigational buttons to simplify use.« less

  8. Bond strengthening in oral bacterial adhesion to salivary conditioning films.

    PubMed

    van der Mei, Henny C; Rustema-Abbing, Minie; de Vries, Joop; Busscher, Henk J

    2008-09-01

    Transition from reversible to irreversible bacterial adhesion is a highly relevant but poorly understood step in initial biofilm formation. We hypothesize that in oral biofilm formation, irreversible adhesion is caused by bond strengthening due to specific bacterial interactions with salivary conditioning films. Here, we compared the initial adhesion of six oral bacterial strains to salivary conditioning films with their adhesion to a bovine serum albumin (BSA) coating and related their adhesion to the strengthening of the binding forces measured with bacteria-coated atomic force microscopy cantilevers. All strains adhered in higher numbers to salivary conditioning films than to BSA coatings, and specific bacterial interactions with salivary conditioning films were accompanied by stronger initial adhesion forces. Bond strengthening occurred on a time scale of several tens of seconds and was slower for actinomyces than for streptococci. Nonspecific interactions between bacteria and BSA coatings strengthened twofold faster than their specific interactions with salivary conditioning films, likely because specific interactions require a closer approach of interacting surfaces with the removal of interfacial water and a more extensive rearrangement of surface structures. After bond strengthening, bacterial adhesion forces with a salivary conditioning film remained stronger than those with BSA coatings. PMID:18641154

  9. 38 CFR 4.150 - Schedule of ratings-dental and oral conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-dental and oral conditions. 4.150 Section 4.150 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Dental and Oral Conditions § 4.150 Schedule of ratings—dental and oral conditions. Rating 9900Maxilla or mandible, chronic osteomyelitis...

  10. 38 CFR 4.150 - Schedule of ratings-dental and oral conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-dental and oral conditions. 4.150 Section 4.150 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Dental and Oral Conditions § 4.150 Schedule of ratings—dental and oral conditions. Rating 9900Maxilla or mandible, chronic osteomyelitis...

  11. 38 CFR 4.150 - Schedule of ratings-dental and oral conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-dental and oral conditions. 4.150 Section 4.150 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Dental and Oral Conditions § 4.150 Schedule of ratings—dental and oral conditions. Rating 9900Maxilla or mandible, chronic osteomyelitis...

  12. The effects of airborne fluorides on oral conditions in Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Haikel, Y.; Cahen, P.M.; Turlot, J.C.; Frank, R.M. )

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of dental caries and dental fluorosis, as well as various other oral conditions, in 2378 subjects (ages seven to 60) living in the fluoridated area of Khouribga and the non-fluoridated area of Beni Mellal, Morocco. The community index of dental fluorosis (CFI) ranged from 1.99 to 2.80 in the high-fluoride area: Over 90% of the population was affected, and more than one-third of the subjects showed moderate dental fluorosis. However, in Beni Mellal, more than 96% of the dentate subjects examined were free of dental fluorosis, and the CFI of 0.02 was considered not significant. Significant differences were observed between the two areas with respect to caries prevalence. DMFT and DMFS indices were markedly lower in the fluorosis area of Khouribga. The oral conditions of subjects appeared to be better in Khouribga, where the gingival and calculus indices were significantly lower than in Beni Mellal. The analyses of covariance showed no significant differences in plaque accumulation (PI) between the Khouribga and Beni Mellal samples. However, a close statistical correlation was found between PI and GI in Beni Mellal and Khouribga.

  13. Chewing xylitol gum improves self-rated and objective indicators of oral health status under conditions interrupting regular oral hygiene.

    PubMed

    Hashiba, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Kenji; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Takeshita, Toru; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Chewing xylitol gum provides oral health benefits including inhibiting Streptococcus mutans plaque. It is thought to be especially effective in conditions where it is difficult to perform daily oral cleaning. Our study aim was to determine the effects of chewing xylitol gum on self-rated and objective oral health status under a condition interfering with oral hygiene maintenance. A randomized controlled intervention trial was conducted on 55 healthy ≥ 20-year-old men recruited from the Japan Ground Self Defense Force who were undergoing field training. Participants were randomly assigned to a test group (chewing gum; n = 27) or a control group (no gum; n = 28) and the researchers were blinded to the group assignments. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores of oral conditions subjectively evaluated oral health, and the stimulated salivary bacteria quantity objectively evaluated oral health 1 day before field training (baseline) and 4 days after the beginning of field training (follow-up). VAS scores of all three oral conditions significantly increased in the control group (malodor: p < 0.001; discomfort: p < 0.001; dryness: p < 0.001), but only two VAS scores increased in the test group (malodor: p = 0.021; discomfort: p = 0.002). The number of salivary total bacteria significantly increased in the control group (p < 0.01), while no significant change was observed in the test group (p = 0.668). Chewing xylitol gum positively affects self-rated and objective oral health status by controlling oral hygiene under conditions that interfere with oral hygiene maintenance. PMID:25744362

  14. Oral health conditions affect functional and social activities of terminally-ill cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, D.J.; Epstein, J.B.; Yao, Y.; Wilkie, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Oral conditions are established complications in terminally-ill cancer patients. Yet despite significant morbidity, the characteristics and impact of oral conditions in these patients are poorly documented. The study objective was to characterize oral conditions in terminally-ill cancer patients to determine the presence, severity, and the functional and social impact of these oral conditions. Methods This was an observational clinical study including terminally-ill cancer patients (2.5–3 week life expectancy). Data were obtained via the Oral Problems Scale (OPS) that measures the presence of subjective xerostomia, orofacial pain, taste change, and the functional/social impact of oral conditions and a demographic questionnaire. A standardized oral examination was used to assess objective salivary hypofunction, fungal infection, mucosal erythema, and ulceration. Regression analysis and t test investigated the associations between measures. Results Of 104 participants, most were ?50 years of age, female, and high-school educated; 45% were African American, 43% Caucasian, and 37% married. Oral conditions frequencies were: salivary hypofunction (98%), mucosal erythema (50%), ulceration (20%), fungal infection (36%), and other oral problems (46%). Xerostomia, taste change, and orofacial pain all had significant functional impact; p<.001, p=.042 and p<.001, respectively. Orofacial pain also had a significant social impact (p<.001). Patients with oral ulcerations had significantly more orofacial pain with a social impact than patients without ulcers (p=.003). Erythema was significantly associated with fungal infection and with mucosal ulceration (p<.001). Conclusions Oral conditions significantly affect functional and social activities in terminally-ill cancer patients. Identification and management of oral conditions in these patients should therefore be an important clinical consideration. PMID:24232310

  15. Oral diseases and conditions throughout the lifespan. II. Systemic diseases.

    PubMed

    Beltran-Aguilar, Eugenio D; Beltran-Neira, Roberto J

    2004-01-01

    Oral diseases may affect general health and many systemic disorders have oral manifestations and implications for dental treatment. This article reviews examples of the oral manifestations of systemic diseases, including oral cancer, diabetes mellitus, and infection from HIV. In addition, the plausible link between periconceptional use of folic acid by the mother and the risk of facial clefts is reviewed. The possible associations between oral infections, specifically periodontal diseases, and both cardiovascular disease and the delivery of preterm low birthweight infants also are reviewed. These and other associations present challenges to dentists, who must evaluate the scientific evidence supporting the associations or alleged causality and select effective treatment options. Both of these challenges require in-depth knowledge of the scientific method, criteria to establish causality, and evaluation of the merit of possible treatment options; in turn, these requirements identify dentists as medical professionals who utilize prevention as the first option in health care, use oral tissues and saliva to diagnose systemic diseases, rely on medical facilities to order laboratory tests, and diagnose and treat patients in close collaboration with their medical colleagues. PMID:15101303

  16. Limitations in Life Participation and Independence Due to Secondary Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koritsas, Stella; Iacono, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The effects of secondary conditions across adults with autism, Down syndrome, and cerebral palsy were explored in terms of overall limitation in life participation and independence, changes over time, and the degree and nature of limitation in specific secondary conditions. Information was obtained for 35 adults with autism, 49 with Down syndrome,…

  17. Limitations in Life Participation and Independence Due to Secondary Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koritsas, Stella; Iacono, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The effects of secondary conditions across adults with autism, Down syndrome, and cerebral palsy were explored in terms of overall limitation in life participation and independence, changes over time, and the degree and nature of limitation in specific secondary conditions. Information was obtained for 35 adults with autism, 49 with Down syndrome,…

  18. Oral Health Condition and Treatment Needs of a Group of Nigerian Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oredugba, Folakemi A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried out to determine the oral health condition and treatment needs of a group of individuals with Down syndrome in Nigeria. Method: Participants were examined for oral hygiene status, dental caries, malocclusion, hypoplasia, missing teeth, crowding and treatment needs. Findings were compared with controls across age…

  19. Oral Health Condition and Treatment Needs of a Group of Nigerian Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oredugba, Folakemi A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried out to determine the oral health condition and treatment needs of a group of individuals with Down syndrome in Nigeria. Method: Participants were examined for oral hygiene status, dental caries, malocclusion, hypoplasia, missing teeth, crowding and treatment needs. Findings were compared with controls across age…

  20. Efficacy and limitations of oral inotropic agents for the treatment of chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Murai, Koji; Seino, Yoshihiko; Kimata, Nakahisa; Inami, Toru; Murakami, Daisuke; Abe, Junko; Yodogawa, Kenji; Maruyama, Mitsunori; Takano, Masamichi; Ohba, Takayoshi; Ibuki, Chikao; Mizuno, Kyoichi

    2013-01-01

    The heart failure guideline in Japan has stated the necessity of investigating the role of oral inotropic agents in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), which are clinically available only in Japan. A total of 1,846 consecutive patients with heart failure (mean: 69.5 years old, 1,279 males) treated at our institute from November 2009 to August 2010 were investigated retrospectively. Thirty-one patients (1.84%) who had taken oral inotropic agents (pimobendan 27, docarpamine 6, and denopamine 4) were extracted for this study, and the efficacy and limitations of the treatments were analyzed. Following the oral inotropic treatment, the NYHA functional class (P = 0.017), cardiothoracic ratio (P = 0.002) and B-type natriuretic peptide levels (P = 0.011) were significantly improved, and the number of emergency room (ER) visits (P < 0.001) and hospitalizations (P < 0.001) were significantly reduced. The nonsurviving patients (n = 7/31, 22.6%) were significantly older (P = 0.02) and tended to have a larger cardiothoracic ratio (P = 0.084) compared with the survivors. An absence of concomitant beta-blocker therapy was significantly associated with a worse prognosis (oneyear mortality 2/21 versus 5/10, log rank, P = 0.011). Oral inotropic agents brought about improvements in the clinical parameters of CHF and a reduction in ER visits and hospitalizations. However, concomitant beta-blocker therapy should be considered for patients receiving oral inotropic treatment. PMID:23676366

  1. Influence of oral health condition on swallowing and oral intake level for patients affected by chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mituuti, Cláudia T; Bianco, Vinicius C; Bentim, Cláudia G; de Andrade, Eduardo C; Rubo, José H; Berretin-Felix, Giédre

    2015-01-01

    Background According to the literature, the occurrence of dysphagia is high in cases of stroke, and its severity can be enhanced by loss of teeth and the use of poorly fitting prostheses. Objective To verify that the status of oral health influences the level of oral intake and the degree of swallowing dysfunction in elderly patients with stroke in chronic phase. Methods Thirty elderly individuals affected by stroke in chronic phase participated. All subjects underwent assessment of their oral condition, with classification from the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) and nasoendoscopic swallowing assessment to classify the degree of dysphagia. The statistical analysis examined a heterogeneous group (HG, n=30) and two groups designated by the affected body part, right (RHG, n=8) and left (LHG, n=11), excluding totally dentate or edentulous individuals without rehabilitation with more than one episode of stroke. Results There was a negative correlation between the need for replacement prostheses and the FOIS scale for the HG (P=0.02) and RHG (P=0.01). Differences in FOIS between types of prostheses of the upper dental arch in the LHG (P=0.01) and lower dental arch in the RHG (P=0.04). A negative correlation was found between the number of teeth present and the degree of dysfunction in swallowing liquid in the LHG (P=0.05). There were differences in the performance in swallowing solids between individuals without prosthesis and those with partial prosthesis in the inferior dental arch (P=0.04) for the HG. Conclusion The need for replacement prostheses, type of prostheses, and the number of teeth of elderly patients poststroke in chronic phase showed an association with the level of oral intake and the degree of oropharyngeal dysphagia. PMID:25565784

  2. Oral mucosal conditions in preschool children of low socioeconomic status: prevalence and determinant factors.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Andrade, Raquel Gonçalves; Martins-Júnior, Paulo Antônio; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Stella, Paulo Eduardo Melo; Marinho, Sandra Aparecida; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of oral mucosal conditions and associated factors among 541 preschoolers of low socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Sociodemographic data and information on harmful oral habits were gathered with the use of a questionnaire. A clinical exam was performed for the determination of oral mucosal conditions, dental caries and level of oral hygiene. Data analysis involved statistical analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney test, chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and multivariate regression (p < 0.05, 95 % CI). The prevalence of oral mucosal conditions was 40.7 %. The most prevalent oral mucosal conditions were coated tongue (23.4 %), melanotic macules (14.4 %), oral ulcers (11.8 %), Fordyce's spots (8.1 %), angular cheilitis (3.0 %), geographic tongue (2.8 %), linea alba (1.5 %) and fistula (1.3 %). Children between 3 and 5 years of age had a greater chance of exhibiting coated tongue (OR, 2.55; 95 % CI, 1.6-4.1), melanotic macules (OR, 4.07; 95 % CI, 2.3-7.2) and Fordyce's spots (OR, 12.70; 95 % CI, 7.2-28.6). The female gender had a greater chance of exhibiting melanotic macules (OR, 2.23; 95 % CI, 1.3-1.8). Coated tongue was more prevalent among children from low-income families (OR, 2.35; 95 % CI, 1.3-4.3) and those with inadequate oral hygiene (OR, 4.65; 95 % CI, 2.9-7.4). Caries constituted a predictive factor for oral ulcers (OR, 2.15; 95 % CI, 1.2-3.9) and fistula (OR, 12.00; 95 % CI, 1.4-11.3). Bruxism (teeth clenching/grinding) was a predictive factor for angular cheilitis (OR, 5.55; 95 % CI, 1.9-16.3). The determinant factors for oral mucosal conditions were the female gender, age between 3 and 5 years, inadequate oral hygiene, low household income, residence in rural areas and presence of dental caries and bruxism. PMID:23354789

  3. Oral and Craniofacial Clinical Signs Associated to Genetic Conditions in Human Identification Part I: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Fouad; Aoun, Nicole; el Husseini, Hassan; Jassar, Houssam; Sayah, Fida; Salameh, Ziad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Forensic dentistry is one of the most reliable methods used in human identification when other technique as fingerprint, DNA, visual identification cannot be used. Genetic disorders have several manifestations that can target the intra-oral cavity, the cranio-facial area or any location in the human body. Materials and Methods: A literature search of the scientific database (Medline and Science Direct) for the years 1990 to 2014 was carried out to find out all the available papers that indicate oral, cranio-facial signs, genetic and human identification. Results: A table with 10 genetic conditions was described with oral and cranio-facial signs that can help forensic specialist in human identification. Conclusion: This review showed a correlation between genetics, facial and intra-oral signs that would help forensic ondontologist in the identification procedures. PMID:26028912

  4. Trends in activity-limiting chronic conditions among children.

    PubMed Central

    Newacheck, P W; Budetti, P P; Halfon, N

    1986-01-01

    Data from the National Health Interview Survey indicate that the prevalence of activity-limiting chronic conditions among children under age 17 years doubled between 1960 and 1981, from 1.8 to 3.8 per cent. Approximately 40 per cent of the overall rise in prevalence occurred before 1970. Most of the increase in prevalence during this early period can be attributed to changes in questionnaire design and aging of the child population following the "baby boom" years. The factors responsible for increases in reported cases of activity limitation following 1970 are more difficult to specify and evaluate. During this later period, the increase in prevalence was restricted to less severe levels of limitations. While prevalence levels rose for a variety of conditions during this period, respiratory conditions and mental and nervous system disorders demonstrated the largest changes. It appears that much of the increase in reported cases of activity limitations during the 1970s can be attributed to shifting perceptions on the part of parents, educators, and physicians. PMID:2936257

  5. Impact of oral health conditions on the quality of life of workers.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Maria Júlia Campos; Greco, Rosangela Maria; Leite, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigênia; de Paula, Marcos Vinícius Queiroz

    2014-12-01

    Occupational health has been the scope of numerous studies, primarily due to the concern that the worker should enjoy good working conditions and a satisfactory quality of life. This study seeks to analyze the impact of oral health on the quality of life of workers at a public university using the simplified version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) and associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 326 workers who responded the questions of OHIP-14 about self-rated health, oral morbidity, and socioeconomic and demographic questions. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to verify the association between the independent variables and OHIP-14. About 40% of the impact of oral health on quality of life can be explained by the variables: education level (p = 0,03), age (p = 0,03), reason for visiting a dentist (p = 0,01), oral health perception (p < 0,01) and satisfaction with teeth and mouth (p < 0,01). The use of OHIP-14 can be useful for planning programs and actions focused on health education for occupational health, prioritizing workers with greater psychosocial impacts caused by oral problems. PMID:25388186

  6. Flammability Limits of Gases Under Low Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehlow, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this combustion science investigation is to determine the effect of zero, fractional, and super gravity on the flammability limits of a premixed methane air flame in a standard 51 mm diameter flammability tube and to determine, if possible, the fluid flow associated with flame passage under zero-g conditions and the density (and hence, temperature) profiles associated with the flame under conditions of incipient extinction. This is accomplished by constructing an appropriate apparatus for placement in NASA's Lewis Research Center Lear Jet facility and flying the prescribed g-trajectories while the experiment is being performed. Data is recorded photographically using the visible light of the flame. The data acquired is: (1) the shape and propagation velocity of the flame under various g-conditions for methane compositions that are inside the flammable limits, and (2) the effect of gravity on the limits. Real time accelerometer readings for the three orthogonal directions are displayed in full view of the cameras and the framing rate of the cameras is used to measure velocities.

  7. Oral appliance treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea patients with severe dental condition.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, T; Ito, T; Cardoso, M V; Kawata, T; Sasaki, K

    2011-03-01

    This clinical report introduces and evaluates the use of a mandibular advancement oral appliance (OA) attached to a denture base for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) in a patient presenting severe dental problems and multiple missing teeth. It concerned a 58-year-old man with moderate OSAS (apnoea index (AI): 15·9 h(-1) ; apnoea hypopnea index (AHI): 21·7 h(-1) ), presenting ten remaining teeth (maxilla: 5, mandible: 5) and important dental and periodontal problems. A treatment OA comprising both maxillary and mandibular parts was fabricated with an acrylic resin base, simulating the structure of a conventional removable partial denture (RPD). The polysomnography examination performed after the use of the OA showed the treatment induced a significant decrease in OSAS symptoms (AI: 0·7 h(-1) , AHI: 8·2 h(-1) ). All the necessary dental and periodontal treatments were performed to assure the reestablishment of oral health. The treatment OA was modified after each treatment to adapt it to each new oral condition. After 18 months, once the oral health was reestablished with seven remaining teeth (maxilla: 5, mandible: 2), final RPDs and final OA were fabricated. Polysomnography with final OA showed a similar positive result with respect to OSAS symptoms. No side effects related to the OA treatment were detected during the 3-year follow-up. To keep a sound oral condition, periodical dental care was performed by specialists in both periodontal and prosthodontic clinics. This clinical report shows the feasibility of treating OSAS patients with OA even in the presence of severe oral conditions and multiple missing teeth. PMID:20722774

  8. Investigation of the Functional Role of P-Glycoprotein in Limiting the Oral Bioavailability of Lumefantrine

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Kanumuri S. R.; Singh, Sheelendra P.; Taneja, Isha

    2014-01-01

    In the quest to explore the reason for the low and variable bioavailability of lumefantrine, we investigated the possible role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in lumefantrine intestinal absorption. An in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion study in rats with the P-gp inhibitor verapamil or quinidine and an ATPase assay with human P-gp membranes indicated that lumefantrine is a substrate of P-gp which limits its intestinal absorption. To confirm these findings, an in vivo pharmacokinetic study was performed in rats. The oral administration of verapamil (10 mg/kg of body weight) along with lumefantrine caused a significant increase in its bioavailability with a concomitant decrease in clearance. The increase in bioavailability of lumefantrine could be due to inhibition of P-gp and/or cytochrome P450 3A in the intestine/liver by verapamil. However, in a rat intestinal microsomal stability study, lumefantrine was found to be resistant to oxidative metabolism. Further, an in situ permeation study clearly showed a significant role of P-gp in limiting the oral absorption of lumefantrine. Thus, the increase in lumefantrine bioavailability with verapamil is attributed in part to the P-gp-inhibitory ability of verapamil. In conclusion, lumefantrine is a substrate of P-gp, and active efflux by P-gp across the intestine partly contributed to the low/variable bioavailability of lumefantrine. PMID:24189249

  9. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. Limiting conditions/scale-up

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, R.; Klasson, K.T.; Takriff, M.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a technically and economically feasible process for biologically producing H(sub 2) from synthesis gas while, at the same time, removing harmful sulfur gas compounds. Six major tasks are being studied: 1. Culture development, where the best cultures are selected and conditions optimized for simultaneous hydrogen production and sulfur gas removal; 2. Mass transfer and kinetic studies in which equations necessary for process design are developed; 3. Bioreactor design studies, where the cultures chosen in Task 1 are utilized in continuous reaction vessels to demonstrate process feasibility and define operating conditions; 4. Evaluation of biological synthetic gas conversion under limiting conditions in preparation for industrial demonstration studies; 5. Process scale-up where laboratory data are scaled to larger-size units in preparation for process demonstration in a pilot-scale unit; and 6. Economic evaluation, where process simulations are used to project process economics and identify high cost areas during sensitivity analyses.

  10. The challenges and limitations of widespread direct oral anticoagulant treatment: practical suggestions for their best use.

    PubMed

    Palareti, Gualtiero; Poli, Daniela

    2016-02-01

    For many decades vitamin K antagonists (VKA), whilst extremely effective but associated with significant drawbacks, were the only drugs available for chronic anticoagulation. However, recently, novel direct oral anticoagulant drugs, completely different to VKA and at least as effective and safe as VKA, have been introduced in clinical practice and their use is becoming increasingly more widespread. Their availability can extend effective anticoagulant treatment to a larger number of subjects requiring anticoagulation and substantially improve the quality of life of many patients. However, these drugs and their use also have limitations. The aim of this article is to analyze these limitations and the challenges potentially associated with their use, a move crucial to promote proper, effective and safe use of the drugs in everyday practice. PMID:26652975

  11. National Survey of Oral/Dental Conditions Related to Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Mexican Adults

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Oral diseases are a major burden on individuals and health systems. The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of tobacco and alcohol were associated with the prevalence of oral/dental problems in Mexican adults. Using data from the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2003, a cross-sectional study part of the World Health Survey, dental information from a representative sample of Mexico (n = 22,229, N = 51,155,740) was used to document self-reported oral/dental problems in the 12 months prior to the survey. Questionnaires were used to collect information related to sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and other risk factors. Three models were generated for each age group (18–30, 31–45 and 46–98 years). The prevalence of oral/dental conditions was 25.7%. Adjusting for sex, schooling, socioeconomic position, diabetes, and self-reported health, those who used tobacco (sometimes or daily) (OR = 1.15, p = 0.070; OR = 1.24, p < 0.01; and OR = 1.16, p < 0.05, for each age group respectively) or alcohol (moderate or high) (OR = 1.26, p < 0.001; OR = 1.18, p < 0.01 and OR = 1.30, p < 0.001, for each age group respectively) had a higher risk of reporting oral/dental problems. Because tobacco and alcohol use were associated with self-reported oral/dental problems in one out of four adults, it appears advisable to ascertain how direct is such link; more direct effects would lend greater weight to adopting measures to reduce consumption of tobacco and alcohol for the specific purpose of improving oral health. PMID:24642844

  12. National survey of oral/dental conditions related to tobacco and alcohol use in Mexican adults.

    PubMed

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-03-01

    Oral diseases are a major burden on individuals and health systems. The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of tobacco and alcohol were associated with the prevalence of oral/dental problems in Mexican adults. Using data from the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2003, a cross-sectional study part of the World Health Survey, dental information from a representative sample of Mexico (n = 22,229, N = 51,155,740) was used to document self-reported oral/dental problems in the 12 months prior to the survey. Questionnaires were used to collect information related to sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and other risk factors. Three models were generated for each age group (18-30, 31-45 and 46-98 years). The prevalence of oral/dental conditions was 25.7%. Adjusting for sex, schooling, socioeconomic position, diabetes, and self-reported health, those who used tobacco (sometimes or daily) (OR = 1.15, p = 0.070; OR = 1.24, p < 0.01; and OR = 1.16, p < 0.05, for each age group respectively) or alcohol (moderate or high) (OR = 1.26, p < 0.001; OR = 1.18, p < 0.01 and OR = 1.30, p < 0.001, for each age group respectively) had a higher risk of reporting oral/dental problems. Because tobacco and alcohol use were associated with self-reported oral/dental problems in one out of four adults, it appears advisable to ascertain how direct is such link; more direct effects would lend greater weight to adopting measures to reduce consumption of tobacco and alcohol for the specific purpose of improving oral health. PMID:24642844

  13. Oxygen Consumption Rates of Bacteria under Nutrient-Limited Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Timothy E.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Finkel, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Many environments on Earth experience nutrient limitation and as a result have nongrowing or very slowly growing bacterial populations. To better understand bacterial respiration under environmentally relevant conditions, the effect of nutrient limitation on respiration rates of heterotrophic bacteria was measured. The oxygen consumption and population density of batch cultures of Escherichia coli K-12, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 were tracked for up to 200 days. The oxygen consumption per CFU (QO2) declined by more than 2 orders of magnitude for all three strains as they transitioned from nutrient-abundant log-phase growth to the nutrient-limited early stationary phase. The large reduction in QO2 from growth to stationary phase suggests that nutrient availability is an important factor in considering environmental respiration rates. Following the death phase, during the long-term stationary phase (LTSP), QO2 values of the surviving population increased with time and more cells were respiring than formed colonies. Within the respiring population, a subpopulation of highly respiring cells increased in abundance with time. Apparently, as cells enter LTSP, there is a viable but not culturable population whose bulk community and per cell respiration rates are dynamic. This result has a bearing on how minimal energy requirements are met, especially in nutrient-limited environments. The minimal QO2 rates support the extension of Kleiber's law to the mass of a bacterium (100-fg range). PMID:23770901

  14. Feasibility and benefits of methanogenesis under oxygen-limited conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zitomer, D.H.; Shrout, J.D.

    1998-12-31

    Methanogenic and aerobic (or microaerophilic) biological processes are often considered mutually exclusive and separated as biological wastewater treatment options. However, under oxygen-limited conditions, both aerobic respiration and methanogenesis can be practically accomplished by a single mixed culture. This paper describes sustained batch culture, oxygen-limited methanogenic serum bottle and bench-scale systems. Serum bottle cultures exhibited methanogenic activity similar to or greater than that of a strictly anaerobic culture maintained in parallel. The COD removal efficiencies of anaerobic, oxygen-limited, and aerobic bench-scale reactors receiving 30,000 mg/l of sucrose were all greater than 93%, a system receiving 1 g O{sub 2}/L{sub R}-day achieved a lower final effluent COD than the strictly anaerobic reactor. After a shock-load of sucrose, the pH recovered in low-aeration batch reactors in 28--34 days, whereas anaerobic pH did not recover after 52 days of observation. In the future, methanogenesis under limited-aeration may be employed as an energy efficient treatment option to achieve low final COD concentrations, minimal biosolids generation, and mineralization of a broad range of specific organic chemicals.

  15. Discrimination of premalignant conditions of oral cancer using Raman spectroscopy of urinary metabolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elumalai, Brindha; Rajasekaran, Ramu; Aruna, Prakasarao; Koteeswaran, Dornadula; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2015-03-01

    Oral cancers are considered to be one of the most commonly occurring malignancy worldwide. Over 70% of the cases report to the doctor only in advanced stages of the disease, resulting in poor survival rates. Hence it is necessary to detect the disease at the earliest which may increase the five year survival rate up to 90%. Among various optical spectroscopic techniques, Raman spectroscopy has been emerged as a tool in identifying several diseased conditions, including oral cancers. Around 30 - 80% of the malignancies of the oral cavity arise from premalignant lesions. Hence, understanding the molecular/spectral differences at the premalignant stage may help in identifying the cancer at the earliest and increase patient's survival rate. Among various bio-fluids such as blood, urine and saliva, urine is considered as one of the diagnostically potential bio-fluids, as it has many metabolites. The distribution and the physiochemical properties of the urinary metabolites may vary due to the changes associated with the pathologic conditions. The present study is aimed to characterize the urine of 70 healthy subjects and 51 pre-malignant patients using Raman spectroscopy under 785nm excitation, to know the molecular/spectral differences between healthy subjects and premalignant conditions of oral malignancy. Principal component analysis based Linear discriminant analysis were also made to find the statistical significance and the present technique yields the sensitivity and specificity of 86.3% and 92.9% with an overall accuracy of 90.9% in the discrimination of premalignant conditions from healthy subjects urine.

  16. Oral Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease ...

  17. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease ...

  18. Oral Warts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease ...

  19. Amyloid Fibrillation of Insulin under Water-Limited Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Tae Su; Lee, Jong Wha; Jin, Kyeong Sik; Kim, Hugh I.

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid fibrillation in water-organic mixtures has been widely studied to understand the effect of protein-solvent interactions on the fibrillation process. In this study, we monitored insulin fibrillation in formamide and its methyl derivatives (formamide, N-methyl formamide, N,N-dimethyl formamide) in the presence and absence of water. These model solvent systems mimic the cellular environment by providing denaturing conditions and a hydrophobic environment with limited water content. Thioflavin T (ThT) assay revealed that binary mixtures of water with formamide and its methyl derivatives enhanced fibrillation rates and β-sheet abundance, whereas organic solvents suppressed insulin fibrillation. We utilized solution small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to investigate the correlation between protein-solvent interactions and insulin fibrillation. SAXS experiments combined with simulated annealing of the protein indicated that the degree of denaturation of the hydrophobic core region at residues B11–B17 determines the fibrillation rate. In addition, DSC experiments suggested a crucial role of hydrophobic interactions in the fibrillation process. These results imply that an environment with limited water, which imitates a lipid membrane system, accelerates protein denaturation and the formation of intermolecular hydrophobic interactions during amyloid fibrillation. PMID:25418175

  20. Bacteriophages Limit the Existence Conditions for Conjugative Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Wood, A. Jamie; Dytham, Calvin; Pitchford, Jonathan W.; Truman, Julie; Spiers, Andrew; Paterson, Steve; Brockhurst, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteriophages are a major cause of bacterial mortality and impose strong selection on natural bacterial populations, yet their effects on the dynamics of conjugative plasmids have rarely been tested. We combined experimental evolution, mathematical modeling, and individual-based simulations to explain how the ecological and population genetics effects of bacteriophages upon bacteria interact to determine the dynamics of conjugative plasmids and their persistence. The ecological effects of bacteriophages on bacteria are predicted to limit the existence conditions for conjugative plasmids, preventing persistence under weak selection for plasmid accessory traits. Experiments showed that phages drove faster extinction of plasmids in environments where the plasmid conferred no benefit, but they also revealed more complex effects of phages on plasmid dynamics under these conditions, specifically, the temporary maintenance of plasmids at fixation followed by rapid loss. We hypothesized that the population genetic effects of bacteriophages, specifically, selection for phage resistance mutations, may have caused this. Further mathematical modeling and individual-based simulations supported our hypothesis, showing that conjugative plasmids may hitchhike with phage resistance mutations in the bacterial chromosome. PMID:26037122

  1. First-wall and limiter conditioning in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.; Blanchard, W.R.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hill, K.W.; Krawchuk, R.B.; Mueller, D.; Owens, D.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Sesnic, S.; Tenney, F.H.

    1984-10-01

    A progress report on the experimental studies of vacuum vessel conditioning during the first year of TFTR operation is presented. A previous paper described the efforts expended to condition the TFTR vessel prior to and during the initial plasma start-up experiments. During the start-up phase, discharge cleaning was performed with the vessel at room temperature. For the second phase of TFTR operations, which was directed towards the optimization of ohmically heated plasmas, the vacuum vessel could be heated to 150/sup 0/C. The internal configuration of the TFTR vessel was more complex during the second phase with the addition of a TiC/C moveable limiter array, Inconel bellows cover plates, and ZrAl getter pumps. A quantitative comparison is given on the effectiveness of vessel bakeout, glow discharge cleaning, and pulse discharge cleaning in terms of the total quantity of removed carbon and oxygen, residual gas base pressures and the resulting plasma impurity levels as measured by visible, uv, and soft x-ray spectroscopy. The initial experience with hydrogen isotope changeover in TFTR is presented including the results of the attempt to hasten the changeover time by using a glow discharge to precondition the vessel with the new isotope.

  2. Oral myiasis.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

  3. Oral Myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

  4. Bacterial diversity in saliva and oral health-related conditions: the Hisayama Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshita, Toru; Kageyama, Shinya; Furuta, Michiko; Tsuboi, Hidenori; Takeuchi, Kenji; Shibata, Yukie; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Akifusa, Sumio; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2016-02-01

    This population-based study determined the salivary microbiota composition of 2,343 adult residents of Hisayama town, Japan, using 16S rRNA gene next-generation high-throughput sequencing. Of 550 identified species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 72 were common, in ≥75% of all individuals, as well as in ≥75% of the individuals in the lowest quintile of phylogenetic diversity (PD). These “core” OTUs constituted 90.9 ± 6.1% of each microbiome. The relative abundance profiles of 22 of the core OTUs with mean relative abundances ≥1% were stratified into community type I and community type II by partitioning around medoids clustering. Multiple regression analysis revealed that a lower PD was associated with better conditions for oral health, including a lower plaque index, absence of decayed teeth, less gingival bleeding, shallower periodontal pockets and not smoking, and was also associated with tooth loss. By contrast, multiple Poisson regression analysis demonstrated that community type II, as characterized by a higher ratio of the nine dominant core OTUs, including Neisseria flavescens, was implicated in younger age, lower body mass index, fewer teeth with caries experience, and not smoking. Our large-scale data analyses reveal variation in the salivary microbiome among Japanese adults and oral health-related conditions associated with the salivary microbiome.

  5. Bacterial diversity in saliva and oral health-related conditions: the Hisayama Study

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Toru; Kageyama, Shinya; Furuta, Michiko; Tsuboi, Hidenori; Takeuchi, Kenji; Shibata, Yukie; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Akifusa, Sumio; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    This population-based study determined the salivary microbiota composition of 2,343 adult residents of Hisayama town, Japan, using 16S rRNA gene next-generation high-throughput sequencing. Of 550 identified species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 72 were common, in ≥75% of all individuals, as well as in ≥75% of the individuals in the lowest quintile of phylogenetic diversity (PD). These “core” OTUs constituted 90.9 ± 6.1% of each microbiome. The relative abundance profiles of 22 of the core OTUs with mean relative abundances ≥1% were stratified into community type I and community type II by partitioning around medoids clustering. Multiple regression analysis revealed that a lower PD was associated with better conditions for oral health, including a lower plaque index, absence of decayed teeth, less gingival bleeding, shallower periodontal pockets and not smoking, and was also associated with tooth loss. By contrast, multiple Poisson regression analysis demonstrated that community type II, as characterized by a higher ratio of the nine dominant core OTUs, including Neisseria flavescens, was implicated in younger age, lower body mass index, fewer teeth with caries experience, and not smoking. Our large-scale data analyses reveal variation in the salivary microbiome among Japanese adults and oral health-related conditions associated with the salivary microbiome. PMID:26907866

  6. Conditions for diffusion-limited and reaction-limited recombination in nanostructured solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ansari-Rad, Mehdi; Anta, Juan A; Arzi, Ezatollah

    2014-04-01

    The performance of Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) and related devices made of nanostructured semiconductors relies on a good charge separation, which in turn is achieved by favoring charge transport against recombination. Although both processes occur at very different time scales, hence ensuring good charge separation, in certain cases the kinetics of transport and recombination can be connected, either in a direct or an indirect way. In this work, the connection between electron transport and recombination in nanostructured solar cells is studied both theoretically and by Monte Carlo simulation. Calculations using the Multiple-Trapping model and a realistic trap distribution for nanostructured TiO2 show that for attempt-to-jump frequencies higher than 10(11)-10(13) Hz, the system adopts a reaction limited (RL) regime, with a lifetime which is effectively independent from the speed of the electrons in the transport level. For frequencies lower than those, and depending on the concentration of recombination centers in the material, the system enters a diffusion-limited regime (DL), where the lifetime increases if the speed of free electrons decreases. In general, the conditions for RL or DL recombination depend critically on the time scale difference between recombination kinetics and free-electron transport. Hence, if the former is too rapid with respect to the latter, the system is in the DL regime and total thermalization of carriers is not possible. In the opposite situation, a RL regime arises. Numerical data available in the literature, and the behavior of the lifetime with respect to (1) density of recombination centers and (2) probability of recombination at a given center, suggest that a typical DSC in operation stays in the RL regime with complete thermalization, although a transition to the DL regime may occur for electrolytes or hole conductors where recombination is especially rapid or where there is a larger dispersion of energies of electron acceptors. PMID:24712803

  7. Conditions for diffusion-limited and reaction-limited recombination in nanostructured solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari-Rad, Mehdi; Department of Physics, University of Shahrood, Shahrood ; Anta, Juan A.; Arzi, Ezatollah

    2014-04-07

    The performance of Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) and related devices made of nanostructured semiconductors relies on a good charge separation, which in turn is achieved by favoring charge transport against recombination. Although both processes occur at very different time scales, hence ensuring good charge separation, in certain cases the kinetics of transport and recombination can be connected, either in a direct or an indirect way. In this work, the connection between electron transport and recombination in nanostructured solar cells is studied both theoretically and by Monte Carlo simulation. Calculations using the Multiple-Trapping model and a realistic trap distribution for nanostructured TiO{sub 2} show that for attempt-to-jump frequencies higher than 10{sup 11}–10{sup 13} Hz, the system adopts a reaction limited (RL) regime, with a lifetime which is effectively independent from the speed of the electrons in the transport level. For frequencies lower than those, and depending on the concentration of recombination centers in the material, the system enters a diffusion-limited regime (DL), where the lifetime increases if the speed of free electrons decreases. In general, the conditions for RL or DL recombination depend critically on the time scale difference between recombination kinetics and free-electron transport. Hence, if the former is too rapid with respect to the latter, the system is in the DL regime and total thermalization of carriers is not possible. In the opposite situation, a RL regime arises. Numerical data available in the literature, and the behavior of the lifetime with respect to (1) density of recombination centers and (2) probability of recombination at a given center, suggest that a typical DSC in operation stays in the RL regime with complete thermalization, although a transition to the DL regime may occur for electrolytes or hole conductors where recombination is especially rapid or where there is a larger dispersion of energies of electron acceptors.

  8. Oral complementary medicine and alternative practitioner use varies across chronic conditions and attitudes to risk

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Robert J; Appleton, Sarah L; Cole, Antonia; Gill, Tiffany K; Taylor, Anne W; Hill, Catherine L

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether chronic conditions and patient factors, such as risk perception and decision-making preferences, are associated with complementary medicine and alternative practitioner use in a representative longitudinal population cohort. Participants and setting Analysis of data from Stage 2 of the North West Adelaide Health Study of 3161 adults who attended a study clinic visit in 2004–2006. The main outcome measures were the medications brought by participants to the study clinic visit, chronic health conditions, attitudes to risk, levels of satisfaction with conventional medicine, and preferred decision-making style. Results At least one oral complementary medicine was used by 27.9% of participants, and 7.3% were visiting alternative practitioners (naturopath, osteopath). Oral complementary medicine use was significantly associated with arthritis, osteoporosis, and mental health conditions, but not with other chronic conditions. Any pattern of complementary medicine use was generally significantly associated with female gender, age at least 45 years, patient-driven decision-making preferences (odds ratio [OR] 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08–1.77), and frequent general practitioner visits (>five per year; OR 3.62, 95% CI: 2.13–6.17). Alternative practitioner visitors were younger, with higher levels of education (diploma/trade [OR 1.88, 95% CI: 1.28–2.76], bachelor’s degree [OR 1.77, 95% CI: 1.11–2.82], income >$80,000 (OR 2.28, 95% CI: 1.26–4.11), female gender (OR 3.15, 95% CI: 2.19–4.52), joint pain not diagnosed as arthritis (OR 1.68, 95% CI: 1.17–2.41), moderate to severe depressive symptoms (OR 2.15, 95% CI: 1.04–4.46), and risk-taking behavior (3.26, 1.80–5.92), or low-to-moderate risk aversion (OR 2.08, 95% CI: 1.26–4.11). Conclusion Although there is widespread use of complementary medicines in the Australian community, there are differing patterns of use between those using oral complementary medicines and those using alternative practitioners. PMID:21152252

  9. Evaluation of oral tilmicosin efficacy against severe cryptosporidiosis in neonatal kids under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Paraud, C; Pors, I; Chartier, C

    2010-05-28

    Many compounds have been screened for their potential anti-cryptosporidial activity in ruminants but none of them has been totally efficient in controlling the disease. Macrolide antibiotics have demonstrated some activity against Cryptosporidium spp. in humans. Tilmicosin is a macrolide antibiotic, available in France in an oral form (Pulmotil AC, Lilly France). The preventive efficacy of tilmicosin was evaluated in a goat farm experiencing severe clinical cryptosporidiosis in kids. Twenty-two kids were separated from their dams just after birth and placed in a separated pen. They were divided into 3 groups: an untreated group (10 kids), group 1 (6 kids) receiving tilmicosin at 25mg/kg BW/day and group 2 (6 kids) receiving tilmicosin at 50mg/kg BW/day. Tilmicosin was individually given by oral route from day 2 of age for 10 days. Three times a week, individual faecal samples were performed to assess the oocyst output. Clinical data, i.e. diarrhea and mortality, were recorded. In control kids, the highest prevalence and intensity of excretion were observed between day 6 and day 16 of age and mortality reached 90%. Excretion dynamic and clinical consequences were similar in both treated kid groups. Finally, tilmicosin did not demonstrate any activity against severe kid cryptosporidiosis in field conditions. PMID:20149542

  10. Oral Anticancer Drugs: How Limited Dosing Options and Dose Reductions May Affect Outcomes in Comparative Trials and Efficacy in Patients

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Vinay; Massey, Paul R.; Fojo, Tito

    2014-01-01

    Historically, cancer medicine has avoided the problem of unequal dosing by comparing maximum-tolerated doses of intravenous regimens with proportionate dose reductions for toxicity. However, in recent years, with the development of numerous oral anticancer agents, dosing options are arbitrarily and increasingly limited by the size of pills. We contend that an underappreciated consequence of pill size is unequal dosing in comparative clinical trials and that this can have an impact on outcomes. We discuss how comparative effectiveness trials can be unbalanced and how the use of doses that are not sustainable might affect outcomes, especially marginal ones. We further argue that because of their poor tolerability and their limited dosing options, which often result in large dose adjustments in response to toxicity, the real-world clinical effectiveness of oral anticancer agents may be diminished and may not emulate results achieved in registration trials. PMID:24711558

  11. 43 CFR 2741.7 - Acreage limitations and general conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PURPOSES ACT Recreation and Public Purposes Act: Requirements § 2741.7 Acreage limitations and general... roadside parks and rest sites of 10 acres or less each. (2) Any State or agency or instrumentality of such... one calendar year to receive 6,400 acres (not counting public lands for small roadside parks and...

  12. 14 CFR 135.227 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... limitations. (a) No pilot may take off an aircraft that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any rotor blade... such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be expected to adhere to the airplane unless the pilot has... are free of frost, ice, or snow. (2) The certificate holder has an approved alternative procedure...

  13. 14 CFR 135.227 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... limitations. (a) No pilot may take off an aircraft that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any rotor blade... such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be expected to adhere to the airplane unless the pilot has... are free of frost, ice, or snow. (2) The certificate holder has an approved alternative procedure...

  14. 14 CFR 135.227 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... limitations. (a) No pilot may take off an aircraft that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any rotor blade... such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be expected to adhere to the airplane unless the pilot has... are free of frost, ice, or snow. (2) The certificate holder has an approved alternative procedure...

  15. 14 CFR 135.227 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... limitations. (a) No pilot may take off an aircraft that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any rotor blade... such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be expected to adhere to the airplane unless the pilot has... are free of frost, ice, or snow. (2) The certificate holder has an approved alternative procedure...

  16. Biological effects of extreme environmental conditions. [considering limits of biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imshenetskiy, A. A.

    1975-01-01

    Actions of extreme physical and chemical space factors on microorganisms and plants are elaborated in order to establish limits for the biosphere. Considered are effects of low and high temperatures; ionizing and ultraviolet radiation; various gases; and effects of vibration, desiccation and acceleration.

  17. Autofluorescence guided diagnostic evaluation of suspicious oral mucosal lesions: opportunities, limitations, and pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneswaran, Nadarajah

    2011-03-01

    Wide-filed autofluorescence examination is currently considered as a standard of care for screening and diagnostic evaluation of early neoplastic changes of the skin, cervix, lung, bladder, gastrointestinal tract and oral cavity. Naturally occurring fluorophores within the tissue absorb UV and visible light and can re-emit some of this light at longer wavelengths in the form of fluorescence. This non-invasive tissue autofluorescence imaging is used in optical diagnostics, especially in the early detection of cancer. Usually, malignant transformation is associated with thickening of the epithelium, enhanced cellular density due to increased nuclear cytoplasmic ratio which may attenuate the excitation leading to a decrease in collagen autofluorescence. Hence, dysplastic and cancerous tissues often exhibit decreased blue-green autofluorescence and appear darker compared to uninvolved mucosa. Currently, there are three commercially available devices to examine tissue autofluorescence in the oral cavity. In this study we used the oral cancer screening device IdentafiTM 3000 to examine the tissue reflectance and autofluorescence of PML and confounding lesions of the oral cavity. Wide-field autofluorescence imaging enables rapid inspection of large mucosal surfaces, to aid in recognition of suspicious lesions and may also help in discriminate the PML (class 1) from some of the confounding lesions (class II). However, the presence of inflammation or pigments is also associated with loss of stromal autofluorescence, and may give rise to false-positive results with widefield fluorescence imaging. Clinicians who use these autofluorescence based oral cancer screening devices should be aware about the benign oral mucosal lesions that may give false positivity so that unnecessary patient's anxiety and the need for scalpel biopsy can be eliminated.

  18. Conditioning in Stuttering Therapy: Applications and Limitations. Publication No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkweather, C. Woodruff, Ed.

    Presented are seven papers given at a conference on the application of behavior modification techniques to the treatment of stuttering. An introduction to the papers gives an overview of behavior modification. The two papers of Part I present two approaches to stuttering therapy, one of which is based on operant conditioning and the other on…

  19. The Limits of Knowledge Management in Contemporary Corporate Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrick, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on Jean-François Lyotard's (1984) seminal study "The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge" to reflect on two macro-level catastrophes: the global financial crisis (GFC) of 2009 (and its continuing effects throughout the Eurozone and elsewhere) and Fukushima. These two case studies probe aspects of these grand…

  20. 33 CFR 330.4 - Conditions, limitations, and restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... determined to be an historic property in accordance with 33 CFR part 325, appendix C, the DE will take into... district engineer may: (i) After complying with the requirements of 33 CFR part 325, appendix C, authorize... comply with the provisions of 33 CFR 325.4. In the latter case, the conditioned 401 water...

  1. The Limits of Knowledge Management in Contemporary Corporate Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrick, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on Jean-François Lyotard's (1984) seminal study "The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge" to reflect on two macro-level catastrophes: the global financial crisis (GFC) of 2009 (and its continuing effects throughout the Eurozone and elsewhere) and Fukushima. These two case studies probe aspects of these grand…

  2. 14 CFR 125.221 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... adhering to any propeller, windshield, wing, stabilizing or control surface, to a powerplant installation, or to an airspeed, altimeter, rate of climb, or flight attitude instrument system, except under the follow conditions: (1) Takeoffs may be made with frost adhering to the wings, or stabilizing or...

  3. 14 CFR 135.227 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or control surface, to a powerplant installation, or to an airspeed, altimeter, rate of climb, or flight attitude instrument system, except under the following conditions: (1) Takeoffs may be made with frost adhering to the wings, or stabilizing or control surfaces, if the frost has been polished to...

  4. 33 CFR 330.4 - Conditions, limitations, and restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... comply with the provisions of 33 CFR 325.4. In the latter case, the conditioned 401 water quality... event shall the period exceed one (1) year (see 33 CFR 325.2(b)(1)(ii)). Upon receipt of an individual... provisions of 33 CFR 325.4 or believes for some other specific reason it would be inappropriate to...

  5. 33 CFR 330.4 - Conditions, limitations, and restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... comply with the provisions of 33 CFR 325.4. In the latter case, the conditioned 401 water quality... event shall the period exceed one (1) year (see 33 CFR 325.2(b)(1)(ii)). Upon receipt of an individual... provisions of 33 CFR 325.4 or believes for some other specific reason it would be inappropriate to...

  6. 14 CFR 125.221 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... airplane that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any propeller, windshield, stabilizing or control surface... pilot may take off an airplane any time conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be... is a check to make sure the wings and control surfaces are free of frost, ice, or snow. (2)...

  7. 14 CFR 125.221 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... airplane that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any propeller, windshield, stabilizing or control surface... pilot may take off an airplane any time conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be... is a check to make sure the wings and control surfaces are free of frost, ice, or snow. (2)...

  8. 14 CFR 125.221 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... airplane that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any propeller, windshield, stabilizing or control surface... pilot may take off an airplane any time conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be... is a check to make sure the wings and control surfaces are free of frost, ice, or snow. (2)...

  9. 14 CFR 125.221 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... airplane that has frost, ice, or snow adhering to any propeller, windshield, stabilizing or control surface... pilot may take off an airplane any time conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be... is a check to make sure the wings and control surfaces are free of frost, ice, or snow. (2)...

  10. Is oral bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw an endemic condition?

    PubMed

    Diz, P; Limeres, J; Fedele, S; Seoane, J; Diniz, M; Feijoo, J F

    2012-02-01

    Since the introduction of bisphosphonates to treat diseases that affect bone remodelling, there has been an increasing number of cases of bisphosphonate (BP)-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). Epidemiological data regarding BRONJ vary widely between studies, and a number of potential methodological biases have been detected. In some small preliminary studies, single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with an increased risk of BRONJ among cancer patients have been identified. However, genetic susceptibility to oral BP-related BRONJ has not previously been discussed. We suggest that epidemiological variability could be related to the existence of a susceptibility factor particularly prevalent in the population of a well-defined geographical region. To support our hypothesis we performed a search for published case series, only including those with at least 10 patients detected in a single city or a delimited geographical region; this showed that 55% of reports came from Mediterranean countries such as Italy, Israel, Spain and France. The finding does not appear to be conditioned by publication bias. Furthermore, conditions such as classic Kaposi sarcoma and beta-thalassaemia, though not exclusive to the Mediterranean region, also have a high prevalence in that area. We speculate that some of the patients included in the selected US and Australian series may be of Spanish or Italian descent. With an ageing population, the prevalence of osteoporosis will increase, and the number of cases of oral BP-related BRONJ may rise exponentially. Identification of risk groups with susceptibility to BRONJ will arise caution when prescribing BPs and will allow new preventive and therapeutic strategies to be developed. PMID:22136947

  11. [Oral hypoglycemic drugs in chronic kidney disease: which limitations in the clinical setting].

    PubMed

    Granata, Antonio; Insalaco, Monica; Di Nicolò, Pierpaolo; Scarfia, Viviana R; Russo, Leo; D'anna, Giuseppe; Lentini, Paolo; Fiorini, Fulvio; Fatuzzo, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    A large amount of recent epidemiological studies have shown the worldwide growth on the incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus type II (DM2), especially in industrialized countries where DM2 is the most frequent cause of chronic kidney disease. Diabetic nephropathy progression to ESRD (End Stage Renal Disease) may be slowed down only with a tight glycemic control, since no hypoglycemic drugs have been shown to possess renoprotective effects. Treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents should be closely and regularly monitored in patients with diabetic nephropathy since the decline of renal function below 60 ml/min of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) could cause multiple pharmacokinetic alterations. It may expose the patient to serious side effects if cautious dose reduction or even withdrawal of these drugs is not considered. Pharmacological approaches to the treatment of diabetes type 2 include the traditional oral hypoglycemic drugs (insulin sensitizers, insulin secretagogues and drugs inhibiting the absorption of glucose), incretin system drugs (orally or intravenously administered) and insulin therapy, if these drugs are insufficient or are contraindicated. The objective of this review is to evaluate the evidence regarding the use of oral hypoglycemic agents (with particular attention to the DPP-4 inhibitors) in diabetes type 2 with chronic kidney disease stage III- IV and ESRD, while in case of eGFR > 60 ml / min no dosage adjustment is usually required. PMID:24671840

  12. Oral Administration of Fermented Probiotics Improves the Condition of Feces in Adult Horses

    PubMed Central

    ISHIZAKA, Saori; MATSUDA, Akira; AMAGAI, Yosuke; OIDA, Kumiko; JANG, Hyosun; UEDA, Yuko; TAKAI, Masaki; TANAKA, Akane; MATSUDA, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effects of probiotics on horses are still controversial. The present study was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study designed to evaluate the ability of probiotics to improve intestinal conditions in adult horses. Fermented probiotics were administered to 10 healthy adult geldings for 28 days. The clinical condition of the horses was monitored daily, and the blood and feces were biochemically analyzed every 14 days. In the probiotic-treated group, the concentration of carboxylic acids in the feces was increased at days 14 and 28. In contrast to the fecal pH in the control group, which increased at days 14 and 28, the fecal pH in the probiotic-treated group did not increase. Additionally, the relative amounts of enteropathogenic bacterial DNA were diminished in the probiotic-treated group. These results suggest that probiotic bacteria proliferated in the equine intestine. No instances of abnormal clinical conditions or abnormal values in blood tests were observed throughout the study. Oral administration of fermented probiotics may have the ability to improve the intestinal environment biochemically and microbiologically without the risk of adverse effects. PMID:25558179

  13. Oral health conditions and behaviors among hearing impaired and normal hearing college students at Ratchasuda College, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Kositpumivate, Waritorn

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to explore oral health and oral health related behaviors among hearing impaired and normal hearing students at Rachasuda College. The association between socioeconomic factors, hearing status, oral health behaviors, oral hygiene levels and dental caries status were also examined. The students filled out a self-administered questionnaire with assistance of a sign language video to obtain personal and behavior information. A total of 180 students, 83 normal hearing and 97 hearing impaired students completed the questionnaire and underwent an oral examination. The prevalences of caries were 53.6% and 50.6% among students with hearing impairment and normal hearing, respectively (p=0.354). After age stratification, the hearing impaired students aged 18-21 years had significantly less filled teeth (p=0.012), and those older than 21 years had less missing teeth due to caries than normal-hearing students (p=0.023). Poor oral hygiene was found in 51.8% and 42.2% of normal and hearing-impaired students, respectively (p=0.365). Caries status was significantly associated with maternal education level (OR 3.56; 95% CI: 1.52-8.32) and oral hygiene (OR 3.26; 95% CI: 1.64-6.45). The high prevalence of dental caries and poor oral hygiene among college students is alarming. Hearing impairment did not appear to affect the prevalences of these conditions compared to those with normal hearing. Oral health education tools need to be developed and utilized for both normal hearing and hearing impaired college students in Thailand. PMID:25417527

  14. Health investment behaviours and oral/gingival health condition, a cross-sectional study among Swedish 19-year olds.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Jessica S; Wennström, Jan L; Lindgren, Björn; Petzold, Max; Östberg, Anna-Lena; Abrahamsson, Kajsa H

    2016-05-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that certain individual, environmental and lifestyle factors are positively associated with beneficial health investment behaviours and oral/periodontal health among adolescents. Methods Five hundred and six randomly selected 19-year old subjects living in two different areas (Fyrbodal and Skaraborg) in the county council of Västra Götaland, Sweden participated in a clinical examination and answered questionnaires covering psycho-social and health behavioural issues. Two oral-health models were estimated with gingivitis score as an objective and self-perceived oral health as a subjective indicator. Three health- investment behaviour models were designed with indicators directly related to oral health and two with indicators related to general health as well. The explanatory variables included gender, upper secondary education programme, native country, living area, general self-efficacy and parents' education level. Results In the objective oral-health model, theoretical studies and living in the Skaraborg area were both positively associated with a lower gingivitis score. For the subjective oral-health indicator, none of the explanatory variables showed statistical significance. In the investment-behaviour model with 'tooth-brushing ≥ 2 times daily' as a health indicator, female gender and theoretical studies showed statistically significant associations. With the indicators 'no/few missed dental appointments', 'no tobacco use' and 'weekly exercise', theoretical studies were statistically significant and positively associated. In the investment model with 'perceived oral health care attention' as an indicator, a high score of general self-efficacy was significantly associated with the feeling of taking good care of the teeth. Conclusions Individual, environmental and lifestyle factors are associated with young individuals' oral health investment behaviours and gingival health conditions. PMID:26599291

  15. Oral Assessment and Postgraduate Medical Examinations: Establishing Conditions for Validity, Reliability and Fairness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Muhammed Ashraf; Joughin, Gordon Rowland; Memon, Breda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine the practice of oral assessment in postgraduate medical education in the context of the core assessment constructs of validity, reliability and fairness. Although oral assessment has a long history in the certification process of medical specialists and is a well-established part of such proceedings for a…

  16. Oral Assessment and Postgraduate Medical Examinations: Establishing Conditions for Validity, Reliability and Fairness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Muhammed Ashraf; Joughin, Gordon Rowland; Memon, Breda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine the practice of oral assessment in postgraduate medical education in the context of the core assessment constructs of validity, reliability and fairness. Although oral assessment has a long history in the certification process of medical specialists and is a well-established part of such proceedings for a…

  17. Children's trust in unexpected oral versus printed suggestions: limitations of the power of print.

    PubMed

    Eyden, Julie; Robinson, Elizabeth J; Einav, Shiri

    2014-11-01

    Children have a bias to trust spoken testimony, yet early readers have an even stronger bias to trust print. Here, we ask how enduring is the influence of printed testimony: Can the learning be applied to new scenarios? Using hybrid pictures more dominant in one animal species (e.g., squirrel) than another (e.g., rabbit), we examined 3-6-year-olds' (N = 130) acceptance of an unexpected, non-dominant label suggested only orally or via print. Consistent with previous findings, early readers, but not pre-readers, accepted printed labels more frequently than when spoken. Children were then presented with identical but unlabelled hybrid exemplars and frequently applied the non-dominant labels to these. Despite early readers' prior greater acceptance of text, when oral suggestions were accepted they retained a greater influence. Findings highlight potential implications for educators regarding knowledge being applied to new scenarios: For early readers, unexpected information from text may be fragile, while a greater confidence might be placed in such information gained from spoken testimony. PMID:24986692

  18. Enteropathogenicity of plesiomonas shigelloides by oral inoculation in adult conditioned rabbits.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, K; Sack, D A; Rahman, A; Rahim, Z

    1988-01-01

    To study presumptive diarrhoeagenic and invasive properties of Plesiomonas shigelloides, adult conditioned rabbits (n = 75) were fed 10(10) CFU of 3 isolates (2 from diarrhoea patients and one from river water) of the organism, and one isolate of Shigella sonnei (from a dysentery patient as positive control) or brain-heart infusion broth (as negative control). Each rabbit received in succession i.v. cimetidine (50 mg/kg body weight), two 15 ml oral doses of 5% NaHCO3 at 15 and 30 minutes respectively, prompt bacterial or sham inoculum followed 30 minutes by 2 ml of i.p. tincture of opium. Rabbits fed with P. shigelloides did not die or develop diarrhoea, but in a majority of them, histopathological examinations of the intestine revealed mild acute inflammation of the mucosa, mainly in the ileum. There was no serum antibody response by indirect haemagglutination against the lipopolysaccharide of the homologous strains of P. shigelloides. The culture filtrates of the organism also did not show any cytotoxic morphological changes on CHO and Y1 adrenal cell cultures. By contrast, rabbits fed with S. sonnei developed clinical diarrhoea, small to widespread severe acute inflammation of the gut mucosa, and all died on day 7. It may be concluded that P. shigelloides are able to provoke a mild inflammatory lesions of the gut mucosa in this rabbit model; but there is little prospect of using this model to assess easily the virulence of the organism. PMID:3270456

  19. Effects of Orally Administered Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt on Dry Skin Conditions in Mice and Healthy Female Subjects.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masahiko; Kamimura, Ayako; Watanabe, Fumiko; Kamiya, Toshikazu; Watanabe, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Etsushi; Fukagawa, Mitsuhiko; Hasumi, Keiji; Suzuki, Eriko

    2015-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a coenzyme involved in the redox-cycling system. The supplemental use of PQQ has been examined based on its properties as an antioxidant and redox modulator. Although an animal study on deficiency of PQQ suggested that PQQ contributes to skin conditions, its efficacy in humans has not been reported. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of orally administered PQQ on skin moisture, viscoelasticity, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) both in dry skin mouse models and in healthy female subjects with a subjective symptom of dry skin. In our dry skin mouse model study, oral intake of PQQ (0.0089%, w/w, in the diet for 6 wk) significantly decreased the number of mast cells in the dermis and the number of CD3? T-cells in the epidermis. In our human study, oral intake of PQQ (20 mg/d for 8 wk) significantly inhibited the increase in TEWL on the forearm. Finally, subject questionnaires showed positive impressions for the improvement of skin conditions. These results suggest that oral intake of PQQ improves skin conditions both in female subjects with dry skin and in mice with a compromised skin barrier function. PMID:26226961

  20. Relationship between oral clinical conditions and daily performances among young adults in India - a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Batra, Mehak; Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Daryani, Hemasha; Ramesh, Gayathri

    2015-12-01

    Objective of the present study was to investigate relationship between oral health-related quality of life using Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OIDP) scale and specific clinical dental measures. A cross sectional descriptive survey was conducted among 800 students. Oral health status and impacts were assessed using WHO guidelines and OIDP index respectively. Chi square test and multiple logistic regressions were employed for statistical analysis. Participants with caries were significantly (p?0.05) more likely to have an impact on cleaning (OR=2.487) and sleeping and relaxing (OR=8.996). Similarly participants with oral mucosal conditions were more likely to have an impact on eating (OR=3.97), cleaning (OR=2.966) and physical activities (OR=11.190). Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) impacted on cleaning (OR=2.134), emotional stability (OR=3.957) and social contact (OR=3.21). OIDP Index showed acceptable psychometric properties in the context of an oral health survey. Subjects presented a strong and consistent relationship between dental status and perceived impacts. PMID:25814396

  1. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Y of... - Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions A Appendix A to Subpart Y of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor... REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Diving Pt. 1926, Subpt. Y, App. A Appendix A to Subpart Y of Part...

  2. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Y of... - Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions A Appendix A to Subpart Y of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor... REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Diving Pt. 1926, Subpt. Y, App. A Appendix A to Subpart Y of Part...

  3. Fructose- and glucose-conditioned preferences in FVB mice: strain differences in post-oral sugar appetition.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2014-12-15

    Recent studies indicate that, unlike glucose, fructose has little or no post-oral preference conditioning actions in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. The present study determined whether this is also the case for FVB mice, which overconsume fructose relative to B6 mice. In experiment 1, FVB mice strongly preferred a noncaloric 0.1% sucralose + 0.1% saccharin (S+S) solution to 8% fructose in a 2-day choice test but switched their preference to fructose after separate experience with the two sweeteners. Other FVB mice displayed a stronger preference for 8% glucose over S+S. In a second experiment, ad libitum-fed FVB mice trained 24 h/day acquired a significant preference for a flavor (CS+) paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of 16% fructose over a different flavor (CS-) paired with IG water infusions. IG fructose infusions also conditioned flavor preferences in food-restricted FVB mice trained 1 h/day. IG infusions of 16% glucose conditioned stronger preferences in FVB mice trained 24- or 1 h/day. Thus, fructose has post-oral flavor conditioning effects in FVB mice, but these effects are less pronounced than those produced by glucose. Further studies of the differential post-oral conditioning effects of fructose and glucose in B6 and FVB mice should enhance our understanding of the physiological processes involved in sugar reward. PMID:25320345

  4. Oral conditions in renal disorders and treatment considerations – A review for pediatric dentist

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Megha; Gupta, Mridul; Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the current understanding of the oral and dental aspects of chronic renal disease (CRD). A PubMed literature search was performed and all relevant studies were assessed. As the number of people suffering from CRD increases worldwide, dentists are expected to encounter more patients with CRD who need oral care. In children, CRD can elicit a wide spectrum of oral manifestations in the hard and soft tissues. Bleeding, altered drug metabolism, impaired immune function, and an increased risk of dentally induced bacterial endocarditis are some important features that require attention. Dental management of patients with CRD requires that clinicians appreciate that multiple systems can be affected by the disease. Dentists should consult with nephrologists regarding the specific precautions required for each patient. Medical treatments in these patients may need to be postponed due to an unfavorable oral health status or potential risk of life-threatening infection after surgery. Improving oral hygiene and performing necessary dental and oral treatment before hemodialysis or transplantation may prevent endocarditis and septicemia in these patients. Hence, treatment plans should be formulated to restore the patient’s dentition and protect them from potentially severe infections of dental origin. PMID:26236123

  5. 77 FR 69785 - Public Use Limit on Commercial Dog Walking; Revised Disposal Conditions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... Part 1002 Public Use Limit on Commercial Dog Walking; Revised Disposal Conditions AGENCY: The Presidio... a public use limit on persons who are walking four or more dogs at one time in Area B of the Presidio of San Francisco (Presidio) for consideration (Commercial Dog Walkers). The limit will require...

  6. Optimal allocation of the limited oral cholera vaccine supply between endemic and epidemic settings.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sean M; Lessler, Justin

    2015-10-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently established a global stockpile of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) to be preferentially used in epidemic response (reactive campaigns) with any vaccine remaining after 1 year allocated to endemic settings. Hence, the number of cholera cases or deaths prevented in an endemic setting represents the minimum utility of these doses, and the optimal risk-averse response to any reactive vaccination request (i.e. the minimax strategy) is one that allocates the remaining doses between the requested epidemic response and endemic use in order to ensure that at least this minimum utility is achieved. Using mathematical models, we find that the best minimax strategy is to allocate the majority of doses to reactive campaigns, unless the request came late in the targeted epidemic. As vaccine supplies dwindle, the case for reactive use of the remaining doses grows stronger. Our analysis provides a lower bound for the amount of OCV to keep in reserve when responding to any request. These results provide a strategic context for the fulfilment of requests to the stockpile, and define allocation strategies that minimize the number of OCV doses that are allocated to suboptimal situations. PMID:26423441

  7. Optimal allocation of the limited oral cholera vaccine supply between endemic and epidemic settings

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sean M.; Lessler, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently established a global stockpile of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) to be preferentially used in epidemic response (reactive campaigns) with any vaccine remaining after 1 year allocated to endemic settings. Hence, the number of cholera cases or deaths prevented in an endemic setting represents the minimum utility of these doses, and the optimal risk-averse response to any reactive vaccination request (i.e. the minimax strategy) is one that allocates the remaining doses between the requested epidemic response and endemic use in order to ensure that at least this minimum utility is achieved. Using mathematical models, we find that the best minimax strategy is to allocate the majority of doses to reactive campaigns, unless the request came late in the targeted epidemic. As vaccine supplies dwindle, the case for reactive use of the remaining doses grows stronger. Our analysis provides a lower bound for the amount of OCV to keep in reserve when responding to any request. These results provide a strategic context for the fulfilment of requests to the stockpile, and define allocation strategies that minimize the number of OCV doses that are allocated to suboptimal situations. PMID:26423441

  8. Concurrent access to two concentrations of orally delivered phencyclidine: effects of feeding conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, M E

    1987-01-01

    Two experiments addressed the effects of food satiation and deprivation on oral self-administration of two concurrently available phencyclidine concentrations. In the first experiment, 8 rhesus monkeys self-administered either of two concentrations of phencyclidine ("PCP, angel dust") and water under concurrent fixed-ratio 16 schedules. One concentration was always held constant (0.25 mg/mL) while a series of other phencyclidine concentrations, ranging from 0 (water) to 1.0 mg/mL, was presented in a nonsystematic order. Initially the monkeys were tested while food satiated, and the procedure was then repeated during food deprivation. The monkeys usually selected the higher concentration within the first few minutes of the session, indicating that taste and/or other immediate postingestional effects were important factors. Contrary to a number of previous reports, there were no consistent differences across subjects in the mean number of liquid deliveries or mean drug intake (mg/kg) during food satiation and deprivation. However, for all monkeys the within-session time course of responding during food satiation consistently differed from that during deprivation. A second experiment assessed whether the failure to find consistent differences in drug intake during food satiation and deprivation had been due to the history of concurrent access to different phencyclidine concentrations or to the extended experience with phencyclidine under food-satiation conditions. Six additional monkeys (Group 2) were exposed to the phencyclidine self-administration procedure (during food satiation and deprivation) for the same length of time as the monkeys in Experiment 1 (Group 1), except they received only concurrent access to phencyclidine (0.25 mg/mL) and water. Both groups then received concurrent access to phencyclidine and water during five repeated cycles of food deprivation and satiation. There were also marked individual differences in Group 2: During food satiation, 2 of the monkeys' responding increased, 1 showed no change, and 3 decreased. Examination of a number of historical variables indicated that the greater the percentage of total sessions spent during food satiation with phencyclidine available (before these experiments began), the greater the amounts of phencyclidine consumed during food satiation and the smaller the differences in phencyclidine intake when the two feeding conditions were compared. PMID:3612021

  9. Association of Psychosocial Conditions, Oral Health, and Dietary Variety with Intellectual Activity in Older Community-Dwelling Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examined the factors related to intellectual activity in community-dwelling elderly persons. Methods Self-administered questionnaires mailed to all people aged ≥65 years in a dormitory suburb in Japan (n = 15,210). The response rate was 72.2%. Analytical subjects (n = 8,910) were those who lived independently and completely answered questions about independent and dependent variables and covariates. Independent variables included psychosocial conditions (i.e., social activities, hobbies, and a sense that life is worth living (ikigai)), oral health (i.e., dental health behaviors and oral function evaluated by chewing difficulties, swallowing difficulties, and oral dryness), and dietary variety measured using the dietary variety score (DVS). A dependent variable was intellectual activity measured using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Covariates included age, gender, family structure, pensions, body mass index, alcohol, smoking, medical history, self-rated health, medications, cognitive function, depression, and falling. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for poor intellectual activity. Results Poor intellectual activity was reported by 28.9% of the study population. After adjustment for covariates and independent variables, poor intellectual activity was significantly associated with nonparticipation in social activities (OR = 1.90, 95%CI = 1.61–2.24), having neither hobbies nor ikigai (3.13, 2.55–3.84), having neither regular dental visits nor daily brushing (1.70, 1.35–2.14), the poorest oral function (1.61, 1.31–1.98), and the lowest DVS quartile (1.96, 1.70–2.26). Conclusion These results indicate that psychosocial conditions, oral health, and dietary variety are independently associated with intellectual activity in elderly persons. The factors identified in this study may be used in community health programs for maintaining the intellectual activity ability of the elderly. PMID:26360380

  10. Oral submucous fibrosis: a premalignant condition in a 14-year-old Indian girl

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Anshula; Kiran, Shital; Dhillon, Steffi; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    A 14-year-old Indian girl presented with difficulty in mouth opening and burning sensation while eating. On examination, blanching of the oral mucosa with diffuse white pigmented lesion of size 3.5 to 2?cm along with melanotic pigmentation was seen on the left buccal mucosa posteriorly. The patient was diagnosed with oral submucous fibrosis. A comprehensive treatment plan was made based on conservative management that included motivation and intense counselling of the patient and her parents so that she quits the habit of chewing areca nut and tobacco, along with systemic treatment of vitamin B complex supplements, antioxidants, multivitamins and oral physiotherapy. We present this case to highlight the difficulties faced by the clinical practitioners in providing treatment because of the taboos and myths associated with surgical treatment modality in rural population as well as to emphasise the menace of increasing consumption and availability of tobacco and areca nut to children. PMID:24334472

  11. Oral care.

    PubMed

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. PMID:21325845

  12. [The use of the new direct oral anticoagulants among older subjects: The limits of the evidence-based medicine?].

    PubMed

    Vogel, T; Lang, P-O; Kaltenbach, G; Karcher, P

    2015-12-01

    The growing use of direct oral anticoagulants, in particular among older subjects, raises questions about the limits of the evidence-based medicine. The phase III studies that have validated the efficacy and the safety profile of these molecules (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban) in their both indications, the venous thromboembolic disease and the non-valvular atrial fibrillation raise concerns in four major fields: the financial support of pharmaceutical companies, the links of interest for many authors with the industry, the study design (exclusively non-inferiority studies), and the poor representativeness of the older subjects included. All these points are discussed, using data of sub-groups studies, post-marketing studies and recent meta-analysis. The lack of data for the very old subjects, with frailty or comorbidities, remains the main concern from these phase III studies. PMID:26526776

  13. Phase stability limit of c-BN under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic pressure conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Jianwei; Du, Jinglian; Wen, Bin Zhang, Xiangyi; Melnik, Roderick; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2014-04-28

    Phase stability limit of cubic boron nitride (c-BN) has been investigated by the crystal structure search technique. It indicated that this limit is ?1000 GPa at hydrostatic pressure condition. Above this pressure, c-BN turns into a metastable phase with respect to rocksalt type boron nitride (rs-BN). However, rs-BN cannot be retained at 0 GPa owing to its instability at pressure below 250 GPa. For non-hydrostatic pressure conditions, the phase stability limit of c-BN is substantially lower than that under hydrostatic pressure conditions and it is also dramatically different for other pressure mode.

  14. Some Aspects of Speech Production under Controlled Conditions of Oral Anaesthesia and Auditory Masking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardcastle, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    Reports on the effects of oral anaesthesia and auditory masking on various aspects of speech articulation as objectively quantified by electropalatography and sound spectrography. The results show changes in speech production caused by altered tactile and auditory feedback. (Author/TL)

  15. Al-hijamah and oral honey for treating thalassemia, conditions of iron overload, and hyperferremia: toward improving the therapeutic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    El Sayed, Salah Mohamed; Baghdadi, Hussam; Abou-Taleb, Ashraf; Mahmoud, Hany Salah; Maria, Reham A; Ahmed, Nagwa S; Helmy Nabo, Manal Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Iron overload causes iron deposition and accumulation in the liver, heart, skin, and other tissues resulting in serious tissue damages. Significant blood clearance from iron and ferritin using wet cupping therapy (WCT) has been reported. WCT is an excretory form of treatment that needs more research efforts. WCT is an available, safe, simple, economic, and time-saving outpatient modality of treatment that has no serious side effects. There are no serious limitations or precautions to discontinue WCT. Interestingly, WCT has solid scientific and medical bases (Taibah mechanism) that explain its effectiveness in treating many disease conditions differing in etiology and pathogenesis. WCT utilizes an excretory physiological principle (pressure-dependent excretion) that resembles excretion through renal glomerular filtration and abscess evacuation. WCT exhibits a percutaneous excretory function that clears blood (through fenestrated skin capillaries) and interstitial fluids from pathological substances without adding a metabolic or detoxification burden on the liver and the kidneys. Interestingly, WCT was reported to decrease serum ferritin (circulating iron stores) significantly by about 22.25% in healthy subjects (in one session) and to decrease serum iron significantly to the level of causing iron deficiency (in multiple sessions). WCT was reported to clear blood significantly of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol, uric acid, inflammatory mediators, and immunoglobulin antibodies (rheumatoid factor). Moreover, WCT was reported to enhance the natural immunity, potentiate pharmacological treatments, and to treat many different disease conditions. There are two distinct methods of WCT: traditional WCT and Al-hijamah (WCT of prophetic medicine). Both start and end with skin sterilization. In traditional WCT, there are two steps, skin scarification followed by suction using plastic cups (double S technique); Al-hijamah is a three-step procedure that includes skin suction using cups, scarification (shartat mihjam in Arabic), and second skin suction (triple S technique). Al-hijamah is a more comprehensive technique and does better than traditional WCT, as Al-hijamah includes two pressure-dependent filtration steps versus one step in traditional WCT. Whenever blood plasma is to be cleared of an excess pathological substance, Al-hijamah is indicated. We will discuss here some reported hematological and therapeutic benefits of Al-hijamah, its medical bases, methodologies, precautions, side effects, contraindications, quantitative evaluation, malpractice, combination with oral honey treatment, and to what extent it may be helpful when treating thalassemia and other conditions of iron overload and hyperferremia. PMID:25382989

  16. Variations in the social impact of oral conditions among older adults in South Australia, Ontario, and North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Slade, G D; Spencer, A J; Locker, D; Hunt, R J; Strauss, R P; Beck, J D

    1996-07-01

    Previous studies among older adults have demonstrated that oral disease frequently leads to dysfunction, discomfort, and disability. This study aimed to assess variations in the social impact of oral conditions among six strata of people aged 65 years and older: residents of metropolitan Adelaide and rural Mt Gambier, South Australia; residents of metropolitan Toronto-North York and non-metropolitan Simcoe-Sudbury counties, Ontario, Canada; and blacks and whites in the Piedmont region of North Carolina (NC), United States. Subjects were participants in three oral epidemiological studies of random samples of the elderly populations in the six strata. Some 1,642 participants completed a 49-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) questionnaire which asked about impacts caused by problems with the teeth, mouth, or dentures during the previous 12 months. The percentage of dentate people reporting impacts fairly often or very often was greatest among NC blacks for 41 of the OHIP items. Two summary variables of social impact were used as dependent variables in bivariate and multivariate least-squares regression analyses. Among dentate people, mean levels of social impact were greatest for NC blacks and lowest for NC whites, while people from South Australia and Ontario had intermediate levels of social impact (P < 0.01). Missing teeth, retained root fragments, root-surface decay, periodontal pockets, and problem-motivated dental visits were associated with higher levels of social impact (P < 0.05), although there persisted a two-fold difference in social impact across the six strata after adjustment for those factors Among edentulous people, there was no statistically significant variation in social impact among strata. The findings suggest that there are social and cultural factors influencing oral health and its social impact, and that those factors differ most between dentate blacks and whites in NC. PMID:8876595

  17. 78 FR 6273 - Public Use Limit on Commercial Dog Walking; Revised Disposal Conditions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... proposed rule published November 21, 2012 (77 FR 69785-69788) is extended. Comments are due February 25... Part 1002 Public Use Limit on Commercial Dog Walking; Revised Disposal Conditions AGENCY: The Presidio... requesting public comment on a proposed public use limit on persons who are walking four or more dogs at...

  18. Drug susceptibility and biofilm formation of Burkholderia pseudomallei in nutrient-limited condition.

    PubMed

    Anutrakunchai, C; Sermswan, R W; Wongratanacheewin, S; Puknun, A; Taweechaisupapong, S

    2015-06-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, which can form biofilms and microcolonies in vivo and in vitro. One of the hallmark characteristics of the biofilm-forming bacteria is that they can be up to 1,000 times more resistant to antibiotics than their free-living counterpart. Bacteria also become highly tolerant to antibiotics when nutrients are limited. One of the most important causes of starvation induced tolerance in vivo is biofilm growth. However, the effect of nutritional stress on biofilm formation and drug tolerance of B. pseudomallei has never been reported. Therefore, this study aims to determine the effect of nutrient-limited and enriched conditions on drug susceptibility of B. pseudomallei in both planktonic and biofilm forms in vitro using broth microdilution method and Calgary biofilm device, respectively. The biofilm formation of B. pseudomallei in nutrient-limited and enriched conditions was also evaluated by a modified microtiter-plate test. Six isolates of ceftazidime (CAZ)-susceptible and four isolates of CAZ-resistant B. pseudomallei were used. The results showed that the minimum bactericidal concentrations of CAZ against B. pseudomallei in nutrient-limited condition were higher than those in enriched condition. The drug susceptibilities of B. pseudomallei biofilm in both enriched and nutrient-limited conditions were more tolerant than those of planktonic cells. Moreover, the quantification of biofilm formation by B. pseudomallei in nutrient-limited condition was significantly higher than that in enriched condition. These data indicate that nutrient-limited condition could induce biofilm formation and drug tolerance of B. pseudomallei. PMID:26691259

  19. Biomass and cellulosic ethanol production of forage sorghum under limited water conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage sorghum is one of the suggested crops to provide feedstock for biofuel production under water-limited conditions due to its stress tolerance and efficient water use; however, research is needed under these conditions to better understand its energy yield potential. This study presents result...

  20. 42 CFR 410.23 - Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.23 Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and limitations on... mellitus. (ii) Individual with a family history of glaucoma. (iii) African-Americans age 50 and over....

  1. 42 CFR 410.23 - Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.23 Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and limitations on... mellitus. (ii) Individual with a family history of glaucoma. (iii) African-Americans age 50 and over....

  2. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... of early detection of prostate cancer: (i) A screening digital rectal examination. (ii) A...

  3. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  4. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  5. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  6. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  7. Conditional cooling limit for a quantum channel going through an incoherent environment.

    PubMed

    Straka, Ivo; Miková, Martina; Mi?uda, Michal; Dušek, Miloslav; Ježek, Miroslav; Filip, Radim

    2015-01-01

    We propose and experimentally verify a cooling limit for a quantum channel going through an incoherent environment. The environment consists of a large number of independent non-interacting and non-interfering elementary quantum systems--qubits. The qubits travelling through the channel can only be randomly replaced by environmental qubits. We investigate a conditional cooling limit that exploits an additional probing output. The limit specifies when the single-qubit channel is quantum, i.e. it preserves entanglement. It is a fundamental condition for entanglement-based quantum technology. PMID:26568362

  8. Conditional cooling limit for a quantum channel going through an incoherent environment

    PubMed Central

    Straka, Ivo; Miková, Martina; Mi?uda, Michal; Dušek, Miloslav; Ježek, Miroslav; Filip, Radim

    2015-01-01

    We propose and experimentally verify a cooling limit for a quantum channel going through an incoherent environment. The environment consists of a large number of independent non-interacting and non-interfering elementary quantum systems – qubits. The qubits travelling through the channel can only be randomly replaced by environmental qubits. We investigate a conditional cooling limit that exploits an additional probing output. The limit specifies when the single-qubit channel is quantum, i.e. it preserves entanglement. It is a fundamental condition for entanglement-based quantum technology. PMID:26568362

  9. Conditional cooling limit for a quantum channel going through an incoherent environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straka, Ivo; Miková, Martina; Mi?uda, Michal; Dušek, Miloslav; Ježek, Miroslav; Filip, Radim

    2015-11-01

    We propose and experimentally verify a cooling limit for a quantum channel going through an incoherent environment. The environment consists of a large number of independent non-interacting and non-interfering elementary quantum systems – qubits. The qubits travelling through the channel can only be randomly replaced by environmental qubits. We investigate a conditional cooling limit that exploits an additional probing output. The limit specifies when the single-qubit channel is quantum, i.e. it preserves entanglement. It is a fundamental condition for entanglement-based quantum technology.

  10. Oral Cancer Exam

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease ...

  11. Abortive initiation by bacteriophage T3 and T7 RNA polymerases under conditions of limiting substrate.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, M L; Risman, S S; Klement, J F; McGraw, N; McAllister, W T

    1989-01-01

    Initiation of RNA synthesis by the phage polymerases is abortive if the concentration of pyrimidine triphosphates is limiting. Under abortive initiation conditions the polymerases repeatedly initiate transcription but produce ribooligonucleotides that terminate just prior to the first occurrence of the limiting substrate. Abortive initiation is most severe if the limiting substrate occurs within the first 8-12 nucleotides of the nascent RNA chain and is particularly evident when UMP is limiting. The formation of stable elongation complexes (as determined by gel retardation experiments) occurs after the synthesis of an RNA product 8-12 nucleotides in length. Images PMID:2646596

  12. Inhibitory activity in vitro of probiotic lactobacilli against oral Candida under different fermentation conditions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Q; Stamatova, I; Kari, K; Meurman, J H

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that probiotics positively affect oral health by decreasing gum bleeding and/or reducing salivary counts of certain oral pathogens. Our aim was to investigate the inhibitory effect of six probiotic lactobacilli against opportunistic oral Candida species. Sugar utilisation by both lactobacilli and Candida was also assessed. Agar overlay assay was utilised to study growth inhibition of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112, Lactobacillus brevis CD2, Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB86 and L. bulgaricus LB Lact. The inhibitory effect was measured at pH 5.5, 6.4, and 7.2, respectively, and in the presence of five different carbohydrates in growth medium (glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose, and sorbitol). Growth and final pH values were measured at two-hour time points to 24 h. L. rhamnosus GG showed the strongest inhibitory activity in fructose and glucose medium against C. albicans, followed by L. casei Shirota, L. reuteri SD2112 and L. brevis CD2. None of the lactobacilli tested affected the growth of C. krusei. Only L. rhamnosus GG produced slight inhibitory effect on C. glabrata. The lower pH values led to larger inhibition zones. Sugar fermentation profiles varied between the strains. L. casei Shirota grew in the presence of all sugars tested, whereas L. brevis CD2 could utilise only glucose and fructose. All Candida species metabolised the available sugars but the most rapid growth was observed with C. glabrata. The results suggest that commercially available probiotics differ in their inhibitory activity and carbohydrate utilisation; the above properties are modified by different pH values and sugars with more pronounced inhibition at lower pH. PMID:25380800

  13. Structural modifications of the salivary conditioning film upon exposure to sodium bicarbonate: implications for oral lubrication and mouthfeel.

    PubMed

    Ash, A; Wilde, P J; Bradshaw, D J; King, S P; Pratten, J R

    2016-03-14

    The salivary conditioning film (SCF) that forms on all surfaces in the mouth plays a key role in lubricating the oral cavity. As this film acts as an interface between tongue, enamel and oral mucosa, it is likely that any perturbations to its structure could potentially lead to a change in mouthfeel perception. This is often experienced after exposure to oral hygiene products. For example, consumers that use dentifrice that contain a high concentration of sodium bicarbonate (SB) often report a clean mouth feel after use; an attribute that is clearly desirable for oral hygiene products. However, the mechanisms by which SB interacts with the SCF to alter lubrication in the mouth is unknown. Therefore, saliva and the SCF was exposed to high ionic strength and alkaline solutions to elucidate whether the interactions observed were a direct result of SB, its high alkalinity or its ionic strength. Characteristics including bulk viscosity of saliva and the viscoelasticity of the interfacial salivary films that form at both the air/saliva and hydroxyapatite/saliva interfaces were tested. It was hypothesised that SB interacts with the SCF in two ways. Firstly, the ionic strength of SB shields electrostatic charges of salivary proteins, thus preventing protein crosslinking within the film and secondly; the alkaline pH (≈8.3) of SB reduces the gel-like structure of mucins present in the pellicle by disrupting disulphide bridging of the mucins via the ionization of their cysteine's thiol group, which has an isoelectric point of ≈8.3. PMID:26883483

  14. Conditioning of the graphite bumper limiter for enhanced confinement discharges in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.; LaMarche, P.H.; Ulrickson, M.; Goldston, R.J.; Heifetz, D.B.; Hill, K.W.; Ramsey, A.T.

    1987-05-01

    A strong pumping effect has been observed with plasma operation on the toroidal graphite bumper limiter on TFTR. The pumping effect was induced by conditioning the limiter with a short series (10 to 20) of low density deuterium- or helium-initiated discharges. The density decay constant (tau/sub p/*) for gas-fueled ohmic discharges was reduced from tau/sub p/* > 10 s before conditioning to a minimum value of tau/sub p/* = 0.15 s after conditioning, corresponding to a reduction in the global recycling coefficient from approx.100% to less than 50%. Coincident with the low recycling conditions, low current neutral-beam-fueled discharges show global energy confinement times which are enhanced by a factor of two over results with an unconditioned limiter. Two models are proposed for the observed pumping effects: (1) a depletion model based on pumping of hydrogenic species in the near-surface region of the limiter after depletion of the normally saturated surface layer by (carbon and helium) ion-induced desorption; and (2) a codeposition model based on pumping of hydrogenic species in carbon films sputtered from the limiter by the conditioning process.

  15. Stroke prevention in the elderly atrial fibrillation patient with comorbid conditions: focus on non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants

    PubMed Central

    Turagam, Mohit K; Velagapudi, Poonam; Flaker, Greg C

    2015-01-01

    Stroke prevention in elderly atrial fibrillation patients remains a challenge. There is a high risk of stroke and systemic thromboembolism but also a high risk of bleeding if anticoagulants are prescribed. The elderly have increased chronic kidney disease, coronary artery disease, polypharmacy, and overall frailty. For all these reasons, anticoagulant use is underutilized in the elderly. In this manuscript, the benefits of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants compared with warfarin in the elderly patient population with multiple comorbid conditions are reviewed. PMID:26366064

  16. Reducing Conservatism in Aircraft Engine Response Using Conditionally Active Min-Max Limit Regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Current aircraft engine control logic uses a Min-Max control selection structure to prevent the engine from exceeding any safety or operational limits during transients due to throttle commands. This structure is inherently conservative and produces transient responses that are slower than necessary. In order to utilize the existing safety margins more effectively, a modification to this architecture is proposed, referred to as a Conditionally Active (CA) limit regulator. This concept uses the existing Min-Max architecture with the modification that limit regulators are active only when the operating point is close to a particular limit. This paper explores the use of CA limit regulators using a publicly available commercial aircraft engine simulation. The improvement in thrust response while maintaining all necessary safety limits is demonstrated in a number of cases.

  17. Analysis of the influence of parenteral cancer chemotherapy on the health condition of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Rahnama, Mansur; Madej-Czerwonka, Barbara; Jastrz?bska-Jamrogiewicz, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study The present study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of oral complications in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Material and methods The study was conducted on a group of 58 patients treated with chemotherapy (study group). The control group consisted of 30 healthy patients. Dental status and oral mucosa were examined using the criteria of the National Cancer Institute Toxicity Criteria Scale. The levels of stimulated and unstimulated saliva flow were analysed. Results In the group of patients treated with chemotherapy, 59% of patients had inflammatory changes of the soft tissues of the mouth, such as erythema, erosions, or ulcers, which were discovered during dental examination. Such changes occurred in only 10% of patients in the control group. Six of the patients treated with chemotherapy reported pain with intensity was so severe that it caused swallowing difficulties. Patients in the study group frequently complained about the presence of dry mouth, taste disturbances, nausea, and vomiting. These symptoms occurred in 70% of patients undergoing oncological treatment. In both stimulated and unstimulated saliva secretion, the rates were significantly lower in patients from the research group, when compared to the control group. PMID:26199575

  18. Water swallow screening test for patients after surgery for head and neck cancer: early identification of dysphagia, aspiration and limitations of oral intake.

    PubMed

    Hey, Christiane; Lange, Benjamin P; Eberle, Silvia; Zaretsky, Yevgen; Sader, Robert; Stöver, Timo; Wagenblast, Jens

    2013-09-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) are at high risk for oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) following surgical therapy. Early identification of OD can improve outcomes and reduce economic burden. This study aimed to evaluate the validity of a water screening test using increasing volumes postsurgically for patients with HNC (N=80) regarding the early identification of OD in general, and whether there is a need for further instrumental diagnostics to investigate the presence of aspiration as well as to determine the limitations of oral intake as defined by fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. OD in general was identified in 65%, with aspiration in 49%, silent aspiration in 21% and limitations of oral intake in 56%. Despite a good sensitivity, for aspiration of 100% and for limitations of oral intake of 97.8%, the presented water screening test did not satisfactorily predict either of these reference criteria due to its low positive likelihood ratio (aspiration=2.6; limitations of oral intake=3.1). However, it is an accurate tool for the early identification of OD in general, with a sensitivity of 96.2% and a positive likelihood ratio of 5.4 in patients after surgery for HNC. PMID:24023344

  19. Methods and background characteristics of the TOHNN study: a population-based study of oral health conditions in northern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Holde, Gro Eirin; Oscarson, Nils; Tillberg, Anders; Marstrander, Peter; Jönsson, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the Tromstannen – Oral Health in Northern Norway (TOHNN) study was to investigate oral health and dental-related diseases in an adult population. This article provides an overview of the background of the study and a description of the sample characteristics and methods employed in data collection. Study design Cross-sectional population-based study including a questionnaire and clinical dental examination. Methods A randomly selected sample of 2,909 individuals (20–79 years old) drawn from the population register was invited to participate in the study. The data were collected between October 2013 and November 2014 in Troms County in northern Norway. The questionnaire focused on oral health-related behaviours and attitudes, oral health-related quality of life, sense of coherence, dental anxiety and symptoms from the temporomandibular joint. The dental examinations, including radiographs, were conducted by 11 dental teams in 5 dental offices. The examination comprised of registration of dental caries, full mouth periodontal status, temporomandibular disorders, mucosal lesions and height and weight. The participants were grouped by age (20–34, 35–49, 50–64 and 65–79) and ethnicity (Norwegian, Sámi, other European and other world). Results From the original sample of 2,909 individuals, 1,986 (68.3%) people participated, of whom 1,019 (51.3%) were women. The highest attendance rate was among women 20–34 years old (80.3%) and the lowest in the oldest age group of women (55.4%). There was no difference in response rate between rural and urban areas. There was a positive correlation between population size and household gross income (p < 0.001) and education level (p < 0.001). The majority of Sámi resided in smaller municipalities. In larger cities, most participants used private dental health care services, whereas, in rural areas, most participants used the public dental health care service. Conclusion The TOHNN study has the potential to generate new knowledge on a wide range of oral health conditions beneficial to the population in Troms County. Due to the high participation rate, generalization both nationally and to the circumpolar area ought to be possible. PMID:26900910

  20. Modelling reference conditions for the upper limit of Posidonia oceanica meadows: a morphodynamic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacchi, Matteo; Misson, Gloria; Montefalcone, Monica; Archetti, Renata; Nike Bianchi, Carlo; Ferrari, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The upper portion of the meadows of the protected Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica occurs in the region of the seafloor mostly affected by surf-related effects. Evaluation of its status is part of monitoring programs, but proper conclusions are difficult to draw due to the lack of definite reference conditions. Comparing the position of the meadow upper limit with the beach morphodynamics (i.e. the distinctive type of beach produced by topography and wave climate) provided evidence that the natural landwards extension of meadows can be predicted. Here we present an innovative predictive cartographic approach able to identify the seafloor portion where the meadow upper limit should naturally lies (i.e. its reference conditions). The conceptual framework of this model is based on 3 essential components: i) Definition of the breaking depth geometry: the breaking limit represents the major constrain for the landward meadow development. We modelled the breaking limit (1 year return time) using the software Mike 21 sw. ii) Definition of the morphodynamic domain of the beach using the surf scaling index ?; iii) Definition of the P. oceanica upper limit geometry. We coupled detailed aerial photo with thematic bionomic cartography. In GIS environment, we modelled the seafloor extent where the meadow should naturally lies according to the breaking limit position and the morphodynamic domain of the beach. Then, we added the GIS layer with the meadow upper limit geometry. Therefore, the final output shows, on the same map, both the reference condition and the actual location of the upper limit. It make possible to assess the status of the landward extent of a given P. oceanica meadow and quantify any suspected or observed regression caused by anthropic factors. The model was elaborated and validated along the Ligurian coastline (NW Mediteraanean) and was positively tested in other Mediterranean areas.

  1. An attempt to condition flavour preference induced by oral and/or postoral administration of 16% sucrose in pigs.

    PubMed

    Clouard, Caroline; Loison, Florence; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Val-Laillet, David

    2014-01-30

    The present study investigated the acquisition of conditioned flavour preferences in pigs using the caloric value and/or sweet taste of sucrose. Nine water-deprived juvenile pigs were given four three-day conditioning sessions during which they received flavoured solutions as conditioned stimuli (CS). The CS solutions were paired with three treatments that generated a gustatory and/or a caloric reinforcement (US). The CS++ solution was added with 16% sucrose and paired with an intraduodenal (ID) infusion of water, the CS+ solution was paired with an ID infusion of 16% sucrose and the CS- solution was paired with an ID infusion of water. One and two weeks after conditioning, the water-deprived pigs were subjected to two-choice preference tests with the unreinforced CS solutions. Solutions intake, behavioural activity and some drinking parameters were measured. Despite no difference in CS intake during conditioning, the animals spent less time inactive and more time standing during CS++ than CS+ conditioning. When receiving CS++, the pigs explored the drinking trough more than when receiving CS-. Compared to the CS- condition, the numbers of drinking episodes and intra-drinking episode (IDE) pauses were also 36% and 49% lesser in the CS++ condition, but these differences were not significant. During the two-choice tests, the pigs did not show significant preferences. Nevertheless, during the first session, the pigs seemed to show a slight preference for the CS++ (57% of total intake) compared to CS+. The duration of CS++ drinking episodes represented 64% of the total duration compared to CS+ and CS- . The total time spent drinking the CS++ also represented 57% of the total time in the CS++ vs. CS- test. To conclude, although no clear-cut preferences were found during two-choice tests, the oral perception of 16% sucrose during conditioning induced changes in behavioural activities, motivational responses and microstructure of CS intake, suggesting the importance of oral food perception for food selection processes in pigs. Further studies are needed to investigate the impact of water deprivation on the expression of flavour preferences in pigs. PMID:24184509

  2. Integrating palliative care into primary care for patients with chronic, life-limiting conditions.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Ann Selena

    2016-03-15

    As longevity increases, individuals with chronic, life-limiting conditions will live longer with disease burden and functional decline. Nurse practitioners can integrate symptom management, early decision-making, and supportive care into the primary care setting to improve quality of life and decrease economic and emotional impact at the end of life. PMID:26886272

  3. 34 CFR 675.20 - Eligible employers and general conditions and limitation on employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eligible employers and general conditions and limitation on employment. 675.20 Section 675.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Federal Work-Study Program § 675.20...

  4. 34 CFR 675.20 - Eligible employers and general conditions and limitation on employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eligible employers and general conditions and limitation on employment. 675.20 Section 675.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Federal Work-Study Program § 675.20...

  5. Organisational Conditions to Boost or Limit Professional Development in the Cypriot Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loizou, Florentia

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I examine which organisational conditions can promote or limit the professional development of teachers in the Cypriot primary school. The discussion builds on findings from a study I conducted about Cypriot primary school teachers' reflective practices (Loizou 2011). The study was qualitative and used semi-structured…

  6. 29 CFR 2590.701-3 - Limitations on preexisting condition exclusion period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diabetes, generally not subject to any lifetime dollar limit. However, if an individual was diagnosed with diabetes before the effective date of coverage under the plan, diabetes coverage is subject to a lifetime... imposed by Employer U's plan, has diabetes, as well as retinal degeneration, a foot condition, and...

  7. 42 CFR 410.12 - Medical and other health services: Basic conditions and limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical and other health services: Basic conditions and limitations. 410.12 Section 410.12 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.12...

  8. 34 CFR 675.20 - Eligible employers and general conditions and limitation on employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Federal Work-Study Program § 675.20 Eligible employers and general conditions and limitation on employment... nonprofit organization; or (4) A private for-profit organization. (b) Agreement between institution...

  9. Bacillus spp. from rainforest soil promote plant growth under limited nitrogen conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of PGPR (Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria) isolated from rainforest on different plants under limited nitrogen conditions. Methods and Results: Bacterial isolates from a Peruvian rainforest soil were screened for plant growth promoting effects...

  10. 50 CFR 22.32 - Conditions and limitations on taking under depredation control order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conditions and limitations on taking under depredation control order. 22.32 Section 22.32 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION...

  11. 40 CFR 122.44 - Establishing limitations, standards, and other permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for the discharge prepared by the State and approved by EPA pursuant to 40 CFR 130.7. (2) Attain or... 132.2), conditions promulgated by the State, Tribe, or EPA pursuant to 40 CFR part 132. (s) Qualifying... limitations guidelines and standards in an NPDES permit to forego sampling of a pollutant found at 40...

  12. 40 CFR 122.44 - Establishing limitations, standards, and other permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for the discharge prepared by the State and approved by EPA pursuant to 40 CFR 130.7. (2) Attain or... 132.2), conditions promulgated by the State, Tribe, or EPA pursuant to 40 CFR part 132. (s) Qualifying... limitations guidelines and standards in an NPDES permit to forego sampling of a pollutant found at 40...

  13. 40 CFR 122.44 - Establishing limitations, standards, and other permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for the discharge prepared by the State and approved by EPA pursuant to 40 CFR 130.7. (2) Attain or... 132.2), conditions promulgated by the State, Tribe, or EPA pursuant to 40 CFR part 132. (s) Qualifying... limitations guidelines and standards in an NPDES permit to forego sampling of a pollutant found at 40...

  14. 40 CFR 122.44 - Establishing limitations, standards, and other permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for the discharge prepared by the State and approved by EPA pursuant to 40 CFR 130.7. (2) Attain or... 132.2), conditions promulgated by the State, Tribe, or EPA pursuant to 40 CFR part 132. (s) Qualifying... limitations guidelines and standards in an NPDES permit to forego sampling of a pollutant found at 40...

  15. Time-limited involvement of dorsal hippocampus in unimodal discriminative contextual conditioning.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Teresa Camille; Otto, Tim

    2010-11-01

    Converging evidence examining the effects of post-training manipulations of the hippocampus suggests that the hippocampus may play a time-limited role in the maintenance of a variety of forms of memory. In particular, either lesions or inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus results in many cases in a time-limited retrograde impairment in nondiscriminative contextual conditioning paradigms. However, the extent to which hippocampal manipulations result in a time-limited retrograde amnesia for a variety of forms of learning has recently been called into question (reviewed in Sutherland, Sparks, & Lehmann (2010)). The present study examined the effect of inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus either 7, 28, or 42 days following training in an explicitly nonspatial, discriminative contextual conditioning paradigm (Otto & Poon, 2006; Parsons & Otto, 2008). Inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus resulted in a significant deficit in the expression of contextual conditioning at 7 and 28 days, but not 42 days, following training. Importantly, inactivation of the hippocampus did not affect either baseline freezing levels or conditioning to an explicit CS. Together with previous data exploring hippocampal contributions to discriminative unimodal contextual conditioning, these data suggest that the hippocampus may play a particularly prominent role in the temporary maintenance of memory in discriminative contextual paradigms. PMID:20816992

  16. The supporting effects of high luminous conditions on grade 3 oral reading fluency scores.

    PubMed

    Mott, Michael S; Robinson, Daniel H; Williams-Black, Thea H; McClelland, Susan S

    2014-01-01

    The universality of the impact of daylight is a common thread that defines humanity. Day light affects us in a variety of ways -visually, psychologically and biologically. Artificial lighting research has explored ways in which artificial lighting may substitute for daylight and enhance human health and wellbeing. Recently, a study by Mott et al. 2011 found that the usage of high intensity, yet glare free lighting, (referred to as Focus light setting) during reading instruction increased grade 3 students' oral reading fluency (ORF) scores, a key index of reading comprehension. The current study further explored the effect of Focus lighting during literacy instruction with at-risk grade 3 students (n?=?172). Over the course of an academic year, the Focus lighting students increased their ORF scores at a greater rate than did the Normal lighting students. These findings, in combination with earlier lighting research, suggest that artificial lighting plays a key role in helping to create an effective learning environment to ensure children reach their full potential. More systematic research, however, is needed to understand the mechanisms by which artificial lighting may contribute to the learning environment: visually, biologically and/or psychologically. PMID:24555170

  17. Forming Limits in Sheet Metal Forming for Non-Proportional Loading Conditions - Experimental and Theoretical Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Ofenheimer, Aldo; Buchmayr, Bruno; Kolleck, Ralf

    2005-08-05

    The influence of strain paths (loading history) on material formability is well known in sheet forming processes. Sophisticated experimental methods are used to determine the entire shape of strain paths of forming limits for aluminum AA6016-T4 alloy. Forming limits for sheet metal in as-received condition as well as for different pre-deformation are presented. A theoretical approach based on Arrieux's intrinsic Forming Limit Stress Curve (FLSC) concept is employed to numerically predict the influence of loading history on forming severity. The detailed experimental strain paths are used in the theoretical study instead of any linear or bilinear simplified loading histories to demonstrate the predictive quality of forming limits in the state of stress.

  18. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  19. Growth of Geobacter sulfurreducens under nutrient-limiting conditions in continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Núñez, Abraham; Rothermich, Mary; Sharma, Manju; Lovley, Derek

    2005-05-01

    A system for growing Geobacter sulfurreducens under anaerobic conditions in chemostats was developed in order to study the physiology of this organism under conditions that might more closely approximate those found in the subsurface than batch cultures. Geobacter sulfurreducens could be cultured under acetate-limiting conditions with fumarate or Fe(III)-citrate as the electron acceptor at growth rates between 0.04 and 0.09 h(-1). The molar growth yield was threefold higher with fumarate as the electron acceptor than with Fe(III), despite the lower mid-point potential of the fumarate/succinate redox couple. When growth was limited by availability of fumarate, high steady-state concentrations were detected, suggesting that fumarate is unlikely to be an important electron acceptor in sedimentary environments. The half-saturation constant, Ks, for acetate in Fe(III)-grown cultures (10 microM) suggested that the growth of Geobacter species is likely to be acetate limited in most subsurface sediments, but that when millimolar quantities of acetate are added to the subsurface in order to promote the growth of Geobacter for bioremediation applications, this should be enough to overcome any acetate limitations. When the availability of electron acceptors, rather than acetate, limited growth, G. sulfurreducens was less efficient in incorporating acetate into biomass but had higher respiration rates, a desirable physiological characteristic when adding acetate to stimulate the activity of Geobacter species during in situ uranium bioremediation. These results demonstrate that the ability to study the growth of G. sulfurreducens under steady-state conditions can provide insights into its physiological characteristics that have relevance for its activity in a diversity of sedimentary environments. PMID:15819846

  20. Recent trends in prevention of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mangalath, Ummar; Aslam, Sachin Aslam; Abdul Khadar, Abdul Hafiz Kooliyat; Francis, Pulikkan George; Mikacha, Muhamed Shaloob Karimbil; Kalathingal, Jubin Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancers often occurs out of long standing potentially malignant lesions and conditions so called premalignant lesions and conditions. Oral precancer is a intermediate state with increased cancer rate which can be recognized and treated obviously with much better prognosis than a full blown malignancy. Oral cancer risk can be lowered or even prevented by simply understanding basic oral hygiene, different bacteria found in the mouth, and how diet influences oral cancers. Currently, research is being done on the relationship between diet and oral cancer. Oral cancer is a very serious disease that can be prevented. Practicing good oral hygiene is key to help keep the oral cavity clean. Limiting the use of tobacco and alcohol products is also important because these are the causes of most oral cancers. Lastly, eating a well balanced diet that has protective affects can reduce the risk of oral cancer. This includes a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and fish and low in high fat and cholesterol meats, rice, and refined grains. PMID:25625069

  1. Periodontal conditions and associated factors among adults and the elderly: findings from the first National Oral Health Survey in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Susana M; Alvarez, Ramón; Andrade, Ernesto; Piccardo, Virginia; Francia, Alejandro; Massa, Fernando; Correa, Marcos Britto; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of periodontal conditions in the Uruguayan adult and elderly population and its association with socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics. Data from adults (35-44, n = 358) and elderly (65-74, n = 411) who participated in the first National Oral Health Survey, Uruguay, 2011, were used. The survey included a household questionnaire addressing socioeconomic characteristics, and tobacco use. Bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal pockets (CPI) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were measured by clinical examination. A multivariable analysis was carried out. Considering both age groups, the prevalence of mild/severe periodontal disease was 21.8% and 9.12% for severe periodontal disease. Adjusted analyses revealed an association between high education and all outcomes. Attendance at dental services was negatively associated with BOP and mild to severe periodontitis. Periodontal outcomes were higher in disadvantaged socioeconomic groups. Tobacco consumption has a strong association with periodontal disease in the elderly. PMID:26840821

  2. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Samuel A. (Hopewell, NJ); Hosea, Joel C. (Princeton, NJ); Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ)

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  3. A water use and growth model for Eucalyptus plantation in water-limited conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Calder, I.R.

    1992-12-31

    To investigate the environmental impact of plantation forestry using fast-growing tree species in southern India, a program of field studies was initiated in 1987 specifically to measure the water use, nutrient uptake and growth rates of the plantations. A water use and growth (WAG) model is proposed for calculating transpiration and growth of Eucalyptus plantation in water-limited conditions. The model is based on the measured relationships between transpiration rate and basal cross-sectional area and soil moisture availability. The volume growth rate (in water-limited conditions) is assumed to be proportional to the volume of water transpired. The model is calibrated using (deuterium tracing) measurements of transpiration and measurements of growth recorded at the Puradal experimental plantation, Karnataka, southern India.

  4. The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Estupinan-Day, Saskia; Ndiaye, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral mucosal lesions and oropharyngeal cancers, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related oral disease and orodental trauma are major public health problems worldwide and poor oral health has a profound effect on general health and quality of life. The diversity in oral disease patterns and development trends across countries and regions reflects distinct risk profiles and the establishment of preventive oral health care programmes. The important role of sociobehavioural and environmental factors in oral health and disease has been shown in a large number of socioepidemiological surveys. In addition to poor living conditions, the major risk factors relate to unhealthy lifestyles (i.e. poor diet, nutrition and oral hygiene and use of tobacco and alcohol), and limited availability and accessibility of oral health services. Several oral diseases are linked to noncommunicable chronic diseases primarily because of common risk factors. Moreover, general diseases often have oral manifestations (e.g. diabetes or HIV/AIDS). Worldwide strengthening of public health programmes through the implementation of effective measures for the prevention of oral disease and promotion of oral health is urgently needed. The challenges of improving oral health are particularly great in developing countries. PMID:16211157

  5. Effect of Exogenous Siderophores on Iron Uptake Activity of Marine Bacteria under Iron-Limited Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Le Luo; Kanoh, Kaneo; Kamino, Kei

    2001-01-01

    More than 60% of species examined from a total of 421 strains of heterotrophic marine bacteria which were isolated from marine sponges and seawater were observed to have no detectable siderophore production even when Fe(III) was present in the culture medium at a concentration of 1.0 pM. The growth of one such non-siderophore-producing strain, alpha proteobacterium V0210, was stimulated under iron-limited conditions with the addition of an isolated exogenous siderophore, N,N?-bis (2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-O-serylserine from a Vibrio sp. Growth was also stimulated by the addition of three exogenous siderophore extracts from siderophore-producing bacteria. Radioisotope studies using 59Fe showed that the iron uptake ability of V0210 increased only with the addition of exogenous siderophores. Biosynthesis of a hydroxamate siderophore by V0210 was shown by paper electrophoresis and chemical assays for the detection of hydroxamates and catechols. An 85-kDa iron-regulated outer membrane protein was induced only under iron-limited conditions in the presence of exogenous siderophores. This is the first report of bacterial iron uptake through an induced siderophore in response to exogenous siderophores. Our results suggest that siderophores are necessary signaling compounds for growth and for iron uptake by some non-siderophore-producing marine bacteria under iron-limited conditions. PMID:11282625

  6. Role of microRNAs involved in plant response to nitrogen and phosphorous limiting conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Giao N.; Rothstein, Steven J.; Spangenberg, German; Kant, Surya

    2015-01-01

    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs which target and regulate the expression of genes involved in several growth, development, and metabolism processes. Recent researches have shown involvement of miRNAs in the regulation of uptake and utilization of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and more importantly for plant adaptation to N and P limitation conditions by modifications in plant growth, phenology, and architecture and production of secondary metabolites. Developing strategies that allow for the higher efficiency of using both N and P fertilizers in crop production is important for economic and environmental benefits. Improved crop varieties with better adaptation to N and P limiting conditions could be a key approach to achieve this effectively. Furthermore, understanding on the interactions between N and P uptake and use and their regulation is important for the maintenance of nutrient homeostasis in plants. This review describes the possible functions of different miRNAs and their cross-talk relevant to the plant adaptive responses to N and P limiting conditions. In addition, a comprehensive understanding of these processes at molecular level and importance of biological adaptation for improved N and P use efficiency is discussed. PMID:26322069

  7. Impact of oral health conditions on the quality of life of preschool children and their families: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries, traumatic dental injury (TDI) and malocclusion are common oral health conditions among preschool children and can have both physical and psychosocial consequences. Thus, it is important to measure the impact these on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of oral health conditions on the OHRQoL of preschool children and their families. Methods A preschool-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 preschool children in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered the Brazilian Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale and a questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data as well as the parent’s/caregiver’s perceptions regarding their child’s health. Clinical exams were performed by three researchers who had undergone a calibration process for the diagnosis of dental caries, TDI and malocclusion (K?=?0.83-0.85). Hierarchical Poisson regression was employed to determine the strength of associations between oral health conditions and OHRQoL (??=?5%). The multivariate model was run on three levels obeying a hierarchical approach from distal to proximal determinants: 1) socio-demographic data; 2) perceptions of health; and 3) oral health conditions. Results The prevalence of impact from oral health conditions on OHRQoL was 32.1% among the children and 26.2% among the families. The following variables were significantly associated with a impact on OHRQoL among the children: birth order of child (PR?=?1.430; 95% CI: 1.045-1.958), parent’s/caregiver’s perception of child’s oral health as poor (PR?=?1.732; 95% CI: 1.399-2.145), cavitated lesions (PR?=?2.596; 95% CI: 1.982-3.400) and TDI (PR?=?1.413; 95% CI: 1.161-1.718). The following variables were significantly associated with a impact on OHRQoL among the families: parent’s/caregiver’s perception of child’s oral health as poor (PR?=?2.116; 95% CI: 1.624-2.757), cavitated lesions (PR?=?2.809; 95% CI: 2.009-3.926) and type of TDI (PR?=?2.448; 95% CI: 1.288-4.653). Conclusion Cavitated lesions and TDI exerted a impact on OHRQoL of the preschool children and their families. Parents’/caregivers’ perception of their child’s oral health as poor and the birth order of the child were predictors of a greater impact on OHRQoL. PMID:24745700

  8. Oral intake of ?-aminobutyric acid affects mood and activities of central nervous system during stressed condition induced by mental tasks.

    PubMed

    Yoto, A; Murao, S; Motoki, M; Yokoyama, Y; Horie, N; Takeshima, K; Masuda, K; Kim, M; Yokogoshi, H

    2012-09-01

    ?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a kind of amino acid contained in green tea leaves and other foods. Several reports have shown that GABA might affect brain protein synthesis, improve many brain functions such as memory and study capability, lower the blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats, and may also have a relaxation effect in humans. However, the evidence for its mood-improving function is still not sufficient. In this study, we investigated how the oral intake of GABA influences human adults psychologically and physiologically under a condition of mental stress. Sixty-three adults (28 males, 35 females) participated in a randomized, single blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-designed study over two experiment days. Capsules containing 100 mg of GABA or dextrin as a placebo were used as test samples. The results showed that EEG activities including alpha band and beta band brain waves decreased depending on the mental stress task loads, and the condition of 30 min after GABA intake diminished this decrease compared with the placebo condition. That is to say, GABA might have alleviated the stress induced by the mental tasks. This effect also corresponded with the results of the POMS scores. PMID:22203366

  9. Postural stability limits in manifest and premanifest Huntington's disease under different sensory conditions.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, M; Prince, F; Chouinard, S; Messier, J

    2014-10-24

    Increasing evidence indicates that Huntington's disease (HD) produces postural control impairments even before the clinical diagnosis. It has been suggested that postural disorders of HD patients are explained by deficits in the processing and integration of sensory information, but this hypothesis has been under-explored. In the present study, we evaluated the amplitude of the center of pressure (COP) displacement during maximum leaning in four directions (forward, backward, rightward and leftward) and under three sensory conditions (eyes open, eyes closed and eyes closed standing on foam). We assessed the stability limits in 20 individuals with a positive HD genetic test (12 premanifests; eight manifests HD) and 15 healthy controls. The COP displacements were analyzed during the first and second phases of maintenance of the maximum leaning position. Manifest HD patients showed significantly greater COP ranges than healthy controls in both learning phases and all sensory conditions, but the greatest deterioration of their performance was found in the foam condition. In contrast, premanifest HD patients displayed larger COP ranges than controls only during the second phase of maximum learning, especially in the foam condition. Furthermore, both HD groups had significantly smaller limits of stability than healthy subjects during the second phase of maximum learning. However, their ability to maintain the maximum leaning position was degraded during both learning phases. Together, these findings demonstrate that HD reduces the limits of stability even before the clinical disease onset. Furthermore, our results indicate that dynamic postural tasks with high demand for sensorimotor integration and especially the use of proprioception are highly sensitive to early HD disease processes. This dynamic postural task may become a useful biomarker of HD progression. PMID:25168735

  10. Identification of siderophore biosynthesis genes essential for growth of Aeromonas salmonicida under iron limitation conditions.

    PubMed

    Najimi, Mohsen; Lemos, Manuel L; Osorio, Carlos R

    2008-04-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the etiological agent of furunculosis in fish, produces a catechol-type siderophore under iron-limiting conditions. In this study, the Fur titration assay (FURTA) was used to identify a cluster of six genes, asbG, asbF, asbD, asbC, asbB, and asbI, encoding proteins similar to components of the siderophore biosynthetic machinery in other bacteria. Reverse transcriptase PCR analyses showed that this cluster consists of four iron-regulated transcriptional units. Mutants with deletions in either asbD (encoding a multidomain nonribosomal peptide synthetase), asbG (encoding a histidine decarboxylase), or asbC (encoding a predicted histamine monooxygenase) did not grow under iron-limiting conditions and did not produce siderophores. Growth of the DeltaasbG strain under iron starvation conditions was restored by addition of histamine, suggesting that the siderophore in this species could contain a histamine-derived moiety. None of the mutants could grow in the presence of transferrin, indicating that A. salmonicida uses the catechol-type siderophore for removal of iron from transferrin rather than relying on a receptor for this iron-binding protein. All 18 A. salmonicida strains analyzed by DNA probe hybridization were positive in tests for the presence of the asbD gene, and all of them promoted the growth of asbD, asbG, and asbC mutants, suggesting that this siderophore-mediated iron uptake system is conserved among A. salmonicida isolates. This study provides the first description of siderophore biosynthesis genes in this fish pathogen, and the results demonstrate that the asbD, asbG, and asbC genes are necessary for the production of a catecholate siderophore that is essential for the growth of A. salmonicida under iron limitation conditions. PMID:18296539

  11. Courant-like conditions limit reasonable mesh refinement to order h/sup 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, B.

    1987-11-01

    Under conditions (e.g., Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy conditions) on the size of all location time steps-namely, that they be proportional to the local spatial mesh size - a mesh refinement algorithm cannot be a ''reasonable'' algorithm if, near some space-time surface, the spatial mesh is refined to size o(h/sup 2/), i.e., smaller than order h/sup 2/. Here h typifies the mesh size over most of the spatial region; and an algorithm is called ''unreasonable'' if, asymptotically, it spends all of its computational work exercising at the space-time surface. The limitation is even more stringent for problems with more than one spatial dimension unless the refinement occurs only normal to the surface. As the local time step constraints may be imposed for reasons of accuracy or efficiency as well as for stability, they may differ, on the coarse or fine meshes, from Courant-like conditions. In that case, the limitations on the order of reasonable refinement will generally change. But there is an absolute limitation which depends on the time step restriction away from the surface and on the number of spatial dimensions. One consequence of all this appears to be that o(h/sup 4/) errors are unattainable in vast regions of space-time utilizing reasonable mesh refinement - at least when using more or less uniformly applied difference schemes, with Courant-like conditions, to approximate those solutions of hyperbolic systems whose first derivatives or values jump at some surface in space-time.

  12. Leisure Engagement: Medical Conditions, Mobility Difficulties, and Activity Limitations—A Later Life Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Ingeborg; Nyqvist, Fredrica; Gustafson, Yngve; Nygård, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aims to investigate the impact of medical conditions, mobility difficulties, and activity limitations on older people's engagement in leisure activities. Methods. The analyses are based on a cross regional survey carried out in 2010 in the Bothnia region (Northern Sweden and Western Finland). A posted questionnaire, which included questions on different aspects of leisure engagement, medical history, and health, was sent out to older persons in the region. The final sample consisted of 5435 persons aged 65, 70, 75, and 80 years. The data was analyzed by using ordinary least squares (OLS) multivariate regression. Results. The most important predictor of leisure engagement abstention among older people is the prevalence of activity limitations, whereas mobility difficulties and medical conditions play less important roles. The strong negative association between activity limitations and leisure engagement remains significant even after we control for individual, sociodemographic characteristics, and country. Discussion. This study provides a window into leisure engagement in later life and factors influencing the magnitude of engagement in leisure activities. PMID:26346706

  13. Leisure Engagement: Medical Conditions, Mobility Difficulties, and Activity Limitations-A Later Life Perspective.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Ingeborg; Nyqvist, Fredrica; Gustafson, Yngve; Nygård, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aims to investigate the impact of medical conditions, mobility difficulties, and activity limitations on older people's engagement in leisure activities. Methods. The analyses are based on a cross regional survey carried out in 2010 in the Bothnia region (Northern Sweden and Western Finland). A posted questionnaire, which included questions on different aspects of leisure engagement, medical history, and health, was sent out to older persons in the region. The final sample consisted of 5435 persons aged 65, 70, 75, and 80 years. The data was analyzed by using ordinary least squares (OLS) multivariate regression. Results. The most important predictor of leisure engagement abstention among older people is the prevalence of activity limitations, whereas mobility difficulties and medical conditions play less important roles. The strong negative association between activity limitations and leisure engagement remains significant even after we control for individual, sociodemographic characteristics, and country. Discussion. This study provides a window into leisure engagement in later life and factors influencing the magnitude of engagement in leisure activities. PMID:26346706

  14. Hyperbolic divergence cleaning, the electrostatic limit, and potential boundary conditions for particle-in-cell codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, M.; Munz, C.-D.; Fasoulas, S.

    2015-08-01

    In a numerical solution of the Maxwell-Vlasov system, the consistency with the charge conservation and divergence conditions has to be kept solving the hyperbolic evolution equations of the Maxwell system, since the vector identity ? ? (? × u ?) = 0 and/or the charge conservation of moving particles may be not satisfied completely due to discretization errors. One possible method to force the consistency is the hyperbolic divergence cleaning. This hyperbolic constraint formulation of Maxwell's equations has been proposed previously, coupling the divergence conditions to the hyperbolic evolution equations, which can then be treated with the same numerical method. We pick up this method again and show that electrostatic limit may be obtained by accentuating the divergence cleaning sub-system and converging to steady state. Hence, the electrostatic case can be treated by the electrodynamic code with reduced computational effort. In addition, potential boundary conditions as often given in practical applications can be coupled in a similar way to get appropriate boundary conditions for the field equations. Numerical results are shown for an electric dipole, a parallel-plate capacitor, and a Langmuir wave. The use of potential boundary conditions is demonstrated in an Einzel lens simulation.

  15. Limiting conditions of the horizontal transmission of the Drosophila C virus in its host ( D. melanogaster)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomariz-Zilber, Eliane; Jeune, Bernard; Thomas-Orillard, Michèle

    1998-04-01

    We carried out experiments with virus infected females on the horizontal transmission of Drosophila C virus on artificial culture medium and under controlled conditions. The numerical results made it possible to build up an empirical model. We tested the values of the rearing parameters under nearly natural conditions in boxes containing pieces of rotting apple. A good agreement between observed and estimated values led to the following conclusions: (i) The horizontal transmission of the Drosophila C virus is facilitated via the contamination of the nutritive medium by the cadavers or the feces of virus-infected females (ii) The contamination depends on the richness of viral particles of the contaminating flies. We also confirmed under 'natural' conditions the insufficient contamination of the male flies which justifies the use of females as 'reservoirs' of the virus. The estimation of the biological limiting conditions for horizontal transfer of the virus is the following: a minimum of two contaminating females have to stay for at least two days on an initially uninfected milieu so that a durable contamination of at least some females results. Under these conditions, the richness in viral particles in the contaminated flies is lower than that in the contaminating females and therefore the long term virus infection remains problematical.

  16. Quantifying the performance of charge-coupled devices in ambient conditions - Oral presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Dungee, Ryan

    2015-08-22

    Telescope surveys have given us a great deal of information about our universe, but the images they capture carry with them an inherent limitation. The question then is how do we take this information to the next level? The answer: the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI). DESI is an instrument that will measure the distance to tens of millions of galaxies in our night sky. This information can be combined with already existing images to construct a three dimensional map of our universe providing a great deal of new opportunities for cosmological research. The DESI guidance system consists of 10 detectors called charge-coupled devices (CCDs). Each CCD is made of silicon atoms that emit electrons when struck with light, the electrons are counted and then used to reconstruct an image. But, CCDs suffer from an issue known as ‘dark current’ which are false counts that come from thermal motions of the silicon atoms. This is particularly problematic since they contribute to the uncertainty of a measurement without contributing to our signal. This causes a drop in the signal to noise ratio, a value that needs to be maximized in order to meet DESI’s high precision requirements. This summer was spent ensuring the DESI guidance system would meet its specifications. Data was collected using a CCD of the same type that would be used on DESI and the effectiveness of dark current removal was tested. Exposures were taken for a wide range of temperatures and exposure lengths and a number of dark current removal methods were implemented. While further testing is required, the initial results are quite promising and the DESI guidance system is on track to meet its specifications

  17. Liquid Lithium Limiter for Carbon Wall Conditioning on RFX-mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavazzana, R.; Scarin, P.; Spizzo, G.; Agostini, M.; de Masi, G.; Marrelli, L.; Puiatti, M. E.; Mazzitelli, G.

    2012-10-01

    The Liquid Lithium Limiter (Li3) with capillary porous system originally developed for the FTU tokamak, has been tested for the first time on the Reversed Field Pinch RFX-mod, a machine equipped with a first wall completely covered by graphite tiles. The operation in limiter configuration was restricted by a defect on the limiter, which coupled with the plasma wall interaction with a relatively limited power (2-3 MW/m^2) caused a damage to the device. The Li3 has then been operated as an evaporator, being the Lithium depositions preceded by prolonged glow discharges in Helium to remove the Hydrogen trapped into the graphite. The enhanced retention capability and the lowered recycling factor of the first wall obtained with this treatments in respect to standard operational conditions, allowed a good degree of control on the density of the RFP discharges and to reach high density regimes at high current (n/nGreenwald ˜ 0.8 at plasma current ˜ 1.6 MA).

  18. Exploring the limits and utility of operant conditioning in the treatment of drug addiction

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a research program to develop an operant treatment for cocaine addiction in low-income, treatment-resistant methadone patients. The treatment's central feature is an abstinence reinforcement contingency in which patients earn monetary reinforcement for providing cocaine-free urine samples. Success and failure of this contingency appear to be an orderly function of familiar parameters of operant conditioning. Increasing reinforcement magnitude and duration can increase effectiveness, and sustaining the contingency can prevent relapse. Initial development of a potentially practical application of this technology suggests that it may be possible to integrate abstinence reinforcement into employment settings using salary for work to reinforce drug abstinence. This research illustrates the potential utility and current limitations of an operant approach to the treatment of drug addiction. Similar research programs are needed to explore the limits of the operant approach and to develop practical applications that can be used widely in society for the treatment of drug addiction. PMID:22478430

  19. Universal limiting shape of worn profile under multiple-mode fretting conditions: theory and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Dmitriev, Andrey I; Voll, Lars B; Psakhie, Sergey G; Popov, Valentin L

    2016-01-01

    We consider multiple-mode fretting wear in a frictional contact of elastic bodies subjected to a small-amplitude oscillation, which may include in-plane and out-of-plane translation, torsion and tilting ("periodic rolling"). While the detailed kinetics of wear depends on the particular loading history and wear mechanism, the final worn shape, under some additional conditions, occurs to be universal for all types and loading and wear mechanisms. This universal form is determined solely by the radius of the permanent stick region and the maximum indentation depth during the loading cycle. We provide experimental evidence for the correctness of the theoretically predicted limiting shape. The existence of the universal limiting shape can be used for designing joints which are resistant to fretting wear. PMID:26979092

  20. Universal limiting shape of worn profile under multiple-mode fretting conditions: theory and experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Dmitriev, Andrey I.; Voll, Lars B.; Psakhie, Sergey G.; Popov, Valentin L.

    2016-01-01

    We consider multiple-mode fretting wear in a frictional contact of elastic bodies subjected to a small-amplitude oscillation, which may include in-plane and out-of-plane translation, torsion and tilting (“periodic rolling”). While the detailed kinetics of wear depends on the particular loading history and wear mechanism, the final worn shape, under some additional conditions, occurs to be universal for all types and loading and wear mechanisms. This universal form is determined solely by the radius of the permanent stick region and the maximum indentation depth during the loading cycle. We provide experimental evidence for the correctness of the theoretically predicted limiting shape. The existence of the universal limiting shape can be used for designing joints which are resistant to fretting wear. PMID:26979092

  1. The Agony of Choice: How Plants Balance Growth and Survival under Water-Limiting Conditions1

    PubMed Central

    Claeys, Hannes; Inzé, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    When confronted with water limitation, plants actively reprogram their metabolism and growth. Recently, it has become clear that growing tissues show specific and highly dynamic responses to drought, which differ from the well-studied responses in mature tissues. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in understanding shoot growth regulation in water-limiting conditions. Of special interest is the balance between maintained growth and competitiveness on the one hand and ensured survival on the other hand. A number of master regulators controlling this balance have been identified, such as DELLAs and APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR-type transcription factors. The possibilities of engineering or breeding crops that maintain growth in periods of mild drought, while still being able to activate protective tolerance mechanisms, are discussed. PMID:23766368

  2. Calcification and photosynthesis of the coral acropora cervicornis under calcium limited conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rathfon, Megan; Brewer, Debbie

    1997-01-01

    Differing hypothesis about the function of calcification are based on an interesting dilemma. Is the purpose of calcification mainly a structural and protective one or does calcification serve other functions? Does photosynthesis increase carbonate ion activity and cause calcification or does calcification increase CO2 levels and stimulate photsynthesis? It is proposed that calcification in corals is not dependent upon photosynthesis but upon calcium levels in the water. Under normal ocean conditions, corals convert a certain percentage of energy to photosynthesis and respiration and another percentage to calcification. As corals become nutrient stressed, particularly calcium limited, the ratio of photosynthesis to calcification shifts towards calcification in order to generate protons. The protons generated during calcification may stimulate photosynthesis and aid in the uptake of nutrients and biocarbonates. The results of the calcification experiment show a trend towards increased calcification and decreased photosynthesis when the coral Acropora cervicornis is calcium limited, but the data are inconclusive and further research is needed.

  3. A necessary condition for applying MUSIC algorithm in limited-view inverse scattering problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Taehoon; Park, Won-Kwang

    2015-09-01

    Throughout various results of numerical simulations, it is well-known that MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm can be applied in the limited-view inverse scattering problems. However, the application is somehow heuristic. In this contribution, we identify a necessary condition of MUSIC for imaging of collection of small, perfectly conducting cracks. This is based on the fact that MUSIC imaging functional can be represented as an infinite series of Bessel function of integer order of the first kind. Numerical experiments from noisy synthetic data supports our investigation.

  4. On eddy accumulation with limited conditional sampling to measure air-surface exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Wesely, M.L.; Hart, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis of turbulence data collected at a height of 12.3 m above grasslands was carried out to illustrate some of the limitations and possible improvements in methods to compute vertical fluxes of trace substances by the eddy accumulation technique with conditional sampling. The empirical coefficient used in the technique has a slight dependence on atmospheric stability, which can be minimized by using a threshold vertical velocity equal to approximately 0.75{sigma}{sub w}, below which chemical sampling is suspended. This protocol results in a smaller chemical sample but increases the differences in concentrations by approximately 70%. For effective conditional sampling when mass is being accumulated in a trap or reservoir, the time of sampling during updrafts versus downdrafts should be measured and used to adjust estimates of the mean concentrations.

  5. A vegetation sensitivity approximation for gross primary production in water limited conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claesson, Jonas; Nycander, Jonas

    2013-04-01

    The most severe impact of climate change on vegetation growth and agriculture is likely to occur under water-limited conditions. Under such conditions the plants optimize the inward flux of CO2 and the outward flux of water vapor (the transpiration) by regulating the size of the stomata openings. Higher temperature increases water loss through transpiration, forcing the plants to diminish the stomata openings, which decreases photosynthesis. This is counteracted by higher CO2 concentration, which allows plants to maintain the inward flux of CO2 through the smaller openings. These two counteracting effects, combined with the change in precipitation, determine the net change of biological productivity in a changed climate. Here, a vegetation sensitivity approximation (VSA) is introduced, in order to understand and estimate the combined effect of changed temperature, CO2-concentration and precipitation on gross primary production (GPP) to first order. According to the VSA, we have: ( ) ?CO2atm ? GP P = ?0 P Here ?CO2atm is the atmospheric CO2 concentration, ?0 is the baseline for atmospheric CO2 concentration, P is precipitation and ? is defined by: -s- ? = 1 - 11°C where s is the climate sensitivity i.e. the increase in temperature when atmospheric CO2 is doubled. The VSA is based on the physical laws of gas flux through the stomata openings, and is only valid under water-limited conditions. It assumes that the temperature depends logarithmically on the CO2 concentration with a given climate sensitivity. Transpiration is assumed to be a constant fraction of precipitation, which is reasonable under water-limited conditions. The VSA is compared to simulations with the dynamic vegetation model LPJ. The agreement is reasonable, and the deviations can be understood by comparison with Köppen's definition of arid climate: in an arid climate growth increases more according to LPJ than according to the VSA, and in non-arid conditions the reverse is true. Both the VSA and the LPJ simulations generally show increased growth with increasing CO2 levels and the resulting temperature increase, assuming precipitation to be unchanged. Thus, for constant precipitation the negative temperature effect is more than compensated by the positive effect of CO2.

  6. Replacement of in vivo acute oral toxicity studies by in vitro cytotoxicity methods: opportunities, limits and regulatory status.

    PubMed

    Ukelis, Ute; Kramer, Peter-Jürgen; Olejniczak, Klaus; Mueller, Stefan O

    2008-06-01

    The development of a new medicinal product is a long and costly process in particular due to the regulatory requirements for quality, safety and efficacy. There is a common interest to increase the efficiency of drug development and to provide new, better quality medicinal products much faster to the public. One possible way to economize time and costs, as well as to consider animal protection issues, is to introduce new alternative methods into non-clinical toxicity testing. Currently, animal tests are mandatory for the evaluation of acute toxicity of chemicals and new drugs. The replacement of the in vivo tests by alternative in vitro assays would offer the opportunity to screen and assess numerous compounds at the same time, to predict acute oral toxicity and thus accelerate drug development. Moreover, the substitution of in vivo tests by in vitro methods shows a proactive pursuit of ethical and animal welfare issues. Importantly, the implementation of in vitro assays for acute oral toxicity would require the establishment of common test guidelines across the EU, USA and Japan, i.e., the regions of ICH (International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use). Presently, alternative in vitro tests are being investigated internationally. Yet, in order to achieve regulatory acceptance and implementation of in vitro assays, convincing results from validation studies are required. In this review, we discuss the current regulatory status of acute oral toxicity testing and point out achievements of alternative methods. We describe the application of in vitro tests, correlating in vitro with in vivo data. The use of in vitro data to predict in vivo acute oral toxicity is analyzed using the Registry of Cytotoxicity, an official independent database. We have then analyzed opportunities and drawbacks for future implementation of in vitro test methods, with particular focus on industrial use. PMID:18362045

  7. PREDICTOL: a computer program to determine the thermophysiological duration limited exposures in various climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Besnard, Yves; Launay, Jean-Claude; Guinet-Lebreton, Angélique; Savourey, Gustave

    2004-12-01

    PREDICTOL is a PC program used to determine the thermophysiological duration limited exposures (DLE) in humans, nude or clothed, submitted to various climatic conditions (hot and cold climates) at rest or during a physical exercise. DLE are determined following different standards of the International Standardization Organization (ISO), especially ISO 7933 for hot environment and ISO-TR 11079 for cold environment. The original aspect of this program is that it can be used whatever the climatic conditions. The program presents two modes: an educational interactive mode and a scenario mode. The educational interactive mode demonstrates the thermophysiological effects, expressed as DLE, of different parameter changes (temperature, humidity, wind speed, metabolic heat production by physical exercise, clothing insulation and water vapor permeability). The scenario mode determines DLE for given various linked sequences as encountered in occupational, military or even recreational activities, each sequence being characterized by its climatic conditions, physical activities performed and by physical clothing properties. DLE given by PREDICTOL are correlated to those obtained in various controlled climatic laboratory conditions (r = 0.86; P < 0.001). PREDICTOL is written in Visual Basic 6.0. A "help menu" is provided to explain the use of the program and give information concerning the equations used to calculate both the thermal balance and DLE. PMID:15501508

  8. Assessment of bacterial community structure in nitrifying biofilm under inorganic carbon-sufficient and -limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyokwan; Chung, Yun-Chul; Yang, Heejeong; Lee, Changsoo; Aryapratama, Rio; Yoo, Young J; Lee, Seockheon

    2015-01-01

    In this work, nitrification and changes in the composition of the total bacterial community under inorganic carbon (IC)-limited conditions, in a nitrifying moving bed biofilm reactor, was investigated. A culture-independent analysis of cloning and sequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene was applied to quantify the bacterial diversity and to determine bacterial taxonomic assignment. IC concentrations had significant effects on the stability of ammonia-oxidation as indicated by the reduction of the nitrogen conversion rate with high NH4(+)-N loadings. The predominance of Nitrosomonas europaea was maintained in spite of changes in the IC concentration. In contrast, heterotrophic bacterial species contributed to a high bacterial diversity, and to a dynamic shift in the bacterial community structure, under IC-limited conditions. In this study, individual functions of heterotrophic bacteria were estimated based on taxonomic information. Possible key roles of coexisting heterotrophic bacteria are the assimilation of organic compounds of extracellular polymeric substances produced by nitrifiers, and biofilm formation by providing a filamentous structure and aggregation properties. PMID:25560266

  9. Evaluation of a Theory-Driven E-Learning Intervention for Future Oral Healthcare Providers on Secondary Prevention of Disordered Eating Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBate, Rita D.; Severson, Herbert H.; Cragun, Deborah L.; Gau, Jeff M.; Merrell, Laura K.; Bleck, Jennifer R.; Christiansen, Steve; Koerber, Anne; Tomar, Scott L.; Brown, Kelli R. McCormack; Tedesco, Lisa A.; Hendricson, William

    2013-01-01

    Oral healthcare providers have a clinical opportunity for early detection of disordered eating behaviors because they are often the first health professionals to observe overt oral and physical signs. Curricula regarding early recognition of this oral/systemic medical condition are limited in oral health educational programs. Web-based learning…

  10. Evaluation of a Theory-Driven E-Learning Intervention for Future Oral Healthcare Providers on Secondary Prevention of Disordered Eating Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBate, Rita D.; Severson, Herbert H.; Cragun, Deborah L.; Gau, Jeff M.; Merrell, Laura K.; Bleck, Jennifer R.; Christiansen, Steve; Koerber, Anne; Tomar, Scott L.; Brown, Kelli R. McCormack; Tedesco, Lisa A.; Hendricson, William

    2013-01-01

    Oral healthcare providers have a clinical opportunity for early detection of disordered eating behaviors because they are often the first health professionals to observe overt oral and physical signs. Curricula regarding early recognition of this oral/systemic medical condition are limited in oral health educational programs. Web-based learning…

  11. Different resource limitation by carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus between base flow and high flow conditions for estuarine bacteria and phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitchcock, James N.; Mitrovic, Simon M.

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater inflows can deliver substantial inputs of allochthonous organic carbon to estuaries. The role that allochthonous DOC has on structuring bacterial and phytoplankton communities is still not well understood. We performed a series of 1.25 L bioassay limitation experiments on the Bega and Clyde River estuaries in NSW, Australia, examining what resources limit bacteria and phytoplankton growth. We hypothesized that during base flow conditions bacteria would be carbon limited, and after high flow conditions they would be nutrient limited. A full factorial design was used with additions of carbon (glucose), nitrogen (KNO3) and phosphorus (KH2PO4). During the experiments that took place during base flow conditions bacteria were always primarily C-limited. After high flow conditions, bacteria were P-limited on the Clyde River, and remained C-limited on the Bega River. Phytoplankton growth was limited at all times in each estuary, tending toward N-limitation on the Bega River and P-limitation on the Clyde river. During high flow conditions on the Clyde River, when bacteria and phytoplankton were both primarily P-limited, it appeared that bacteria was able to outcompete phytoplankton for nutrients. These results suggest that freshwater inflows and allochthonous DOC maybe important in structuring estuarine microbial ecosystems and individual estuaries may behave differently in terms of their limiting resources.

  12. Oceanographic Conditions Limit the Spread of a Marine Invader along Southern African Shores.

    PubMed

    Assis, Jorge; Zupan, Mirta; Nicastro, Katy R; Zardi, Gerardo I; McQuaid, Christopher D; Serrão, Ester A

    2015-01-01

    Invasive species can affect the function and structure of natural ecological communities, hence understanding and predicting their potential for spreading is a major ecological challenge. Once established in a new region, the spread of invasive species is largely controlled by their dispersal capacity, local environmental conditions and species interactions. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is native to the Mediterranean and is the most successful marine invader in southern Africa. Its distribution there has expanded rapidly and extensively since the 1970s, however, over the last decade its spread has ceased. In this study, we coupled broad scale field surveys, Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) and Lagrangian Particle Simulations (LPS) to assess the current invaded distribution of M. galloprovincialis in southern Africa and to evaluate what prevents further spread of this species. Results showed that all environmentally suitable habitats in southern Africa have been occupied by the species. This includes rocky shores between Rocky Point in Namibia and East London in South Africa (approx. 2800 km) and these limits coincide with the steep transitions between cool-temperate and subtropical-warmer climates, on both west and southeast African coasts. On the west coast, simulations of drifting larvae almost entirely followed the northward and offshore direction of the Benguela current, creating a clear dispersal barrier by advecting larvae away from the coast. On the southeast coast, nearshore currents give larvae the potential to move eastwards, against the prevalent Agulhas current and beyond the present distributional limit, however environmental conditions prevent the establishment of the species. The transition between the cooler and warmer water regimes is therefore the main factor limiting the northern spread on the southeast coast; however, biotic interactions with native fauna may also play an important role. PMID:26114766

  13. Oceanographic Conditions Limit the Spread of a Marine Invader along Southern African Shores

    PubMed Central

    Nicastro, Katy R.; Zardi, Gerardo I.; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Serrão, Ester A.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive species can affect the function and structure of natural ecological communities, hence understanding and predicting their potential for spreading is a major ecological challenge. Once established in a new region, the spread of invasive species is largely controlled by their dispersal capacity, local environmental conditions and species interactions. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is native to the Mediterranean and is the most successful marine invader in southern Africa. Its distribution there has expanded rapidly and extensively since the 1970s, however, over the last decade its spread has ceased. In this study, we coupled broad scale field surveys, Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) and Lagrangian Particle Simulations (LPS) to assess the current invaded distribution of M. galloprovincialis in southern Africa and to evaluate what prevents further spread of this species. Results showed that all environmentally suitable habitats in southern Africa have been occupied by the species. This includes rocky shores between Rocky Point in Namibia and East London in South Africa (approx. 2800 km) and these limits coincide with the steep transitions between cool-temperate and subtropical-warmer climates, on both west and southeast African coasts. On the west coast, simulations of drifting larvae almost entirely followed the northward and offshore direction of the Benguela current, creating a clear dispersal barrier by advecting larvae away from the coast. On the southeast coast, nearshore currents give larvae the potential to move eastwards, against the prevalent Agulhas current and beyond the present distributional limit, however environmental conditions prevent the establishment of the species. The transition between the cooler and warmer water regimes is therefore the main factor limiting the northern spread on the southeast coast; however, biotic interactions with native fauna may also play an important role. PMID:26114766

  14. Optimization of plant mineral nutrition under growth-limiting conditions in a lunar greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaets, I.; Voznyuk, T.; Kovalchuk, M.; Rogutskyy, I.; Lukashov, D.; Mytrokhyn, O.; Mashkovska, S.; Foing, B.; Kozyrovska, N.

    It may be assumed that the first plants in a lunar base will play a main role in forming a protosoil of acceptable fertility needed for purposively growing second generation plants like wheat, rice, tulips, etc. The residues of the first-generation plants could be composted and transformed by microorganisms into a soil-like substrate within a loop of regenerative life support system. The lunar regolith may be used as a substrate for plant growth at the very beginning of a mission to reduce its cost. The use of microbial communities for priming plants will allow one to facilitate adaption to stressful conditions and to support the plant development under growth limiting conditions. Well-defined plant-associated bacteria were used for growing three cultivars to colonize French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) in anorthosite, a substrate of low bioavailability, analogous to a lunar rock. The consortium was composed of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and the bacterium Paenibacillus sp. IMBG156 which stimulated seed germination, better plant development, and finally, the flowering of inoculated tagetes. In contrast, control plants grew poorly in the anorthosite and practically did not survive until flowering. Analysis of bacterial community composition showed that all species colonized plant roots, however, the rate of colonization depended on the allelopatic characteristics of marigold varieties. Bacteria of consortium were able to liberate some elements (Ca, Fe, Mn, Si, Ni, Cu, Zn) from substrate anorthosite. Plant colonization by mixed culture of bacterial strains resulted in the increase of accumulation of K, Mg, Mn by the plant and in the lowering of the level of toxic metal accumulation. It was assumed that a rationally assembled consortium of bacterial strains promoted germination of marygold seeds and supported the plant development under growth limiting conditions by means of bioleaching plant essential nutritional elements and by protecting the plant against hyperaccumulation of some toxic metals.

  15. Floral resource limitation severely reduces butterfly survival, condition and flight activity in simplified agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A; Van Dyck, Hans

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural intensification has a strong negative impact on farmland biodiversity (including flower-visiting insects), but understanding the mechanisms involved in this requires experimental work. We document the impact of nectar limitation on the performance of a flower-visiting insect, the meadow brown butterfly Maniola jurtina. We conducted two types of experiments: a field experiment in agricultural landscapes with grasslands of different management intensity and an experiment in outdoor flight cages in which the nectar supply was simulated. For the field experiment, we introduced an array of nectar resources in intensively managed, nectar-poor meadows and in extensively managed, flower-rich grasslands and counted flower visitors. Despite higher butterfly abundance in the extensive meadows, our introduced nectar sources were more frequently visited in intensive meadows, indicating the lack of floral resources. The 48-h confinement under nectar-poor conditions in the flight cages had a strong negative effect on body condition, flight activity and lifetime survival compared to butterflies under nectar-rich conditions. Female lifespan was reduced by 22 % and male lifespan even by 43 %. Agricultural landscapes that provide limited amounts of floral nectar, and no high-quality, preferred nectar sources relative to the needs of the flower-visiting species, may create ecological sinks. Regards an insect's performance, the simple presence of nectar is not necessarily functionally adequate. The effectiveness of agri-environmental schemes for flower-visiting insects (e.g. flower strips) could be improved based on ecological and evolutionary insights on the effects of specific nectar quantities and qualities. PMID:26541442

  16. Genomic sweep and potential genetic rescue during limiting environmental conditions in an isolated wolf population

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jennifer R.; Vucetich, Leah M.; Hedrick, Philip W.; Peterson, Rolf O.; Vucetich, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic rescue, in which the introduction of one or more unrelated individuals into an inbred population results in the reduction of detrimental genetic effects and an increase in one or more vital rates, is a potentially important management tool for mitigating adverse effects of inbreeding. We used molecular techniques to document the consequences of a male wolf (Canis lupus) that immigrated, on its own, across Lake Superior ice to the small, inbred wolf population in Isle Royale National Park. The immigrant's fitness so exceeded that of native wolves that within 2.5 generations, he was related to every individual in the population and his ancestry constituted 56 per cent of the population, resulting in a selective sweep of the total genome. In other words, all the male ancestry (50% of the total ancestry) descended from this immigrant, plus 6 per cent owing to the success of some of his inbred offspring. The immigration event occurred in an environment where space was limiting (i.e. packs occupied all available territories) and during a time when environmental conditions had deteriorated (i.e. wolves' prey declined). These conditions probably explain why the immigration event did not obviously improve the population's demography (e.g. increased population numbers or growth rate). Our results show that the beneficial effects of gene flow may be substantial and quickly manifest, short-lived under some circumstances, and how the demographic benefits of genetic rescue might be masked by environmental conditions. PMID:21450731

  17. Genomic sweep and potential genetic rescue during limiting environmental conditions in an isolated wolf population.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jennifer R; Vucetich, Leah M; Hedrick, Philip W; Peterson, Rolf O; Vucetich, John A

    2011-11-22

    Genetic rescue, in which the introduction of one or more unrelated individuals into an inbred population results in the reduction of detrimental genetic effects and an increase in one or more vital rates, is a potentially important management tool for mitigating adverse effects of inbreeding. We used molecular techniques to document the consequences of a male wolf (Canis lupus) that immigrated, on its own, across Lake Superior ice to the small, inbred wolf population in Isle Royale National Park. The immigrant's fitness so exceeded that of native wolves that within 2.5 generations, he was related to every individual in the population and his ancestry constituted 56 per cent of the population, resulting in a selective sweep of the total genome. In other words, all the male ancestry (50% of the total ancestry) descended from this immigrant, plus 6 per cent owing to the success of some of his inbred offspring. The immigration event occurred in an environment where space was limiting (i.e. packs occupied all available territories) and during a time when environmental conditions had deteriorated (i.e. wolves' prey declined). These conditions probably explain why the immigration event did not obviously improve the population's demography (e.g. increased population numbers or growth rate). Our results show that the beneficial effects of gene flow may be substantial and quickly manifest, short-lived under some circumstances, and how the demographic benefits of genetic rescue might be masked by environmental conditions. PMID:21450731

  18. [Successful Intubation in a Patient with Limited Oral Opening by Using a Combination of the Parker Flex-IT™ Stylet and McGRATH® MAC Laryngoscopy].

    PubMed

    Ueshima, Hironobu; Terao, Kazuhisa; Kitamura, Akira

    2015-10-01

    A 74-year-old female patient underwent a coil embolization for an unruptured cerebral aneurysm. A routine anesthetic protocol was devised as there was no risk of a difficult airway. We attempted to intubate by using direct laryngoscopy but were unable to because the mouth only opened approximately one finger-breadth. We then attempted to intubate using Mc-GRATH® MAC laryngoscopy; the McGRATH® MAC laryngoscope could be inserted orally by force, but a tracheal tube and stylet could not been guided into the glottis. We changed the stylet to a Parker Flex-IT™ Stylet (Parker Medical, CO, USA), which can be freely curved by pushing the sum button on the top of the stylet. As a result, easy intubation was possible, and the DLT was maneuvered at a proper angle while examining the vocal cords by using the Parker Flex-IT™ Stylet In conclusion, when a McGRATH® MAC laryngoscope cannot be operated freely in the oral cavity owing to a limited oral opening, we can instead intubate easily and effectively by using a combination of a Parker Flex-IT™ Stylet and the McGRATH® MAC video laryngoscope. PMID:26742408

  19. Soil texture and climatc conditions for biocrust growth limitation: a meta analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Thomas; Subbotina, Mariia

    2015-04-01

    Along with afforestation, attempts have been made to combat desertification by managing soil crusts, and is has been reported that recovery rates of biocrusts are dependent on many factors, including the type, severity, and extent of disturbance; structure of the vascular plant community; conditions of adjoining substrates; availability of inoculation material; and climate during and after disturbance (Belnap & Eldridge 2001). Because biological soil crusts are known to be more stable on and to prefer fine substrates (Belnap 2001), the question arises as to how successful crust management practices can be applied to coarser soil. In previous studies we observed similar crust biomasses on finer soils under arid and on coarser soils under temperate conditions. We hypothesized that the higher water holding capacity of finer substrates would favor crust development, and that the amount of silt and clay in the substrate that is required for enhanced crust development would vary with changes in climatic conditions. In a global meta study, climatic and soil texture threshold values promoting BSC growth were derived. While examining literature sources, it became evident that the amount of studies to be incorporated into this meta analysis was reversely related to the amount of common environmental parameters they share. We selected annual mean precipitaion, mean temperature and the amount of silt and clay as driving variables for crust growth. Response variable was the "relative crust biomass", which was computed per literature source as the ratio between each individual crust biomass value of the given study to the study maximum value reported. We distinguished lichen, green algal, cyanobacterial and moss crusts. To quantify threshold conditions at which crust biomass responded to differences in texture and climate, we (I) determined correlations between bioclimatic variables, (II) calculated linear models to determine the effect of typical climatic variables with soil clay content and with study site as a random effect. (III) Threshold values of texture and climatc effects were identified using a regression tree. Three mean annual temperature classes for texture dependent BSC growth limitation were identified: (1) <9 °C with a threshold value of 25% silt and clay (limited growth on coarser soils), (2) 9-19 °C, where texture did have no influence on relative crust biomass, and (3) >19 °C at soils with <4 or >17% silt and clay. Because biocrust development is limited under certain climatic and soil texture conditions, it is suggested to consider soil texture for biocrust rehabilitation purposes and in biogeochemical modeling of cryptogamic ground covers. References Belnap, J. & Eldridge, D. 2001. Disturbance and Recovery of Biological Soil Crusts. In: Belnap, J. & Lange, O. (eds.) Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management, Springer, Berlin. Belnap, J. 2001. Biological Soil Crusts and Wind Erosion. In: Belnap, J. & Lange, O. (eds.) Fischer, T., Subbotina, M. 2014. Climatic and soil texture threshold values for cryptogamic cover development: a meta analysis. Biologia 69/11:1520-1530,

  20. Baclofen, raclopride, and naltrexone differentially affect intake of fat and sucrose under limited access conditions.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Rebecca L; Wojnicki, Francis H

    2009-09-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine, and opioids are implicated in impulse control, addiction and binge eating. Recent evidence suggests that sucrose alters the effects of GABAergic, dopaminergic, and opioid receptor ligands on consumption of a fatty food in a rat limited-access binge protocol. This study determined the independent effects of fat and sucrose on the efficacy of these ligands under limited-access conditions. Nonfood-deprived male Sprague-Dawley rats had 1 h access to fat (vegetable shortening) or sucrose (3.2, 10, or 32% w/v). Half had intermittent access (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) and half had daily access. Effects of baclofen (GABAB agonist), SCH 23390 (D1 antagonist), raclopride (D2 antagonist), and naltrexone (opioid antagonist) were assessed. Baclofen and naltrexone reduced fat intake regardless of the access schedule. Baclofen had no effect on sucrose intake; naltrexone reduced sucrose intake at higher doses than were required to reduce fat intake. Raclopride stimulated fat intake in intermittent-access rats and had no effect in daily-access rats; raclopride reduced sucrose intake in all groups. SCH 23390 reduced intake in a nonspecific manner. The results indicate the involvement of GABAB receptors in fat but not sucrose intake, and of D2 receptor dysfunction in rats with a history of bingeing on fat. PMID:19724193

  1. Kitagawa-Takahashi diagrams define the limiting conditions for cyclic fatigue failure in human dentin.

    PubMed

    Kruzic, J J; Ritchie, R O

    2006-12-01

    As cyclic fatigue is considered to be a major cause of clinical tooth fractures, achieving a comprehensive understanding of the fatigue behavior of dentin is of importance. In this note, the fatigue behavior of human dentin is examined in the context of the Kitagawa-Takahashi diagram to define the limiting conditions for fatigue failure. Specifically, this approach incorporates two limiting threshold criteria for fatigue: (i) a threshold stress for fatigue failure, specifically the smooth-bar (unnotched) fatigue endurance strength, at small crack sizes and (ii) a threshold stress-intensity range for fatigue-crack growth at larger crack sizes. The approach provides a "bridge" between the traditional fatigue life and fracture mechanics based damage-tolerant approaches to fatigue-life estimation, and as such defines a "failure envelope" of applied stresses and flaw sizes where fatigue failure is likely in dentin This approach may also be applied to fatigue failure in human cortical bone (i.e. clinical "stress fractures"), which exhibits similar fatigue behavior characteristics, and in principle may aid clinicians in making quantitative evaluations of the risk of fractures in mineralized tissues. PMID:17013865

  2. Beneficial Effects of Nickel on Pseudomonas saccharophila under Nitrogen-Limited Chemolithotrophic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Barraquio, Wilfredo L.; Knowles, Roger

    1989-01-01

    Addition of nickel stimulated growth and nitrogenase activity of Pseudomonas saccharophila under nitrogen-limited chemolithotrophic conditions, apparently because of a significant increase in expression of uptake hydrogenase activity. Inhibition of hydrogenase expression by 50 μM EDTA was relieved by nickel over a wide concentration range (1 to 200 μM). Co2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, and Cu2+ stimulated expression of hydrogenase activity, but to a much lesser degree than nickel, and Fe2+, Mg2+, SeO42−, and SeO32− did not increase expression. Nickel in individual combination with Mg2+, Fe2+, SeO32−, and SeO42− resulted in activities that were essentially the same as that with nickel alone. Hydrogenase synthesis required the presence of nickel, and repression by O2 was alleviated by increasing the concentration of added nickel. Cells placed under hydrogenase derepression conditions showed progressive incorporation of radioactive nickel to a much greater extent than did cells which were not derepressed. PMID:16348078

  3. P-Glycoprotein Limits Oral Availability, Brain Penetration, and Toxicity of an Anionic Drug, the Antibiotic Salinomycin?

    PubMed Central

    Lagas, Jurjen S.; Sparidans, Rolf W.; van Waterschoot, Robert A. B.; Wagenaar, Els; Beijnen, Jos H.; Schinkel, Alfred H.

    2008-01-01

    Salinomycin is a polyether organic anion that is extensively used as a coccidiostatic antibiotic in poultry and commonly fed to ruminant animals to improve feed efficiency. However, salinomycin also causes severe toxicity when accidentally fed to animals in high doses. In addition, humans are highly sensitive to salinomycin and severe toxicity has been reported. Multidrug efflux transporters like P-glycoprotein (P-gp), BCRP, and MRP2 are highly expressed in the intestine and can restrict the oral uptake and tissue penetration of xenobiotics. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the anionic drug salinomycin is a substrate for one or more of these efflux pumps. Salinomycin was actively transported by human MDR1 P-gp expressed in polarized MDCK-II monolayers but not by the known organic anion transporters human MRP2 and murine Bcrp1. Using P-gp-deficient mice, we found a marked increase in plasma salinomycin concentrations after oral administration and decreased plasma clearance after intravenous administration. Furthermore, absence of P-gp resulted in significantly increased brain penetration. P-gp-deficient mice also displayed clearly increased susceptibility to salinomycin toxicity. Thus far, P-gp was thought to affect mainly hydrophobic, positively charged or neutral drugs in vivo. Our data show that P-gp can also be a major determinant of the pharmacokinetic behavior and toxicity of an organic anionic drug. Variation in P-gp activity might thus directly affect the effective exposure to salinomycin and possibly to other anionic drugs and toxin substrates. Individuals with reduced or absent P-gp activity could therefore be more susceptible to salinomycin toxicity. PMID:18195061

  4. The impact of the oral condition of children with sickle cell disease on family quality of life.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Maria Luiza da Matta Felisberto; Kawachi, Ichiro; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of oral conditions of children with sickle cell disease (SCD) on their parents' quality of life (QoL). A cross-sectional study was performed with parents of outpatients suffering from SCD at a hematology referral center in Belo Horizonte, MG. A qualified dentist performed an intraoral exam. The Family Impact Scale (FIS) was used to assess the parents' perception of QoL. The parents answered some questions regarding sociodemographic and medical information about their children. The dmft/DMFT score, DAI, gum bleeding and SCD severity were evaluated in terms of their impacts on the overall mean FIS scores and subscale scores. The chance of more frequent impacts was greater in parents of adolescents (OR = 2.04; 95%CI = 1.2, 3.4) than of younger children. Dental caries (dmft/DMFT ≥ 1) had a negative impact on the QoL of parents of younger children and adolescents (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Among the parents of younger children, dental caries and SCD severity significantly affected the subscales for parental activities (PA) and parental emotions (PE) (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively). Among parents of adolescents, dental caries (DMFT) and severe malocclusion adversely affected the PE and PA subscales (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively). SCD severity affected the overall FIS score among young children's parents (p < 0.05). In conclusion, dental caries, age and SCD severity were associated with a negative impact on the QoL of parents of children with SCD. PMID:26910017

  5. Parameter identification of the SWAT model on the BANI catchment (West Africa) under limited data condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaibou Begou, Jamilatou; Jomaa, Seifeddine; Benabdallah, Sihem; Rode, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Due to the climate change, drier conditions have prevailed in West Africa, since the seventies, and the consequences are important on water resources. In order to identify and implement management strategies of adaptation to climate change in the sector of water, it is crucial to improve our physical understanding of water resources evolution in the region. To this end, hydrologic modelling is an appropriate tool for flow predictions under changing climate and land use conditions. In this study, the applicability and performance of the recent version of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT2012) model were tested on the Bani catchment in West Africa under limited data condition. Model parameters identification was also tested using one site and multisite calibration approaches. The Bani is located in the upper part of the Niger River and drains an area of about 101, 000 km2 at the outlet of Douna. The climate is tropical, humid to semi-arid from the South to the North with an average annual rainfall of 1050 mm (period 1981-2000). Global datasets were used for the model setup such as: USGS hydrosheds DEM, USGS LCI GlobCov2009 and the FAO Digital Soil Map of the World. Daily measured rainfall from nine rain gauges and maximum and minimum temperature from five weather stations covering the period 1981-1997 were used for model setup. Sensitivity analysis, calibration and validation are performed within SWATCUP using GLUE procedure at Douna station first (one site calibration), then at three additional internal stations, Bougouni, Pankourou and Kouoro1 (multi-site calibration). Model parameters were calibrated at daily time step for the period 1983-1992, then validated for the period 1993-1997. A period of two years (1981-1982) was used for model warming up. Results of one-site calibration showed that the model performance is evaluated by 0.76 and 0.79 for Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) and correlation coefficient (R2), respectively. While for the validation period the performance improved considerably with NS and R2 equal to 0.84 and 0.87, respectively. The degree of total uncertainties is quantified by a minimum P-factor of 0.61 and a maximum R-factor of 0.59. These statistics suggest that the model performance can be judged as very good, especially considering limited data condition and high climate, land use and soil variability in the studied basin. The most sensitive parameters (CN2, OVN and SLSUBBSN) are related to surface runoff reflecting the dominance of this process on the streamflow generation. In the next step, multisite calibration approach will be performed on the BANI basin to assess how much additional observations improve the model parameter identification.

  6. Phytoplankton copper requirement under iron limited condition in the coastal Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, H.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Kumar, P. P.

    2012-04-01

    Copper, a redox reactive transition metal, plays a vital role in many cellular redox reactions. Recent investigations show that many eukaryotic microorganisms including marine and coastal diatom utilize copper to perform a high affinity iron acquisition mechanism and the requirement of copper increases with decreasing iron concentrations. However, very less information is available about the role of copper in diatom physiology. Here we report for the first time about the copper utilization by coastal diatom during iron limited condition in the Bay of Bengal coast. The diatom Chaetoceros gracilis was isolated from the Visakhapatnam coast and was grown in different copper concentrations (15nM -1000nM). The concentration of total chlorophyll, the growth rate, the concentration of biogenic silica, the ratio of biogenic silica to particulate organic carbon and the ratio of total chlorophyll to particulate organic carbon were found to be increased with increasing copper concentration up to 125nM and decreased thereafter reaching a minimum value at 1000nM. 13C of Particulate organic carbon varied inversely with increasing copper concentrations indicating the signature of enhanced carbon fixation which is in agreement with the enhanced biomass and growth rate. However, to get a better understanding about the role of copper behind the enhanced growth, we had incubated the cells simultaneously in iron replete, copper replete and in varying copper concentration in presence of 200nM of iron. Surprisingly, in all cases significant enhancement in growth and biomass production was observed. The cells grown in only iron and added with copper showed very similar increase whereas, in presence of iron increasing copper concentration did not show any enhancement effect. Increased growth and biomass production in response to iron addition shows that phytoplankton growth is limited by iron in the study area. Furthermore, this observation indicates that in case of iron limitation the coastal diatom perform a high affinity iron acquisition mechanism where copper plays a vital role. Down regulation of high affinity iron acquisition mechanism was indicated by unaltered growth when copper was added in presence of iron. Collectively, our present study shows that copper likely plays an important role in the physiology of coastal diatom apart from the toxicological studies conducted earlier. A detailed investigation is needed to understand the high affinity iron acquisition mechanism existing in coastal diatom from the study area.

  7. Performance of Airborne Precision Spacing Under Realistic Wind Conditions and Limited Surveillance Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, Frederick; Santos, Michel; Krueger, William; Houston, Vincent E.

    2011-01-01

    With the expected worldwide increase of air traffic during the coming decade, both the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), as well as Eurocontrol's Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) program have, as part of their plans, air traffic management (ATM) solutions that can increase performance without requiring time-consuming and expensive infrastructure changes. One such solution involves the ability of both controllers and flight crews to deliver aircraft to the runway with greater accuracy than they can today. Previous research has shown that time-based spacing techniques, wherein the controller assigns a time spacing to each pair of arriving aircraft, can achieve this goal by providing greater runway delivery accuracy and producing a concomitant increase in system-wide performance. The research described herein focuses on one specific application of time-based spacing, called Airborne Precision Spacing (APS), which has evolved over the past ten years. This research furthers APS understanding by studying its performance with realistic wind conditions obtained from atmospheric sounding data and with realistic wind forecasts obtained from the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) short-range weather forecast. In addition, this study investigates APS performance with limited surveillance range, as provided by the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) system, and with an algorithm designed to improve APS performance when ADS-B surveillance data is unavailable. The results presented herein quantify the runway threshold delivery accuracy of APS under these conditions, and also quantify resulting workload metrics such as the number of speed changes required to maintain spacing.

  8. The effect of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride paste (CPP-ACPF) on oral and salivary conditions of patients undergoing chemotherapy: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Banava, Sepideh; Houshyari, Mohammad; Safaie, Tahmineh

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral and saliva conditions of patients undergoing chemotherapy is often affected by the medication they receive. Up to now, no appropriate medication that possesses the positive effects of chemotherapy without presenting oral complications has been introduced. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effects of CPP-ACPF paste on the oral and salivary status of patients undergoing chemotherapy. Methods From October 2013 to April 2014, 20 patients in chemotherapy treatment plans and who met the inclusion criteria enrolled in this randomized parallel single-blind controlled clinical trial in Shohada-e-Tajrish Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Patients were divided into two groups: 1) patients received their daily medication of cancer therapy center (group 1, control); 2) patients applied CPP-ACPF Crème (MI paste plus, GC USA) twice a day as instructed (group 2). The baseline status of oral conditions of patients (mucositis, dry mouth, infection, diminished tasting sense, difficulty in food intake, burning sensation of mucosa, saliva and dental plaque pH, rest and stimulated saliva, buffering capacity of saliva) were recorded and reevaluated after 21 and 42 days. The data were analyzed with a Mann-Whitney U-test. Results A total of 20 patients were allocated randomly to groups 1 and 2. The Mann-Whitney U-test showed that application of CPP-ACPF paste twice daily did not cause any significant difference in oral complication of the subject group compared with the control group (p>0.05). Among salivary signs, resting and stimulated saliva rates and saliva buffering capacity had significantly altered in the CPP-ACPF group in day 21 and 42 in comparison with those of the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion Application of CPP-ACPF paste before and during chemotherapy can improve the salivary status of patients undergoing this treatment. PMID:26767110

  9. Do water-limiting conditions predispose Norway spruce to bark beetle attack?

    PubMed Central

    Netherer, Sigrid; Matthews, Bradley; Katzensteiner, Klaus; Blackwell, Emma; Henschke, Patrick; Hietz, Peter; Pennerstorfer, Josef; Rosner, Sabine; Kikuta, Silvia; Schume, Helmut; Schopf, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Drought is considered to enhance susceptibility of Norway spruce (Picea abies) to infestations by the Eurasian spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus, Coleoptera: Curculionidae), although empirical evidence is scarce. We studied the impact of experimentally induced drought on tree water status and constitutive resin flow, and how physiological stress affects host acceptance and resistance. We established rain-out shelters to induce both severe (two full-cover plots) and moderate (two semi-cover plots) drought stress. In total, 18 sample trees, which were divided equally between the above treatment plots and two control plots, were investigated. Infestation was controlled experimentally using a novel ‘attack box’ method. Treatments influenced the ratios of successful and defended attacks, but predisposition of trees to infestation appeared to be mainly driven by variations in stress status of the individual trees over time. With increasingly negative twig water potentials and decreasing resin exudation, the defence capability of the spruce trees decreased. We provide empirical evidence that water-limiting conditions impair Norway spruce resistance to bark beetle attack. Yet, at the same time our data point to reduced host acceptance byI. typographus with more extreme drought stress, indicated by strongly negative pre-dawn twig water potentials. PMID:25417785

  10. Bioconversion of crude glycerol to polyhydroxyalkanoate by Bacillus thuringiensis under non-limiting nitrogen conditions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prasun; Ray, Subhasree; Patel, Sanjay K S; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kalia, Vipin C

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol has emerged as a cheap waste material due to blooming biodiesel manufacturing units worldwide. The need is to exploit the crude glycerol (CG) to produce useful products such as polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Bacillus thuringiensis EGU45 was found to produce 1.5-3.5 gP HA L(-1) from feed containing 1-10% CG (vv(-1)) and nutrient broth (NB, 125 mL) without any acclimatization. B. thuringiensis EGU45 could produce PHA at the rate of 1.54-1.83 g L(-1), from 1% CG (vv(-1)) on media having high nitrogen contents: (i) NB, (ii) NB+0.5% NH4Cl (wv(-1)), and (iii) peptone+yeast extract+0.5% NH4Cl (wv(-1)). B. thuringiensis EGU45 was able to produce co-polymer of P(3HB-co-3HV) with 13.4% 3HV content on high N containing feed supplemented with propionic acid. This is the first report demonstrating the abilities of B. thuringiensis to convert CG into PHA co-polymer under non-limiting N conditions. PMID:25840150

  11. Application of Forming Limit Criteria Based on Plastic Instability Condition to Metal Forming Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Seong-Chan; Ku, Tae-Wan; Kim, Jeong; Kang, Beom-Soo; Song, Woo-Jin

    Metal forming processes such as hydroforming and sheet metal forming using tubular material and thin sheet metal have been widely used in lots of industrial fields for manufacturing of various parts that could be equipped with mechanical products. However, it is not easy to design sequential processes properly because there are various design variables that affect formability of the parts. Therefore preliminary evaluation of formability for the given process should be carried out to minimize time consumption and development cost. With the advances in finite element analysis technique over the decades, the formability evaluation using numerical simulation has been conducted in view of strain distribution and final shape. In this paper, the application of forming limit criteria is carried out for the tube hydroforming and sheet metal forming processes using theoretical background based on plastic instability conditions. Consequently, it is confirmed that the local necking and diffuse necking criteria of sheet are suitable for formability evaluation of both hydroforming and sheet metal forming processes.

  12. Do water-limiting conditions predispose Norway spruce to bark beetle attack?

    PubMed

    Netherer, Sigrid; Matthews, Bradley; Katzensteiner, Klaus; Blackwell, Emma; Henschke, Patrick; Hietz, Peter; Pennerstorfer, Josef; Rosner, Sabine; Kikuta, Silvia; Schume, Helmut; Schopf, Axel

    2015-02-01

    Drought is considered to enhance susceptibility of Norway spruce (Picea abies) to infestations by the Eurasian spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus, Coleoptera: Curculionidae), although empirical evidence is scarce. We studied the impact of experimentally induced drought on tree water status and constitutive resin flow, and how physiological stress affects host acceptance and resistance. We established rain-out shelters to induce both severe (two full-cover plots) and moderate (two semi-cover plots) drought stress. In total, 18 sample trees, which were divided equally between the above treatment plots and two control plots, were investigated. Infestation was controlled experimentally using a novel 'attack box' method. Treatments influenced the ratios of successful and defended attacks, but predisposition of trees to infestation appeared to be mainly driven by variations in stress status of the individual trees over time. With increasingly negative twig water potentials and decreasing resin exudation, the defence capability of the spruce trees decreased. We provide empirical evidence that water-limiting conditions impair Norway spruce resistance to bark beetle attack. Yet, at the same time our data point to reduced host acceptance by I. typographus with more extreme drought stress, indicated by strongly negative pre-dawn twig water potentials. PMID:25417785

  13. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Y of... - Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to Hyperbaric Conditions A Appendix A to Subpart Y of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor... REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Diving Pt. 1926, Subpt. Y, App. A Appendix A to Subpart Y of Part 1926—Examples... applicable to construction work under this appendix A are identical to those set forth at appendix A...

  14. Metabolomic Profiling of 13 Diatom Cultures and Their Adaptation to Nitrate-Limited Growth Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bromke, Mariusz A.; Sabir, Jamal S.; Alfassi, Fahad A.; Hajarah, Nahid H.; Kabli, Saleh A.; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L.; Ashworth, Matt P.; Méret, Michaël; Jansen, Robert K.; Willmitzer, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    Diatoms are very efficient in their use of available nutrients. Changes in nutrient availability influence the metabolism and the composition of the cell constituents. Since diatoms are valuable candidates to search for oil producing algae, measurements of diatom-produced compounds can be very useful for biotechnology. In order to explore the diversity of lipophilic compounds produced by diatoms, we describe the results from an analysis of 13 diatom strains. With the help of a lipidomics platform, which combines an UPLC separation with a high resolution/high mass accuracy mass spectrometer, we were able to measure and annotate 142 lipid species. Out of these, 32 were present in all 13 cultures. The annotated lipid features belong to six classes of glycerolipids. The data obtained from the measurements were used to create lipidomic profiles. The metabolomic overview of analysed cultures is amended by the measurement of 96 polar compounds. To further increase the lipid diversity and gain insight into metabolomic adaptation to nitrogen limitation, diatoms were cultured in media with high and low concentrations of nitrate. The growth in nitrogen-deplete or nitrogen-replete conditions affects metabolite accumulation but has no major influence on the species-specific metabolomic profile. Thus, the genetic component is stronger in determining metabolic patterns than nitrogen levels. Therefore, lipid profiling is powerful enough to be used as a molecular fingerprint for diatom cultures. Furthermore, an increase of triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation was observed in low nitrogen samples, although this trend was not consistent across all 13 diatom strains. Overall, our results expand the current understanding of metabolomics diversity in diatoms and confirm their potential value for producing lipids for either bioenergy or as feed stock. PMID:26440112

  15. Secreted Pyomelanin of Legionella pneumophila Promotes Bacterial Iron Uptake and Growth under Iron-Limiting Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Huaixin; Chatfield, Christa H.; Liles, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Iron acquisition is critical to the growth and virulence of Legionella pneumophila. Previously, we found that L. pneumophila uses both a ferrisiderophore pathway and ferrous iron transport to obtain iron. We now report that two molecules secreted by L. pneumophila, homogentisic acid (HGA) and its polymerized variant (HGA-melanin, a pyomelanin), are able to directly mediate the reduction of various ferric iron salts. Furthermore, HGA, synthetic HGA-melanin, and HGA-melanin derived from bacterial supernatants enhanced the ability of L. pneumophila and other species of Legionella to take up radiolabeled iron. Enhanced iron uptake was not observed with a ferrous iron transport mutant. Thus, HGA and HGA-melanin mediate ferric iron reduction, with the resulting ferrous iron being available to the bacterium for uptake. Upon further testing of L. pneumophila culture supernatants, we found that significant amounts of ferric and ferrous iron were associated with secreted HGA-melanin. Importantly, a pyomelanin-containing fraction obtained from a wild-type culture supernatant was able to stimulate the growth of iron-starved legionellae. That the corresponding supernatant fraction obtained from a nonpigmented mutant culture did not stimulate growth demonstrated that HGA-melanin is able to both promote iron uptake and enhance growth under iron-limiting conditions. Indicative of a complementary role in iron acquisition, HGA-melanin levels were inversely related to the levels of siderophore activity. Compatible with a role in the ecology and pathogenesis of L. pneumophila, HGA and HGA-melanin were effective at reducing and releasing iron from both insoluble ferric hydroxide and the mammalian iron chelates ferritin and transferrin. PMID:23980114

  16. Metabolomic Profiling of 13 Diatom Cultures and Their Adaptation to Nitrate-Limited Growth Conditions.

    PubMed

    Bromke, Mariusz A; Sabir, Jamal S; Alfassi, Fahad A; Hajarah, Nahid H; Kabli, Saleh A; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Ashworth, Matt P; Méret, Michaël; Jansen, Robert K; Willmitzer, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    Diatoms are very efficient in their use of available nutrients. Changes in nutrient availability influence the metabolism and the composition of the cell constituents. Since diatoms are valuable candidates to search for oil producing algae, measurements of diatom-produced compounds can be very useful for biotechnology. In order to explore the diversity of lipophilic compounds produced by diatoms, we describe the results from an analysis of 13 diatom strains. With the help of a lipidomics platform, which combines an UPLC separation with a high resolution/high mass accuracy mass spectrometer, we were able to measure and annotate 142 lipid species. Out of these, 32 were present in all 13 cultures. The annotated lipid features belong to six classes of glycerolipids. The data obtained from the measurements were used to create lipidomic profiles. The metabolomic overview of analysed cultures is amended by the measurement of 96 polar compounds. To further increase the lipid diversity and gain insight into metabolomic adaptation to nitrogen limitation, diatoms were cultured in media with high and low concentrations of nitrate. The growth in nitrogen-deplete or nitrogen-replete conditions affects metabolite accumulation but has no major influence on the species-specific metabolomic profile. Thus, the genetic component is stronger in determining metabolic patterns than nitrogen levels. Therefore, lipid profiling is powerful enough to be used as a molecular fingerprint for diatom cultures. Furthermore, an increase of triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation was observed in low nitrogen samples, although this trend was not consistent across all 13 diatom strains. Overall, our results expand the current understanding of metabolomics diversity in diatoms and confirm their potential value for producing lipids for either bioenergy or as feed stock. PMID:26440112

  17. 45 CFR 146.111 - Limitations on preexisting condition exclusion period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... plan, has diabetes, as well as retinal degeneration, a foot condition, and poor circulation (all of... condition related to D's diabetes, retinal degeneration, foot condition, or poor circulation, even though... health plan provides coverage for the treatment of diabetes, generally not subject to any lifetime...

  18. Oral Administration of Semicarbazide Limits Weight Gain together with Inhibition of Fat Deposition and of Primary Amine Oxidase Activity in Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Mercader, Josep; Iffiú-Soltész, Zsuzsa; Bour, Sandy; Carpéné, Christian

    2011-01-01

    An enzyme hitherto named semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), involved in the oxidation of primary amines, is abundantly expressed in adipocytes. Although SSAO physiological functions remain unclear, several molecules inhibiting its activity have been described to limit fat accumulation in preadipocyte cultures or to reduce body weight gain in obese rodents. Here, we studied whether oral administration of semicarbazide, a prototypical SSAO inhibitor, limits fat deposition in mice. Prolonged treatment with semicarbazide at 0.125% in drinking water limited food and water consumption, hampered weight gain, and deeply impaired fat deposition. The adiposomatic index was reduced by 31%, while body mass was reduced by 15%. Such treatment completely inhibited SSAO, but did not alter MAO activity in white adipose tissue. Consequently, the insulin-like action of the SSAO substrate benzylamine on glucose transport was abolished in adipocytes from semicarbazide-drinking mice, while their insulin sensitivity was not altered. Although semicarbazide is currently considered as a food contaminant with deleterious effects, the SSAO inhibition it induces appears as a novel concept to modulate adipose tissue development, which is promising for antiobesity drug discovery. PMID:21331292

  19. Oral Administration of Semicarbazide Limits Weight Gain together with Inhibition of Fat Deposition and of Primary Amine Oxidase Activity in Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mercader, Josep; Iffiú-Soltész, Zsuzsa; Bour, Sandy; Carpéné, Christian

    2011-01-01

    An enzyme hitherto named semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), involved in the oxidation of primary amines, is abundantly expressed in adipocytes. Although SSAO physiological functions remain unclear, several molecules inhibiting its activity have been described to limit fat accumulation in preadipocyte cultures or to reduce body weight gain in obese rodents. Here, we studied whether oral administration of semicarbazide, a prototypical SSAO inhibitor, limits fat deposition in mice. Prolonged treatment with semicarbazide at 0.125% in drinking water limited food and water consumption, hampered weight gain, and deeply impaired fat deposition. The adiposomatic index was reduced by 31%, while body mass was reduced by 15%. Such treatment completely inhibited SSAO, but did not alter MAO activity in white adipose tissue. Consequently, the insulin-like action of the SSAO substrate benzylamine on glucose transport was abolished in adipocytes from semicarbazide-drinking mice, while their insulin sensitivity was not altered. Although semicarbazide is currently considered as a food contaminant with deleterious effects, the SSAO inhibition it induces appears as a novel concept to modulate adipose tissue development, which is promising for antiobesity drug discovery. PMID:21331292

  20. 29 CFR 2590.701-3 - Limitations on preexisting condition exclusion period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provides coverage for the treatment of diabetes, generally not subject to any lifetime dollar limit. However, if an individual was diagnosed with diabetes before the effective date of coverage under the plan, diabetes coverage is subject to a lifetime limit of $10,000. (ii) Conclusion. In this Example 3, the...

  1. 45 CFR 146.111 - Limitations on preexisting condition exclusion period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... health plan provides coverage for the treatment of diabetes, generally not subject to any lifetime dollar limit. However, if an individual was diagnosed with diabetes before the effective date of coverage under the plan, diabetes coverage is subject to a lifetime limit of $10,000. (ii) Conclusion. In...

  2. 29 CFR 2590.701-3 - Limitations on preexisting condition exclusion period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provides coverage for the treatment of diabetes, generally not subject to any lifetime dollar limit. However, if an individual was diagnosed with diabetes before the effective date of coverage under the plan, diabetes coverage is subject to a lifetime limit of $10,000. (ii) Conclusion. In this Example 3, the...

  3. 45 CFR 146.111 - Limitations on preexisting condition exclusion period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... health plan provides coverage for the treatment of diabetes, generally not subject to any lifetime dollar limit. However, if an individual was diagnosed with diabetes before the effective date of coverage under the plan, diabetes coverage is subject to a lifetime limit of $10,000. (ii) Conclusion. In...

  4. Assessment of Oral Conditions and Quality of Life in Morbid Obese and Normal Weight Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Adriana Rodrigues; Sales-Peres, Arsênio; Ceneviva, Reginaldo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the impact of oral disease on the quality of life of morbid obese and normal weight individuals. Cohort was composed of 100 morbid-obese and 50 normal-weight subjects. Dental caries, community periodontal index, gingival bleeding on probing (BOP), calculus, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, dental wear, stimulated salivary flow, and salivary pH were used to evaluate oral diseases. Socioeconomic and the oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) questionnaires showed the quality of life in both groups. Unpaired Student, Fisher’s Exact, Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, and Multiple Regression tests were used (p<0.05). Obese showed lower socio-economic level than control group, but no differences were found considering OIDP. No significant differences were observed between groups considering the number of absent teeth, bruxism, difficult mastication, calculus, initial caries lesion, and caries. However, saliva flow was low, and the salivary pH was changed in the obese group. Enamel wear was lower and dentine wear was higher in obese. More BOP, insertion loss, and periodontal pocket, especially the deeper ones, were found in obese subjects. The regression model showed gender, smoking, salivary pH, socio-economic level, periodontal pocket, and periodontal insertion loss significantly associated to obesity. However, both OIDP and BOP did not show significant contribution to the model. The quality of life of morbid obese was more negatively influenced by oral disease and socio-economic factors than in normal weight subjects. PMID:26177268

  5. Changed oral conditions, between 1963 and 1999, in the population of the Tokelau atolls of the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Cutress, T W

    2001-12-01

    In 1999, an oral health survey was included in an assessment of the community oral health programme of the Tokelau Islands population. This provided a comparison with a similar survey in 1963. In a convenience sample of 386 children and adults, approximately 30 percent of the total population, the deciduous (number of df teeth) and permanent (number of DMF teeth) tooth scores across all age groupings were higher in 1999 compared with 1963. For 15- to 19-year-olds, the mean DMF scores were 8 and 1; and for 35- to 44-year-olds, the scores were 18 and 4 in 1999 and 1963 respectively. The prominent feature of the DMF scores for those over age 25 years was the numbers of missing (M) teeth. The mean number of M teeth at 20-24 years was 5 and 0, and at 35-44 years, 13 and 2 respectively in 1999 and 1963. Periodontal disease was endemic in adults in both surveys. A serious decline in oral health has occurred over the past 35 years. PMID:11887663

  6. Moisture rivals temperature in limiting photosynthesis by trees establishing beyond their cold-edge range limit under ambient and warmed conditions.

    PubMed

    Moyes, Andrew B; Germino, Matthew J; Kueppers, Lara M

    2015-09-01

    Climate change is altering plant species distributions globally, and warming is expected to promote uphill shifts in mountain trees. However, at many cold-edge range limits, such as alpine treelines in the western United States, tree establishment may be colimited by low temperature and low moisture, making recruitment patterns with warming difficult to predict. We measured response functions linking carbon (C) assimilation and temperature- and moisture-related microclimatic factors for limber pine (Pinus flexilis) seedlings growing in a heating × watering experiment within and above the alpine treeline. We then extrapolated these response functions using observed microclimate conditions to estimate the net effects of warming and associated soil drying on C assimilation across an entire growing season. Moisture and temperature limitations were each estimated to reduce potential growing season C gain from a theoretical upper limit by 15-30% (c. 50% combined). Warming above current treeline conditions provided relatively little benefit to modeled net assimilation, whereas assimilation was sensitive to either wetter or drier conditions. Summer precipitation may be at least as important as temperature in constraining C gain by establishing subalpine trees at and above current alpine treelines as seasonally dry subalpine and alpine ecosystems continue to warm. PMID:25902893

  7. [Aphthous ulcers and oral ulcerations].

    PubMed

    Vaillant, Loïc; Samimi, Mahtab

    2016-02-01

    Aphthous ulcers are painful ulcerations located on the mucous membrane, generally in the mouth, less often in the genital area. Three clinical forms of aphthous ulcers have been described: minor aphthous ulcers, herpetiform aphthous ulcers and major aphthous ulcers. Many other conditions presenting with oral bullous or vesiculous lesions orulcerations and erosions can be mistaken for aphthous ulcers. Currently, treatment of aphthous ulcers is palliative and symptomatic. Topical treatments (topical anesthetics, topical steroids and sucralfate) are the first line therapy. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is defined by the recurrence of oral aphthous ulcers at least 4 times per year. RAS is often idiopathic but can be associated with gastro-intestinal diseases (i.e. celiac disease, inflammatory bowel diseases), nutritional deficiencies (iron, folates…), immune disorders (HIV infection, neutropenia) and rare syndromes. Behçet's disease is a chronic, inflammatory, disease whose main clinical feature is recurrent bipolar aphthosis. Colchicine associated with topical treatments constitutes a suitable treatment of most RAS. Thalidomide is the most effective treatment of RAS but its use is limited by frequent adverse effects. Oral ulcers can be related to a wide range of conditions that constitute the differential diagnoses of aphthous ulcers. Oral ulcers are classified into three main groups: acute ulcers with abrupt onset and short duration, recurrent ulcers (mainly due to postherpetic erythema multiforme) and chronic ulcers (with slow onset and insidious progression). Acute oral ulcers are due to trauma, bacterial infections (including acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis), deep fungal infection, gastro-intestinal (namely inflammatory bowel disease) or systemic diseases. Chronic oral ulcers may be drug-induced, or due to benign or malignant tumors. Every oral solitary chronic ulcer should be biopsied to rule out squamous cell carcinoma. A solitary palatal ulcer can be related with necrotizing sialometaplasia. PMID:26880080

  8. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  9. An Analysis of Sequential Variables in Pavlovian Conditioning Employing Extended and Limited Acquisition Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ronald Mellado; Capaldi, E. John

    2006-01-01

    Sequential theory's memory model of learning has been successfully applied in response contingent instrumental conditioning experiments (Capaldi, 1966, 1967, 1994; Capaldi & Miller, 2003). However, it has not been systematically tested in nonresponse contingent Pavlovian conditioning experiments. The present experiments attempted to determine if…

  10. An Analysis of Sequential Variables in Pavlovian Conditioning Employing Extended and Limited Acquisition Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ronald Mellado; Capaldi, E. John

    2006-01-01

    Sequential theory's memory model of learning has been successfully applied in response contingent instrumental conditioning experiments (Capaldi, 1966, 1967, 1994; Capaldi & Miller, 2003). However, it has not been systematically tested in nonresponse contingent Pavlovian conditioning experiments. The present experiments attempted to determine if…

  11. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  12. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  13. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  14. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for...

  15. Limited condition dependence of male acoustic signals in the grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus

    PubMed Central

    Franzke, Alexandra; Reinhold, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    In many animal species, male acoustic signals serve to attract a mate and therefore often play a major role for male mating success. Male body condition is likely to be correlated with male acoustic signal traits, which signal male quality and provide choosy females indirect benefits. Environmental factors such as food quantity or quality can influence male body condition and therefore possibly lead to condition-dependent changes in the attractiveness of acoustic signals. Here, we test whether stressing food plants influences acoustic signal traits of males via condition-dependent expression of these traits. We examined four male song characteristics, which are vital for mate choice in females of the grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus. Only one of the examined acoustic traits, loudness, was significantly altered by changing body condition because of drought- and moisture-related stress of food plants. No condition dependence could be observed for syllable to pause ratio, gap duration within syllables, and onset accentuation. We suggest that food plant stress and therefore food plant quality led to shifts in loudness of male grasshopper songs via body condition changes. The other three examined acoustic traits of males do not reflect male body condition induced by food plant quality. PMID:22957192

  16. Oxygen transfer rate during the production of alginate by Azotobacter vinelandii under oxygen-limited and non oxygen-limited conditions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) and dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) play an important role in determining alginate production and its composition; however, no systematic study has been reported about the independent influence of the OTR and DOT. In this paper, we report a study about alginate production and the evolution of the molecular mass of the polymer produced by a wild-type A. vinelandii strain ATCC 9046, in terms of the maximum oxygen transfer rate (OTRmax) in cultures where the dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) was kept constant. Results The results revealed that in the two dissolved oxygen conditions evaluated, strictly controlled by gas blending at 0.5 and 5% DOT, an increase in the agitation rate (from 300 to 700 rpm) caused a significant increase in the OTRmax (from 17 to 100 mmol L-1 h-1 for DOT of 5% and from 6 to 70 mmol L-1 h-1 for DOT of 0.5%). This increase in the OTRmax improved alginate production, as well as the specific alginate production rate (SAPR), reaching a maximal alginate concentration of 3.1 g L-1 and a SAPR of 0.031 g alg g biom-1 h-1 in the cultures at OTRmax of 100 mmol L-1 h-1. In contrast, the mean molecular mass (MMM) of the alginate isolated from cultures developed under non-oxygen limited conditions increased by decreasing the OTRmax, reaching a maximal of 550 kDa at an OTRmax of 17 mmol L-1 h-1 . However, in the cultures developed under oxygen limitation (0.5% DOT), the MMM of the polymer was practically the same (around 200 kDa) at 300 and 700 rpm, and this remained constant throughout the cultivation. Conclusions Overall, our results showed that under oxygen-limited and non oxygen-limited conditions, alginate production and its molecular mass are linked to the OTRmax, independently of the DOT of the culture. PMID:21352581

  17. In vivo effects of the pure aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonist GNF-351 after oral administration are limited to the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhong-Ze; Krausz, Kristopher W; Nagaoka, Kenjiro; Tanaka, Naoki; Gowda, Krishne; Amin, Shantu G; Perdew, Gary H; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose GNF-351 is a potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) antagonist that inhibits dioxin response element-dependent and independent activities. Here, the absorption, metabolism and in vivo?AHR antagonist activity of GNF-351 were investigated. Experimental Approach LC-MS metabolomics was used to analyse GNF-351 metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant drug-metabolizing enzymes were employed to determine the enzymes involved in GNF-351 metabolism. Analysis of target AHR genes was performed to investigate the inhibitory effects of GNF-351 towards AHR activation. Key Results Several phase I metabolites were generated after GNF-351 was incubated with microsomes from human or mouse liver and intestine, including two oxidized GNF-351 and one tri-demethylated GNF-351. Poor absorption from the intestine resulted in no detectable levels of GNF-351 in mouse serum (0–6?h) and urine (24?h) and almost all GNF-351 was found in the faeces after 24?h. Analysis of faeces further revealed all the in vitro phase I metabolites. Novel metabolites were detected, including one di-oxidized GNF-351, two oxidized and tri-demethylated GNF-351, one dehydrogenated product of oxidized GNF-351, and one sulfation product of di-oxidized GNF-351. Cytochromes P450 were demonstrated to be the major enzymes involved in metabolism of GNF-351. After oral administration to mice, GNF-351 readily inhibited ?-naphthoflavone-induced AHR activation in ileum and colon, but not that in the liver. Conclusion and Implications While poor absorption and extensive metabolism after oral administration limited the in vivo effects of the pure AHR antagonist GNF-351 in liver, it could be used to inhibit AHR activation in intestine and colon. PMID:24417285

  18. Using Multiple Approaches, including ?18O Signatures of Phosphate to Investigate Potential Phosphorus Limitation and Cycling under Changing Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, K.; Paytan, A.; Field, C. B.; Honn, E.; Edwards, E.; Gottlieb, R.

    2012-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is often a limiting or co-limiting nutrient in terrestrial systems. It has been proposed that it will play an even greater role in ecosystems experiencing some of the many predicted effects of climate change, in particular release from nitrogen limitation. Recent work in 2007 by Menge et al. suggests that this is indeed a possibility. To investigate the potential for P limitation, and P cycling under multiple controlled conditions we collected samples from the Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment (JRGCE) in May 2011. For over a decade the JRGCE has been manipulating four key parameters predicted to change in the future in a native Californian grassland system. Elevated Nitrogen deposition, increased precipitation, increased pCO2, and increased temperature are applied and monitored in a split plot design at the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve in the eastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains, California. Work done previously at the site using a suite of indicators of the potential P limitation suggest P limitation in some of the manipulated plots in the JRGCE. In this study we replicate a subset of the prior analyses to compare inter-annual signals of P limitation, and further attempt to utilize the oxygen isotopes of phosphate to investigate P cycling in soils at JRGCE. A fractional soil extraction process for phosphate enables separation of several operationally defined P pools, and provides auxiliary information regarding the relative concentrations of bio-available P, and relevant minerals in this grassland system under the varied conditions.

  19. Assessment and treatment of nonpain conditions in life-limiting disease.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Alice E

    2011-05-01

    The "Pawspice" philosophy, which the author introduced at the 2000 American Veterinary Medical Association meeting, focuses on symptom management along with a kinder, gentler, or modified approach to standard therapy. Many veterinarians have preconceived bias or ingrained beliefs about aging, serious illness, multiple comorbidities, and cancer, which may cause a negative or dismissive approach toward palliative treatment, especially in geriatric pets. Veterinarians and their v-teams must overcome this insensitive attitude about life-limiting disease. This article describes assessment, treatment, and home management of some nonpainful life-limiting diseases, including cancer and age-related decline of vital functions in the Pawspice setting. PMID:21601746

  20. Comparative study of oral health among trisomy 21 children living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Part 2, gingival condition

    PubMed Central

    AlSarheed, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trisomy 21 (T21) is a congenital disorder characterized by triplication of Chromosome 21 components. Patients with T21 have an increased risk of acquiring periodontal disease due to their inability to maintain good oral hygiene. Consequently, it is important to determine an approach for disease prevention in this population. Aim The purpose of the study was to assess the periodontal health, through the prevalence of gingivitis and plaque, among children with T21 living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and method This study included 93 children with T21 and 99 age- and gender-matched children without T21 between the ages of 7 and 15 years. Parents were informed about the study and provided informed consent. Trained examiners using standardized tools assessed the prevalence rates of gingivitis and plaque in all children. Results Gingivitis prevalence was elevated among T21 children (46.9%) compared to controls (34%) in all arch sextants except the mandibular middle (P < 0.01). Comparing the two groups, the prevalence of plaque was higher in the maxillary right sextant of the T21 group and the mandibular middle sextant of the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion T21 children have significantly elevated plaque levels, resulting in greater prevalence of gingivitis, compared to healthy children. Preventive measure, such as oral health awareness programs, should be delivered early to parents and continued at school to encourage and motivate children. PMID:26644759

  1. 7 CFR 301.76-5 - General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited permit; provisions for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-5 General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited... Act (7 U.S.C. 7714) 2 /> to prevent the spread of Asian citrus psyllid; and 2 An inspector may...

  2. 7 CFR 301.76-5 - General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited permit; provisions for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-5 General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited... Act (7 U.S.C. 7714) 2 /> to prevent the spread of Asian citrus psyllid; and 2 An inspector may...

  3. 7 CFR 301.76-5 - General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited permit; provisions for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-5 General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited... Act (7 U.S.C. 7714) 2 /> to prevent the spread of Asian citrus psyllid; and 2 An inspector may...

  4. 7 CFR 301.76-5 - General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited permit; provisions for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-5 General conditions governing the issuance of any certificate or limited... Act (7 U.S.C. 7714) 2 to prevent the spread of Asian citrus psyllid; and 2 An inspector may hold...

  5. 47 CFR 90.1432 - Conditions for waiver to allow limited and temporary wideband operations in the 700 MHz public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conditions for waiver to allow limited and temporary wideband operations in the 700 MHz public safety spectrum. 90.1432 Section 90.1432 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES 700 MHz...

  6. GCM Simulations of Neoproterozoic "Snowball Earth" Conditions: Implications for the Environmental Limits on Terrestrial Metazoans and Their Extraterrestrial Analogues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohl, L. E.; Chandler, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    The Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth intervals provide excellent opportunities to examine the environmental limits on terrestrial metazoans. A series of GCM simulations was run in order to quantify climatic conditions during these intervals. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors licensed under 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter. The... 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter. The guides on limiting conditions for operation for light... annual total quantity of all radioactive iodine and radioactive material in particulate form...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors licensed under 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter. The... 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter. The guides on limiting conditions for operation for light... annual total quantity of all radioactive iodine and radioactive material in particulate form...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors licensed under 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter. The... 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter. The guides on limiting conditions for operation for light... annual total quantity of all radioactive iodine and radioactive material in particulate form...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors licensed under 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter. The... 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter. The guides on limiting conditions for operation for light... annual total quantity of all radioactive iodine and radioactive material in particulate form...

  11. 76 FR 10213 - Special Conditions: Embraer Model EMB-135BJ (Legacy 650) Airplanes, Limit Engine Torque Loads for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... 650) Airplanes, Limit Engine Torque Loads for Sudden Engine Stoppage AGENCY: Federal Aviation... engine size and the potential torque load imposed by sudden engine-stoppage conditions. The applicable... incorporate novel or unusual design features involving engine size and the potential torque load imposed...

  12. Hydrogen isotope exchange and conditioning in graphite limiters used in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    LaMarche, P.H.; Dylla, H.F.; McCarthy, P.J.; Ulrickson, M.

    1986-02-01

    Isotopic exchange experiments performed in TFTR are used to examine the outgassing and diffusive properties of graphite used as the plasma limiter. Changeover from hydrogen to deuterium for different periods ranges from approx.600 to 60 plasma discharges, which appears to be correlated to the limiter temperature. We present a simple analytical model that predicts a fast transient (approx.10 plasma discharges) changeover where the deuterium fueling dilutes the adsorbed and near-surface hydrogen, and a slowly changing term where bulk hydrogen diffuses to the surface. Using this model we can extract an activation energy for diffusion of 0.15 +- 0.02 eV. We hypothesize that interpore diffusion for this porous (approx.15%) material is consistent with our observations. 19 refs.

  13. Chrysomya bezziana oral myiasis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gs Vijay; Sowmya, Gs; Shivananda, S

    2011-10-01

    Myiasis is an opportunistic infestation of human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae. Oral myiasis is a rare condition associated with poor oral hygiene, mental disability, halitosis and other conditions. We present a case report of an adult mentally challenged woman with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which three live maggots (larvae) were seen emerging out. The larvae were removed using forceps and the patient was treated with oral ivermectin. The maggots were identified as larvae of the Chrysomya bezziana fly. PMID:22224006

  14. Polyhydroxyalkanoates from Pseudomonas sp. using synthetic and olive mill wastewater under limiting conditions.

    PubMed

    Kourmentza, C; Ntaikou, I; Lyberatos, G; Kornaros, M

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the ability of bacteria isolated from an enriched mixed culture to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and examining the effect of nitrogen and dual nitrogen-oxygen limitation on PHAs production, by using both synthetic and olive mill wastewater (OMW). PHAs production was performed through batch experiments using both the enriched culture and the isolated strains (belonging to the genus of Pseudomonas) aiming to compare PHAs accumulation capacity, yields and rates. The use of enriched culture and synthetic wastewater under nitrogen limitation resulted in the highest PHA accumulation, i.e. 64.4%gPHAs/g of cell dry mass (CDM). However, when OMW was used, PHAs accumulation significantly decreased, i.e. 8.8%gPHAs/g CDM. The same trend was followed by the isolated strains, nevertheless, their ability to synthesize PHAs was lower. Although, dual nitrogen-oxygen limitation generally slowed down PHAs biosynthesis, in certain strains PHAs production was positively affected. PMID:25542172

  15. Exercise restrictions for patients with inherited cardiac conditions: Current guidelines, challenges and limitations.

    PubMed

    Hammond-Haley, Matthew; Patel, Riyaz S; Providência, Rui; Lambiase, Pier D

    2016-04-15

    Inherited primary arrhythmia syndromes are a clinically heterogeneous group of relatively uncommon but important inherited cardiac conditions that are associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the setting of a structurally normal heart. These include long-QT syndrome (LQTS), Short-QT syndrome (SQTS), Brugada syndrome (BrS) and Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia (CPVT). The cardiomyopathies represent the other major group of inherited cardiac conditions associated with SCD, of which hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common. Exercise is a known trigger of ventricular arrhythmias in many of these conditions, however marked genetic and clinical heterogeneity within individual diseases means that certain patients are at a much greater risk of lethal ventricular arrhythmias during exercise than others. For instance, LQTS type 1 (LQT1) and CPVT patients are at particular risk during exertion, whilst in patients with other genetic variants of LQTS, BrS and SQTS, alternative triggers are more significant precipitants. Many channelopathy (principally Brugada, CPVT) & cardiomyopathy (mainly HCM) patients receive primary or secondary prevention therapy with an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD). Exercising with an ICD in situ carries a range of additional risks including inappropriate shocks and lead complications. This review will focus on the risk of exercise-induced SCD in patients with inherited cardiac conditions, the current clinical guidelines in this area and the special consideration of patients with an ICD. PMID:26897076

  16. The effect of limiter conditioning on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor edge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kilpatrick, S.J.; Manos, D.M.; Nyberg, I.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stratton, B.C.; Timberlake, J.; Ulrickson, M.J.; Pitcher, C.S.; Dylla, H.F.

    1991-07-01

    Measurements by moveable Langmuir probes and edge spectroscopy diagnostics have documented the conditioning effect of low density helium-initiated discharge sequences on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) edge plasma. Langmuir probe measurements show in general that the edge electron density n{sub e} decreases by less than a factor of 2 while the edge electron temperature T{sub e} doubles. Radial profiles to the plasma boundary show that the density scrape-off length increases somewhat while the temperature scrape-off length decreases substantially. The particle flux density is unaffected. The spectral emission of C 2 decreases by a factor of 2, a much smaller change than that exhibited by the D{sub {alpha}} signal. These results complement previous accounts of the conditioning technique. Comparisons of these He conditioning measurements are made to edge measurements during a deuterium density scan experiment, showing many similarities, and to an existing edge model of the conditioning process, showing qualitative agreement. 20 refs., 5 figs.

  17. The effect of limiter conditioning on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor edge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kilpatrick, S.J.; Pitcher, C.S.; Dylla, H.F.; Manos, D.M.; Nyberg, I.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stratton, B.C.; Timberlake, J.; Ulrickson, M.J. )

    1991-05-01

    Measurements by moveable Langmuir probes and edge spectroscopy diagnostics have documented the conditioning effect of low-density helium-initiated discharge sequences on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor edge plasma. Langmuir probe measurements shown in general that the edge electron density {ital n}{sub {ital e}} decreases by less than a factor of 2 while the edge electron temperature {ital T}{sub {ital e}} doubles. Radial profiles to the plasma boundary show that the density scrape-off length increases somewhat while the temperature scrape-off length decreases substantially. The particle flux density is unaffected. The spectral emission of C II decreases by a factor of 2, a much smaller change than that exhibited by the {ital D}{sub {alpha}} signal. These results complement previous accounts of the conditioning technique. Comparisons of these He conditioning measurements are made to edge measurements during a deuterium density scan experiment, showing many similarities, and to an existing edge model of the conditioning process, showing qualitative agreement.

  18. Biomass and cellulosic ethanol production of forage sorghum under limited water conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two year field study was conducted to evaluate biofuel production potential of two forage sorghum cultivars differing in brown midrib trait under non-irrigated and deficit irrigation conditions in the semiarid Southern High Plains of the U.S. Cultivar SP1990 (non-bmr = conventional cell wall comp...

  19. 76 FR 44245 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Limit Engine Torque Loads for Sudden Engine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... FR 25648). One supportive comment was received and the special conditions are adopted as proposed..., modern high bypass engines are subject to certain rare-but-severe engine seizure events. Service history... the airplane to be able to support such rare loads safely without failure, it is unrealistic to...

  20. 45 CFR 146.111 - Limitations on preexisting condition exclusion period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... on genetic information, A has a predisposition towards breast cancer. A was not diagnosed with breast... plan, A is diagnosed with breast cancer. (ii) Conclusion. In this Example, the plan may not impose a preexisting condition exclusion with respect to A's breast cancer because, prior to A's enrollment date, A...

  1. Global burden of dental condition among children in nine countries participating in an international oral health promotion programme, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Denis M; Llodra, Juan Carlos

    2014-10-01

    The Live.Learn.Laugh. phase 2 programme is a unique global partnership between FDI World Dental Federation and Unilever Oral Care which aims to provide measurable improvement of oral health on a global scale through encouraging twice-daily brushing with a fluoride toothpaste. It was based on international recommendations using the principles of health promotion within school for the implementation of preventive health strategies. This paper is an overview of the dental caries condition of children from 2012 to 2013 in nine countries included in four World Health Organisation (WHO) regions. A cross-sectional study was conducted in each country before the implementation of health-promotion measures focused on twice-daily toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste. The sample was based on stratified sampling according to the WHO pathfinder recommendations. From a total of 7,949 children examined, there were 517 children (1-2 years of age), 1,667 preschool children (3-5 years of age) and 5,789 schoolchildren (6-13 years of age). The prevalence and severity of primary dental caries, early childhood caries and temporary dental caries were described using decayed, filled teeth (dft), permanent decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) indices and the significant caries index (SCI). The major findings were a high prevalence of caries, identification of high-risk groups and inequality in the distribution of the severity of dental conditions. Aggregated data from this overview should provide justification for implementing an oral health programme. The main point is the need to retain and expand the community fluoridation programme as an effective preventive measure. At the individual level, the aggregated data identify the need for more targeted efforts to reach children early - especially among specific high-risk groups. PMID:25209648

  2. Validity conditions for stochastic chemical kinetics in diffusion-limited systems

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Daniel T.; Petzold, Linda R.; Seitaridou, Effrosyni

    2014-01-01

    The chemical master equation (CME) and the mathematically equivalent stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) assume that the reactant molecules in a chemically reacting system are “dilute” and “well-mixed” throughout the containing volume. Here we clarify what those two conditions mean, and we show why their satisfaction is necessary in order for bimolecular reactions to physically occur in the manner assumed by the CME and the SSA. We prove that these conditions are closely connected, in that a system will stay well-mixed if and only if it is dilute. We explore the implications of these validity conditions for the reaction-diffusion (or spatially inhomogeneous) extensions of the CME and the SSA to systems whose containing volumes are not necessarily well-mixed, but can be partitioned into cubical subvolumes (voxels) that are. We show that the validity conditions, together with an additional condition that is needed to ensure the physical validity of the diffusion-induced jump probability rates of molecules between voxels, require the voxel edge length to have a strictly positive lower bound. We prove that if the voxel edge length is steadily decreased in a way that respects that lower bound, the average rate at which bimolecular reactions occur in the reaction-diffusion CME and SSA will remain constant, while the average rate of diffusive transfer reactions will increase as the inverse square of the voxel edge length. We conclude that even though the reaction-diffusion CME and SSA are inherently approximate, and cannot be made exact by shrinking the voxel size to zero, they should nevertheless be useful in many practical situations. PMID:24511926

  3. Trends in self-medication for dental conditions among patients attending oral health outreach programs in coastal Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Arun K.; Rao, Ashwini; Rajesh, Gururaghavendran; Shenoy, Ramya; Pai, Mithun B. H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence, pattern, and awareness of self-medication practices among patients presenting at oral health outreach programs in coastal Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study, based on an interview conducted in randomly selected 400 study subjects from the patients presenting at these oral health outreach programs. Data were collected regarding demographic information and the interview schedule consisting of 14 questions was administered. Results: Prevalence of self-medication was 30%. Respondents’ gender (χ2 = 5.095, P < 0.05), occupation (χ2 = 10.215, P < 0.05), the time from the last dental visit (χ2 = 8.108, P < 0.05), recommendation of drug(s) to family members or friends (χ2 = 75.565, P < 0.001), and the likelihood of self-medication in the next 6 months (χ2 = 80.999, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with self-medication. Male respondents were less likely to have undertaken self-medication (odds ratio = 0.581 [0.361, 0.933]). The frequently self-medicated drug was analgesics (42.5%) for toothache (69.2%). The regression model explained 39.4% (Nagelkerke R2) of the variance in self-medication practices. Conclusions: Prevalence of self-medication was 30% with demographic influence. Hence, this study highlights the policy implications for drug control by government agencies and stresses on the need for dental health education to discourage irrational drug use. PMID:26600642

  4. The limits of the adaptation of life to extreme conditions (in connection with problems of exobiology)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksenov, S. I.

    1973-01-01

    Accommodation is discussed as a universal evolutionary principle which essentially will apply to all life forms, regardless of chemical base (carbon, silicon, etc.). Life forms must either adapt to extreme conditions or perish, and for any life form an extremum factor is any significant deviation in environmental parameters. The possibility of life forms existing in specific extraterrestrial environments is discussed, and a conclusion is drawn which unequivocally states that through many forms of accommodation life is possible in many different environments.

  5. An Individual-Based Diploid Model Predicts Limited Conditions Under Which Stochastic Gene Expression Becomes Advantageous

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Tomotaka; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Osada, Naoki; Araki, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest the existence of a stochasticity in gene expression (SGE) in many organisms, and its non-negligible effect on their phenotype and fitness. To date, however, how SGE affects the key parameters of population genetics are not well understood. SGE can increase the phenotypic variation and act as a load for individuals, if they are at the adaptive optimum in a stable environment. On the other hand, part of the phenotypic variation caused by SGE might become advantageous if individuals at the adaptive optimum become genetically less-adaptive, for example due to an environmental change. Furthermore, SGE of unimportant genes might have little or no fitness consequences. Thus, SGE can be advantageous, disadvantageous, or selectively neutral depending on its context. In addition, there might be a genetic basis that regulates magnitude of SGE, which is often referred to as “modifier genes,” but little is known about the conditions under which such an SGE-modifier gene evolves. In the present study, we conducted individual-based computer simulations to examine these conditions in a diploid model. In the simulations, we considered a single locus that determines organismal fitness for simplicity, and that SGE on the locus creates fitness variation in a stochastic manner. We also considered another locus that modifies the magnitude of SGE. Our results suggested that SGE was always deleterious in stable environments and increased the fixation probability of deleterious mutations in this model. Even under frequently changing environmental conditions, only very strong natural selection made SGE adaptive. These results suggest that the evolution of SGE-modifier genes requires strict balance among the strength of natural selection, magnitude of SGE, and frequency of environmental changes. However, the degree of dominance affected the condition under which SGE becomes advantageous, indicating a better opportunity for the evolution of SGE in different genetic models. PMID:26635872

  6. Scaling Hydrodynamic Boundary Conditions of Microstructured Surfaces in the Thin Channel Limit.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, Georgia A; Gupta, Rohini; Fréchette, Joëlle

    2016-03-15

    Despite its importance in many applications and processes, a complete and unified view on how nano- and microscale asperities influence hydrodynamic interactions has yet to be reached. In particular, the effects of surface structure can be expected to become more dominant when the length scale of the asperities or textures becomes comparable to that of the fluid flow. Here we analyze the hydrodynamic drainage of a viscous silicone oil squeezed between a smooth plane and a surface decorated with hexagonal arrays of lyophilic microsized cylindrical posts. For all micropost arrays studied, the periodicity of the structures was much larger than the separation range of our measurements. In this thin channel geometry, we find the hydrodynamic drainage and separation forces for the micropost arrays cannot be fully described by existing boundary condition models for interfacial slip or a no-slip shifted plane. Instead, our results show that the influence of the microposts on the hydrodynamic drag exhibits three distinct regimes as a function of separation. For large separations, a no slip boundary condition (Reynolds theory) is observed for all surfaces until a critical (intermediate) separation, below which the position of the no-slip plane scales with surface separation until reaching a maximum, just before contact. Below this separation, a sharp decrease in the no-slip plane position then suggests that a boundary condition of a smooth surface is recovered at contact. PMID:26901492

  7. Factors limiting endurance of armor, artillery, and infantry units under simulated NBC conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, T.M.; Tharion, W.J.; Banderet, L.E.; Lussier, A.R.

    1986-03-13

    The war of the future will require 72-hour operations in environments contaminated with nuclear/biological/chemical (NBC) agents. The 1985 P2NBC2 (Physiological and Psychological Effects of NBC and Extended Operations on Combined Arms Crews) Program assessed soldier endurance and performance under simulated NBC conditions. A total of 175 soldiers were observed during four tests differing in design, site, climatic conditions, and performance demands. In all but one of the iterations where the full chemical-protective ensemble (MOPP 4) was used without cooling, soldier endurance fell far short of the projected requirement. Psychological data were analyzed to determine which factors were associated with the incidence of casualties. The findings showed that perceived intensity of symptoms resembling the hyperventilation syndrome was significantly greater in soldiers classified as Casualties. Five of these symptoms (painful breathing, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, headache, and nausea) showed Casualty-Survivor differences in all tests. Symptom intensity was attributed to two factors. (1) External conditions. Thermal stress exacerbated the five basic symptoms, induced others (tetany and paresthesia), and decreased endurance. Periodic relief from respirator use attenuated these symptoms and enhanced endurance. (2) Individual differences. Significant Casualty-Survivor differences in anxiety, depression, and cognitive strategy scores indicated that perception of hyperventilation symptoms and endurance were related to personality variables. Hyperventilation symptoms could incapacitate the soldier or induce removal of the protective mask under actual chemical attack.

  8. Teleportation of qubit states through dissipative channels: Conditions for surpassing the no-cloning limit

    SciTech Connect

    Oezdemir, Sahin Kaya; Bartkiewicz, Karol; Liu, Yu-xi; Miranowicz, Adam

    2007-10-15

    We investigate quantum teleportation through dissipative channels and calculate teleportation fidelity as a function of damping rates. It is found that the average fidelity of teleportation and the range of states to be teleported depend on the type and rate of the damping in the channel. Using the fully entangled fraction, we derive two bounds on the damping rates of the channels: one is to beat the classical limit and the second is to guarantee the nonexistence of any other copy with better fidelity. The effect of the initially distributed maximally entangled state on the process is presented; the concurrence and the fully entangled fraction of the shared states are discussed. We intend to show that prior information on the dissipative channel and the range of qubit states to be teleported is helpful for the evaluation of the success of teleportation, where success is defined as surpassing the fidelity limit imposed by the fidelity of the 1-to-2 optimal cloning machine for the specific range of qubits.

  9. Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) A parent's guide to condition and treatment information A A A In oral candidiasis, normal mouth yeast overgrows, causing white, slightly elevated lesions. Overview ...

  10. Respite care needs for families of children with life-limiting conditions.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Janet; Butcher, Ruth; Dolby, Sue

    2011-07-01

    The Framework for Respite in Partnership with Parents (FRiPP), developed by the Jessie May Trust is a tool to enable a standardised and equitable allocation of a limited resource. FRiPP reduces the opportunity for subjective allocation of respite-based care stemming from the professional-led model of telling families what they need. The tool is aimed at engaging families in identifying and articulating the support they require. After a successful pilot and evaluation, FRiPP is now used for all families on the Jessie May Trust's caseload. The authors reflect on the tool's development and implementation process in the context of promoting and protecting partnership working. PMID:21834420

  11. Unravelling Carbon Fixation under Nutrient limited Conditions - a Water Column Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Helmuth; Craig, Susanne; Shadwick, Elizabeth H.; Li, William K.; Greenan, Blair J. W.

    2014-05-01

    Phytoplankton plays a critical role in the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) by the ocean, and is comprised of a spectrum of cell sizes that are strongly regulated by oceanographic conditions. Elevated CO2 fixation relative to nutrient availability, also called carbon overconsumption, has been observed in various mid to high latitude systems, such as the Baltic and North Seas, the North Atlantic Ocean, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago or the Scotian Shelf. We shed light on this phenomenon relying on an extensive data set of water column observations of the CO2 system and phytoplankton cell counts from the Scotian Shelf, a temperate shelf sea. We show that in the summertime, the population of numerically abundant small cells, which favour warmer, nutrient poor conditions, accounts for approximately 20% of annual carbon uptake. At the broader scale, the neglection of this "non-Redfieldian" contribution typically leads to an underestimation of net community production by approximately 20% to 50%. These small cells are not well represented by chlorophyll a - the ubiquitously used proxy of phytoplankton biomass - but rather, are strongly correlated with surface water temperature. Given the persistent near-zero nutrient concentrations during the summer, it appears that small cells drive carbon overconsumption, and suggest that their role in carbon fixation will become increasingly important in a warming, increasingly stratified ocean.

  12. Water-Limiting Conditions Alter the Structure and Biofilm-Forming Ability of Bacterial Multispecies Communities in the Alfalfa Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Bogino, Pablo; Abod, Ayelén; Nievas, Fiorela; Giordano, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms are microbial communities that adhere to biotic or abiotic surfaces and are enclosed in a protective matrix of extracellular compounds. An important advantage of the biofilm lifestyle for soil bacteria (rhizobacteria) is protection against water deprivation (desiccation or osmotic effect). The rhizosphere is a crucial microhabitat for ecological, interactive, and agricultural production processes. The composition and functions of bacterial biofilms in soil microniches are poorly understood. We studied multibacterial communities established as biofilm-like structures in the rhizosphere of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) exposed to 3 experimental conditions of water limitation. The whole biofilm-forming ability (WBFA) for rhizospheric communities exposed to desiccation was higher than that of communities exposed to saline or nonstressful conditions. A culture-dependent ribotyping analysis indicated that communities exposed to desiccation or saline conditions were more diverse than those under the nonstressful condition. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of selected strains showed that the rhizospheric communities consisted primarily of members of the Actinobacteria and α- and γ-Proteobacteria, regardless of the water-limiting condition. Our findings contribute to improved understanding of the effects of environmental stress factors on plant-bacteria interaction processes and have potential application to agricultural management practices. PMID:24223979

  13. Water-limiting conditions alter the structure and biofilm-forming ability of bacterial multispecies communities in the alfalfa rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Bogino, Pablo; Abod, Ayelén; Nievas, Fiorela; Giordano, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms are microbial communities that adhere to biotic or abiotic surfaces and are enclosed in a protective matrix of extracellular compounds. An important advantage of the biofilm lifestyle for soil bacteria (rhizobacteria) is protection against water deprivation (desiccation or osmotic effect). The rhizosphere is a crucial microhabitat for ecological, interactive, and agricultural production processes. The composition and functions of bacterial biofilms in soil microniches are poorly understood. We studied multibacterial communities established as biofilm-like structures in the rhizosphere of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) exposed to 3 experimental conditions of water limitation. The whole biofilm-forming ability (WBFA) for rhizospheric communities exposed to desiccation was higher than that of communities exposed to saline or nonstressful conditions. A culture-dependent ribotyping analysis indicated that communities exposed to desiccation or saline conditions were more diverse than those under the nonstressful condition. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of selected strains showed that the rhizospheric communities consisted primarily of members of the Actinobacteria and ?- and ?-Proteobacteria, regardless of the water-limiting condition. Our findings contribute to improved understanding of the effects of environmental stress factors on plant-bacteria interaction processes and have potential application to agricultural management practices. PMID:24223979

  14. General boundary conditions for quasiclassical theory of superconductivity in the diffusive limit: application to strongly spin-polarized systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschrig, M.; Cottet, A.; Belzig, W.; Linder, J.

    2015-08-01

    Boundary conditions in quasiclassical theory of superconductivity are of crucial importance for describing proximity effects in heterostructures between different materials. Although they have been derived for the ballistic case in full generality, corresponding boundary conditions for the diffusive limit, described by Usadel theory, have been lacking for interfaces involving strongly spin-polarized materials, e.g. half-metallic ferromagnets. Given the current intense research in the emerging field of superconducting spintronics, the formulation of appropriate boundary conditions for the Usadel theory of diffusive superconductors in contact with strongly spin-polarized ferromagnets for arbitrary transmission probability and arbitrary spin-dependent interface scattering phases has been a burning open question. Here we close this gap and derive the full boundary conditions for quasiclassical Green functions in the diffusive limit, valid for any value of spin polarization, transmission probability, and spin-mixing angles (spin-dependent scattering phase shifts). Our formulation allows also for complex spin textures across the interface and for channel off-diagonal scattering (a necessary ingredient when the numbers of channels on the two sides of the interface differ). As an example we derive expressions for the proximity effect in diffusive systems involving half-metallic ferromagnets. In a superconductor/half-metal/superconductor Josephson junction we find {? }0-junction behavior under certain interface conditions.

  15. [Unequal living conditions and health chances in preschool children: support protective factors - limit risk factors].

    PubMed

    Horstkotte, E; Zimmermann, E

    2008-11-01

    Manifestations of an aggravation of social antagonisms and increased reports about childhood poverty and child abuse have unleashed a broad debate about the situation of children in risk-laden circumstances. More and more children are affected by relative poverty and disadvantage. An increase in the number children under 15 who receive social assistance can also be registered in Bremen, this share even increased to 60% in especially burdened districts. Against this background, the Bremen Health Department used a socio-spatial analysis to determine whether the utilisation of health examinations and the social and cultural participation chances of preschool children differed according to their living conditions. To this end, selected data from the school entrance examinations from 1998 to 2005 were analysed in regard to their relevance for the participation chances in different child-related dimensions of the life situation. Contradictory developments could be found, both in the dimension of the utilisation of health examinations and in the dimension of social and cultural participation chances. Children from disadvantaged neighbourhoods exhibited a lower utilisation of health examinations and less chances for social and cultural participation than children from more well-to-do residential areas. Trend calculations for the years 1998 to 2005 show an increasing discrepancy between children from disadvantaged and those from well-to-do neighbourhoods. Disadvantaged life situations - with the danger of increasing exclusion - appear to be establishing themselves in Bremen. The resources of children and families for dealing with risk-laden life situations have to be strengthened. Effective and long-lasting prevention approaches have to be developed and implemented at the local level. Kindergartens and schools could serve as centres for community networking strategies. Integrated concepts for action in the respective social areas are necessary to protect children and guarantee them fair chances despite disadvantaged living conditions. PMID:19039725

  16. Conditions and limitations on learning in the adaptive management of mallard harvests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, F.A.; Kendall, W.L.; Dubovsky, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1995, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service adopted a protocol for the adaptive management of waterfowl hunting regulations (AHM) to help reduce uncertainty about the magnitude of sustainable harvests. To date, the AHM process has focused principally on the midcontinent population of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), whose dynamics are described by 4 alternative models. Collectively, these models express uncertainty (or disagreement) about whether harvest is an additive or a compensatory form of mortality and whether the reproductive process is weakly or strongly density-dependent. Each model is associated with a probability or 'weight,' which describes its relative ability to predict changes in population size. These Bayesian probabilities are updated annually using a comparison of population size predicted under each model with that observed by a monitoring program. The current AHM process is passively adaptive, in the sense that there is no a priori consideration of how harvest decisions might affect discrimination among models. We contrast this approach with an actively adaptive approach, in which harvest decisions are used in part to produce the learning needed to increase long-term management performance. Our investigation suggests that the passive approach is expected to perform nearly as well as an optimal actively adaptive approach, particularly considering the nature of the model set, management objectives and constraints, and current regulatory alternatives. We offer some comments about the nature of the biological hypotheses being tested and describe some of the inherent limitations on learning in the AHM process.

  17. On the choice of limiters in a numerical approximation of a chemotaxis system with non-linear boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencheva, G.

    2012-10-01

    A mathematical model for haematopoietic stem cells migration towards their niche in the bone marrow has been proposed in the literature. It consists of a chemotaxis system of partial differential equations with nonlinear boundary conditions and an additional ordinary differential equation on a part of the computational boundary. The aim in the current paper is first to answer some of the open questions of a recently introduced finite volume scheme for this chemotaxis system of differential equations and second to investigate the influence of the boundary conditions on the choice of flux limiters (the generalized minmod, Koren, van Leer limiters are investigated) used to ensure positivity and non-oscillating nature of the numerical solution.

  18. Post-oral fat stimulation of intake and conditioned flavor preference in C57BL/6J mice: A concentration-response study.

    PubMed

    Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2014-04-22

    Fat appetite is determined not only by orosensory (flavor) stimuli but also by the post-oral actions of dietary fat, which promote increased attraction to the flavors of high-fat foods. Experiment 1 presents a concentration-response analysis of how intragastric (IG) fat self-infusions stimulate intake and condition flavor preferences in C57BL/6J mice trained 1h/day. Separate groups of food-restricted mice consumed a flavored saccharin solution (the CS-) paired with IG self-infusions of water (Test 0) followed by a different flavored solution (the CS+) paired with IG self-infusions of 1.6, 3.2, 6.4 or 12.8% Intralipid (IL, soybean oil) (Tests 1-3). Following additional CS- and CS+ training sessions, a two-bottle CS+ vs. CS- choice test was conducted without infusions. Infusions of 3.2-12.8% IL stimulated CS+ licking in the first test session and more so in subsequent test sessions, and also conditioned significant CS+ preferences. These effects were similar to those previously observed with isocaloric glucose infusions (8-32%). IG infusion of 1.6% IL stimulated intake slightly but did not condition a CS+ preference comparable to the actions of isocaloric 4% glucose. Experiment 2 compared these subthreshold IL and glucose concentrations with that of a 1.6% IL+4% glucose infusion. This mixture stimulated 1-h CS+ licking more rapidly but generated a preference similar to that of 1.6% IL. In 23h/day tests, however, the IL+glucose mixture stimulated greater CS+ intakes and preferences than did 1.6% IL or 4% glucose. These findings show that fat, like glucose, rapidly generates concentration-dependent post-oral signals that stimulate intake and enhance preferences for energy-rich foods in mice. PMID:24582671

  19. Small rodent winter survival: snow conditions limit access to food resources.

    PubMed

    Korslund, Lars; Steen, Harald

    2006-01-01

    1. In Fennoscandia during winter small rodents spend most of their time in the subnivean space, between the snow cover and the ground. The subnivean space is probably not a uniform habitat, but broken into accessible and inaccessible patches by ice covering the vegetation. This might reduce access to otherwise available food resources. 2. To test whether ice formations reduce access to food and thus limit winter survival of small rodents, we conducted an experiment where we increased subnivean space by adding corrugated aluminium sheets on the ground before onset of winter. The sheets prevented ice formation, thus mimicking natural occurring subnivean space, and providing more room for animals living in the subnivean space to forage. 3. During the experiment 142 Microtus oeconomus were passive induced transponder (PIT)-tagged, and a system consisting of fixed tube-shaped antennas and PIT-tag readers were used to provide data to analyse winter survival and individual subnivean space use. The extent of winter grazing was measured after snow melt by examining percentage area grazed. 4. The treatment resulted in increased survival which corresponded well with significantly higher space use and more grazing under the sheets. 5. Females showed a positive correlation between probability of survival and body mass while no such effect was observed in males. 6. The results suggest that the snow cover reduces survival in winter by physically enclosing the vegetation in ice and thus reducing access to otherwise available food resources. The amount of ice and its configuration might vary between years due to changing weather patterns. Our results offer a mechanistic explanation for variations in winter survival and suggest incorporating climate variables in future small rodent models. 7. Directional and long-term changes in climate might result in increased ice formation in the subnivean system. Such deterioration may lead to reduced winter survival and act by stabilizing population dynamics and dampening vole cyclicity. PMID:16903053

  20. Determination of Bacterial Weathering Ability in Nutrient Limited Conditions on Biotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, M. R.; Harsh, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    Bacterial and fungal communities facilitate the weathering of minerals in oligotrophic soils. The bacterial communities reside in biofilms, consisting of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) such as lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nuclei acids. Biotite, a 2:1 aluminosilicate mica, is a common primary mineral found in these low nutrient soils and is a source of potassium, magnesium and iron for both microorganisms and plants. Studies show that bacteria, when incubated with biotite flakes, can remove iron, potassium, and magnesium at higher quantities and increased rates compared to abiotic controls (Balogh-Brunstad et al., 2008; Calvaruso et al., 2006; Hopf et al. 2008; Uroz et al., 2007 and 2009). How this happens mechanistically is still unclear and this study seeks to shed light on this issue. We hypothesize that weathering by bacteria is selective; i.e., that the mechanism will depend on the limiting nutrient. Using a drip flow biofilm reactor, biofilms are grown on biotite coupons under non-turbulent, low sheer flow, with four different nutrient treatments. The nutrient treatments include a complete nutrient solution and the same solution without K, Mg, or Fe. In each treatment, we determine the concentration and cumulative release of each cation in the effluent. Congruent dissolution of biotite indicates that weathering is nonselective whereas incongruent dissolution suggests that the bacteria alter the weathering mechanism for a specific nutrient. The bacteria are selected from a bacterial inoculum collected from the roots of young White Pine (Pinus strobus) trees in the Saint Joseph National Forest, Idaho. The bacteria are isolated on plates and the best weathering species are selected using a microplate bioassay technique to determine the concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, and protons colorimetrically.

  1. Profiling of spatial metabolite distributions in wheat leaves under normal and nitrate limiting conditions.

    PubMed

    Allwood, J William; Chandra, Surya; Xu, Yun; Dunn, Warwick B; Correa, Elon; Hopkins, Laura; Goodacre, Royston; Tobin, Alyson K; Bowsher, Caroline G

    2015-07-01

    The control and interaction between nitrogen and carbon assimilatory pathways is essential in both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic tissue in order to support metabolic processes without compromising growth. Physiological differences between the basal and mature region of wheat (Triticum aestivum) primary leaves confirmed that there was a change from heterotrophic to autotrophic metabolism. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy confirmed the suitability and phenotypic reproducibility of the leaf growth conditions. Principal Component-Discriminant Function Analysis (PC-DFA) revealed distinct clustering between base, and tip sections of the developing wheat leaf, and from plants grown in the presence or absence of nitrate. Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight/Mass Spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) combined with multivariate and univariate analyses, and Bayesian network (BN) analysis, distinguished different tissues and confirmed the physiological switch from high rates of respiration to photosynthesis along the leaf. The operation of nitrogen metabolism impacted on the levels and distribution of amino acids, organic acids and carbohydrates within the wheat leaf. In plants grown in the presence of nitrate there was reduced levels of a number of sugar metabolites in the leaf base and an increase in maltose levels, possibly reflecting an increase in starch turnover. The value of using this combined metabolomics analysis for further functional investigations in the future are discussed. PMID:25680480

  2. Profiling of spatial metabolite distributions in wheat leaves under normal and nitrate limiting conditions

    PubMed Central

    Allwood, J. William; Chandra, Surya; Xu, Yun; Dunn, Warwick B.; Correa, Elon; Hopkins, Laura; Goodacre, Royston; Tobin, Alyson K.; Bowsher, Caroline G.

    2015-01-01

    The control and interaction between nitrogen and carbon assimilatory pathways is essential in both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic tissue in order to support metabolic processes without compromising growth. Physiological differences between the basal and mature region of wheat (Triticum aestivum) primary leaves confirmed that there was a change from heterotrophic to autotrophic metabolism. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy confirmed the suitability and phenotypic reproducibility of the leaf growth conditions. Principal Component–Discriminant Function Analysis (PC–DFA) revealed distinct clustering between base, and tip sections of the developing wheat leaf, and from plants grown in the presence or absence of nitrate. Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight/Mass Spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) combined with multivariate and univariate analyses, and Bayesian network (BN) analysis, distinguished different tissues and confirmed the physiological switch from high rates of respiration to photosynthesis along the leaf. The operation of nitrogen metabolism impacted on the levels and distribution of amino acids, organic acids and carbohydrates within the wheat leaf. In plants grown in the presence of nitrate there was reduced levels of a number of sugar metabolites in the leaf base and an increase in maltose levels, possibly reflecting an increase in starch turnover. The value of using this combined metabolomics analysis for further functional investigations in the future are discussed. PMID:25680480

  3. Kadanoff-Baym equations with non-Gaussian initial conditions: The equilibrium limit

    SciTech Connect

    Garny, Mathias; Mueller, Markus Michael

    2009-10-15

    The nonequilibrium dynamics of quantum fields is an initial-value problem, which can be described by Kadanoff-Baym equations. Typically, and, in particular, when numerical solutions are demanded, these Kadanoff-Baym equations are restricted to Gaussian initial states. However, physical initial states are non-Gaussian correlated initial states. In particular, renormalizability requires the initial state to feature n-point correlations that asymptotically agree with the vacuum correlations at short distances. In order to identify physical nonequilibrium initial states, it is therefore a precondition to describe the vacuum correlations of the interacting theory within the nonequilibrium framework. In this paper, Kadanoff-Baym equations for non-Gaussian correlated initial states describing vacuum and thermal equilibrium are derived from the 2PI effective action. A diagrammatic method for the explicit construction of vacuum and thermal initial correlations from the 2PI effective action is provided. We present numerical solutions of Kadanoff-Baym equations for a real scalar {phi}{sup 4} quantum field theory, which take the thermal initial four-point correlation as the leading non-Gaussian correction into account. We find that this minimal non-Gaussian initial condition yields an approximation to the complete equilibrium initial state that is quantitatively and qualitatively significantly improved as compared to Gaussian initial states.

  4. Comparative studies of S-layer proteins from Bacillus stearothermophilus strains expressed during growth in continuous culture under oxygen-limited and non-oxygen-limited conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Sára, M; Sleytr, U B

    1994-01-01

    The specific properties of S-layer proteins from three different Bacillus stearothermophilus strains revealing oblique, square, or hexagonal lattice symmetry were preserved during growth in continuous culture on complex medium only under oxygen-limited conditions in which glucose was used as the sole carbon source. When oxygen limitation was relieved, amino acids became metabolized, cell density increased, and different S-layer proteins from wild-type strains became rapidly replaced by a new common type of S-layer protein with an apparent subunit molecular weight of 97,000 which assembled into an identical oblique (p2) lattice type. During switching from wild-type strains to variants, patches of the S-layer lattices characteristics for wild-type strains, granular regions, and areas with oblique lattice symmetry could be observed on the surface of individual cells from all organisms. The granular regions apparently consisted of mixtures of the S-layer proteins from the wild-type strains and the newly synthesized p2 S-layer proteins from the variants. S-layer proteins from wild-type strains possessed identical N-terminal regions but led to quite different cleavage products upon peptide mapping, indicating that they are encoded by different genes. Chemical analysis including N-terminal sequencing and peptide mapping showed that the oblique S-layer lattices synthesized under increased oxygen supply were composed of identical protein species. Images PMID:7961489

  5. Pharmacokinetics of single oral dose trazodone: a randomized, two-period, cross-over trial in healthy, adult, human volunteers under fed condition

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Prashant; Agrawal, Yadvendra K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the bioequivalence of single dose trazodone hydrochloride USP 100 mg tablets administered as an oral dose under fed condition. Methods:This study was an open-label, balanced, randomized, two-sequence, two-treatment, two-period, single oral dose, crossover bioequivalence study in healthy, adult, human subjects under fed conditions. After an overnight fast of at least 10 h, the subjects were served a high fat and high calorie vegetarian breakfast, which they were required to consume within 30 min. A single oral dose (100 mg) of either the test or the reference product was administered to the subjects. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) from time zero to last measurable concentration (AUC0−t) and extrapolated to infinity (AUC0−∞) were compared by an analysis of variance using log-transformed data. Bioequivalence was concluded if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the adjusted geometric mean (gMean) ratios for Cmax and AUC were within the predetermined range of 80–125%, in accordance with regulatory requirements. Results:For the test formulation, the trazodone gMean Cmax was 1480.9 ng/mL (vs. 1520.2 ng/mL for reference), AUC0−t was 18193.0 ng·h/mL (vs. 18209.8 ng·h/mL) and AUC0−∞ was 19346.3 ng·h/mL (vs. 19393.4 ng·h/mL). The 90% CIs for the ratio (test/reference) were 93.0–102.0% for Cmax, 96.7–103.2% for AUC0−t and 96.1–103.5% for AUC0−∞. There were no deaths or serious adverse events during the conduct of the study. Conclusion:Test product when compared with the Reference product meets the bioequivalence criteria with respect to the extent of absorption of trazodone under fed condition. PMID:26483693

  6. A strong conditional mutualism limits and enhances seed dispersal and germination of a tropical palm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klinger, R.; Rejmanek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Seed predation and seed dispersal can have strong effects on early life history stages of plants. These processes have often been studied as individual effects, but the degree to which their relative importance co-varies with seed predator abundance and how this influences seed germination rates is poorly understood. Therefore, we used a combination of observations and field experiments to determine the degree to which germination rates of the palm Astrocaryum mexicanum varied with abundance of a small mammal seed predator/disperser, Heteromysdesmarestianus, in a lowland tropical forest. Patterns of abundance of the two species were strongly related; density of H. desmarestianus was low in sites with low density of A. mexicanum and vice versa. Rates of predation and dispersal of A. mexicanum seeds depended on abundance of H. desmarestianus; sites with high densities of H. desmarestianus had the highest rates of seed predation and lowest rates of seed germination, but a greater total number of seeds were dispersed and there was greater density of seedlings, saplings, and adults of A. mexicanum in these sites. When abundance of H. desmarestianus was experimentally reduced, rates of seed predation decreased, but so did dispersal of A. mexicanum seeds. Critically, rates of germination of dispersed seeds were 5 times greater than undispersed seeds. The results suggest that the relationship between A. mexicanum and H. desmarestianus is a conditional mutualism that results in a strong local effect on the abundance of each species. However, the magnitude and direction of these effects are determined by the relative strength of opposing, but related, mechanisms. A. mexicanum nuts provide H. desmarestianus with a critical food resource, and while seed predation on A. mexicanum nuts by H. desmarestianus is very intense, A. mexicanum ultimately benefits because of the relatively high germination rates of its seeds that are dispersed by H. desmarestianus. ?? The Author(s) 2010.

  7. Burkholderia spp. are the most competitive symbionts of Mimosa, particularly under N-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Geoffrey N; Chou, Jui-Hsing; Chen, Wen-Ming; Bloemberg, Guido V; Bontemps, Cyril; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Velázquez, Encarna; Young, J Peter W; Sprent, Janet I; James, Euan K

    2009-04-01

    Bacteria isolated from Mimosa nodules in Taiwan, Papua New Guinea, Mexico and Puerto Rico were identified as belonging to either the alpha- or beta-proteobacteria. The beta-proteobacterial Burkholderia and Cupriavidus strains formed effective symbioses with the common invasive species Mimosa diplotricha, M. pigra and M. pudica, but the alpha-proteobacterial Rhizobium etli and R. tropici strains produced a range of symbiotic phenotypes from no nodulation through ineffective to effective nodulation, depending on Mimosa species. Competition studies were performed between three of the alpha-proteobacteria (R. etli TJ167, R. tropici NGR181 and UPRM8021) and two of the beta-rhizobial symbionts (Burkholderia mimosarum PAS44 and Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG19424) for nodulation of these invasive Mimosa species. Under flooded conditions, B. mimosarum PAS44 out-competed LMG19424 and all three alpha-proteobacteria to the point of exclusion. This advantage was not explained by initial inoculum levels, rates of bacterial growth, rhizobia-rhizobia growth inhibition or individual nodulation rate. However, the competitive domination of PAS44 over LMG19424 was reduced in the presence of nitrate for all three plant hosts. The largest significant effect was for M. pudica, in which LMG19424 formed 57% of the nodules in the presence of 0.5 mM potassium nitrate. In this host, ammonium also had a similar, but lesser, effect. Comparable results were also found using an N-containing soil mixture, and environmental N levels are therefore suggested as a factor in the competitive success of the bacterial symbiont in vivo. PMID:19040456

  8. Language and Traits of Autism Spectrum Conditions: Evidence of Limited Phenotypic and Etiological Overlap

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Mark J.; Charman, Tony; Robinson, Elise B.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Happé, Francesca; Dale, Philip S.; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Language difficulties have historically been viewed as integral to autism spectrum conditions (ASC), leading molecular genetic studies to consider whether ASC and language difficulties have overlapping genetic bases. The extent of genetic, and also environmental, overlap between ASC and language is, however, unclear. We hence conducted a twin study of the concurrent association between autistic traits and receptive language abilities. Internet-based language tests were completed by ~3,000 pairs of twins, while autistic traits were assessed via parent ratings. Twin model fitting explored the association between these measures in the full sample, while DeFries-Fulker analysis tested these associations at the extremes of the sample. Phenotypic associations between language ability and autistic traits were modest and negative. The degree of genetic overlap was also negative, indicating that genetic influences on autistic traits lowered language scores in the full sample (mean genetic correlation = ?0.13). Genetic overlap was also low at the extremes of the sample (mean genetic correlation = 0.14), indicating that genetic influences on quantitatively defined language difficulties were largely distinct from those on extreme autistic traits. Variation in language ability and autistic traits were also associated with largely different nonshared environmental influences. Language and autistic traits are influenced by largely distinct etiological factors. This has implications for molecular genetic studies of ASC and understanding the etiology of ASC. Additionally, these findings lend support to forthcoming DSM-5 changes to ASC diagnostic criteria that will see language difficulties separated from the core ASC communication symptoms, and instead listed as a clinical specifier. PMID:25088445

  9. Language and traits of autism spectrum conditions: evidence of limited phenotypic and etiological overlap.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark J; Charman, Tony; Robinson, Elise B; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E; Happé, Francesca; Dale, Philip S; Ronald, Angelica

    2014-10-01

    Language difficulties have historically been viewed as integral to autism spectrum conditions (ASC), leading molecular genetic studies to consider whether ASC and language difficulties have overlapping genetic bases. The extent of genetic, and also environmental, overlap between ASC and language is, however, unclear. We hence conducted a twin study of the concurrent association between autistic traits and receptive language abilities. Internet-based language tests were completed by ~3,000 pairs of twins, while autistic traits were assessed via parent ratings. Twin model fitting explored the association between these measures in the full sample, while DeFries-Fulker analysis tested these associations at the extremes of the sample. Phenotypic associations between language ability and autistic traits were modest and negative. The degree of genetic overlap was also negative, indicating that genetic influences on autistic traits lowered language scores in the full sample (mean genetic correlation = -0.13). Genetic overlap was also low at the extremes of the sample (mean genetic correlation = 0.14), indicating that genetic influences on quantitatively defined language difficulties were largely distinct from those on extreme autistic traits. Variation in language ability and autistic traits were also associated with largely different nonshared environmental influences. Language and autistic traits are influenced by largely distinct etiological factors. This has implications for molecular genetic studies of ASC and understanding the etiology of ASC. Additionally, these findings lend support to forthcoming DSM-5 changes to ASC diagnostic criteria that will see language difficulties separated from the core ASC communication symptoms, and instead listed as a clinical specifier. PMID:25088445

  10. Arsenic-induced phosphate limitation under experimental Early Proterozoic oceanic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi Fru, Ernest; Hemmingsson, Christoffer; Holm, Mikaela; Chiu, Beverly; Iñiguez, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of phosphorus concentrations associated with modern hydrothermal Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides and ancient Fe(III) oxide-rich iron formations, is used to estimate bioavailable Precambrian marine phosphorus (P) concentrations. This led to the proposition of a low dissolved P budget of ˜10-25% of present-day levels, before ˜1.9 billion years ago. Estimates incorporating ancient marine Si levels ≥ 0.67 mM instead suggested global dissolved P levels greater than today. Here we unite current experimental models that have considered NaCl solutions containing elevated dissolved Fe(II), Si, Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions in the incorporation of P in Precambrian marine Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides, in addition to arsenic as a hydrothermal proxy. We show that the coprecipitation of dissolved P and Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides from arsenic-rich marine waters produces an average P distribution coefficient of ˜0.072 (± 0.01) μM-1. This is comparable to the ˜ 0.07 μM-1 predicted for Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides in modern arsenic-rich, submarine hydrothermal settings, from which the lower Early Proterozoic dissolved marine P concentrations were predicted. As/P molar ratios below modern seawater ratios removed the negative feedback effect high Si impose on P scavenging by Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides. The binding of As(III) to Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides exhibits a lower competitive influence on P fixation. As(V) that likely became prominent in the surficially oxidized Early Proterozoic oceans induced dissolved P limitation because of preferential P sequestration at the expense of dissolved As(V) enrichment. The control of As on P scavenging by the precipitating Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides is strong regardless of common seawater cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+). The data suggest that the application of Si and Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides as an ancient seawater P proxy should consider chemical variability between depositional basins, taking into account the rather strong role hydrothermal arsenic has on the distribution of P in Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides. We propose that the generalized lower dissolved P budgets estimated from Early Proterozoic iron formations are consistent with oceans thought to be at least 3-4 times more hydrothermally active than at present.

  11. In vivo confocal microscopy for the oral cavity: Current state of the field and future potential.

    PubMed

    Maher, N G; Collgros, H; Uribe, P; Ch'ng, S; Rajadhyaksha, M; Guitera, P

    2016-03-01

    Confocal microscopy (CM) has been shown to correlate with oral mucosal histopathology in vivo. The purposes of this review are to summarize what we know so far about in vivo CM applications for oral mucosal pathologies, to highlight some current developments with CM devices relevant for oral applications, and to formulate where in vivo CM could hold further application for oral mucosal diagnosis and management. Ovid Medline® and/or Google® searches were performed using the terms 'microscopy, confocal', 'mouth neoplasms', 'mouth mucosa', 'leukoplakia, oral', 'oral lichen planus', 'gingiva', 'cheilitis', 'taste', 'inflammatory oral confocal', 'mucosal confocal' and 'confocal squamous cell oral'. In summary, inclusion criteria were in vivo use of any type of CM for the human oral mucosa and studies on normal or pathological oral mucosa. Experimental studies attempting to identify proteins of interest and microorganisms were excluded. In total 25 relevant articles were found, covering 8 main topics, including normal oral mucosal features (n=15), oral dysplasia or neoplasia (n=7), inflamed oral mucosa (n=3), taste impairment (n=3), oral autoimmune conditions (n=2), pigmented oral pathology/melanoma (n=1), delayed type hypersensitivity (n=1), and cheilitis glandularis (n=1). The evidence for using in vivo CM in these conditions is poor, as it is limited to mainly small descriptive studies. Current device developments for oral CM include improved probe design. The authors propose that future applications for in vivo oral CM may include burning mouth syndrome, intra-operative mapping for cancer surgery, and monitoring and targeted biopsies within field cancerization. PMID:26786962

  12. Doppler-broadened NICE-OHMS beyond the cavity-limited weak absorption condition - II: Experimental verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmaninger, Thomas; Silander, Isak; Ma, Weiguang; Axner, Ove

    2016-01-01

    Doppler-broadened (Db) noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry (NICE-OHMS) is normally described by an expression, here termed the conventional (CONV) description, that is restricted to the conventional cavity-limited weak absorption condition (CCLWA), i.e. when the single pass absorbance is significantly smaller than the empty cavity losses, i.e. when α0 L < < π / F. To describe NICE-OHMS signals beyond this limit two simplified extended descriptions (termed the extended locking and extended transmission description, ELET, and the extended locking and full transmission description, ELFT), which are assumed to be valid under the relaxed cavity-limited weak absorption condition (RCLWA), i.e. when α0 L < π / F, and a full description (denoted FULL), presumed to be valid also when the α0 L < π / F condition does not hold, have recently been derived in an accompanying work (Ma W, et al. Doppler-broadened NICE-OHMS beyond the cavity-limited weak absorption condition - I. Theoretical Description. J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jqsrt.2015.09.007). The present work constitutes an experimental verification and assessment of the validity of these, performed in the Doppler limit for a set of Fα0 L / π values (up to 3.5); it is shown under which conditions the various descriptions are valid. It is concluded that for samples with Fα0 L / π up to 0.01, all descriptions replicate the data well. It is shown that the CONV description is adequate and provides accurate assessments of the signal strength (and thereby the analyte concentration) up to Fα0 L / π of around 0.1, while the ELET is accurate for Fα0 L / π up to around 0.3. The ELFT description mimics the Db NICE-OHMS signal well for Fα0 L / π up to around unity, while the FULL description is adequate for all Fα0 L / π values investigated. Access to these descriptions both increases considerably the dynamic range of the technique and facilitates calibration using certified reference gases, which thereby significantly broadens the applicability of the Db NICE-OHMS technique.

  13. Benefits and limitations of pig slurry to reclaim bare mine soils under Mediterranean semiarid conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Acosta, Jose A.; Kabas, Sebla; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Ángeles Muñoz, M.

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the effects of pig slurry application on reclamation of mine soils from Cartagena-La Unión Mining District (SE Spain) were investigated in a field experiment. Exchangeable metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, soluble carbon, microbial biomass and three enzyme activities were periodically monitored during 67 days. In addition, one year after the application of the pig slurry, soil and developed vegetation was sampled. Results showed that only exchangeable Cd and Zn significantly decreased in the amended plots, mainly for Cd, with decreases of 98%. The rest of metals and chemical properties did not change with time after application of amendments, showing values not significantly different than those present before pig slurry application. Soluble carbon, microbial biomass carbon and the enzyme activities increased after the application of pig slurry. However, after various days these parameters started a decreasing trend until reaching values similar to the control from approximately day 25. Thus, mainly precipitation as phosphate from the waste was very effective for Cd immobilization. No increments were observed in soil organic carbon because the organic carbon applied with the slurry was too low to be significantly detected. Nonetheless, pig slurry is a good fertilizer owing to the high quantity of nutrients provided, needed to promote the development of vegetation. One year after application, a native vegetation cover (25-30%) was reached by spontaneous colonization. Triggered plant growth by the effect of amendment improved soil conditions, particularly by the help of the medium created by their rhizosphere systems. Increments in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, and decreases in the exchangeable metals fraction concentration were observed in rhizospheric soils when compared to the bare soils. This improvement in soil quality mediated by vegetation was more efficient than the direct effect of the amendment. In conclusion, the use of pig slurry to reclaim bare contaminated soils by heavy metals brings indirect positive effects by triggering a vegetation cover which can stabilize metals and increase soil quality (phytostabilization). Keywords: heavy metals, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, phytoremediation.

  14. 3D scalar model as a 4D perfect conductor limit: Dimensional reduction and variational boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Edery, Ariel; Graham, Noah; MacDonald, Ilana

    2009-06-15

    Under dimensional reduction, a system in D spacetime dimensions will not necessarily yield its D-1-dimensional analog version. Among other things, this result will depend on the boundary conditions and the dimension D of the system. We investigate this question for scalar and Abelian gauge fields under boundary conditions that obey the symmetries of the action. We apply our findings to the Casimir piston, an ideal system for detecting boundary effects. Our investigation is not limited to extra dimensions and we show that the original piston scenario proposed in 2004, a toy model involving a scalar field in 3D (2+1) dimensions, can be obtained via dimensional reduction from a more realistic 4D electromagnetic (EM) system. We show that for perfect conductor conditions, a D-dimensional EM field reduces to a D-1 scalar field and not its lower-dimensional version. For Dirichlet boundary conditions, no theory is recovered under dimensional reduction and the Casimir pressure goes to zero in any dimension. This ''zero Dirichlet'' result is useful for understanding the EM case. We then identify two special systems where the lower-dimensional version is recovered in any dimension: systems with perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) and Neumann boundary conditions. We show that these two boundary conditions can be obtained from a variational procedure in which the action vanishes outside the bounded region. The fields are free to vary on the surface and have zero modes, which survive after dimensional reduction.

  15. The behavior of fuel-lean premixed flames in a standard flammability limit tube under controlled gravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wherley, B. L.; Strehlow, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Fuel-lean flames in methane-air mixtures from 4.90 to 6.20 volume percent fuel and propane-air mixtures from 1.90 to 3.00 volume percent fuel were studied in the vicinity of the limit for a variety of gravity conditions. The limits were determined and the behavior of the flames studied for one g upward, one g downward, and zero g propagation. Photographic records of all flammability tube firings were obtained. The structure and behavior of these flames were detailed including the variations of the curvature of the flame front, the skirt length, and the occurrence of cellular instabilities with varying gravity conditions. The effect of ignition was also discussed. A survey of flame speeds as a function of mixture strength was made over a range of lean mixture compositions for each of the fuels studied. The results were presented graphically with those obtained by other researchers. The flame speed for constant fractional gravity loadings were plotted as a function of gravity loadings from 0.0 up to 2.0 g's against flame speeds extracted from the transient gravity flame histories for corresponding gravity loadings. The effects of varying gravity conditions on the extinguishment process for upward and downward propagating flames were investigated.

  16. Towards lag phase of microbial populations at growth-limiting conditions: The role of the variability in the growth limits of individual cells.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Juan S; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

    2016-05-01

    The water activity (aw) growth limits of unheated and heat stressed Listeria monocytogenes individual cells were studied. The aw limits varied from 0.940 to 0.997 and 0.951 to 0.997 for unheated and heat stressed cells, respectively. Due to the above variability a decrease in aw results in the presence of a non-growing fraction in the population leading to an additional pseudo-lag in population growth. In this case the total apparent lag of the population is the sum of the physiological lag of the growing cells (time required to adjust to the new environment) and the pseudo-lag. To investigate the effect of aw on the above lag components, the growth kinetics of L. monocytogenes on tryptone soy agar with aw adjusted to values ranging from 0.997 to 0.940 was monitored. The model of B&R was fitted to the data for the estimation of the apparent lag. In order to estimate the physiological lag of the growing fraction of the inoculum, the model was refitted to the growth data using as initial population level the number of cells that were able to grow (estimated from the number of colonies formed on the agar at the end of storage) and excluding the rest data during the lag. The results showed that for the unheated cells the apparent lag was almost identical to the physiological lag for aw values ranging from 0.997 to 0.970, as the majority of the cells in the initial population was able to grow in these conditions. As the aw decreased from 0.970 to 0.940 however, the number of cells in the population which were able to grow, decreased resulting to an increase in the pseudo-lag. The maximum value of pseudo-lag was 13.1h and it was observed at aw=0.940 where 10% of the total inoculated cells were able to grow. For heat stressed populations a pseudo-lag started to increase at higher aw conditions (0.982) compared to unheated cells. In contrast to the apparent lag, a linear relation between physiological lag and aw was observed for both unheated and heat stressed cells. PMID:26900994

  17. Carbon isotopic fractionation by the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under nutrient- and light-limited growth conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassar, Nicolas; Laws, Edward A.; Popp, Brian N.

    2006-11-01

    A theoretical model was developed to explain the characteristics of carbon isotopic fractionation ( ?P) by the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under nutrient- and light-limited growth conditions. The model takes into consideration active transport and diffusion of inorganic carbon through the cell membrane and chloroplast membrane and the energetic tradeoff between production of Rubisco and operation of a carbon-concentrating mechanism to achieve a given growth rate. The model is able to explain 88% of the variance in experimental ?p data reported in this study and in previous work and is able to account for the observed pattern of Rubisco activity in nitrate-limited chemostats. Two important implications of the model include the fact that ?p is not a unique function of the ratio of growth rate to external CO 2 concentration (as opposed to the predictions of several previous models) and that changes in light-limited and nutrient-limited growth rates have opposite effects on the fraction of CO 2 taken up by the chloroplast that is lost to diffusion and hence on certain patterns of carbon isotopic fractionation.

  18. CD36 gene deletion reduces fat preference and intake but not post-oral fat conditioning in mice.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, A; Ackroff, K; Abumrad, N A

    2007-11-01

    Several findings suggest the existence of a "fatty" taste, and the CD36 fatty acid translocase is a candidate taste receptor. The present study compared fat preference and acceptance in CD36 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice using nutritive (triglyceride and fatty acid) and nonnutritive (Sefa Soyate oil) emulsions. In two-bottle tests (24 h/day) naive KO mice, unlike WT mice, displayed little or no preference for dilute soybean oil, linoleic acid, or Sefa Soyate emulsions. At high concentrations (2.5-20%), KO mice developed significant soybean oil preferences, although they consumed less oil than WT mice. The postoral actions of fat likely conditioned these preferences. KO mice, like WT mice, learned to prefer a flavored solution paired with intragastric soybean oil infusions. These findings support CD36 mediation of a gustatory component to fat preference but demonstrate that it is not essential for fat-conditioned flavor preferences. The finding that oil-naive KO mice failed to prefer a nonnutritive oil, assumed to provide texture rather than taste cues, requires explanation. Finally, CD36 deletion decreased fat consumption and enhanced the ability of the mice to compensate for the calories provided by their optional fat intake. PMID:17804586

  19. Assessing the Influence of Lateral Boundary Conditions in Limited Area Numerical Weather Prediction Modelling for the Territory of Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S?le, Tija; Se??ikovs, Juris; Bethers, Uldis

    2013-04-01

    Increase in available computing power has allowed even more research centres to begin work on atmospheric modelling and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). When Limited Area Models (LAM) are used, the possible influence of boundary conditions must be taken into account for sufficient analysis of the modelling results. However, there is no universally applicable approach and the analysis must be performed for each domain setup. The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model [1] is currently used in University of Latvia for research in NWP. The region of interest is the territory of Latvia that is situated in the North-Eastern part of Europe and on the Eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. The terrain is relatively flat (highest elevation ~ 300 m ASL). The climate of Latvia is hemiboreal (Dfb) according to the Köppen classification. In the winter the climate is strongly influenced by mid-latitude cyclones. The target computational domain covers the territory of Latvia with the resolution of 3 km (301x301 grid points) and is nested in a lower-resolution outer computational domain. The aim of this study is to assess the uncertainty that is caused by the choice of the computational domain and consequently the influence of the applied boundary conditions. Due to the limited computational resources selected events characteristic of different meteorological conditions are chosen for investigation. Several aspects are analysed such as: (1) domain sizes (2) positioning of the domains (with the aim of better cyclone description) and (3) boundary condition data sources (4) influence of the model spin-up times. The results are compared with the surface meteorological observations from the Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre (LEGMC) observational network. References: [1] Skamarock, William C. and Klemp, Joseph B. A time-split nonhydrostatic atmospheric model for weather research and forecasting applications. Journal of Computational Physics. 227, 2008, pp. 3465-3485.

  20. [Oral ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology. PMID:16277953

  1. The oral health consequences of chewing areca nut.

    PubMed

    Trivedy, C R; Craig, G; Warnakulasuriya, S

    2002-01-01

    Deleterious effects of areca nut on oral soft tissues are published extensively in the dental literature. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal tissues, two major oral diseases, are less well researched. Areca-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa or tongue are reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers a condition known as betel chewer's mucosa, a discoloured areca nut-encrusted change, is often found where the quid particles are retained. Areca nut chewing is implicated in oral leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes in Asian populations. In 1985 the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there is limited evidence to conclude that areca chewing may directly lead to oral cancer. There is, however, new information linking oral cancer to pan chewing without tobacco, suggesting a strong cancer risk associated with this habit. Public health measures to quit areca use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as submucous fibrosis and oral cancer among Asian populations. PMID:11900631

  2. Simulating Biodegradation Under Mixing-limited Conditions Using Michaelis-Menten (Monod) Kinetic Expressions in a Particle Tracking Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, D.; Benson, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the typical method of adding mass-action reaction terms to the advection-dispersion equation overestimates the field-scale reaction rates. The mismatch is usually attributed to poor mixing. A recent method, based on a purely Langragian particle tracking (PT) theoretical development, successfully reproduces the results of mixing-limited bimolecular reaction (A+B ? C) from two benchmark experiments. In this numerical method, the reactants are represented by particles. The reactions are determined by a combination of two probabilities that govern whether: 1) reactant particles are collocated during a short time interval, and 2) two collocated particles favorably transform into a reaction. We extend the application of the PT method to biodegradation, which is commonly characterized by more complex Michaelis-Menten (Monod) chemical kinetics. The advantage of the PT method is that it explains the variation of reaction rate based on mixing-controlled particle collisions instead of using empirical parameters. The PT method is not only able to match the Michaelis-Menten (Monod) equation under ideal conditions, but also is able to capture the characteristics of non-ideal conditions such as imperfect mixing, disequilibrium, and limited availability of the active sites. Furthermore, for the ultimate goal of applying the Langragian PT method directly to the field scale problems, this method is implemented to the simulation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) biodegradation at the Schoolcraft, Michigan, site, where the hydraulic properties and reaction kinetics are well understood.

  3. Oxygen Response of the Wine Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 Grown under Carbon-Sufficient, Nitrogen-Limited Enological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Aceituno, Felipe F.; Orellana, Marcelo; Torres, Jorge; Mendoza, Sebastián; Slater, Alex W.; Melo, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Discrete additions of oxygen play a critical role in alcoholic fermentation. However, few studies have quantitated the fate of dissolved oxygen and its impact on wine yeast cell physiology under enological conditions. We simulated the range of dissolved oxygen concentrations that occur after a pump-over during the winemaking process by sparging nitrogen-limited continuous cultures with oxygen-nitrogen gaseous mixtures. When the dissolved oxygen concentration increased from 1.2 to 2.7 μM, yeast cells changed from a fully fermentative to a mixed respirofermentative metabolism. This transition is characterized by a switch in the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and an activation of NADH shuttling from the cytosol to mitochondria. Nevertheless, fermentative ethanol production remained the major cytosolic NADH sink under all oxygen conditions, suggesting that the limitation of mitochondrial NADH reoxidation is the major cause of the Crabtree effect. This is reinforced by the induction of several key respiratory genes by oxygen, despite the high sugar concentration, indicating that oxygen overrides glucose repression. Genes associated with other processes, such as proline uptake, cell wall remodeling, and oxidative stress, were also significantly affected by oxygen. The results of this study indicate that respiration is responsible for a substantial part of the oxygen response in yeast cells during alcoholic fermentation. This information will facilitate the development of temporal oxygen addition strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations. PMID:23001663

  4. A Comparison Between the Burn Condition of Deuterium-Tritium and Deuterium-Helium-3 Reaction and Stability Limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motevalli, Seyed Mohammad; Fadaei, Fereshteh

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear reaction of deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion by the usual magnetic or inertial confinement suffers from a number of difficulties and problems caused by tritium handling, neutron damage to materials and neutron-induced radioactivity, etc. The study of the nuclear synthesis reaction of deuterium-helium-3 (D-3He) at low collision energies (below 1 keV) is of interest for its applications in nuclear physics and astrophysics. Spherical tokamak (ST) reactors have a low aspect ratio and can confine plasma with ??1. These capabilities of ST reactors are due to the use of the alternative D-3He reaction. In this work, the burn condition of D-3He reaction was calculated by using zero-dimensional particles and power equations, and, with the use of the parameters of the ST reactor, the stability limit of D-3He reaction was calculated and then the results were compared with those of D-T reaction. The obtained results show that the burn conditions of D-3He reaction required a higher temperature and had a much more limited temperature range in comparison to those of D-T reaction.

  5. Competition for cellobiose among three predominant ruminal cellulolytic bacteria under substrate-excess and substrate-limited conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Y; Weimer, P J

    1997-01-01

    The ruminal cellulolytic bacteria Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1 and Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 coexisted in substrate-excess coculture with about equal population size, but R. flavefaciens outcompeted F. succinogenes for cellobiose in the substrate-limited cocultures whether the two strains were coinoculated or a steady-state culture of F. succinogenes was challenged by R. flavefaciens. This outcome of competition between these two strains is due to a classical pure and simple competition mechanism based on affinity for cellobiose. Although the population size of F. succinogenes was much higher (> 70%) than that of another cellulolytic species, Ruminococcus albus 7 in substrate-excess coculture, F. succinogenes was replaced by a population of R. albus in the substrate-limited coculture in both coinoculation and challenge experiments. R albus outcompeted F. succinogenes, apparently due to selection in the chemostat of a population of R. albus with a higher affinity for cellobiose. R. albus also outcompeted R. flavefaciens under substrate-limited conditions. PMID:9023951

  6. The Fungal Biome of the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Retuerto, Mauricio; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Organisms residing in the oral cavity (oral microbiota) contribute to health and disease, and influence diseases like gingivitis, periodontitis, and oral candidiasis (the most common oral complication of HIV-infection). These organisms are also associated with cancer and other systemic diseases including upper respiratory infections. There is limited knowledge regarding how oral microbes interact together and influence the host immune system. Characterizing the oral microbial community (oral microbiota) in health and disease represents a critical step in gaining insight into various members of this community. While most of the studies characterizing oral microbiota have focused on bacterial community, there are few encouraging studies characterizing the oral mycobiome (the fungal component of the oral microbiota). Our group recently characterized the oral mycobiome in health and disease focusing on HIV. In this chapter we will describe the methods used by our group for characterization of the oral mycobiome. PMID:26519069

  7. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... consistency to exercises for weak oral muscles to learning totally new ways to swallow. In many cases, improvement is evident within several months. What other organizations have information about oral cancer? This list is ...

  8. Current Guidelines Have Limited Applicability to Patients with Comorbid Conditions: A Systematic Analysis of Evidence-Based Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Lugtenberg, Marjolein; Burgers, Jako S.; Clancy, Carolyn; Westert, Gert P.; Schneider, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Guidelines traditionally focus on the diagnosis and treatment of single diseases. As almost half of the patients with a chronic disease have more than one disease, the applicability of guidelines may be limited. The aim of this study was to assess the extent that guidelines address comorbidity and to assess the supporting evidence of recommendations related to comorbidity. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a systematic analysis of evidence-based guidelines focusing on four highly prevalent chronic conditions with a high impact on quality of life: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depressive disorder, diabetes mellitus type 2, and osteoarthritis. Data were abstracted from each guideline on the extent that comorbidity was addressed (general comments, specific recommendations), the type of comorbidity discussed (concordant, discordant), and the supporting evidence of the comorbidity-related recommendations (level of evidence, translation of evidence). Of the 20 guidelines, 17 (85%) addressed the issue of comorbidity and 14 (70%) provided specific recommendations on comorbidity. In general, the guidelines included few recommendations on patients with comorbidity (mean 3 recommendations per guideline, range 0 to 26). Of the 59 comorbidity-related recommendations provided, 46 (78%) addressed concordant comorbidities, 8 (14%) discordant comorbidities, and for 5 (8%) the type of comorbidity was not specified. The strength of the supporting evidence was moderate for 25% (15/59) and low for 37% (22/59) of the recommendations. In addition, for 73% (43/59) of the recommendations the evidence was not adequately translated into the guidelines. Conclusions/Significance Our study showed that the applicability of current evidence-based guidelines to patients with comorbid conditions is limited. Most guidelines do not provide explicit guidance on treatment of patients with comorbidity, particularly for discordant combinations. Guidelines should be more explicit about the applicability of their recommendations to patients with comorbidity. Future clinical trials should also include patients with the most prevalent combinations of chronic conditions. PMID:22028802

  9. Good Oral Health and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Scardina, G. A.; Messina, P.

    2012-01-01

    An unhealthy diet has been implicated as risk factors for several chronic diseases that are known to be associated with oral diseases. Studies investigating the relationship between oral diseases and diet are limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to describe the relationship between healthy eating habits and oral health status. The dentistry has an important role in the diagnosis of oral diseases correlated with diet. Consistent nutrition guidelines are essential to improve health. A poor diet was significantly associated with increased odds of oral disease. Dietary advice for the prevention of oral diseases has to be a part of routine patient education practices. Inconsistencies in dietary advice may be linked to inadequate training of professionals. Literature suggests that the nutrition training of dentists and oral health training of dietitians and nutritionists is limited. PMID:22363174

  10. Potassium Transporter KUP7 Is Involved in K(+) Acquisition and Translocation in Arabidopsis Root under K(+)-Limited Conditions.

    PubMed

    Han, Min; Wu, Wei; Wu, Wei-Hua; Wang, Yi

    2016-03-01

    Potassium (K(+)) is one of the essential macronutrients for plant growth and development. K(+) uptake from environment and K(+) translocation in plants are conducted by K(+) channels and transporters. In this study, we demonstrated that KT/HAK/KUP transporter KUP7 plays crucial roles in K(+) uptake and translocation in Arabidopsis root. The kup7 mutant exhibited a sensitive phenotype on low-K(+) medium, whose leaves showed chlorosis symptoms compared with wild-type plants. Loss of function of KUP7 led to a reduction of K(+) uptake rate and K(+) content in xylem sap under K(+)-deficient conditions. Thus, the K(+) content in kup7 shoot was significantly reduced under low-K(+) conditions. Localization analysis revealed that KUP7 was predominantly targeted to the plasma membrane. The complementation assay in yeast suggested that KUP7 could mediate K(+) transport. In addition, phosphorylation on S80, S719, and S721 was important for KUP7 activity. KUP7 was ubiquitously expressed in many organs/tissues, and showed a higher expression level in Arabidopsis root. Together, our data demonstrated that KUP7 is crucial for K(+) uptake in Arabidopsis root and might be also involved in K(+) transport into xylem sap, affecting K(+) translocation from root toward shoot, especially under K(+)-limited conditions. PMID:26851373

  11. Dose confirmation and non-interference evaluations of the oral efficacy of a combination of milbemycin oxime and spinosad against the dose limiting parasites, adult cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) and hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum), in dogs.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Daniel E; Wiseman, Scott

    2012-03-23

    Two separate controlled and blinded studies were conducted to confirm the dose and non-interference of spinosad and milbemycin oxime (MO) administered orally in combination or alone to dogs for the treatment and control of experimentally induced flea infestations (Ctenocephalides felis) and adult hookworm infections (Ancylostoma caninum). For each study, dogs were allocated randomly based on pre-treatment adult flea and hookworm egg counts to one of four treatment groups of 10 animals each. In each study, spinosad and MO in combination, using the lower half (30-45 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-0.75 mg/kg MO) of the US commercial dose band (30-60 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-1.0mg/kg MO) of each active ingredient, or individually alone using the full dose range, were given orally to dogs on Day 0 using a tablet formulation. A placebo control was treated similarly. In one study, on Days -1, 5, 12, 19, 28 and 35 each dog was infested with approximately 100 unfed adult C. felis obtained from the investigator's established flea colony. All dogs were infested via the same method. Forty-eight hour post-infestation flea comb counts were conducted on Days 1, 7, 14, 21, 30 and 37 and were used to determine the knockdown and residual flea activity. In the second study, on Day -27 each of 48 dogs were experimentally inoculated with 100 third-stage infective larvae of the hookworm, A. caninum. Dogs were treated on Day 0 and necropsied on Day 7 or Day 8. All nematodes in the intestinal tract were collected on Day 7 or Day 8, identified and counted by species and stage. Post-treatment, the geometric mean live flea counts were significantly different (p-value<0.0001) between the spinosad/MO combination and the spinosad only treatment groups as compared to the vehicle control group. The flea counts in the MO only group and the control group were not statistically different. The spinosad and MO combination group and the spinosad only treatment group demonstrated significantly different knockdown (100%) and post-treatment residual flea efficacy at Day 30 was 100% for both groups as compared to the vehicle control. The presence of MO in combination with spinosad did not interfere with the flea efficacy of spinosad as compared to the spinosad only group. MO alone did not demonstrate any flea efficacy. Post-treatment, the geometric mean A. caninum worm counts were significantly different (p-value<0.0001) between the spinosad and MO combination group as compared to the vehicle control group. The worm counts in the MO only group and the combination group were not statistically different. The spinosad and MO combination group (99.8% reduction) and the MO only treatment group (99.5% reduction) both demonstrated significantly different hookworm efficacy as compared to the vehicle control group. The presence of spinosad in combination with MO did not interfere with the hookworm efficacy of MO as compared to the MO only group. Spinosad alone did not demonstrate any hookworm efficacy. In summary, flavored spinosad and MO combination tablets administered orally to dogs at the lower end (30-45 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-0.75 mg/kg MO) of the US commercial tablet unit dose range (30-60 mg/kg spinosad; 0.5-1.0mg/kg MO) were both safe and highly efficacious delivering 100% knockdown and 30 days of residual adult flea control on experimentally infested dogs as well as >99% adult hookworm efficacy evaluated under laboratory conditions. Interference between either drugs was not demonstrated for both of these dose limiting parasites. PMID:22226761

  12. Prevalence of life-limiting conditions in children and young people in England: time trends by area type.

    PubMed

    Norman, Paul; Fraser, Lorna

    2014-03-01

    Palliative care services in England lack data on the number of children with 'life limiting conditions' (LLCs). Recent research determined that the prevalence of LLCs in children in England was double previous estimates. We build on this by analysing time-trends in the prevalence of LLCs by small area deprivation and geodemographic area types. Prevalence is highest for children aged less than one year but time trends show no increase for the youngest age group but significant increases for older children. These increases are mirrored by a decrease in all cause mortality for children suggesting improved survival. Rates are highest in more deprived areas and those typified by multicultural populations. Increasing prevalence and number of cases over time may require increased paediatric palliative care service provision in the future. PMID:24468834

  13. [Lower limb lymphography where there is no lymph circulatory disorder. Normal conditions and their limits (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bujar, H; Schioiu, L; Bratan, L

    1977-10-01

    Further lymphangiography for the lymphatic system dependent on the internal saphenous vein carried out on 70 patients to establish a lymphographical record of the pelvi-abdominal ganglia, simplified the counting of opacified vessels, and assessment of the development of the vascular system and the fragility of the walls and their calibre and pathway. The various aspects were assessed in relation to the anatomical situation (leg, thigh), age group and sex of the patients. Computerised analysis of the information lead to the conclusion that, even under normal conditions, there are statistical differences in the number of opacified vessels in the legs and in vascular fragility of the pre-inguinal region according to age group. The authors discuss the implications of the limits of the normal appearance of the lymphatic vessels. PMID:592239

  14. Doppler-broadened NICE-OHMS beyond the cavity-limited weak absorption condition - I. Theoretical description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Weiguang; Silander, Isak; Hausmaninger, Thomas; Axner, Ove

    2016-01-01

    Doppler-broadened (Db) noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry (NICE-OHMS) is conventionally described by an expression (here referred to as the CONV expression) that is restricted to the case when the single-pass absorbance, α0L, is much smaller than the empty cavity losses, π/F [here termed the conventional cavity-limited weak absorption (CCLWA) condition]. This limits the applicability of the technique, primarily its dynamic range and calibration capability. To remedy this, this work derives extended descriptions of Db NICE-OHMS that are not restricted to the CCLWA condition. First, the general principles of Db NICE-OHMS are scrutinized in some detail. Based solely upon a set of general assumptions, predominantly that it is appropriate to linearize the Beer-Lambert law, that the light is modulated to a triplet, and that the Pound-Drever-Hall sidebands are fully reflected, a general description of Db NICE-OHMS that is not limited to any specific restriction on α0L vs. π/F, here referred to as the FULL description, is derived. However, this description constitutes a set of equations to which no closed form solution has been found. Hence, it needs to be solved numerically (by iterations), which is inconvenient. To circumvent this, for the cases when α0L<π/F but without the requirement that the stronger CCLWA condition needs to be fulfilled, a couple of simplified extended expressions that are expressible in closed analytical form, referred to as the extended locking and extended transmission description, ELET, and the extended locking and full transmission description, ELFT, have been derived. An analysis based on simulations validates the various descriptions and assesses to which extent they agree. It is shown that in the CCLWA limit, all extended descriptions revert to the CONV expression. The latter one deviates though from the extended ones for α0L around and above 0.1π/F. The two simplified extended descriptions agree with the FULL description for a larger range of α0 L than the CONV expression, viz. for the ELET description for α0L up to 0.3π/F and for ELFT for α0L up to 0.6 or 1.0 π/F (depending on the mode of detection). It is then demonstrated that the conventional view of Db NICE-OHMS, which states that the out-of-phase and the in-phase signals can be referred to as a pure absorption and dispersion signal, respectively, breaks down when the CCLWA condition does not hold. In this case, the out-of-phase signal is additionally affected by the phase shifts of the laser components (i.e. dispersion) while the in-phase signal is also influenced by their attenuation. Access to new descriptions broadens considerably the dynamic range of Db NICE-OHMS and facilitates calibration using standard references samples, and thereby its applicability.

  15. Pyruvate and Lactate Metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under Fermentation, Oxygen Limitation, and Fumarate Respiration Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Hill, Eric A.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2011-12-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe that derives energy by coupling organic matter oxidation to the reduction of wide range of electron acceptors. Here, we quantitatively assessed lactate and pyruvate metabolism of MR-1 under three distinct conditions: electron acceptor limited growth on lactate with O2; lactate with fumarate; and pyruvate fermentation. The latter does not support growth but provides energy for cell survival. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of that needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensible for growth, respiration of fumarate does not contribute significantly to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory conditions S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, whereby the TCA cycle did not contribute significantly. Pyruvate dehydrogenase was not involved in lactate metabolism under O2 limitation but was required for anaerobic growth likely by supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. The results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination of substrate-level phosphorylation and respiration, where pyruvate serves as electron donor and electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H independent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). The results further indicate that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by proton motive force generation.

  16. Simulating biodegradation under mixing-limited conditions using Michaelis-Menten (Monod) kinetic expressions in a particle tracking model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Dong; Benson, David A.

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that effective field-scale bioremediation reactions rates are significantly lower than batch- or lab-scale rates, when the same law of mass action is used to represent the reaction at both scales. The mismatch is usually attributed to poor mixing of reactants brought about by heterogeneity. A recent method, based on a purely Lagrangian particle tracking (PT) theoretical development, successfully reproduces the effects of mixing-limited bimolecular reaction (A + B ? C) from two benchmark experiments. In this numerical method, the reactants are represented by particles, and the small-scale physics are directly translated into a combination of two probabilities that govern whether: (1) reactant particles are collocated during a short time interval, and (2) two collocated particles favorably transform into a reaction. The latter is due to thermodynamics and is independent of scale of mixing. The former directly accounts for the degree of mixing in any system. We extend the application of the PT method to biodegradation, which is commonly characterized by more complex Michaelis-Menten (Monod) chemical kinetics. The advantage of the PT method is that it explains the variation of reaction rate based on mixing-controlled particle collisions instead of using empirical parameters. The PT method not only matches the Michaelis-Menten (Monod) equation under ideal conditions, but also captures the characteristics of non-ideal conditions such as imperfect mixing, disequilibrium, and limited availability of the active sites. We show these using hypothetical systems and also successfully apply the method to a column study of carbon tetrachloride biodegradation.

  17. Pyruvate and Lactate Metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under Fermentation, Oxygen Limitation, and Fumarate Respiration Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Hill, Eric A.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2011-12-30

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe growing by coupling organic matter oxidation to reduction of wide range of electron acceptors. Here we quantitatively assessed lactate and pyruvate metabolism of these bacteria under three distinct conditions: electron acceptor limited growth on lactate with O2 and fumarate, and pyruvate fermentation, which does not sustain growth but allows cells to survive for prolonged period. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of all ATP needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensible for growth, respiration of fumarate does not contribute much to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory conditions S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, and TCA cycle did not contribute significantly to substrate oxidation. Pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction was not involved in lactate metabolism under O2 limitation, however was important for anaerobic growth probably supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. Unexpectedly, obtained results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination between substrate-level phosphorylation and a respiratory process, where pyruvate serves as electron donor and electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H independent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). Based on involved enzymes localization we hypothesize that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by proton motive force generation.

  18. Use of the Priestley-Taylor evaporation equation for soil water limited conditions in a small forest clearcut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, A.L.; Childs, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Priestley-Taylor equation, a simplification of the Penman equation, was used to allow calculations of evapotranspiration under conditions where soil water supply limits evapotranspiration. The Priestley-Taylor coefficient, ??, was calculated to incorporate an exponential decrease in evapotranspiration as soil water content decreases. The method is appropriate for use when detailed meteorological measurements are not available. The data required to determine the parameter for the ?? coefficient are net radiation, soil heat flux, average air temperature, and soil water content. These values can be obtained from measurements or models. The dataset used in this report pertains to a partially vegetated clearcut forest site in southwest Oregon with soil depths ranging from 0.48 to 0.70 m and weathered bedrock below that. Evapotranspiration was estimated using the Bowen ratio method, and the calculated Priestley-Taylor coefficient was fitted to these estimates by nonlinear regression. The calculated Priestley-Taylor coefficient (?????) was found to be approximately 0.9 when the soil was near field capacity (0.225 cm3 cm-3). It was not until soil water content was less than 0.14 cm3 cm-3 that soil water supply limited evapotranspiration. The soil reached a final residual water content near 0.05 cm3 cm-3 at the end of the growing season. ?? 1991.

  19. Performance limitation and the role of core temperature when wearing light-weight workwear under moderate thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Philipp; Burtscher, Martin; Heinrich, Dieter; Bottoni, Giuliamarta; Caven, Barnaby; Bechtold, Thomas; Teresa Herten, Anne; Hasler, Michael; Faulhaber, Martin; Nachbauer, Werner

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to achieve an understanding about the relationship between heat stress and performance limitation when wearing a two-layerfire-resistant light-weight workwear (full-clothed ensemble) compared to an one-layer short sports gear (semi-clothed ensemble) in an exhaustive, stressful situation under moderate thermal condition (25°C). Ten well trained male subjects performed a strenuous walking protocol with both clothing ensembles until exhaustion occurred in a climatic chamber. Wearing workwear reduced the endurance performance by 10% (p=0.007) and the evaporation by 21% (p=0.003), caused a more pronounced rise in core temperature during submaximal walking (0.7±0.3 vs. 1.2±0.4°C; p?0.001) and from start till exhaustion (1.4±0.3 vs. 1.8±0.5°C; p=0.008), accelerated sweat loss (13±2 vs. 15±3gmin(-1); p=0.007), and led to a significant higher heart rate at the end of cool down (103±6 vs. 111±7bpm; p=0.004). Correlation analysis revealed that core temperature development during submaximal walking and evaporation may play important roles for endurance performance. However, a critical core temperature of 40°C, which is stated to be a crucial factor for central fatigue and performance limitation, was not reached either with the semi-clothed or the full-clothed ensemble (38.3±0.4 vs. 38.4±0.5°C). Additionally, perceived exertion did not increase to a higher extent parallel with the rising core temperature with workwear which would substantiate the critical core temperature theory. In conclusion, increased heat stress led to cardiovascular exercise limitation rather than central fatigue. PMID:25526658

  20. Comparison of the flexural strength of two dual cure adhesive resin cements under oral simulated conditions: an in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, P; Nair, A; Regish, K M; Viswambaran, M; Kumar, M

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the flexural strength of the newly developed self-adhesive dual cure resin cement and compare it with conventional resin cement under oral simulated conditions. A conventional resin cement (Calibra) and self adhesive resin cement (RelyX U100) were selected and 40 specimens of each cement were fabricated for the study. Half of these specimens were polymerized directly whereas the other half were polymerized through 2 mm of porcelain disc. Specimens were tested after 24hrs and after 30 days immersion in artificial saliva. A three point bending test was performed using universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. Overall RelyX U100 showed higher mean flexural strength compared to Calibra (141.55 MPa, 119.46MPa, respectively). When the specimens of both the cements were light cured through 2 mm porcelain disc, their flexural strength decreased significantly. The mean flexural strength of both self adhesive and conventional dual cure adhesive resin cements was increased significantly after storage in artificial saliva for 30 days at 37 degreeC. Among the two dual cure resin cements, the self adhesive dual cure cement (RelyX U100) showed increased overall mean flexural strength as compared to conventional resin cement (Calibra) under all the curing and storage protocols. PMID:23888528

  1. Cytotoxicity of HBD3 for dendritic cells, normal human epidermal keratinocytes, hTERT keratinocytes, and primary oral gingival epithelial keratinocytes in cell culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Leelakanok, Nattawut; Fischer, Carol L; Bates, Amber M; Guthmiller, Janet M; Johnson, Georgia K; Salem, Aliasger K; Brogden, Kim A; Brogden, Nicole K

    2015-12-01

    Human ?-defensin 3 (HBD3) is a prominent host defense peptide. In our recent work, we observed that HBD3 modulates pro-inflammatory agonist-induced chemokine and cytokine responses in human myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), often at 20.0 ?M concentrations. Since HBD3 can be cytotoxic in some circumstances, it is necessary to assess its cytotoxicity for DCs, normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs), human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) keratinocytes, and primary oral gingival epithelial (GE) keratinocytes in different cell culture conditions. Cells, in serum free media with resazurin and in complete media with 10% fetal bovine serum and resazurin, were incubated with 5, 10, 20, and 40 ?M HBD3. Cytotoxicity was determined by measuring metabolic conversion of resazurin to resorufin. The lethal dose 50 (LD50, mean ?M±Std Err) values were determined from the median fluorescent intensities of test concentrations compared to live and killed cell controls. The LD50 value range of HBD3 was 18.2-35.9 ?M in serum-free media for DCs, NHEKs, hTERT keratinocytes, and GE keratinocytes, and >40.0 ?M in complete media. Thus, HBD3 was cytotoxic at higher concentrations, which must be considered in future studies of HBD3-modulated chemokine and cytokine responses in vitro. PMID:26367466

  2. Analysis of Vertical Turbulent Heat Flux Limit in Stable Conditions with a Local Equilibrium, Turbulence Closure Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?obocki, Lech

    2013-09-01

    Assuming that the vertical turbulent heat flux vanishes at extremely stable conditions, one should expect its maximal absolute value to occur somewhere at moderate stability, between a neutral and extremely stable equilibrium. Consequently, in some situations duality of solutions may be encountered (e.g. two different values of temperature difference associated with the same values of heat flux and wind speed). A quantitative analysis of this feature with a local equilibrium Reynolds-stress model is presented. The fixed-wind / fixed-shear maximum has been identified both in the bulk and in single-point flux-gradient relationships (that is, in the vertical temperature gradient and wind-shear parameter domain). The value of the Richardson number corresponding to this maximum is derived from the model equations. To study the possible feedback in strongly stable conditions, weak and intense cooling scenarios have been simulated with a one-dimensional numerical, high-resolution atmospheric boundary-layer model. Despite the rapid cooling, flow decoupling at the surface has not been observed; instead, a stability-limited heat flux is maintained, with a gradual increase of the Richardson number towards the top of the turbulent layer, with some signs of oscillatory behaviour at intermediate heights. Vertical changes of wind shear and the Brunt-Väisälä frequency display a remarkably non-monotonic character, with some signs of a gradually developing instability.

  3. The Activity of Nodules of the Supernodulating Mutant Mtsunn Is not Limited by Photosynthesis under Optimal Growth Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cabeza, Ricardo A.; Lingner, Annika; Liese, Rebecca; Sulieman, Saad; Senbayram, Mehmet; Tränkner, Merle; Dittert, Klaus; Schulze, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Legumes match the nodule number to the N demand of the plant. When a mutation in the regulatory mechanism deprives the plant of that ability, an excessive number of nodules are formed. These mutants show low productivity in the fields, mainly due to the high carbon burden caused through the necessity to supply numerous nodules. The objective of this study was to clarify whether through optimal conditions for growth and CO2 assimilation a higher nodule activity of a supernodulating mutant of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) can be induced. Several experimental approaches reveal that under the conditions of our experiments, the nitrogen fixation of the supernodulating mutant, designated as sunn (super numeric nodules), was not limited by photosynthesis. Higher specific nitrogen fixation activity could not be induced through short- or long-term increases in CO2 assimilation around shoots. Furthermore, a whole plant P depletion induced a decline in nitrogen fixation, however this decline did not occur significantly earlier in sunn plants, nor was it more intense compared to the wild-type. However, a distinctly different pattern of nitrogen fixation during the day/night cycles of the experiment indicates that the control of N2 fixing activity of the large number of nodules is an additional problem for the productivity of supernodulating mutants. PMID:24727372

  4. Compounded oral ketamine.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Jack P; Hahn, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The nonnarcotic nonaddictive neuropathic pain reliever ketamine, which was synthesized in the early 1960s by Parke-Davis, was first administered to human patients in 1965. Used by the U. S. military as a field anesthetic during the Vietnam War, it slowly became popular as both an induction and maintenance agent for the general anesthesia required during brief surgical procedures. The use of ketamine in the past has been limited primarily to intravenous administration in hospitalized patients. Very recently, several published reports have described the use of low-dose ketamine for the relief of pain, refractory depression, and anxiety in patients with or without cancer. Because chronic pain, depression, and anxiety often occur in hospice patients with or without cancer and in palliative care patients who are not eligible for hospice, the discovery of new and effective uses for an established drug to treat those conditions has excited interest in the palliative care community. We support that interest with this case report, which describes our experience in treating a 44-year-old male hospice patient with severe constant anxiety, fear, and depression in addition to multiple near-terminal comorbid physical conditions that produce chronic pain. Prior treatments prescribed to resolve this patient's pain, anxiety, and depression had proven ineffective. However, a single low-dose (0.5 mg/kg) subcutaneous test injection of ketamine provided dramatic relief from those symptoms for 80 hours, although the anesthetic effects of that drug are not of long duration. This good outcome has been sustained to date by daily treatment with a compounded flavored oral ketamine solution (40 mg/5 mL) that is not commercially available. Flavoring the solution masks the bitter taste of ketamine and renders the treatment palatable. We found ketamine to be a well-tolerated and effective treatment for the triad of severe anxiety, chronic pain, and severe depression in a hospice patient with multiple comorbid conditions. To our knowledge, this report chronicles the first use of compounded oral ketamine for home-based palliative or hospice care in Louisiana. A formulation for a flavored oral ketamine solution is provided for easy reference. PMID:23072195

  5. On the spatial distribution of the transpiration and soil moisture of a Mediterranean heterogeneous ecosystem in water-limited conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curreli, Matteo; Corona, Roberto; Montaldo, Nicola; Albertson, John D.; Oren, Ram

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are characterized by a strong heterogeneity, and often by water-limited conditions. In these conditions contrasting plant functional types (PFT, e.g. grass and woody vegetation) compete for the water use. Both the vegetation cover spatial distribution and the soil properties impact the soil moisture (SM) spatial distribution. Indeed, vegetation cover density and type affects evapotranspiration (ET), which is the main lack of the soil water balance in these ecosystems. With the objective to carefully estimate SM and ET spatial distribution in a Mediterranean water-limited ecosystem and understanding SM and ET relationships, an extended field campaign is carried out. The study was performed in a heterogeneous ecosystem in Orroli, Sardinia (Italy). The experimental site is a typical Mediterranean ecosystem where the vegetation is distributed in patches of woody vegetation (wild olives mainly) and grass. Soil depth is low and spatially varies between 10 cm and 40 cm, without any correlation with the vegetation spatial distribution. ET, land-surface fluxes and CO2 fluxes are estimated by an eddy covariance technique based micrometeorological tower. But in heterogeneous ecosystems a key assumption of the eddy covariance theory, the homogeneity of the surface, is not preserved and the ET estimate may be not correct. Hence, we estimate ET of the woody vegetation using the thermal dissipation method (i.e. sap flow technique) for comparing the two methodologies. Due the high heterogeneity of the vegetation and soil properties of the field a total of 54 sap flux sensors were installed. 14 clumps of wild olives within the eddy covariance footprint were identified as the most representative source of flux and they were instrumented with the thermal dissipation probes. Measurements of diameter at the height of sensor installation (height of 0.4 m above ground) were recorded in all the clumps. Bark thickness and sapwood depth were measured on several trees to obtain a generalized estimates of sapwood depth. The known of allometric relationships between sapwood area, diameter and canopy cover area within the eddy covariance footprint helped for the application of a reliable scaling procedure of the local sap flow estimates which are in a good agreement with the estimates of ET eddy covariance based. Soil moisture were also extensively monitored through 25 probes installed in the eddy covariance footprint. Results show that comparing eddy covariance and sap flow ET estimates eddy covariance technique is still accurate in this heterogeneous field, whereas the key assumption, surface homogeneity, is not preserved. Furthermore, interestingly wild olives still transpire at higher rates for the driest soil moisture conditions, confirming the hydraulic redistribution from soil below the roots, and from roots penetrating deep cracks in the underlying basalt parent rock.

  6. Graft-versus-host disease affecting oral cavity. A review

    PubMed Central

    Margaix-Muñoz, Maria; Bagán, José V.; Jiménez, Yolanda; Sarrión, María-Gracia; Poveda-Roda, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is one of the most frequent and serious complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and is regarded as the leading cause of late mortality unrelated to the underlying malignant disease. GVHD is an autoimmune and alloimmune disorder that usually affects multiple organs and tissues, and exhibits a variable clinical course. It can manifest in either acute or chronic form. The acute presentation of GVHD is potentially fatal and typically affects the skin, gastrointestinal tract and liver. The chronic form is characterized by the involvement of a number of organs, including the oral cavity. Indeed, the oral cavity may be the only affected location in chronic GVHD. The clinical manifestations of chronic oral GVHD comprise lichenoid lesions, hyperkeratotic plaques and limited oral aperture secondary to sclerosis. The oral condition is usually mild, though moderate to severe erosive and ulcerated lesions may also be seen. The diagnosis is established from the clinical characteristics, though confirmation through biopsy study is sometimes needed. Local corticosteroids are the treatment of choice, offering overall response rates of close to 50%. Extracorporeal photopheresis and systemic corticosteroids in turn constitute second line treatment. Oral chronic GVHD is not considered a determinant factor for patient survival, which is close to 52% five years after diagnosis of the condition. Key words:Chronic graft-versus-host disease, oral chronic graft-versus-host disease, pathogenics, management, survival. PMID:25810826

  7. Graft-versus-host disease affecting oral cavity. A review.

    PubMed

    Margaix-Muñoz, Maria; Bagán, José V; Jiménez, Yolanda; Sarrión, María-Gracia; Poveda-Roda, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is one of the most frequent and serious complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and is regarded as the leading cause of late mortality unrelated to the underlying malignant disease. GVHD is an autoimmune and alloimmune disorder that usually affects multiple organs and tissues, and exhibits a variable clinical course. It can manifest in either acute or chronic form. The acute presentation of GVHD is potentially fatal and typically affects the skin, gastrointestinal tract and liver. The chronic form is characterized by the involvement of a number of organs, including the oral cavity. Indeed, the oral cavity may be the only affected location in chronic GVHD. The clinical manifestations of chronic oral GVHD comprise lichenoid lesions, hyperkeratotic plaques and limited oral aperture secondary to sclerosis. The oral condition is usually mild, though moderate to severe erosive and ulcerated lesions may also be seen. The diagnosis is established from the clinical characteristics, though confirmation through biopsy study is sometimes needed. Local corticosteroids are the treatment of choice, offering overall response rates of close to 50%. Extracorporeal photopheresis and systemic corticosteroids in turn constitute second line treatment. Oral chronic GVHD is not considered a determinant factor for patient survival, which is close to 52% five years after diagnosis of the condition. Key words:Chronic graft-versus-host disease, oral chronic graft-versus-host disease, pathogenics, management, survival. PMID:25810826

  8. The Prospective Oral Mucositis Audit: relationship of severe oral mucositis with clinical and medical resource use outcomes in patients receiving high-dose melphalan or BEAM-conditioning chemotherapy and autologous SCT.

    PubMed

    McCann, S; Schwenkglenks, M; Bacon, P; Einsele, H; D'Addio, A; Maertens, J; Niederwieser, D; Rabitsch, W; Roosaar, A; Ruutu, T; Schouten, H; Stone, R; Vorkurka, S; Quinn, B; Blijlevens, N

    2009-01-01

    The Prospective Oral Mucositis Audit was an observational study in 197 patients with multiple myeloma (MM) or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) undergoing, respectively, high-dose melphalan or BEAM chemotherapy and autologous SCT at 25 European centres. We evaluated the relationship between severe oral mucositis (SOM; WHO Oral Toxicity Scale grade 3-4) and local and systemic clinical sequelae and medical resource use. SOM occurred in 44% of patients. The duration of SOM (mean 5.3 days) correlated with time to neutrophil engraftment. The following parameters increased gradiently with maximum grade of oral mucositis: duration of pain score >or=4, opioid use, dysphagia score >or=4, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) use, incidence and/or duration of fever and infection, and duration of antibiotic use. SOM increased the duration of TPN use by 2.7 days (P<0.001), opioids by 4.6 days (P<0.001), and antibiotics by 2.4 days (P=0.045). SOM prolonged hospital stay by 2.3 days (P=0.013) in MM patients, but not in NHL patients (who tended to have a longer hospital stay). In conclusion, this analysis of prospectively collected observational data provides important insight into the scope and impact of SOM in the European transplant setting. PMID:18776926

  9. Planning ahead with children with life-limiting conditions and their families: development, implementation and evaluation of ‘My Choices’

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The United Kingdom has led the world in the development of children’s palliative care. Over the past two decades, the illness trajectories of children with life-limiting conditions have extended with new treatments and better home-based care. Future planning is a critically under-researched aspect of children’s palliative care globally. This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of innovative child and parent-held palliative care planning resources. The resources were designed to facilitate parent and child thinking and engagement in future planning, and to determine care preferences and preferred locations of care for children with life-limiting conditions from diagnosis onwards. These resources fill a significant gap in palliative care planning before the end-of-life phase. Methods Drawing on contemporaneous research on producing evidence-based children’s health information, we collaborated with leading children’s not-for-profit organisations, parents, children, and professionals. A set of resources (My Choices booklets) were developed for parents and children and evaluated using interviews (parents, children, professionals) and questionnaires (professionals) and an open web-based consultation. Results Parents and children responded in three ways: Some used the booklets to produce detailed written plans with clear outcomes and ideas about how best to achieve desired outcomes. Others preferred to use the booklet to help them think about potential options. Remaining parents found it difficult to think about the future and felt there was no point because they perceived there to be no suitable local services. Professionals varied in confidence in their ability to engage with families to plan ahead and identified many challenges that prevented them from doing so. Few families shared their plans with professionals. Parents and children have far stronger preferences for home-care than professionals. Conclusion The My Choices booklets were revised in light of findings, have been endorsed by Together for Short Lives, and are free to download in English and Welsh for use by parents and young people globally. More work needs to be done to support families who are not yet receptive to planning ahead. Professionals would benefit from more training in person-centred approaches to future planning and additional communications skills to increase confidence and ability to engage with families to deliver sensitive palliative care planning. PMID:23384400

  10. Expected years of life free of chronic condition-induced activity limitations - United States, 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Molla, Michael T

    2013-11-22

    Over the 20th century, the U.S. population has witnessed major changes in fatal and nonfatal health outcomes. Mortality has declined, and life expectancy has increased continuously; chronic conditions have replaced acute diseases as leading causes of both illness and death. During 1900-2008, average life expectancy at birth for the total U.S. population increased from 47.3 years in 1900 to 78.1 years in 2008, a gain of 30.8 years. In addition, an increasing proportion of the U.S. population is aged >65 years. According to the U.S. Census Bureau estimates, at the beginning of the 20th century, the U.S. population aged >65 years constituted only 4.1 percent of the total population; by 2008, the percentage of the total U.S. population aged >65 years was 12.8%. However, declines in mortality are not necessarily associated with declines in morbidity or the consequences of chronic conditions on life activities. The possibility that longer life might be accompanied by poor health makes it essential to develop measures that account for both mortality and morbidity at the same time. Hence, over the past 40 years, a new set of health measures (e.g., "healthy life expectancies") have been developed that account for both mortality and life spent free of the consequences of ill health. One of these newly developed set of measures (called "active life expectancy") is the average number of years expected to be lived without activity limitations. PMID:24264496

  11. The course of physical functional limitations and occupational conditions in a middle-aged working population in France

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical functional limitations (PFL) have mainly been studied in older populations. The aim of this study was to better understand the course of PFL and associations with occupational factors by gender in a middle-aged working population. Methods The data came from 16,950 workers in the ESTEV (Enquête Santé Travail et Vieillissement) cohort in France. PFL were assessed using the physical abilities section of the Nottingham Health Profile. Occupational conditions were measured with a self-administered questionnaire covering physical and psychosocial factors in 1990 and 1995. Multivariate analyses were used to assess the associations. Results The PFL appearance rate in 1995 was the same by gender (6.3%); the rate of PFL recovery was higher in men (23.9% versus 20.9%). Age was an independent factor of PFL at age 47?years or older in both genders after adjusting for confounding factors. The PFL appearance rate in 1995 was higher with physical occupational exposure in 1990, such as awkward work with a dose relation in both genders, while the PFL recovery rate decreased significantly only for men. Exposure to psychosocial occupational conditions, such as having the means to produce quality work in 1990, was significantly associated with a decreased PFL appearance rate in 1995 in both genders, and having high decision latitude in 1990 was associated with a decreased PFL appearance rate in 1995 only in men. Changes in exposure to occupational factors between 1990 and 1995 were associated with the PFL appearance and recovery rates in 1995 in both genders. Conclusions After five years, the course of PFL in this working population changed and was associated with physical and psychosocial occupational factors. Relationships were stronger for the PFL appearance rate in both genders and were weaker for recovery from PFL, mainly among women. PMID:22494385

  12. Conditional knockdown of BCL2A1 reveals rate-limiting roles in BCR-dependent B-cell survival.

    PubMed

    Sochalska, M; Ottina, E; Tuzlak, S; Herzog, S; Herold, M; Villunger, A

    2016-04-01

    Bcl2 family proteins control mitochondrial apoptosis and its members exert critical cell type and differentiation stage-specific functions, acting as barriers against autoimmunity or transformation. Anti-apoptotic Bcl2a1/Bfl1/A1 is frequently deregulated in different types of blood cancers in humans but its physiological role is poorly understood as quadruplication of the Bcl2a1 gene locus in mice hampers conventional gene targeting strategies. Transgenic overexpression of A1, deletion of the A1-a paralogue or constitutive knockdown in the hematopoietic compartment of mice by RNAi suggested rate-limiting roles in lymphocyte development, granulopoiesis and mast cell activation. Here we report on the consequences of conditional knockdown of A1 protein expression using a reverse transactivator (rtTA)-driven approach that highlights a critical role for this Bcl2 family member in the maintenance of mature B-cell homeostasis. Furthermore, we define the A1/Bim (Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death) axis as a target of key kinases mediating B-cell receptor (BCR)-dependent survival signals, such as, spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and Brutons tyrosine kinase (Btk). As such, A1 represents a putative target for the treatment of B-cell-related pathologies depending on hyperactivation of BCR-emanating survival signals and loss of A1 expression accounts, in part, for the pro-apoptotic effects of Syk- or Btk inhibitors that rely on the 'BH3-only' protein Bim for cell killing. PMID:26450454

  13. Study of workability limits of porous materials under different upsetting conditions by compressible rigid plastic finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. Q.; Peng, Y. H.; Ruan, X. Y.; Li, M. Q.; Wu, S. C.

    2000-04-01

    Workability limits must be considered when designing powder metallurgy (PM) forging processes. This research successfully applied the general upsetting experiment method to the deformation of porous materials. Based on the plastic theory of porous materials, the compressible rigid plastic finite element method is used to simulate the deformation processes of cold upsetting of disks and rings for porous metal materials with a full account of contact friction boundary conditions, the height-to-diameter ratio, the initial relative density, and the die and workpiece geometry. Furthermore, a successful analysis of the cold forging process results in the prediction of the stress, the strain, and the density field. By coupling with the ductile fracture criterion, which is a strain-based criterion obtained by Lee and Kuhn, possible defects leading to material failure have been checked. This research reveals that larger height to diameter and a lesser friction factor can delay the local strain locus to intersect with the Lee and Kuhn’s fracture line and restrain formation of the surface crack. Meanwhile, it reveals that the initial relative density has only a very small influence on the strain to fracture in compression, and it shows the forming behavior of the ring and disk with the curved die. According to Lee and Kuhn’s results, the calculated results agree well with the experimental results.

  14. Oral tolerance.

    PubMed

    Faria, Ana M C; Weiner, Howard L

    2005-08-01

    Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by oral antigen. Low doses favor active suppression, whereas higher doses favor clonal anergy/deletion. Oral antigen induces T-helper 2 [interleukin (IL)-4/IL-10] and Th3 [transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta] T cells plus CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells and latency-associated peptide+ T cells. Induction of oral tolerance is enhanced by IL-4, IL-10, anti-IL-12, TGF-beta, cholera toxin B subunit, Flt-3 ligand, and anti-CD40 ligand. Oral (and nasal) antigen administration suppresses animal models of autoimmune diseases including experimental autoimmune encephalitis, uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis, and diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, plus non-autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, graft rejection, allergy, colitis, stroke, and models of Alzheimer's disease. Oral tolerance has been tested in human autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS), arthritis, uveitis, and diabetes and in allergy, contact sensitivity to dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), and nickel allergy. Although positive results have been observed in phase II trials, no effect was observed in phase III trials of CII in rheumatoid arthritis or oral myelin and glatiramer acetate (GA) in MS. Large placebo effects were observed, and new trials of oral GA are underway. Oral insulin has recently been shown to delay onset of diabetes in at-risk populations, and confirmatory trials of oral insulin are being planned. Mucosal tolerance is an attractive approach for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases because of lack of toxicity, ease of administration over time, and antigen-specific mechanisms of action. The successful application of oral tolerance for the treatment of human diseases will depend on dose, developing immune markers to assess immunologic effects, route (nasal versus oral), formulation, mucosal adjuvants, combination therapy, and early therapy. PMID:16048553

  15. Menopause and oral health.

    PubMed

    Suri, Vanita; Suri, Varun

    2014-07-01

    Different phases of a woman's life: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause have varied influence on her oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production, affecting their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels directly affect the oral cavity. A few oral conditions and or diseases are seen more frequently during post menopausal years. Role of hormones affecting the health of oro-dental tissues, as well as treatment by HRT in ameliorating these conditions is not clear. There is paucity of randomized controlled trials in this field and more data is needed, before the recommendations for oral health care in post menopausal women can be made. A gynecologist sitting in menopausal clinic should be aware of oral changes happening during this period, and dental needs of these women and should refer them to the dental specialists accordingly. On the other hand, a dentist should also be sensitized about the menopausal status of the woman, her HRT status and special preventive and treatment needs. PMID:25316996

  16. Menopause and oral health

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Vanita; Suri, Varun

    2014-01-01

    Different phases of a woman's life: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause have varied influence on her oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production, affecting their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels directly affect the oral cavity. A few oral conditions and or diseases are seen more frequently during post menopausal years. Role of hormones affecting the health of oro-dental tissues, as well as treatment by HRT in ameliorating these conditions is not clear. There is paucity of randomized controlled trials in this field and more data is needed, before the recommendations for oral health care in post menopausal women can be made. A gynecologist sitting in menopausal clinic should be aware of oral changes happening during this period, and dental needs of these women and should refer them to the dental specialists accordingly. On the other hand, a dentist should also be sensitized about the menopausal status of the woman, her HRT status and special preventive and treatment needs. PMID:25316996

  17. Oral Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... navigation ePublications Our ePublications For health professionals Federal report page Subscribe to ePublications email updates. Enter ... information in Spanish (en español) Print this fact sheet Oral health fact sheet (PDF, 856 KB) Related information Anxiety disorders fact sheet Body image Diabetes fact sheet Fitness and nutrition HIV/AIDS Pregnancy What is oral health? What ...

  18. Strain localization in brittle-ductile shear zones: fluid abundant vs fluid limited conditions (an example from Wyangala area, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruzeniece, L.; Piazolo, S.

    2015-04-01

    This study focuses on physiochemical processes occurring in a brittle-ductile shear zone at both fluid-present and fluid-limited conditions. In the studied shear zone (Wyangala, SE Australia), a coarse-grained two feldspar-quartz-biotite granite is transformed into a medium grained orthogneiss at the shear zone margins and a fine-grained quartz-muscovite phyllonite in the central parts. The orthogneiss displays cataclasis of feldspar and crystal-plastic deformation of quartz. Quartz accommodates most of the deformation and is extensively recrystallized showing distinct crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO). Feldspar-to-muscovite, biotite-to-muscovite and albitization reactions occur locally at porphyroclasts' fracture surfaces and margins. However, the bulk rock composition shows very little change in respect to the wall rock composition. In contrast, in the shear zone centre quartz occurs as large, weakly deformed porphyroclasts, in sizes similar to that in the wall rock, suggesting that it has undergone little deformation. Feldspars and biotite are almost completely reacted to muscovite, which is arranged in a fine-grained interconnected matrix. Muscovite-rich layers contain significant amounts of fine-grained intermixed quartz with random CPO. These domains are interpreted to have accommodated most of the strain. Bulk rock chemistry data shows a significant increase in SiO2 and depletion in NaO content compared to the wall rock composition. We suggest that the high and low strain fabrics represent markedly different scenarios and cannot be interpreted as a simple sequential development with respect to strain. We suggest that the fabrics and mineralogical changes in the shear zone centre have formed due to fluid influx probably along an initially brittle fracture. Here, hydration reactions dramatically changed the rheological properties of the rock. In the newly produced muscovite-quartz layers creep cavitation associated with grain boundary sliding and fluid pumping resulted in strain localization, further fluid influx and subsequent substantial changes in bulk chemistry. Strain partitioning between the "soft" muscovite-quartz layers and "hard" original igneous quartz grains allows preservation of the igneous quartz grains. In contrast, in the shear zone margins the amount of fluid and reactions was limited; here deformation was mainly accommodated by recrystallization of the igneous quartz grains. The studied shear zone exemplifies the role of syn-deformational fluids and fluid-induced reactions on the dominance of deformation processes and subsequent contrasting rheological behaviour at micron- to meter scale.

  19. Methods for automatized detection of rapid changes in lateral boundary condition fields for NWP limited area models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor, M.

    2015-08-01

    Three-hourly temporal resolution of lateral boundary data for limited area models (LAMs) can be too infrequent to resolve rapidly moving storms. This problem is expected to be worse with increasing horizontal resolution. In order to detect intensive disturbances in surface pressure moving rapidly through the model domain, a filtered surface pressure field (MCUF) is computed operationally in the ARPEGE global model of Météo France. The field is distributed in the coupling files along with conventional meteorological fields used for lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) for the operational forecast using limited area model ALADIN (Aire Limitée Adaptation dynamique Développement InterNational) in the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia (DHMZ). Here an analysis is performed of the MCUF field for the LACE coupling domain for the period from 23 January 2006, when it became available, until 15 November 2014. The MCUF field is a good indicator of rapidly moving pressure disturbances (RMPDs). Its spatial and temporal distribution can be associated with the usual cyclone tracks and areas known to be supporting cyclogenesis. An alternative set of coupling files from the IFS operational run in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is also available operationally in DHMZ with 3-hourly temporal resolution, but the MCUF field is not available. Here, several methods are tested that detect RMPDs in surface pressure a posteriori from the IFS model fields provided in the coupling files. MCUF is computed by running ALADIN on the coupling files from IFS. The error function is computed using one-time-step integration of ALADIN on the coupling files without initialization, initialized with digital filter initialization (DFI) or scale-selective DFI (SSDFI). Finally, the amplitude of changes in the mean sea level pressure is computed from the fields in the coupling files. The results are compared to the MCUF field of ARPEGE and the results of same methods applied to the coupling files from ARPEGE. Most methods give a signal for the RMPDs, but DFI reduces the storms too much to be detected. The error functions without filtering and amplitude have more noise, but the signal of a RMPD is also stronger. The methods are tested for NWP LAM ALADIN, but could be applied to other LAMs and benefit the performance of climate LAMs.

  20. Oral health care for children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Kenneth W; Slayton, Rebecca L

    2013-03-01

    Children with developmental disabilities often have unmet complex health care needs as well as significant physical and cognitive limitations. Children with more severe conditions and from low-income families are particularly at risk with high dental needs and poor access to care. In addition, children with developmental disabilities are living longer, requiring continued oral health care. This clinical report describes the effect that poor oral health has on children with developmental disabilities as well as the importance of partnerships between the pediatric medical and dental homes. Basic knowledge of the oral health risk factors affecting children with developmental disabilities is provided. Pediatricians may use the report to guide their incorporation of oral health assessments and education into their well-child examinations for children with developmental disabilities. This report has medical, legal, educational, and operational implications for practicing pediatricians. PMID:23439896

  1. Oral mucositis.

    PubMed

    Scully, C; Sonis, S; Diz, P D

    2006-05-01

    Mucositis and xerostomia are the most common oral complications of the non-surgical therapy of cancer. Mucositis, a common sequel of radio- (DXR), chemo-(CXR) and radiochemo-therapy in patients with cancer, or patients requiring haemopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT), has a direct and significant impact on the quality of life and cost of care, and also affects survival--because of the risk of infection. Apart from dose reduction, preventive and treatment options for mucositis are scarce, although multiple agents have been tested. Evidence suggests that cryotherapy, topical benzydamine and amifostine might provide some benefit in specific situations. The recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor Palifermin (Kepivance) was recently approved as a mucositis intervention in patients receiving conditioning regimens before HSCT for the treatment of haematological malignancies. A number of mechanistically based interventions are in various stages of development. Unfortunately, many other approaches have not been rigorously tested. This paper reviews the clinical features, prevalence, diagnosis, complications, pathogenesis, prophylaxis and management of mucositis. PMID:16700732

  2. Limited area NWP and regional climate modeling: A test of the relaxation vs Eta lateral boundary condition schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesinger, F.; Veljovic, K.

    2012-04-01

    With very few exceptions, just about all limited area models (LAMs) used in operational NWP and regional climate modeling use the Davies relaxation lateral boundary conditions (LBCs), even though from the mathematical point of view they are not the best choice one can make. While in the early stages of the primitive equation LAM development in the seventies numerous schemes have been proposed and tested, LAM communities have eventually for the most part settled on the relaxation LBCs with few questions asked. An exception is the Eta model used extensively at NCEP and numerous other centers, in which the Mesinger (1977) LBCs are used. They prescribe variables along the outermost row of grid points only; all of them at the inflow points and one less at the outflow points where the tangential velocity components are extrapolated from inside of the model domain. Additional schemes are in place to suppress separation of gravity-wave solutions on C-subgrids of the model's E grid. A recent paper of Veljovic et al. (2010) included three 32-day forecasts done with both the Eta and the relaxation LBCs and the comparison of some of their verification results. This experiment was subsequently extended by three additional forecasts to arrive at an ensemble of six members run with both schemes, along with a more complete analysis of results. Results of two verification schemes used as well as the inspection of forecast wind fields strongly suggest an advantage of the Eta over the conventional and costlier relaxation scheme, thereby raising doubts as to the justification for its use.

  3. Lithium diisopropylamide-mediated lithiation of 1,4-difluorobenzene under nonequilibrium conditions: role of monomer-, dimer-, and tetramer-based intermediates and lessons about rate limitation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun; Hoepker, Alexander C; Bruneau, Angela M; Ma, Yun; Gupta, Lekha; Collum, David B

    2014-12-19

    Lithiation of 1,4-difluorobenzene with lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in THF at -78 °C joins the ranks of a growing number of metalations that occur under conditions in which the rates of aggregate exchanges are comparable to the rates of metalation. As such, a substantial number of barriers vie for rate limitation. Rate studies reveal that rate-limiting steps and even the choice of reaction coordinate depend on subtle variations in concentration. Deuteration shifts the rate-limiting step and markedly alters the concentration dependencies and overall rate law. This narrative is less about ortholithiation per se and more about rate limitation and the dynamics of LDA aggregate exchange. PMID:25000303

  4. Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Lithiation of 1,4-Difluorobenzene under Nonequilibrium Conditions: Role of Monomer-, Dimer-, and Tetramer-Based Intermediates and Lessons about Rate Limitation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lithiation of 1,4-difluorobenzene with lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in THF at ?78 °C joins the ranks of a growing number of metalations that occur under conditions in which the rates of aggregate exchanges are comparable to the rates of metalation. As such, a substantial number of barriers vie for rate limitation. Rate studies reveal that rate-limiting steps and even the choice of reaction coordinate depend on subtle variations in concentration. Deuteration shifts the rate-limiting step and markedly alters the concentration dependencies and overall rate law. This narrative is less about ortholithiation per se and more about rate limitation and the dynamics of LDA aggregate exchange. PMID:25000303

  5. Oral lichen planus: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Sankari, S. Leena; Masthan, K. M. K.; Rajesh, E.

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is an immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disease that is triggered by varied etiological agents. The oral lichenoid reaction is considered a variant of the disease that needs to be clearly diagnosed as a separate entity from oral lichen planus and treated. They follow a strict cause-effector relationship, protocols that suggest the differentiation. Lichen planus has varied clinical forms in the oral mucosa and cutaneously that has different prognosis. This condition also arises in association with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus. There have been cases reported in the esophagus, larynx, scalp, nail, cutaneous areas, especially arms and wrists, trunk. There is reported malignant transformation that essentiates careful examination, treatment protocol and regular follow-up sessions. This article throws light on the disease condition of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction that is essential for the differentiation and treatment. PMID:26015696

  6. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Murat ?nanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

  7. Methods for automatized detection of rapid changes in lateral boundary condition fields for NWP limited area models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor, M.

    2015-03-01

    Three hourly temporal resolution of lateral boundary data can be too low to properly resolve rapidly moving storms. This problem is expected to be worse with increasing horizontal resolution. In order to detect intensive disturbances in surface pressure moving rapidly through the model domain, a filtered surface pressure field (MCUF) is computed operationally in the ARPEGE global model of Météo France. The field is distributed in the coupling files along with conventional meteorological fields used for lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) for the operational forecast using limited area model ALADIN in the Meteorological and hydrological service of Croatia (DHMZ). Here an analysis is performed of the MCUF field for the LACE coupling domain for the period since 23 January 2006, when it became available, until 15 November 2014. The MCUF field is a good indicator of rapidly moving pressure disturbances (RMPDs). Its spatial and temporal distribution can be associated to the usual cyclone tracks and areas known to be supporting cyclogenesis. Other global models do not compute such field. Alternative set of coupling files from IFS operational run in ECMWF is also available operationally in DHMZ with 3 hourly temporal resolution but the MCUF field is not available. Here, several methods are tested that detect RMPDs in surface pressure a posteriori from the IFS model fields provided in the coupling files. MCUF is computed by running ALADIN on the coupling files from IFS. The error function is computed using one time step integration of ALADIN on the coupling files without initialization, initialized with DFI or SSDFI. Finally, the amplitude of changes in the mean sea level pressure is computed from the fields in the coupling files. The results are compared to the MCUF field of ARPEGE and the results of same methods applied to the coupling files from ARPEGE. Most methods give a signal for the rapidly moving pressure disturbances (RMPDs), but DFI reduces the storms too much to be detected. Error function without filtering and amplitude have more noise, but the signal of a RMPD is also stronger. The methods are tested for NWP LAM, but could be applied to and benefit the performance of climate LAMs.

  8. Aerobactin Mediates Virulence and Accounts for Increased Siderophore Production under Iron-Limiting Conditions by Hypervirulent (Hypermucoviscous) Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Ruth; MacDonald, Ulrike; Metzger, Daniel; Maltese, Lauren M.; Drake, Eric J.; Gulick, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Hypervirulent (hypermucoviscous) Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) strains are an emerging variant of “classical” K. pneumoniae (cKP) that cause organ and life-threatening infection in healthy individuals. An understanding of hvKP-specific virulence mechanisms that enabled evolution from cKP is limited. Observations by our group and previously published molecular epidemiologic data led us to hypothesize that hvKP strains produced more siderophores than cKP strains and that this trait enhanced hvKP virulence. Quantitative analysis of 12 hvKP strains in iron-poor minimal medium or human ascites fluid showed a significant and distinguishing 6- to 10-fold increase in siderophore production compared to that for 14 cKP strains. Surprisingly, high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-mass spectrometry and characterization of the hvKP strains hvKP1, A1142, and A1365 and their isogenic aerobactin-deficient (?iucA) derivatives established that aerobactin accounted for the overwhelming majority of increased siderophore production and that this was not due to gene copy number. Further, aerobactin was the primary factor in conditioned medium that enhanced the growth/survival of hvKP1 in human ascites fluid. Importantly the ex vivo growth/survival of hvKP1 ?iucA was significantly less than that of hvKP1 in human ascites fluid, and the survival of outbred CD1 mice challenged subcutaneously or intraperitoneally with hvKP1 was significantly less than that of mice challenged with hvKP1 ?iucA. The lowest subcutaneous and intraperitoneal challenge inocula of 3 × 102 and 3.2 × 101 CFU, respectively, resulted in 100% mortality, demonstrating the virulence of hvKP1 and its ability to cause infection at a low dose. These data strongly support that aerobactin accounts for increased siderophore production in hvKP compared to cKP (a potential defining trait) and is an important virulence factor. PMID:24664504

  9. Oral calcitonin.

    PubMed

    Maricic, Michael J

    2012-03-01

    Both injectable and nasal spray calcitonins have been utilized in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis for over 25 years. More widespread use of calcitonin in the treatment of osteoporosis has been hampered in part due to poor patient acceptability and compliance and the inability of patients to take this medication as an oral pill. In recent years, an oral preparation of calcitonin has been developed that combines the active peptide hormone with a caprylic acid derivative to enhance bioavailability. Clinical trials with oral calcitonin in patients with osteoarthritis are currently being conducted. A recent phase 3 study failed to demonstrate significant vertebral fracture reduction, and as a result the clinical program for oral calcitonin in osteoporosis is under review for further consideration. PMID:22281725

  10. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... swallowing A lump in your neck An earache Oral cancer treatments may include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some patients have a combination of treatments. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  11. Oral vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qing; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    Oral vaccines are safe and easy to administer and convenient for all ages. They have been successfully developed to protect from many infectious diseases acquired through oral transmission. We recently found in animal models that formulation of oral vaccines in a nanoparticle-releasing microparticle delivery system is a viable approach for selectively inducing large intestinal protective immunity against infections at rectal and genital mucosae. These large-intestine targeted oral vaccines are a potential substitute for the intracolorectal immunization, which has been found to be effective against rectogenital infections but is not feasible for mass vaccination. Moreover, the newly developed delivery system can be modified to selectively target either the small or large intestine for immunization and accordingly revealed a regionalized immune system in the gut. Future applications and research endeavors suggested by the findings are discussed. PMID:23493163

  12. Pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention of oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Yoithapprabhunath, Thukanaykanpalayam Ragunathan; Maheswaran, Thangadurai; Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Anusushanth, Abraham; Sindhuja, Pandian; Sitra, Govindasamy

    2013-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic, progressive, potentially malignant condition affecting the oral cavity and frequently involving the upper part of the aerodigestive tract including the oropharynx and the upper part of the esophagus. It is characterized by juxtaepithelial inflammatory reaction and progressive fibrosis of lamina propria, leading to stiffening of the oral mucosa eventually causing trismus. This condition is associated with significant morbidity and high risk of malignancy. Over the years, several drugs and combinations have been tried for the treatment of submucous fibrosis, but with limited success, because of its unclear molecular pathogenesis. Till date, there are no known effective treatments for OSF. The aim of this article is to emphasize on the molecular changes taking place in OSF and possible therapeutic interventions. PMID:23946584

  13. Understanding of polyhydroxybutyrate production under carbon and phosphorus-limited growth conditions in non-axenic continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Cavaillé, Laëtitia; Albuquerque, Maria; Grousseau, Estelle; Lepeuple, Anne-Sophie; Uribelarrea, Jean-Louis; Hernandez-Raquet, Guillermina; Paul, Etienne

    2016-02-01

    In a waste into resource strategy, a selection of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-accumulating organisms from activated sludge was achieved in an open continuous culture under acetic acid and phosphorus limitation. Once the microbial population was selected at a dilution rate (D), an increase in phosphorus limitation degree was applied in order to study the intracellular phosphorus plasticity of selected bacteria and the resulting capacity to produce PHB. Whatever D, all selected populations were able to produce PHB. At a D, the phosphorus availability determined the phosphorus-cell content which in turn fixed the amount of cell. All the remaining carbon was thus directed toward PHB. By decreasing D, microorganisms adapted more easily to higher phosphorus limitation leading to higher PHB content. A one-stage continuous reactor operated at D=0.023h(-)(1) gave reliable high PHB productivity with PHB content up to 80%. A two-stage reactor could ensure better productivity while allowing tuning product quality. PMID:26638135

  14. Rapid post-oral stimulation of intake and flavor conditioning in rats by glucose but not a non-metabolizable glucose analog.

    PubMed

    Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2014-06-22

    Mice adapted to drink a flavored saccharin solution (CS-) paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of water rapidly increase their intake of a new flavored solution (CS+) that is paired with IG glucose self-infusions. The present study extends this method to examine post-oral glucose appetition in rats. Food-restricted rats were trained to consume a CS- flavor (e.g., grape saccharin) paired with IG water in 5 daily 1-h tests. In the next 3 tests, they drank a CS+ (e.g., cherry saccharin) paired with IG glucose. Rats infused with 8% glucose increased intake significantly on CS+ Test 1, but those infused with 16% glucose showed only a small increase in intake, which may reflect a counteracting satiating effect. Both groups further increased CS+ intakes in Tests 2 and 3, and preferred (81%) the CS+ to the CS- in a two-bottle test without infusions. A second experiment investigated rats' responses to IG alpha-methyl-d-glucopyranoside (MDG), a non-metabolizable sugar analog which stimulates CS+ intake and preference in mice. The rats reduced their intake of the MDG-paired CS+ flavor over sessions, and preferred the CS- to the CS+ in the choice test. The glucose data show that rats, like mice, rapidly detect the sugar's positive post-oral effects that can stimulate intake within the first hour of exposure. The MDG avoidance may indicate a greater sensitivity to its post-oral inhibitory effects in rats than in mice, or perhaps slower clearance of MDG in rats. The test protocol described here can be used to investigate the peripheral and central processes involved in stimulation of intake by post-oral nutrients in rats. PMID:24811140

  15. Competition for cellulose among three predominant ruminal cellulolytic bacteria under substrate-excess and substrate-limited conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Y; Odt, C L; Weimer, P J

    1997-01-01

    Three predominant ruminal cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1, and Ruminococcus albus 7) were grown in different binary combinations to determine the outcome of competition in either cellulose-excess batch culture or in cellulose-limited continuous culture. Relative populations of each species were estimated by using signature membrane-associated fatty acids and/or 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Both F. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens coexisted in cellulose-excess batch culture with similar population sizes (58 and 42%, respectively; standard error, 12%). By contrast, under cellulose limitation R. flavefaciens predominated (> 96% of total cell mass) in coculture with F. succinogenes, regardless of whether the two strains were inoculated simultaneously or whether R. flavefaciens was inoculated into an established culture of F. succinogenes. The predominance of R. flavefaciens over F. succinogenes under cellulose limitation is in accord with the former's more rapid adherence to cellulose and its higher affinity for cellodextrin products of cellulose hydrolysis. In batch cocultures of F. succinogenes and R. albus, the populations of the two species were similar. However, under cellulose limitation, F. succinogenes was the predominant strain (approximately 80% of cell mass) in cultures simultaneously coinoculated with R. albus. The results from batch cocultures of R. flavefaciens and R. albus were not consistent within or among trials: some experiments yielded monocultures of R. albus (suggesting production of an inhibitory agent by R. albus), while others contained substantial populations of both species. Under cellulose limitation, R. flavefaciens predominated over R. albus (85 and 15%, respectively), as would be expected by the former's greater adherence to cellulose. The retention of R. albus in the cellulose-limited coculture may result from a combination of its ability to utilize glucose (which is not utilizable by R. flavefaciens), its demonstrated ability to adapt under selective pressure in the chemostat to utilization of lower concentrations of cellobiose, a major product of cellulose hydrolysis, and its possible production of an inhibitory agent. PMID:9023950

  16. Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine: guidelines for oral pathology and oral medicine in the dental curriculum.

    PubMed

    Kragelund, C; Reibel, J; Hietanen, J; Hadler-Olsen, E; Johannessen, A C; Kenrad, B; Nylander, K; Puranen, M; Salo, T; Syrjänen, S; Søland, T M; van der Waal, I; van der Wal, J E; Warfvinge, G

    2012-11-01

    In Scandinavia, as in many European countries, most patients consult their general dentist once a year or more. This gives the dentist a unique opportunity and an obligation to make an early diagnosis of oral diseases, which is beneficial for both the patient and the society. Thus, the dentist must have knowledge of clinical symptoms, local and systemic signs and clinical differential diagnoses to make an accurate diagnosis. The dentist must be competent in selecting appropriate diagnostic tests, for example, tissue biopsy and microbiological samples, and conducting them correctly, as well as in interpreting test results and taking appropriate action accordingly. Furthermore, the dentist must be aware of diseases demanding multidisciplinary cooperation and be able to recognise his/her professional limitation, and to refer to other specialists when required. The dental curriculum changes over time as new approaches, treatments and diagnostic possibilities develop. Likewise, the role of the dentist in the community changes and may vary in different countries. As members of the Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine and subject representatives of oral pathology and oral medicine, we feel obliged to contribute to the discussion of how the guidelines of the dental curriculum support the highest possible standards of dental education. This article is meant to delineate a reasonable standard of oral pathology and oral medicine in the European dental curriculum and to guide subject representatives in curriculum development and planning. We have created an advisory topic list in oral pathology and oral medicine. PMID:23050507

  17. Emerging oral drugs for erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Briganti, Alberto; Salonia, Andrea; Gallina, Andrea; Suardi, Nazareno; Rigatti, Patrizio; Montorsi, Francesco

    2004-05-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common medical condition that affects the sexual life of millions of men worldwide. Many drugs are now available for the treatment of ED, with oral pharmacotherapy representing the first-line option for most patients. Sildenafil citrate, an inhibitor of the enzyme phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), is the most widely prescribed oral agent and has a very satisfactory efficacy-safety profile in all patient categories. Tadalafil (Cialis; Eli Lilly & Co., ICOS) and vardenafil (Levitra; Bayer Pharmaceuticals, GlaxoSmithKline) are new PDE5 inhibitors that have recently been approved worldwide. Both have been associated with significant positive efficacy-safety profiles. Apomorphine sublingual is a dopamine D1 and D2 receptor agonist, which has been approved for marketing in Europe. It is best selected for treating patients with mild-to-moderate ED, but it is seldom used in clinical practice due to its limited efficacy and side effects, particularly nausea. Patients who do not respond to oral pharmacotherapy or who are unable to use it are appropriate candidates for intracavernosal and intraurethral therapy. The efficacy of second-line treatment is high, but the attrition rate remains significant. For the purpose of this review, clinical and pharmacological analysis focuses on the recent advances in the field of oral therapy, including PDE5 inhibitors and sublingual apomorphine. PMID:15155143

  18. 7 CFR 301.76-7 - Additional conditions for issuance of certificates and limited permits for regulated articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 301.76-6(b)(1), or with methyl bromide or irradiation, in accordance with 7 CFR part 305 of this... limited permits for regulated articles moved interstate from areas quarantined for citrus greening. 301.76... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus...

  19. 7 CFR 301.76-7 - Additional conditions for issuance of certificates and limited permits for regulated articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CFR part 305 of this chapter. (2) The nursery stock is inspected by an inspector in accordance with... limited permits for regulated articles moved interstate from areas quarantined for citrus greening. 301.76... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus...

  20. 7 CFR 301.76-6 - Additional conditions for issuance of certificates and limited permits for regulated articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... with methyl bromide in accordance with 7 CFR part 305 of this chapter. (2) The article is shipped in a... treated with irradiation in accordance with 7 CFR part 305 of this chapter at an irradiation facility that... were treated in accordance with 7 CFR part 305 of this chapter. (3) A copy of the limited permit...

  1. 7 CFR 301.76-7 - Additional conditions for issuance of certificates and limited permits for regulated articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accordance with 7 CFR part 305 of this chapter. (2) The nursery stock is inspected by an inspector in... limited permits for regulated articles moved interstate from areas quarantined for citrus greening. 301.76... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus...

  2. 7 CFR 301.76-6 - Additional conditions for issuance of certificates and limited permits for regulated articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 in accordance with 7 CFR part 305 of this chapter. 3 EPA and State and local environmental... irradiation in accordance with 7 CFR part 305 of this chapter at an irradiation facility that is not located... accordance with 7 CFR part 305 of this chapter. (3) A copy of the limited permit is attached to the...

  3. 7 CFR 301.76-6 - Additional conditions for issuance of certificates and limited permits for regulated articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in accordance with 7 CFR part 305 of this chapter. (2) The article is shipped in a container that has... irradiation in accordance with 7 CFR part 305 of this chapter at an irradiation facility that is not located... accordance with 7 CFR part 305 of this chapter. (3) A copy of the limited permit is attached to the...

  4. 7 CFR 301.76-7 - Additional conditions for issuance of certificates and limited permits for regulated articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR part 305 of this chapter. (2) The nursery stock is inspected by an inspector in accordance with... limited permits for regulated articles moved interstate from areas quarantined for citrus greening. 301.76... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus...

  5. Strategies for maintaining fruit quality in northern highbush blueberry under water limited conditions: deficit irrigation and reduced crop loads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many commercial blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) fields are irrigated, but mandatory water restrictions may soon limit the availability of irrigation water in several important blueberry growing regions such as California and eastern Washington. New strategies are needed to maintain fruit quality with less...

  6. No evidence of carbon limitation with tree age and height in Nothofagus pumilio under Mediterranean and temperate climate conditions

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Frida I.; Fajardo, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Trees universally decrease their growth with age. Most explanations for this trend so far support the hypothesis that carbon (C) gain becomes limited with age; though very few studies have directly assessed the relative reductions of C gain and C demand with tree age. It has also been suggested that drought enhances the effect of C gain limitation in trees. Here tests were carried out to determine whether C gain limitation is causing the growth decay with tree age, and whether drought accentuates its effect. Methods The balance between C gain and C demand across tree age and height ranges was estimated. For this, the concentration of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in stems and roots of trees of different ages and heights was measured in the deciduous temperate species Nothofagus pumilio. An ontogenetic decrease in NSCs indicates support for C limitation. Furthermore, the importance of drought in altering the C balance with ontogeny was assessed by sampling the same species in Mediterranean and humid climate locations in the southern Andes of Chile. Wood density (WD) and stable carbon isotope ratios (?13C) were also determined to examine drought constraints on C gain. Key Results At both locations, it was effectively found that tree growth ultimately decreased with tree age and height. It was found, however, that NSC concentrations did not decrease with tree age or height when WD was considered, suggesting that C limitation is not the ultimate mechanism causing the age/height-related declining tree growth. ?13C decreased with tree age/height at the Mediterranean site only; drought effect increased with tree age/height, but this pattern was not mirrored by the levels of NSCs. Conclusions The results indicate that concentrations of C storage in N. pumilio trees do not decrease with tree age or height, and that reduced C assimilation due to summer drought does not alter this pattern. PMID:21852277

  7. 40 CFR Appendix L to Subpart A of... - Approved Critical Uses and Limiting Critical Conditions for Those Uses for the 2010 Control Period

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved Critical Uses and Limiting Critical Conditions for Those Uses for the 2010 Control Period L Appendix L to Subpart A of Part 82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix L to Subpart A of... - Approved Critical Uses and Limiting Critical Conditions for Those Uses for the 2012 Control Period

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approved Critical Uses and Limiting Critical Conditions for Those Uses for the 2012 Control Period L Appendix L to Subpart A of Part 82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production...

  9. 30 CFR 203.42 - What conditions and limitations apply to royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells? 203.42 Section 203.42 Mineral Resources... ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General Royalty Relief for Drilling Deep Gas Wells on Leases Not... deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells? The conditions and limitations in the following table apply...

  10. The Importance of Awareness and Communication for the Inclusion of Young People with Life-Limiting and Life-Threatening Conditions in Mainstream Schools and Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asprey, Anthea; Nash, Tricia

    2006-01-01

    Anthea Asprey and Tricia Nash both belong to the Children's Hospice South West Research Group, based at the University of Exeter. In this article, they report one aspect of a research project designed to determine the adequacy of support for young people with life-limiting and life-threatening conditions in the education system. They describe here…

  11. GENERAL: Bifurcation of a Saddle-Node Limit Cycle with Homoclinic Orbits Satisfying the Small Lobe Condition in a Leech Neuron Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yooer, Chi-Feng; Xu, Jian-Xue; Zhang, Xin-Hua

    2009-08-01

    Mechanism of period-adding cascades with chaos in a reduced leech neuron model is suggested as the bifurcation of a saddle-node limit cycle with homoclinic orbits satisfying the “small lobe condition", instead of the blue-sky catastrophe. In every spiking adding, the new spike emerges at the end of the spiking phase of the bursters.

  12. The Importance of Awareness and Communication for the Inclusion of Young People with Life-Limiting and Life-Threatening Conditions in Mainstream Schools and Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asprey, Anthea; Nash, Tricia

    2006-01-01

    Anthea Asprey and Tricia Nash both belong to the Children's Hospice South West Research Group, based at the University of Exeter. In this article, they report one aspect of a research project designed to determine the adequacy of support for young people with life-limiting and life-threatening conditions in the education system. They describe here…

  13. 30 CFR 203.42 - What conditions and limitations apply to royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells? 203.42 Section 203.42 Mineral Resources BUREAU... limitations apply to royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells? The conditions and... or deeper, your lease cannot earn an RSV under § 203.41 as a result of drilling any subsequent...

  14. 30 CFR 203.42 - What conditions and limitations apply to royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells? 203.42 Section 203.42 Mineral Resources BUREAU... limitations apply to royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells? The conditions and... or deeper, your lease cannot earn an RSV under § 203.41 as a result of drilling any subsequent...

  15. 30 CFR 203.42 - What conditions and limitations apply to royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells? 203.42 Section 203.42 Mineral Resources BUREAU... limitations apply to royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells? The conditions and... or deeper, your lease cannot earn an RSV under § 203.41 as a result of drilling any subsequent...

  16. Mast cells and oral pathologies: A Review.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Reet; Dahiya, Parveen; Goyal, Niti; Kumar, Mukesh; Sharma, Neeta; Saini, Hans Raj

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are resident cells of several types of tissues and contain many granules rich in histamine and heparin. They are distributed preferentially about the micro-vascular endothelial cells in the oral mucosa. These cells play a key role in the inflammatory process and thus their number has been found to be altered in various oral pathological conditions such as oral pyogenic granuloma, oral lichen planus, leukoplakia, oral squamous cell carcinoma, periapical cysts etc. The present review article is aimed to describe the alteration in the number of MCs along with their probable roles in these pathological conditions. PMID:25810632

  17. Mast cells and oral pathologies: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Reet; Dahiya, Parveen; Goyal, Niti; Kumar, Mukesh; Sharma, Neeta; Saini, Hans Raj

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are resident cells of several types of tissues and contain many granules rich in histamine and heparin. They are distributed preferentially about the micro-vascular endothelial cells in the oral mucosa. These cells play a key role in the inflammatory process and thus their number has been found to be altered in various oral pathological conditions such as oral pyogenic granuloma, oral lichen planus, leukoplakia, oral squamous cell carcinoma, periapical cysts etc. The present review article is aimed to describe the alteration in the number of MCs along with their probable roles in these pathological conditions. PMID:25810632

  18. 20 CFR 661.310 - Under what limited conditions may a Local Board directly be a provider of core services...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Board directly be a provider of core services, intensive services, or training services, or act as a One... conditions may a Local Board directly be a provider of core services, intensive services, or training services, or act as a One-Stop Operator? (a) A Local Board may not directly provide core services,...

  19. 20 CFR 661.310 - Under what limited conditions may a Local Board directly be a provider of core services...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Board directly be a provider of core services, intensive services, or training services, or act as a One... conditions may a Local Board directly be a provider of core services, intensive services, or training services, or act as a One-Stop Operator? (a) A Local Board may not directly provide core services,...

  20. 20 CFR 661.310 - Under what limited conditions may a Local Board directly be a provider of core services...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Board directly be a provider of core services, intensive services, or training services, or act as a One... conditions may a Local Board directly be a provider of core services, intensive services, or training services, or act as a One-Stop Operator? (a) A Local Board may not directly provide core services,...

  1. 76 FR 12274 - Special Conditions: Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited Model 206B and 206L Series Helicopters...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ..., teetering main rotor, a 2-blade anti-torque tail rotor, a skid landing gear, and a visual flight rule (VFR... possible failure conditions for this system, and their effect on the continued safe flight and landing of... Methods for Conducting the Safety Assessment Process on civil airborne Systems and Equipment)....

  2. 26 CFR 20.2056(b)-3 - Marital deduction; interest of spouse conditioned on survival for limited period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate § 20.2056(b)-3 Marital deduction; interest of spouse... decedent to his surviving spouse subject to the condition that she does not die as a result of a common... passed to the spouse would be regarded as a nondeductible interest. If the surviving spouse in fact...

  3. 26 CFR 20.2056(b)-3 - Marital deduction; interest of spouse conditioned on survival for limited period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate § 20.2056(b)-3 Marital deduction; interest of spouse... decedent to his surviving spouse subject to the condition that she does not die as a result of a common... passed to the spouse would be regarded as a nondeductible interest. If the surviving spouse in fact...

  4. 26 CFR 20.2056(b)-3 - Marital deduction; interest of spouse conditioned on survival for limited period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate § 20.2056(b)-3 Marital deduction; interest of spouse... decedent to his surviving spouse subject to the condition that she does not die as a result of a common... passed to the spouse would be regarded as a nondeductible interest. If the surviving spouse in fact...

  5. 26 CFR 20.2056(b)-3 - Marital deduction; interest of spouse conditioned on survival for limited period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate § 20.2056(b)-3 Marital deduction; interest of spouse... decedent to his surviving spouse subject to the condition that she does not die as a result of a common... passed to the spouse would be regarded as a nondeductible interest. If the surviving spouse in fact...

  6. 26 CFR 20.2056(b)-3 - Marital deduction; interest of spouse conditioned on survival for limited period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate § 20.2056(b)-3 Marital deduction; interest of spouse... decedent to his surviving spouse subject to the condition that she does not die as a result of a common... passed to the spouse would be regarded as a nondeductible interest. If the surviving spouse in fact...

  7. [Oral candidiasis: clinical features and control].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2010-10-01

    Candidiasis is the most commonly encountered fungal infection, and oral candidiasis is often observed as a local opportunistic infection. Oral candidiasis is clinically divided into three types: acute forms, chronic forms, and Candida-associated lesions. Candida adhesion and multiplication are largely regulated by the local and systemic factors of the host. The local factors include impairment of the oral mucosal integrity, which is usually impaired by hyposalivation, anticancer drugs/radiation for head and neck cancers, denture wearing, a decrease in the oral bacterial population, and poor oral hygiene. Among Candida species, oral candidiasis is mostly caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans), C. glabrata, or C. tropicalis. Oral Candida induces a variety of symptoms, such as oral mucosal inflammation manifesting as an uncomfortable feeling, pain, erythema, erosion, taste abnormalities, and hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Candida overgrowth in the oral cavity may disseminate to distant organs. Therefore, in order to avoid the sequelae of systemic candidiasis, oral candidiasis should be rapidly controlled. Oral candidiasis is usually treated by the local application of antifungal drugs. However, oral candidiasis occasionally escapes the control of such local treatment due to the development of multi-drug resistant Candida strains and species or due to the suppression of salivation or cellular immune activity. When drug-resistant strains are suspected as the pathogens and when the host is generally compromised, the oral administration of combinations of antifungal drugs, enhancement of cellular immune activity, and improvement of the nutritional condition are recommended. PMID:21077293

  8. Metabolic regulation of Escherichia coli and its phoB and phoR genes knockout mutants under phosphate and nitrogen limitations as well as at acidic condition

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The phosphorus compounds serve as major building blocks of many biomolecules, and have important roles in signal transduction. The phosphate is involved in many biochemical reactions by the transfer of phosphoryl groups. All living cells sophisticatedly regulate the phosphate uptake, and survive even under phosphate-limiting condition, and thus phosphate metabolism is closely related to the diverse metabolism including energy and central carbon metabolism. In particular, phosphorylation may play important roles in the metabolic regulation at acidic condition and nitrogen limiting condition, which typically appears at the late growth phase in the batch culture. Moreover, phosphate starvation is a relatively inexpensive means of gene induction in practice, and the phoA promoter has been used for overexpression of heterologous genes. A better understanding of phosphate regulation would allow for optimization of such processes. Results The effect of phosphate (P) concentration on the metabolism in Escherichia coli was investigated in terms of fermentation characteristics and gene transcript levels for the aerobic continuous culture at the dilution rate of 0.2 h-1. The result indicates that the specific glucose consumption rate and the specific acetate production rate significantly increased, while the cell concentration decreased at low P concentration (10% of the M9 medium). The increase in the specific glucose uptake rate may be due to ATP demand caused by limited ATP production under P-limitation. The lower cell concentration was also caused by less ATP production. The less ATP production by H+-ATPase may have caused less cytochrome reaction affecting in quinone pool, and caused up-regulation of ArcA/B, which repressed TCA cycle genes and caused more acetate production. In the case of phoB mutant (and also phoR mutant), the fermentation characteristics were less affected by P-limitation as compared to the wild type where the PhoB regulated genes were down-regulated, while phoR and phoU changed little. The phoR gene knockout caused phoB gene to be down-regulated as well as PhoB regulated genes, while phoU and phoM changed little. The effect of pH together with lower P concentration on the metabolic regulation was also investigated. In accordance with up-regulation of arcA gene expression, the expressions of the TCA cycle genes such as sdhC and mdh were down-regulated at acidic condition. The gene expression of rpoS was up-regulated, and the expression of gadA was up-regulated at pH 6.0. In accordance with this, PhoB regulated genes were up-regulated in the wild type under P-rich and P-limited conditions at pH 6.0 as compared to those at pH 7.0. Moreover, the effect of nitrogen limitation on the metabolic regulation was investigated, where the result indicates that phoB gene was up-regulated, and PhoB regulated genes were also up-regulated under N-limitation, as well as nitrogen-regulated genes. Conclusion The present result shows the complicated nature of the metabolic regulation for the fermentation characteristics upon phosphate limitation, acidic condition, and nitrogen limitation based on the transcript levels of selected genes. The result implies that the regulations under phosphate limitation, acidic condition, and nitrogen limitation, which occur typically at the late growth phase of the batch culture, are interconnected through RpoS and RpoD together with Pho genes. PMID:21599905

  9. Oral physicians.

    PubMed

    Giddon, D B

    2012-11-01

    In response to Stephen Hancocks' editorial Sawbones no longer, this paper examines the future role of oral physicians and patients' need for dental professionals to play a larger part in overall healthcare. Whilst the financial structures behind the US and UK dental systems differ, it can be questioned whether the outcomes of impending change will be as diverse. PMID:23175071

  10. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... people over the age of 40. Sun Exposure. Cancer of the lip can be caused by sun exposure. Diet. A diet low in fruits and vegetables may play a role in oral cancer development. Possible Signs & Symptoms See a dentist or ...

  11. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... these cancers by doing monthly self-examinations. Treatment   Radiation therapy and surgery are the main methods of treating ... either by itself. •  Sun exposure   Many patients with cancers of the lip have outdoor jobs associated with prolonged Oral cancer ...

  12. Herpes - oral

    MedlinePLUS

    Oral herpes most often goes away by itself in 1 to 2 weeks. However, it may come back. Herpes infection may be severe and dangerous if: It occurs in or near the eye You have a weakened immune system due to certain diseases and medications

  13. [Revolving door patient in lymphology--possibilities and limits of therapy and patient motivation during inpatient and ambulatory conditions].

    PubMed

    Földi, E

    1999-01-01

    Patients suffering from chronic diseases necessitate a continuous treatment and self-care. Independent from its etiology the method of choice of the treatment of chronic lymphedemas of the limbs is "Complex Decongestive Physiotherapy" (CDP). CDP is carried out according to the requirements either as an outpatient- or an inpatient-treatment. In some cases CDP has to be applied not in its usual, regular form but in a modified manner. The lecture deals with problematic cases and with the limits of our therapeutic possibilities. PMID:10378338

  14. Dwarf and tiller-enhancing 1 regulates growth and development by influencing boron uptake in boron limited conditions in rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Liu, Ling-Long; Ren, Yu-Long; Wang, Zhi-Quan; Zhou, Kun-Neng; Liu, Xi; Wang, Dan; Zheng, Ming; Cheng, Zhi-Jun; Lin, Qi-Bing; Wang, Jiu-Lin; Wu, Fu-Qing; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xiu-Ping; Wang, Chun-Ming; Zhai, Hu-Qu; Jiang, Ling; Wan, Jian-Min

    2015-07-01

    Boron (B) is essential for plant growth, and B deficiency causes severe losses in crop yield. Here we isolated and characterized a rice (Oryza sativa L.) mutant named dwarf and tiller-enhancing 1 (dte1), which exhibits defects under low-B conditions, including retarded growth, increased number of tillers and impaired pollen fertility. Map-based cloning revealed that dte1 encodes a NOD26-LIKE INTRINSIC PROTEIN orthologous to known B channel proteins AtNIP5;1 in Arabidopsis and TASSEL-LESS1 in maize. Its identity was verified by transgenic complementation and RNA-interference. Subcellular localization showed DTE1 is mainly localized in the plasma membrane. The accumulation of DTE1 transcripts both in roots and shoots significantly increased within 3h of the onset of B starvation, but decreased within 1h of B replenishment. GUS staining indicated that DTE1s are expressed abundantly in exodermal cells in roots, as well as in nodal region of adult leaves. Although the dte1 mutation apparently reduces the total B content in plants, it does not affect in vivo B concentrations under B-deficient conditions. These data provide evidence that DTE1 is critical for vegetative growth and reproductive development in rice grown under B-deficient conditions. PMID:26025517

  15. RF Pulses for In Vivo Spectroscopy at High Field Designed under Conditions of Limited Power Using Optimal Control

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Gerald B.; Young, Karl; Kaiser, Lana G.

    2009-01-01

    Localized in vivo spectroscopy at high magnetic field strength (> 3 T) is susceptible to localization artifacts such as the chemical shift artifact and the spatial interference artifact for J-coupled spins. This latter artifact results in regions of anomalous phase for J-coupled spins. These artifacts are exacerbated at high magnetic field due to the increased frequency dispersion, coupled with the limited RF pulse bandwidths used for localization. Approaches to minimize these artifacts include increasing the bandwidth of the frequency selective excitation pulses, and the use of frequency selective saturation pulses to suppress the signals in the regions with anomalous phase. The goal of this article is to demonstrate the efficacy of optimal control methods to provide broader bandwidth frequency selective pulses for in vivo spectroscopy in the presence of limited RF power. It is demonstrated by examples that the use of optimal control methods enable the generation of i) improved bandwidth selective excitation pulses, ii) more efficient selective inversion pulses to be used for generation of spin echoes, and iii) improved frequency selective saturation pulses. While optimal control also allows for the generation of frequency selective spin echo pulses, it is argued that it is more efficient to use dual inversion pulses for broadband generation of spin echoes. Finally, the optimal control routines and example RF pulses are made available for downloading. PMID:19398359

  16. Effects of tungsten and titanium oxide nanoparticles on the diazotrophic growth and metals acquisition by Azotobacter vinelandii under molybdenum limiting condition.

    PubMed

    Allard, Patrick; Darnajoux, Romain; Phalyvong, Karine; Bellenger, Jean-Philippe

    2013-02-19

    The acquisition of essential metals, such as the metal cofactors (molybdenum (Mo) and iron (Fe)) of the nitrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the reduction of dinitrogen (N(2)) to ammonium, is critical to N(2) fixing bacteria in soil. The release of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) to the environment could be detrimental to N(2) fixing bacteria by introducing a new source of toxic metals and by interfering with the acquisition of essential metals such as Mo. Since Mo has been reported to limit nonsymbiotic N(2) fixation in many ecosystems from tropical to cold temperate, this question is particularly acute in the context of Mo limitation. Using a combination of microbiology and analytical chemistry techniques, we have evaluated the effect of titanium (Ti) and tungsten (W) oxide nanoparticles on the diazotrophic growth and metals acquisition in pure culture of the ubiquitous N(2) fixing bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii under Mo replete and Mo limiting conditions. We report that under our conditions (?10 mg·L(-1)) TiO(2) NPs have no effects on the diazotrophic growth of A. vinelandii while WO(3) NPs are highly detrimental to the growth especially under Mo limiting conditions. Our results show that the toxicity of WO(3) NPs to A. vinelandii is due to an interference with the catechol-metalophores assisted uptake of Mo. PMID:23339336

  17. Influence of Propolis on Hygiene, Gingival Condition, and Oral Microflora in Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate Treated with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances

    PubMed Central

    Machorowska-Pieni??ek, Agnieszka; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Król, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 3% ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) on hygiene, gingival and microbiological status of oral cavity in patients with cleft lip and palate treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. The study included forty-one nonsyndromic complete unilateral of bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects with fixed appliance on at least 10 teeth. Twenty-one subjects were instructed to brush their teeth three times a day using toothpaste with propolis. Control group included twenty subjects who were asked to brush their teeth three times a day using a toothpaste without propolis. API, OPI, GI, and supragingival bacterial plaque were taken from each subject twice: baseline and after using the toothpaste for 35 days. The final examinations showed statistically significant decrease in OPI, GI, and the percentage of the Actinomyces spp. and Capnocytophaga spp. compared with baseline in propolis group subjects. The improvement in oral health in these patients confirms antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative properties of propolis. PMID:23762106

  18. Disparities in Oral Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Well Water and Fluoride Bottled Water Dental Sealants Infection Control Journal Articles Adult Oral Health Children's Oral Health Community Water Fluoridation Dental Sealants Infection Control Oral Cancer Oral Health and Pregnancy Periodontal ...

  19. Children's Oral Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Well Water and Fluoride Bottled Water Dental Sealants Infection Control Journal Articles Adult Oral Health Children's Oral Health Community Water Fluoridation Dental Sealants Infection Control Oral Cancer Oral Health and Pregnancy Periodontal ...

  20. A Method for Rapid Determination of the Icing Limit of a Body in Terms of the Stream Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, Edmund E.; Serafini, John S.

    1953-01-01

    The effects of existing frictional heating were analyzed to determine the conditions under which ice formations on aircraft surfaces can be prevented. A method is presented for rapidly determining by means of charts the combination of-Mach number, altitude, and stream temperature which will maintain an ice-free surface in an icing cloud. The method can be applied to both subsonic and supersonic flow. The charts presented are for Mach numbers up to 1.8 and pressure altitudes from sea level to 45,000 feet.

  1. Hydration and endocrine responses to intravenous fluid and oral glycerol.

    PubMed

    van Rosendal, S P; Strobel, N A; Osborne, M A; Fassett, R G; Coombes, J S

    2015-06-01

    Athletes use intravenous (IV) saline in an attempt to maximize rehydration. The diuresis from IV rehydration may be circumvented through the concomitant use of oral glycerol. We examined the effects of rehydrating with differing regimes of oral and IV fluid, with or without oral glycerol, on hydration, urine, and endocrine indices. Nine endurance-trained men were dehydrated by 4% bodyweight, then rehydrated with 150% of the fluid lost via four protocols: (a) oral?=?oral fluid only; (b) oral glycerol?=?oral fluid with added glycerol (1.5?g/kg); (c) IV?=?50% IV fluid, 50% oral fluid; and (d) IV?with oral glycerol?=?50% IV fluid, 50% oral fluid with added glycerol (1.5?g/kg), using a randomized, crossover design. They then completed a cycling performance test. Plasma volume restoration was highest in IV?with oral glycerol?>?IV?>?oral glycerol??>?oral. Urine volume was reduced in both IV trials compared with oral. IV and IV?with oral glycerol resulted in lower aldosterone levels during rehydration and performance, and lower cortisol levels during rehydration. IV?with oral glycerol resulted in the greatest fluid retention. In summary, the IV conditions resulted in greater fluid retention compared with oral and lower levels of fluid regulatory and stress hormones compared with both oral conditions. PMID:25943662

  2. Tectonic drift versus climatic variations: rhodoliths as indicators of limits between tropical and nontropical sedimentary conditions: examples from Pacific Miocene

    SciTech Connect

    Bourrouilh-le Jan, F.G.

    1986-05-01

    Modern examples show that rhodoliths or red algal nodules are forming around the 18/sup 0/C winter isocline and that huge amounts of these red coralline algae are living and accumulating in the subtidal zones, from -60 m to sea level, of temperate seas, such as the English Channel and Rockall. In the Pacific Ocean, several high carbonate platforms, so-called uplifted atolls, show uniform, extended, and thick accumulation of rhodoliths. These accumulations have been recognized in the Solomon Islands (Rennell) and in the Loyalty Islands (Mare and Lifu, New Caledonia), but also in the Vanuatu (Vila), in the Austral Archipelago (Rurutu), where their age can be proved or estimated as middle Miocene. They are also mentioned in the literature on the Emperor Rise (northwest Pacific). On other high carbonate islands, such as Makatea (Tuamotu), red algae and rhodolith formations appear at the top of a sedimentary pile of lower Miocene coral accumulation. The same observations and perhaps the same age can be said for Nauru (central Pacific). Such a wide distribution, from the east to the west part of the Pacific Ocean and between the tropics, seems to be due to climate variations during the Miocene, more than tectonic drift due to oceanic spreading. Temperate conditions shown by this shallow platform sedimentation, just under the coral growth conditions, seem to be confirmed by isotopic studies on pelagic and benthic Foraminifera and could confirm the existence of climate variations affecting the surface water of the Pacific in an extensive area that does not consider the presence of trenches, arcs, and ridges.

  3. Tenax extraction for exploring rate-limiting factors in methyl-?-cyclodextrin enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs under denitrifying conditions in a red paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yongming; Jiang, Xin; Kengara, Fredrick Orori

    2014-01-15

    The effectiveness of anaerobic bioremediation systems for PAH-contaminated soil may be constrained by low contaminants bioaccessibility due to limited aqueous solubility and lack of suitable electron acceptors. Information on what is the rate-limiting factor in bioremediation process is of vital importance in the decision in what measures can be taken to assist the biodegradation efficacy. In the present study, four different microcosms were set to study the effect of methyl-?-cyclodextrin (MCD) and nitrate addition (N) on PAHs biodegradation under anaerobic conditions in a red paddy soil. Meanwhile, sequential Tenax extraction combined with a first-three-compartment model was employed to evaluate the rate-limiting factors in MCD enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs. Microcosms with both 1% (w/w) MCD and 20mM N addition produced maximum biodegradation of total PAHs of up to 61.7%. It appears rate-limiting factors vary with microcosms: low activity of degrading microorganisms is the vital rate-limiting factor for control and MCD addition treatments (CK and M treatments); and lack of bioaccessible PAHs is the main rate-limiting factor for nitrate addition treatments (N and MN treatments). These results have practical implications for site risk assessment and cleanup strategies. PMID:24239261

  4. [Oral anticoagulation].

    PubMed

    Durán Parrondo, C; Rodríguez Moreno, C; Tato Herrero, F; Alonso Vence, N; Lado Lado, F L

    2003-07-01

    The use of oral anticoagulants in the prevention of thrombotics processes, has experienced a considerable increase. In addition, there are a growing experience on the medical and socials consequences of the use of this drug. This has originated a much more pragmatic vision of the daily handling of the anticoagulated patient. In this article, we made are vision about the indications and the practical use, including some useful advices and criteria for the concomitant drug selection. PMID:12968582

  5. Oral Manifestations of Vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Anitha; Masthan, Mahaboob Kader; Sankar, Leena Sankari; Narayanasamy, Aravindha Babu; Elumalai, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitiligo is one of the disorder that has social impact. Both skin and mucous membrane show depigmentation in vitiligo. Depigmentation in oral cavity can be more easily observed and the patient can be given awareness regarding the condition if they are unaware of vitiligo elsewhere in their body and can be guided for treatment. Aim and objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of occurrence of oral mucosal vitiligo in vitiligo patients and to determine the most commonly involved oral mucosal site. Materials and methods: The study sample included 100 vitiligo patients. The patients of all age groups and both genders were included. Vitiligo patients associated with systemic conditions such as thyroid disorders, juvenile diabetes mellitus, pernicious anemia, Addison's disease were excluded in this study. Results: Out of 100 vitiligo patients 44 % male and 56% were female. The oral presentation of vitiligo in this study showed depigmentation of buccal mucosa in 5% of patients, labial mucosa in 5% of patients, palate in 8% of patients, gingiva in 2% of patients and alveolar mucosa 1%. Depigmentation of lip was seen in 42% of patients. Lip involvement refers to depigmentation of both the lips or either lip. Also vermilion border involvement was noted in majority of cases. In some cases, the depigmentation of lip extended to the facial skin also. Conclusion: In this study 55 patients out of 100 patients showed depigmentation in the oral cavity. Lip involvement was most common in this study showing about 42% of patients. Intraoral mucosal involvement was found in 21% of patients. Among intraoral mucosal site palate was common followed by buccal and labial mucosa, gingiva. Two patients had lip pigmentation as the only manifestation without any depigmentation in the skin. PMID:25657420

  6. Final Rules for Grandfathered Plans, Preexisting Condition Exclusions, Lifetime and Annual Limits, Rescissions, Dependent Coverage, Appeals, and Patient Protections Under the Affordable Care Act. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2015-11-18

    This document contains final regulations regarding grandfathered health plans, preexisting condition exclusions, lifetime and annual dollar limits on benefits, rescissions, coverage of dependent children to age 26, internal claims and appeal and external review processes, and patient protections under the Affordable Care Act. It finalizes changes to the proposed and interim final rules based on comments and incorporates subregulatory guidance issued since publication of the proposed and interim final rules. PMID:26595941

  7. The transcriptional activator NrpA is crucial for inducing nitrogen fixation in Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 under nitrogen-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Weidenbach, Katrin; Ehlers, Claudia; Schmitz, Ruth A

    2014-08-01

    With the aim of unraveling their potential involvement in the regulation of nitrogen metabolism in Methanosarcina mazei strain Gö1, we characterized five genes that are differentially transcribed in response to changing nitrogen availability and encoding putative transcriptional regulators. Study of the respective mutant strains under nitrogen-limited conditions revealed a growth delay for M. mazei MM0444::pac and MM1708::pac, and strongly reduced diazotrophic growth for MM0872::pac, whereas the absence of MM2441 or MM2525 did not affect growth behaviour. Transcriptome analyses further demonstrated that only MM1708 - encoding a CxxCG zinc finger protein - plays a regulatory role in nitrogen metabolism, most likely by specifically enhancing transcription of the N2 fixation (nif) operon under nitrogen-limited conditions. In agreement with this, a palindromic binding motif was predicted in silico in the nifH promoter region, nine nucleotides upstream of the BRE box, and confirmed to bind purified maltose-binding protein-MM1708 by electromobility shift assays. As MM1708 itself is under the control of the global nitrogen repressor NrpR, this adds a secondary level to the transcriptional regulation of the nif genes, and is most likely crucial for maximal nif induction under nitrogen-limited conditions. This is in accordance with the finding that protein expression of NifH is highly reduced in the absence of MM1708 under nitrogen-limited conditions. On the basis of our findings, we hypothesize that, in M. mazei, nitrogen fixation is controlled by a hierarchical network of two transcriptional regulators, the global nitrogen repressor NrpR, and the newly identified activator NrpA (MM1708), thereby providing tight control of N2 fixation. PMID:24930989

  8. Nitrogen availability impacts oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plant water status and proline production efficiency under water-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Albert, Benjamin; Le Cahérec, Françoise; Niogret, Marie-Françoise; Faes, Pascal; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Leport, Laurent; Bouchereau, Alain

    2012-08-01

    Large amounts of nitrogen (N) fertilizers are used in the production of oilseed rape. However, as low-input methods of crop management are introduced crops will need to withstand temporary N deficiency. In temperate areas, oilseed rape will also be affected by frequent drought periods. Here we evaluated the physiological and metabolic impact of nitrate limitation on the oilseed rape response to water deprivation. Different amounts of N fertilizer were applied to plants at the vegetative stage, which were then deprived of water and rehydrated. Both water and N depletion accelerated leaf senescence and reduced leaf development. N-deprived plants exhibited less pronounced symptoms of wilting during drought, probably because leaves were smaller and stomata were partially closed. Efficiency of proline production, a major stress-induced diversion of nitrogen metabolism, was assessed at different positions along the whole plant axis and related to leaf developmental stage and water status indices. Proline accumulation, preferentially in younger leaves, accounted for 25-85% of the free amino acid pool. This was mainly due to a better capacity for proline synthesis in fully N-supplied plants whether they were subjected to drought or not, as deduced from the expression patterns of the proline metabolism BnP5CS and BnPDH genes. Although less proline accumulated in the oldest leaves, a significant amount was transported from senescing to emerging leaves. Moreover, during rehydration proline was readily recycled. Our results therefore suggest that proline plays a significant role in leaf N remobilization and in N use efficiency in oilseed rape. PMID:22526495

  9. Analysis of influenza virus hemagglutinin receptor binding mutants with limited receptor recognition properties and conditional replication characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Konrad C; Galloway, Summer E; Lasanajak, Yi; Song, Xuezheng; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Yu, Hai; Chen, Xi; Talekar, Ganesh R; Smith, David F; Cummings, Richard D; Steinhauer, David A

    2011-12-01

    To examine the range of selective processes that potentially operate when poorly binding influenza viruses adapt to replicate more efficiently in alternative environments, we passaged a virus containing an attenuating mutation in the hemagglutinin (HA) receptor binding site in mice and characterized the resulting mutants with respect to the structural locations of mutations selected, the replication phenotypes of the viruses, and their binding properties on glycan microarrays. The initial attenuated virus had a tyrosine-to-phenylalanine mutation at HA1 position 98 (Y98F), located in the receptor binding pocket, but viruses that were selected contained second-site pseudoreversion mutations in various structural locations that revealed a range of molecular mechanisms for modulating receptor binding that go beyond the scope that is generally mapped using receptor specificity mutants. A comparison of virus titers in the mouse respiratory tract versus MDCK cells in culture showed that the mutants displayed distinctive replication properties depending on the system, but all were less attenuated in mice than the Y98F virus. An analysis of receptor binding properties confirmed that the initial Y98F virus bound poorly to several different species of erythrocytes, while all mutants reacquired various degrees of hemagglutination activity. Interestingly, both the Y98F virus and pseudoreversion mutants were shown to bind very inefficiently to standard glycan microarrays containing an abundance of binding substrates for most influenza viruses that have been characterized to date, provided by the Consortium for Functional Glycomics. The viruses were also examined on a recently developed microarray containing glycans terminating in sialic acid derivatives, and limited binding to a potentially interesting subset of glycans was revealed. The results are discussed with respect to mechanisms for HA-mediated receptor binding, as well as regarding the species of molecules that may act as receptors for influenza virus on host cell surfaces. PMID:21917953

  10. Traitement des conditions aux limites intérieures et extérieures pour la simulation numérique unidimensionnelle de l'écoulement de l'eau dans les canaux à surface libre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, M.; Vazquez, J.; Mose, R.; Zoaeter, M.

    2005-05-01

    Dans ce papier, on décrit le traitement des conditions aux limites intérieures et extérieures couplé avec la méthode explicite aux différences finies de Roe pour le développement d'une modélisation unidimensionnelle qui sert à résoudre les équations de Saint-Venant décrivant l'écoulement de l'eau à surface libre. Les deux méthodes les plus utilisées pour trouver la solution aux nœuds intérieurs et extérieurs définissant les conditions aux limites intérieures et extérieures d'un schéma numérique sont décrites et comparées dans deux exemples: Le premier traite le problème du ressaut hydraulique et le second décrit l'écoulement de l'eau au dessus des seuils. Deux types de discrétisation du terme source, pointwise et upwind, sont considérés et comparés aussi. Les résultats obtenus et comparés avec la solution analytique dans le cas du ressaut, et avec les résultats numériques déjà publiés dans le cas des seuils, montrent l'avantage de la méthode des caractéristiques sur la méthode de l'extrapolation pour les conditions aux limites, et la discrétisation upwind du terme source sur la discrétisation pointwise.

  11. Limited BDNF contributes to the failure of injury to skin afferents to produce a neuropathic pain condition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Jun; Ren, Wen-Jie; Zhong, Yi; Yang, Tao; Wei, Xu-Hong; Xin, Wen-Jun; Liu, Cui-Cui; Zhou, Li-Hua; Li, Yong-Yong; Liu, Xian-Guo

    2010-01-01

    Although a large body of evidence has shown that peripheral nerve injury usually induces neuropathic pain, there are also clinical studies demonstrating that injury of the sural nerve, which almost only innervates skin, fails to do so. The underlying mechanism, however, is largely unknown. In the present work, we found that the transection of either the gastrocnemius-soleus (GS) nerve innervating skeletal muscle or tibial nerve supplying both muscle and skin, but not of the sural nerve produced a lasting mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in adult rats. High-frequency stimulation (HFS) or injury of either the tibial nerve or the GS nerve induced late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) of C-fiber-evoked field potentials in spinal dorsal horn, while HFS or injury of the sural nerve only induced early-phase LTP (E-LTP). Furthermore, HFS of the tibial nerve induced L-LTP of C-fiber responses evoked by the stimulation of the sural nerve and the heterotopic L-LTP was completely prevented by spinal application of TrkB-Fc (a BDNF scavenger). Spinal application of low dose BDNF (10pg/ml) enabled HFS of the sural nerve to produce homotopic L-LTP. Finally, we found that injury of the GS nerve but not that of the sural nerve up-regulated BDNF in DRG neurons, and that the up-regulation of BDNF occurred not only in injured neurons but also in many uninjured ones. Therefore, the sural nerve injury failing to produce neuropathic pain may be due to the nerve containing insufficient BDNF under both physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:19945222

  12. Quantitative Immunoexpression of EGFR in Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders: Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jyothi Meka, Naga; Ugrappa, Sridevi; Velpula, Nagalaxmi; Kumar, Sravan; Naik Maloth, Kotya; Kodangal, Srikanth; ch, Lalitha; Goyal, Stuti

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Many oral squamous cell carcinomas develop from potentially malignant disorders (PMDs)which include a variety of lesions and conditions characterized by an increased risk for malignant transformation. Thisstudy evaluated the quantitative expression of EGFR in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis to predict the malignant risk in compliance with the intensity of staining with EGFR. Materials and methods. Thirty subjects were included in the study, consisting of 10 oral leukoplakia (OL), 10 oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and 10 normal oral mucosa (NOM) as the control group. Owing to the histopathological confirmation of precancerous state of tissue, 4-?m-thick sections of tissue were taken from paraffin-embedded wax blocks for immunohistochemical staining for EGFR. Results. All the control cases showed positive expression for EGFR, while 20% of oral leukoplakia and 40% of OSMF cases showed strong expression (3+), 40% of OL and 30% of OSMF cases showed weak expression (2+), and 40% of OLand 30% of OSMF cases showed poor expression (1+) compared to controls (P=0.012). Conclusion. EGFR expression levels in the premalignant lesion appear to be a sensitive factor in predicting the neoplastic potential. This suggests that EGFR may serve as a biological marker to identify high-risk subgroups and guide prophylactic therapy with chemopreventive drugs or surgical intervention to prevent progression to carcinoma. Hence, further investigations in the direction of chemopreventive trials with a larger sample size are suggested to determine its role in the head and neck tumorigenesis. PMID:26697149

  13. Quantitative Immunoexpression of EGFR in Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders: Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jyothi Meka, Naga; Ugrappa, Sridevi; Velpula, Nagalaxmi; Kumar, Sravan; Naik Maloth, Kotya; Kodangal, Srikanth; Ch, Lalitha; Goyal, Stuti

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Many oral squamous cell carcinomas develop from potentially malignant disorders (PMDs)which include a variety of lesions and conditions characterized by an increased risk for malignant transformation. Thisstudy evaluated the quantitative expression of EGFR in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis to predict the malignant risk in compliance with the intensity of staining with EGFR. Materials and methods. Thirty subjects were included in the study, consisting of 10 oral leukoplakia (OL), 10 oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and 10 normal oral mucosa (NOM) as the control group. Owing to the histopathological confirmation of precancerous state of tissue, 4-?m-thick sections of tissue were taken from paraffin-embedded wax blocks for immunohistochemical staining for EGFR. Results. All the control cases showed positive expression for EGFR, while 20% of oral leukoplakia and 40% of OSMF cases showed strong expression (3+), 40% of OL and 30% of OSMF cases showed weak expression (2+), and 40% of OLand 30% of OSMF cases showed poor expression (1+) compared to controls (P=0.012). Conclusion. EGFR expression levels in the premalignant lesion appear to be a sensitive factor in predicting the neoplastic potential. This suggests that EGFR may serve as a biological marker to identify high-risk subgroups and guide prophylactic therapy with chemopreventive drugs or surgical intervention to prevent progression to carcinoma. Hence, further investigations in the direction of chemopreventive trials with a larger sample size are suggested to determine its role in the head and neck tumorigenesis. PMID:26697149

  14. Improvement of seed yields under boron-limiting conditions through overexpression of BOR1, a boron transporter for xylem loading, in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Kyoko; Takano, Junpei; Fujiwara, Toru

    2006-06-01

    Soil fertilization is a common practice in modern agriculture, undertaken to prevent nutrient deficiency in crops. However, fertilization is costly and causes environmental pollution. The cultivation of plants that tolerate low nutrient supplies may circumvent this problem. Here, we report the generation of Arabidopsis thaliana plants that tolerate boron (B)-deficient conditions due to the overexpression of BOR1, an efflux B transporter that is required for efficient xylem loading of B. In several independently generated transgenic plants expressing BOR1 or BOR1-GFP under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA promoter, root-to-shoot translocation of B was enhanced and shoot growth was greater under B-limiting conditions compared with wild-type plants. In addition, the transgenic plants showed increased translocation of B, especially to the shoot apex, and set seed normally under B-limiting conditions, under which wild-type plants failed to set seed. This study therefore reports plants that show improved seed yields compared with wild-type under nutrient-deficient conditions as a result of increased production of an essential mineral nutrient transporter. PMID:16805739

  15. Oral Appliances for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this review was to determine the clinical effectiveness of oral appliances compared to ‘no treatment’, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), or surgery for the management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population OSA is characterized by repeated occurrences of upper airway collapse and obstruction during sleep. The condition leads to excessive daytime sleepiness, diminished quality of life, and increased risks of accidents, cardiovascular disease and death. In the general population, the prevalence of OSA is estimated to be 4% in men and 2% in women. Risk factors for OSA include obesity, male gender, increasing age, alcohol use, sedative use, and a family history of OSA. Description of Oral Appliances Oral appliances for OSA fall into two broad categories: mandibular advancement splints (MAS), also known as mandibular repositioning devices, and tongue repositioning or retaining devices. The aim of MAS devices is to advance the mandible forward slightly to enlarge the upper airway and prevent it from collapsing. Similarly, tongue repositioning devices suction the tongue forward to prevent it from falling back and obstructing the airway during sleep. The alternatives to oral appliances include continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices, surgery, drug therapy, positional devices, and lifestyle modification. CPAP is the gold standard of treatment, but despite its effectiveness, compliance rates for CPAP have declined because required systems are noisy and because wearing the mask can be uncomfortable, causing claustrophobia in some users. Evidence-Based Analysis Methods Research Questions Are oral appliances effective in improving sleep-disordered breathing in patients with OSA compared to alternative treatments? Are there safety concerns with oral appliances? What is the evidence regarding patient preference, quality of life, and compliance for oral appliances? If effective, are oral appliances cost effective? Literature Search A literature search was conducted up to February 2009. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with more than 20 adults with OSA were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcomes of interest were the Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI), measures of daytime sleepiness, patient preference, compliance, and adverse events. Summary of Findings Five systematic reviews and 16 RCTs that met the inclusion criteria were identified. The systematic reviews consistently concluded that CPAP was more effective than oral appliances at improving sleep disordered breathing, although there may be a niche area for the latter, especially among those with mild OSA as CPAP is difficult to tolerate by some users. Based on the results of the RCTs analyzed for this review, MAS devices are less effective than CPAP when AHI is used as the outcome of interest. MAS devices were shown to decrease AHI levels, but whether this reduction is clinically meaningful is uncertain. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was not able to achieve statistical significance in comparisons of MAS versus CPAP and MAS versus placebo. Nonetheless, after treatment with either MAS or CPAP, patients seem to be able to achieve normal ESS levels. The ESS has substantial limitations including its subjective nature and low construct validity (i.e. it is unclear if the scale is an accurate measure of sleepiness). Adverse events among patients with MAS devices in the RCTs were common, but mostly mild and transient. Jaw discomfort was the most commonly reported adverse event. Based on the results of the RCTs, compliance does not seem to be better or worse with MAS or CPAP. Similarly, there is no clear patient preference for MAS or CPAP among the studies reporting preference and satisfaction. Keywords Obstructive sleep apnea, oral appliances, mandibular advancement splints, tongue repositioning devices PMID:23074535

  16. Chemoprevention of oral cancer: Green tea experience

    PubMed Central

    Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi; Krishnamurthy, Arvind

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer has a well characterized progression from premalignant oral epithelial changes to invasive cancer, making oral squamous cell carcinoma an optimal disease for chemoprevention interventions prior to malignant transformation. The primary goal of chemoprevention here is to reverse, suppress, or inhibit the progression of premalignant lesions to cancer. Due to the extended duration of oral pathogenesis, its chemoprevention using natural products has been found promising due to their decreased dose and limited toxicity profiles. This review discusses with an emphasis on the clinical trials using green tea extract (GTE) in chemoprevention of oral premalignant lesions along with use of GTE as a chemopreventive agent in various other cancers as well. It is worthwhile to include green tea extract in an oral screening program for evaluating the premalignant lesions comparing the results between the treated and untreated group. Given the wide acceptance of green tea, its benefits may help in effective chemoprevention oral cancer. PMID:24678188

  17. Online analysis of single cyanobacteria and algae cells under nitrogen-limited conditions using aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cahill, John F; Darlington, Thomas K; Fitzgerald, Christine; Schoepp, Nathan G; Beld, Joris; Burkart, Michael D; Prather, Kimberly A

    2015-08-18

    Metabolomics studies typically perform measurements on populations of whole cells which provide the average representation of a collection of many cells. However, key mechanistic information can be lost using this approach. Investigating chemistry at the single cell level yields a more accurate representation of the diversity of populations within a cell sample; however, this approach has many analytical challenges. In this study, an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) was used for rapid analysis of single algae and cyanobacteria cells with diameters ranging from 1 to 8 ?m. Cells were aerosolized by nebulization and directly transmitted into the ATOFMS. Whole cells were determined to remain intact inside the instrument through a combination of particle sizing and imaging measurements. Differences in cell populations were observed after perturbing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells via nitrogen deprivation. Thousands of single cells were measured over a period of 4 days for nitrogen-replete and nitrogen-limited conditions. A comparison of the single cell mass spectra of the cells sampled under the two conditions revealed an increase in the dipalmitic acid sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), a chloroplast membrane lipid, under nitrogen-limited conditions. Single cell peak intensity distributions demonstrate the ability of the ATOFMS to measure metabolic differences of single cells. The ATOFMS provides an unprecedented maximum throughput of 50 Hz, enabling the rapid online measurement of thousands of single cell mass spectra. PMID:26237223

  18. A Comprehensive Approach to Assess Arabidopsis Survival Phenotype in Water-Limited Condition Using a Non-invasive High-Throughput Phenomics Platform.

    PubMed

    Vello, Emilio; Tomita, Akiko; Diallo, Amadou Oury; Bureau, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid rise in global population and the challenges caused by climate changes, the maximization of plant productivity and the development of sustainable agriculture strategies are vital for food security. One of the resources more affected in this new environment will be the limitation of water. In this study, we describe the use of non-invasive technologies exploiting sensors for visible, fluorescent, and near-infrared lights to accurately screen survival phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to water-limited conditions. We implemented two drought protocols and a robust analysis methodology that enabled us to clearly assess the wilting or dryness status of the plants at different time points using a phenomics platform. In conclusion, our approach has shown to be very accurate and suitable for experiments where hundred of samples have to be screened making a manual evaluation unthinkable. This approach can be used not only in functional genomics studies but also in agricultural applications. PMID:26697051

  19. A Comprehensive Approach to Assess Arabidopsis Survival Phenotype in Water-Limited Condition Using a Non-invasive High-Throughput Phenomics Platform

    PubMed Central

    Vello, Emilio; Tomita, Akiko; Diallo, Amadou Oury; Bureau, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid rise in global population and the challenges caused by climate changes, the maximization of plant productivity and the development of sustainable agriculture strategies are vital for food security. One of the resources more affected in this new environment will be the limitation of water. In this study, we describe the use of non-invasive technologies exploiting sensors for visible, fluorescent, and near-infrared lights to accurately screen survival phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to water-limited conditions. We implemented two drought protocols and a robust analysis methodology that enabled us to clearly assess the wilting or dryness status of the plants at different time points using a phenomics platform. In conclusion, our approach has shown to be very accurate and suitable for experiments where hundred of samples have to be screened making a manual evaluation unthinkable. This approach can be used not only in functional genomics studies but also in agricultural applications. PMID:26697051

  20. Effect of Fuel Composition, Engine Operating Variables, and Spark-Plug Type and Condition on Preignition-Limited Performance of an R-2800 Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfender, John F.

    1946-01-01

    The preignition characteristics of the R-2800 cylinder, as effected by fuel consumption, engine operating variables, and spark plug type and condition, were evaluated. The effects on preignition-limited performance of various percentages of aromatics (benzene, toluene, cumene, xylene) in a base fuel of triptane were investigated. Two paraffins (triptane and S + 6.0 ml TEL/gal) and two refinery blends (28-R and 33-R) were preignition rated. The effect of changes in the following engine operating variables on preignition limit was determined: inlet-air temperature, rear spark plug gasket temperature, engine speed, spark advance, tappet clearance, and oil consumption. Preignition limits of the R-2800 cylinder using Champion C34S and C35S and AC-LS86, LS87, and LS88 spark plugs were established and the effect of spark plug deterioration was investigated. No definite trends in preignition-limited indicated mean effective pressure were indicated for aromatics as a class when increased percentages of different aromatics were added to a base fuel of triptane. Three types of fuel (aromatics, paraffins, and refinery blends) showed a preignition range for this cylinder from 65 to 104 percent when based on the performance of S plus 6.0 ml TEL per gallon as 100 percent. The R-2800 cylinder is therefore relatively insensitive to fuel composition when compared to a CFR F-4 engine, which had a pre-ignition range from 72 to 100 percent for the same fuels. Six engine operating variables were investigated with the following results: preignition-limited indicated mean effective pressure decreased, with increases in engine speed, rear spark plug gasket temperature, inlet-air temperature, and spark advance beyond 20 F B.T.C. and was unaffected by rate of oil consumption or by tappet clearance. Spark plugs were rated over a range of preignition-limited indicated mean effective pressure from 200 to 390 pounds per square inch at a fuel-air ratio of 0.07 in the following order of increased resistance to preignition: AC-LS97, AC-LS88, Champion C358, AC-LS86, and Champion C34S. Spark plug deterioration in the form of cracks in the porcelain had been broken away from the center electrode and were retained in the spark plug cavity, the preignition limit was decreased as much as 57 percent. When the broken pieces had been removed, the preignition limit increased from that of the undamaged porcelain as the weight of removed porcelain was increased.

  1. OD(X/sup 2/II) and SD(X/sup 2/II) from reactions of D atoms with OCS under bulk and precursor geometry limited conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Haeusler, D.; Rice, J.; Wittig, C.

    1987-10-08

    Reactions of D atoms with OCS were studied by 193-nm pulsed laser photolysis of DBr as a nearly monoenergetic D-atom source. Nascent OD(X/sup 2/II) and SD(X/sup 2/II) rotational, vibrational, spin-orbit, and ..lambda..-doublet populations were obtained under single-collision bulk conditions at 300 K. The SD channel is favored energetically (..delta.. H = -43 +/- 13 and 230 +/- 13 kJ mol/sup -1/ for the SD and OD channels, respectively) and is the dominant pathway ((SD)/(OD) = 5 +/- 2). Nascent OD(X/sup 2/II) products were also obtained from a precursor geometry limited (PGL) reaction by using the weakly bound van der Waals complex SCO-DBr. The OD(X/sup 2/II) rotational distributions are the same for both bulk and PGL conditions and can be reproduced by using a statistical model. Due to experimental difficulties, SD(X/sup 2/II) distributions could not be obtained under PGL conditions. The SD(X/sup 2/II) distribution obtained under bulk conditions is very nonstatistical, suggesting that this species is not formed via a long-lived DSCO intermediate complex in which vibrational energy is randomized.

  2. Controls on dissolved organic matter (DOM) degradation in a headwater stream: the influence of photochemical and hydrological conditions in determining light-limitation or substrate-limitation of photo-degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cory, R. M.; Harrold, K. H.; Neilson, B. T.; Kling, G. W.

    2015-11-01

    We investigated how absorption of sunlight by chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) controls the degradation and export of DOM from Imnavait Creek, a beaded stream in the Alaskan Arctic. We measured concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), as well as concentrations and characteristics of CDOM and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM), during ice-free periods of 2011-2012 in the pools of Imnavait Creek and in soil waters draining to the creek. Spatial and temporal patterns in CDOM and FDOM in Imnavait Creek were analyzed in conjunction with measures of DOM degradation by sunlight and bacteria and assessments of hydrologic residence times and in situ UV exposure. CDOM was the dominant light attenuating constituent in the UV and visible portion of the solar spectrum, with high attenuation coefficients ranging from 86 ± 12 m-1 at 305 nm to 3 ± 1 m-1 in the photosynthetically active region (PAR). High rates of light absorption and thus light attenuation by CDOM contributed to thermal stratification in the majority of pools in Imnavait Creek under low-flow conditions. In turn, thermal stratification increased the residence time of water and DOM, and resulted in a separation of water masses distinguished by contrasting UV exposure (i.e., UV attenuation by CDOM with depth resulted in bottom waters receiving less UV than surface waters). When the pools in Imnavait Creek were stratified, DOM in the pool bottom water closely resembled soil water DOM in character, while the concentration and character of DOM in surface water was reproduced by experimental photo-degradation of bottom water. These results, in combination with water column rates of DOM degradation by sunlight and bacteria, suggest that photo-degradation is the dominant process controlling DOM fate and export in Imnavait Creek. A conceptual model is presented showing how CDOM amount and lability interact with incident UV light and water residence time to determine whether photo-degradation is "light-limited" or "substrate-limited". We suggest that degradation of DOM in CDOM-rich streams or ponds similar to Imnavait is typically light-limited under most flow conditions. Thus, export of DOM from this stream will be less under conditions that increase the light available for DOM photo-degradation (i.e., low flows, sunny days).

  3. Oral Sex, Oral Health and Orogenital Infections

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Rajiv; Saini, Santosh; Sharma, Sugandha

    2010-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:20300419

  4. Oral medicine and the ageing population.

    PubMed

    Yap, T; McCullough, M

    2015-03-01

    The oral cavity is subject to age related processes such as cellular ageing and immunosenescence. The ageing population bears an increased burden of intraoral pathology. In oral medicine, the majority of presenting patients are in their fifth to seventh decade of life. In this review, we discuss the ageing population's susceptibility to mucosal disorders and the increased prevalence of potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma, as well as dermatoses including oral lichen planus and immunobullous conditions. We also address the ageing population's susceptibility to oral discomfort and explore salivary secretion, ulceration and the symptoms of oral burning. Finally, we will describe orofacial pain conditions which are more likely encountered in an older population. This update highlights clinical presentations which are more likely to be encountered in the ageing population in a general practice setting and the importance of screening both new and long-term patients. PMID:25762041

  5. Mechanism of Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiation of 1,4-Bis(trifluoromethyl)benzene under Nonequilibrium Conditions: Condition-Dependent Rate Limitation and Lithium Chloride-Catalyzed Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun; Hoepker, Alexander C; Algera, Russell F; Ma, Yun; Collum, David B

    2015-05-20

    Lithiation of 1,4-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzene with lithium diisopropylamide in tetrahydrofuran at -78 °C occurs under conditions at which the rates of aggregate exchanges are comparable to the rates of metalation. Under such nonequilibrium conditions, a substantial number of barriers compete to be rate limiting, making the reaction sensitive to trace impurities (LiCl), reactant concentrations, and isotopic substitution. Rate studies using the perdeuterated arene reveal odd effects of LiCl, including catalyzed rate acceleration at lower temperature and catalyzed rate inhibition at higher temperatures. The catalytic effects are accompanied by corresponding changes in the rate law. A kinetic model is presented that captures the critical features of the LiCl catalysis, focusing on the influence of LiCl-catalyzed re-aggregation of the fleeting monomer that can reside above, at, or below the equilibrium population without catalyst. PMID:25900574

  6. Burden of poor oral health in older age: findings from a population-based study of older British men

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, S E; Whincup, P H; Watt, R G; Tsakos, G; Papacosta, A O; Lennon, L T; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Evidence of the extent of poor oral health in the older UK adult population is limited. We describe the prevalence of oral health conditions, using objective clinical and subjective measures, in a population-based study of older men. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting and participants A representative sample of men aged 71–92 years in 2010–2012 from the British Regional Heart Study, initially recruited in 1978–1980 from general practices across Britain. Physical examination among 1660 men included the number of teeth, and periodontal disease in index teeth in each sextant (loss of attachment, periodontal pocket, gingival bleeding). Postal questionnaires (completed by 2147 men including all participants who were clinically examined) included self-rated oral health, oral impacts on daily life and current perception of dry mouth experience. Results Among 1660 men clinically examined, 338 (20%) were edentulous and a further 728 (43%) had <21 teeth. For periodontal disease, 233 (19%) had loss of attachment (>5.5 mm) affecting 1–20% of sites while 303 (24%) had >20% sites affected. The prevalence of gingival bleeding was 16%. Among 2147 men who returned postal questionnaires, 35% reported fair/poor oral health; 11% reported difficulty eating due to oral health problems. 31% reported 1–2 symptoms of dry mouth and 20% reported 3–5 symptoms of dry mouth. The prevalence of edentulism, loss of attachment, or fair/poor self-rated oral health was greater in those from manual social class. Conclusions These findings highlight the high burden of poor oral health in older British men. This was reflected in both the objective clinical and subjective measures of oral health conditions. The determinants of these oral health problems in older populations merit further research to reduce the burden and consequences of poor oral health in older people. PMID:26715480

  7. Improvement of skin condition by oral supplementation with sphingomyelin-containing milk phospholipids in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Higurashi, S; Haruta-Ono, Y; Urazono, H; Kobayashi, T; Kadooka, Y

    2015-10-01

    Sphingomyelin (SM), an essential phospholipid for the skin, is contained largely in the milk fat globule membrane surrounding milk fat, concentrated fractions of which are also generated concurrently during the manufacture of dairy products. Such an SM-containing milk phospholipid concentrate (SM-MPC) is useful for investigating the benefits of dietary SM. Here, we examined the effect of consuming SM-MPC on the condition of skin in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Ninety-six healthy subjects aged 20 to 39 yr with low skin hydration were randomly assigned to 3 groups: a high-SM group supplemented with SM-MPC at a dose equivalent to 10 mg/d of SM, a low-SM group supplemented with SM-MPC equivalent to 5 mg/d of SM, and a placebo group fed a vehicle composed of olive oil and beeswax. During daily supplementation for 12 wk, parameters related to the condition of skin were evaluated at baseline and every 3 wk. Skin hydration at the heel was significantly increased at wk 9 and 12 in the low-SM group compared with the placebo group. Skin elasticity in the region below the eye was significantly increased at wk 9 in the high-SM group versus placebo. Questionnaire-based subjective perceptions of skin conditions were significantly improved for facial skin moisture at wk 3 and 12, and in the wrinkle around the eyes at wk 9 and 12 in the high-SM group versus placebo. Our results indicate that constant and long-term supplementation with SM-MPC is capable of improving the general condition of skin. PMID:26277314

  8. Flux Analysis of the Metabolism of Clostridium cellulolyticum Grown in Cellulose-Fed Continuous Culture on a Chemically Defined Medium under Ammonium-Limited Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Desvaux, Mickaël; Petitdemange, Henri

    2001-01-01

    An investigation of cellulose degradation by the nonruminal, cellulolytic, mesophilic bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum was performed in cellulose-fed chemostat cultures with ammonium as the growth-limiting nutrient. At any dilution rate (D), acetate was always the main product of the catabolism, with a yield of product from substrate ranging between 37.7 and 51.5 g per mol of hexose equivalent fermented and an acetate/ethanol ratio always higher than 1. As D rose, the acetyl coenzyme A was rerouted in favor of ethanol pathways, and ethanol production could represent up to 17.7% of the carbon consumed. Lactate was significantly produced, but with increasing D, the specific lactate production rate declined, as did the specific rate of production of extracellular pyruvate. The proportion of the original carbon directed towards phosphoglucomutase remained constant, and the carbon surplus was balanced mainly by exopolysaccharide and glycogen biosyntheses at high D values, while cellodextrin excretion occurred mainly at lower ones. With increasing D, the specific rate of carbon flowing down catabolites increased as well, but when expressed as a percentage of carbon it declined, while the percentage of carbon directed through biosynthesis pathways was enhanced. The maximum growth and energetic yields were lower than those obtained in cellulose-limited chemostats and were related to an uncoupling between catabolism and anabolism leading to an excess of energy. Compared to growth on cellobiose in ammonium-limited chemostats (E. Guedon, M. Desvaux, and H. Petitdemange, J. Bacteriol. 182:2010–2017, 2000), (i) a specific consumption rate of carbon of as high as 26.72 mmol of hexose equivalent g of cells?1 h?1 could not be reached and (ii) the proportions of carbon directed towards cellodextrin, glycogen, and exopolysaccharide pathways were not as high as first determined on cellobiose. While the use of cellobiose allows highlighting of metabolic limitation and regulation of C. cellulolyticum under ammonium-limited conditions, some of these events should then rather be interpreted as distortions of the metabolism. Growth of cellulolytic bacteria on easily available carbon and nitrogen sources represents conditions far different from those of the natural lignocellulosic compounds. PMID:11525976

  9. Characterization of three main degradation products from novel oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban under stress conditions by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wingert, Nathalie R; Dos Santos, Natália O; Nunes, Matheus A G; Gomes, Patrícia; Müller, Edson I; Flores, Érico M M; Steppe, Martin

    2016-05-10

    Drugs of long-term use may cause the accumulation of chemical compounds in human body. Therefore, the evaluation and structure characterization of synthesis and degradation impurities is substantial to guarantee drug safety and successful pharmaceutical therapy. The present work evaluated the anticoagulant rivaroxabana (RIV) under stress conditions in order to elucidate the chemical structure of major degradation products (DPs) formed after drug exposition to acid and alkaline hydrolysis, and UVC radiation. Analyses were performed in UPLC coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight MS. ESI was applied in positive mode, and C18 Agilent(®) column (2.1×50mm, 1.8μm) used for separation of compounds. RIV molecular íon [M+H](+) (m/z 436.07) was fragmented under 20kV, best energetic condition to obtain clear and reproducible fragmentation pattern, assisting identification of RIV DPs. With support from UPLC separation and specific detection by MS/MS, three main degradation products (DP-1, DP-2, and DP-3) formed under stress conditions were successfully characterized. Presented study agrees with requirements for analytical assessment of impurities in pharmaceutical formulations, ensuring quality of pharmaceutical substances. PMID:26855380

  10. Phycobilisome-Deficient Strains of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Have Reduced Size and Require Carbon-Limiting Conditions to Exhibit Enhanced Productivity1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lea-Smith, David J.; Bombelli, Paolo; Dennis, John S.; Scott, Stuart A.; Smith, Alison G.; Howe, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing excessive light harvesting in photosynthetic organisms may increase biomass yields by limiting photoinhibition and increasing light penetration in dense cultures. The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 harvests light via the phycobilisome, which consists of an allophycocyanin core and six radiating rods, each with three phycocyanin (PC) discs. Via targeted gene disruption and alterations to the promoter region, three mutants with two (pcpcT?C) and one (?CpcC1C2:pcpcT?C) PC discs per rod or lacking PC (olive) were generated. Photoinhibition and chlorophyll levels decreased upon phycobilisome reduction, although greater penetration of white light was observed only in the PC-deficient mutant. In all strains cultured at high cell densities, most light was absorbed by the first 2 cm of the culture. Photosynthesis and respiration rates were also reduced in the ?CpcC1C2:pcpcT?C and olive mutants. Cell size was smaller in the pcpcT?C and olive strains. Growth and biomass accumulation were similar between the wild-type and pcpcT?C under a variety of conditions. Growth and biomass accumulation of the olive mutant were poorer in carbon-saturated cultures but improved in carbon-limited cultures at higher light intensities, as they did in the ?CpcC1C2:pcpcT?C mutant. This study shows that one PC disc per rod is sufficient for maximal light harvesting and biomass accumulation, except under conditions of high light and carbon limitation, and two or more are sufficient for maximal oxygen evolution. To our knowledge, this study is the first to measure light penetration in bulk cultures of cyanobacteria and offers important insights into photobioreactor design. PMID:24760817

  11. Phycobilisome-Deficient Strains of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Have Reduced Size and Require Carbon-Limiting Conditions to Exhibit Enhanced Productivity.

    PubMed

    Lea-Smith, David J; Bombelli, Paolo; Dennis, John S; Scott, Stuart A; Smith, Alison G; Howe, Christopher J

    2014-04-23

    Reducing excessive light harvesting in photosynthetic organisms may increase biomass yields by limiting photoinhibition and increasing light penetration in dense cultures. The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 harvests light via the phycobilisome, which consists of an allophycocyanin core and six radiating rods, each with three phycocyanin (PC) discs. Via targeted gene disruption and alterations to the promoter region, three mutants with two (pcpcT?C) and one (?CpcC1C2:pcpcT?C) PC discs per rod or lacking PC (olive) were generated. Photoinhibition and chlorophyll levels decreased upon phycobilisome reduction, although greater penetration of white light was observed only in the PC-deficient mutant. In all strains cultured at high cell densities, most light was absorbed by the first 2 cm of the culture. Photosynthesis and respiration rates were also reduced in the ?CpcC1C2:pcpcT?C and olive mutants. Cell size was smaller in the pcpcT?C and olive strains. Growth and biomass accumulation were similar between the wild-type and pcpcT?C under a variety of conditions. Growth and biomass accumulation of the olive mutant were poorer in carbon-saturated cultures but improved in carbon-limited cultures at higher light intensities, as they did in the ?CpcC1C2:pcpcT?C mutant. This study shows that one PC disc per rod is sufficient for maximal light harvesting and biomass accumulation, except under conditions of high light and carbon limitation, and two or more are sufficient for maximal oxygen evolution. To our knowledge, this study is the first to measure light penetration in bulk cultures of cyanobacteria and offers important insights into photobioreactor design. PMID:24760817

  12. EXPERTS 1—experiences of long-term life-limiting conditions among patients and carers: protocol for a qualitative meta-synthesis and conceptual modelling study

    PubMed Central

    May, Carl R; Masters, Jayne; Welch, Lindsay; Hunt, Katherine; Pope, Catherine; Myall, Michelle; Griffiths, Peter; Roderick, Paul; Glanville, Julie; Richardson, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Increasing numbers of the population are living with long-term life-limiting conditions with a significant proportion characterised by multimorbidity. Patients with these conditions often experience high volumes of clinical interaction involving them, their caregivers and healthcare providers in complex patterns of organising, coordinating, negotiating and managing care. A better understanding of the sources of experienced complexity and multimorbidity, from the patient perspective is paramount to improve capacity and manage workload to promote improved experience of illness, more effective healthcare utilisation and improved healthcare outcomes. To better understand the sources of complexity we will undertake an evidence synthesis of qualitative studies of patient and informal carer experiences of three common long-term life-limiting conditions. We will investigate what is known about these diseases at different stages in disease progression, treatment regimens and places of care. Method and analysis We will include qualitative studies of patients’ and carers’ (aged >18) accounts of their experiences of healthcare provision in a range of settings and healthcare systems. We will conduct an extensive electronic database search of publications in English between 2000 and 2014. Results and discussions sections of the papers will be regarded as formal data using the constant comparison method of qualitative analysis. From the meta-synthesis results, we will build a conceptual model of mechanisms and processes that shape patients’ journeys towards end of life to suggest where in the patient journey new interventions to improve patient and carer experience can be developed and delivered. The study is being conducted between 1 December 2014 and 31 December 2015. Ethics and dissemination No human subjects or personal data are involved and no ethical issues are anticipated. An important element of dissemination is informing user communities about the practical implications of the work through workshops, meetings and social media. Scientific results will be published in peer reviewed journals and disseminated through conferences. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42014014547. PMID:25838511

  13. Controls on dissolved organic matter (DOM) degradation in a headwater stream: the influence of photochemical and hydrological conditions in determining light-limitation or substrate-limitation of photo-degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cory, R. M.; Harrold, K. H.; Neilson, B. T.; Kling, G. W.

    2015-07-01

    We investigated how absorption of sunlight by chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) controls the degradation and export of DOM from Imnavait Creek, a beaded stream in the Alaskan Arctic. We measured concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), as well as concentrations and characteristics of CDOM and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM), during ice-free periods of 2011-2012 in the pools of Imnavait Creek and in soil waters draining to the creek. Spatial and temporal patterns in CDOM and FDOM in Imnavait Creek were analyzed in conjunction with measures of DOM degradation by sunlight and bacteria and assessments of hydrologic residence times and in situ UV exposure. CDOM was the dominant light attenuating constituent in the UV and visible portion of the solar spectrum, with high attenuation coefficients ranging from 86 ± 12 m-1 at 305 nm to 3 ± 1 m-1 in the photosynthetically active region (PAR). High rates of light absorption and thus light attenuation by CDOM contributed to thermal stratification in the majority of pools in Imnavait Creek under low-flow conditions. In turn, thermal stratification increased the residence time of water and DOM, and resulted in a separation of water masses distinguished by contrasting UV exposure (i.e., UV attenuation by CDOM with depth resulted in bottom waters receiving less UV than surface waters). When the pools in Imnavait Creek were stratified, DOM in the pool bottom water closely resembled soil water DOM in character, while the concentration and character of DOM in surface water was reproduced by experimental photo-degradation of bottom water. These results, in combination with water column rates of DOM degradation by sunlight and bacteria, suggest that photo-degradation is the dominant process controlling DOM fate and export in Imnavait Creek. A conceptual model is presented showing how CDOM amount and lability interact with incident UV light and water residence time to determine whether photo-degradation is "light-limited" or "substrate-limited". We suggest that degradation, and thus export, of DOM in CDOM-rich streams or ponds similar to Imnavait is typically light-limited under most flow conditions.

  14. In Vitro Activity of Miltefosine against Candida albicans under Planktonic and Biofilm Growth Conditions and In Vivo Efficacy in a Murine Model of Oral Candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Vila, Taissa Vieira Machado; Chaturvedi, Ashok K; Rozental, Sonia; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L

    2015-12-01

    The generation of a new antifungal against Candida albicans biofilms has become a major priority, since biofilm formation by this opportunistic pathogenic fungus is usually associated with an increased resistance to azole antifungal drugs and treatment failures. Miltefosine is an alkyl phospholipid with promising antifungal activity. Here, we report that, when tested under planktonic conditions, miltefosine displays potent in vitro activity against multiple fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant C. albicans clinical isolates, including isolates overexpressing efflux pumps and/or with well-characterized Erg11 mutations. Moreover, miltefosine inhibits C. albicans biofilm formation and displays activity against preformed biofilms. Serial passage experiments confirmed that miltefosine has a reduced potential to elicit resistance, and screening of a library of C. albicans transcription factor mutants provided additional insight into the activity of miltefosine against C. albicans growing under planktonic and biofilm conditions. Finally, we demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of topical treatment with miltefosine in the murine model of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Overall, our results confirm the potential of miltefosine as a promising antifungal drug candidate, in particular for the treatment of azole-resistant and biofilm-associated superficial candidiasis. PMID:26416861

  15. Impact of sea-level rise on cross-shore sediment transport on fetch-limited barrier reef island beaches under modal and cyclonic conditions.

    PubMed

    Baldock, T E; Golshani, A; Atkinson, A; Shimamoto, T; Wu, S; Callaghan, D P; Mumby, P J

    2015-08-15

    A one-dimensional wave model is combined with an analytical sediment transport model to investigate the likely influence of sea-level rise on net cross-shore sediment transport on fetch-limited barrier reef and lagoon island beaches. The modelling considers if changes in the nearshore wave height and wave period in the lagoon induced by different water levels over the reef flat are likely to lead to net offshore or onshore movement of sediment. The results indicate that the effects of SLR on net sediment movement are highly variable and controlled by the bathymetry of the reef and lagoon. A significant range of reef-lagoon bathymetry, and notably shallow and narrow reefs, appears to lead hydrodynamic conditions and beaches that are likely to be stable or even accrete under SLR. Loss of reef structural complexity, particularly on the reef flat, increases the chance of sediment transport away from beaches and offshore. PMID:26093817

  16. Microwave-Assisted Superheating and/or Microwave-Specific Superboiling (Nucleation-Limited Boiling) of Liquids Occurs under Certain Conditions but is Mitigated by Stirring.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Anthony; Hunt, Jacob; Stiegman, Albert; Dudley, Gregory B

    2015-01-01

    Temporary superheating and sustained nucleation-limited "superboiling" of unstirred liquids above the normal atmospheric boiling point have been documented during microwave heating. These phenomena are reliably observed under prescribed conditions, although the duration (of superheating) and magnitude (of superheating and superboiling) vary according to system parameters such as volume of the liquid and the size and shape of the vessel. Both phenomena are mitigated by rapid stirring with an appropriate stir bar and/or with the addition of boiling chips, which provide nucleation sites to support the phase-change from liquid to gas. With proper experimental design and especially proper stirring, the measured temperature of typical organic reaction mixtures heated at reflux will be close to the normal boiling point temperature of the solvent, whether heated using microwave radiation or conventional convective heat transfer. These observations are important to take into consideration when comparing reaction rates under conventional and microwave heating. PMID:26690096

  17. Labetalol Oral

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a class of medications called beta blockers. It works by relaxing blood vessels and slowing heart rate to improve blood flow and decrease blood pressure.High blood pressure is a common condition and ...

  18. Minoxidil Oral

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in a class of medications called vasodilators. It works by relaxing the blood vessels so that blood can flow more easily through the body.High blood pressure is a common condition and when not treated, ...

  19. Dantrolene Oral

    MedlinePLUS

    ... associated with spinal cord injuries, stroke, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, or other conditions.This medication is sometimes prescribed ... Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by ...

  20. Nateglinide Oral

    MedlinePLUS

    ... condition in which the body does not use insulin normally and therefore cannot control the amount of ... of glucose by stimulating the pancreas to release insulin.Over time, people who have diabetes and high ...

  1. Zidovudine Oral

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to the liver and a blood condition called lactic acidosis.Call your doctor immediately if you experience ... interferon, lorazepam (Ativan), oxazepam (Serax), probenecid (Benemid), valproic acid (Depakene, Depakote), and vitamins.tell your doctor if ...

  2. 28 CFR 80.9 - No oral opinion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false No oral opinion. 80.9 Section 80.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.9 No oral opinion. No oral clearance, release or other statement purporting to limit...

  3. 28 CFR 80.9 - No oral opinion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false No oral opinion. 80.9 Section 80.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.9 No oral opinion. No oral clearance, release or other statement purporting to limit...

  4. 28 CFR 80.9 - No oral opinion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false No oral opinion. 80.9 Section 80.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.9 No oral opinion. No oral clearance, release or other statement purporting to limit...

  5. 28 CFR 80.9 - No oral opinion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false No oral opinion. 80.9 Section 80.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.9 No oral opinion. No oral clearance, release or other statement purporting to limit...

  6. 28 CFR 80.9 - No oral opinion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false No oral opinion. 80.9 Section 80.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.9 No oral opinion. No oral clearance, release or other statement purporting to limit...

  7. The Chemolithoautotroph Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans Can Survive under Phosphate-Limiting Conditions by Expressing a C-P Lyase Operon That Allows It To Grow on Phosphonates? †

    PubMed Central

    Vera, Mario; Pagliai, Fernando; Guiliani, Nicolas; Jerez, Carlos A.

    2008-01-01

    The chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is of great importance in biomining operations. During the bioleaching of ores, microorganisms are subjected to a variety of environmental stresses and to the limitations of some nutrients, such as inorganic phosphate (Pi), which is an essential component for all living cells. Although the primary source of phosphorus for microorganisms is Pi, some bacteria are also able to metabolize Pi esters (with a C-O-P bond) and phosphonates (with a very inert C-P bond). By using bioinformatic analysis of genomic sequences of the type strain of A. ferrooxidans (ATCC 23270), we found that as part of a Pho regulon, this bacterium has a complete gene cluster encoding C-P lyase, which is the main bacterial enzyme involved in phosphonate (Pn) degradation in other microorganisms. A. ferrooxidans was able to grow in the presence of methyl-Pn or ethyl-Pn as an alternative phosphorus source. Under these growth conditions, a great reduction in inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) levels was seen compared with the level for cells grown in the presence of Pi. By means of reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), DNA macroarrays, and real-time RT-PCR experiments, it was found that A. ferrooxidans phn genes were cotranscribed and their expression was induced when the microorganism was grown in methyl-Pn as the only phosphorus source. This is the first report of phosphonate utilization in a chemolithoautotrophic microorganism. The existence of a functional C-P lyase system is a clear advantage for the survival under Pi limitation, a condition that may greatly affect the bioleaching of ores. PMID:18203861

  8. Understanding Oral Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, W. Jay

    2012-01-01

    A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral…

  9. Functional Characterization of the Rice UDP-glucose 4-epimerase 1, OsUGE1: A Potential Role in Cell Wall Carbohydrate Partitioning during Limiting Nitrogen Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Guevara, David R.; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Yaish, Mahmoud W.; Mei-Bi, Yong; Rothstein, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Plants grown under inadequate mineralized nitrogen (N) levels undergo N and carbon (C) metabolic re-programming which leads to significant changes in both soluble and insoluble carbohydrate profiles. However, relatively little information is available on the genetic factors controlling carbohydrate partitioning during adaptation to N-limitation conditions in plants. A gene encoding a uridine-diphospho-(UDP)-glucose 4-epimerase (OsUGE-1) from rice (Oryza sativa) was found to be N-responsive. We developed transgenic rice plants to constitutively over-express the OsUGE-1 gene (OsUGE1-OX1–2). The transgenic rice lines were similar in size to wild-type plants at the vegetative stage and at maturity regardless of the N-level tested. However, OsUGE1-OX lines maintained 18–24% more sucrose and 12–22% less cellulose in shoots compared to wild-type when subjected to sub-optimal N-levels. Interestingly, OsUGE1-OX lines maintained proportionally more galactose and glucose in the hemicellulosic polysaccharide profile of plants compared to wild-type plants when grown under low N. The altered cell wall C-partitioning during N-limitation in the OsUGE1-OX lines appears to be mediated by OsUGE1 via the repression of the cellulose synthesis associated genes, OsSus1, OsCesA4, 7, and 9. This relationship may implicate a novel control point for the deposition of UDP-glucose to the complex polysaccharide profiles of rice cell walls. However, a direct relationship between OsUGE1 and cell wall C-partitioning during N-limitation requires further investigation. PMID:24788752

  10. Oral cobalamin remains medicine's best kept secret.

    PubMed

    Graham, Ian D; Jette, Nathalie; Tetroe, Jacqueline; Robinson, Nicole; Milne, Sarah; Mitchell, Susan L

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in order to describe the use of oral cobalamin among geriatricians, hematologists, and general practitioners, and to explore factors related to its use. The study population consisted of all geriatricians (n = 138) and hematologists (n = 317) listed in the Canadian Medical Directory plus a random sample of 307 general practitioners. The overall response rate was 40%. Intramuscular and oral cobalamin was prescribed by 76 and 32% of the respondents, respectively. Twenty seven percent reported using both oral and intramuscular cobalamin and 6% reported using only oral cobalamin. Only 25% of respondents indicated they were aware of a RCT demonstrating the efficacy of oral cobalamin prior to reading a synopsis of the study in the survey. After multivariate adjustment, only the belief that oral cobalamin was effective and certainty about who carried oral preparations remained independently associated with oral cobalamin use. Oral cobalamin has been shown to be an efficacious, cost efficient and safe method of treating cobalamin deficiency. Nonetheless, it is not used by the majority of physicians treating this condition. Strategies to promote the use of oral cobalamin should be directed at educating physicians of its efficacy and providing them with prescribing information on where it can be purchased. PMID:16672168

  11. On the effects of assembly compression on the performance of liquid-feed DMFCs under methanol-limiting conditions: A 2D numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Salaberri, P. A.; Vera, M.

    2015-07-01

    The influence of assembly compression on the performance of liquid-feed DMFCs under methanol-limiting conditions is explored by means of a 2D/1D multiphysics across-the-channel model. The numerical formulation incorporates a comprehensive 2D description of the anode GDL, including two-phase phenomena, non-uniform anisotropic transport properties, and electrical contact resistances at the GDL/BPP interface. GDL effective properties are evaluated using empirical data corresponding to Toray® carbon paper. A simplified but physically sound 1D description, locally coupled to the 2D anode GDL model, is adopted to describe transport processes in the MPLs, membrane and cathode GDL, whereas the catalyst layers are treated as infinitely thin surfaces. Good agreement is found between the numerical results and previous experimental data. The interplay between assembly compression, bipolar plate material, and channel configuration is also investigated. The results show that there is an optimum GDL compression ratio in terms of overall power density, the optimal compression level being strongly dependent on bipolar plate material. Beyond the optimum, the detrimental effect of compression is larger in non-parallel flow fields due to the additional reduction of methanol transported by under-rib convection. The results suggest that, under certain conditions, this transport mechanism could be more important than diffusion in the anode of liquid-feed DMFCs.

  12. Bacterial Growth Stimulation with Exogenous Siderophore and Synthetic N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone Autoinducers under Iron-Limited and Low-Nutrient Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Le Luo; Onuki, Hiroyuki; Kamino, Kei

    2000-01-01

    The growth of marine bacteria under iron-limited conditions was investigated. Neither siderophore production nor bacterial growth was detected for Pelagiobacter sp. strain V0110 when Fe(III) was present in the culture medium at a concentration of <1.0 ?M. However, the growth of V0110 was strongly stimulated by the presence of trace amounts of exogenous siderophore from an alpha proteobacterium, V0902, and 1 nM N-acyl-octanoylhomoserine lactone (C8-HSL), which is known as a quorum-sensing chemical signal. Even though the iron-binding functionality of a hydroxamate siderophore was undetected in the supernatant of V0902, a hydroxamate siderophore was detected in the supernatant of V0110 under the above conditions. These results indicated that hydroxamate siderophore biosynthesis by V0110 began in response to the exogenous siderophore from V0902 when in the presence of C8-HSL; however, C8-HSL production by V0110 and V0902 was not detected. Direct interaction between V0902 and V0110 through siderophore from V0902 was observed in the dialyzing culture. Similar stimulated growth by exogenous siderophore and HSL was also observed in other non-siderophore-producing bacteria isolated from marine sponges and seawater. The requirement of an exogenous siderophore and an HSL for heterologous siderophore production indicated the possibility that cell-cell communication between different species was occurring. PMID:10877770

  13. Intracellular aspartic proteinase Apr1p of Candida albicans is required for morphological transition under nitrogen-limited conditions but not for macrophage killing.

    PubMed

    Bauerová, Václava; Hájek, Miroslav; Pichová, Iva; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga

    2014-11-01

    Vacuolar hydrolases have been thoroughly characterized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but their homologues in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans have received less attention. The genes APR1 and CPY1 of C. albicans encode putative vacuolar aspartic proteinase and serine carboxypeptidase, respectively. We examined properties of apr1? and cpy1? mutants, showing that Cpy1p molecular species detected in cell lysates of apr1? and its parental strain did not differ in molar mass. Processing of Cpy1p precursor is apparently independent of Apr1p. This is in contrast to S. cerevisiae, where vacuolar aspartic proteinase Pep4p is known to participate in the activation of other vacuolar hydrolases including serine carboxypeptidase. We also found that both apr1? and cpy1? strains are able to form hyphae in nutrient-rich filamentation media. However, proline as a sole nitrogen source induced filamentation only in cpy1? and its parental strain, but not in apr1?. This indicates the importance of Apr1p for the morphological transition under nitrogen-limited conditions. Despite that, the ability of apr1? to kill murine macrophages was not reduced under the conditions tested. PMID:24880249

  14. Oral cavity and leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Pallagatti, Shambulingappa; Sheikh, Soheyl; Kaur, Anupreet; Aggarwal, Amit; Singh, Ravinder

    2012-01-01

    Although leprosy involves the oral cavity in up to 60% of the patients, examination of the oral cavity in leprosy clinics or oral health science clinics is often neglected. Oral involvement in leprosy can broadly be divided into non-specific and specific lesions. In this review, we discuss various oral manifestations in leprosy patients so as to increase the awareness about this aspect among dermatologists and dental surgeons. PMID:23130281

  15. Strengthening of oral health systems: oral health through primary health care.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    Around the globe many people are suffering from oral pain and other problems of the mouth or teeth. This public health problem is growing rapidly in developing countries where oral health services are limited. Significant proportions of people are underserved; insufficient oral health care is either due to low availability and accessibility of oral health care or because oral health care is costly. In all countries, the poor and disadvantaged population groups are heavily affected by a high burden of oral disease compared to well-off people. Promotion of oral health and prevention of oral diseases must be provided through financially fair primary health care and public health intervention. Integrated approaches are the most cost-effective and realistic way to close the gap in oral health between rich and poor. The World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Programme will work with the newly established WHO Collaborating Centre, Kuwait University, to strengthen the development of appropriate models for primary oral health care. PMID:24525450

  16. [Monitoring options and reversal agents for oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Thorup, Stine Borch; Husted, Steen Elkjær; Vang, Marianne Lauridsen

    2014-04-28

    The approval of the oral direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatranetexilat and the oral factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban and apixaban as thromboprophylaxis challenges the position of the vitamin K antagonists (VKA). Predictable pharmacodynamics gives the new oral anticoagulants an advantageous profile. Unlike VKAs there is no specific reversal agent available for the new oral anticoagulants. Experience with haemostatic products for the emergency management of critical bleeding caused by these agents is limited. PMID:25096568

  17. Oral and craniofacial manifestations of multiple sclerosis: implications for the oral health care provider.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G-Q; Meng, Y

    2015-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a complex neurological condition affecting sensory and motor nerve transmission. Its progression and symptoms are unpredictable and vary from person to person as well as over time. Symptoms of orofacial pain, trigeminal neuralgia, spasticity, spasms, tremor, fatigue, depression and progressive disability, impact on the individual's ability to maintain oral health, cope with dental treatment and access dental services. Also, many of the medications used in the symptomatic management of the condition have the potential to cause dry mouth and associated oral disease. There is no cure for multiple sclerosis, and treatment focuses on prevention of disability and maintenance of quality of life. The oral health care team plays an essential role in ensuring that oral health impacts positively on general health. This review highlights the epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, oral and craniofacial manifestations and their management, and oral health care considerations in patients with MS. PMID:26698259

  18. Oral Cysticercosis- A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Palakurthy, Pavan; Muddana, Keerthi; Nandan, Rateesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cysticercosis, a helminthic disease commonly seen in India, Latin America, Eastern Europe and Southern Africa, results from extraintestinal encystation of the larval form of Taenia solium. It is a condition in which man acts as intermediate host instead of definitive host. The most frequent sites of cysticercosis are subcutaneous layers, brain, muscles, heart, liver, lungs, and peritoneum. Oral cysticercosis is considered rare and cause cystic swellings or nodules in the mouth and a precise clinical diagnosis is not usually established. Here, we report a case of oral cysticercosis in a 32-year-old female occurring in the mentalis muscle presenting as asymptomatic nodule. PMID:26266222

  19. Protein expression and transcription profiles of three strains of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida under normal and iron-limited culture conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aeromonas salmonicida is an important fish pathogen that produces a wide and varied array of virulence factors. Here we used iron deprivation by addition of the chelator 2’2-dipyridyl to induce the expression of several such virulence factors in three isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida (one avirulent and two virulent). By using SDS-PAGE followed by mass spectrometry, we identified proteins that appeared differentially expressed under these conditions. The differential transcription of the identified gene products were subsequently measured by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Results Our initial screening using SDS-PAGE identified five proteins that appeared differentially expressed in virulent and avirulent isolates or, within the same isolates, between bacteria cultivated under iron-rich or iron-deprived conditions. The transcription of the genes coding for these proteins were subsequently quantified by RT-qPCR. Results of this analysis demonstrated that the gene coding for alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC), a protein involved in oxidative stress response, was transcribed at a higher rate in the virulent strain as compared to the avirulent strain. Additionally, it was observed that addition of an iron chelator to the culture medium lead to a reduction of the transcription levels of the regulatory histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS). This was consistent in all three isolates. On the other hand, the transcription levels of the virulence array protein (VapA) and the protein ATP-synthetase F (ATPF) displayed only limited changes, despite being the dominant component of a protein fraction that displayed changes during the preliminary SDS-PAGE screening. This was true regardless of the culture conditions and of the isolates considered. Finally, transcription of the enzyme enolase was upregulated in the iron-deprived broths in all isolates. Conclusions We identified several genes differentially expressed under culture conditions known to lead to the overexpression of virulence factors. In addition, we identified alkyl hydroperoxide as being overexpressed in the virulent isolates compared to the avirulent isolates. The results from this study will contribute to enhance our understanding of the virulence of A. salmonicida and may suggest new directions for further research. PMID:24872729

  20. Review of the Evidence for Oral Health Promotion Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satur, Julie G.; Gussy, Mark G.; Morgan, Michael V.; Calache, Hanny; Wright, Clive

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries, periodontal diseases, tooth loss and oral cancers have significant burden of disease effects, quality of life and cost implications for the Australian community. Oral health promotion is a key approach to addressing these conditions endorsed as part of the National Oral Health Plan. Understanding the evidence for effectiveness of…

  1. 48 CFR 18.111 - Oral requests for proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oral requests for... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.111 Oral requests for proposals. Oral requests for proposals are authorized under certain conditions. (See 15.203(f).)...

  2. 48 CFR 18.111 - Oral requests for proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oral requests for... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.111 Oral requests for proposals. Oral requests for proposals are authorized under certain conditions. (See 15.203(f).)...

  3. Review of the Evidence for Oral Health Promotion Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satur, Julie G.; Gussy, Mark G.; Morgan, Michael V.; Calache, Hanny; Wright, Clive

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries, periodontal diseases, tooth loss and oral cancers have significant burden of disease effects, quality of life and cost implications for the Australian community. Oral health promotion is a key approach to addressing these conditions endorsed as part of the National Oral Health Plan. Understanding the evidence for effectiveness of…

  4. Oral Insulin Delivery: How Far Are We?

    PubMed Central

    Fonte, Pedro; Araújo, Francisca; Reis, Salette; Sarmento, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Oral delivery of insulin may significantly improve the quality of life of diabetes patients who routinely receive insulin by the subcutaneous route. In fact, compared with this administration route, oral delivery of insulin in diabetes treatment offers many advantages: higher patient compliance, rapid hepatic insulinization, and avoidance of peripheral hyperinsulinemia and other adverse effects such as possible hypoglycemia and weight gain. However, the oral delivery of insulin remains a challenge because its oral absorption is limited. The main barriers faced by insulin in the gastrointestinal tract are degradation by proteolytic enzymes and lack of transport across the intestinal epithelium. Several strategies to deliver insulin orally have been proposed, but without much clinical or commercial success. Protein encapsulation into nanoparticles is regarded as a promising alternative to administer insulin orally because they have the ability to promote insulin paracellular or transcellular transport across the intestinal mucosa. In this review, different delivery systems intended to increase the oral bioavailability of insulin will be discussed, with a special focus on nanoparticulate carrier systems, as well as the efforts that pharmaceutical companies are making to bring to the market the first oral delivery system of insulin. The toxicological and safety data of delivery systems, the clinical value and progress of oral insulin delivery, and the future prospects in this research field will be also scrutinized. PMID:23567010

  5. Treatment of oral mucositis due to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bagán-Sebastián, José V

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The management of oral mucositis is a challenge, due to its complex biological nature. Over the last 10 years, different strategies have been developed for the management of oral mucositis caused by chemotherapy in cancer patients. Material and Methods An exhaustive search was made of the PubMed-Medline, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases, crossing the key words “oral mucositis”, “prevention” and “treatment” with the terms “chemotherapy” and “radiotherapy” by means of the boolean operators “AND” and “NOT”. A total of 268 articles were obtained, of which 96 met the inclusion criteria. Results Several interventions for the prevention of oral mucositis, such as oral hygiene protocols, amifostine, benzidamine, calcium phosphate, cryotherapy and iseganan, among others, were found to yield only limited benefits. Other studies have reported a decrease in the appearance and severity of mucositis with the use of cytoprotectors (sucralfate, oral glutamine, hyaluronic acid), growth factors, topical polyvinylpyrrolidone, and low power laser irradiation. Conclusions Very few interventions of confirmed efficacy are available for the management of oral mucositis due to chemotherapy. However, according to the reviewed literature, the use of palifermin, cryotherapy and low power laser offers benefits, reducing the incidence and severity of oral mucositis – though further studies are needed to confirm the results obtained. Key words:Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis Treatment.

  6. Reversal of Oral Anticoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Limdi, Nita A.

    2013-01-01

    Although the use of dabigatran and rivaroxaban are increasing, data on reversal of their effects are limited. The lack of reliable monitoring methods and specific reversal agents renders treatment strategies empirical and as a result, , treatment consists mainly of supportive measures. Therefore, we performed a systematic search of the PubMed database to find studies and reviews pertaining to oral anticoagulation reversal strategies. This review discusses current anticoagulation reversal recommendations for the oral anticoagulants warfarin, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban for patients at a heightened risk of bleeding, actively bleeding or those in need for pre-procedural anticoagulation reversal. We highlight the literature that shaped these recommendations and provide directions for future research to address knowledge gaps. While reliable recommendations are available for anticoagulation reversal in patients treated with warfarin, guidance on reversal of dabigatran and rivaroxaban is varied and equivocal. Given the increasing use of the newer agents, focused research is needed to identify effective reversal strategies and develop and implement an accurate method (assay) to guide reversal of the newer agents. Determining patient-specific factors that influence the effectiveness of reversal treatments and comparing the effectiveness of various treatment strategies are pertinent areas for future anticoagulation reversal research. PMID:23606318

  7. Gastrointestinal illnesses and their effects on the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Huber, Michaell A

    2008-11-01

    Many disease processes affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract may cause observable changes to the oral cavity. In fact, oral cavity changes may represent the first clinical manifestation of an underlying GI condition. Recognition and appropriate referral of a possible GI condition contribute to overall health and wellness in patients. Some of the more important GI conditions that may manifest oral cavity involvement include: reflux disorders, inherited GI polyposis syndromes, and inflammatory bowel disease. This article briefly reviews the aforementioned topics. PMID:18940628

  8. [Trade-offs in oral drug product development].

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hiromu; Sako, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Drug products are developed to meet multiple targets, thereby increasing their value. Pharmaceutical scientists encounter several trade-offs during the development of novel oral formulations. These trade-offs are generated by their desire to supply the highest possible quality products under the prevailing conditions of limited time and cost, and feasible options. When there are two incompatible factors, it is sometimes difficult to dismiss one element. This is because a quality target product profile (QTPP) is critical for each product being developed, and all elements should basically be satisfied with the criteria. Therefore, technological innovation becomes important to overcome the trade-offs. This article introduces examples of such innovations which have been successful in doing this, as well as some encountered in the oral formulation development and in the selection of proper dosage forms. Based on these examples, points to be considered in order to produce the drug product are thoroughly discussed. PMID:25747218

  9. Metabolic and transcriptomic response of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain EC1118 after an oxygen impulse under carbon-sufficient, nitrogen-limited fermentative conditions.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Marcelo; Aceituno, Felipe F; Slater, Alex W; Almonacid, Leonardo I; Melo, Francisco; Agosin, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    During alcoholic fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to continuously changing environmental conditions, such as decreasing sugar and increasing ethanol concentrations. Oxygen, a critical nutrient to avoid stuck and sluggish fermentations, is only discretely available throughout the process after pump-over operation. In this work, we studied the physiological response of the wine yeast S. cerevisiae strain EC1118 to a sudden increase in dissolved oxygen, simulating pump-over operation. With this aim, an impulse of dissolved oxygen was added to carbon-sufficient, nitrogen-limited anaerobic continuous cultures. Results showed that genes related to mitochondrial respiration, ergosterol biosynthesis, and oxidative stress, among other metabolic pathways, were induced after the oxygen impulse. On the other hand, mannoprotein coding genes were repressed. The changes in the expression of these genes are coordinated responses that share common elements at the level of transcriptional regulation. Beneficial and detrimental effects of these physiological processes on wine quality highlight the dual role of oxygen in 'making or breaking wines'. These findings will facilitate the development of oxygen addition strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations. PMID:24387769

  10. Quantitative proteomic view on secreted, cell surface-associated, and cytoplasmic proteins of the methicillin-resistant human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus under iron-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Hempel, Kristina; Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Moche, Martin; Hecker, Michael; Becher, Dörte

    2011-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is capable of colonizing and infecting humans by its arsenal of surface-exposed and secreted proteins. Iron-limited conditions in mammalian body fluids serve as a major environmental signal to bacteria to express virulence determinants. Here we present a comprehensive, gel-free, and GeLC-MS/MS-based quantitative proteome profiling of S. aureus under this infection-relevant situation. (14)N(15)N metabolic labeling and three complementing approaches were combined for relative quantitative analyses of surface-associated proteins. The surface-exposed and secreted proteome profiling approaches comprise trypsin shaving, biotinylation, and precipitation of the supernatant. By analysis of the outer subproteomic and cytoplasmic protein fraction, 1210 proteins could be identified including 221 surface-associated proteins. Thus, access was enabled to 70% of the predicted cell wall-associated proteins, 80% of the predicted sortase substrates, two/thirds of lipoproteins and more than 50% of secreted and cytoplasmic proteins. For iron-deficiency, 158 surface-associated proteins were quantified. Twenty-nine proteins were found in altered amounts showing particularly surface-exposed proteins strongly induced, such as the iron-regulated surface determinant proteins IsdA, IsdB, IsdC and IsdD as well as lipid-anchored iron compound-binding proteins. The work presents a crucial subject for understanding S. aureus pathophysiology by the use of methods that allow quantitative surface proteome profiling. PMID:21323324

  11. Initial Piloted Simulation Evaluation of the Reference-H High-Speed Civil Transport Design During Takeoff and Recovery From Limit Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Louis J.

    1999-01-01

    An initial assessment of a proposed High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) was conducted in the fall of 1995 at the NASA Langley Research Center. This configuration, known as the Industry Reference-H (Ref.-H), was designed by the Boeing Aircraft Company as part of their work in the High Speed Research program. It included a conventional tail, a cranked-arrow wing, four mixed-flow turbofan engines, and capacity for transporting approximately 300 passengers. The purpose of this assessment was to evaluate and quantify operational aspects of the Reference-H configuration from a pilot's perspective with the additional goal of identifying design strengths as well as any potential configuration deficiencies. This study was aimed at evaluating the Ref.-H configuration at many points of the aircraft's envelope to determine the suitability of the vehicle to accomplish typical mission profiles as well as emergency or envelope-limit conditions. Pilot-provided Cooper-Harper ratings and comments constituted the primary vehicle evaluation metric. The analysis included simulated real-time piloted evaluations, performed in a 6 degree of freedom motion base NASA Langley Visual-Motion Simulator, combined with extensive bath analysis. The assessment was performed using the third major release of the simulation data base (known as Ref.-H cycle 2B).

  12. 'Why does it happen like this?' Consulting with users and providers prior to an evaluation of services for children with life limiting conditions and their families.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Anne; Brown, Erica; Coad, Jane; Staniszewska, Sophie; Hacking, Suzanne; Chesworth, Brigit; Chambers, Lizzie

    2015-09-01

    Children with life limiting conditions and their families have complex needs. Evaluations must consider their views and perspectives to ensure care is relevant, appropriate and acceptable. We consulted with children, young people, their parents and local professionals to gain a more informed picture of issues affecting them prior to preparing a bid to evaluate services in the area. Multiple methods included focus groups, face-to-face and telephone interviews and participatory activities. Recordings and products from activities were analysed for content to identify areas of relevance and concern. An overarching theme from parents was 'Why does it happen like this?' Services did not seem designed to meet their needs. Whilst children and young people expressed ideas related to quality of environment, services and social life, professionals focused on ways of meeting the families' needs. The theme that linked families' concerns with those of professionals was 'assessing individual needs'. Two questions to be addressed by the evaluation are (1) to what extent are services designed to meet the needs of children and families and (2) to what extent are children, young people and their families consulted about what they need? Consultations with families and service providers encouraged us to continue their involvement as partners in the evaluation. PMID:24270996

  13. Nanoparticles for oral delivery: Targeted nanoparticles with peptidic ligands for oral protein delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Yeonhee; Cho, Yong Woo; Park, Kinam

    2012-01-01

    As the field of biotechnology has advanced, oral protein delivery has also made significant progress. Oral delivery is the most common method of drug administration with high levels of patient acceptance. Despite the preference of oral delivery, administration of therapeutic proteins has been extremely difficult. Increasing the bioavailability of oral protein drugs to the therapeutically acceptable level is still a challenging goal. Poor membrane permeability, high molecular weight, and enzymatic degradation of protein drugs have remained unsolved issues. Among diverse strategies, nanotechnology has provided a glimpse of hope in oral delivery of protein drugs. Nanoparticles have advantages, such as small size, high surface area, and modification using functional groups for high capacity or selectivity. Nanoparticles with peptidic ligands are especially worthy of notice because they can be used for specific targeting in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This article reviews the transport mechanism of the GI tract, barriers to protein absorption, current status and limitations of nanotechnology for oral protein delivery system. PMID:23123292

  14. Olodaterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePLUS

    Olodaterol oral inhalation is used to control wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive ... airways, which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema). Olodaterol oral inhalation is in a class of medications called ...

  15. Oral Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the country. View all Events Current Campaigns Rodeo Anti-Tobacco Campaign Learn More "I'm Part Of ... Resources Overview Oral Cancer News OCF Press Releases Social © 2016 The Oral Cancer Foundation. All rights reserved. ...

  16. Strain localization in brittle-ductile shear zones: fluid-abundant vs. fluid-limited conditions (an example from Wyangala area, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruzeniece, L.; Piazolo, S.

    2015-07-01

    This study focuses on physiochemical processes occurring in a brittle-ductile shear zone at both fluid-present and fluid-limited conditions. In the studied shear zone (Wyangala, SE Australia), a coarse-grained two-feldspar-quartz-biotite granite is transformed into a medium-grained orthogneiss at the shear zone margins and a fine-grained quartz-muscovite phyllonite in the central parts. The orthogneiss displays cataclasis of feldspar and crystal-plastic deformation of quartz. Quartz accommodates most of the deformation and is extensively recrystallized, showing distinct crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO). Feldspar-to-muscovite, biotite-to-muscovite and albitization reactions occur locally at porphyroclasts' fracture surfaces and margins. However, the bulk rock composition shows very little change in respect to the wall rock composition. In contrast, in the shear zone centre quartz occurs as large, weakly deformed porphyroclasts in sizes similar to that in the wall rock, suggesting that it has undergone little deformation. Feldspars and biotite are almost completely reacted to muscovite, which is arranged in a fine-grained interconnected matrix. Muscovite-rich layers contain significant amounts of fine-grained intermixed quartz with random CPO. These domains are interpreted to have accommodated most of the strain. Bulk rock chemistry data show a significant increase in SiO2 and depletion in NaO content compared to the wall rock composition. We suggest that the high- and low-strain microstructures in the shear zone represent markedly different scenarios and cannot be interpreted as a simple sequential development with respect to strain. Instead, we propose that the microstructural and mineralogical changes in the shear zone centre arise from a local metasomatic alteration around a brittle precursor. When the weaker fine-grained microstructure is established, the further flow is controlled by transient porosity created at (i) grain boundaries in fine-grained areas deforming by grain boundary sliding (GBS) and (ii) transient dilatancy sites at porphyroclast-matrix boundaries. Here a growth of secondary quartz occurs from incoming fluid, resulting in significant changes in bulk composition and eventually rheological hardening due to the precipitation-related increase in the mode and grain size of quartz. In contrast, within the shear zone margins the amount of fluid influx and associated reactions is limited; here deformation mainly proceeds by dynamic recrystallization of the igneous quartz grains. The studied shear zone exemplifies the role of syn-deformational fluids and fluid-induced reactions on the dominance of deformation processes and subsequent contrasting rheological behaviour at micron to metre scale.

  17. Increased belowground C release during initial plant development of Populus deltoides x nigra grown under light and C reserve limited conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studer, Mirjam S.; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.; Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Abiven, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    Plants might be a key factor for the long-term stabilisation of carbon (C) in the soil, e.g. through enhanced physical protection of root-derived C against microbial decomposition in soil aggregates. On the other hand C released by the plants into the soil might promote the decomposition of native soil organic matter (SOM) through the stimulation of microbial activity. We measured the C budget of developing plant-soil systems (Populus deltoides x nigra, Cambisol soil) in the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions. In order to distinguish plant-derived from native C in the SOM and the soil CO2 efflux, we labelled the poplar shoots continuously with 13C-CO2 from first emergence of leaves (sprouting from stem cuttings). Throughout the experiment the CO2 fluxes (photosynthetic assimilation, dark respiratory loss, soil CO2 efflux) were measured frequently (every 30 min) and the 13C was traced in the soil CO2 efflux (1-2 times a week). After 10 weeks the plant-soil systems were destructively harvested and the distribution of the 13C distribution was analysed. The plants developed slowly (compared to previous experiments), most likely due to limitation in C reserves (long term cutting storage) and C supply (low light intensities). The amount of 13C recovered in the roots, microbial biomass and soil CO2 efflux was directly correlated with the leaf area of the different plant individuals. After 3-4 weeks of plant development we observed a high peak in the total soil CO2 efflux. During this time the relative belowground C release was increased massively over the basal rate of 17 % of net C assimilated, whereby the variability between the plant individuals was large. The smallest plants, i.e. the plants that were most resource limited, obtained the highest belowground C release accounting at the peak time for up to 57 % of net assimilated C. We hypothesize that the plants released specific compounds, which either directly (enzymatically) or indirectly (priming) enhanced the decomposition of native SOM as a survival mechanisms (e.g. mine for nutrients). The results of this study confirm linear correlations between aboveground plant traits (leaf area) and belowground C allocation into roots, microbial biomass and plant-derived respiration. However it also highlights that plant-soil systems are not permanently in a steady state. C allocation patterns can change massively when the plant is under stress, which affects other fluxes within the terrestrial C cycle, such as the microbial decomposition of SOM.

  18. Oral Thrush (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About Oral Thrush Symptoms Prevention Treatment en español Candidiasis bucal About Oral Thrush Oral thrush is a very common infection ... rash and vaginal (yeast) infections. Candida overgrowth (or candidiasis ) can happen after a baby ... thrush can affect anyone, although it's most common ...

  19. Oral Transliterating. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troiano, Claire A.

    2010-01-01

    An oral transliterator provides communication access to a person who is deaf or hard of hearing and who uses speechreading and speaking as a means of communicating. The oral transliterator, positioned in front of the speechreader, inaudibly repeats the spoken message, making it as speechreadable as possible. This is called Expressive Oral…

  20. Women's oral health issues.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, B J

    2000-09-01

    Hormonal fluctuations affect more than a woman's reproductive system. They have a surprisingly strong influence on the oral cavity. Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause all influence women's oral health and the way in which a dentist should approach their treatment. This paper will review aspects of a woman's life when hormonal fluctuations may affect oral tissues. PMID:11324047

  1. Use of 90° Hopkin’s Telescopic Examination as an OPD Tool to Clinically Evaluate and Record Oral Cavity Lesions: Our Experience in Early Detection, Especially in Patients with Limited Mouth Opening

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Karan; Patel, Daxesh; Patel, Purvi; Toprani, Rajendra; Patel, Kaustubh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Restricted mouth opening due to premalignant lesions like oral sub-mucous fibrosis, malignancies of oral cavity and postoperative status is very common in Indian patients. It is very difficult to evaluate, document and biopsy the lesions due to inability to access, vast area and diversity of premalignant lesions and subject variations. 90° Hopkin’s slender out-patient examination telescope was found useful tool in this. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of magnified view and reach of a slender telescope to document and examine the oral cavity for any premalignant and malignant lesions, especially for patients with restricted mouth opening and to study its impact on management. Materials and Methods A 900 Hopkin’s telescope was used to evaluate and document oral cavity examination in the Out Patients Department (OPD). The data of first 2000 patients was analysed. Results Difficult to reach areas, where mouth opening was severely restricted was the significant subset. A total of 1394 patients approached OPD for primary diagnosis at our tertiary cancer care centre. Six hundred and six patients were the ones in follow up after treatment in form of Surgery, Chemotherapy or Radiotherapy, or combination. Five twenty three patients (of 1394) with mouth opening ? 20mm formed the study group. Telescope guided biopsies were also taken in 50 patients from 56 sites. Serial recordings were compared objectively in premalignant, treatment evaluation and close watch groups. An increase of 5.6% in rate of diagnosis of malignancy was made possible with the help of telescopic examination in patients with mouth opening ? 20mm. Conclusion A 900 Hopkin’s telescopic examination is a useful tool to evaluate and record oral cavity lesions, especially in patients with restricted mouth openings. It is a useful tool for screening high risk group, giving definite advantage of objective evaluation and recording of the lesion. It can also be used to objectively evaluate response of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and as a teaching tool for the fellows. PMID:26266199

  2. Global self-rating of oral health as summary tool for oral health evaluation in low-resource settings

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, Folake B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Global Self-Rating of Oral Health (GSROH) has numerous benefits, especially in resource-constrained environments with a paucity of dentists thereby potentially limiting administration of oral health surveys and monitoring of dental treatment. The aim of the study was to identify factors that could influence or predict poor self-ratings of oral health. Materials and Methods: The study was descriptive in design. Data were collected using structured interviewer-administered questionnaire, which had items on socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents and their GSROH. Oral examination was conducted to identify untreated dental caries, missing teeth, and mobile teeth. Data were analyzed using SPSS, and the P value was set at 0.05. Results: There were 600 participants; 400 were teachers constituting the non-patient population and 200 were dental patients with age ranging from 18 to 83 years. A total of 169 (28.1%) participants rated their oral health as poor, including 104 patients (52.0%) and 65 (16.2%) non-patients (P < 0.001). Having had toothache in the preceding 6 months (62.4% vs. 16.0%, P < 0.001), mobile teeth (46.7% vs. 24.2%, P < 0.001), decayed teeth (49.0% vs. 21.3%, P < 0.001), missing teeth (35.0% vs. 26.1%, P = 0.042), or DMFT score greater than zero (41.1% vs. 20.7%, P < 0.001) was associated with poor GSROH. Presence of mobile teeth [odds ratio (OR) = 2.68; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.29, 4.23; P < 0.001] and carious teeth (OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.09, 4.65; P = 0.029) were independent predictors of GSROH. Conclusion: The GSROH was able to identify individuals with or without oral conditions in the studied population, and thus may be used in oral health surveys to assess the oral health status and in monitoring of treatment outcome. PMID:25984461

  3. The ZmASR1 Protein Influences Branched-Chain Amino Acid Biosynthesis and Maintains Kernel Yield in Maize under Water-Limited Conditions1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Virlouvet, Laetitia; Jacquemot, Marie-Pierre; Gerentes, Denise; Corti, Hélène; Bouton, Sophie; Gilard, Françoise; Valot, Benoît; Trouverie, Jacques; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Falque, Matthieu; Damerval, Catherine; Rogowsky, Peter; Perez, Pascual; Noctor, Graham; Zivy, Michel; Coursol, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    Abscisic acid-, stress-, and ripening-induced (ASR) proteins were first described about 15 years ago as accumulating to high levels during plant developmental processes and in response to diverse stresses. Currently, the effects of ASRs on water deficit tolerance and the ways in which their physiological and biochemical functions lead to this stress tolerance remain poorly understood. Here, we characterized the ASR gene family from maize (Zea mays), which contains nine paralogous genes, and showed that maize ASR1 (ZmASR1) was encoded by one of the most highly expressed paralogs. Ectopic expression of ZmASR1 had a large overall impact on maize yield that was maintained under water-limited stress conditions in the field. Comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of wild-type and ZmASR1-overexpressing leaves led to the identification of three transcripts and 16 proteins up- or down-regulated by ZmASR1. The majority of them were involved in primary and/or cellular metabolic processes, including branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis. Metabolomic and transcript analyses further indicated that ZmASR1-overexpressing plants showed a decrease in BCAA compounds and changes in BCAA-related gene expression in comparison with wild-type plants. Interestingly, within-group correlation matrix analysis revealed a close link between 13 decreased metabolites in ZmASR1-overexpressing leaves, including two BCAAs. Among these 13 metabolites, six were previously shown to be negatively correlated to biomass, suggesting that ZmASR1-dependent regulation of these 13 metabolites might contribute to regulate leaf growth, resulting in improvement in kernel yield. PMID:21852416

  4. Can oral pathogens influence allergic disease?

    PubMed

    Arbes, Samuel J; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2011-05-01

    The hygiene hypothesis contends that fewer opportunities for infections and microbial exposures have resulted in more widespread asthma and atopic disease. Consistent with that hypothesis, decreases in infectious oral diseases over the past half century have coincided with increases in the prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases. This observation has led some researchers to speculate that exposures to oral bacteria, including pathogens associated with periodontal diseases, such as gingivitis and periodontitis, might play a protective role in the development of asthma and allergy. Colonization of the oral cavity with bacteria, including some species of periodontal pathogens, begins shortly after birth, and the detection of serum antibodies to oral pathogens in early childhood provides evidence of an early immune response to these bacteria. Current knowledge of the immune response to oral bacteria and the immunologic pathogenesis of periodontal diseases suggests biologically plausible mechanisms by which oral pathogens could influence the risk of allergic disease. However, studies investigating the association between oral pathogen exposures and allergic disease are few in number and limited by cross-sectional or case-control design, exclusion of young children, and use of surrogate measures of oral bacterial colonization. Additional studies, particularly well-designed case-control studies among very young children and prospective birth cohort studies, are needed. PMID:21531254

  5. Oral Allergy Syndrome: An Update for Stomatologists

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) is an allergic reaction in the oral cavity subsequent to the consumption of food such as fruits, nuts, and vegetables. It occurs mainly due to homology of proteins of pollen to the proteins of fruits and vegetables. In OAS, the immune system produces antibodies that are directed against the proteins of pollen and structurally similar proteins in food, hence, resulting in allergic symptoms limited mainly to the oral cavity. In this review, we have summarized the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of OAS as an update for stomatologists. PMID:26633978

  6. Essentials of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  7. Killed oral cholera vaccines: history, development and implementation challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Maria Liza Antoinette; Aldaba, Josephine G.; Nair, G. Balakrish

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is still a major global health problem, affecting mainly people living in unsanitary conditions and who are at risk for outbreaks of cholera. During the past decade, outbreaks are increasingly reported from more countries. From the early killed oral cholera vaccine, rapid improvements in vaccine development occurred as a result of a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, pathogenesis of cholera infection and immunity. The newer-generation oral killed cholera vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective in field trials conducted in cholera endemic areas. Likewise, they have been shown to be protective when used during outbreak settings. Aside from providing direct protection to vaccinated individuals, recent studies have demonstrated that these killed oral vaccines also confer indirect protection through herd immunity. Although new-generation oral cholera vaccines should not be considered in isolation from other preventive approaches in countries where they are most needed, especially improved water quality and sanitation, these vaccines serve as immediately available public health tools for preventing further morbidity and mortality from cholera. However, despite its availability for more than two decades, use of these vaccines has not been optimized. Although there are limitations of the currently available oral cholera vaccines, recent data show that the vaccines are safe, feasible to use even in difficult circumstances and able to provide protection in various settings. Clear identification of the areas and target population groups who will benefit from the use of the cholera vaccines will be required and strategies to facilitate accessibility and usage of these vaccines in these areas and population groups will need to be developed. PMID:25177492

  8. Cancer risks of oral contraception.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Recently, concern has been raised on the connection between the use of oral contraceptives and cancer. When a patient confronts a doctor with such fears, he finds that information and research in the area is limited and often inaccurate. The latest epidemiological studies found no risk of breast cancer associated with the use of oral contraceptives. However, a subsequent study on the risk of breast cancer was twice that among pill users as compared to nonusers. It is known that oral contraception is a means of protection against the incidence of ovarian and endometrial cancers; however, a risk/benefit analysis of this needs to be pursued. More research on the etiology of breast cancer is needed. The findings of past research has been unreliable because it has been found that animal testing is not really accurate in the prediction of cancer. Post-marketing surveillance of oral contraceptives by manufacturers is rarely done because of expense and time although such a survey would allow for an assessment of risks and benefits. It is also known that advancing age at 1st full-term pregnancy increases the risk of breast cancer, and breast feeding for 6 months halves the chance for breast cancer in later life. A pill is needed to not only reduce the incidence of ovarian and endometrial cancer but also of breast cancer. PMID:2563004

  9. Two cases of "cannabis acute psychosis" following the administration of oral cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Favrat, Bernard; Ménétrey, Annick; Augsburger, Marc; Rothuizen, Laura E; Appenzeller, Monique; Buclin, Thierry; Pin, Marie; Mangin, Patrice; Giroud, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Background Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal drug and its therapeutic aspects have a growing interest. Short-term psychotic reactions have been described but not clearly with synthetic oral THC, especially in occasional users. Case presentations We report two cases of healthy subjects who were occasional but regular cannabis users without psychiatric history who developed transient psychotic symptoms (depersonalization, paranoid feelings and derealisation) following oral administration of cannabis. In contrast to most other case reports where circumstances and blood concentrations are unknown, the two cases reported here happened under experimental conditions with all subjects negative for cannabis, opiates, amphetamines, cocaine, benzodiazepines and alcohol, and therefore the ingested dose, the time-events of effects on behavior and performance as well as the cannabinoid blood levels were documented. Conclusion While the oral route of administration achieves only limited blood concentrations, significant psychotic reactions may occur. PMID:15804348

  10. The mucosal immune system in the oral cavity-an orchestra of T cell diversity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rui-Qing; Zhang, Dun-Fang; Tu, Eric; Chen, Qian-Ming; Chen, WanJun

    2014-09-01

    The mucosal immune system defends against a vast array of pathogens, yet it exhibits limited responses to commensal microorganisms under healthy conditions. The oral-pharyngeal cavity, the gateway for both the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, is composed of complex anatomical structures and is constantly challenged by antigens from air and food. The mucosal immune system of the oral-pharyngeal cavity must prevent pathogen entry while maintaining immune homeostasis, which is achieved via a range of mechanisms that are similar or different to those utilized by the gastrointestinal immune system. In this review, we summarize the features of the mucosal immune system, focusing on T cell subsets and their functions. We also discuss our current understanding of the oral-pharyngeal mucosal immune system. PMID:25105816

  11. Oral microbial habitat a dynamic entity

    PubMed Central

    Faran Ali, Syed Muhammad; Tanwir, Farzeen

    2012-01-01

    Oral microbial habitat is composed of wide variety of species. These species play a significant role in maintaining the well being of the oral cavity by contributing in various ways. However the proper functioning of these oral microbes can be detrimental for the human oral cavity if the conditions are not suitable such as redox potential (Eh), pH of a site, the activity of the host defenses, and the presence of antimicrobial agents. The oral microbial community represents the best-characterized group associated with the human host. There are strong correlations between the qualitative composition of the oral microbiota and clinically healthy or diseased states. Amongst the bacteria of more than 700 species now identified within the human oral microbiota, it is the streptococci that are numerically predominant. Interactions between mucosal surfaces and microbial microbiota are key to host defense, health, and disease. These surfaces are exposed to high numbers of microbes and must be capable of distinguishing between those that are beneficial or avirulent and those that will invade and cause disease. Our understanding of the mechanisms involved in these discriminatory processes has recently begun to expand as new studies bring to light the importance of epithelial cells and novel immune cell subsets such as T(h)17 T cells in these processes. In this review article we have tried to find out the factors responsible for maintaining oral microbial habitat intact and the reasons which cause changes in its composition. PMID:25737863

  12. Oral microbial habitat a dynamic entity.

    PubMed

    Faran Ali, Syed Muhammad; Tanwir, Farzeen

    2012-01-01

    Oral microbial habitat is composed of wide variety of species. These species play a significant role in maintaining the well being of the oral cavity by contributing in various ways. However the proper functioning of these oral microbes can be detrimental for the human oral cavity if the conditions are not suitable such as redox potential (Eh), pH of a site, the activity of the host defenses, and the presence of antimicrobial agents. The oral microbial community represents the best-characterized group associated with the human host. There are strong correlations between the qualitative composition of the oral microbiota and clinically healthy or diseased states. Amongst the bacteria of more than 700 species now identified within the human oral microbiota, it is the streptococci that are numerically predominant. Interactions between mucosal surfaces and microbial microbiota are key to host defense, health, and disease. These surfaces are exposed to high numbers of microbes and must be capable of distinguishing between those that are beneficial or avirulent and those that will invade and cause disease. Our understanding of the mechanisms involved in these discriminatory processes has recently begun to expand as new studies bring to light the importance of epithelial cells and novel immune cell subsets such as T(h)17 T cells in these processes. In this review article we have tried to find out the factors responsible for maintaining oral microbial habitat intact and the reasons which cause changes in its composition. PMID:25737863

  13. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5...

  14. Small mouths ... Big problems? A review of scleroderma and its oral health implications.

    PubMed

    Albilia, Jonathan B; Lam, David K; Blanas, Nick; Clokie, Cameron M L; Sándor, George K B

    2007-11-01

    Scleroderma, or progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), an autoimmune rheumatic condition affecting the connective tissues, has a profound impact on oral health. Common orofacial findings include xerostomia, gastroesophageal reflux disease and limited mouth opening. This review article describes scleroderma, or PSS, and its various manifestations. The features of CREST syndrome and morphea are reviewed. Concerns relevant to the prevention of dental disease and the safe delivery of dental care in this group of challenging patients are emphasized. PMID:18028759

  15. A basic limitation of the split window method for SST retrievals when applied to a wide range of water vapor conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagan, Denise E.

    1989-01-01

    The split window method for retrieving sea surface temperatures (SST) from satellite-based observations is evaluated from radiative transfer calculations, and shown to have an inherent limitation that arises from a linear assumption in the correction scheme. This general limitation leads to significant errors (of several degrees in some cases) in the retrieved SST; the theoretical basis for the error is examined.

  16. Oral glycopyrrolate for refractory pediatric and adolescent hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Monique G; Foreman, Rebecca S; Berk, David R; Bayliss, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    Primary hyperhidrosis is a common disorder affecting children and adolescents, and it can have a significant negative psychosocial effect. Treatment for pediatric hyperhidrosis tends to be limited by low efficacy, low adherence, and poor tolerance. Oral glycopyrrolate is emerging as a potential second-line treatment option, but experience with safety, efficacy, and dosing is especially limited in children. We present an institutional review of 12 children with severe, refractory hyperhidrosis treated with oral glycopyrrolate; 11 (92%) noted improvement and 9 (75%) would recommend oral glycopyrrolate to their friends. No significant side effects were noted. Our retrospective analysis suggests that oral glycopyrrolate is safe and effective in children with hyperhidrosis. PMID:24266878

  17. Respiratory disease and the role of oral bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gomes-Filho, Isaac S.; Passos, Johelle S.; Seixas da Cruz, Simone

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between oral health and systemic conditions, including the association between poor oral hygiene, periodontal disease, and respiratory disease, has been increasingly debated over recent decades. A considerable number of hypotheses have sought to explain the possible role of oral bacteria in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases, and some clinical and epidemiological studies have found results favoring such an association. This review discusses the effect of oral bacteria on respiratory disease, briefly introduces the putative biological mechanisms involved, and the main factors that could contribute to this relationship. It also describes the role of oral care for individuals who are vulnerable to respiratory infections. PMID:21523216

  18. Nutritional support for the oral surgery patient.

    PubMed

    Wood, G A; Wadon, A J

    1984-06-01

    The oral cavity forms the entry to the alimentary tract but certain conditions may severely handicap or preclude this role. In such circumstances the Oral Surgeon as part of his basic skills should be able to institute alternative portals of nutritional support. Intravenous or other enteral routes can adequately overcome such problems. This paper examines the techniques available, feeding regimes and complications associated with the different methods. PMID:6234936

  19. Oral Tolerance: Therapeutic Implications for Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Ana M. C.; Weiner, Howard L.

    2006-01-01

    Oral tolerance is classically defined as the suppression of immune responses to antigens (Ag) that have been administered previously by the oral route. Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by oral Ag. Low doses favor active suppression, whereas higher doses favor clonal anergy/deletion. Oral Ag induces Th2 (IL-4/IL-10) and Th3 (TGF-?) regulatory T cells (Tregs) plus CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells and LAP+T cells. Induction of oral tolerance is enhanced by IL-4, IL-10, anti-IL-12, TGF-?, cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), Flt-3 ligand, anti-CD40 ligand and continuous feeding of Ag. In addition to oral tolerance, nasal tolerance has also been shown to be effective in suppressing inflammatory conditions with the advantage of a lower dose requirement. Oral and nasal tolerance suppress several animal models of autoimmune diseases including experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis and diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, plus non-autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, colitis and stroke. Oral tolerance has been tested in human autoimmune diseases including MS, arthritis, uveitis and diabetes and in allergy, contact sensitivity to DNCB, nickel allergy. Positive results have been observed in phase II trials and new trials for arthritis, MS and diabetes are underway. Mucosal tolerance is an attractive approach for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases because of lack of toxicity, ease of administration over time and Ag-specific mechanism of action. The successful application of oral tolerance for the treatment of human diseases will depend on dose, developing immune markers to assess immunologic effects, route (nasal versus oral), formulation, mucosal adjuvants, combination therapy and early therapy. PMID:17162357

  20. Oral Motor Intervention Improved the Oral Feeding in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xu; Yi, Li-Juan; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Ma, Li; Ou, Yang-Xiang; Shuai, Ting; Zeng, Zi; Song, Guo-Min

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Oral feeding for preterm infants has been a thorny problem worldwide. To improve the efficacy of oral feeding in preterm infants, oral motor intervention (OMI), which consists of nonnutritive sucking, oral stimulation, and oral support, was developed. Published studies demonstrated that OMI may be as an alternative treatment to solve this problem; however, these results remain controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis (TSA) to objectively evaluate the potential of OMI for improving the current status of oral feeding in preterm infants. A search of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure was performed to capture relevant citations until at the end of October, 2014. Lists of references of eligible studies and reviews were also hand-checked to include any latent studies. Two independent investigators screened literature, extracted data, and assessed the methodology, and then a meta-analysis and TSA was performed by using Reviewer Manager (RevMan) 5.3 and TSA 0.9 beta, respectively. A total of 11 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which included 855 participants, were incorporated into our meta-analysis. The meta-analyses suggested that OMI is associated with the reduced transition time (ie, the time needed from tube feeding to totally oral feeding) (mean difference [MD], ?4.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], ?5.22 to ?2.84), shorten hospital stays (MD, ?3.64; 95% CI, ?5.57 to ?1.71), increased feeding efficiency (MD, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.36–1.27), and intake of milk (MD, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.06–0.21) rather than weight gain. Results of TSA for each outcomes of interest confirmed these pooled results. With present evidences, OMI can be as an alternative to improve the condition of transition time, length of hospital stays, feeding efficiency, and intake of milk in preterm infants. However, the pooled results may be impaired due to low quality included, and thus, well-designed and large RCTs were needed to further established effects. PMID:26252313

  1. Radiation Induced Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    PS, Satheesh Kumar; Balan, Anita; Sankar, Arun; Bose, Tinky

    2009-01-01

    Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene PMID:20668585

  2. Oral health and elite sport performance.

    PubMed

    Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25263651

  3. Oral health and elite sport performance

    PubMed Central

    Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25263651

  4. Improving Children’s Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Casamassimo, P.S.; Lee, J.Y.; Marazita, M.L.; Milgrom, P.; Chi, D.L.; Divaris, K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the concerted efforts of research and professional and advocacy stakeholders, recent evidence suggests that improvements in the oral health of young children in the United States has not followed the prevailing trend of oral health improvement in other age groups. In fact, oral health disparities in the youngest children may be widening, yet efforts to translate advances in science and technology into meaningful improvements in populations’ health have had limited success. Nevertheless, the great strides in genomics, biological, behavioral, social, and health services research in the past decade have strengthened the evidence base available to support initiatives and translational efforts. Concerted actions to accelerate this translation and implementation process are warranted; at the same time, policies that can help tackle the upstream determinants of oral health disparities are imperative. This article summarizes the proceedings from the symposium on the interdisciplinary continuum of pediatric oral health that was held during the 43rd annual meeting of the American Association for Dental Research, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. This report showcases the latest contributions across the interdisciplinary continuum of pediatric oral health research and provides insights into future research priorities and necessary intersectoral synergies. Issues are discussed as related to the overwhelming dominance of social determinants on oral disease and the difficulty of translating science into action. PMID:25122218

  5. Oral capsaicin provides temporary relief for oral mucositis pain secondary to chemotherapy/radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Berger, A; Henderson, M; Nadoolman, W; Duffy, V; Cooper, D; Saberski, L; Bartoshuk, L

    1995-04-01

    Pain from oral mucositis afflicts from 40% to 70% of patients receiving chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Current methods of clinical pain management (for example, topical anesthetics, systemic analgesics) have limited success. In a pilot study, we examined the ability of oral capsaicin to provide temporary relief of oral mucositis pain. Capsaicin, the active ingredient in chili peppers, desensitizes some neurons and has provided moderate pain relief when applied to the skin surface. Oral capsaicin in a candy (taffy) vehicle produced substantial pain reduction in 11 patients with oral mucositis pain from cancer therapy. However, this pain relief was not complete for most patients and was only temporary. Additional research is needed to fully utilize the properties of capsaicin desensitization and thus optimize analgesia. PMID:7629418

  6. Mechanisms of Oral Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Commins, Scott P

    2015-12-01

    Oral tolerance is an active process of local and systemic immune unresponsiveness to orally ingested antigens such as food. The gut immune system must balance responses to commensal bacteria (microbiome), innocuous antigens, and pathogens. Although it is clear that specialized populations of immune cells and lymph nodes create a unique environment in the gut, there remains evidence to suggest that systemic effector sites also are critical to establishing and maintaining oral tolerance. PMID:26456448

  7. Oral microbiota and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meurman, Jukka H.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion. PMID:21523227

  8. Oral drug delivery research in Europe.

    PubMed

    Mrsny, Randall J

    2012-07-20

    The oral delivery of drugs is considered by decision-makers in the pharmaceutical industry to be the most appealing route of administration. This belief has led to the identification of many very successful drugs, but also to the downfall of some promising therapeutics that failed to meet criteria required for sufficient oral bioavailability. Efforts to correct these deficiencies have led to a plethora of creative strategies to overcome the physical, chemical, and biological barriers that limit the efficient and consistent delivery of drugs that are not readily absorbed following oral administration. The goal of this perspective is to describe these barriers to oral drug delivery in relation to some of the work currently being undertaken by the community of European scientists. This perspective is not intended to be inclusive and the author apologizes in advance to the many scientists working in Europe whose recent work was not included. PMID:22342473

  9. Oral drug delivery systems using chemical conjugates or physical complexes.

    PubMed

    Al-Hilal, Taslim A; Alam, Farzana; Byun, Youngro

    2013-06-15

    Oral delivery of therapeutics is extremely challenging. The digestive system is designed in a way that naturally allows the degradation of proteins or peptides into small molecules prior to absorption. For systemic absorption, the intact drug molecules must traverse the impending harsh gastrointestinal environment. Technologies, such as enteric coating, with oral dosage formulation strategies have successfully provided the protection of non-peptide based therapeutics against the harsh, acidic condition of the stomach. However, these technologies showed limited success on the protection of therapeutic proteins and peptides. Importantly, inherent permeability coefficient of the therapeutics is still a major problem that has remained unresolved for decades. Addressing this issue in the context, we summarize the strategies that are developed in enhancing the intestinal permeability of a drug molecule either by modifying the intestinal epithelium or by modifying the drug itself. These modifications have been pursued by using a group of molecules that can be conjugated to the drug molecule to alter the cell permeability of the drug or mixed with the drug molecule to alter the epithelial barrier function, in order to achieve the effective drug permeation. This article will address the current trends and future perspectives of the oral delivery strategies. PMID:23220326

  10. Relevance of psychosocial factors to quality of life in oral cancer and oral lichen planus: a prospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Rana, Madiha; Kanatas, Anastasios; Herzberg, Philipp Y; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Rana, Majeed

    2015-09-01

    We can improve our understanding of how patients cope with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by making a comparison with their processes of coping and those used in other conditions. We have therefore compared quality of life (QoL), severity of symptoms, coping strategies, and factors that influence coping between patients with oral SCC and those with oral lichen planus. We asked 104 patients with oral SCC and 51 with oral lichen planus to complete questionnaires about their coping strategies, social support, locus of control, spirituality, QoL, and severity of symptoms. The outcome was that patients with oral SCC were far more likely to resort to coping strategies such as depressive coping, distraction, and self-motivation. The groups also differed regarding QoL and severity of symptoms. Patients with oral SCC had a poorer QoL and higher depression scores, whereas patients with oral lichen planus had better scores in the social support and spirituality categories. Patients with oral SCC generally had more distress than those with oral lichen planus. Not only did the former resort to depressive coping strategies, but they also had poorer QoL and higher values for depression. For the patients with oral lichen planus, social support and spirituality were protective, whereas they were associated with distress by patients with oral SCC. PMID:26004933

  11. Oral myiasis in a maxillofacial trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Vinit, Grandim Balarama Gupta; Jayavelu, Perumal; Shrutha, Santhebachali Prakasha

    2013-07-01

    Myiasis is a rare disease primarily caused by the invasion of tissue by larvae of certain dipteran flies. Oral myiasis is still more "rare" and "unique" owing to the fact that oral cavity rarely provides the necessary habitat conducive for a larval lifecycle. Common predisposing factors are poor oral hygiene, halitosis, trauma, senility, learning disabilities, physically and mentally challenged conditions. Oral myiasis can lead to rapid tissue destruction and disfigurement and requires immediate treatment. Treatment consists of manual removal of maggots from the oral cavity after application of chemical agents. Good sanitation, personal and environmental hygiene and cleanliness and special care for debilitated persons are the best methods to prevent oral myiasis. This case report describes the presentation of oral myiasis caused by musca nebulo (common house fly) in a 40-year-old male patient, with recent maxillofacial trauma. The patient was treated by manual removal larvae by topical application of turpentine oil, followed by surgical debridement of the wound and open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture. PMID:23956607

  12. Biochemical acclimation, stomatal limitation and precipitation patterns underlie decreases in photosynthetic stimulation of Soybean (Glycine max) at elevated [CO2] and temperatures under fully open air field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The net effect of elevated [CO2] and temperature on photosynthetic acclimation and plant productivity is poorly resolved. We assessed the effects of canopy warming and fully open air [CO2] enrichment on 1) the acclimation of two biochemical parameters that frequently limit photosynthesis (A), the ma...

  13. Influence of saliva on the oral microbiota.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Philip D; Do, Thuy; Beighton, David; Devine, Deirdre A

    2016-02-01

    Saliva plays a major role in determining the composition and activity of the oral microbiota, via a variety of mechanisms. Molecules, mainly from saliva, form a conditioning film on oral surfaces, thus providing receptors for bacterial attachment. The attached cells use saliva components, such as glycoproteins, as their main source of nutrients for growth. Oral bacteria work sequentially and in a concerted manner to catabolize these structurally complex molecules. Saliva also buffers the pH in the biofilm to around neutrality, creating an environment which is conducive to the growth of many oral bacteria that provide important benefits to the host. Components of the adaptive and innate host defences are delivered by saliva, and these often function synergistically, and at sublethal concentrations, so a complex relationship develops between the host and the resident microbiota. Dysbiosis can occur rapidly if the flow of saliva is perturbed. PMID:26662484

  14. Oral manifestations of hematologic and nutritional diseases.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Bethanee J; Pirigyi, Megan; Mirowski, Ginat W

    2011-02-01

    Oral manifestations of hematologic and nutritional deficiencies can affect the mucous membranes, teeth, periodontal tissues, salivary glands, and perioral skin. This article reviews common oral manifestations of hematologic conditions starting with disorders of the white blood cells including cyclic hematopoiesis (cyclic neutropenia), leukemias, lymphomas, plasma cell dyscrasias, and mast cell disorders; this is followed by a discussion of the impact of red blood cell disorders including anemias and less common red blood cell dyscrasias (sickle cell disease, hemochromatosis, and congenital erythropoietic porphyria) as well as thrombocytopenia. Several nutritional deficiencies exhibit oral manifestations. The authors specifically discuss the impact of water-soluble vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B9, B12, and C), fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and K) and the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa on the oral mucosa. PMID:21093629

  15. Oral Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... retromolar trigone (the small area behind the wisdom teeth ). Enlarge Anatomy of the oral cavity. The oral cavity includes the lips, hard palate (the bony front portion of the roof of the mouth), soft ... behind the wisdom teeth), front two-thirds of the tongue, gingiva (gums), ...

  16. Oral Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... retromolar trigone (the small area behind the wisdom teeth ). Enlarge Anatomy of the oral cavity. The oral cavity includes the lips, hard palate (the bony front portion of the roof of the mouth), soft ... behind the wisdom teeth), front two-thirds of the tongue, gingiva (gums), ...

  17. Oral amelanotic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Adisa, A O; Olawole, W O; Sigbeku, O F

    2012-06-01

    Malignant melanomas of the mucosal regions of the head and neck are extremely rare neoplasms accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas. Approximately half of all head and neck melanomas occur in the oral cavity. Less than 2% of all melanomas lack pigmentation, in the oral mucosa however, up to 75% of cases are amelanotic. No etiologic factors or risk factors have been recognized for oral melanomas. Some authors have suggested that oral habits and selfmedication may be of etiological significance. Oral melanoma is rare but it is relatively frequent in countries like Japan, Uganda, and India. It is rarely identified under the age of 20 years. In Australia where cutaneous melanomas are relatively common primary melanoma of the oral mucosa is rare. The surface architecture of oral melanomas ranges from macular to ulcerated and nodular. The lesion is said to be asymptomatic in the early stages but may become ulcerated and painful in advanced lesions. The diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma is more difficult than that of pigmented lesions. The neoplasm consists of spindle-shaped cells with many mitotic figures and no cytoplasmic melanin pigmentation. Immunohistochemistry using S-100, HMB-45, Melan-A and MART-1 will help in establishing the correct diagnosis. Radical surgery with ample margins and adjuvant chemotherapy are appropriate management protocol for malignant melanoma. Oral melanoma is associated with poor prognosis but its amelanotic variant has even worse prognosis because it exhibits a more aggressive biology and because of difficulty in diagnosis which leads to delayed treatment. PMID:25161399

  18. Migraine and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Mousa, G Y

    1982-10-01

    Migraine is a common complaint in optometric practice. Three cases of migrainous patients taking oral contraceptives are presented in this report. The role of oral contraceptives in triggering a migraine attack and possibly elevating the risk of a stroke in a patient with migraine is discussed. The counseling an optometrist can provide in such cases in discussed. PMID:7148975

  19. Perspectives of Parents and Tutors on a Self-Management Program for Parents/Guardians of Children with Long-Term and Life-Limiting Conditions: "A Life Raft We Can Sail along with"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Julie; Swaby, Laura; Turner, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The lay-led, community-based Supporting Parents Programme (SPP) aims to assist parents caring for children with long-term or life-limiting conditions through support and cognitive behavioral techniques. The value of the SPP from the perspectives of parent participants and tutors was examined in focus groups and telephone interviews. Data were…

  20. The Bidirectional NiFe-hydrogenase in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Is Reduced by Flavodoxin and Ferredoxin and Is Essential under Mixotrophic, Nitrate-limiting Conditions*

    PubMed Central

    Gutekunst, Kirstin; Chen, Xi; Schreiber, Karoline; Kaspar, Ursula; Makam, Srinivas; Appel, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are able to use solar energy for the production of hydrogen. It is generally accepted that cyanobacterial NiFe-hydrogenases are reduced by NAD(P)H. This is in conflict with thermodynamic considerations, as the midpoint potentials of NAD(P)H do not suffice to support the measured hydrogen production under physiological conditions. We show that flavodoxin and ferredoxin directly reduce the bidirectional NiFe-hydrogenase of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 in vitro. A merodiploid ferredoxin-NADP reductase mutant produced correspondingly more photohydrogen. We furthermore found that the hydrogenase receives its electrons via pyruvate:flavodoxin/ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR)-flavodoxin/ferredoxin under fermentative conditions, enabling the cells to gain ATP. These results strongly support that the bidirectional NiFe-hydrogenases in cyanobacteria function as electron sinks for low potential electrons from photosystem I and as a redox balancing device under fermentative conditions. However, the selective advantage of this enzyme is not known. No strong phenotype of mutants lacking the hydrogenase has been found. Because bidirectional hydrogenases are widespread in aquatic nutrient-rich environments that are capable of triggering phytoplankton blooms, we mimicked those conditions by growing cells in the presence of increased amounts of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic nitrogen. Under these conditions the hydrogenase was found to be essential. As these conditions close the two most important sinks for reduced flavodoxin/ferredoxin (CO2-fixation and nitrate reduction), this discovery further substantiates the connection between flavodoxin/ferredoxin and the NiFe-hydrogenase. PMID:24311779