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1

Nutritional Consequences of Oral Conditions and Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health status is influenced by numerous oral diseases and conditions, including loss of teeth and supporting dental alveolar\\u000a bone, xerostomia, loss of taste and smell, orofacial pain, oral movement disorders, and others. Other major factors include\\u000a general health, socioeconomic status (SES), nutritional well-being, and dietary habits (1). Diseases of the oral cavity, both local and systemic, can have a

A. Ross Kerr; Riva Touger-Decker

2

Oral chemotherapy: potential benefits and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although oral chemotherapeutic agents have been available for the last 50 years, some reservations about their efficacy and\\u000a the limited interest of pharmaceutical companies have hampered their widespread use. This situation will probably change in\\u000a the near future as several new oral anticancer agents have been approved and there are more in development.\\u000a \\u000a Convenience and easiness of administration make of

Jaime Feliu Batlle; Enrique Espinosa Arranz; Javier de Castro Carpeño; Enrique Casado Sáez; Pilar Zamora Auñón; Andrés Redondo Sánchez; Manuel González Barón

2004-01-01

3

Respiratory Diseases and Conditions (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

... Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Bronchitis and Emphysema Tuberculosis Sinusitis If you have a respiratory condition, make ... dental office and make sure it is full. Tuberculosis Oral Effects If you have tuberculosis, you may ...

4

42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

2011-10-01

5

42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

2010-10-01

6

Neuromuscular Diseases and Conditions (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

... Muscular Dystrophy Parkinson's Disease Huntington's Disease Myasthenia Gravis Spina Bifida Bell's Palsy Oral Effects Bell's palsy is a ... together to coordinate your medical and dental needs. Spina Bifida Oral Effects People with spina bifida have no ...

7

Oral bismuth for chronic intractable diarrheal conditions?  

PubMed Central

Objective Bismuth has antidiarrheal, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties. We report our single-center experience with oral colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) treatment for patients with chronic intractable diarrhea. Method We interrogated our web-based Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinical and Research database to ascertain clinical details on all patients in our tertiary hospital gastroenterology service treated with CBS between 2000 and 2010. Treatment responses were based on prospective scoring of daily number of liquid stools. Responses were recorded prior to commencement of CBS and at follow-up visits over 12 months. Results Thirty-one patients, mean age 47 years (range 17–79 years) and a mean duration of diarrhea of 22 weeks (range 6–104 weeks), were prescribed CBS at doses ranging from 120 mg to 480 mg/day for ?1 month. Of these, 23 patients (74%) had an initial clinical response and 12 (39%) who continued with this treatment had a sustained clinical response at 1 year. Twelve patients with pouchitis and four patients with indeterminate colitis had initial responses of 92% and 75%, respectively, and sustained responses of 50% and 75%, respectively. Ulcerative colitis patients (n = 5) responded poorly with respect to both initial and sustained responses. Three patients with microscopic colitis showed encouraging initial response of 100% but did not have any sustained benefit. Three of four patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (dIBS) had an initial response and two (50%) had good sustained responses. There were no serious adverse events. One patient stopped therapy because of nausea. Conclusion This is the largest report of oral bismuth treatment in chronic intractable diarrhea. CBS is cheap and appears to have the potential to be effective for ameliorating diarrheal symptoms in indeterminate colitis, pouchitis, and dIBS. An appropriately powered, blinded, randomized, controlled study appears warranted to establish the position of oral bismuth in routine practice. PMID:23515887

Thazhath, Sony S; Haque, Mazhar; Florin, Timothy H

2013-01-01

8

Chronic conditions policies: oral health, a felt absence.  

PubMed

The global health scenario shows an epidemic of non-communicable diseases that lead to long-term chronic conditions, some of which are incurable. Many infectious diseases, owing to their development and length, also generate chronic conditions. Similarly, non-morbid states, such as pregnancy, and some life cycles such as adolescence and ageing, follow the same logic. Among all these chronic conditions there is a significant interrelationship with oral health, both in parallel events and common risk factors. This article presents cross-sectional qualitative research into World Health Organisation recommended health policies to address chronic conditions. Several documents published by the organisation were analysed to verify the presence of references to oral health in relation to chronic conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes as these most frequently have oral manifestations. The analysis showed no significant references to oral health or its indicators within the published texts. The study recognises the value of the work developed by the World Health Organisation, as well as its worldwide leadership role in the development of health policies for chronic conditions. This article proposes a coalition of dentistry organisations that could, in a more forceful and collective way, advocate for a greater presence of oral health in drafting policies addressing chronic conditions. PMID:24571079

Luis Schwab, Gerson; Tetu Moysés, Simone; Helena Sottile França, Beatriz; Iani Werneck, Renata; Frank, Erica; Jorge Moysés, Samuel

2014-04-01

9

Influence of Musculoskeletal Conditions on Oral Health Among Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Both musculoskeletal disorders and diseases of the oral cavity are common and potentially serious problems among older persons, yet little attention has been given to the links between them. Several musculoskeletal diseases, including osteoporosis, Paget’s disease, and arthritic disorders, may directly involve the oral cavity and contiguous structures. Drugs used to treat musculoskeletal diseases, including corticosteroids and bisphosphonates, increase the risk of suppression of the immune system and osteonecrosis of the jaw, respectively. Many people with disabling osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and other conditions have difficulty practicing good oral hygiene and traveling to dental offices for professional help. Various inexpensive measures can help such individuals, including education of their caregivers and provision of antimicrobial mouthwashes and special toothbrushes. PMID:18511715

Kelsey, Jennifer L.; Lamster, Ira B.

2008-01-01

10

Correlation of oral hygiene practices, smoking and oral health conditions with self perceived halitosis amongst undergraduate dental students  

PubMed Central

Objective: The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of oral hygiene practices, smoking habits and halitosis among undergraduate dental students and correlating the oral hygiene practices, oral health conditions to the prevalence of self perceived oral malodour. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among 277 male and female students. A questionnaire was developed to assess the self-reported perception of oral breath, awareness of bad breath, timing of bad breath, oral hygiene practices, caries and bleeding gums, dryness of the mouth, smoking and tongue coating. Results: The results indicate female students had better oral hygiene practices. Significantly less self-reported oral bad breath (P = 0.007) was found in female dental students (40%) as compared to their male counterparts (58%). It was found that smoking and dryness of mouth had statistically significant correlation with halitosis (P = 0.026, P = 0.001). Presence of other oral conditions such as tongue coating and dental caries and bleeding gums also showed higher prevalence of halitosis in dental students. Conclusion: A direct correlation exists between oral hygiene practices and oral health conditions with halitosis. Females exhibited better oral hygiene practices and less prevalence of halitosis as compared to male students. PMID:24678201

Setia, Saniya; Pannu, Parampreet; Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Galhotra, Virat; Ahluwalia, Pooja; Sofat, Anjali

2014-01-01

11

[An oral function improvement program utilizing health behavior theories ameliorates oral functions and oral hygienic conditions of pre-frail elderly persons].  

PubMed

Oral function improvement programs utilizing health behavior theories are considered to be effective in preventing the need for long-term social care. In the present study, an oral function improvement program based upon health behavior theories was designed, and its utility was assessed in 102 pre-frail elderly persons (33 males, 69 females, mean age: 76.9 +/- 5.7) considered to be in potential need of long-term social care and attending a long-term care prevention class in Sayama City, Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The degree of improvement in oral functions (7 items) and oral hygienic conditions (3 items) was assessed by comparing oral health before and after participation in the program. The results showed statistically significant improvements in the following oral functions: (1) lip functions (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllable "Pa"), (2) tongue functions, (3) tongue root motor skills (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllables "Ta" and "Ka"), (4) tongue extension/retraction, (5) side-to-side tongue movement functions, (6) cheek motor skills, and (7) repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST). The following measures of oral hygiene also showed a statistically significant improvement: (1) debris on dentures or teeth, (2) coated tongue, and (3) frequency of oral cleaning. These findings demonstrated that an improvement program informed by health behavior theories is useful in improving oral functions and oral hygiene conditions. PMID:25244722

Hideo, Sakaguchi

2014-06-01

12

Chewing Xylitol Gum Improves Self-Rated and Objective Indicators of Oral Health Status under Conditions Interrupting Regular Oral Hygiene.  

PubMed

Chewing xylitol gum provides oral health benefits including inhibiting Streptococcus mutans plaque. It is thought to be especially effective in conditions where it is difficult to perform daily oral cleaning. Our study aim was to determine the effects of chewing xylitol gum on self-rated and objective oral health status under a condition interfering with oral hygiene maintenance. A randomized controlled intervention trial was conducted on 55 healthy ? 20-year-old men recruited from the Japan Ground Self Defense Force who were undergoing field training. Participants were randomly assigned to a test group (chewing gum; n = 27) or a control group (no gum; n = 28) and the researchers were blinded to the group assignments. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores of oral conditions subjectively evaluated oral health, and the stimulated salivary bacteria quantity objectively evaluated oral health 1 day before field training (baseline) and 4 days after the beginning of field training (follow-up). VAS scores of all three oral conditions significantly increased in the control group (malodor: p < 0.001; discomfort: p < 0.001; dryness: p < 0.001), but only two VAS scores increased in the test group (malodor: p = 0.021; discomfort: p = 0.002). The number of salivary total bacteria significantly increased in the control group (p < 0.01), while no significant change was observed in the test group (p = 0.668). Chewing xylitol gum positively affects self-rated and objective oral health status by controlling oral hygiene under conditions that interfere with oral hygiene maintenance. PMID:25744362

Hashiba, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Kenji; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Takeshita, Toru; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

2015-01-01

13

Oral methylphenidate establishes a conditioned place preference in rats  

PubMed Central

Emerging data suggest that illicit methylphenidate abuse is a growing problem. Although abuse of the drug typically occurs by the intranasal route, oral (per os; p.o.) methylphenidate also has abuse potential. The present study compared the effects of p.o. and intraperitoneal (i.p.) methylphenidate in rats using the conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. Young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to consume oyster crackers injected initially with saline. Next, rats were randomly assigned to receive p.o. or i.p. methylphenidate (3 or 10 mg/kg) or saline immediately or 30 min prior to 30-min conditioning trials. Methylphenidate or saline were each paired 4 times with an end compartment; preference for the methylphenidate-paired compartment was then assessed on a drug-free session. When given immediately prior to conditioning, significant CPP was obtained with both 3 and 10 mg/kg of i.p. methylphenidate, but only with 10 mg/kg of p.o. methylphenidate. When given 30 min prior to conditioning, there was no evidence of CPP for any dose of i.p. or p.o. methylphenidate. These findings are the first demonstration that p.o. methylphenidate has rewarding effects, although i.p. methylphenidate is obtained at a 3 mg/kg dose which did not establish CPP with p.o. administration. The lack of CPP following 30 min pretreatment also suggests that conditioning may require the CS to be associated with a US of ascending, rather than descending, brain levels of methylphenidate. These results are consistent with clinical evidence of the reduced abuse liability of p.o. methylphenidate relative to methylphenidate taken by other (e.g., intranasal) routes. PMID:20974224

Wooters, Thomas E.; Walton, Matthew T.; Bardo, Michael T.

2010-01-01

14

Diagnostic aids for detection of oral precancerous conditions  

PubMed Central

Oral cancer has a tendency to be detected at late stage which is detrimental to the patients because of its high mortality and morbidity rates. Early detection of oral cancer is therefore important to reduce the burden of this devastating disease. In this review article, the most common oral precancerous lesions are discussed and the importance of early diagnosis is emphasized. In addition, the most common non-invasive oral cancer devices that can aid the general practitioners in early diagnosis are also discussed. PMID:23743617

Messadi, Diana V

2013-01-01

15

Allelic imbalance in oral lichen planus and assessment of its classification as a premalignant condition  

PubMed Central

OLP is a relatively common immune-mediated mucosal condition with a predilection for middle-aged women. Although classified as a premalignant condition, this classification remains controversial. Using stringent diagnostic criteria, some authors have found that OLP patients are not at increased risk for oral SCC. Credible but limited genetic evidence also indicates that epithelial tissues from OLP patients diagnosed using stringent criteria differs from premalignant or malignant oral lesions but is similar to epithelium from benign oral lesions. To further investigate this genetic line of evidence, biopsy specimens diagnosed as fibroma, OLP, low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and SCC were retrieved from the archives of the Oral Pathology Consultants at the Ohio State University. Using laser capture microdissection, tissue of interest was captured from each case and DNA subsequently extracted. Fluorescently labeled PCR primers were used to amplify DNA at 3 tumor suppressor gene loci (3p14.2, 9p21, and 17p13) and evaluated for LOH or microsatellite instability (MSI). OLP was found to be significantly different from low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and SCC when LOH/MSI was found at more than 1 loci (P = .011, P = .032, P = .003), but not different from benign fibromas (P = .395). In agreement with previous studies, well-documented cases of OLP diagnosed using stringent criteria exhibit a genetic profile more similar to a benign or reactive process than a premalignant/malignant one. These findings do not support the classification of OLP as a premalignant condition. PMID:21764610

Accurso, Brent T.; Warner, Blake M.; Knobloch, Thomas J.; Weghorst, Christopher M.; Shumway, Brian S.; Allen, Carl M.; Kalmar, John R.

2012-01-01

16

Oral health conditions affect functional and social activities of terminally-ill cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose Oral conditions are established complications in terminally-ill cancer patients. Yet despite significant morbidity, the characteristics and impact of oral conditions in these patients are poorly documented. The study objective was to characterize oral conditions in terminally-ill cancer patients to determine the presence, severity, and the functional and social impact of these oral conditions. Methods This was an observational clinical study including terminally-ill cancer patients (2.5–3 week life expectancy). Data were obtained via the Oral Problems Scale (OPS) that measures the presence of subjective xerostomia, orofacial pain, taste change, and the functional/social impact of oral conditions and a demographic questionnaire. A standardized oral examination was used to assess objective salivary hypofunction, fungal infection, mucosal erythema, and ulceration. Regression analysis and t test investigated the associations between measures. Results Of 104 participants, most were ?50 years of age, female, and high-school educated; 45% were African American, 43% Caucasian, and 37% married. Oral conditions frequencies were: salivary hypofunction (98%), mucosal erythema (50%), ulceration (20%), fungal infection (36%), and other oral problems (46%). Xerostomia, taste change, and orofacial pain all had significant functional impact; p<.001, p=.042 and p<.001, respectively. Orofacial pain also had a significant social impact (p<.001). Patients with oral ulcerations had significantly more orofacial pain with a social impact than patients without ulcers (p=.003). Erythema was significantly associated with fungal infection and with mucosal ulceration (p<.001). Conclusions Oral conditions significantly affect functional and social activities in terminally-ill cancer patients. Identification and management of oral conditions in these patients should therefore be an important clinical consideration. PMID:24232310

Fischer, D.J.; Epstein, J.B.; Yao, Y.; Wilkie, D.J.

2013-01-01

17

14 CFR 135.227 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.227 Icing conditions...icing conditions. (f) If current weather reports and briefing information relied...encountered during the flight because of changed weather conditions since the forecast, the...

2011-01-01

18

14 CFR 135.227 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.227 Icing conditions...icing conditions. (f) If current weather reports and briefing information relied...encountered during the flight because of changed weather conditions since the forecast, the...

2012-01-01

19

14 CFR 135.227 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.227 Icing conditions...icing conditions. (f) If current weather reports and briefing information relied...encountered during the flight because of changed weather conditions since the forecast, the...

2013-01-01

20

14 CFR 135.227 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.227 Icing conditions...icing conditions. (f) If current weather reports and briefing information relied...encountered during the flight because of changed weather conditions since the forecast, the...

2014-01-01

21

14 CFR 135.227 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.227 Icing conditions...icing conditions. (f) If current weather reports and briefing information relied...encountered during the flight because of changed weather conditions since the forecast, the...

2010-01-01

22

Development of a Multispecies Oral Bacterial Community in a Saliva-Conditioned Flow Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial communities within the human oral cavity are dynamic associations of more than 500 bacterial species that form biofilms on the soft and hard tissues of the mouth. Understanding the development and spatial organization of oral biofilms has been facilitated by the use of in vitro models. We used a saliva- conditioned flow cell, with saliva as the sole nutritional

Jamie S. Foster; Paul E. Kolenbrander

2004-01-01

23

Survey of hospital doctors' attitudes and knowledge of oral conditions in older patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was designed to assess the views and knowledge of hospital doctors in general and geriatric medicine on oral health in older people. Eighty two doctors in general and geriatric medicine at two hospitals were shown 12 colour slides of oral mucosal conditions and asked to give a diagnosis for each slide and complete a questionnaire. Completed questionnaires with

R Morgan; J Tsang; N Harrington; L Fook

2001-01-01

24

LIMITING CONDITIONAL DISTRIBUTIONS FOR BIRTH-DEATH PROCESSES  

E-print Network

LIMITING CONDITIONAL DISTRIBUTIONS FOR BIRTH-DEATH PROCESSES M. Kijima1 , University of Tsukuba M-stationary distributions for a non-explosive, evanescent birth-death process for which absorption is certain, and established conditions for the existence of the corresponding limiting conditional distributions. Our purpose

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

25

E-Cadherin truncation and sialyl Lewis-X overexpression in oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral precancerous conditions.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to determine significance of E-cadherin, a cell adhesion molecule, and sialyl Lewis-X (sLeX), a cell surface antigen, in oral carcinogenesis. Expressions of E-cadherin and sLeX were detected using western blot analysis from oral malignant (n=25), and oral precancerous tissues (OPC, n=20) and their adjacent normal tissues. An altered expression of E-cadherin (E-cad) and sLeX was observed in malignant and precancerous tissues. E-cad western blot revealed presence of two bands, a 120 kDa (native, E-cad120) and a 97 kDa (known as truncated E-cad97). The accumulation of truncated E-cad97 and sLeX in malignant and OPC tissues compared to their adjacent normal tissues was observed. Receiver's Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis showed good discriminatory efficacy of E-cad97, E-cad97:120 ratio and sLeX between the malignant and adjacent. normal tissues. Further, a positive correlation of E-cad97 and sLeX overexpression with advanced stage of the disease and lymphnode metastasis was observed. The data suggest that E-cadherin truncation and sLeX overexpression are early events which may facilitate the tumor cells to metastasize. Also, overexpression E-cad97 and sLeX in OPC tissues may be useful to predict metastatic potentials of tumors at an early stage of oral carcinogenesis. Key words: Oral cancer, oral precancerous conditions, E-cadherin, sialyl Lewis-X, metastasis. PMID:19152244

Shah, M H; Sainger, R N; Telang, S D; Pancholi, G H; Shukla, S N; Patel, P S

2009-01-01

26

[Association between social capital and oral health conditions and behavior].  

PubMed

The theory of social capital seeks to explain social inequality in health through the interaction of social, economic and environmental factors and has been associated with many health problems, though there is still little research in the area of oral health. The scope of this study was to evaluate the association between social capital and socio-demographic and behavioral factors related to oral health among schoolchildren aged from 15 to 19. A random sample of 1,417 adolescents filled out a self-administered survey and the data were descriptively analyzed (simple frequencies, central tendency and variability measurement) and inferential statistics (Pearson's chi-square test). The results showed that the social capital which is more prevalent among adolescents was intermediate level, as well as between each of its dimensions, except for social action where the majority were classified as lower-leveled. Among the variables analyzed, social capital was statistically associated only with sex, with women being more likely to be classified under the 'low social capital' label. This area still needs considerable research to increase theoretical-conceptual and methodological maturity in order to better understand the social contexts that are essential for formulating effective public health policies. PMID:24897493

Bezerra, Isabella Azevedo; Goes, Paulo Sávio Angeiras de

2014-06-01

27

Global burden of oral conditions in 1990-2010: a systematic analysis.  

PubMed

The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2010 Study produced comparable estimates of the burden of 291 diseases and injuries in 1990, 2005, and 2010. This article reports on the global burden of untreated caries, severe periodontitis, and severe tooth loss in 2010 and compares those figures with new estimates for 1990. We used disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs) metrics to quantify burden. Oral conditions affected 3.9 billion people, and untreated caries in permanent teeth was the most prevalent condition evaluated for the entire GBD 2010 Study (global prevalence of 35% for all ages combined). Oral conditions combined accounted for 15 million DALYs globally (1.9% of all YLDs; 0.6% of all DALYs), implying an average health loss of 224 years per 100,000 population. DALYs due to oral conditions increased 20.8% between 1990 and 2010, mainly due to population growth and aging. While DALYs due to severe periodontitis and untreated caries increased, those due to severe tooth loss decreased. DALYs differed by age groups and regions, but not by genders. The findings highlight the challenge in responding to the diversity of urgent oral health needs worldwide, particularly in developing communities. PMID:23720570

Marcenes, W; Kassebaum, N J; Bernabé, E; Flaxman, A; Naghavi, M; Lopez, A; Murray, C J L

2013-07-01

28

Oral Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing\\/recovering from chemo-\\/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases.

Irène Hitz Lindenmüller; J. Thomas Lambrecht

2011-01-01

29

Oral recall of limited English proficient students: a textual analysis using the STEP (Subordination Technique for Evaluating Passages) procedure  

E-print Network

The oral recall technique provides a comprehensive and useful analysis of reading comprehension. The assessment of Limited English Proficient (LEP) students is especially important; by discovering their patterns of recall, they can be given special...

Kibler, Amanda

2013-02-22

30

National Survey of Oral/Dental Conditions Related to Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Mexican Adults  

PubMed Central

Oral diseases are a major burden on individuals and health systems. The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of tobacco and alcohol were associated with the prevalence of oral/dental problems in Mexican adults. Using data from the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2003, a cross-sectional study part of the World Health Survey, dental information from a representative sample of Mexico (n = 22,229, N = 51,155,740) was used to document self-reported oral/dental problems in the 12 months prior to the survey. Questionnaires were used to collect information related to sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and other risk factors. Three models were generated for each age group (18–30, 31–45 and 46–98 years). The prevalence of oral/dental conditions was 25.7%. Adjusting for sex, schooling, socioeconomic position, diabetes, and self-reported health, those who used tobacco (sometimes or daily) (OR = 1.15, p = 0.070; OR = 1.24, p < 0.01; and OR = 1.16, p < 0.05, for each age group respectively) or alcohol (moderate or high) (OR = 1.26, p < 0.001; OR = 1.18, p < 0.01 and OR = 1.30, p < 0.001, for each age group respectively) had a higher risk of reporting oral/dental problems. Because tobacco and alcohol use were associated with self-reported oral/dental problems in one out of four adults, it appears advisable to ascertain how direct is such link; more direct effects would lend greater weight to adopting measures to reduce consumption of tobacco and alcohol for the specific purpose of improving oral health. PMID:24642844

Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

2014-01-01

31

Survey of hospital doctors' attitudes and knowledge of oral conditions in older patients  

PubMed Central

The study was designed to assess the views and knowledge of hospital doctors in general and geriatric medicine on oral health in older people. Eighty two doctors in general and geriatric medicine at two hospitals were shown 12 colour slides of oral mucosal conditions and asked to give a diagnosis for each slide and complete a questionnaire. Completed questionnaires with the answers to the coloured slides were returned completed by 70 doctors.?The majority of doctors (84%) felt it was important to examine older patients' mouths, however only 19% (?2 p=0.0001) routinely do so. If asked to prescribe nystatin by the nursing staff, 30% said they would do so without examining the mouth itself. Only 9% of doctors knew that wearing dentures was a specific risk factor for oral candidiasis (?2 p=0.001). Altogether 56% of doctors did not feel confident in examining the oral cavity and most (77%) did not think they had had sufficient training in this examination. Only two doctors correctly diagnosed all of the slides. An early squamous carcinoma was misdiagnosed by 80% of the doctors (?2 p=0.0001).?Hospital doctors do not routinely inspect older patients' mouths. Even if shown slides of typical oral mucosal lesions many hospital doctors are unable to diagnose them. Issues on training need to be addressed. From the patients' point of view a public health campaign is required to educate older people on the need for a regular dental review and be aware that doctors may not be able to diagnose serious oral conditions.? PMID:11375454

Morgan, R; Tsang, J; Harrington, N; Fook, L

2001-01-01

32

Health Condition, Impairment, Activity Limitations: Relationships With Emotions and Control Cognitions in People With Disabling Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To gain a better understanding of the influence of the health condition on emotions and control cognitions by using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. The relations between health condition, impairment, activity limitations, and emotions or control cognitions were investigated in people with 1 of 2 different disabling conditions, chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP) or

Carin Schröder; Marie Johnston; Val Morrison; Laurien Teunissen; Nicolette Notermans; Nico van Meeteren

2007-01-01

33

Flood control reservoir operations for conditions of limited storage capacity  

E-print Network

-based methodology for developing emergency operation schedules (EOS). EOS are decision tools that provide guidance to reservoir operators in charge of making real-time release decisions during major flood events. A computer program named REOS was created... the required releases to limit storage to the capacity available based on the probabilistic properties of future flows, conditional to current streamflow conditions. The final product is a series of alternative risk-based EOS in which releases, specified...

Rivera Ramirez, Hector David

2005-02-17

34

Investigation of the Functional Role of P-Glycoprotein in Limiting the Oral Bioavailability of Lumefantrine  

PubMed Central

In the quest to explore the reason for the low and variable bioavailability of lumefantrine, we investigated the possible role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in lumefantrine intestinal absorption. An in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion study in rats with the P-gp inhibitor verapamil or quinidine and an ATPase assay with human P-gp membranes indicated that lumefantrine is a substrate of P-gp which limits its intestinal absorption. To confirm these findings, an in vivo pharmacokinetic study was performed in rats. The oral administration of verapamil (10 mg/kg of body weight) along with lumefantrine caused a significant increase in its bioavailability with a concomitant decrease in clearance. The increase in bioavailability of lumefantrine could be due to inhibition of P-gp and/or cytochrome P450 3A in the intestine/liver by verapamil. However, in a rat intestinal microsomal stability study, lumefantrine was found to be resistant to oxidative metabolism. Further, an in situ permeation study clearly showed a significant role of P-gp in limiting the oral absorption of lumefantrine. Thus, the increase in lumefantrine bioavailability with verapamil is attributed in part to the P-gp-inhibitory ability of verapamil. In conclusion, lumefantrine is a substrate of P-gp, and active efflux by P-gp across the intestine partly contributed to the low/variable bioavailability of lumefantrine. PMID:24189249

Raju, Kanumuri S. R.; Singh, Sheelendra P.; Taneja, Isha

2014-01-01

35

Homogenization limit of a parabolic equation with nonlinear boundary conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consider the parabolic equation u=a(u)u+f(u), -10, with nonlinear boundary conditions: u(-1,t)=g(u(-1,t)/?), u(1,t)=-g(u(1,t)/?), where ?>0 is a parameter, g is a function which takes values near its supremum "frequently". Each almost periodic function is a special example of g. We consider a time-global solution u of (E)-(NBC) and show that its homogenization limit as ??0 is the solution ? of (E) with linear boundary conditions: ?(-1,t)=supg, ?(1,t)=-supg, provided ? moves upward monotonically. When g is almost periodic, Lou (preprint) [21] obtained the (unique) almost periodic traveling wave U of (E)-(NBC). This paper proves that the homogenization limit of U is a classical traveling wave of (E)-(LBC).

Lou, Bendong

36

Oral myiasis.  

PubMed

Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

2015-01-01

37

Oral Myiasis  

PubMed Central

Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

2015-01-01

38

Stability of vaccinia-vectored recombinant oral rabies vaccine under field conditions: a 3-year study.  

PubMed

Rabies is an incurable zoonotic disease caused by rabies virus, a member of the rhabdovirus family. It is transmitted through the bite of an infected animal. Control methods, including oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programs, have led to a reduction in the spread and prevalence of the disease in wildlife. This study evaluated the stability of RABORAL, a recombinant vaccinia virus vaccine that is used in oral rabies vaccination programs. The vaccine was studied in various field microenvironments in order to describe its viability and facilitate effective baiting strategies. Field microenvironments influenced the stability of this vaccine in this study. This study emphasizes the importance of understanding how vaccines perform under varying field conditions in order to plan effective baiting strategies. PMID:22468025

Hermann, Joseph R; Fry, Alethea M; Siev, David; Slate, Dennis; Lewis, Charles; Gatewood, Donna M

2011-10-01

39

Biological conversion of synthesis gas. Limiting conditions/scale-up  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research is to develop a technically and economically feasible process for biologically producing H(sub 2) from synthesis gas while, at the same time, removing harmful sulfur gas compounds. Six major tasks are being studied: 1. Culture development, where the best cultures are selected and conditions optimized for simultaneous hydrogen production and sulfur gas removal; 2. Mass transfer and kinetic studies in which equations necessary for process design are developed; 3. Bioreactor design studies, where the cultures chosen in Task 1 are utilized in continuous reaction vessels to demonstrate process feasibility and define operating conditions; 4. Evaluation of biological synthetic gas conversion under limiting conditions in preparation for industrial demonstration studies; 5. Process scale-up where laboratory data are scaled to larger-size units in preparation for process demonstration in a pilot-scale unit; and 6. Economic evaluation, where process simulations are used to project process economics and identify high cost areas during sensitivity analyses.

Basu, R.; Klasson, K.T.; Takriff, M.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

1993-09-01

40

Oral Direct Renin Inhibition: Premise, Promise, and Potential Limitations of a New Class of Antihypertensive Drug  

PubMed Central

The first oral direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, recently received approval for the treatment of hypertension. This article addresses the premise, promise, and potential limitations of this new class of renin-angiotensin system inhibitor. While aliskiren adds to a list of > 100 drugs approved for the treatment of hypertension, its introduction into clinical medicine is of particular interest because of the novel mechanism of action— inhibition of renin’s catalytic activity, the most proximal and rate-limiting step in renin-angiotensin system activation. By producing more complete renin-angiotensin system inhibition than with existing agents, direct renin inhibitors may afford greater protection from hypertensive complications. Other potential advantages include additional blood pressure reduction when used in combination therapy, a placebo-like side-effect profile, avid renal concentration, and long duration of action. Potential limitations include modest levels of blood pressure reduction that are equivalent to but not greater than angiotensin receptor blockers, reduced gastrointestinal absorption with a high fat meal, and large reactive increases in renin secretion—the functional importance of which is under intense investigation. The results of outcomes trials are eagerly awaited. PMID:18374681

Shafiq, Moiz M.; Menon, Dileep V.; Victor, Ronald G.

2008-01-01

41

Acoustic Microscopy Analyses to Determine Good vs. Failed Tissue Engineered Oral Mucosa Under Normal or Thermally Stressed Culture Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) ultrasonic profilometry to determine acceptable vs. failed tissue engineered\\u000a oral mucosa. Specifically, ex vivo-produced oral mucosal equivalents (EVPOMEs) under normal or thermally stressed culture conditions were scanned with the SAM\\u000a operator blinded to the culture conditions. As seeded cells proliferate, they fill in and smooth out the surface irregularities;\\u000a they then stratify and

Frank Winterroth; Junho Lee; Shiuhyang Kuo; J. Brian Fowlkes; Stephen E. Feinberg; Scott J. Hollister; Kyle W. Hollman

2011-01-01

42

Oxygen Consumption Rates of Bacteria under Nutrient-Limited Conditions  

PubMed Central

Many environments on Earth experience nutrient limitation and as a result have nongrowing or very slowly growing bacterial populations. To better understand bacterial respiration under environmentally relevant conditions, the effect of nutrient limitation on respiration rates of heterotrophic bacteria was measured. The oxygen consumption and population density of batch cultures of Escherichia coli K-12, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 were tracked for up to 200 days. The oxygen consumption per CFU (QO2) declined by more than 2 orders of magnitude for all three strains as they transitioned from nutrient-abundant log-phase growth to the nutrient-limited early stationary phase. The large reduction in QO2 from growth to stationary phase suggests that nutrient availability is an important factor in considering environmental respiration rates. Following the death phase, during the long-term stationary phase (LTSP), QO2 values of the surviving population increased with time and more cells were respiring than formed colonies. Within the respiring population, a subpopulation of highly respiring cells increased in abundance with time. Apparently, as cells enter LTSP, there is a viable but not culturable population whose bulk community and per cell respiration rates are dynamic. This result has a bearing on how minimal energy requirements are met, especially in nutrient-limited environments. The minimal QO2 rates support the extension of Kleiber's law to the mass of a bacterium (100-fg range). PMID:23770901

Riedel, Timothy E.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Finkel, Steven E.

2013-01-01

43

Amyloid fibrillation of insulin under water-limited conditions.  

PubMed

Amyloid fibrillation in water-organic mixtures has been widely studied to understand the effect of protein-solvent interactions on the fibrillation process. In this study, we monitored insulin fibrillation in formamide and its methyl derivatives (formamide, N-methyl formamide, N,N-dimethyl formamide) in the presence and absence of water. These model solvent systems mimic the cellular environment by providing denaturing conditions and a hydrophobic environment with limited water content. Thioflavin T (ThT) assay revealed that binary mixtures of water with formamide and its methyl derivatives enhanced fibrillation rates and ?-sheet abundance, whereas organic solvents suppressed insulin fibrillation. We utilized solution small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to investigate the correlation between protein-solvent interactions and insulin fibrillation. SAXS experiments combined with simulated annealing of the protein indicated that the degree of denaturation of the hydrophobic core region at residues B11-B17 determines the fibrillation rate. In addition, DSC experiments suggested a crucial role of hydrophobic interactions in the fibrillation process. These results imply that an environment with limited water, which imitates a lipid membrane system, accelerates protein denaturation and the formation of intermolecular hydrophobic interactions during amyloid fibrillation. PMID:25418175

Choi, Tae Su; Lee, Jong Wha; Jin, Kyeong Sik; Kim, Hugh I

2014-10-21

44

Variations in the Social Impact of Oral Conditions Among Older Adults in South Australia, Ontario, and North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies among older adults have demonstrated that oral disease frequently leads to dysfunction, discomfort, and disability. This study aimed to assess variations in the social impact of oral conditions among six strata of people aged 65 years and older: residents of metropolitan Adelaide and rural Mt Gambier, South Australia; residents of metropolitan Toronto-North York and non-metropolitan Simcoe-Sudbury counties, Ontario,

G. D. Slade; A. J. Spencer; D. Locker; R. J. Hunt; R. P. Strauss; J. D. Beck

1996-01-01

45

A double blind, randomised placebo controlled trial of topical 2% viscous lidocaine in improving oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Painful infectious mouth conditions are a common presentation to emergency departments. Although self limiting, painful ulcerative lesions and inflamed mucosa can decrease oral intake and can lead to dehydration. Oral analgesia is of limited efficacy and is often refused by the patient. Despite widespread use of oral 2% viscous lidocaine for many years, there is little evidence for its efficacy as an analgesic and in aiding oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions. This study aims to establish the effectiveness of 2% viscous lidocaine in increasing oral intake in these children by comparing it with placebo. Methods/Design This study is a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial of children between 6 months and 8 years of age with painful infectious mouth conditions defined as gingivostomatitis (herpetic or non herpetic), ulcerative pharyngitis, herpangina and hand foot and mouth disease as assessed by the treating clinician in association with a history of poor oral fluid intake. It will be conducted at a single tertiary paediatric emergency department in Melbourne Australia. 20 patients have already been randomised to receive 2% lidocaine or placebo in a pilot study to determine the sample size in a preplanned adaptive design. A further 80 patients will be randomised to receive either 2% lidocaine or placebo. The placebo agent is identical to lidocaine in terms of appearance, flavour and smell. All clinical and research staff involved, patients and their parents will be blinded to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint is the amount of fluid ingested by each child, expressed in ml/kg, within 60 minutes from the time of administration of the study mixture. Secondary endpoints are the proportion of patients ingesting 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg at 30 and 60 minutes after drug administration and the incidence of adverse events. Longer term outcomes will include the proportion of patients requiring hospital admission and length of emergency department stay. Discussion This trial will define the role of 2% lidocaine in the treatment of painful infectious mouth conditions Trial registration The trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry - ACTRN12609000566235. PMID:22104033

2011-01-01

46

Limits of deterministic predictability in limited area models due to sensible dependence on initial conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the late 50ies and the 60ies the limit of predictability of weather has been shown to be 5 to 14 days by theoretical and numerical studies as consequence of sensible dependence on initial conditions. The simulation of an ensemble is the standard approach to address this uncertainty. Climatological means over time scales of 30 years are regarded as 'certain' under constant climate forcing conditions. A systematic analysis of predictability limits on different space and time scales in the earth system is still missing. It is relevant in particular for time scales between the time scales of weather and climate and helps avoiding misinterpretation of the results and/or to find an optimal configuration for the ensemble. In terms of statistics, the predictability of weather can be associated with the predictability of 6h and 100 km mean values. In mid latitudes it reaches a saturation value at the time scale of baroclinic instability Ti of 3-5 days. In the case of a purely stochastic process, this uncertainty is decreasing with N- where N is the number of instability time periods. One of the open questions is, which field variables exhibit a purely stochastic behavior and where. The application of Earth System Models is computationally demanding. Chaotic behavior may occur in some regions at certain conditions affecting the analysis. A huge number of degrees of freedom makes very long simulation times necessary. The application of limited area modeling opens the opportunity to analyse the behavior in different regions independently und thus to investigate the stochastic properties in different climates. Three different regions Europe, Africa and Central America have been simulated twice (reference and disturbance run) at standard grid resolution of 18 to 25 km using the community model COSMO-CLM. In Europe a purely stochastic behavior was found for the momentum, pressure and precipitation. A strong memory effect was found for soil moisture and temperature and a weak memory effect for the atmospheric temperature. The analysis of the simulation for Africa and Meso-America is ongoing. Predictability limits for different thresholds and variables can be calculated in terms of the ensemble size needed to keep the uncertainty below the threshold. Such maps will be presented and the differences between the variables and regions will be discussed.

Will, Andreas

2014-05-01

47

Development of a Multispecies Oral Bacterial Community in a Saliva-Conditioned Flow Cell  

PubMed Central

Microbial communities within the human oral cavity are dynamic associations of more than 500 bacterial species that form biofilms on the soft and hard tissues of the mouth. Understanding the development and spatial organization of oral biofilms has been facilitated by the use of in vitro models. We used a saliva-conditioned flow cell, with saliva as the sole nutritional source, as a model to examine the development of multispecies biofilm communities from an inoculum containing the coaggregation partners Streptococcus gordonii, Actinomyces naeslundii, Veillonella atypica, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Biofilms inoculated with individual species in a sequential order were compared with biofilms inoculated with coaggregates of the four species. Our results indicated that flow cells inoculated sequentially produced biofilms with larger biovolumes compared to those biofilms inoculated with coaggregates. Individual-species biovolumes within the four-species communities also differed between the two modes of inoculation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with genus- and species-specific probes revealed that the majority of cells in both sequentially and coaggregate-inoculated biofilms were S. gordonii, regardless of the inoculation order. However, the representation of A. naeslundii and V. atypica was significantly higher in biofilms inoculated with coaggregates compared to sequentially inoculated biofilms. Thus, these results indicate that the development of multispecies biofilm communities is influenced by coaggregations preformed in planktonic phase. Coaggregating bacteria such as certain streptococci are especially adapted to primary colonization of saliva-conditioned surfaces independent of the mode of inoculation and order of addition in the multispecies inoculum. Preformed coaggregations favor other bacterial strains and may facilitate symbiotic relationships. PMID:15240317

Foster, Jamie S.; Kolenbrander, Paul E.

2004-01-01

48

Oral health conditions and behaviors among hearing impaired and normal hearing college students at Ratchasuda College, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.  

PubMed

This study aimed to explore oral health and oral health related behaviors among hearing impaired and normal hearing students at Rachasuda College. The association between socioeconomic factors, hearing status, oral health behaviors, oral hygiene levels and dental caries status were also examined. The students filled out a self-administered questionnaire with assistance of a sign language video to obtain personal and behavior information. A total of 180 students, 83 normal hearing and 97 hearing impaired students completed the questionnaire and underwent an oral examination. The prevalences of caries were 53.6% and 50.6% among students with hearing impairment and normal hearing, respectively (p=0.354). After age stratification, the hearing impaired students aged 18-21 years had significantly less filled teeth (p=0.012), and those older than 21 years had less missing teeth due to caries than normal-hearing students (p=0.023). Poor oral hygiene was found in 51.8% and 42.2% of normal and hearing-impaired students, respectively (p=0.365). Caries status was significantly associated with maternal education level (OR 3.56; 95% CI: 1.52-8.32) and oral hygiene (OR 3.26; 95% CI: 1.64-6.45). The high prevalence of dental caries and poor oral hygiene among college students is alarming. Hearing impairment did not appear to affect the prevalences of these conditions compared to those with normal hearing. Oral health education tools need to be developed and utilized for both normal hearing and hearing impaired college students in Thailand. PMID:25417527

Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Kositpumivate, Waritorn

2014-09-01

49

Oral health conditions and behaviors among hearing impaired and normal hearing college students at Ratchasuda College, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.  

PubMed

This study aimed to explore oral health and oral health related behaviors among hearing impaired and normal hearing students at Rachasuda College. The association between socioeconomic factors, hearing status, oral health behaviors, oral hygiene levels and dental caries status were also examined. The students filled out a self-administered questionnaire with assistance of a sign language video to obtain personal and behavior information. A total of 180 students, 83 normal hearing and 97 hearing impaired students completed the questionnaire and underwent an oral examination. The prevalences of caries were 53.6% and 50.6% among students with hearing impairment and normal hearing, respectively (p=0.354). After age stratification, the hearing impaired students aged 18-21 years had significantly less filled teeth (p=0.012), and those older than 21 years had less missing teeth due to caries than normal-hearing students (p=0.023). Poor oral hygiene was found in 51.8% and 42.2% of normal and hearing-impaired students, respectively (p=0.365). Caries status was significantly associated with maternal education level (OR 3.56; 95% CI: 1.52-8.32) and oral hygiene (OR 3.26; 95% CI: 1.64-6.45). The high prevalence of dental caries and poor oral hygiene among college students is alarming. Hearing impairment did not appear to affect the prevalences of these conditions compared to those with normal hearing. Oral health education tools need to be developed and utilized for both normal hearing and hearing impaired college students in Thailand. PMID:25507255

Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Kositpumivate, Waritorn

2014-09-01

50

Oral Administration of Fermented Probiotics Improves the Condition of Feces in Adult Horses  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The effects of probiotics on horses are still controversial. The present study was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study designed to evaluate the ability of probiotics to improve intestinal conditions in adult horses. Fermented probiotics were administered to 10 healthy adult geldings for 28 days. The clinical condition of the horses was monitored daily, and the blood and feces were biochemically analyzed every 14 days. In the probiotic-treated group, the concentration of carboxylic acids in the feces was increased at days 14 and 28. In contrast to the fecal pH in the control group, which increased at days 14 and 28, the fecal pH in the probiotic-treated group did not increase. Additionally, the relative amounts of enteropathogenic bacterial DNA were diminished in the probiotic-treated group. These results suggest that probiotic bacteria proliferated in the equine intestine. No instances of abnormal clinical conditions or abnormal values in blood tests were observed throughout the study. Oral administration of fermented probiotics may have the ability to improve the intestinal environment biochemically and microbiologically without the risk of adverse effects. PMID:25558179

ISHIZAKA, Saori; MATSUDA, Akira; AMAGAI, Yosuke; OIDA, Kumiko; JANG, Hyosun; UEDA, Yuko; TAKAI, Masaki; TANAKA, Akane; MATSUDA, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

51

Autofluorescence guided diagnostic evaluation of suspicious oral mucosal lesions: opportunities, limitations, and pitfalls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wide-filed autofluorescence examination is currently considered as a standard of care for screening and diagnostic evaluation of early neoplastic changes of the skin, cervix, lung, bladder, gastrointestinal tract and oral cavity. Naturally occurring fluorophores within the tissue absorb UV and visible light and can re-emit some of this light at longer wavelengths in the form of fluorescence. This non-invasive tissue autofluorescence imaging is used in optical diagnostics, especially in the early detection of cancer. Usually, malignant transformation is associated with thickening of the epithelium, enhanced cellular density due to increased nuclear cytoplasmic ratio which may attenuate the excitation leading to a decrease in collagen autofluorescence. Hence, dysplastic and cancerous tissues often exhibit decreased blue-green autofluorescence and appear darker compared to uninvolved mucosa. Currently, there are three commercially available devices to examine tissue autofluorescence in the oral cavity. In this study we used the oral cancer screening device IdentafiTM 3000 to examine the tissue reflectance and autofluorescence of PML and confounding lesions of the oral cavity. Wide-field autofluorescence imaging enables rapid inspection of large mucosal surfaces, to aid in recognition of suspicious lesions and may also help in discriminate the PML (class 1) from some of the confounding lesions (class II). However, the presence of inflammation or pigments is also associated with loss of stromal autofluorescence, and may give rise to false-positive results with widefield fluorescence imaging. Clinicians who use these autofluorescence based oral cancer screening devices should be aware about the benign oral mucosal lesions that may give false positivity so that unnecessary patient's anxiety and the need for scalpel biopsy can be eliminated.

Vigneswaran, Nadarajah

2011-03-01

52

Influence of body condition on plasma prednisolone and prednisone concentrations in clinically healthy cats after single oral dose administration.  

PubMed

Influence of body condition (over-conditioned vs. normal-conditioned) on plasma glucocorticoid concentrations after single dose oral prednisolone or prednisone in 11 cats (5 normal-conditioned and 6-over-conditioned) was investigated using a two-drug crossover trial (3-week washout interval). Body condition was determined using criterion-referenced bioelectrical impedance together with plasma drug concentrations (prednisolone [active drug] and prednisone [pro-drug]) measured by HPLC. Although interconversion of each drug to the other was confirmed, a single 2mg/kg body weight oral dose of prednisolone produced significantly higher plasma prednisolone concentration (?4-fold higher AUC) compared to prednisone. Significantly higher plasma drug concentrations in over-conditioned cats (?2-fold) compared to normal-conditioned cats might explain their perceived increased risk for glucocorticoid associated side effects (hepatic lipidosis, diabetes mellitus). Findings suggest low comparative bioavailability of oral prednisone compared to prednisolone in cats and consideration of lean body mass or ideal body weight for dosing practices. PMID:23473553

Center, Sharon A; Randolph, John F; Warner, Karen L; Simpson, Kenneth W; Rishniw, Mark

2013-08-01

53

Conditions for diffusion-limited and reaction-limited recombination in nanostructured solar cells  

SciTech Connect

The performance of Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) and related devices made of nanostructured semiconductors relies on a good charge separation, which in turn is achieved by favoring charge transport against recombination. Although both processes occur at very different time scales, hence ensuring good charge separation, in certain cases the kinetics of transport and recombination can be connected, either in a direct or an indirect way. In this work, the connection between electron transport and recombination in nanostructured solar cells is studied both theoretically and by Monte Carlo simulation. Calculations using the Multiple-Trapping model and a realistic trap distribution for nanostructured TiO{sub 2} show that for attempt-to-jump frequencies higher than 10{sup 11}–10{sup 13} Hz, the system adopts a reaction limited (RL) regime, with a lifetime which is effectively independent from the speed of the electrons in the transport level. For frequencies lower than those, and depending on the concentration of recombination centers in the material, the system enters a diffusion-limited regime (DL), where the lifetime increases if the speed of free electrons decreases. In general, the conditions for RL or DL recombination depend critically on the time scale difference between recombination kinetics and free-electron transport. Hence, if the former is too rapid with respect to the latter, the system is in the DL regime and total thermalization of carriers is not possible. In the opposite situation, a RL regime arises. Numerical data available in the literature, and the behavior of the lifetime with respect to (1) density of recombination centers and (2) probability of recombination at a given center, suggest that a typical DSC in operation stays in the RL regime with complete thermalization, although a transition to the DL regime may occur for electrolytes or hole conductors where recombination is especially rapid or where there is a larger dispersion of energies of electron acceptors.

Ansari-Rad, Mehdi, E-mail: ansari.rad@ut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, 1439955961 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, 1439955961 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, University of Shahrood, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Anta, Juan A., E-mail: anta@upo.es [Departamento de Sistemas Físicos, Químicos y Naturales, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Arzi, Ezatollah [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, 1439955961 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, 1439955961 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-04-07

54

THE ELASTIC LIMIT OF SPACE AND THE QUANTUM CONDITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantum condition describes the angular momentum of a quantum system. This angular momentum is a multiple of Planck's constant. Max Planck, Niels Bohr, and Albert Einstein sought a classical explanation for the quantum condition. Ernest Rutherford also looked for a classical solution, gave up, and began his work with the nucleus. It has now been over one hundred years

Frank Znidarsic

2011-01-01

55

Optimum and limiting operating conditions for downward diffusion cloud chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements on a diffusion cloud chamber operated with fillings up to pressures of 11 atm are interpreted according to a theoretical treatment by Shutt. The results can be used to determine temperature conditions required for good operation with any permanent gas at all useful pressures and for any given mean radiation intensity. Factors which interfere with normal operating conditions are

A R Bevan

1954-01-01

56

Self-reported denture hygiene habits and oral tissue conditions of complete denture wearers.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine the influence of denture hygiene on the development and intensity of denture stomatitis and traumatic ulcers and their relationship to age, gender, educational level, smoking status, age of the denture, denture hygiene habits and denture-wearing behavior. The study population comprised 310 complete denture (CD) wearers (159 males and 151 females) aged 60-85 living in Kirikkale, Turkey. Denture hygiene habits were assessed and recorded, and any relationships between denture hygiene habits and the condition of oral tissue were assessed. The majority (48.4%) of participants reported cleaning their dentures with a toothbrush and toothpaste and 45.2% with a toothbrush only. Less than half (44.8%) removed their dentures overnight. Stomatitis was observed in 35.8% and traumatic ulcers in 29% of patients. A positive relationship was observed between poor denture hygiene habits and the presence of denture-related stomatitis and traumatic ulcers. The degree of denture hygiene was significantly associated with age, sex, education, general health status, smoking status, self-perception of halitosis, overnight denture removal and denture immersion habits. PMID:18976822

Baran, Ilgi; Nalçaci, Rana

2009-01-01

57

Autofluorescence guided diagnostic evaluation of suspicious oral mucosal lesions: opportunities, limitations, and pitfalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wide-filed autofluorescence examination is currently considered as a standard of care for screening and diagnostic evaluation of early neoplastic changes of the skin, cervix, lung, bladder, gastrointestinal tract and oral cavity. Naturally occurring fluorophores within the tissue absorb UV and visible light and can re-emit some of this light at longer wavelengths in the form of fluorescence. This non-invasive tissue

Nadarajah Vigneswaran

2011-01-01

58

Rapid post-oral stimulation of intake and flavor conditioning by glucose and fat in the mouse  

PubMed Central

Although widely assumed to have only satiating actions, nutrients in the gut can also condition increases in intake in some cases. Here we studied the time course of post-oral nutrient stimulation of ingestion in food-restricted C57BL/6J mice. In experiment 1, mice adapted to drink a 0.8% sucralose solution 1 h/day, rapidly increased their rate of licking (within 4–6 min) when first tested with an 8% glucose solution and even more so in tests 2 and 3. Other mice decreased their licking rate when switched from sucralose to 8% fructose, a sugar that is sweet like glucose but lacks positive post-oral effects in mice. The glucose-stimulated drinking is due to the sugar's post-oral rather than taste properties, because sucralose is highly preferred to glucose and fructose in brief choice tests. A second experiment showed that the glucose-stimulated ingestion is associated with a conditioned flavor preference in both intact and capsaicin-treated mice. This indicates that the post-oral stimulatory action of glucose is not mediated by capsaicin-sensitive visceral afferents. In experiment 3, mice consumed flavored saccharin solutions as they self-infused water or glucose via an intragastric (IG) catheter. The glucose self-infusion stimulated ingestion within 13–15 min in test 1 and produced a conditioned increase in licking that was apparent in the initial minute of tests 2 and 3. Experiment 4 revealed that IG self-infusions of a fat emulsion also resulted in post-oral stimulation of licking in test 1 and conditioned increases in tests 2 and 3. These findings indicate that glucose and fat can generate stimulatory post-oral signals early in a feeding session that increase ongoing ingestion and condition increases in flavor acceptance and preference revealed in subsequent feeding sessions. The test procedures developed here can be used to investigate the peripheral and central processes involved in stimulation of intake by post-oral nutrients. PMID:21975648

Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

2011-01-01

59

Fructose- and glucose-conditioned preferences in FVB mice: strain differences in post-oral sugar appetition.  

PubMed

Recent studies indicate that, unlike glucose, fructose has little or no post-oral preference conditioning actions in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. The present study determined whether this is also the case for FVB mice, which overconsume fructose relative to B6 mice. In experiment 1, FVB mice strongly preferred a noncaloric 0.1% sucralose + 0.1% saccharin (S+S) solution to 8% fructose in a 2-day choice test but switched their preference to fructose after separate experience with the two sweeteners. Other FVB mice displayed a stronger preference for 8% glucose over S+S. In a second experiment, ad libitum-fed FVB mice trained 24 h/day acquired a significant preference for a flavor (CS+) paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of 16% fructose over a different flavor (CS-) paired with IG water infusions. IG fructose infusions also conditioned flavor preferences in food-restricted FVB mice trained 1 h/day. IG infusions of 16% glucose conditioned stronger preferences in FVB mice trained 24- or 1 h/day. Thus, fructose has post-oral flavor conditioning effects in FVB mice, but these effects are less pronounced than those produced by glucose. Further studies of the differential post-oral conditioning effects of fructose and glucose in B6 and FVB mice should enhance our understanding of the physiological processes involved in sugar reward. PMID:25320345

Sclafani, Anthony; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

2014-12-15

60

The incidence of serious hemodynamic changes in physically-limited patients following oral dipyridamole challenge before thallium-201 scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Dipyridamole has liberalized referrals for stress TI-201 chloride (thallium) studies at the Iowa City Veterans Administration Medical Center. Seventy-five percent of referrals now receive dipyridamole and, unlike patients who tolerate conventional exercise testing, these patients are often quite debilitated. Therefore, the hemodynamic consequences of dipyridamole were reviewed in 120 consecutive, physically-limited patients referred for thallium scintigraphy following an average oral dose of 5.4 mg/kg. Each patient's blood pressure was measured every 5 minutes for 1 hour after dipyridamole and compared with several clinical factors to determine if blood pressure change was predictable. In all patients, blood pressure changed from 136 +/- 21/83 +/- 15 (mean +/- 1 SD) to 117 +/- 25/72 +/- 15 following dipyridamole administration. One hundred nine of the 120 patients had a blood pressure decline from 137 +/- 21/82 +/- 12 to 113 +/- 21/70 +/- 13. Of the 109, 43% (N = 47) had a systolic blood pressure decline greater than 20 mmHg, 16% (n = 18) greater than 40 mmHg, and 13% (n = 14) greater than 50 mmHg. Thirteen percent (n = 14) required emergent reversal of the dipyridamole with aminophylline. Significant hypotension is relatively common but generally unpredictable after oral dipyridamole. Therefore, patient eligibility criteria should be carefully considered; strict hemodynamic monitoring must be routine in the usual patient undergoing thallium scintigraphy after oral dipyridamole challenge.

Kahn, D.; Argenyi, E.A.; Berbaum, K.; Rezai, K. (Veterans Administration Hospital, Iowa City, IA (USA))

1990-10-01

61

Oral care.  

PubMed

Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. PMID:21325845

Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

2011-01-01

62

The Limits of Knowledge Management in Contemporary Corporate Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on Jean-François Lyotard's (1984) seminal study "The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge" to reflect on two macro-level catastrophes: the global financial crisis (GFC) of 2009 (and its continuing effects throughout the Eurozone and elsewhere) and Fukushima. These two case studies probe aspects of these grand…

Garrick, John

2014-01-01

63

Methods to assess the impact of mass oral cholera vaccination campaigns under real field conditions.  

PubMed

There is increasing interest to use oral cholera vaccination as an additional strategy to water and sanitation interventions against endemic and epidemic cholera. There are two internationally-available and WHO-prequalified oral cholera vaccines: an inactivated vaccine containing killed whole-cells of V. cholerae O1 with recombinant cholera toxin B-subunit (WC/rBS) and a bivalent inactivated vaccine containing killed whole cells of V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 (BivWC). The efficacy, effectiveness, direct and indirect (herd) protection conferred by WC/rBS and BivWC are well established. Yet governments may need local evidence of vaccine impact to justify and scale-up mass oral cholera vaccination campaigns. We discuss various approaches to assess oral cholera vaccine protection, which may be useful to policymakers and public health workers considering deployment and evaluation of the vaccine. PMID:24516595

Deen, Jacqueline; Ali, Mohammad; Sack, David

2014-01-01

64

Methods to Assess the Impact of Mass Oral Cholera Vaccination Campaigns under Real Field Conditions  

PubMed Central

There is increasing interest to use oral cholera vaccination as an additional strategy to water and sanitation interventions against endemic and epidemic cholera. There are two internationally-available and WHO-prequalified oral cholera vaccines: an inactivated vaccine containing killed whole-cells of V. cholerae O1 with recombinant cholera toxin B-subunit (WC/rBS) and a bivalent inactivated vaccine containing killed whole cells of V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 (BivWC). The efficacy, effectiveness, direct and indirect (herd) protection conferred by WC/rBS and BivWC are well established. Yet governments may need local evidence of vaccine impact to justify and scale-up mass oral cholera vaccination campaigns. We discuss various approaches to assess oral cholera vaccine protection, which may be useful to policymakers and public health workers considering deployment and evaluation of the vaccine. PMID:24516595

Deen, Jacqueline; Ali, Mohammad; Sack, David

2014-01-01

65

42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...definitions apply: (1) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the...

2010-10-01

66

Al-hijamah and oral honey for treating thalassemia, conditions of iron overload, and hyperferremia: toward improving the therapeutic outcomes.  

PubMed

Iron overload causes iron deposition and accumulation in the liver, heart, skin, and other tissues resulting in serious tissue damages. Significant blood clearance from iron and ferritin using wet cupping therapy (WCT) has been reported. WCT is an excretory form of treatment that needs more research efforts. WCT is an available, safe, simple, economic, and time-saving outpatient modality of treatment that has no serious side effects. There are no serious limitations or precautions to discontinue WCT. Interestingly, WCT has solid scientific and medical bases (Taibah mechanism) that explain its effectiveness in treating many disease conditions differing in etiology and pathogenesis. WCT utilizes an excretory physiological principle (pressure-dependent excretion) that resembles excretion through renal glomerular filtration and abscess evacuation. WCT exhibits a percutaneous excretory function that clears blood (through fenestrated skin capillaries) and interstitial fluids from pathological substances without adding a metabolic or detoxification burden on the liver and the kidneys. Interestingly, WCT was reported to decrease serum ferritin (circulating iron stores) significantly by about 22.25% in healthy subjects (in one session) and to decrease serum iron significantly to the level of causing iron deficiency (in multiple sessions). WCT was reported to clear blood significantly of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol, uric acid, inflammatory mediators, and immunoglobulin antibodies (rheumatoid factor). Moreover, WCT was reported to enhance the natural immunity, potentiate pharmacological treatments, and to treat many different disease conditions. There are two distinct methods of WCT: traditional WCT and Al-hijamah (WCT of prophetic medicine). Both start and end with skin sterilization. In traditional WCT, there are two steps, skin scarification followed by suction using plastic cups (double S technique); Al-hijamah is a three-step procedure that includes skin suction using cups, scarification (shartat mihjam in Arabic), and second skin suction (triple S technique). Al-hijamah is a more comprehensive technique and does better than traditional WCT, as Al-hijamah includes two pressure-dependent filtration steps versus one step in traditional WCT. Whenever blood plasma is to be cleared of an excess pathological substance, Al-hijamah is indicated. We will discuss here some reported hematological and therapeutic benefits of Al-hijamah, its medical bases, methodologies, precautions, side effects, contraindications, quantitative evaluation, malpractice, combination with oral honey treatment, and to what extent it may be helpful when treating thalassemia and other conditions of iron overload and hyperferremia. PMID:25382989

El Sayed, Salah Mohamed; Baghdadi, Hussam; Abou-Taleb, Ashraf; Mahmoud, Hany Salah; Maria, Reham A; Ahmed, Nagwa S; Helmy Nabo, Manal Mohamed

2014-01-01

67

Al-hijamah and oral honey for treating thalassemia, conditions of iron overload, and hyperferremia: toward improving the therapeutic outcomes  

PubMed Central

Iron overload causes iron deposition and accumulation in the liver, heart, skin, and other tissues resulting in serious tissue damages. Significant blood clearance from iron and ferritin using wet cupping therapy (WCT) has been reported. WCT is an excretory form of treatment that needs more research efforts. WCT is an available, safe, simple, economic, and time-saving outpatient modality of treatment that has no serious side effects. There are no serious limitations or precautions to discontinue WCT. Interestingly, WCT has solid scientific and medical bases (Taibah mechanism) that explain its effectiveness in treating many disease conditions differing in etiology and pathogenesis. WCT utilizes an excretory physiological principle (pressure-dependent excretion) that resembles excretion through renal glomerular filtration and abscess evacuation. WCT exhibits a percutaneous excretory function that clears blood (through fenestrated skin capillaries) and interstitial fluids from pathological substances without adding a metabolic or detoxification burden on the liver and the kidneys. Interestingly, WCT was reported to decrease serum ferritin (circulating iron stores) significantly by about 22.25% in healthy subjects (in one session) and to decrease serum iron significantly to the level of causing iron deficiency (in multiple sessions). WCT was reported to clear blood significantly of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol, uric acid, inflammatory mediators, and immunoglobulin antibodies (rheumatoid factor). Moreover, WCT was reported to enhance the natural immunity, potentiate pharmacological treatments, and to treat many different disease conditions. There are two distinct methods of WCT: traditional WCT and Al-hijamah (WCT of prophetic medicine). Both start and end with skin sterilization. In traditional WCT, there are two steps, skin scarification followed by suction using plastic cups (double S technique); Al-hijamah is a three-step procedure that includes skin suction using cups, scarification (shartat mihjam in Arabic), and second skin suction (triple S technique). Al-hijamah is a more comprehensive technique and does better than traditional WCT, as Al-hijamah includes two pressure-dependent filtration steps versus one step in traditional WCT. Whenever blood plasma is to be cleared of an excess pathological substance, Al-hijamah is indicated. We will discuss here some reported hematological and therapeutic benefits of Al-hijamah, its medical bases, methodologies, precautions, side effects, contraindications, quantitative evaluation, malpractice, combination with oral honey treatment, and to what extent it may be helpful when treating thalassemia and other conditions of iron overload and hyperferremia. PMID:25382989

El Sayed, Salah Mohamed; Baghdadi, Hussam; Abou-Taleb, Ashraf; Mahmoud, Hany Salah; Maria, Reham A; Ahmed, Nagwa S; Helmy Nabo, Manal Mohamed

2014-01-01

68

The impact of low power laser in the treatment of conditioning-induced oral mucositis: A report of 11 clinical cases and their review  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the clinical effects of low power laser therapy (LPLT) on the treatment of conditioning-induced oral mucositis (OM) in patients submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The evaluation of OM was done using the Oral Mucositis Assessment Scale (OMAS) and World Health Organization (WHO) scale. In the context of a randomized placebo-controlled trial with 38 patients for

Valkiria D'Aiuto de Matos; Claudia Tereza Pinheiro; Carlos Gil Ferreira; Héliton Spíndola Antunes

69

Child- and family impacts of infants’ oral conditions in Tanzania and Uganda– a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Early childhood dental caries impacts on the quality of life of children and their families. This study set out to assess the psychometric properties of an oral health related quality of life, OHRQoL, measure, based on items emanating from the Child-and Family impact sections of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS), in Kiswahili and Luganda speaking communities. It was hypothesized that the Child- and Family impact scores would discriminate between children with and without clinically defined dental problems and reported good and bad oral health. Method Kiswahili and Luganda versions of the Child- and Family impact scores were derived through translation in pilot studies. Totals of 1221 and 816 child/caretaker pairs attending health care facilities in Manyara, Tanzania and Kampala, Uganda, were recruited into the study. After caretakers completed the interview, their children underwent oral clinical examination. Results Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) was > 0.80 with respect to the Child impact score and 0.79 regarding the Family impact score. Multiple variable logistic- and Poisson regression analyses revealed that the Kiswahili and Luganda versions of the Child- and Family impact score associated in the expected direction with child’s oral diseases as with their reported health and oral health status. In Manyara, multiple logistic regression revealed that the ORs of reporting Child impacts were 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.4) and 2.2 (1.3-3.4) among caretakers who confirmed linear hypoplasia and teething symptoms, respectively. In Kampala, the ORs for reporting Child impacts were 2.3 (95% CI 1.3-3.9), 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5), 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.3) and 2.7 (95% CI 1.3-5.8) among those who confirmed teeth present, hypoplasia, teething symptoms and tooth bud extractions, respectively. The odds ratios for reporting Family impacts were 2.7 (95% CI 1.5-4.7), 1.5 (95% CI 1.1- 2.1) and 4.6 (95% CI 2.0-10.7) if reporting LEH, teething symptoms and toothbud experience, respectively. Conclusion The Child and Family impact scores demonstrated acceptable internal consistency reliability and reproducibility whereas the discriminative validity was more ambiguous. The OHRQoL scores should be developed further and tested among Kiswahili and Luganda speaking caretakers. PMID:23016603

2012-01-01

70

Incidence of WHO Stage 3 and 4 Conditions following Initiation of Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Resource Limited Settings  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the incidence of WHO clinical stage 3 and 4 conditions during early anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in resource limited settings (RLS). Design/Setting A descriptive analysis of routine program data collected prospectively from 25 Médecins Sans Frontières supported HIV treatment programs in eight countries between 2002 and 2010. Subjects/Participants 35,349 study participants with median follow-up on ART of 1.33 years (IQR 0.51–2.41). Outcome Measures Incidence in 100 person-years of WHO stage 3 or 4 conditions during 5 periods after ART initiation. Diagnoses of conditions were made according to WHO criteria and relied upon clinical assessments supported by basic laboratory investigations. Results The incidence of any WHO clinical stage 3 or 4 condition over 3 years was 40.02 per 100 person-years (31.77 for stage 3 and 8.25 for stage 4). The incidence of stage 3 and 4 conditions fell by over 97% between months 0–3 and months 25–36 (77.81 to 2.40 for stage 3 and 28.70 to 0.64 for stage 4). During months 0–3 pulmonary tuberculosis was the most common condition diagnosed in adults (incidence 22.24 per 100 person-years) and children aged 5–14 years (25.76) and oral candidiasis was the most common in children <5 years (25.79). Overall incidences were higher in Africa compared with Asia (43.98 versus 12.97 for stage 3 and 8.98 versus 7.05 for stage 4 conditions, p<0.001). Pulmonary tuberculosis, weight loss, oral and oesophageal candidiasis, chronic diarrhoea, HIV wasting syndrome and severe bacterial infections were more common in Africa. Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection, cryptococcosis, penicilliosis and toxoplasmosis were more common in Asia. Conclusions The incidence of WHO stage 3 and 4 conditions during the early period after ART initiation in RLS is high, but greatly reduces over time. This is likely due to both the benefits of ART and deaths of the sickest patients occurring shortly after ART initiation. Access to appropriate disease prevention tools prior to ART, and early initiation of ART, are important for their prevention. PMID:23284857

Curtis, Andrea J.; Marshall, Catherine S.; Spelman, Tim; Greig, Jane; Elliot, Julian H.; Shanks, Leslie; Du Cros, Philipp; Casas, Esther C.; Da Fonseca, Marcio Silveria; O’Brien, Daniel P.

2012-01-01

71

Shakedown limits for a general yield condition: implementation and application for a Von Mises yield condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the generalisation of the programming method for the determination of optimal upper bound shakedown limits for an elastic\\/perfectly plastic solid given by Ponter and Carter (1997). The method is based on similar principles to the `Elastic Compensation' method which has been used in design calculations for a number of years. A convergence proof for a general yield

Alan R. S. Ponter; Markus Engelhardt

2000-01-01

72

Impact of cooling condition and filling ratio on heat transfer limit of cryogenic thermosyphon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the heat transfer limits of two cryogenic thermosyphons with different cooling conditions and filling ratios are experimentally studied and discussed. The cryogenic thermosyphons are fabricated with the same inner structures and their heat transfer performances are tested. The heat transfer limit of the cryogenic thermosyphon can reach 180.0 W through improving the cooling condition at moderate filling ratios. Meanwhile, it is found that the dry-out limit occurs not only at low filling ratios, but also at high filling ratios in the case of poor cooling condition. The mechanism behind the dry-out limit at high filling ratios is analyzed and the critical heat flux is predicted by a model that describes the heat and mass balance of the working fluid. A fluctuating period is observed in the vicinity of the boiling limit, and the critical heat flux corresponding to the boiling limit is predicted by an empirical correlation.

Long, Z. Q.; Zhang, P.

2012-01-01

73

Phase stability limit of c-BN under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic pressure conditions  

SciTech Connect

Phase stability limit of cubic boron nitride (c-BN) has been investigated by the crystal structure search technique. It indicated that this limit is ?1000 GPa at hydrostatic pressure condition. Above this pressure, c-BN turns into a metastable phase with respect to rocksalt type boron nitride (rs-BN). However, rs-BN cannot be retained at 0 GPa owing to its instability at pressure below 250 GPa. For non-hydrostatic pressure conditions, the phase stability limit of c-BN is substantially lower than that under hydrostatic pressure conditions and it is also dramatically different for other pressure mode.

Xiao, Jianwei; Du, Jinglian; Wen, Bin, E-mail: wenbin@ysu.edu.cn; Zhang, Xiangyi [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Melnik, Roderick [M2NeT Lab, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo25, 75 University Ave. West, Ontario, Canada N2L 3C5 (Canada)] [M2NeT Lab, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo25, 75 University Ave. West, Ontario, Canada N2L 3C5 (Canada); Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-4 Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579, Japan and Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 1, Lavyrentyev Avenue, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)] [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-4 Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579, Japan and Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 1, Lavyrentyev Avenue, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

2014-04-28

74

Inhibitory activity in vitro of probiotic lactobacilli against oral Candida under different fermentation conditions.  

PubMed

Clinical studies have shown that probiotics positively affect oral health by decreasing gum bleeding and/or reducing salivary counts of certain oral pathogens. Our aim was to investigate the inhibitory effect of six probiotic lactobacilli against opportunistic oral Candida species. Sugar utilisation by both lactobacilli and Candida was also assessed. Agar overlay assay was utilised to study growth inhibition of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112, Lactobacillus brevis CD2, Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB86 and L. bulgaricus LB Lact. The inhibitory effect was measured at pH 5.5, 6.4, and 7.2, respectively, and in the presence of five different carbohydrates in growth medium (glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose, and sorbitol). Growth and final pH values were measured at two-hour time points to 24 h. L. rhamnosus GG showed the strongest inhibitory activity in fructose and glucose medium against C. albicans, followed by L. casei Shirota, L. reuteri SD2112 and L. brevis CD2. None of the lactobacilli tested affected the growth of C. krusei. Only L. rhamnosus GG produced slight inhibitory effect on C. glabrata. The lower pH values led to larger inhibition zones. Sugar fermentation profiles varied between the strains. L. casei Shirota grew in the presence of all sugars tested, whereas L. brevis CD2 could utilise only glucose and fructose. All Candida species metabolised the available sugars but the most rapid growth was observed with C. glabrata. The results suggest that commercially available probiotics differ in their inhibitory activity and carbohydrate utilisation; the above properties are modified by different pH values and sugars with more pronounced inhibition at lower pH. PMID:25380800

Jiang, Q; Stamatova, I; Kari, K; Meurman, J H

2014-11-01

75

Recent trends in prevention of oral cancer.  

PubMed

Oral cancers often occurs out of long standing potentially malignant lesions and conditions so called premalignant lesions and conditions. Oral precancer is a intermediate state with increased cancer rate which can be recognized and treated obviously with much better prognosis than a full blown malignancy. Oral cancer risk can be lowered or even prevented by simply understanding basic oral hygiene, different bacteria found in the mouth, and how diet influences oral cancers. Currently, research is being done on the relationship between diet and oral cancer. Oral cancer is a very serious disease that can be prevented. Practicing good oral hygiene is key to help keep the oral cavity clean. Limiting the use of tobacco and alcohol products is also important because these are the causes of most oral cancers. Lastly, eating a well balanced diet that has protective affects can reduce the risk of oral cancer. This includes a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and fish and low in high fat and cholesterol meats, rice, and refined grains. PMID:25625069

Mangalath, Ummar; Aslam, Sachin Aslam; Abdul Khadar, Abdul Hafiz Kooliyat; Francis, Pulikkan George; Mikacha, Muhamed Shaloob Karimbil; Kalathingal, Jubin Hassan

2014-12-01

76

Recent trends in prevention of oral cancer  

PubMed Central

Oral cancers often occurs out of long standing potentially malignant lesions and conditions so called premalignant lesions and conditions. Oral precancer is a intermediate state with increased cancer rate which can be recognized and treated obviously with much better prognosis than a full blown malignancy. Oral cancer risk can be lowered or even prevented by simply understanding basic oral hygiene, different bacteria found in the mouth, and how diet influences oral cancers. Currently, research is being done on the relationship between diet and oral cancer. Oral cancer is a very serious disease that can be prevented. Practicing good oral hygiene is key to help keep the oral cavity clean. Limiting the use of tobacco and alcohol products is also important because these are the causes of most oral cancers. Lastly, eating a well balanced diet that has protective affects can reduce the risk of oral cancer. This includes a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and fish and low in high fat and cholesterol meats, rice, and refined grains. PMID:25625069

Mangalath, Ummar; Aslam, Sachin Aslam; Abdul Khadar, Abdul Hafiz Kooliyat; Francis, Pulikkan George; Mikacha, Muhamed Shaloob Karimbil; Kalathingal, Jubin Hassan

2014-01-01

77

Numerical simulation of the flow over a coastal structure in depth-limited conditions  

E-print Network

of detailed measurements of irregular wave transformation in front of the structure in depth-limited conditions. The second data set consists of several test runs to study the irregular wave reflection and runup on the coastal structure in depth...

Ginting, Victor Eralingga

1998-01-01

78

Can conditions experienced during migration limit the population levels of birds?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of migratory birds are usually considered to be limited by conditions in breeding or wintering areas, but some\\u000a might be limited by conditions encountered on migration. This could occur at stopover sites where competition for restricted\\u000a food supplies can reduce subsequent survival or breeding success, or during the flights themselves, when adverse weather can\\u000a occasionally kill large numbers of

Ian Newton

2006-01-01

79

An attempt to condition flavour preference induced by oral and/or postoral administration of 16% sucrose in pigs.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the acquisition of conditioned flavour preferences in pigs using the caloric value and/or sweet taste of sucrose. Nine water-deprived juvenile pigs were given four three-day conditioning sessions during which they received flavoured solutions as conditioned stimuli (CS). The CS solutions were paired with three treatments that generated a gustatory and/or a caloric reinforcement (US). The CS++ solution was added with 16% sucrose and paired with an intraduodenal (ID) infusion of water, the CS+ solution was paired with an ID infusion of 16% sucrose and the CS- solution was paired with an ID infusion of water. One and two weeks after conditioning, the water-deprived pigs were subjected to two-choice preference tests with the unreinforced CS solutions. Solutions intake, behavioural activity and some drinking parameters were measured. Despite no difference in CS intake during conditioning, the animals spent less time inactive and more time standing during CS++ than CS+ conditioning. When receiving CS++, the pigs explored the drinking trough more than when receiving CS-. Compared to the CS- condition, the numbers of drinking episodes and intra-drinking episode (IDE) pauses were also 36% and 49% lesser in the CS++ condition, but these differences were not significant. During the two-choice tests, the pigs did not show significant preferences. Nevertheless, during the first session, the pigs seemed to show a slight preference for the CS++ (57% of total intake) compared to CS+. The duration of CS++ drinking episodes represented 64% of the total duration compared to CS+ and CS- . The total time spent drinking the CS++ also represented 57% of the total time in the CS++ vs. CS- test. To conclude, although no clear-cut preferences were found during two-choice tests, the oral perception of 16% sucrose during conditioning induced changes in behavioural activities, motivational responses and microstructure of CS intake, suggesting the importance of oral food perception for food selection processes in pigs. Further studies are needed to investigate the impact of water deprivation on the expression of flavour preferences in pigs. PMID:24184509

Clouard, Caroline; Loison, Florence; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Val-Laillet, David

2014-01-30

80

Restricted activation of general amino acid control under conditions of glutamine limitation in Neurospora crassa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Neurospora crassa limitation for single amino acids normally results in increased formation of enzymes required for amino acid synthesis via ‘general amino acid control’. Glutamine limitation, however, led to comparatively low and delayed derepression of enzyme synthesis. Nitrate reductase activity increased steeply under these conditions confirming that de novo protein synthesis could occur. Derepression levels were unaffected by addition

Johanna Kolanus; Jens Michalczyk; Harry J. Flint; Ilse B. Barthelmess

1990-01-01

81

LOCAL LIMITS OF CONDITIONED GALTON-WATSON TREES II: THE CONDENSATION CASE  

E-print Network

-critical Galton-Watson (GW) trees comes from the seminal work of Kesten, [10]. Let p = (p(n), n N.s. finite, but Kesten considered in [10] the limit of a sub-critical or critical tree conditioned to have(A) > 0, then the limiting tree is again the same size-biased tree as for Kesten [10]. However

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

82

42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

2010-10-01

83

Pontine Stimulation Overcomes Developmental Limitations in the Neural Mechanisms of Eyeblink Conditioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pontine neuronal activation during auditory stimuli increases ontogenetically between postnatal days (P) P17 and P24 in rats. Pontine neurons are an essential component of the conditioned stimulus (CS) pathway for eyeblink conditioning, providing mossy fiber input to the cerebellum. Here we examined whether the developmental limitation in pontine…

Freeman, John H., Jr; Rabinak, Christine A.; Campolattaro, Matthew M.

2005-01-01

84

42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

2012-10-01

85

42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

2014-10-01

86

42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

2011-10-01

87

42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

2013-10-01

88

Limited Potentiation of Blood Pressure in Response to Oral Tyramine by the Anti-Parkinson Brain Selective Multifunctional Monoamine Oxidase-AB Inhibitor, M30  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the limitations of non-selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors as anti-depressant or anti-Parkinson drugs is their\\u000a ability to potentiate the cardiovascular effect of oral tyramine, resulting from inhibition of systemic MAO-A and release\\u000a of noradrenaline. We have investigated the cardiovascular effect of oral tyramine in response to the novel multifunctional,\\u000a brain selective MAO-AB inhibitor, M30 [5-(N-methyl-N-propargylaminomethyl)-8-hydroxyquinoline], and compared it

Shunit Gal; Zaid A. Abassi; Moussa B. H. Youdim

2010-01-01

89

Limitation of coronary reserve after successful angioplasty is prevented by oral pretreatment with an alpha1-adrenergic antagonist.  

PubMed

Coronary vasoconstriction that occurs after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) is abolished by intracoronary phentolamine. An impairment of coronary vasodilator reserve (CVR) has been observed < or = 7 days after successful PTCA. To ascertain whether pretreatment with the alpha1-adrenergic receptor blocker doxazosin could prevent the limitation of CVR after PTCA, we carried out a randomised, double-blind, controlled study on 26 patients with significant (> 75%) single vessel disease undergoing PTCA. Twelve patients received doxazosin 4 mg daily in addition to their standard treatment, while 14 patients received matching placebo, starting 11 days before PTCA. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) at baseline and after i.v. dipyridamole (0.56 mg/kg) was measured within 5 days after PTCA using positron emission tomography (PET) with oxygen-15-labelled water. Angioplasty was successful in all patients with a residual stenosis < or = 35%. At PET scanning, hemodynamic parameters were comparable in the two groups. In the territory subtended by the dilated artery, CVR was significantly higher in patients treated with doxazosin compared with those receiving placebo (2.78 +/- 0.1.21 vs. 1.95 +/- 0.68; p < 0.01). Conversely, CVR in the remote territories subtended by angiographically normal arteries was similar in the two groups (2.53 +/- 0.92 and 2.48 +/- 0.80, respectively; p = NS). Treatment with oral doxazosin in addition to standard antianginal therapy can prevent the impairment of CVR frequently observed despite successful PTCA. PMID:10975587

Rimoldi, O; Spyrou, N; Foale, R; Hackett, D R; Gregorini, L; Camici, P G

2000-09-01

90

38 CFR 4.150 - Schedule of ratings-dental and oral conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...displacement 0 Note —Dependent upon degree of motion and relative loss of masticatory function 9905Temporomandibular articulation, limited motion of: Inter-incisal range: 0 to 10 mm 40 11 to 20 mm 30...

2011-07-01

91

38 CFR 4.150 - Schedule of ratings-dental and oral conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...displacement 0 Note —Dependent upon degree of motion and relative loss of masticatory function 9905Temporomandibular articulation, limited motion of: Inter-incisal range: 0 to 10 mm 40 11 to 20 mm 30...

2012-07-01

92

38 CFR 4.150 - Schedule of ratings-dental and oral conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...displacement 0 Note —Dependent upon degree of motion and relative loss of masticatory function 9905Temporomandibular articulation, limited motion of: Inter-incisal range: 0 to 10 mm 40 11 to 20 mm 30...

2014-07-01

93

38 CFR 4.150 - Schedule of ratings-dental and oral conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...displacement 0 Note —Dependent upon degree of motion and relative loss of masticatory function 9905Temporomandibular articulation, limited motion of: Inter-incisal range: 0 to 10 mm 40 11 to 20 mm 30...

2013-07-01

94

Simultaneous anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation of halogenated phenolic compound under oxygen-limited conditions.  

PubMed

The successful application of co-immobilized aerobic-anaerobic biomass under limited aeration in wastewater treatment systems would eliminate the problems associated with the intermediates mono-chlorophenol (MCP) and di-chlorophenol(DCP) accumulations. With low initial pentachlorophenol (PCP) concentration, all PCP could be completely removed under oxygen-limited strict anaerobic conditions, and the removal efficiencies with different initial headspace oxygen percentage (IHOP) were not obviously different from each other. While at high initial PCP concentration, under strictly anaerobic conditions PCP and their intermediates were clearly higher than that under other conditions, and produced obvious accumulation, the highest PCP reduction was achieved by the system receiving 30 IHOP, oxygen-limited system also exhibited lower residual TOC concentration and lower concentration of metabolic intermediates MCP and DCP. These results suggested that under strictly anaerobic condition the reductive dechlorination of low chlorinated compounds became rate limiting in the reductive dechlorination pathway, less chlorinated compounds be more amenable to aerobic degradation, and the aerobes of outer layers could function under limited oxygen. The co-immobilized aerobic-anaerobic biomass for methanogenesis under limited-aeration for chlorophenol degradation might be an attractive and efficient alternative for the sequential anaerobic/aerobic system to achieve mineralization of a broad range of recalcitrance highly chlorinated organics and low final TOC concentrations. PMID:16313023

Chen, Yuan-cai; Lan, Hui-xia; Zhan, Huai-yu; Fu, Shi-yu

2005-01-01

95

Effects of surface voids on burning rate measurements of pulverized coal at diffusion-limited conditions  

SciTech Connect

This research explores the effects of voids (pores on the particle surface that are deeper than their surface radius) on burning area at diffusion-limited combustion conditions. Scanning electron microscopy and digital processing of images of quenched particles were used to quantify surface void area, perimeter, and reacting void wall area for voids with diameters larger than 1 {micro}m. After careful analysis, the most accurate determination of particle burning area at diffusion-limited conditions was achieved by measuring particle surface area using the technique of discrete revolution, subtracting surface void area, and adding reacting void wall area. In situ measurements of reacting coal particle temperatures and images were taken for three coals and spherocarb particles at conditions that limit the formation of CO{sub 2} from reacting carbon under various oxygen concentrations and heating rates. The results of these experiments indicate that correcting the measured surface area for void area and reacting void wall area produces calculated burning rates closely matching diffusion-limited burning rates for all conditions and all coals investigated. These results suggest that void area effects should be included for accurate determination of burning area at diffusion-limited conditions.

Bayless, D.J.; Schroeder, A.R.; Peters, J.E.; Buckius, R.O. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering] [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

1997-01-01

96

Conditioning of the graphite bumper limiter for enhanced confinement discharges in TFTR  

SciTech Connect

A strong pumping effect has been observed with plasma operation on the toroidal graphite bumper limiter on TFTR. The pumping effect was induced by conditioning the limiter with a short series (10 to 20) of low density deuterium- or helium-initiated discharges. The density decay constant (tau/sub p/*) for gas-fueled ohmic discharges was reduced from tau/sub p/* > 10 s before conditioning to a minimum value of tau/sub p/* = 0.15 s after conditioning, corresponding to a reduction in the global recycling coefficient from approx.100% to less than 50%. Coincident with the low recycling conditions, low current neutral-beam-fueled discharges show global energy confinement times which are enhanced by a factor of two over results with an unconditioned limiter. Two models are proposed for the observed pumping effects: (1) a depletion model based on pumping of hydrogenic species in the near-surface region of the limiter after depletion of the normally saturated surface layer by (carbon and helium) ion-induced desorption; and (2) a codeposition model based on pumping of hydrogenic species in carbon films sputtered from the limiter by the conditioning process.

Dylla, H.F.; LaMarche, P.H.; Ulrickson, M.; Goldston, R.J.; Heifetz, D.B.; Hill, K.W.; Ramsey, A.T.

1987-05-01

97

Impact of oral health conditions on the quality of life of preschool children and their families: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Dental caries, traumatic dental injury (TDI) and malocclusion are common oral health conditions among preschool children and can have both physical and psychosocial consequences. Thus, it is important to measure the impact these on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of oral health conditions on the OHRQoL of preschool children and their families. Methods A preschool-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 preschool children in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered the Brazilian Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale and a questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data as well as the parent’s/caregiver’s perceptions regarding their child’s health. Clinical exams were performed by three researchers who had undergone a calibration process for the diagnosis of dental caries, TDI and malocclusion (K?=?0.83-0.85). Hierarchical Poisson regression was employed to determine the strength of associations between oral health conditions and OHRQoL (??=?5%). The multivariate model was run on three levels obeying a hierarchical approach from distal to proximal determinants: 1) socio-demographic data; 2) perceptions of health; and 3) oral health conditions. Results The prevalence of impact from oral health conditions on OHRQoL was 32.1% among the children and 26.2% among the families. The following variables were significantly associated with a impact on OHRQoL among the children: birth order of child (PR?=?1.430; 95% CI: 1.045-1.958), parent’s/caregiver’s perception of child’s oral health as poor (PR?=?1.732; 95% CI: 1.399-2.145), cavitated lesions (PR?=?2.596; 95% CI: 1.982-3.400) and TDI (PR?=?1.413; 95% CI: 1.161-1.718). The following variables were significantly associated with a impact on OHRQoL among the families: parent’s/caregiver’s perception of child’s oral health as poor (PR?=?2.116; 95% CI: 1.624-2.757), cavitated lesions (PR?=?2.809; 95% CI: 2.009-3.926) and type of TDI (PR?=?2.448; 95% CI: 1.288-4.653). Conclusion Cavitated lesions and TDI exerted a impact on OHRQoL of the preschool children and their families. Parents’/caregivers’ perception of their child’s oral health as poor and the birth order of the child were predictors of a greater impact on OHRQoL. PMID:24745700

2014-01-01

98

Reducing Conservatism in Aircraft Engine Response Using Conditionally Active Min-Max Limit Regulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current aircraft engine control logic uses a Min-Max control selection structure to prevent the engine from exceeding any safety or operational limits during transients due to throttle commands. This structure is inherently conservative and produces transient responses that are slower than necessary. In order to utilize the existing safety margins more effectively, a modification to this architecture is proposed, referred to as a Conditionally Active (CA) limit regulator. This concept uses the existing Min-Max architecture with the modification that limit regulators are active only when the operating point is close to a particular limit. This paper explores the use of CA limit regulators using a publicly available commercial aircraft engine simulation. The improvement in thrust response while maintaining all necessary safety limits is demonstrated in a number of cases.

May, Ryan D.; Garg, Sanjay

2012-01-01

99

Systemic concentrations can limit the oral absorption of poorly soluble drugs: an investigation of non-sink permeation using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.  

PubMed

In the early drug discovery environment, poorly soluble compounds with suboptimal potency are often used in efficacy studies to demonstrate in vivo preclinical proof-of-concept for new drug discovery targets and in preclinical toxicity studies to assess chemical scaffold safety. These compounds present a challenge to formulation scientists who are tasked with improving their oral bioavailability because high systemic concentrations are required. Despite the use of enabling formulations, increases in systemic exposure following oral delivery are often not achieved. We hypothesize that in some cases non-sink intestinal permeation can occur for poorly soluble compounds where their high systemic concentrations can act to inhibit their own oral absorption. Rats were given a 30 mg/kg oral dose of 1,3-dicyclohexyl urea (DCU) alone or concurrently with deuterated DCU (D8-DCU) intravenous infusions at rates of 13, 17, and 22 mg/kg/h. D8-DCU infusions dose dependently inhibited DCU oral absorption up to a maximum of 92%. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling was utilized to understand the complex interaction between high DCU systemic concentrations and its effect on its own oral absorption. We show that high systemic concentrations of DCU act to suppress its own absorption by creating a condition where intestinal permeation occurs under non-sink conditions. More importantly, we identify relevant DCU concentrations that create the concentration gradient driving the intestinal permeation process. A new parameter, the maximum permeation extraction ratio, is proposed and provides a simple means to assess the extent of non-sink permeation. PMID:23611122

Chiang, Po-Chang; La, Hank; Zhang, Haiming; Wong, Harvey

2013-11-01

100

Self-reported halitosis and emotional state: impact on oral conditions and treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Halitosis represents a common dental condition, although sufferers are often not conscious of it. The aim of this study was to examine behavior in a sample of Italian subjects with reference to self-reported halitosis and emotional state, and specifically the presence of dental anxiety. METHODS: The study was performed on Italian subjects (N = 1052; range 15-65 years). A

Salvatore Settineri; Carmela Mento; Simona C Gugliotta; Ambra Saitta; Antonella Terranova; Giuseppe Trimarchi; Domenico Mallamace

2010-01-01

101

Modelling reference conditions for the upper limit of Posidonia oceanica meadows: a morphodynamic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upper portion of the meadows of the protected Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica occurs in the region of the seafloor mostly affected by surf-related effects. Evaluation of its status is part of monitoring programs, but proper conclusions are difficult to draw due to the lack of definite reference conditions. Comparing the position of the meadow upper limit with the beach morphodynamics (i.e. the distinctive type of beach produced by topography and wave climate) provided evidence that the natural landwards extension of meadows can be predicted. Here we present an innovative predictive cartographic approach able to identify the seafloor portion where the meadow upper limit should naturally lies (i.e. its reference conditions). The conceptual framework of this model is based on 3 essential components: i) Definition of the breaking depth geometry: the breaking limit represents the major constrain for the landward meadow development. We modelled the breaking limit (1 year return time) using the software Mike 21 sw. ii) Definition of the morphodynamic domain of the beach using the surf scaling index ?; iii) Definition of the P. oceanica upper limit geometry. We coupled detailed aerial photo with thematic bionomic cartography. In GIS environment, we modelled the seafloor extent where the meadow should naturally lies according to the breaking limit position and the morphodynamic domain of the beach. Then, we added the GIS layer with the meadow upper limit geometry. Therefore, the final output shows, on the same map, both the reference condition and the actual location of the upper limit. It make possible to assess the status of the landward extent of a given P. oceanica meadow and quantify any suspected or observed regression caused by anthropic factors. The model was elaborated and validated along the Ligurian coastline (NW Mediteraanean) and was positively tested in other Mediterranean areas.

Vacchi, Matteo; Misson, Gloria; Montefalcone, Monica; Archetti, Renata; Nike Bianchi, Carlo; Ferrari, Marco

2014-05-01

102

Prediction of knock limited operating conditions of a natural gas engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer models of engine processes are valuable tools for predicting and analyzing engine performance and allow exploration of many engine design alternatives in an inexpensive fashion. In the present work, a zero-dimensional, two zone thermodynamic model was used to determine the knock limited operating conditions of a natural gas engine. Experimentally based burning rate models were used for flame initiation

Seref Soylu

2005-01-01

103

Bacillus spp. from rainforest soil promote plant growth under limited nitrogen conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of PGPR (Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria) isolated from rainforest on different plants under limited nitrogen conditions. Methods and Results: Bacterial isolates from a Peruvian rainforest soil were screened for plant growth promoting effects...

104

PRODUCTION OF ITACONIC ACID BY PSEUDOZYMA ANTARCTICA NRRL Y-7808 UNDER NITROGEN-LIMITED GROWTH CONDITIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pseudozyma antarctica NRRL Y-7808 was found to produce itaconic acid from glucose and other sugars under nitrogen-limited growth conditions. Other Pseudozyma strains screened, including a second strain of Pseudozyma antarctica, did not produce this product; so itaconic acid production is not a comm...

105

Humic substances enhance growth and respiration in the basidiomycetes Trametes maxima under carbon limited conditions.  

PubMed

Humic substances (HS) represent the major reservoir of carbon (C) in ecosystems, and their turnover is crucial for understanding the global C cycle. Although basidiomycetes clearly have a role in HS degradation, much less is known about the effect of HS on fungal traits. We studied the alteration of physiological, biochemical, and morphological characteristics of Trametes maxima in the presence of HS. Both complete medium and minimal (C-limited) medium mimicking natural environmental conditions were used. Adding HS led to increased biomass yield, but under C-limited conditions the effect was more apparent. This result indicated that HS were used as an additional substrate and agreed with data showing a greater penetration of tritium-labeled HS into the cell interior under C-limited conditions. Humic substances induced ultra-structural changes in fungal cells, especially under C limitation, including reducing the thicknesses of the hyphal sheath and cell wall. In the minimal medium, cellular respiration increased nearly three-fold under HS application, while the corresponding effect in complete medium was lower. In addition, in the presence of inhibitors, HS stimulated either the cytochrome or the alternative pathway of respiration, depending on presence or absence of glucose in the medium. Our results suggest that, under conditions mimicking the natural environment, HS may play three major roles: as a surplus substrate for fungal growth, as a factor positively affecting cell morphology, and as an activator of physiological respiration. PMID:24859517

Klein, Olga I; Isakova, Elena P; Deryabina, Yulia I; Kulikova, Natalia A; Badun, Gennadii A; Chernysheva, Maria G; Stepanova, Elena V; Koroleva, Olga V

2014-06-01

106

Genetic differentiation in Plantago major L. in growth and P uptake under conditions of P limitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study possible adaptive mechanisms inbred lines from three populations of Plantago major from sites that were found to differ in P availability were compared. In a pot experiment the growth and P uptake either in the presence or absence of Glomus fasciculatum was determined. Under these P-limited conditions it was shown by partitioning the relative growth rate (RGR, in

R. Baas; M. L. Beusichem

1990-01-01

107

Organisational Conditions to Boost or Limit Professional Development in the Cypriot Primary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I examine which organisational conditions can promote or limit the professional development of teachers in the Cypriot primary school. The discussion builds on findings from a study I conducted about Cypriot primary school teachers' reflective practices (Loizou 2011). The study was qualitative and used semi-structured…

Loizou, Florentia

2014-01-01

108

Oral Health Conditions and Dental Visits Among Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women of Childbearing Age in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004  

PubMed Central

Introduction Oral diseases can be prevented or improved with regular dental visits. Our objective was to assess and compare national estimates on self-reported oral health conditions and dental visits among pregnant women and nonpregnant women of childbearing age by using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We analyzed self-reported oral health information on 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women of childbearing age (15–44 years) from NHANES 1999–2004. We used ?2 and 2-sample t tests to assess statistical differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, poverty, and education. We applied the Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons. Results Our data show significant differences in self-reported oral health conditions and dental visits among women, regardless of pregnancy status, when stratified by selected sociodemographic characteristics. Significant differences were also found in self-reported oral health conditions and dental visits between pregnant and nonpregnant women, especially among young women, women from minority race/ethnicity groups, and women with less than high school education. Conclusion We found disparities in self-reported oral health conditions and use of dental services among women regardless of pregnancy status. Results highlight the need to improve dental service use among US women of childbearing age, especially young pregnant women, those who are non-Hispanic black or Mexican American, and those with low family income or low education level. Prenatal visits could be used as an opportunity to encourage pregnant women to seek preventive dental care during pregnancy. PMID:25232750

Yeung, Lorraine F.; Alverson, C. J.; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio

2014-01-01

109

Comparison of health behaviour and oral\\/medical conditions in non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetics and non-diabetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and two dentate patients with type II diabetes mellitus and 98 non-diabetic subjects were examined for oral conditions and metabolic state. Self-reported health behaviour was analysed. From factor analysis four factors emerged: general health behaviour (GHB), perceived fatigue (PF), diet control (DC) and regular diet (RD). In diabetics PF, DC and RD were significantly higher than that in

Makoto Kawamura; Setsuko Fukuda; Kunio Kawabata; Yoshifumi Iwamoto

1998-01-01

110

Breed differences in insulin sensitivity and insulinemic responses to oral glucose in horses and ponies of moderate body condition score.  

PubMed

Breed-related differences may occur in the innate insulin sensitivity (SI) of horses and ponies, an important factor believed to be associated with the risk of laminitis. The aim of this study was to measure the glucose and insulin responses of different breeds of horses and ponies in moderate body condition to a glucose-containing meal and to compare these responses with the indices of SI as determined by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT). Eight Standardbred horses, 8 mixed-breed ponies, and 7 Andalusian-cross horses with a mean ± SEM BCS 5.0 ± 0.3 of 9 were used in this study. Each animal underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in which they were fed a fiber-based ration (2.0 g/kg BW) containing 1.5 g/kg BW added glucose, as well as a standard FSIGT with minimal model analysis. The glucose response variables from the OGTT were similar between groups; however, the peak insulin concentration was higher in ponies (94.1 ± 29.1 ?IU/mL; P = 0.003) and Andalusians (85.3 ± 18.6; P = 0.004) than in Standardbreds (21.2 ± 3.5). The insulin area under the curve was also higher in ponies (13.5 ± 3.6 IU · min · L(-1); P = 0.009) and Andalusians (15.0 ± 2.7; P = 0.004) than in Standardbreds (3.1 ± 0.6). Insulin sensitivity, as determined by the FSIGT, was lower in Andalusians (0.99 ± 0.18 × 10(-4)/[mIU · min]) than in Standardbreds (5.43 ± 0.94; P < 0.001) and in ponies (2.12 ± 0.44; P = 0.003) than in Standardbreds. Peak insulin concentrations from the OGTT were negatively correlated with SI (P < 0.001; rs = -0.75). These results indicate that there are clear breed-related differences in the insulin responses of horses and ponies to oral and intravenous glucose. All animals were in moderate body condition, indicating that breed-related differences in insulin dynamics occurred independent of obesity. PMID:24308928

Bamford, N J; Potter, S J; Harris, P A; Bailey, S R

2014-04-01

111

Enhancement of chemotaxis in Spirochaeta aurantia grown under conditions of nutrient limitation.  

PubMed

Spirochaeta aurantia M1 cells were grown in a chemostat under conditions of energy and carbon source limitation. The chemotactic responses of the chemostat-grown cells were compared with those of S. aurantia cells grown in batch culture in the presence of excess energy and carbon source. Chemotactic responses were measured by determining the number of cells that entered a capillary tube containing a solution of attractant. S. aurantia cells grown in the chemostat under energy and carbon source limitation exhibited enhanced chemotactic responses and detected lower concentrations of attractant, as compared with cells grown in batch culture. The chemotactic response toward an attractant was specifically enhanced when that attractant was the growth-limiting energy and carbon source. The medium used contained either D-glucose or D-xylose as the sole energy and carbon source. Cells had the greatest chemotactic response toward glucose when grown at a dilution rate (D) of 0.045 h-1 under glucose limitation and toward xylose when grown at D = 0.06 h-1 under xylose limitation. When cells were grown under glucose limitation (D = 0.045 h-1), they sensed concentrations of attractant (glucose) ca. 1,000 times lower than those sensed by batch-grown cells. A similar enhancement of sensing ability (toward xylose) was observed in cells grown under xylose limitation. The results indicated that S. aurantia cells are able to regulate their chemosensory system in response to nutrient limitation. Maximum enhancement of chemotaxis occurs in cells growing at very low concentrations of energy and carbon source. Most likely, this property provides the spirochetes with competitive advantages when the availability of nutrients becomes severely limited in their habitats. PMID:6735977

Terracciano, J S; Canale-Parola, E

1984-07-01

112

A water use and growth model for Eucalyptus plantation in water-limited conditions  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the environmental impact of plantation forestry using fast-growing tree species in southern India, a program of field studies was initiated in 1987 specifically to measure the water use, nutrient uptake and growth rates of the plantations. A water use and growth (WAG) model is proposed for calculating transpiration and growth of Eucalyptus plantation in water-limited conditions. The model is based on the measured relationships between transpiration rate and basal cross-sectional area and soil moisture availability. The volume growth rate (in water-limited conditions) is assumed to be proportional to the volume of water transpired. The model is calibrated using (deuterium tracing) measurements of transpiration and measurements of growth recorded at the Puradal experimental plantation, Karnataka, southern India.

Calder, I.R. [Inst. of Hydrology, Wallingford (United Kingdom)

1992-12-31

113

L'animalit comme limite et comme horizon pour la condition humaine selon Hannah Arendt  

E-print Network

1 L'animalité comme limite et comme horizon pour la condition humaine selon Hannah Arendt Thierry première vue, Hannah Arendt n'a pas explicitement voué sa réflexion à la question animale, dans sa ? Tel que Hannah Arendt le décrit, le totalitarisme est un phénomène complexe qui a culminé dans l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

114

Bayesian methodology to estimate and update safety performance functions under limited data conditions: a sensitivity analysis.  

PubMed

In road safety studies, decision makers must often cope with limited data conditions. In such circumstances, the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), which relies on asymptotic theory, is unreliable and prone to bias. Moreover, it has been reported in the literature that (a) Bayesian estimates might be significantly biased when using non-informative prior distributions under limited data conditions, and that (b) the calibration of limited data is plausible when existing evidence in the form of proper priors is introduced into analyses. Although the Highway Safety Manual (2010) (HSM) and other research studies provide calibration and updating procedures, the data requirements can be very taxing. This paper presents a practical and sound Bayesian method to estimate and/or update safety performance function (SPF) parameters combining the information available from limited data with the SPF parameters reported in the HSM. The proposed Bayesian updating approach has the advantage of requiring fewer observations to get reliable estimates. This paper documents this procedure. The adopted technique is validated by conducting a sensitivity analysis through an extensive simulation study with 15 different models, which include various prior combinations. This sensitivity analysis contributes to our understanding of the comparative aspects of a large number of prior distributions. Furthermore, the proposed method contributes to unification of the Bayesian updating process for SPFs. The results demonstrate the accuracy of the developed methodology. Therefore, the suggested approach offers considerable promise as a methodological tool to estimate and/or update baseline SPFs and to evaluate the efficacy of road safety countermeasures under limited data conditions. PMID:24316506

Heydari, Shahram; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Lord, Dominique; Fu, Liping

2014-03-01

115

Limiter  

DOEpatents

A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

1984-10-19

116

Enhanced efficacy of an attenuated Flavobacterium psychrophilum strain cultured under iron-limited conditions.  

PubMed

An attenuated strain of Flavobacterium psychrophilum (CSF259-93B.17) has shown potential as a vaccine for prevention of bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Because BCWD outbreaks can result in high mortality in other salmonid species, specifically coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum), the live-attenuated strain was tested as a vaccine in this species. Additionally, we hypothesized that culture of the vaccine strain under iron-limited conditions would lead to improved protection against BCWD. To test this hypothesis, coho salmon were either injection or immersion immunized with CSF259-93B.17 cultured in iron-replete or iron-limited medium. Resultant antibody titers were low and not significantly different between the two treatments regardless of vaccine delivery method (P > 0.05). Following injection challenge with a virulent F. psychrophilum strain, mortality for injection vaccinated fish was significantly reduced compared to the control but did not differ by treatment (P > 0.05). Relative percent survival (RPS) was high in both treatments (90% in iron-replete, 98% in iron-limited medium). Fish immunized by immersion with CSF259-93B.17 grown in iron-replete medium exhibited lower mortality (29.3%; RPS 46%) when compared to mock immunized fish, but this was not significant. However, mortality was significantly lower in fish immunized with CSF259-93B.17 grown in iron-limited medium (14.7%; RPS 73%) when compared to mock immunized fish. The results demonstrate that the live-attenuated F. psychrophilum strain can confer protection to coho salmon and vaccine efficacy is enhanced by culturing the strain under iron-limited conditions. PMID:23989039

Long, Amy; Fehringer, Tyson R; Swain, Marissa A; LaFrentz, Benjamin R; Call, Douglas R; Cain, Kenneth D

2013-11-01

117

Liquid Lithium Limiter for Carbon Wall Conditioning on RFX-mod  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Liquid Lithium Limiter (Li3) with capillary porous system originally developed for the FTU tokamak, has been tested for the first time on the Reversed Field Pinch RFX-mod, a machine equipped with a first wall completely covered by graphite tiles. The operation in limiter configuration was restricted by a defect on the limiter, which coupled with the plasma wall interaction with a relatively limited power (2-3 MW/m^2) caused a damage to the device. The Li3 has then been operated as an evaporator, being the Lithium depositions preceded by prolonged glow discharges in Helium to remove the Hydrogen trapped into the graphite. The enhanced retention capability and the lowered recycling factor of the first wall obtained with this treatments in respect to standard operational conditions, allowed a good degree of control on the density of the RFP discharges and to reach high density regimes at high current (n/nGreenwald ˜ 0.8 at plasma current ˜ 1.6 MA).

Cavazzana, R.; Scarin, P.; Spizzo, G.; Agostini, M.; de Masi, G.; Marrelli, L.; Puiatti, M. E.; Mazzitelli, G.

2012-10-01

118

Speed, speed limits and road traffic accidents under free flow conditions.  

PubMed

The relationship between various measures of traffic speed, under free flow conditions, and accident rate is investigated for two groups of sites, one in the Tyne and Wear county of the UK and the other in Bahrain. The effect of speed limits on traffic speed is estimated for both groups of sites. In Bahrain, there is statistically significant evidence of an association between mean speed and accident rate. In Tyne and Wear the statistical evidence is weaker, and points to a stronger relationship between accidents and the variability of traffic speeds. In both areas, there is an apparent decrease in accident rate if the percentage of heavy vehicles increases, with the speed distribution held constant. In both areas the effect of speed limits is to reduce the mean speed of traffic by at least one quarter. Higher speeds are associated with longer trips. PMID:10084631

Aljanahi, A A; Rhodes, A H; Metcalfe, A V

1999-01-01

119

Exploring the limits and utility of operant conditioning in the treatment of drug addiction  

PubMed Central

This article describes a research program to develop an operant treatment for cocaine addiction in low-income, treatment-resistant methadone patients. The treatment's central feature is an abstinence reinforcement contingency in which patients earn monetary reinforcement for providing cocaine-free urine samples. Success and failure of this contingency appear to be an orderly function of familiar parameters of operant conditioning. Increasing reinforcement magnitude and duration can increase effectiveness, and sustaining the contingency can prevent relapse. Initial development of a potentially practical application of this technology suggests that it may be possible to integrate abstinence reinforcement into employment settings using salary for work to reinforce drug abstinence. This research illustrates the potential utility and current limitations of an operant approach to the treatment of drug addiction. Similar research programs are needed to explore the limits of the operant approach and to develop practical applications that can be used widely in society for the treatment of drug addiction. PMID:22478430

Silverman, Kenneth

2004-01-01

120

Calcification and photosynthesis of the coral acropora cervicornis under calcium limited conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differing hypothesis about the function of calcification are based on an interesting dilemma. Is the purpose of calcification mainly a structural and protective one or does calcification serve other functions? Does photosynthesis increase carbonate ion activity and cause calcification or does calcification increase CO2 levels and stimulate photsynthesis? It is proposed that calcification in corals is not dependent upon photosynthesis but upon calcium levels in the water. Under normal ocean conditions, corals convert a certain percentage of energy to photosynthesis and respiration and another percentage to calcification. As corals become nutrient stressed, particularly calcium limited, the ratio of photosynthesis to calcification shifts towards calcification in order to generate protons. The protons generated during calcification may stimulate photosynthesis and aid in the uptake of nutrients and biocarbonates. The results of the calcification experiment show a trend towards increased calcification and decreased photosynthesis when the coral Acropora cervicornis is calcium limited, but the data are inconclusive and further research is needed.

Rathfon, Megan; Brewer, Debbie

1997-01-01

121

The Agony of Choice: How Plants Balance Growth and Survival under Water-Limiting Conditions1  

PubMed Central

When confronted with water limitation, plants actively reprogram their metabolism and growth. Recently, it has become clear that growing tissues show specific and highly dynamic responses to drought, which differ from the well-studied responses in mature tissues. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in understanding shoot growth regulation in water-limiting conditions. Of special interest is the balance between maintained growth and competitiveness on the one hand and ensured survival on the other hand. A number of master regulators controlling this balance have been identified, such as DELLAs and APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR-type transcription factors. The possibilities of engineering or breeding crops that maintain growth in periods of mild drought, while still being able to activate protective tolerance mechanisms, are discussed. PMID:23766368

Claeys, Hannes; Inzé, Dirk

2013-01-01

122

Limiter  

DOEpatents

A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

Cohen, Samuel A. (Hopewell, NJ); Hosea, Joel C. (Princeton, NJ); Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ)

1986-01-01

123

Limits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will see how the idea of a limit can be presented both in formal epsilon-delta-style terms, and using corresponding animations. After calculating a limit for a simple example function, we point out that limits do not always exist.

2013-06-21

124

PREDICTOL: a computer program to determine the thermophysiological duration limited exposures in various climatic conditions.  

PubMed

PREDICTOL is a PC program used to determine the thermophysiological duration limited exposures (DLE) in humans, nude or clothed, submitted to various climatic conditions (hot and cold climates) at rest or during a physical exercise. DLE are determined following different standards of the International Standardization Organization (ISO), especially ISO 7933 for hot environment and ISO-TR 11079 for cold environment. The original aspect of this program is that it can be used whatever the climatic conditions. The program presents two modes: an educational interactive mode and a scenario mode. The educational interactive mode demonstrates the thermophysiological effects, expressed as DLE, of different parameter changes (temperature, humidity, wind speed, metabolic heat production by physical exercise, clothing insulation and water vapor permeability). The scenario mode determines DLE for given various linked sequences as encountered in occupational, military or even recreational activities, each sequence being characterized by its climatic conditions, physical activities performed and by physical clothing properties. DLE given by PREDICTOL are correlated to those obtained in various controlled climatic laboratory conditions (r = 0.86; P < 0.001). PREDICTOL is written in Visual Basic 6.0. A "help menu" is provided to explain the use of the program and give information concerning the equations used to calculate both the thermal balance and DLE. PMID:15501508

Besnard, Yves; Launay, Jean-Claude; Guinet-Lebreton, Angélique; Savourey, Gustave

2004-12-01

125

Assessment of bacterial community structure in nitrifying biofilm under inorganic carbon-sufficient and -limited conditions.  

PubMed

In this work, nitrification and changes in the composition of the total bacterial community under inorganic carbon (IC)-limited conditions, in a nitrifying moving bed biofilm reactor, was investigated. A culture-independent analysis of cloning and sequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene was applied to quantify the bacterial diversity and to determine bacterial taxonomic assignment. IC concentrations had significant effects on the stability of ammonia-oxidation as indicated by the reduction of the nitrogen conversion rate with high NH4(+)-N loadings. The predominance of Nitrosomonas europaea was maintained in spite of changes in the IC concentration. In contrast, heterotrophic bacterial species contributed to a high bacterial diversity, and to a dynamic shift in the bacterial community structure, under IC-limited conditions. In this study, individual functions of heterotrophic bacteria were estimated based on taxonomic information. Possible key roles of coexisting heterotrophic bacteria are the assimilation of organic compounds of extracellular polymeric substances produced by nitrifiers, and biofilm formation by providing a filamentous structure and aggregation properties. PMID:25560266

Bae, Hyokwan; Chung, Yun-Chul; Yang, Heejeong; Lee, Changsoo; Aryapratama, Rio; Yoo, Young J; Lee, Seockheon

2015-01-01

126

MYB10 and MYB72 Are Required for Growth under Iron-Limiting Conditions  

PubMed Central

Iron is essential for photosynthesis and is often a limiting nutrient for plant productivity. Plants respond to conditions of iron deficiency by increasing transcript abundance of key genes involved in iron homeostasis, but only a few regulators of these genes have been identified. Using genome-wide expression analysis, we searched for transcription factors that are induced within 24 hours after transferring plants to iron-deficient growth conditions. Out of nearly 100 transcription factors shown to be up-regulated, we identified MYB10 and MYB72 as the most highly induced transcription factors. Here, we show that MYB10 and MYB72 are functionally redundant and are required for plant survival in alkaline soil where iron availability is greatly restricted. myb10myb72 double mutants fail to induce transcript accumulation of the nicotianamine synthase gene NAS4. Both myb10myb72 mutants and nas4-1 mutants have reduced iron concentrations, chlorophyll levels, and shoot mass under iron-limiting conditions, indicating that these genes are essential for proper plant growth. The double myb10myb72 mutant also showed nickel and zinc sensitivity, similar to the nas4 mutant. Ectopic expression of NAS4 rescues myb10myb72 plants, suggesting that loss of NAS4 is the primary defect in these plants and emphasizes the importance of nicotianamine, an iron chelator, in iron homeostasis. Overall, our results provide evidence that MYB10 and MYB72 act early in the iron-deficiency regulatory cascade to drive gene expression of NAS4 and are essential for plant survival under iron deficiency. PMID:24278034

Palmer, Christine M.; Hindt, Maria N.; Schmidt, Holger; Clemens, Stephan; Guerinot, Mary Lou

2013-01-01

127

Optimization of plant mineral nutrition under growth-limiting conditions in a lunar greenhouse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It may be assumed that the first plants in a lunar base will play a main role in forming a protosoil of acceptable fertility needed for purposively growing second generation plants like wheat, rice, tulips, etc. The residues of the first-generation plants could be composted and transformed by microorganisms into a soil-like substrate within a loop of regenerative life support system. The lunar regolith may be used as a substrate for plant growth at the very beginning of a mission to reduce its cost. The use of microbial communities for priming plants will allow one to facilitate adaption to stressful conditions and to support the plant development under growth limiting conditions. Well-defined plant-associated bacteria were used for growing three cultivars to colonize French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) in anorthosite, a substrate of low bioavailability, analogous to a lunar rock. The consortium was composed of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and the bacterium Paenibacillus sp. IMBG156 which stimulated seed germination, better plant development, and finally, the flowering of inoculated tagetes. In contrast, control plants grew poorly in the anorthosite and practically did not survive until flowering. Analysis of bacterial community composition showed that all species colonized plant roots, however, the rate of colonization depended on the allelopatic characteristics of marigold varieties. Bacteria of consortium were able to liberate some elements (Ca, Fe, Mn, Si, Ni, Cu, Zn) from substrate anorthosite. Plant colonization by mixed culture of bacterial strains resulted in the increase of accumulation of K, Mg, Mn by the plant and in the lowering of the level of toxic metal accumulation. It was assumed that a rationally assembled consortium of bacterial strains promoted germination of marygold seeds and supported the plant development under growth limiting conditions by means of bioleaching plant essential nutritional elements and by protecting the plant against hyperaccumulation of some toxic metals.

Zaets, I.; Voznyuk, T.; Kovalchuk, M.; Rogutskyy, I.; Lukashov, D.; Mytrokhyn, O.; Mashkovska, S.; Foing, B.; Kozyrovska, N.

128

Genomic sweep and potential genetic rescue during limiting environmental conditions in an isolated wolf population  

PubMed Central

Genetic rescue, in which the introduction of one or more unrelated individuals into an inbred population results in the reduction of detrimental genetic effects and an increase in one or more vital rates, is a potentially important management tool for mitigating adverse effects of inbreeding. We used molecular techniques to document the consequences of a male wolf (Canis lupus) that immigrated, on its own, across Lake Superior ice to the small, inbred wolf population in Isle Royale National Park. The immigrant's fitness so exceeded that of native wolves that within 2.5 generations, he was related to every individual in the population and his ancestry constituted 56 per cent of the population, resulting in a selective sweep of the total genome. In other words, all the male ancestry (50% of the total ancestry) descended from this immigrant, plus 6 per cent owing to the success of some of his inbred offspring. The immigration event occurred in an environment where space was limiting (i.e. packs occupied all available territories) and during a time when environmental conditions had deteriorated (i.e. wolves' prey declined). These conditions probably explain why the immigration event did not obviously improve the population's demography (e.g. increased population numbers or growth rate). Our results show that the beneficial effects of gene flow may be substantial and quickly manifest, short-lived under some circumstances, and how the demographic benefits of genetic rescue might be masked by environmental conditions. PMID:21450731

Adams, Jennifer R.; Vucetich, Leah M.; Hedrick, Philip W.; Peterson, Rolf O.; Vucetich, John A.

2011-01-01

129

Strong diffusion limit in the realistic magnetosphere: Dependence on geomagnetic condition and spatial location  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract<p label="1">As an essential concept of resonant wave-particle interactions, the strong diffusion <span class="hlt">limit</span> DSD is an important variable to explore the efficiency of wave-induced pitch angle scattering for particle precipitation loss to the atmosphere. Determined by the size of equatorial loss cone on a given field line and the bounce period at a given energy, the value of DSD sets a lower <span class="hlt">limit</span> to the precipitation timescale for loss cone filling, regardless of the strength of wave-particle interactions. However, no efforts have ever been made to evaluate DSD in the realistic magnetosphere considering the impact of various geomagnetic activities. To perform a systematic exploration of the dependence of DSD on geomagnetic <span class="hlt">condition</span>, spatial location, and global magnetic field model, we have numerically computed DSD using the dipolar and non-dipolar Tsyganenko magnetic field models under three representative (quiet, moderate, and active) geomagnetic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Use of more realistic Tsyganenko magnetic field models introduces non-negligible or considerable differences in DSD magnitude from that obtained using a dipolar field. The difference can be over an order of magnitude at the field lines with equatorial crossings ?6 Re during geomagnetically disturbed times. We also report that in the realistic magnetosphere both DSD magnitude and its variations have a strong dependence on the spatial location. Computed DSD shows the maximum tending to occur on the dayside (MLT = 12 and 16) and the minimum DSD more likely to occur at MLT = 00. Compared to the dipolar results, largest deviation in DSD occurs for MLT = 00, 04, and 20, while DSD variations on the dayside are relatively small. Our results demonstrate that accurate evaluation of DSD besides scattering rates in the realistic magnetosphere, especially at high spatial locations and under geomagnetically disturbed <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for which a dipolar approximation fails, can make an important contribution to quantifying the wave effect on particle resonant diffusion, which should be incorporated into future modeling efforts for comprehending the role of resonant wave-particle interactions and the dynamics of magnetospheric electrons under a variety of geomagnetic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhou, Chen; Yang, Guobin; Ni, Binbin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Hu, Ze-Jun; Shi, Run</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25483890"> <span id="translatedtitle">Liquid chromatography under <span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of desorption 6: Separation of a four-component polymer blend.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Baseline separation was achieved of a model four-component polymer blend of polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(2-vinyl pyridine) in a single chromatographic run with help of the unconventional method of liquid chromatography under <span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of desorption. Narrow barriers of liquids were employed, which selectively decelerated elution of particular kinds of macromolecules. Bare silica gel was the column packing, and the eluent was a mixture of dimethylformamide/tetrahydrofuran/toluene 30:50:20 w/w/w. Barrier compositions were neat toluene, B#1, neat tetrahydrofuran, B#2, and dimethylformamide/tetrahydrofuran/toluene 15:55:30, B#3. Minor blend constituents (?1%) could be identified, as well. The result represents a step toward the separation and molecular characterization of triblock-copolymers, many of which are expected to contain besides both parent homopolymers also the diblock chains and thus they are in fact four-component polymer blends. PMID:25483890</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berek, Dušan; Macová, Eva</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NaPho...6..374C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optical codeword demodulation with error rates below the standard quantum <span class="hlt">limit</span> using a <span class="hlt">conditional</span> nulling receiver</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The quantum states of two laser pulses--coherent states--are never mutually orthogonal, making perfect discrimination impossible. Even so, coherent states can achieve the ultimate quantum <span class="hlt">limit</span> for capacity of a classical channel, the Holevo capacity. Attaining this requires the receiver to make joint-detection measurements on long codeword blocks, optical implementations of which remain unknown. Here, we report the first experimental demonstration of a joint-detection receiver, demodulating quaternary pulse-position-modulation codewords at a word error rate of up to 40% (2.2 dB) below that attained with direct detection, the largest error-rate improvement over the standard quantum <span class="hlt">limit</span> reported to date. This is accomplished with a <span class="hlt">conditional</span> nulling receiver, which uses optimized-amplitude coherent pulse nulling, single photon detection and quantum feedforward. We further show how this translates into coding complexity improvements for practical pulse-position-modulation systems, such as in deep-space communication. We anticipate our experiment to motivate future work towards building Holevo-capacity-achieving joint-detection receivers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Jian; Habif, Jonathan L.; Dutton, Zachary; Lazarus, Richard; Guha, Saikat</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19724193"> <span id="translatedtitle">Baclofen, raclopride, and naltrexone differentially affect intake of fat and sucrose under <span class="hlt">limited</span> access <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine, and opioids are implicated in impulse control, addiction and binge eating. Recent evidence suggests that sucrose alters the effects of GABAergic, dopaminergic, and opioid receptor ligands on consumption of a fatty food in a rat <span class="hlt">limited</span>-access binge protocol. This study determined the independent effects of fat and sucrose on the efficacy of these ligands under <span class="hlt">limited</span>-access <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Nonfood-deprived male Sprague-Dawley rats had 1 h access to fat (vegetable shortening) or sucrose (3.2, 10, or 32% w/v). Half had intermittent access (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) and half had daily access. Effects of baclofen (GABAB agonist), SCH 23390 (D1 antagonist), raclopride (D2 antagonist), and naltrexone (opioid antagonist) were assessed. Baclofen and naltrexone reduced fat intake regardless of the access schedule. Baclofen had no effect on sucrose intake; naltrexone reduced sucrose intake at higher doses than were required to reduce fat intake. Raclopride stimulated fat intake in intermittent-access rats and had no effect in daily-access rats; raclopride reduced sucrose intake in all groups. SCH 23390 reduced intake in a nonspecific manner. The results indicate the involvement of GABAB receptors in fat but not sucrose intake, and of D2 receptor dysfunction in rats with a history of bingeing on fat. PMID:19724193</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Corwin, Rebecca L; Wojnicki, Francis H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22607008"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Limits</span> and perspective of <span class="hlt">oral</span> therapy with statins and aspirin for the prevention of symptomatic cholesterol gallstone disease.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The prevalence of gallstones disease in Western countries is 10 - 15%. Gallstones can be one of two types - cholesterol or pigment - with cholesterol gallstones representing nearly the 80% of the total. Cholesterol and pigment gallstones have different predisposing factors: cholesterol gallstones are related to supersaturated bile in cholesterol, whereas black pigment gallstones are related to hyperbilirubinbilia factors (hemolysis, etc.); these are necessary, but not sufficient, factors to produce gallstones in vivo. Gall bladder mucosa factors (gall bladder secretion of mucin, local bile stasis and production of endogenous biliary ?-glucuronidase) may coexist with the aforementioned factors and facilitate gallstone nucleation and growth. The gold-standard treatment for symptomatic gallstones is laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Several studies have reported a significant reduction in the onset of symptomatic gallstones disease in patients undergoing chronic therapy with statins, which can reduce bile cholesterol saturation. Aspirin, which has been shown to reduce the local production of gall bladder mucins (mucosal or parietal factors of gallstone formation) in animal experimental models, does not appear to reduce the risk of symptomatic gallstones disease when tested alone. The new horizon of <span class="hlt">oral</span> therapy for the prevention of symptomatic gallstone disease needs to evaluate the long-term effect of statins and chronic aspirin administration in patients with dyslipidemia and/or atherosclerosis. PMID:22607008</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cariati, Andrea; Piromalli, Elisa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvB..87h5207D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for space-charge-<span class="hlt">limited</span> conduction in organic photovoltaic cells at open-circuit <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ac admittance of solar cells under illumination is investigated under open-circuit <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Open-circuit <span class="hlt">conditions</span> are imposed by inserting a probe capacitor into the circuit. The capacitance and conductance of the cells are investigated as function of frequency and continuous illumination intensity. Results are compared with numerical and analytical modeling of charge recombination and transport. In bulk heterojunction solar cells with [6,6]-Phenyl-C61(C71)-butyric acid methyl ester as acceptor and poly(3-hexylthiophene) or poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] as electron donor, the high-frequency capacitance C and conductance G follow a power-law dependence on intensity of white light I, with G(I) ? I3/4 and C(I) ? I1/4. The modeling shows that these dependencies can be explained in terms of space-charge-<span class="hlt">limited</span> current in combination with Langevin type recombination of carriers. For poly[2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl[4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Di Nuzzo, Daniele; van Reenen, Stephan; Janssen, René A. J.; Kemerink, Martijn; Meskers, Stefan C. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22224006"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chrysomya bezziana <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Myiasis is an opportunistic infestation of human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis is a rare <span class="hlt">condition</span> associated with poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene, mental disability, halitosis and other <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. We present a case report of an adult mentally challenged woman with extensive necrotic <span class="hlt">oral</span> lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which three live maggots (larvae) were seen emerging out. The larvae were removed using forceps and the patient was treated with <span class="hlt">oral</span> ivermectin. The maggots were identified as larvae of the Chrysomya bezziana fly. PMID:22224006</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kumar, Gs Vijay; Sowmya, Gs; Shivananda, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title29-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title29-vol5-part1910-subpartT-appA.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart T of... - Examples of <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Which May Restrict or <span class="hlt">Limit</span> Exposure to Hyperbaric <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Commercial Diving...use. <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> requiring continuous medication for control (e.g.,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title29-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title29-vol5-part1910-subpartT-appA.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart T of... - Examples of <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Which May Restrict or <span class="hlt">Limit</span> Exposure to Hyperbaric <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Commercial Diving...use. <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> requiring continuous medication for control (e.g.,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title29-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title29-vol5-part1910-subpartT-appA.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart T to... - Examples of <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Which May Restrict or <span class="hlt">Limit</span> Exposure to Hyperbaric <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Commercial Diving...use. <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> requiring continuous medication for control (e.g.,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title29-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title29-vol5-part1910-subpartT-appA.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart T to... - Examples of <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Which May Restrict or <span class="hlt">Limit</span> Exposure to Hyperbaric <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Commercial Diving...use. <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> requiring continuous medication for control (e.g.,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1742467"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> candidiasis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity caused by an overgrowth of Candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic candidiasis, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors include impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, and extremes of life, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndrome, malignancies, and immunosuppressive <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Management involves taking a history, an examination, and appropriate antifungal treatment with a few requiring samples to be taken for laboratory analysis. In certain high risk groups antifungal prophylaxis reduces the incidence and severity of infections. The prognosis is good in the great majority of cases. PMID:12185216</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Akpan, A; Morgan, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3038600"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Administration of Semicarbazide <span class="hlt">Limits</span> Weight Gain together with Inhibition of Fat Deposition and of Primary Amine Oxidase Activity in Adipose Tissue</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An enzyme hitherto named semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), involved in the oxidation of primary amines, is abundantly expressed in adipocytes. Although SSAO physiological functions remain unclear, several molecules inhibiting its activity have been described to <span class="hlt">limit</span> fat accumulation in preadipocyte cultures or to reduce body weight gain in obese rodents. Here, we studied whether <span class="hlt">oral</span> administration of semicarbazide, a prototypical SSAO inhibitor, <span class="hlt">limits</span> fat deposition in mice. Prolonged treatment with semicarbazide at 0.125% in drinking water <span class="hlt">limited</span> food and water consumption, hampered weight gain, and deeply impaired fat deposition. The adiposomatic index was reduced by 31%, while body mass was reduced by 15%. Such treatment completely inhibited SSAO, but did not alter MAO activity in white adipose tissue. Consequently, the insulin-like action of the SSAO substrate benzylamine on glucose transport was abolished in adipocytes from semicarbazide-drinking mice, while their insulin sensitivity was not altered. Although semicarbazide is currently considered as a food contaminant with deleterious effects, the SSAO inhibition it induces appears as a novel concept to modulate adipose tissue development, which is promising for antiobesity drug discovery. PMID:21331292</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mercader, Josep; Iffiú-Soltész, Zsuzsa; Bour, Sandy; Carpéné, Christian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3269348"> <span id="translatedtitle">Safety and efficacy of glycopyrrolate <span class="hlt">oral</span> solution for management of pathologic drooling in pediatric patients with cerebral palsy and other neurologic <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of <span class="hlt">oral</span> glycopyrrolate solution 1 mg/5 mL for 24 weeks in pediatric patients with chronic moderate-to- severe drooling associated with cerebral palsy and other neurologic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Methods In this multicenter, open-label, 24-week study, males and females aged 3–18 years weighing at least 27 lb received <span class="hlt">oral</span> glycopyrrolate solution, starting at 0.02 mg/kg three times daily and titrated in increments of 0.02 mg/kg every 5–7 days for 4 weeks to an optimal maintenance dose or a maximum dose of 0.1 mg/kg, but not exceeding 3 mg three times daily. Safety was assessed by description and tabulation of all adverse events. The primary efficacy endpoint was response, defined as at least a three-point change from baseline to week 24 on the modified Teacher’s Drooling Scale. Results Of 137 intent-to-treat participants, 10 (7.3%) received the maximum dose of 0.1 mg/kg three times daily; 122 (89%) had at least one treatment-emergent adverse event, 47% related to <span class="hlt">oral</span> glycopyrrolate solution, with most being mild-to-moderate in intensity. The most commonly reported treatment-emergent adverse events were constipation (20.4%), vomiting (17.5%), diarrhea (17.5%), pyrexia (14.6%), dry mouth (10.9%), flushing (10.9%), and nasal congestion (10.9%). Nineteen patients (13.9%) discontinued treatment due to an adverse event, but no adverse event was specifically associated with discontinuation. Two patients had clinically significant toxicity grade shifts, one each in platelet count and calcium concentration. No deaths occurred on treatment; deaths of three patients (multisystem organ failure, anoxic encephalopathy, and aspiration pneumonia) within 30 days of their last dose were not considered to be treatment-related. At 24 weeks, 52.3% (95% confidence interval 43.7–60.9) of patients were responders, with at least a three-point decrease in modified Teacher’s Drooling Scale from baseline, with 83.5% of parents/caregivers and 85.8% of investigators rating <span class="hlt">oral</span> glycopyrrolate solution as being worthwhile. Conclusion <span class="hlt">Oral</span> glycopyrrolate solution 1 mg/5 mL for chronic moderate-to-severe drooling associated with cerebral palsy or other neurologic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> was well tolerated over 24 weeks by pediatric patients aged 3–18 years. PMID:22298951</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zeller, Robert S; Davidson, Jennifer; Lee, Hak-Myung; Cavanaugh, Paul F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110015468&hterms=performance+management+system&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dperformance%2Bmanagement%2Bsystem"> <span id="translatedtitle">Performance of Airborne Precision Spacing Under Realistic Wind <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> and <span class="hlt">Limited</span> Surveillance Range</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With the expected worldwide increase of air traffic during the coming decade, both the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), as well as Eurocontrol's Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) program have, as part of their plans, air traffic management (ATM) solutions that can increase performance without requiring time-consuming and expensive infrastructure changes. One such solution involves the ability of both controllers and flight crews to deliver aircraft to the runway with greater accuracy than they can today. Previous research has shown that time-based spacing techniques, wherein the controller assigns a time spacing to each pair of arriving aircraft, can achieve this goal by providing greater runway delivery accuracy and producing a concomitant increase in system-wide performance. The research described herein focuses on one specific application of time-based spacing, called Airborne Precision Spacing (APS), which has evolved over the past ten years. This research furthers APS understanding by studying its performance with realistic wind <span class="hlt">conditions</span> obtained from atmospheric sounding data and with realistic wind forecasts obtained from the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) short-range weather forecast. In addition, this study investigates APS performance with <span class="hlt">limited</span> surveillance range, as provided by the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) system, and with an algorithm designed to improve APS performance when ADS-B surveillance data is unavailable. The results presented herein quantify the runway threshold delivery accuracy of APS under these <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, and also quantify resulting workload metrics such as the number of speed changes required to maintain spacing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wieland, Frederick; Santos, Michel; Krueger, William; Houston, Vincent E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/95/11/59/PDF/IFFcondition.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A necessary and sufficient <span class="hlt">condition</span> for the non-trivial <span class="hlt">limit</span> of the derivative martingale in a branching random walk</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">for the non-triviality of this <span class="hlt">limit</span> and establish a Kesten-Stigum-like result. Keywords. Branching random and sufficient <span class="hlt">condition</span> for the mean convergence of Wn(t), and generalized Kesten-Stigum theorem for the Galton <span class="hlt">condition</span> of the Kesten-Stigum theorem, they gave a general treatment to obtain the mean convergence</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvB..86s5317U"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antiband instability on vicinal Si(111) under the <span class="hlt">condition</span> of diffusion-<span class="hlt">limited</span> sublimation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we investigate the antiband instability on vicinal Si(111) surfaces with different angles of misorientation. It is known that prolonged direct current-annealing of Si(111) results in the formation of antibands; i.e., the step bunches with the opposite slope to the primary bunches. We provide a theoretical description of antiband formation via the evolution of the atomic steps' shape. We also derive a criterion for the onset of the antiband instability under the <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of sublimation controlled by slow adatom surface diffusion. We examine this criterion experimentally by studying the initial stage of the antiband formation at a constant temperature of 1270 °C while systematically varying the applied electromigration field. The experiment strongly supports the validity of the derived theoretical criterion and indicates the importance of accounting for the factor of critical field in the theoretical modeling of step bunching or antiband instabilities. Deduced from the comparison of theory and experiment, the Si surface atoms' effective charge cannot exceed double the elementary charge, set by the lower <span class="hlt">limit</span> of kinetic characteristic length ds=0.3 nm. Using ds=1.7-4.5 nm draws values of the effective charge in line with the values reported in earlier studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Usov, V.; Stoyanov, S.; O Coileain, C.; Toktarbaiuly, O.; Shvets, I. V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4315866"> <span id="translatedtitle">Do water-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> predispose Norway spruce to bark beetle attack?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Drought is considered to enhance susceptibility of Norway spruce (Picea abies) to infestations by the Eurasian spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus, Coleoptera: Curculionidae), although empirical evidence is scarce. We studied the impact of experimentally induced drought on tree water status and constitutive resin flow, and how physiological stress affects host acceptance and resistance. We established rain-out shelters to induce both severe (two full-cover plots) and moderate (two semi-cover plots) drought stress. In total, 18 sample trees, which were divided equally between the above treatment plots and two control plots, were investigated. Infestation was controlled experimentally using a novel ‘attack box’ method. Treatments influenced the ratios of successful and defended attacks, but predisposition of trees to infestation appeared to be mainly driven by variations in stress status of the individual trees over time. With increasingly negative twig water potentials and decreasing resin exudation, the defence capability of the spruce trees decreased. We provide empirical evidence that water-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> impair Norway spruce resistance to bark beetle attack. Yet, at the same time our data point to reduced host acceptance byI. typographus with more extreme drought stress, indicated by strongly negative pre-dawn twig water potentials. PMID:25417785</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Netherer, Sigrid; Matthews, Bradley; Katzensteiner, Klaus; Blackwell, Emma; Henschke, Patrick; Hietz, Peter; Pennerstorfer, Josef; Rosner, Sabine; Kikuta, Silvia; Schume, Helmut; Schopf, Axel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/804696"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Condition</span> for production of circulating proton beam with intensity greater than space charge <span class="hlt">limit</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Transverse e-p instability in proton rings could be damped by increasing the beam density and the rate of secondary particles production above the threshold level, with the corresponding decrease of unstable wavelength {lambda} below the transverse beam size h (increase of beam density n{sub b} and ion density n{sub i} above the threshold level: n{sub b} + n{sub i} > {beta}{sup 2}/(r{sub e} h{sup 2}), where r{sub e} = e{sup 2}/mc{sup 2}). Such island of stability can be reached by a fast charge-exchange injection without painting and enhanced generation of secondary plasma, which was demonstrated in a small scale Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia. With successful damping of e-p instability, the intensity of circulating proton beam, with a space charge neutralization was increased up to 6 times above a space charge <span class="hlt">limit</span>. Corresponding tune shift without space charge neutralization should be up to {Delta}v=0.85 x 6 (in the ring with v = 0.85). In this paper, they review experimental observations of transverse instability of proton beams in various rings. they also discuss methods which can be used to damp the instability. Such experimental data could be useful for verification of computer simulation tools developed for the studies of the space charge and instabilities in realistic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vadim Dudnikov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-11-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25417785"> <span id="translatedtitle">Do water-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> predispose Norway spruce to bark beetle attack?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Drought is considered to enhance susceptibility of Norway spruce (Picea abies) to infestations by the Eurasian spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus, Coleoptera: Curculionidae), although empirical evidence is scarce. We studied the impact of experimentally induced drought on tree water status and constitutive resin flow, and how physiological stress affects host acceptance and resistance. We established rain-out shelters to induce both severe (two full-cover plots) and moderate (two semi-cover plots) drought stress. In total, 18 sample trees, which were divided equally between the above treatment plots and two control plots, were investigated. Infestation was controlled experimentally using a novel 'attack box' method. Treatments influenced the ratios of successful and defended attacks, but predisposition of trees to infestation appeared to be mainly driven by variations in stress status of the individual trees over time. With increasingly negative twig water potentials and decreasing resin exudation, the defence capability of the spruce trees decreased. We provide empirical evidence that water-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> impair Norway spruce resistance to bark beetle attack. Yet, at the same time our data point to reduced host acceptance by I. typographus with more extreme drought stress, indicated by strongly negative pre-dawn twig water potentials. PMID:25417785</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Netherer, Sigrid; Matthews, Bradley; Katzensteiner, Klaus; Blackwell, Emma; Henschke, Patrick; Hietz, Peter; Pennerstorfer, Josef; Rosner, Sabine; Kikuta, Silvia; Schume, Helmut; Schopf, Axel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25209648"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global burden of dental <span class="hlt">condition</span> among children in nine countries participating in an international <span class="hlt">oral</span> health promotion programme, 2012-2013.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Live.Learn.Laugh. phase 2 programme is a unique global partnership between FDI World Dental Federation and Unilever <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Care which aims to provide measurable improvement of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health on a global scale through encouraging twice-daily brushing with a fluoride toothpaste. It was based on international recommendations using the principles of health promotion within school for the implementation of preventive health strategies. This paper is an overview of the dental caries <span class="hlt">condition</span> of children from 2012 to 2013 in nine countries included in four World Health Organisation (WHO) regions. A cross-sectional study was conducted in each country before the implementation of health-promotion measures focused on twice-daily toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste. The sample was based on stratified sampling according to the WHO pathfinder recommendations. From a total of 7,949 children examined, there were 517 children (1-2 years of age), 1,667 preschool children (3-5 years of age) and 5,789 schoolchildren (6-13 years of age). The prevalence and severity of primary dental caries, early childhood caries and temporary dental caries were described using decayed, filled teeth (dft), permanent decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) indices and the significant caries index (SCI). The major findings were a high prevalence of caries, identification of high-risk groups and inequality in the distribution of the severity of dental <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Aggregated data from this overview should provide justification for implementing an <span class="hlt">oral</span> health programme. The main point is the need to retain and expand the community fluoridation programme as an effective preventive measure. At the individual level, the aggregated data identify the need for more targeted efforts to reach children early - especially among specific high-risk groups. PMID:25209648</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bourgeois, Denis M; Llodra, Juan Carlos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/98675"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> hypoglycemic agent update.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The treatment of diabetes is still a problem more than a half-century after the discovery of insulin. Patients are now living significantly longer but until the development of <span class="hlt">oral</span> hypoglycemic agents, the only direct treatment modalities were exercise, diet, and insulin. Before evaluating the effectiveness of treatment, a therapeutic goal must be determined. While there are no absolutely "hard" facts proving that "good control" is beneficial in preventing chronic complications of diabetes, increasing accumulation of "soft" data strongly suggests that normal blood glucose levels are most desirable, when possible, but not at the cost of severe or disabling hypoglycemic reactions. The development of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> agents was a great public health advance in that many persons with early diabetes, but fearful of insulin injections, had less dread of "the pills" and sought treatment. The <span class="hlt">oral</span> agents simplified care but this very simplification process often undermined the need for proper diet and good fundamental care. This often led to mediocre diabetes care. While useful, the <span class="hlt">oral</span> agents have marked <span class="hlt">limitations</span> and in some are effective only temporarily. The presently available <span class="hlt">oral</span> agents are sulfonylureas and require a viable beta-cell system for success. This <span class="hlt">limits</span> the number of diabetics responsive to such treatment. The general indications for tolbutamide, chlorpropamide, acetohexamide and tolazamide are in maturity-onset diabetics, generally beyond the age of 40 with diabetes of less than 10 years. They are contraindicated in juvenile-onset diabetics, in pregnant women, and usually in patients undergoing major surgery, and can become ineffective during periods of extreme stress or during severe infection. They can lower blood glucose levels if used in proper doses in properly selected patients. Contrary to several decades of documentation, it has become popular to suggest that the <span class="hlt">oral</span> agents are not effective. They can be effective but for many reasons apparently were not in their use by the U.G.D.P. researchers. This might not be the fault of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> agent used. If ineffective, they should be discontinued. Many, but not all, patients may respond to diet therapy, which is then the treatment of choice. Obviously insulin, though difficult to use for many persons and in itself able to induce several severe reactions if not used properly, is the only treatment (with diet) for the severe diabetic. There is a large spectrum of patients inbetween in whom the <span class="hlt">oral</span> agents may be useful. The use of phenformin (phenethyl-biguanide) has been effectively curtailed because of many reported cases of lactic acidosis, and while it is doubtful that phenformin alone, in the absence of complicating factors, is the causative factor, it is capable of being an augmenting influence when other <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, such as decreased kidney function, prevail... PMID:98675</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krall, L P; Chabot, V A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3811826"> <span id="translatedtitle">Secreted Pyomelanin of Legionella pneumophila Promotes Bacterial Iron Uptake and Growth under Iron-<span class="hlt">Limiting</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Iron acquisition is critical to the growth and virulence of Legionella pneumophila. Previously, we found that L. pneumophila uses both a ferrisiderophore pathway and ferrous iron transport to obtain iron. We now report that two molecules secreted by L. pneumophila, homogentisic acid (HGA) and its polymerized variant (HGA-melanin, a pyomelanin), are able to directly mediate the reduction of various ferric iron salts. Furthermore, HGA, synthetic HGA-melanin, and HGA-melanin derived from bacterial supernatants enhanced the ability of L. pneumophila and other species of Legionella to take up radiolabeled iron. Enhanced iron uptake was not observed with a ferrous iron transport mutant. Thus, HGA and HGA-melanin mediate ferric iron reduction, with the resulting ferrous iron being available to the bacterium for uptake. Upon further testing of L. pneumophila culture supernatants, we found that significant amounts of ferric and ferrous iron were associated with secreted HGA-melanin. Importantly, a pyomelanin-containing fraction obtained from a wild-type culture supernatant was able to stimulate the growth of iron-starved legionellae. That the corresponding supernatant fraction obtained from a nonpigmented mutant culture did not stimulate growth demonstrated that HGA-melanin is able to both promote iron uptake and enhance growth under iron-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Indicative of a complementary role in iron acquisition, HGA-melanin levels were inversely related to the levels of siderophore activity. Compatible with a role in the ecology and pathogenesis of L. pneumophila, HGA and HGA-melanin were effective at reducing and releasing iron from both insoluble ferric hydroxide and the mammalian iron chelates ferritin and transferrin. PMID:23980114</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zheng, Huaixin; Chatfield, Christa H.; Liles, Mark R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1732781"> <span id="translatedtitle">Employment status, employment <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, and <span class="hlt">limiting</span> illness: prospective evidence from the British household panel survey 1991–2001</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives: To assess the relation of the incidence of, and recovery from, <span class="hlt">limiting</span> illness to employment status, occupational social class, and income over time in an initially healthy sample of working age men and women. Methods: Cox proportional hazards models. Results: There were large differences in the risk of <span class="hlt">limiting</span> illness according to occupational social class, with men and women in the least favourable employment <span class="hlt">conditions</span> nearly four times more likely to become ill than those in the most favourable. Unemployment and economic inactivity also had a powerful effect on illness incidence. <span class="hlt">Limiting</span> illness was not a permanent state for most participants in the study. Employment status was also related to recovery. Conclusions: Having secure employment in favourable working <span class="hlt">conditions</span> greatly reduces the risk of healthy people developing <span class="hlt">limiting</span> illness. Secure employment increases the likelihood of recovery. These findings have considerable implications for both health inequality and economic policies. PMID:15143119</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bartley, M; Sacker, A; Clarke, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.507c2004B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development and test of resistive superconducting fault current <span class="hlt">limiter</span>; acting time and its recovery <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Resistive-type of superconducting fault current <span class="hlt">limiters</span> (RSFCL) have been developed for medium voltage class aiming to operate at 1 MVA power capacity and short time recovery (< 2 s). A RSFCL in form of superconducting modular device was designed and constructed using 50 m-length of YBCO coated conductor tapes for operation under 1 kV / 1 kA and acting time of 0.1 s. In order to increase the acting time the RSFCL was combined with an air-core reactor in parallel to increase the fault <span class="hlt">limiting</span> time up to 1 s. The tests determined the electrical and thermal characteristics of the combined resistive/inductive protection unit. The combined fault current <span class="hlt">limiter</span> reached a <span class="hlt">limiting</span> current of 583 A, corresponding to a <span class="hlt">limiting</span> factor of 3.3 times within an acting time of up to 1 s.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baldan, Carlos A.; Guedes, Luciano C.; Lamas, Jerika S.; Shigue, Carlos Y.; Ruppert, Ernesto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24582671"> <span id="translatedtitle">Post-<span class="hlt">oral</span> fat stimulation of intake and <span class="hlt">conditioned</span> flavor preference in C57BL/6J mice: A concentration-response study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fat appetite is determined not only by orosensory (flavor) stimuli but also by the post-<span class="hlt">oral</span> actions of dietary fat, which promote increased attraction to the flavors of high-fat foods. Experiment 1 presents a concentration-response analysis of how intragastric (IG) fat self-infusions stimulate intake and <span class="hlt">condition</span> flavor preferences in C57BL/6J mice trained 1h/day. Separate groups of food-restricted mice consumed a flavored saccharin solution (the CS-) paired with IG self-infusions of water (Test 0) followed by a different flavored solution (the CS+) paired with IG self-infusions of 1.6, 3.2, 6.4 or 12.8% Intralipid (IL, soybean oil) (Tests 1-3). Following additional CS- and CS+ training sessions, a two-bottle CS+ vs. CS- choice test was conducted without infusions. Infusions of 3.2-12.8% IL stimulated CS+ licking in the first test session and more so in subsequent test sessions, and also <span class="hlt">conditioned</span> significant CS+ preferences. These effects were similar to those previously observed with isocaloric glucose infusions (8-32%). IG infusion of 1.6% IL stimulated intake slightly but did not <span class="hlt">condition</span> a CS+ preference comparable to the actions of isocaloric 4% glucose. Experiment 2 compared these subthreshold IL and glucose concentrations with that of a 1.6% IL+4% glucose infusion. This mixture stimulated 1-h CS+ licking more rapidly but generated a preference similar to that of 1.6% IL. In 23h/day tests, however, the IL+glucose mixture stimulated greater CS+ intakes and preferences than did 1.6% IL or 4% glucose. These findings show that fat, like glucose, rapidly generates concentration-dependent post-<span class="hlt">oral</span> signals that stimulate intake and enhance preferences for energy-rich foods in mice. PMID:24582671</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B31B0417R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using Multiple Approaches, including ?18O Signatures of Phosphate to Investigate Potential Phosphorus <span class="hlt">Limitation</span> and Cycling under Changing Climate <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phosphorus (P) is often a <span class="hlt">limiting</span> or co-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> nutrient in terrestrial systems. It has been proposed that it will play an even greater role in ecosystems experiencing some of the many predicted effects of climate change, in particular release from nitrogen <span class="hlt">limitation</span>. Recent work in 2007 by Menge et al. suggests that this is indeed a possibility. To investigate the potential for P <span class="hlt">limitation</span>, and P cycling under multiple controlled <span class="hlt">conditions</span> we collected samples from the Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment (JRGCE) in May 2011. For over a decade the JRGCE has been manipulating four key parameters predicted to change in the future in a native Californian grassland system. Elevated Nitrogen deposition, increased precipitation, increased pCO2, and increased temperature are applied and monitored in a split plot design at the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve in the eastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains, California. Work done previously at the site using a suite of indicators of the potential P <span class="hlt">limitation</span> suggest P <span class="hlt">limitation</span> in some of the manipulated plots in the JRGCE. In this study we replicate a subset of the prior analyses to compare inter-annual signals of P <span class="hlt">limitation</span>, and further attempt to utilize the oxygen isotopes of phosphate to investigate P cycling in soils at JRGCE. A fractional soil extraction process for phosphate enables separation of several operationally defined P pools, and provides auxiliary information regarding the relative concentrations of bio-available P, and relevant minerals in this grassland system under the varied <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roberts, K.; Paytan, A.; Field, C. B.; Honn, E.; Edwards, E.; Gottlieb, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title45-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title45-vol1-sec146-111.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">45 CFR 146.111 - <span class="hlt">Limitations</span> on preexisting <span class="hlt">condition</span> exclusion period.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... (i) Facts. Individual C has asthma and is treated for that <span class="hlt">condition</span> several...months later, C is hospitalized for asthma. (ii) Conclusion. In this Example...<span class="hlt">condition</span> exclusion with respect to C 's asthma because care relating to C 's...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title29-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title29-vol9-sec2590-701-3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR 2590.701-3 - <span class="hlt">Limitations</span> on preexisting <span class="hlt">condition</span> exclusion period.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... (i) Facts. Individual C has asthma and is treated for that <span class="hlt">condition</span> several...months later, C is hospitalized for asthma. (ii) Conclusion. In this Example...<span class="hlt">condition</span> exclusion with respect to C 's asthma because care relating to C 's...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title26-vol17/pdf/CFR-2010-title26-vol17-sec54-9801-3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">26 CFR 54.9801-3 - <span class="hlt">Limitations</span> on preexisting <span class="hlt">condition</span> exclusion period.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... (i) Facts. Individual C has asthma and is treated for that <span class="hlt">condition</span> several...months later, C is hospitalized for asthma. (ii) Conclusion . In this Example...<span class="hlt">condition</span> exclusion with respect to C 's asthma because care relating to C 's...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/87/38/55/PDF/local-GW-2013-10.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">LOCAL <span class="hlt">LIMITS</span> OF <span class="hlt">CONDITIONED</span> GALTON-WATSON TREES I: THE INFINITE SPINE CASE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">of a <span class="hlt">conditioned</span> Galton-Watson tree to Kesten's tree. This yields elementary proofs of Kesten's result as well call Kesten's tree in this paper, which can be seen as the tree <span class="hlt">conditioned</span> on non-extinction, defined Kesten [16]. This result is recalled here in Section 2.4. The tree happens to be the size-biased tree</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=205883"> <span id="translatedtitle">Expression of Helicobacter pylori urease genes in Escherichia coli grown under nitrogen-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Helicobacter pylori produces a potent urease that is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal diseases. Four genes (ureA, ureB, ureC, and ureD) were previously shown to be able to achieve a urease-positive phenotype when introduced into Campylobacter jejuni, whereas Escherichia coli cells harboring these genes did not express urease activity (A. Labigne, V. Cussac, and P. Courcoux, J. Bacteriol. 173:1920-1931, 1991). Results that demonstrate that H. pylori urease genes could be expressed in E. coli are presented in this article. This expression was found to be dependent on the presence of accessory urease genes hitherto undescribed. Subcloning of the recombinant cosmid pILL585, followed by restriction analyses, resulted in the cloning of an 11.2-kb fragment (pILL753) which allowed the detection of urease activity (0.83 +/- 0.39 mumol of urea hydrolyzed per min/mg of protein) in E. coli cells grown under nitrogen-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Transposon mutagenesis of pILL753 with mini-Tn3-Km permitted the identification of a 3.3-kb DNA region that, in addition to the 4.2-kb region previously identified, was essential for urease activity in E. coli. Sequencing of the 3.3-kb DNA fragment revealed the presence of five open reading frames encoding polypeptides with predicted molecular weights of 20,701 (UreE), 28,530 (UreF), 21,744 (UreG), 29,650 (UreH), and 19,819 (UreI). Of the nine urease genes identified, ureA, ureB, ureF, ureG, and ureH were shown to be required for urease expression in E. coli, as mutations in each of these genes led to negative phenotypes. The ureC, ureD, and ureI genes are not essential for urease expression in E. coli, although they belong to the urease gene cluster. The predicted UreE and UreG polypeptides exhibit some degree of similarity with the respective polypeptides encoded by the accessory genes of the Klebsiella aerogenes urease operon (33 and 92% similarity, respectively, taking into account conservative amino acid changes), whereas this homology was restricted to a domain of the UreF polypeptide (44% similarity for the last 73 amino acids of the K. aerogenes UreF polypeptide). With the exception of the two UreA and UreB structural polypeptides of the enzyme, no role can as yet be assigned to the nine proteins encoded by the H. pylori urease gene cluster. Images PMID:1313413</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cussac, V; Ferrero, R L; Labigne, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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Regulation 5-Mediated Cyclic Electron Flow under ATP- or Redox-<span class="hlt">Limited</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>.K.N.) The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii proton gradient regulation5 (Crpgr5) mutant shows phenotypic and functional traits discriminate two pathways for CEF and determine their maximum electron flow rates. The PGR5/proton gradient</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50709827"> <span id="translatedtitle">Decision-Making Model and Application on City Land Reserve Under the <span class="hlt">Condition</span> of <span class="hlt">Limited</span> Reserve Funds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Owing to the shortage of the city land reserve funds, loan funds generally are applied to reserve the lands besides the own funds. This paper aims at proposing city land reserve decision-making model under the <span class="hlt">condition</span> of <span class="hlt">limited</span> reserve funds based on market-oriented operation pattern of the city land reserve. The model can be used to confirm the reorder point</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang Xue-Qing; Bing Xing-Guo; Li Hai-Li</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title50-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title50-vol8-sec22-32.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 22.32 - <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> on taking under depredation control order.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Depredation Control Orders on Golden Eagles § 22.32 <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> and... (a) Whenever the taking of golden eagles without a permit is authorized... (c) The authority to take golden eagles under a depredations control...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title50-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title50-vol6-sec22-32.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 22.32 - <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> on taking under depredation control order.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Depredation Control Orders on Golden Eagles § 22.32 <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> and... (a) Whenever the taking of golden eagles without a permit is authorized... (c) The authority to take golden eagles under a depredations control...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title50-vol9/pdf/CFR-2012-title50-vol9-sec22-32.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 22.32 - <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> on taking under depredation control order.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Depredation Control Orders on Golden Eagles § 22.32 <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> and... (a) Whenever the taking of golden eagles without a permit is authorized... (c) The authority to take golden eagles under a depredations control...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title50-vol9/pdf/CFR-2014-title50-vol9-sec22-32.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 22.32 - <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> on taking under depredation control order.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Depredation Control Orders on Golden Eagles § 22.32 <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> and... (a) Whenever the taking of golden eagles without a permit is authorized... (c) The authority to take golden eagles under a depredations control...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title50-vol9/pdf/CFR-2013-title50-vol9-sec22-32.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 22.32 - <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> on taking under depredation control order.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Depredation Control Orders on Golden Eagles § 22.32 <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> and... (a) Whenever the taking of golden eagles without a permit is authorized... (c) The authority to take golden eagles under a depredations control...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40973348"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tillage-induced environmental <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in soil and substrate <span class="hlt">limitation</span> determine biogenic gas production</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tillage changes soil environmental <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and controls the distribution of residues in the soil, both actions that affect the production and emission of soil biogenic gases (CO2, N2O, and CH4). The objective of this study was to determine how tillage-induced environmental <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and substrate quality affect the mineralization rate of easily metabolizable compounds and the subsequent production of these gases.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. G. Gregorich; P. Rochette; D. W. Hopkins; U. F. McKim; P. St-Georges</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34852345"> <span id="translatedtitle">Growth kinetics and Pho84 phosphate transporter activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under phosphate-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of phosphate (P\\u000a \\u000a i\\u000a ) concentration on the growth behavior of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CEN.PK113-5D in phosphate-<span class="hlt">limited</span> batch and chemostat cultures was studied. The range of dilution rates used in the\\u000a present study was 0.08–0.45 h?1. The batch growth of yeast cells followed Monod relationship, but growth of the cells in phosphate-<span class="hlt">limited</span> chemostat showed\\u000a change in growth kinetics with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Soheila Shokrollahzadeh; Babak Bonakdarpour; Farzaneh Vahabzadeh; Mehri Sanati</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=russian+AND+dictionary&id=EJ1045379"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inclusive and Integrated Schooling for Children with <span class="hlt">Limited</span> Abilities: Problems and <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Necessary for Effectiveness</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For more than twenty years now the system of education in Russia has been adopting the ideas of integrated schooling for children with <span class="hlt">limited</span> abilities. The absence of positive outcomes has been confirmed by the results of numerous surveys (Malofeev 2007, 2011; Nazarova 1996, 2009). In this article, N. V. Liubavina writes that the time has now…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liubavina, N. V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/medication/oral-medications/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Medication</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... doctor before starting anything new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Medication How Much Do <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Medications Cost? Save money by finding the right type and dosage of medicine for your needs. In this section Treatment and ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/1159"> <span id="translatedtitle">Advantages and <span class="hlt">Limitations</span> of an In Vitro Lipolysis Model as a Predictive Tool in the Development of Lipid Based <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Formulations or Lipophilic Drugs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">, Eur J Pharm Sci 2005 Pretreatment with cycloheximide eliminates the lymphatic transport, without affecting other absorption pathways Cycloheximide 10 Dahan and Hoffman, Pharm Res 2006 In vivo <span class="hlt">oral</span> bioavailability of Vitamin D 3 in cycloheximide...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dahan, Arik</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-10-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/n69761610776m7qm.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adoption of improved irrigation and drainage reduction technologies under <span class="hlt">limiting</span> environmental <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Modern irrigation technologies have been suggested as a means of conserving scarce water and reducing environmental pollution caused by irrigated agriculture. This paper applies an economic model of technology selection that provides a general framework to analyzing adoption of irrigation technologies under various environmental <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Data from the San Joaquin Valley of California is used to verify the theoretical relationships.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ariel Dinar; Mark B. Campbell; David Zilberman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title29-vol9/pdf/CFR-2012-title29-vol9-sec2590-701-3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR 2590.701-3 - <span class="hlt">Limitations</span> on preexisting <span class="hlt">condition</span> exclusion period.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...all benefits. However, benefits for pregnancy are not available until the individual...plan for 12 months to be eligible for pregnancy benefits is a subterfuge for a preexisting...to exclude benefits for a <span class="hlt">condition</span> (pregnancy) that arose before the effective...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title45-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title45-vol1-sec146-111.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">45 CFR 146.111 - <span class="hlt">Limitations</span> on preexisting <span class="hlt">condition</span> exclusion period.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...all benefits. However, benefits for pregnancy are not available until the individual...plan for 12 months to be eligible for pregnancy benefits is a subterfuge for a preexisting...to exclude benefits for a <span class="hlt">condition</span> (pregnancy) that arose before the effective...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title26-vol17/pdf/CFR-2013-title26-vol17-sec54-9801-3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">26 CFR 54.9801-3 - <span class="hlt">Limitations</span> on preexisting <span class="hlt">condition</span> exclusion period.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...all benefits. However, benefits for pregnancy are not available until the individual...plan for 12 months to be eligible for pregnancy benefits is a subterfuge for a preexisting...to exclude benefits for a <span class="hlt">condition</span> (pregnancy) that arose before the effective...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title29-vol9/pdf/CFR-2013-title29-vol9-sec2590-701-3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR 2590.701-3 - <span class="hlt">Limitations</span> on preexisting <span class="hlt">condition</span> exclusion period.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...all benefits. However, benefits for pregnancy are not available until the individual...plan for 12 months to be eligible for pregnancy benefits is a subterfuge for a preexisting...to exclude benefits for a <span class="hlt">condition</span> (pregnancy) that arose before the effective...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title26-vol17/pdf/CFR-2011-title26-vol17-sec54-9801-3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">26 CFR 54.9801-3 - <span class="hlt">Limitations</span> on preexisting <span class="hlt">condition</span> exclusion period.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...all benefits. However, benefits for pregnancy are not available until the individual...plan for 12 months to be eligible for pregnancy benefits is a subterfuge for a preexisting...to exclude benefits for a <span class="hlt">condition</span> (pregnancy) that arose before the effective...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title26-vol17/pdf/CFR-2012-title26-vol17-sec54-9801-3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">26 CFR 54.9801-3 - <span class="hlt">Limitations</span> on preexisting <span class="hlt">condition</span> exclusion period.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...all benefits. However, benefits for pregnancy are not available until the individual...plan for 12 months to be eligible for pregnancy benefits is a subterfuge for a preexisting...to exclude benefits for a <span class="hlt">condition</span> (pregnancy) that arose before the effective...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title45-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title45-vol1-sec146-111.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">45 CFR 146.111 - <span class="hlt">Limitations</span> on preexisting <span class="hlt">condition</span> exclusion period.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...all benefits. However, benefits for pregnancy are not available until the individual...plan for 12 months to be eligible for pregnancy benefits is a subterfuge for a preexisting...to exclude benefits for a <span class="hlt">condition</span> (pregnancy) that arose before the effective...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title45-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title45-vol1-sec146-111.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">45 CFR 146.111 - <span class="hlt">Limitations</span> on preexisting <span class="hlt">condition</span> exclusion period.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...all benefits. However, benefits for pregnancy are not available until the individual...plan for 12 months to be eligible for pregnancy benefits is a subterfuge for a preexisting...to exclude benefits for a <span class="hlt">condition</span> (pregnancy) that arose before the effective...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title29-vol9/pdf/CFR-2011-title29-vol9-sec2590-701-3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR 2590.701-3 - <span class="hlt">Limitations</span> on preexisting <span class="hlt">condition</span> exclusion period.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...all benefits. However, benefits for pregnancy are not available until the individual...plan for 12 months to be eligible for pregnancy benefits is a subterfuge for a preexisting...to exclude benefits for a <span class="hlt">condition</span> (pregnancy) that arose before the effective...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title26-vol17/pdf/CFR-2014-title26-vol17-sec54-9801-3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">26 CFR 54.9801-3 - <span class="hlt">Limitations</span> on preexisting <span class="hlt">condition</span> exclusion period.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...all benefits. However, benefits for pregnancy are not available until the individual...plan for 12 months to be eligible for pregnancy benefits is a subterfuge for a preexisting...to exclude benefits for a <span class="hlt">condition</span> (pregnancy) that arose before the effective...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title34-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title34-vol3-sec675-20.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">34 CFR 675.20 - Eligible employers and general <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and <span class="hlt">limitation</span> on employment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...student's work must be governed by employment <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, including pay...or local law. (2) FWS employment may not— (i) Impair existing...instruction; or (v) Include employment for the U.S. Department... (i) Enrolled in an internship; (ii) Enrolled in a...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-02-25/pdf/2011-4229.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 10489 - Special <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>: Bell Helicopter Textron Canada <span class="hlt">Limited</span> Model 407 Helicopter, Installation of...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...depending on the configuration. The major design features include a 4-blade, soft-in-plane main rotor, a 2-blade anti-torque tail rotor, a skid landing...helicopter because of a novel or unusual design feature, special <span class="hlt">conditions</span> are...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790015553&hterms=value+chain&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dvalue%2Bchain"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">condition</span> of a finite Markov chain and perturbation bounds for the <span class="hlt">limiting</span> probabilities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The inequalities bounding the relative error the norm of w- w squiggly/the norm of w are exhibited by a very simple function of E and A. Let T denote the transition matrix of an ergodic chain, C, and let A = I - T. Let E be a perturbation matrix such that T squiggly = T - E is also the transition matrix of an ergodic chain, C squiggly. Let w and w squiggly denote the <span class="hlt">limiting</span> probability (row) vectors for C and C squiggly. The inequality is the best one possible. This bound can be significant in the numerical determination of the <span class="hlt">limiting</span> probabilities for an ergodic chain. In addition to presenting a sharp bound for the norm of w-w squiggly/the norm of w an explicit expression for w squiggly will be derived in which w squiggly is given as a function of E, A, w and some other related terms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meyer, C. D., Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6369031"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen isotope exchange and <span class="hlt">conditioning</span> in graphite <span class="hlt">limiters</span> used in TFTR</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Isotopic exchange experiments performed in TFTR are used to examine the outgassing and diffusive properties of graphite used as the plasma <span class="hlt">limiter</span>. Changeover from hydrogen to deuterium for different periods ranges from approx.600 to 60 plasma discharges, which appears to be correlated to the <span class="hlt">limiter</span> temperature. We present a simple analytical model that predicts a fast transient (approx.10 plasma discharges) changeover where the deuterium fueling dilutes the adsorbed and near-surface hydrogen, and a slowly changing term where bulk hydrogen diffuses to the surface. Using this model we can extract an activation energy for diffusion of 0.15 +- 0.02 eV. We hypothesize that interpore diffusion for this porous (approx.15%) material is consistent with our observations. 19 refs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">LaMarche, P.H.; Dylla, H.F.; McCarthy, P.J.; Ulrickson, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3977787"> <span id="translatedtitle">Validity <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for stochastic chemical kinetics in diffusion-<span class="hlt">limited</span> systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The chemical master equation (CME) and the mathematically equivalent stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) assume that the reactant molecules in a chemically reacting system are “dilute” and “well-mixed” throughout the containing volume. Here we clarify what those two <span class="hlt">conditions</span> mean, and we show why their satisfaction is necessary in order for bimolecular reactions to physically occur in the manner assumed by the CME and the SSA. We prove that these <span class="hlt">conditions</span> are closely connected, in that a system will stay well-mixed if and only if it is dilute. We explore the implications of these validity <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for the reaction-diffusion (or spatially inhomogeneous) extensions of the CME and the SSA to systems whose containing volumes are not necessarily well-mixed, but can be partitioned into cubical subvolumes (voxels) that are. We show that the validity <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, together with an additional <span class="hlt">condition</span> that is needed to ensure the physical validity of the diffusion-induced jump probability rates of molecules between voxels, require the voxel edge length to have a strictly positive lower bound. We prove that if the voxel edge length is steadily decreased in a way that respects that lower bound, the average rate at which bimolecular reactions occur in the reaction-diffusion CME and SSA will remain constant, while the average rate of diffusive transfer reactions will increase as the inverse square of the voxel edge length. We conclude that even though the reaction-diffusion CME and SSA are inherently approximate, and cannot be made exact by shrinking the voxel size to zero, they should nevertheless be useful in many practical situations. PMID:24511926</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gillespie, Daniel T.; Petzold, Linda R.; Seitaridou, Effrosyni</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/oralhealth/Topics/OralCancer/Documents/OralCancer_082714_508C.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Cancer Are You at Risk? What Are the Signs & Symptoms? Should You Have an <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Cancer Exam? U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ... Health Early Detection It is important to find <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer as early as possible when it can be ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5882164"> <span id="translatedtitle">Performance of transient <span class="hlt">limiters</span> under laboratory, simulated, and rocket-triggered lightning <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have designed and tested a prototype system that implements a lightning-protection method referred to as the ''fortress concept.'' The fortress, a structure similar to a Faraday cage, protects the critical system by surrounding it with a continuous metallic skin. Each electrical conductor that must enter the fortress is enclosed within a cable, which is, in turn, enclosed in a metallic shield that terminates at the entry point and is electrically bonded to the fortress' outer metallic surface. Within the fortress, each penetrating conductor is protected by a transient <span class="hlt">limiter</span>. The system was tested by means of full-threat-level simulated lightning and actual lightening triggered by rockets. Several <span class="hlt">limited</span> components were subsequently tested by using a laboratory-type surge generator to investigate certain anomalous responses. This paper reviews the fortress concept, discusses the operation of the <span class="hlt">limiters</span>, and examines their performance. Explanations are offered for the anomalous responses, and several important design considerations and trade-offs are offered. 3 refs., 15 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hasbrouck, R.T.; Johnson, J.P.; Breitmeier, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-07-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3817132"> <span id="translatedtitle">Water-<span class="hlt">Limiting</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Alter the Structure and Biofilm-Forming Ability of Bacterial Multispecies Communities in the Alfalfa Rhizosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biofilms are microbial communities that adhere to biotic or abiotic surfaces and are enclosed in a protective matrix of extracellular compounds. An important advantage of the biofilm lifestyle for soil bacteria (rhizobacteria) is protection against water deprivation (desiccation or osmotic effect). The rhizosphere is a crucial microhabitat for ecological, interactive, and agricultural production processes. The composition and functions of bacterial biofilms in soil microniches are poorly understood. We studied multibacterial communities established as biofilm-like structures in the rhizosphere of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) exposed to 3 experimental <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of water <span class="hlt">limitation</span>. The whole biofilm-forming ability (WBFA) for rhizospheric communities exposed to desiccation was higher than that of communities exposed to saline or nonstressful <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. A culture-dependent ribotyping analysis indicated that communities exposed to desiccation or saline <span class="hlt">conditions</span> were more diverse than those under the nonstressful <span class="hlt">condition</span>. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of selected strains showed that the rhizospheric communities consisted primarily of members of the Actinobacteria and ?- and ?-Proteobacteria, regardless of the water-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">condition</span>. Our findings contribute to improved understanding of the effects of environmental stress factors on plant-bacteria interaction processes and have potential application to agricultural management practices. PMID:24223979</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bogino, Pablo; Abod, Ayelén; Nievas, Fiorela; Giordano, Walter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5607190"> <span id="translatedtitle">Factors <span class="hlt">limiting</span> endurance of armor, artillery, and infantry units under simulated NBC <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The war of the future will require 72-hour operations in environments contaminated with nuclear/biological/chemical (NBC) agents. The 1985 P2NBC2 (Physiological and Psychological Effects of NBC and Extended Operations on Combined Arms Crews) Program assessed soldier endurance and performance under simulated NBC <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. A total of 175 soldiers were observed during four tests differing in design, site, climatic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, and performance demands. In all but one of the iterations where the full chemical-protective ensemble (MOPP 4) was used without cooling, soldier endurance fell far short of the projected requirement. Psychological data were analyzed to determine which factors were associated with the incidence of casualties. The findings showed that perceived intensity of symptoms resembling the hyperventilation syndrome was significantly greater in soldiers classified as Casualties. Five of these symptoms (painful breathing, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, headache, and nausea) showed Casualty-Survivor differences in all tests. Symptom intensity was attributed to two factors. (1) External <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Thermal stress exacerbated the five basic symptoms, induced others (tetany and paresthesia), and decreased endurance. Periodic relief from respirator use attenuated these symptoms and enhanced endurance. (2) Individual differences. Significant Casualty-Survivor differences in anxiety, depression, and cognitive strategy scores indicated that perception of hyperventilation symptoms and endurance were related to personality variables. Hyperventilation symptoms could incapacitate the soldier or induce removal of the protective mask under actual chemical attack.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rauch, T.M.; Tharion, W.J.; Banderet, L.E.; Lussier, A.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-03-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/95781"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Conditionals</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article introduces the classic accounts of the meaning of <span class="hlt">conditionals</span> (material implication, strict implication, variably strict <span class="hlt">conditional</span>) and discusses the difference between indicative and subjunctive/counterfactual ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">von Fintel, Kai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17804586"> <span id="translatedtitle">CD36 gene deletion reduces fat preference and intake but not post-<span class="hlt">oral</span> fat <span class="hlt">conditioning</span> in mice.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several findings suggest the existence of a "fatty" taste, and the CD36 fatty acid translocase is a candidate taste receptor. The present study compared fat preference and acceptance in CD36 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice using nutritive (triglyceride and fatty acid) and nonnutritive (Sefa Soyate oil) emulsions. In two-bottle tests (24 h/day) naive KO mice, unlike WT mice, displayed little or no preference for dilute soybean oil, linoleic acid, or Sefa Soyate emulsions. At high concentrations (2.5-20%), KO mice developed significant soybean oil preferences, although they consumed less oil than WT mice. The postoral actions of fat likely <span class="hlt">conditioned</span> these preferences. KO mice, like WT mice, learned to prefer a flavored solution paired with intragastric soybean oil infusions. These findings support CD36 mediation of a gustatory component to fat preference but demonstrate that it is not essential for fat-<span class="hlt">conditioned</span> flavor preferences. The finding that oil-naive KO mice failed to prefer a nonnutritive oil, assumed to provide texture rather than taste cues, requires explanation. Finally, CD36 deletion decreased fat consumption and enhanced the ability of the mice to compensate for the calories provided by their optional fat intake. PMID:17804586</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sclafani, A; Ackroff, K; Abumrad, N A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPhD...40.5446C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bearing performance <span class="hlt">limits</span> with grease lubrication: the interaction of bearing design, operating <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and grease properties</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The majority of rolling element bearings in use today are lubricated by grease. Grease is a two-phase lubricant with complex rheological properties and poses severe challenges for the prediction for lubricating performance. Grease lubricated contacts are liable to starvation and as a result the film thickness is reduced, which can result in surface damage or premature bearing failure. It is important to know when starvation occurs and the effect of grease type, bearing design and operation on lubrication replenishment. The influence of bearing design and operation in controlling lubricant supply to the contact zone is examined in this paper. The aim is to develop a starvation parameter capable of predicting the operating <span class="hlt">limits</span> for a particular bearing/grease system. A number of bearing design parameters are examined in the paper; these include cage design, ball spin and bearing size. Ball spin and cage effects can be efficient mechanisms for maintaining the lubricant supply to the track. Increased bearing size, line contact geometries and high load result in reduced lubricant replenishment of the contact. Using this analysis it will be possible to establish operating <span class="hlt">limits</span> for families of bearings.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cann, P. M. E.; Lubrecht, A. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25810826"> <span id="translatedtitle">Graft-versus-host disease affecting <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. A review.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is one of the most frequent and serious complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and is regarded as the leading cause of late mortality unrelated to the underlying malignant disease. GVHD is an autoimmune and alloimmune disorder that usually affects multiple organs and tissues, and exhibits a variable clinical course. It can manifest in either acute or chronic form. The acute presentation of GVHD is potentially fatal and typically affects the skin, gastrointestinal tract and liver. The chronic form is characterized by the involvement of a number of organs, including the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. Indeed, the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity may be the only affected location in chronic GVHD. The clinical manifestations of chronic <span class="hlt">oral</span> GVHD comprise lichenoid lesions, hyperkeratotic plaques and <span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">oral</span> aperture secondary to sclerosis. The <span class="hlt">oral</span> <span class="hlt">condition</span> is usually mild, though moderate to severe erosive and ulcerated lesions may also be seen. The diagnosis is established from the clinical characteristics, though confirmation through biopsy study is sometimes needed. Local corticosteroids are the treatment of choice, offering overall response rates of close to 50%. Extracorporeal photopheresis and systemic corticosteroids in turn constitute second line treatment. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> chronic GVHD is not considered a determinant factor for patient survival, which is close to 52% five years after diagnosis of the <span class="hlt">condition</span>. Key words:Chronic graft-versus-host disease, <span class="hlt">oral</span> chronic graft-versus-host disease, pathogenics, management, survival. PMID:25810826</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Margaix-Muñoz, Maria; Bagán, José V; Jiménez, Yolanda; Sarrión, María-Gracia; Poveda-Roda, Rafael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4368002"> <span id="translatedtitle">Graft-versus-host disease affecting <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. A review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is one of the most frequent and serious complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and is regarded as the leading cause of late mortality unrelated to the underlying malignant disease. GVHD is an autoimmune and alloimmune disorder that usually affects multiple organs and tissues, and exhibits a variable clinical course. It can manifest in either acute or chronic form. The acute presentation of GVHD is potentially fatal and typically affects the skin, gastrointestinal tract and liver. The chronic form is characterized by the involvement of a number of organs, including the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. Indeed, the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity may be the only affected location in chronic GVHD. The clinical manifestations of chronic <span class="hlt">oral</span> GVHD comprise lichenoid lesions, hyperkeratotic plaques and <span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">oral</span> aperture secondary to sclerosis. The <span class="hlt">oral</span> <span class="hlt">condition</span> is usually mild, though moderate to severe erosive and ulcerated lesions may also be seen. The diagnosis is established from the clinical characteristics, though confirmation through biopsy study is sometimes needed. Local corticosteroids are the treatment of choice, offering overall response rates of close to 50%. Extracorporeal photopheresis and systemic corticosteroids in turn constitute second line treatment. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> chronic GVHD is not considered a determinant factor for patient survival, which is close to 52% five years after diagnosis of the <span class="hlt">condition</span>. Key words:Chronic graft-versus-host disease, <span class="hlt">oral</span> chronic graft-versus-host disease, pathogenics, management, survival.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Margaix-Muñoz, Maria; Bagán, José V.; Jiménez, Yolanda; Sarrión, María-Gracia; Poveda-Roda, Rafael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22008744"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Limited</span> physical contact through a mesh barrier is sufficient for social reward-<span class="hlt">conditioned</span> place preference in adolescent male rats.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Adolescence is a period of enhanced sensitivity to social influences and vulnerability to drug abuse. Social reward in adolescent rats has been demonstrated with the <span class="hlt">conditioned</span> place preference (CPP) model, but it is not clear whether <span class="hlt">limited</span> contact with another rat without play is sufficient to produce reward. We investigated this issue using an apparatus containing two main compartment, each with a wire mesh barrier that allowed rats placed on either side of the barrier to have <span class="hlt">limited</span> physical contact. Adolescent male rats were given two <span class="hlt">conditioning</span> sessions/day for 2 or 8 days following baseline preference tests. Rats were placed into their preferred side alone for one daily 10-min session and into their initially non-preferred side (i.e., CS) for the other session during which they either had restricted or unrestricted physical access to another rat (Rat/Mesh or Rat/Phys, respectively) or to a tennis ball (Ball/Mesh or Ball/Phys, respectively) unconditioned stimulus (US). Only the Rat/Phys group exhibited CPP after 2 CS-US pairings; however, after 8 CS-US pairings, the Rat/Mesh and Ball/Phys groups also exhibited CPP. During <span class="hlt">conditioning</span>, the rat US elicited more robust approach and contact behavior compared to the ball, regardless of physical or restricted access. The incidence of contact and/or approach increased as the number of exposures increased. The results suggest that the rank order of US reward efficacy was physical contact with a rat><span class="hlt">limited</span> contact with a rat>physical contact with a ball, and that rough-and-tumble play is not necessary to establish social reward-CPP. The findings have important implications for emerging drug self-administration models in which two rats self-administering drug intravenously have <span class="hlt">limited</span> physical contact via a mesh barrier shared between their respective operant <span class="hlt">conditioning</span> chambers. PMID:22008744</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peartree, Natalie A; Hood, Lauren E; Thiel, Kenneth J; Sanabria, Federico; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Chandler, Kayla N; Neisewander, Janet L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cvi.asm.org/cgi/reprint/14/6/785.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rational Peptide Selection To Detect Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1Specific T-Cell Responses under Resource-<span class="hlt">Limited</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses is important for the development of vaccines and therapies. We describe a novel method for the rational selection of peptides that target stable regions of the HIV-1 genome, rich in epitopes specifically recognized by the study population. This method will be of particular use under resource\\/sample-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Understanding the fine</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. B. Willberg; S. K. Pillai; E. R. Sharp; M. G. Rosenberg; J. D. Agudelo; J. D. Barbour; D. F. Nixon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/x6215r5t7v8h2l7x.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Approaches to <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Nutrition Health Risk Assessment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> health plays a significant role in overall and nutritional health. This role becomes increasingly important for patients\\u000a with <span class="hlt">oral</span> or medical illness, patients with physical <span class="hlt">limitations</span> that affect chewing ability, and patients who take medications\\u000a that affect immune surveillance, <span class="hlt">oral</span> ecology, and <span class="hlt">oral</span> physiology. The primary focus of this chapter is to describe approaches\\u000a to <span class="hlt">oral</span> nutrition and diet</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Riva Touger-Decker; David A. Sirois</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25065714"> <span id="translatedtitle">Roles of NMDA and dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the acquisition and expression of flavor preferences <span class="hlt">conditioned</span> by <span class="hlt">oral</span> glucose in rats.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Animals learn to prefer flavors associated with the intake of sugar (sucrose, fructose, glucose) and fat (corn oil: CO) solutions. <span class="hlt">Conditioned</span> flavor preferences (CFP) have been elicited for sugars based on orosensory (flavor-flavor: e.g., fructose-CFP) and post-ingestive (flavor-nutrient: e.g., intragastric (IG) glucose-CFP) processes. Dopamine (DA) D1, DA D2 and NMDA receptor antagonism differentially eliminate the acquisition and expression of fructose-CFP and IG glucose-CFP. However, pharmacological analysis of fat (CO)-CFP, mediated by both flavor-flavor and flavor-nutrient processes, indicated that acquisition and expression of fat-CFP were minimally affected by systemic DA D1 and D2 antagonists, and were reduced by NMDA antagonism. Therefore, the present study examined whether systemic DA D1 (SCH23390), DA D2 (raclopride) or NMDA (MK-801) receptor antagonists altered acquisition and/or expression of CFP induced by <span class="hlt">oral</span> glucose that should be mediated by both flavor-flavor and flavor-nutrient processes. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> glucose-CFP was elicited following by training rats to drink one novel flavor (CS+, e.g., cherry) mixed in 8% glucose and another flavor (CS-, e.g., grape) mixed in 2% glucose. In expression studies, food-restricted rats drank these solutions in one-bottle sessions (2 h) over 10 days. Subsequent two-bottle tests with the CS+ and CS- flavors mixed in 2% glucose occurred 0.5 h after systemic administration of vehicle (VEH), SCH23390 (50-800 nmol/kg), raclopride (50-800 nmol/kg) or MK-801 (50-200 ?g/kg). Rats displayed a robust CS+ preference following VEH treatment (94-95%) which was significantly though marginally attenuated by SCH23390 (67-70%), raclopride (77%) or MK-801 (70%) at doses that also markedly reduced overall CS intake. In separate acquisition studies, rats received VEH, SCH23390 (50-400 nmol/kg), raclopride (50-400 nmol/kg) or MK-801 (100 ?g/kg) 0.5 h prior to ten 1-bottle training trials with CS+/8%G and CS-/2%G training solutions that was followed by six 2-bottle CS+ vs. CS- tests in 2% glucose conducted without injections. The significant and persistent CS+ preferences observed in the VEH (94-98%) group was significantly reduced by rats receiving SCH23390 at 400 nmol/kg (65-73%), raclopride at 200 or 400 nmol/kg (76-82%) or MK-801 at 100 ?g/kg (68-69%). Thus, systemic DA D1 and DA D2 receptor antagonism produced smaller reductions in the expression of <span class="hlt">oral</span> glucose-CFP relative to fructose-CFP or IG-glucose-CFP. Correspondingly, systemic DA D1, DA D2 and NMDA receptor antagonism also produced smaller reductions in the acquisition of <span class="hlt">oral</span> glucose-CFP relative to fructose-CFP or IG-glucose-CFP. These data suggest, but do not prove, that the magnitude and persistence of these receptor antagonist effects upon sugar-CFP might depend upon the individual or combined engagement of flavor-flavor and flavor-nutrient processes. PMID:25065714</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dela Cruz, J A D; Coke, T; Icaza-Cukali, D; Khalifa, N; Bodnar, R J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7771T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Unravelling Carbon Fixation under Nutrient <span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> - a Water Column Perspective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phytoplankton plays a critical role in the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) by the ocean, and is comprised of a spectrum of cell sizes that are strongly regulated by oceanographic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Elevated CO2 fixation relative to nutrient availability, also called carbon overconsumption, has been observed in various mid to high latitude systems, such as the Baltic and North Seas, the North Atlantic Ocean, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago or the Scotian Shelf. We shed light on this phenomenon relying on an extensive data set of water column observations of the CO2 system and phytoplankton cell counts from the Scotian Shelf, a temperate shelf sea. We show that in the summertime, the population of numerically abundant small cells, which favour warmer, nutrient poor <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, accounts for approximately 20% of annual carbon uptake. At the broader scale, the neglection of this "non-Redfieldian" contribution typically leads to an underestimation of net community production by approximately 20% to 50%. These small cells are not well represented by chlorophyll a - the ubiquitously used proxy of phytoplankton biomass - but rather, are strongly correlated with surface water temperature. Given the persistent near-zero nutrient concentrations during the summer, it appears that small cells drive carbon overconsumption, and suggest that their role in carbon fixation will become increasingly important in a warming, increasingly stratified ocean.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas, Helmuth; Craig, Susanne; Shadwick, Elizabeth H.; Li, William K.; Greenan, Blair J. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16255148"> <span id="translatedtitle">Growth and siderophore production of Xylella fastidiosa under iron-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, the production of siderophores by Xylella fastidiosa from the citrus bacteria isolate 31b9a5c (FAPESP - ONSA, Brazil) was investigated. The preliminary evidence supporting the existence of siderophore in X. fastidiosa was found during the evaluation of sequencing data generated in our lab using the BLAST-X tool, which indicated putative open reading frames (ORFs) associated with iron-binding proteins. In an iron-<span class="hlt">limited</span> medium siderophores were detected in the supernatant of X. fastidiosa cultures. The endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium extorquens was also evaluated. Capillary electrophoresis was used to separate putative siderophores produced by X. fastidiosa. The bacterial culture supernatants of X. fastidiosa were identified negative for hydroxamate and catechol and positive for M. extorquens that secreted hydroxamate-type siderophores. PMID:16255148</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Silva-Stenico, Maria Estela; Pacheco, Flávia Tereza Hansen; Rodrigues, Jorge Luiz Mazza; Carrilho, Emanuel; Tsai, Siu Mui</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20015883"> <span id="translatedtitle">The solubility <span class="hlt">limited</span> source term for cement-<span class="hlt">conditioned</span> wastes: A status report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An important function of the cement backfill in a nuclear waste repository is to react with aqueous waste species and reduce their solubility. However, to quantify backfill performance it is first necessary to prove the existence and establish the nature of the chemical solubility controls. This can be done by characterizing the solubility-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> phases, determining their solubility and thermodynamic functions, and assessing their stability and persistence and solubility during backfill degradation. Much of the necessary data must be acquired experimentally. The title paper describes briefly the progress of experimental work on selected species including nickel, chromium(III,VI), tin(IV), molybdenum(VI), uranium(VI), Ce(III,IV), thorium, actinide simulants (III,IV) and chloride. Data needs are assessed and although much experimental work remains to be done, methodologies have been developed which will expedite progress. The expectation of a more quantitative performance assessment of cement barriers is, therefore, attainable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Glasser, F.P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25626161"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structural studies of the lamellar to bicontinuous gyroid cubic (Q) phase transitions under <span class="hlt">limited</span> hydration <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Non-equilibrium pathways of lyotropic phase transitions such as the lamellar to inverse bicontinuous cubic phase transition are important dynamical processes resembling cellular fusion and fission processes which can be exploited in biotechnological processes such as drug delivery. However, utilising and optimising these structural transformations for applications require a detailed understanding of the energetic pathways which drive the phase transition. We have used the high pressure X-ray diffraction technique to probe the lamellar to Q phase transition in <span class="hlt">limited</span> hydration monolinolein on the millisecond time scale. Our results show that the phase transition goes via a structural intermediate and once the Q phase initially forms the elastic energy in the bilayer drives this structure to its equilibrium lattice parameter. PMID:25626161</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tang, T-Y Dora; Brooks, Nicholas J; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M; Templer, Richard H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012WRR....48.4530T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Natural <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for more <span class="hlt">limited</span> osmotic abnormal fluid pressures in sedimentary basins</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chemical osmosis is considered a plausible cause of abnormal pressures in shale formations of sedimentary basins. A set of experimental data on chemical osmosis was recently obtained for different shales, mainly in the framework of studies on radioactive waste repositories in deep argillaceous formations. Based on these data, large, osmotically induced overpressures up to tens of MPa were predicted by [2009] under appropriate <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. However, such large overpressures have not been found in sedimentary basins such that the reasons for this disparity between predictions and observations need to be clarified. Accordingly, two natural causes for lower than expected osmotic pressure were investigated: the effect of the complex composition of natural waters, including both monovalent and divalent cations, on the osmotic efficiency and the resulting abnormal pressures, and the presence of steady state rather than transient-state salinity distributions. For this purpose, an electrical triple-layer model accounting for multi-ionic solutions was developed and used to calculate the osmotic efficiency at different proportions of monovalent and divalent cations. The calculated decrease of the osmotic efficiency when Ca2+ is introduced in a Na+-clay system yields a noticeable decrease in the ability of the shale to generate overpressures. A discussion addresses the generation of abnormal pressures at steady state <span class="hlt">conditions</span> found in sedimentary basins, i.e., with a linear distribution of the concentration across the formation. The persistence of moderate overpressures was predicted because of the nonlinearity associated with the dependence of the chemo-osmotic efficiency on the concentration and the porosity. Finally, a case study of the moderate excess hydraulic head measured in the Toarcian/Domerian argillaceous formation of Tournemire (SE of France) was investigated. The analysis indicated an osmotic origin for the excess head and illustrated the influence of the pore water composition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tremosa, Joachim; GonçAlvèS, Julio; Matray, Jean-Michel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5220523"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Conditions</span> and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> on learning in the adaptive management of mallard harvests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 1995, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service adopted a protocol for the adaptive management of waterfowl hunting regulations (AHM) to help reduce uncertainty about the magnitude of sustainable harvests. To date, the AHM process has focused principally on the midcontinent population of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), whose dynamics are described by 4 alternative models. Collectively, these models express uncertainty (or disagreement) about whether harvest is an additive or a compensatory form of mortality and whether the reproductive process is weakly or strongly density-dependent. Each model is associated with a probability or 'weight,' which describes its relative ability to predict changes in population size. These Bayesian probabilities are updated annually using a comparison of population size predicted under each model with that observed by a monitoring program. The current AHM process is passively adaptive, in the sense that there is no a priori consideration of how harvest decisions might affect discrimination among models. We contrast this approach with an actively adaptive approach, in which harvest decisions are used in part to produce the learning needed to increase long-term management performance. Our investigation suggests that the passive approach is expected to perform nearly as well as an optimal actively adaptive approach, particularly considering the nature of the model set, management objectives and constraints, and current regulatory alternatives. We offer some comments about the nature of the biological hypotheses being tested and describe some of the inherent <span class="hlt">limitations</span> on learning in the AHM process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, F.A.; Kendall, W.L.; Dubovsky, J.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21209551"> <span id="translatedtitle">Halitosis: much beyond <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> malodor one of the most common complaints with which patients approaches us thinking it can be detrimental to his self-image and confidence. Even though majority of <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor is of <span class="hlt">oral</span> origin, there are multiple other systemic causes that have to be addressed while we diagnose and treat this <span class="hlt">condition</span>. Most of these patients look up to <span class="hlt">oral</span> care physicians for expert advice, it is critical for us to have the knowledge base and communication techniques to provide quality clinical assessment and implement effective intervention programs. This article reviews the various causes and the diagnostic modalities which will help us treat this multifaceted <span class="hlt">condition</span>. PMID:21209551</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ongole, R; Shenoy, N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19217918"> <span id="translatedtitle">Baclofen, raclopride, and naltrexone differentially affect intake of fat/sucrose mixtures under <span class="hlt">limited</span> access <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study assessed the effects of the opioid antagonist naltrexone, the dopamine 2-like (D2) antagonist raclopride, and the GABA(B) agonist baclofen on consumption of fat/sucrose mixtures (FSM) using a <span class="hlt">limited</span> access protocol. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped according to two schedules of access (Daily [D] or Intermittent [I]) to an optional FSM. Each FSM was created by whipping 3.2% (L), 10% (M), or 32% (H) powdered sugar into 100% vegetable shortening in a w/w manner (n=10 per group). One-hour intakes of the IL and IM groups were significantly greater than intakes of the respective DL and DM groups, thus fulfilling our operational definition of binge-type eating in these groups. Baclofen reduced intakes of the L and M mixtures regardless of access schedule, but failed to reduce intake of the H mixture. Naltrexone reduced intake in all groups, but potency was greater in IL rats than in DL rats. Furthermore, potency was attenuated in Intermittent rats, but enhanced in Daily rats, at higher sucrose concentrations. Raclopride reduced intake in the DL and stimulated intake in the IL groups, reduced intake in both M groups, and was without effect in both H groups. These results indicate that fat/sucrose mixtures containing relatively low concentrations of sucrose allow distinctions to be made between: 1) intakes stimulated by different access schedules and 2) opioid and dopaminergic modulation of those intakes. These results also suggest that brief bouts of food consumption involving fatty, sugar-rich foods may prove to be particularly resistant to pharmacological intervention. PMID:19217918</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wong, K J; Wojnicki, F H W; Corwin, R L W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B33C0468G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of Bacterial Weathering Ability in Nutrient <span class="hlt">Limited</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> on Biotite</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bacterial and fungal communities facilitate the weathering of minerals in oligotrophic soils. The bacterial communities reside in biofilms, consisting of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) such as lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nuclei acids. Biotite, a 2:1 aluminosilicate mica, is a common primary mineral found in these low nutrient soils and is a source of potassium, magnesium and iron for both microorganisms and plants. Studies show that bacteria, when incubated with biotite flakes, can remove iron, potassium, and magnesium at higher quantities and increased rates compared to abiotic controls (Balogh-Brunstad et al., 2008; Calvaruso et al., 2006; Hopf et al. 2008; Uroz et al., 2007 and 2009). How this happens mechanistically is still unclear and this study seeks to shed light on this issue. We hypothesize that weathering by bacteria is selective; i.e., that the mechanism will depend on the <span class="hlt">limiting</span> nutrient. Using a drip flow biofilm reactor, biofilms are grown on biotite coupons under non-turbulent, low sheer flow, with four different nutrient treatments. The nutrient treatments include a complete nutrient solution and the same solution without K, Mg, or Fe. In each treatment, we determine the concentration and cumulative release of each cation in the effluent. Congruent dissolution of biotite indicates that weathering is nonselective whereas incongruent dissolution suggests that the bacteria alter the weathering mechanism for a specific nutrient. The bacteria are selected from a bacterial inoculum collected from the roots of young White Pine (Pinus strobus) trees in the Saint Joseph National Forest, Idaho. The bacteria are isolated on plates and the best weathering species are selected using a microplate bioassay technique to determine the concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, and protons colorimetrically.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grant, M. R.; Harsh, J. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034160"> <span id="translatedtitle">A strong <span class="hlt">conditional</span> mutualism <span class="hlt">limits</span> and enhances seed dispersal and germination of a tropical palm</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seed predation and seed dispersal can have strong effects on early life history stages of plants. These processes have often been studied as individual effects, but the degree to which their relative importance co-varies with seed predator abundance and how this influences seed germination rates is poorly understood. Therefore, we used a combination of observations and field experiments to determine the degree to which germination rates of the palm Astrocaryum mexicanum varied with abundance of a small mammal seed predator/disperser, Heteromysdesmarestianus, in a lowland tropical forest. Patterns of abundance of the two species were strongly related; density of H. desmarestianus was low in sites with low density of A. mexicanum and vice versa. Rates of predation and dispersal of A. mexicanum seeds depended on abundance of H. desmarestianus; sites with high densities of H. desmarestianus had the highest rates of seed predation and lowest rates of seed germination, but a greater total number of seeds were dispersed and there was greater density of seedlings, saplings, and adults of A. mexicanum in these sites. When abundance of H. desmarestianus was experimentally reduced, rates of seed predation decreased, but so did dispersal of A. mexicanum seeds. Critically, rates of germination of dispersed seeds were 5 times greater than undispersed seeds. The results suggest that the relationship between A. mexicanum and H. desmarestianus is a <span class="hlt">conditional</span> mutualism that results in a strong local effect on the abundance of each species. However, the magnitude and direction of these effects are determined by the relative strength of opposing, but related, mechanisms. A. mexicanum nuts provide H. desmarestianus with a critical food resource, and while seed predation on A. mexicanum nuts by H. desmarestianus is very intense, A. mexicanum ultimately benefits because of the relatively high germination rates of its seeds that are dispersed by H. desmarestianus. ?? The Author(s) 2010.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klinger, R.; Rejmanek, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChPhB..24b4304L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pulse decomposition-based analysis of PAT/TAT error caused by negative lobes in <span class="hlt">limited</span>-view <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pulse decomposition has been proven to be efficient to analyze complicated signals and it is introduced into the photo-acoustic and thermo-acoustic tomography to eliminate reconstruction distortions caused by negative lobes. During image reconstruction, negative lobes bring errors in the estimation of acoustic pulse amplitude, which is closely related to the distribution of absorption coefficient. The negative lobe error degrades imaging quality seriously in <span class="hlt">limited</span>-view <span class="hlt">conditions</span> because it cannot be offset so well as in full-view <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Therefore, a pulse decomposition formula is provided with detailed deduction to eliminate the negative lobe error and is incorporated into the popular delay-and-sum method for better reconstructing the image without additional complicated computation. Numerical experiments show that the pulse decomposition improves the image quality obviously in the <span class="hlt">limited</span>-view <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, such as separating adjacent absorbers, discovering a small absorber despite disturbance from a big absorber nearby, etc. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB921504), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274167, 11274171, 61201450, 61201495, and 61302175), and the Chongqing Science and Technology Commission of China (Grant Nos. 2012jjA40058 and 2012jjA40006).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Liang-Bing; Tao, Chao; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Li, Xian-Li; Zhang, Hai-Tao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20723943"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oil viscosity <span class="hlt">limitation</span> on dispersibility of crude oil under simulated at-sea <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in a large wave tank.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study determined the <span class="hlt">limiting</span> oil viscosity for chemical dispersion of oil spills under simulated sea <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in the large outdoor wave tank at the US National Oil Spill Response Test Facility in New Jersey. Dispersant effectiveness tests were completed using crude oils with viscosities ranging from 67 to 40,100 cP at test temperature. Tests produced an effectiveness-viscosity curve with three phases when oil was treated with Corexit 9500 at a dispersant-to-oil ratio of 1:20. The oil viscosity that <span class="hlt">limited</span> chemical dispersion under simulated at-sea <span class="hlt">conditions</span> was in the range of 18,690 cP to 33,400 cP. Visual observations and measurements of oil concentrations and droplet size distributions in the water under treated and control slicks correlated well with direct measurements of effectiveness. The dispersant effectiveness versus oil viscosity relationship under simulated at sea <span class="hlt">conditions</span> at Ohmsett was most similar to those from similar tests made using the Institut Francais du Pétrole and Exxon Dispersant Effectiveness (EXDET) test methods. PMID:20723943</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Trudel, Ken; Belore, Randy C; Mullin, Joseph V; Guarino, Alan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..620Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Benefits and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> of pig slurry to reclaim bare mine soils under Mediterranean semiarid <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, the effects of pig slurry application on reclamation of mine soils from Cartagena-La Unión Mining District (SE Spain) were investigated in a field experiment. Exchangeable metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, soluble carbon, microbial biomass and three enzyme activities were periodically monitored during 67 days. In addition, one year after the application of the pig slurry, soil and developed vegetation was sampled. Results showed that only exchangeable Cd and Zn significantly decreased in the amended plots, mainly for Cd, with decreases of 98%. The rest of metals and chemical properties did not change with time after application of amendments, showing values not significantly different than those present before pig slurry application. Soluble carbon, microbial biomass carbon and the enzyme activities increased after the application of pig slurry. However, after various days these parameters started a decreasing trend until reaching values similar to the control from approximately day 25. Thus, mainly precipitation as phosphate from the waste was very effective for Cd immobilization. No increments were observed in soil organic carbon because the organic carbon applied with the slurry was too low to be significantly detected. Nonetheless, pig slurry is a good fertilizer owing to the high quantity of nutrients provided, needed to promote the development of vegetation. One year after application, a native vegetation cover (25-30%) was reached by spontaneous colonization. Triggered plant growth by the effect of amendment improved soil <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, particularly by the help of the medium created by their rhizosphere systems. Increments in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, and decreases in the exchangeable metals fraction concentration were observed in rhizospheric soils when compared to the bare soils. This improvement in soil quality mediated by vegetation was more efficient than the direct effect of the amendment. In conclusion, the use of pig slurry to reclaim bare contaminated soils by heavy metals brings indirect positive effects by triggering a vegetation cover which can stabilize metals and increase soil quality (phytostabilization). Keywords: heavy metals, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, phytoremediation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Acosta, Jose A.; Kabas, Sebla; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Ángeles Muñoz, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29688622"> <span id="translatedtitle">Critical Reviews in <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Biology & Medicine: <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Biofilms: Emerging Concepts in Microbial Ecology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> biofilms develop under a range of different <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and different environments. This review will discuss emerging concepts in microbial ecology and how they relate to <span class="hlt">oral</span> biofilm development and the treatment of <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases. Clues to how <span class="hlt">oral</span> biofilms develop may lie in other complex systems, such as interactions between host and gut microbiota, and even in factors that</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Filoche; L. Wong; C. H. Sissons</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24925039"> <span id="translatedtitle">The HITECH Act and electronic health records' <span class="hlt">limitation</span> in coordinating care for children with complex chronic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While the HITECH Act was implemented to promote the use of electronic health records to improve the quality and coordination of healthcare, the <span class="hlt">limitations</span> established to the setting of the hospital or physician's office affect the care coordination for those who utilize many health-related services outside these settings, including children with complex and chronic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Incentive-based support or nationally supported electronic health record systems for allied and other healthcare professionals are necessary to see the full impact that electronic health records can have on care coordination for individuals who utilize many skilled healthcare services that are not associated with a hospital or physician's office. PMID:24925039</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cook, Jason E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2755853"> <span id="translatedtitle">Heteromeric AtKC1·AKT1 Channels in Arabidopsis Roots Facilitate Growth under K+-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>*</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plant growth and development is driven by osmotic processes. Potassium represents the major osmotically active cation in plants cells. The uptake of this inorganic osmolyte from the soil in Arabidopsis involves a root K+ uptake module consisting of the two K+ channel ?-subunits, AKT1 and AtKC1. AKT1-mediated potassium absorption from K+-depleted soil was shown to depend on the calcium-sensing proteins CBL1/9 and their interacting kinase CIPK23. Here we show that upon activation by the CBL·CIPK complex in low external potassium homomeric AKT1 channels open at voltages positive of EK, a <span class="hlt">condition</span> resulting in cellular K+ leakage. Although at submillimolar external potassium an intrinsic K+ sensor reduces AKT1 channel cord conductance, loss of cytosolic potassium is not completely abolished under these <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Depending on channel activity and the actual potassium gradients, this channel-mediated K+ loss results in impaired plant growth in the atkc1 mutant. Incorporation of the AtKC1 subunit into the channel complex, however, modulates the properties of the K+ uptake module to prevent K+ loss. Upon assembly of AKT1 and AtKC1, the activation threshold of the root inward rectifier voltage gate is shifted negative by approximately ?70 mV. Additionally, the channel conductance gains a hypersensitive K+ dependence. Together, these two processes appear to represent a safety strategy preventing K+ loss through the uptake channels under physiological <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Similar growth retardation phenotypes of akt1 and atkc1 loss-of-function mutants in response to <span class="hlt">limiting</span> K+ supply further support such functional interdependence of AKT1 and AtKC1. Taken together, these findings suggest an essential role of AtKC1-like subunits for root K+ uptake and K+ homeostasis when plants experience <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of K+ <span class="hlt">limitation</span>. PMID:19509299</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Geiger, Dietmar; Becker, Dirk; Vosloh, Daniel; Gambale, Franco; Palme, Klaus; Rehers, Marion; Anschuetz, Uta; Dreyer, Ingo; Kudla, Jörg; Hedrich, Rainer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22629058"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis in children.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis is a rare <span class="hlt">condition</span> in humans and is associated with poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene, severe halitosis, mouth breathing during sleep, mental handicap, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and other <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. In this report, a 14 year-old boy who had an orofacial trauma in the maxillary dentoalveolar region,which was neglected, has been described. There was a deep lacerated wound on the upper vestibule which was infected and maggots were found on the same wound. The clinical features, management, treatment are discussed and relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:22629058</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reddy, M H Raghunath; Das, Nagarajappa; Vivekananda, M R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1777657"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> implants.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Today, more and more evidence suggests that even small changes in hardware for <span class="hlt">oral</span> implants may jeopardize its biocompatibility. Even the manner in which the hardware is sterilized can influence cellular adhesion. This review discusses the surface characteristics, configuration, and success rates of various <span class="hlt">oral</span> implants, as well as the complications that can result following implantation. PMID:1777657</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van Steenberghe, D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ZNatA..70...79M"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Comparison Between the Burn <span class="hlt">Condition</span> of Deuterium-Tritium and Deuterium-Helium-3 Reaction and Stability <span class="hlt">Limits</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The nuclear reaction of deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion by the usual magnetic or inertial confinement suffers from a number of difficulties and problems caused by tritium handling, neutron damage to materials and neutron-induced radioactivity, etc. The study of the nuclear synthesis reaction of deuterium-helium-3 (D-3He) at low collision energies (below 1 keV) is of interest for its applications in nuclear physics and astrophysics. Spherical tokamak (ST) reactors have a low aspect ratio and can confine plasma with ??1. These capabilities of ST reactors are due to the use of the alternative D-3He reaction. In this work, the burn <span class="hlt">condition</span> of D-3He reaction was calculated by using zero-dimensional particles and power equations, and, with the use of the parameters of the ST reactor, the stability <span class="hlt">limit</span> of D-3He reaction was calculated and then the results were compared with those of D-T reaction. The obtained results show that the burn <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of D-3He reaction required a higher temperature and had a much more <span class="hlt">limited</span> temperature range in comparison to those of D-T reaction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Motevalli, Seyed Mohammad; Fadaei, Fereshteh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41318951"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of ability of several arbor and shrub species to endure and survive extreme aridity with <span class="hlt">limited</span>-areas methods under field <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in Horqin Sandy Land</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using <span class="hlt">limited</span>-areas methods, the ability of several arbor and shrub species to endure and survive extreme aridity under field <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in Horqin Sandy Land was studied, and the lowest critical soil water content that was endurable for each of these species was determined. By <span class="hlt">limiting</span> the horizontal distribution range of the plant roots system, the <span class="hlt">limited</span>-areas methods could decrease the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiyi Zhang; Zhenzhen Wei; Halin Zhao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25194142"> <span id="translatedtitle">Testing phenotypic trade-offs in the chemical defence strategy of Scots pine under growth-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> field <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plants protect themselves from pathogens and herbivores through fine-tuned resource allocation, including trade-offs among resource investments to support constitutive and inducible defences. However, empirical research, especially concerning conifers growing under natural <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, is still scarce. We investigated the complexity of constitutive and induced defences in a natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand under growth-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> typical of alpine environments. Phenotypic trade-offs at three hierarchical levels were tested by investigating the behaviour of phenolic compounds and terpenoids of outer bark and phloem. We tested resource-derived phenotypic correlations between (i) constitutive and inducible defences vs tree ring growth, (ii) different constitutive defence metabolites and (iii) constitutive concentration and inducible variation of individual metabolites. Tree ring growth was positively correlated only with constitutive concentration of total terpenoids, and no overall phenotypic trade-offs between different constitutive defensive metabolites were found. At the lowest hierarchical level tested, i.e., at the level of relationship between constitutive and inducible variation of individual metabolites, we found that different compounds displayed different behaviours; we identified five different defensive metabolite response types, based on direction and strength of the response, regardless of tree age and growth rate. Therefore, under growth-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> field <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, Scots pine appears to utilize varied and complex outer bark and phloem defence chemistry, in which only part of the constitutive specialized metabolism is influenced by tree growth, and individual components do not appear to be expressed in a mutually exclusive manner in either constitutive or inducible metabolism. PMID:25194142</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Villari, Caterina; Faccoli, Massimo; Battisti, Andrea; Bonello, Pierluigi; Marini, Lorenzo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3118891"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discriminative ability of the generic and <span class="hlt">condition</span>-specific Child-<span class="hlt">Oral</span> Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP) by the Limpopo-Arusha School Health (LASH) Project: A cross-sectional study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Generic and <span class="hlt">condition</span>-specific (CS) <span class="hlt">oral</span>-health-related quality-of-life (OHRQoL) instruments assess the impacts of general <span class="hlt">oral</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and specific <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases. Focusing schoolchildren from Arusha and Dar es Salaam, in Tanzania, this study compared the discriminative ability of the generic Child OIDP with respect to dental caries and periodontal problems across the study sites. Secondly, the discriminative ability of the generic-and the CS Child OIDP attributed to dental caries, periodontal problems and malocclusion was compared with respect to various <span class="hlt">oral</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> as part of a construct validation. Methods In Arusha, 1077 school children (mean age 14.9 years, range 12-17 years) and 1601 school children in Dar es Salaam (mean age 13.0 years, range 12-14 years) underwent <span class="hlt">oral</span> clinical examinations and completed the Kiswahili version of the generic and CS Child-OIDP inventories. The discriminative ability was assessed as differences in overall mean and prevalence scores between groups, corresponding effect sizes and odd ratios, OR. Results The differences in the prevalence scores and the overall mean generic Child-OIDP scores were significant between the groups with (DMFT > 0) and without (DMFT = 0) caries experience and with (simplified <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene index [OHI-S] > 1) and without periodontal problems (OHI-S ? 1) in Arusha and Dar es Salaam. In Dar es Salaam, differences in the generic and CS Child-OIDP scores were observed between the groups with and without dental caries, differences in the generic Child-OIDP scores were observed between the groups with and without periodontal problems, and differences in the CS Child-OIDP scores were observed between malocclusion groups. The adjusted OR for the association between dental caries and the CS Child-OIDP score attributed to dental caries was 5.4. The adjusted OR for the association between malocclusion and CS Child-OIDP attributed to malocclusion varied from 8.8 to 2.5. Conclusion The generic Child-OIDP discriminated equally well between children with and without dental caries and periodontal problems across socio-culturally different study sites. Compared with its generic form, the CS Child-OIDP discriminated most strongly between children with and without dental caries and malocclusion. The CS Child OIDP attributed to dental caries and malocclusion seems to be better suited to support clinical indicators when estimating <span class="hlt">oral</span> health needs among school children in Tanzania. PMID:21615892</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37338118"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hypnotic induction and <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> temperature was measured in 19 Ss under hypnotic and control <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Confirming a previous study by Reid and Curtsinger (1968), the hypnotic induction procedure gave rise to a significant increase in <span class="hlt">oral</span> temperature (p<.01). This significant rise was due to the data of 10 of the 19 Ss–6 did not change and 3 dropped in temperature. The temperature change</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brian N. Timney; Theodore Xenophon Barber</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1969-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3389678"> <span id="translatedtitle">Melatonin and <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Cavity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While initially the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other <span class="hlt">oral</span> surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancers. PMID:22792106</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cengiz, Murat ?nanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30090565"> <span id="translatedtitle">Methotrexate and <span class="hlt">oral</span> ulceration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Methotrexate is well established in the drug treatment of various neoplastic diseases. More recently it has become increasingly used as a once-weekly, low-dose treatment of disorders such as psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical trials have shown its effectiveness in these <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and it is likely that dentists will encounter patients taking this drug in general dental practice. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> ulceration can</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G M J Deeming; J Collingwood; M N Pemberton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.aadsm.org/oralappliances.aspx"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Appliances</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... two categories. The diverse variety is simply a variation of a few major themes. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> appliances can be classified by mode of action or design variation. Tongue Retaining Appliances Tongue retaining appliances hold the ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1115856"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pyruvate and Lactate Metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under Fermentation, Oxygen <span class="hlt">Limitation</span>, and Fumarate Respiration <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe growing by coupling organic matter oxidation to reduction of wide range of electron acceptors. Here we quantitatively assessed lactate and pyruvate metabolism of these bacteria under three distinct <span class="hlt">conditions</span>: electron acceptor <span class="hlt">limited</span> growth on lactate with O2 and fumarate, and pyruvate fermentation, which does not sustain growth but allows cells to survive for prolonged period. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of all ATP needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensible for growth, respiration of fumarate does not contribute much to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory <span class="hlt">conditions</span> S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, and TCA cycle did not contribute significantly to substrate oxidation. Pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction was not involved in lactate metabolism under O2 <span class="hlt">limitation</span>, however was important for anaerobic growth probably supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. Unexpectedly, obtained results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination between substrate-level phosphorylation and a respiratory process, where pyruvate serves as electron donor and electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H independent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). Based on involved enzymes localization we hypothesize that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by proton motive force generation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Hill, Eric A.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1037542"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pyruvate and Lactate Metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under Fermentation, Oxygen <span class="hlt">Limitation</span>, and Fumarate Respiration <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe that derives energy by coupling organic matter oxidation to the reduction of wide range of electron acceptors. Here, we quantitatively assessed lactate and pyruvate metabolism of MR-1 under three distinct <span class="hlt">conditions</span>: electron acceptor <span class="hlt">limited</span> growth on lactate with O2; lactate with fumarate; and pyruvate fermentation. The latter does not support growth but provides energy for cell survival. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of that needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensible for growth, respiration of fumarate does not contribute significantly to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory <span class="hlt">conditions</span> S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, whereby the TCA cycle did not contribute significantly. Pyruvate dehydrogenase was not involved in lactate metabolism under O2 <span class="hlt">limitation</span> but was required for anaerobic growth likely by supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. The results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination of substrate-level phosphorylation and respiration, where pyruvate serves as electron donor and electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H independent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). The results further indicate that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by proton motive force generation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Hill, Eric A.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016543"> <span id="translatedtitle">Use of the Priestley-Taylor evaporation equation for soil water <span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in a small forest clearcut</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Priestley-Taylor equation, a simplification of the Penman equation, was used to allow calculations of evapotranspiration under <span class="hlt">conditions</span> where soil water supply <span class="hlt">limits</span> evapotranspiration. The Priestley-Taylor coefficient, ??, was calculated to incorporate an exponential decrease in evapotranspiration as soil water content decreases. The method is appropriate for use when detailed meteorological measurements are not available. The data required to determine the parameter for the ?? coefficient are net radiation, soil heat flux, average air temperature, and soil water content. These values can be obtained from measurements or models. The dataset used in this report pertains to a partially vegetated clearcut forest site in southwest Oregon with soil depths ranging from 0.48 to 0.70 m and weathered bedrock below that. Evapotranspiration was estimated using the Bowen ratio method, and the calculated Priestley-Taylor coefficient was fitted to these estimates by nonlinear regression. The calculated Priestley-Taylor coefficient (?????) was found to be approximately 0.9 when the soil was near field capacity (0.225 cm3 cm-3). It was not until soil water content was less than 0.14 cm3 cm-3 that soil water supply <span class="hlt">limited</span> evapotranspiration. The soil reached a final residual water content near 0.05 cm3 cm-3 at the end of the growing season. ?? 1991.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Flint, A.L.; Childs, S.W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25526658"> <span id="translatedtitle">Performance <span class="hlt">limitation</span> and the role of core temperature when wearing light-weight workwear under moderate thermal <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this investigation was to achieve an understanding about the relationship between heat stress and performance <span class="hlt">limitation</span> when wearing a two-layerfire-resistant light-weight workwear (full-clothed ensemble) compared to an one-layer short sports gear (semi-clothed ensemble) in an exhaustive, stressful situation under moderate thermal <span class="hlt">condition</span> (25°C). Ten well trained male subjects performed a strenuous walking protocol with both clothing ensembles until exhaustion occurred in a climatic chamber. Wearing workwear reduced the endurance performance by 10% (p=0.007) and the evaporation by 21% (p=0.003), caused a more pronounced rise in core temperature during submaximal walking (0.7±0.3 vs. 1.2±0.4°C; p?0.001) and from start till exhaustion (1.4±0.3 vs. 1.8±0.5°C; p=0.008), accelerated sweat loss (13±2 vs. 15±3gmin(-1); p=0.007), and led to a significant higher heart rate at the end of cool down (103±6 vs. 111±7bpm; p=0.004). Correlation analysis revealed that core temperature development during submaximal walking and evaporation may play important roles for endurance performance. However, a critical core temperature of 40°C, which is stated to be a crucial factor for central fatigue and performance <span class="hlt">limitation</span>, was not reached either with the semi-clothed or the full-clothed ensemble (38.3±0.4 vs. 38.4±0.5°C). Additionally, perceived exertion did not increase to a higher extent parallel with the rising core temperature with workwear which would substantiate the critical core temperature theory. In conclusion, increased heat stress led to cardiovascular exercise <span class="hlt">limitation</span> rather than central fatigue. PMID:25526658</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kofler, Philipp; Burtscher, Martin; Heinrich, Dieter; Bottoni, Giuliamarta; Caven, Barnaby; Bechtold, Thomas; Teresa Herten, Anne; Hasler, Michael; Faulhaber, Martin; Nachbauer, Werner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57600092"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ronald Reagan and the <span class="hlt">oral</span> tradition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">President Reagan's success stems from his use of rhetorical structures characteristic of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> epics and his use of the electronic media which partially replicate <span class="hlt">conditions</span> characteristic of preliterate <span class="hlt">oral</span> societies. These societies develop a culture transmitted <span class="hlt">orally</span> through epic poems or recitations. Such recitations are developed by themes, formulas, and repetition as well as by distinctive thought patterns, experiential</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ellen Reid Gold</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24727372"> <span id="translatedtitle">The activity of nodules of the supernodulating mutant Mtsunn is not <span class="hlt">limited</span> by photosynthesis under optimal growth <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Legumes match the nodule number to the N demand of the plant. When a mutation in the regulatory mechanism deprives the plant of that ability, an excessive number of nodules are formed. These mutants show low productivity in the fields, mainly due to the high carbon burden caused through the necessity to supply numerous nodules. The objective of this study was to clarify whether through optimal <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for growth and CO2 assimilation a higher nodule activity of a supernodulating mutant of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) can be induced. Several experimental approaches reveal that under the <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of our experiments, the nitrogen fixation of the supernodulating mutant, designated as sunn (super numeric nodules), was not <span class="hlt">limited</span> by photosynthesis. Higher specific nitrogen fixation activity could not be induced through short- or long-term increases in CO2 assimilation around shoots. Furthermore, a whole plant P depletion induced a decline in nitrogen fixation, however this decline did not occur significantly earlier in sunn plants, nor was it more intense compared to the wild-type. However, a distinctly different pattern of nitrogen fixation during the day/night cycles of the experiment indicates that the control of N2 fixing activity of the large number of nodules is an additional problem for the productivity of supernodulating mutants. PMID:24727372</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cabeza, Ricardo A; Lingner, Annika; Liese, Rebecca; Sulieman, Saad; Senbayram, Mehmet; Tränkner, Merle; Dittert, Klaus; Schulze, Joachim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4013613"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Activity of Nodules of the Supernodulating Mutant Mtsunn Is not <span class="hlt">Limited</span> by Photosynthesis under Optimal Growth <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Legumes match the nodule number to the N demand of the plant. When a mutation in the regulatory mechanism deprives the plant of that ability, an excessive number of nodules are formed. These mutants show low productivity in the fields, mainly due to the high carbon burden caused through the necessity to supply numerous nodules. The objective of this study was to clarify whether through optimal <span class="hlt">conditions</span> for growth and CO2 assimilation a higher nodule activity of a supernodulating mutant of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) can be induced. Several experimental approaches reveal that under the <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of our experiments, the nitrogen fixation of the supernodulating mutant, designated as sunn (super numeric nodules), was not <span class="hlt">limited</span> by photosynthesis. Higher specific nitrogen fixation activity could not be induced through short- or long-term increases in CO2 assimilation around shoots. Furthermore, a whole plant P depletion induced a decline in nitrogen fixation, however this decline did not occur significantly earlier in sunn plants, nor was it more intense compared to the wild-type. However, a distinctly different pattern of nitrogen fixation during the day/night cycles of the experiment indicates that the control of N2 fixing activity of the large number of nodules is an additional problem for the productivity of supernodulating mutants. PMID:24727372</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cabeza, Ricardo A.; Lingner, Annika; Liese, Rebecca; Sulieman, Saad; Senbayram, Mehmet; Tränkner, Merle; Dittert, Klaus; Schulze, Joachim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23616079"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of thresholds of potential concern and <span class="hlt">limits</span> of acceptable change in the <span class="hlt">condition</span> assessment of a significant wetland.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose a framework in which thresholds of potential concern (TPCs) and <span class="hlt">limits</span> of acceptable change (LACs) are used in concert in the assessment of wetland <span class="hlt">condition</span> and vulnerability and apply the framework in a case study. The lower Murrumbidgee River floodplain (the 'Lowbidgee') is one of the most ecologically important wetlands in Australia and the focus of intense management intervention by State and Federal government agencies. We used a targeted management stakeholder workshop to identify key values that contribute to the ecological significance of the Lowbidgee floodplain, and identified LACs that, if crossed, would signify the loss of significance. We then used conceptual models linking the <span class="hlt">condition</span> of these values (wetland vegetation communities, waterbirds, fish species and the endangered southern bell frog) to measurable threat indicators, for which we defined a management goal and a TPC. We applied this framework to data collected across 70 wetland storages', or eco-hydrological units, at the peak of a prolonged drought (2008) and following extensive re-flooding (2010). At the suggestion of water and wetland mangers, we neither aggregated nor integrated indices but reported separately in a series of chloropleth maps. The resulting assessment clearly identified the effect of rewetting in restoring indicators within TPC in most cases, for most storages. The scale of assessment was useful in informing the targeted and timely management intervention and provided a context for retaining and utilising monitoring information in an adaptive management context. PMID:23616079</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rogers, Kerrylee; Saintilan, Neil; Colloff, Matthew J; Wen, Li</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25088485"> <span id="translatedtitle">Alcanivorax borkumensis produces an extracellular siderophore in iron-<span class="hlt">limitation</span> <span class="hlt">condition</span> maintaining the hydrocarbon-degradation efficiency.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Obligate marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria possess genetic and physiological features to use hydrocarbons as sole source of carbon and to compete for the uptake of nutrients in usually nutrient-depleted marine habitats. In the present work we have studied the siderophore-based iron uptake systems in Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2 and their functioning during biodegradation of an aliphatic hydrocarbon, tetradecane, under iron <span class="hlt">limitation</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. The antiSMASH analysis of SK2 genome revealed the presence of two different putative operons of siderophore synthetases. Search for the predicted core structures indicated that one siderophore is clearly affiliated to the family of complex oligopeptidic siderophores possessing an Orn-Ser-Orn carboxyl motif whereas the second one is likely to belong to the family of SA (salicylic acid)-based siderophores. Analyzing the supernatant of SK2 culture, an extracellular siderophore was identified and its structure was resolved. Thus, along with the recently described membrane-associated amphiphilic tetrapeptidic siderophore amphibactin, strain SK2 additionally produces an extracellular type of iron-chelating molecule with structural similarity to pseudomonins. Comparative Q-PCR analysis of siderophore synthetases demonstrated their significant up-regulation in iron-depleted medium. Different expression patterns were recorded for two operons during the early and late exponential phases of growth, suggesting a different function of these two siderophores under iron-depleted <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. PMID:25088485</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Denaro, R; Crisafi, F; Russo, D; Genovese, M; Messina, E; Genovese, L; Carbone, M; Ciavatta, M L; Ferrer, M; Golyshin, P; Yakimov, M M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22985214"> <span id="translatedtitle">Accumulation of cellobiose lipids under nitrogen-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> by two ustilaginomycetous yeasts, Pseudozyma aphidis and Pseudozyma hubeiensis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Some basidiomycetous yeast strains extracellularly produce cellobiose lipids (CLs), glycolipid biosurfactants which have strong fungicidal activity. The representative CL producer Ustilago maydis produces CLs together with the other glycolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs); the preference of the two glycolipids is affected considerably by the nitrogen source. To develop new CL producers, 12 MEL producers were cultured under the nitrogen-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Pseudozyma aphidis and Pseudozyma. hubeiensis were characterized as new CL producers. CL production was induced on three strains, P. aphidis, Pseudozyma graminicola, and P. hubeiensis under these <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. The putative homologous genes of U. maydis cyp1, which encodes a P450 monooxygenase, essential for CL biosynthesis, were partially amplified from their genomic DNA. The nucleotide sequences of the gene fragments from P. hubeiensis and P. aphidis shared identities with U. maydis cyp1 of 99% and 78%, respectively. Furthermore, all of the deduced translation products are tightly clustered in the phylogenic tree of the monooxygenase. These results suggest that the genes involved with CL biosynthesis must be widely distributed in the basidiomycetous fungi as well as the MEL biosynthesis genes, and thus, the genus Pseudozyma has great potential as a biosurfactant producer. PMID:22985214</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610492C"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the spatial distribution of the transpiration and soil moisture of a Mediterranean heterogeneous ecosystem in water-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mediterranean ecosystems are characterized by a strong heterogeneity, and often by water-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. In these <span class="hlt">conditions</span> contrasting plant functional types (PFT, e.g. grass and woody vegetation) compete for the water use. Both the vegetation cover spatial distribution and the soil properties impact the soil moisture (SM) spatial distribution. Indeed, vegetation cover density and type affects evapotranspiration (ET), which is the main lack of the soil water balance in these ecosystems. With the objective to carefully estimate SM and ET spatial distribution in a Mediterranean water-<span class="hlt">limited</span> ecosystem and understanding SM and ET relationships, an extended field campaign is carried out. The study was performed in a heterogeneous ecosystem in Orroli, Sardinia (Italy). The experimental site is a typical Mediterranean ecosystem where the vegetation is distributed in patches of woody vegetation (wild olives mainly) and grass. Soil depth is low and spatially varies between 10 cm and 40 cm, without any correlation with the vegetation spatial distribution. ET, land-surface fluxes and CO2 fluxes are estimated by an eddy covariance technique based micrometeorological tower. But in heterogeneous ecosystems a key assumption of the eddy covariance theory, the homogeneity of the surface, is not preserved and the ET estimate may be not correct. Hence, we estimate ET of the woody vegetation using the thermal dissipation method (i.e. sap flow technique) for comparing the two methodologies. Due the high heterogeneity of the vegetation and soil properties of the field a total of 54 sap flux sensors were installed. 14 clumps of wild olives within the eddy covariance footprint were identified as the most representative source of flux and they were instrumented with the thermal dissipation probes. Measurements of diameter at the height of sensor installation (height of 0.4 m above ground) were recorded in all the clumps. Bark thickness and sapwood depth were measured on several trees to obtain a generalized estimates of sapwood depth. The known of allometric relationships between sapwood area, diameter and canopy cover area within the eddy covariance footprint helped for the application of a reliable scaling procedure of the local sap flow estimates which are in a good agreement with the estimates of ET eddy covariance based. Soil moisture were also extensively monitored through 25 probes installed in the eddy covariance footprint. Results show that comparing eddy covariance and sap flow ET estimates eddy covariance technique is still accurate in this heterogeneous field, whereas the key assumption, surface homogeneity, is not preserved. Furthermore, interestingly wild olives still transpire at higher rates for the driest soil moisture <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, confirming the hydraulic redistribution from soil below the roots, and from roots penetrating deep cracks in the underlying basalt parent rock.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Curreli, Matteo; Corona, Roberto; Montaldo, Nicola; Albertson, John D.; Oren, Ram</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4367065"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mast cells and <span class="hlt">oral</span> pathologies: A Review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mast cells (MCs) are resident cells of several types of tissues and contain many granules rich in histamine and heparin. They are distributed preferentially about the micro-vascular endothelial cells in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa. These cells play a key role in the inflammatory process and thus their number has been found to be altered in various <span class="hlt">oral</span> pathological <span class="hlt">conditions</span> such as <span class="hlt">oral</span> pyogenic granuloma, <span class="hlt">oral</span> lichen planus, leukoplakia, <span class="hlt">oral</span> squamous cell carcinoma, periapical cysts etc. The present review article is aimed to describe the alteration in the number of MCs along with their probable roles in these pathological <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kamal, Reet; Dahiya, Parveen; Goyal, Niti; Kumar, Mukesh; Sharma, Neeta; Saini, Hans Raj</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3579717"> <span id="translatedtitle">Planning ahead with children with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and their families: development, implementation and evaluation of ‘My Choices’</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background The United Kingdom has led the world in the development of children’s palliative care. Over the past two decades, the illness trajectories of children with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> have extended with new treatments and better home-based care. Future planning is a critically under-researched aspect of children’s palliative care globally. This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of innovative child and parent-held palliative care planning resources. The resources were designed to facilitate parent and child thinking and engagement in future planning, and to determine care preferences and preferred locations of care for children with life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> from diagnosis onwards. These resources fill a significant gap in palliative care planning before the end-of-life phase. Methods Drawing on contemporaneous research on producing evidence-based children’s health information, we collaborated with leading children’s not-for-profit organisations, parents, children, and professionals. A set of resources (My Choices booklets) were developed for parents and children and evaluated using interviews (parents, children, professionals) and questionnaires (professionals) and an open web-based consultation. Results Parents and children responded in three ways: Some used the booklets to produce detailed written plans with clear outcomes and ideas about how best to achieve desired outcomes. Others preferred to use the booklet to help them think about potential options. Remaining parents found it difficult to think about the future and felt there was no point because they perceived there to be no suitable local services. Professionals varied in confidence in their ability to engage with families to plan ahead and identified many challenges that prevented them from doing so. Few families shared their plans with professionals. Parents and children have far stronger preferences for home-care than professionals. Conclusion The My Choices booklets were revised in light of findings, have been endorsed by Together for Short Lives, and are free to download in English and Welsh for use by parents and young people globally. More work needs to be done to support families who are not yet receptive to planning ahead. Professionals would benefit from more training in person-centred approaches to future planning and additional communications skills to increase confidence and ability to engage with families to deliver sensitive palliative care planning. PMID:23384400</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' 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title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/r8162k441w462tu5.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">oral</span> glucose tolerance test: A comparison of the time points on the basis of <span class="hlt">limit</span> values, normal dispersion, and reproducibility</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Time points in the glucose tolerance test (GTT) are compared on the basis of <span class="hlt">limit</span> values, dispersion within a reference population, and reproducibility. We suggest using the distance between a <span class="hlt">limit</span> value and the median reference value as a measure of the magnitude of abnormality. The distance between 140 mg\\/100 ml and the median fasting plasma glucose value is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Douglas Dix; Patricia Cohen; Samad Barzegar; Manfred Striefler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3502147"> <span id="translatedtitle">The course of physical functional <span class="hlt">limitations</span> and occupational <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in a middle-aged working population in France</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Physical functional <span class="hlt">limitations</span> (PFL) have mainly been studied in older populations. The aim of this study was to better understand the course of PFL and associations with occupational factors by gender in a middle-aged working population. Methods The data came from 16,950 workers in the ESTEV (Enquête Santé Travail et Vieillissement) cohort in France. PFL were assessed using the physical abilities section of the Nottingham Health Profile. Occupational <span class="hlt">conditions</span> were measured with a self-administered questionnaire covering physical and psychosocial factors in 1990 and 1995. Multivariate analyses were used to assess the associations. Results The PFL appearance rate in 1995 was the same by gender (6.3%); the rate of PFL recovery was higher in men (23.9% versus 20.9%). Age was an independent factor of PFL at age 47?years or older in both genders after adjusting for confounding factors. The PFL appearance rate in 1995 was higher with physical occupational exposure in 1990, such as awkward work with a dose relation in both genders, while the PFL recovery rate decreased significantly only for men. Exposure to psychosocial occupational <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, such as having the means to produce quality work in 1990, was significantly associated with a decreased PFL appearance rate in 1995 in both genders, and having high decision latitude in 1990 was associated with a decreased PFL appearance rate in 1995 only in men. Changes in exposure to occupational factors between 1990 and 1995 were associated with the PFL appearance and recovery rates in 1995 in both genders. Conclusions After five years, the course of PFL in this working population changed and was associated with physical and psychosocial occupational factors. Relationships were stronger for the PFL appearance rate in both genders and were weaker for recovery from PFL, mainly among women. PMID:22494385</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23683483"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biologic agents and <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases -- an update on clinical applications.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biologic agents are targeted immune modulating agents that have been widely used in the treatment of inflammatory and neoplastic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> with favorable results. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the biologic agents that have been used in the treatment of diseases that affect the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa. Identification of relevant data, case reports and case series was performed using the PubMed-MEDLINE database and electronic databases of accredited organizations such as the European Medical Agency, US Food and Drug Administration, and clinicaltrials.gov (USA). According to the literature, the use of biologic agents in patients with <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases is <span class="hlt">limited</span> mainly to patients suffering from refractory forms of immune-mediated diseases of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. Biologic agents were used in all cases as off-label indications. Patient's response varied, but in general biologic agents could be considered as a therapeutic option in patients with no other alternative. A point requiring extra precaution is their safety profile because severe life threatening infections are among their side effects. Another aspect that <span class="hlt">limits</span> their broader use is their high economic cost. We aimed to provide a practical update for the clinicians who deal with <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases, covering as many aspects as possible of the applications of biologic agents in <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases reported to date. PMID:23683483</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Georgakopoulou, Eleni A; Andreadis, Dimitrios; Arvanitidis, Efthymios; Loumou, Panagiota</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..DPPCP9021H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Axisymmetric Bernstein modes in a non-neutral plasma: Boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and 6/7 of the Brillouin <span class="hlt">limit</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Axisymmetric Bernstein modes exist in a cylindrical non-neutral plasma in the vicinity of the cyclotron frequency. Using a kinetic-theory model we have analyzed the theory of these modes in a rigid-rotor thermal equilibrium. We find that in the central region of the plasma (where the density is constant) the perturbed velocity is proportional to the Bessel function J1(k r), with k having a distinct value for each mode. There are two distinct modes with separate ?s for each k. We have improved our simulation of these modes in our r-? PIC code by finding a set of parameters where we can both resolve the Debye length and avoid Landau damping of the modes. We find that in a thermal equilibrium plasma the perturbed velocity closely matches this J1(k r) in the interior of the plasma. The dispersion relation derived from the theory also matches the values of ? and k seen in the simulation. We also see the two families of modes in the simulation at different frequencies for the same initial velocity perturbation in the plasma. The boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span> that need to be applied to constrain k at the free boundary of the plasma are unclear from the physics and appear to be different for the two modes. The theory also breaks down in a region surrounding 6/7 of the Brillouin <span class="hlt">limit</span>. Progress in understanding these issues will be discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hart, Grant W.; Spencer, Ross L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25727410"> <span id="translatedtitle">NAP (davunetide) protects primary hippocampus culture by modulating expression profile of antioxidant genes during <span class="hlt">limiting</span> oxygen <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hypoxia is a well-known threat to neuronal cells and triggers the pathophysiological syndromes in extreme environments such as high altitudes and traumatic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> such as stroke. Among several prophylactic molecules proven suitable for ameliorating free radical damage, NAP (an octapeptide with initial amino acids: asparagine/N, alanine/A, and proline/P) can be considered superlative, primarily due to its high permeability into brain through blood-brain barrier and observed activity at femtomolar concentrations. Several mechanisms of action of NAP have been hypothesized for its protective role during hypoxia, yet any distinct mechanism is unknown. Oxidative stress is advocated as the leading event in hypoxia; we, therefore, investigated the regulation of key antioxidant genes to understand the regulatory role of NAP in providing neuroprotection. Primary neuronal culture of rat was subjected to cellular hypoxia by <span class="hlt">limiting</span> the oxygen concentration to 0.5% for 72 h and observing the prophylactic efficacies of 15fM NAP by conventional cell death assays using flow cytometry. We performed real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to comprehend the regulatory mechanism. Further, we validated the significantly regulated candidates by enzyme assays and immunoblotting. In the present study, we report that NAP regulates a major clad of cellular antioxidants and there is an involvement of more than one route of action in neuroprotection during hypoxia. PMID:25727410</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arya, A; Meena, R; Sethy, N K; Das, M; Sharma, M; Bhargava, K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18372002"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rate-<span class="hlt">limited</span> mass transfer of octane, decane, and dodecane into nonionic surfactants solutions under laminar flow <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A key component to predicting the success of utilizing surfactants to enhance the removal of organic liquids from soil system is quantifying micellar solubilization kinetics. In this study, a flow reactor was employed to investigate the influence of surfactant ethoxylate chain length on the rates of solubilization of octane, decane, and dodecane in micellar solutions of a homologous series of purified dodecyl alcohol ethoxylates. Effluent concentration data were fit using a finite element model utilizing a linear-driving-force model to represent mass transfer at the interface. For flow rates between 0.1 and 2 ml min(-1), mass transfer coefficients ranged from 5 x 10(-8) to 7 x 10(-7)m s(-1) and did not vary in a systematic way with either solute structure or surfactant ethoxylate chain length and were lower than those found in pure water. Correlations developed for the Sherwood number based on diffusion coefficients of surfactant micelles containing organic material (organic-laden micelle) exhibit a velocity dependence similar to that found for systems based on aqueous diffusion. These results suggest that under gentle flowing <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, the mass transfer is <span class="hlt">limited</span> by diffusion of the organic-laden micelle. Although these trends are specific for this experimental system, the results demonstrate the importance of selecting the proper diffusion coefficient when modeling surfactant solubilization processes. PMID:18372002</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prak, Dianne J Luning</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24811140"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rapid post-<span class="hlt">oral</span> stimulation of intake and flavor <span class="hlt">conditioning</span> in rats by glucose but not a non-metabolizable glucose analog.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mice adapted to drink a flavored saccharin solution (CS-) paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of water rapidly increase their intake of a new flavored solution (CS+) that is paired with IG glucose self-infusions. The present study extends this method to examine post-<span class="hlt">oral</span> glucose appetition in rats. Food-restricted rats were trained to consume a CS- flavor (e.g., grape saccharin) paired with IG water in 5 daily 1-h tests. In the next 3 tests, they drank a CS+ (e.g., cherry saccharin) paired with IG glucose. Rats infused with 8% glucose increased intake significantly on CS+ Test 1, but those infused with 16% glucose showed only a small increase in intake, which may reflect a counteracting satiating effect. Both groups further increased CS+ intakes in Tests 2 and 3, and preferred (81%) the CS+ to the CS- in a two-bottle test without infusions. A second experiment investigated rats' responses to IG alpha-methyl-d-glucopyranoside (MDG), a non-metabolizable sugar analog which stimulates CS+ intake and preference in mice. The rats reduced their intake of the MDG-paired CS+ flavor over sessions, and preferred the CS- to the CS+ in the choice test. The glucose data show that rats, like mice, rapidly detect the sugar's positive post-<span class="hlt">oral</span> effects that can stimulate intake within the first hour of exposure. The MDG avoidance may indicate a greater sensitivity to its post-<span class="hlt">oral</span> inhibitory effects in rats than in mice, or perhaps slower clearance of MDG in rats. The test protocol described here can be used to investigate the peripheral and central processes involved in stimulation of intake by post-<span class="hlt">oral</span> nutrients in rats. PMID:24811140</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2258093"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> biofilms, periodontitis, and pulmonary infections</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bacteria from the <span class="hlt">oral</span> biofilms may be aspirated into the respiratory tract to influence the initiation and progression of systemic infectious <span class="hlt">conditions</span> such as pneumonia. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> bacteria, poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene, and periodontitis seem to influence the incidence of pulmonary infections, especially nosocomial pneumonia episodes in high-risk subjects. Improved <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene has been shown to reduce the occurrence of nosocomial pneumonia, both in mechanically-ventilated hospital patients and non-ventilated nursing home residents. It appears that <span class="hlt">oral</span> colonization by potential respiratory pathogens, possibly fostered by periodontitis, and possibly by bacteria specific to the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity or to periodontal diseases contribute to pulmonary infections. Thus, <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene will assume an even more important role in the care of high-risk subjects – patients in the hospital intensive care and the elderly. The present paper critically reviews the recent literature on the effect of <span class="hlt">oral</span> biofilms and periodontitis on pneumonia. PMID:17944664</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paju, S; Scannapieco, FA</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-12/pdf/2013-26928.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 67320 - Special <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>: Airbus, Model A350-900 series Airplane; Pitch and Roll <span class="hlt">Limiting</span> by Electronic...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...<span class="hlt">Limiting</span> by Electronic Flight Control System AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...associated with the Electronic Flight Control System that <span class="hlt">limits</span> pitch and roll attitude...features: an Electronic Flight Control system (EFCS), that when...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/oralcancer.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Cancer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... treatment by an SLP are important to restore speech intelligibility and swallowing skills. Treatment often includes helping people get used to the differences in the size, shape, and feel of their mouth. The SLP will ... how to produce speech sounds more clearly. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> exercises help the client ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36574839"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> tolerance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ability of the mucosal immune system to distinguish between harmful and harmless antigens is essential for mounting protective immune responses and preventing the induction of mucosal pathology yet the basis for this remains unclear. As fed antigen can also exert systemic effects understanding <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance and priming will also have important consequences for therapy and vaccination. Here we will</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P Garside; A. McI Mowat</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18460398"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> malodour--a review.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Halitosis is a very common <span class="hlt">condition</span> which may affect up to 30% of the population. In most cases the aetiology of the <span class="hlt">condition</span> is from local <span class="hlt">oral</span> causes (<span class="hlt">oral</span> malodour). <span class="hlt">Oral</span> malodour is the result of the action of anaerobic bacteria in producing a range of malodorous molecular species including volatile sulphur compounds. Whilst malodour is often associated with the presence of periodontitis, in many cases there is no such link, and the evidence points to the importance of these anaerobic bacteria in tongue coatings which results in the clinical presentation of <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodour. Management of <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodour is directed at managing and reducing the bacterial load both in periodontitis and in tongue coatings by instituting proper <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene measures, control of tongue flora by brushing or scraping, and possibly the adjunctive use of antiseptic agents. Treatments have also been proposed to neutralise malodorous compounds by chemical agents to mask the presence of the <span class="hlt">condition</span>. Further evidence is required to demonstrate the long-term efficacy of therapies for this troublesome <span class="hlt">condition</span>. PMID:18460398</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hughes, Francis J; McNab, Rod</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4318026"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Manifestations of Vitiligo</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Vitiligo is one of the disorder that has social impact. Both skin and mucous membrane show depigmentation in vitiligo. Depigmentation in <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity can be more easily observed and the patient can be given awareness regarding the <span class="hlt">condition</span> if they are unaware of vitiligo elsewhere in their body and can be guided for treatment. Aim and objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of occurrence of <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosal vitiligo in vitiligo patients and to determine the most commonly involved <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosal site. Materials and methods: The study sample included 100 vitiligo patients. The patients of all age groups and both genders were included. Vitiligo patients associated with systemic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> such as thyroid disorders, juvenile diabetes mellitus, pernicious anemia, Addison's disease were excluded in this study. Results: Out of 100 vitiligo patients 44 % male and 56% were female. The <span class="hlt">oral</span> presentation of vitiligo in this study showed depigmentation of buccal mucosa in 5% of patients, labial mucosa in 5% of patients, palate in 8% of patients, gingiva in 2% of patients and alveolar mucosa 1%. Depigmentation of lip was seen in 42% of patients. Lip involvement refers to depigmentation of both the lips or either lip. Also vermilion border involvement was noted in majority of cases. In some cases, the depigmentation of lip extended to the facial skin also. Conclusion: In this study 55 patients out of 100 patients showed depigmentation in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. Lip involvement was most common in this study showing about 42% of patients. Intraoral mucosal involvement was found in 21% of patients. Among intraoral mucosal site palate was common followed by buccal and labial mucosa, gingiva. Two patients had lip pigmentation as the only manifestation without any depigmentation in the skin. PMID:25657420</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nagarajan, Anitha; Masthan, Mahaboob Kader; Sankar, Leena Sankari; Narayanasamy, Aravindha Babu; Elumalai, Rajesh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3469233"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> calcitonin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget’s disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An <span class="hlt">oral</span> formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through ?-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl)-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC) (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ). Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of <span class="hlt">orally</span> administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, <span class="hlt">oral</span> calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis) failed to meet key end points, and in December 2011, Novartis Pharma AG announced that it would not pursue further clinical development of <span class="hlt">oral</span> calcitonin for postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteoarthritis. A unique feature of calcitonin is that it is able to uncouple bone turnover, reducing bone resorption without affecting bone formation and therefore increasing bone mass and improving bone quality. This effect, however, may be dose-dependent, with higher doses inhibiting both resorption and formation. Because so many factors affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcitonin, especially <span class="hlt">orally</span> administered calcitonin, much work remains to be done to explore the full pharmacologic spectrum and potential of calcitonin and determine the optimum dose and timing of administration, as well as water and food intake. PMID:23071417</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hamdy, Ronald C; Daley, Dane N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15188524"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diabetes mellitus and <span class="hlt">oral</span> care.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Diabetes is a common <span class="hlt">condition</span>. Its incidence is increasing. It can lead to medical complications including visual impairment, neuropathies, renal and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes can have an adverse effect on <span class="hlt">oral</span> health and healthcare. Conversely, poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> health can have an adverse effect on blood glucose control. Repeated <span class="hlt">oral</span> infections can indicate uncontrolled diabetes and lead to its diagnosis. Whereas hyperglycaemia may occur in untreated diabetes, hypoglycaemic episodes are not uncommon in well-controlled diabetes Type 2. The tight glycaemic control required to prevent its long-term complications can be destabilized by infection, anxiety or missed meals. PMID:15188524</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fiske, Janice</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ecam.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/nep067v1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts and Natural Products with Activity Against <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Bacteria: Potential Application in the Prevention and Treatment of <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Diseases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> diseases are major health problems with dental caries and periodontal diseases among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> health influences the general quality of life and poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> health is linked to chronic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and systemic diseases. The associ- ation between <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases and the <span class="hlt">oral</span> microbiota is well established. Of the more than 750 species of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Enzo A. Palombo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GMDD....8.2691T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Methods for automatized detection of rapid changes in lateral boundary <span class="hlt">condition</span> fields for NWP <span class="hlt">limited</span> area models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three hourly temporal resolution of lateral boundary data can be too low to properly resolve rapidly moving storms. This problem is expected to be worse with increasing horizontal resolution. In order to detect intensive disturbances in surface pressure moving rapidly through the model domain, a filtered surface pressure field (MCUF) is computed operationally in the ARPEGE global model of Météo France. The field is distributed in the coupling files along with conventional meteorological fields used for lateral boundary <span class="hlt">conditions</span> (LBCs) for the operational forecast using <span class="hlt">limited</span> area model ALADIN in the Meteorological and hydrological service of Croatia (DHMZ). Here an analysis is performed of the MCUF field for the LACE coupling domain for the period since 23 January 2006, when it became available, until 15 November 2014. The MCUF field is a good indicator of rapidly moving pressure disturbances (RMPDs). Its spatial and temporal distribution can be associated to the usual cyclone tracks and areas known to be supporting cyclogenesis. Other global models do not compute such field. Alternative set of coupling files from IFS operational run in ECMWF is also available operationally in DHMZ with 3 hourly temporal resolution but the MCUF field is not available. Here, several methods are tested that detect RMPDs in surface pressure a posteriori from the IFS model fields provided in the coupling files. MCUF is computed by running ALADIN on the coupling files from IFS. The error function is computed using one time step integration of ALADIN on the coupling files without initialization, initialized with DFI or SSDFI. Finally, the amplitude of changes in the mean sea level pressure is computed from the fields in the coupling files. The results are compared to the MCUF field of ARPEGE and the results of same methods applied to the coupling files from ARPEGE. Most methods give a signal for the rapidly moving pressure disturbances (RMPDs), but DFI reduces the storms too much to be detected. Error function without filtering and amplitude have more noise, but the signal of a RMPD is also stronger. The methods are tested for NWP LAM, but could be applied to and benefit the performance of climate LAMs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tudor, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3671512"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of Propolis on Hygiene, Gingival <span class="hlt">Condition</span>, and <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Microflora in Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate Treated with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 3% ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) on hygiene, gingival and microbiological status of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity in patients with cleft lip and palate treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. The study included forty-one nonsyndromic complete unilateral of bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects with fixed appliance on at least 10 teeth. Twenty-one subjects were instructed to brush their teeth three times a day using toothpaste with propolis. Control group included twenty subjects who were asked to brush their teeth three times a day using a toothpaste without propolis. API, OPI, GI, and supragingival bacterial plaque were taken from each subject twice: baseline and after using the toothpaste for 35 days. The final examinations showed statistically significant decrease in OPI, GI, and the percentage of the Actinomyces spp. and Capnocytophaga spp. compared with baseline in propolis group subjects. The improvement in <span class="hlt">oral</span> health in these patients confirms antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative properties of propolis. PMID:23762106</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Machorowska-Pieni??ek, Agnieszka; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Król, Wojciech</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3961947"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemoprevention of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer: Green tea experience</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> cancer has a well characterized progression from premalignant <span class="hlt">oral</span> epithelial changes to invasive cancer, making <span class="hlt">oral</span> squamous cell carcinoma an optimal disease for chemoprevention interventions prior to malignant transformation. The primary goal of chemoprevention here is to reverse, suppress, or inhibit the progression of premalignant lesions to cancer. Due to the extended duration of <span class="hlt">oral</span> pathogenesis, its chemoprevention using natural products has been found promising due to their decreased dose and <span class="hlt">limited</span> toxicity profiles. This review discusses with an emphasis on the clinical trials using green tea extract (GTE) in chemoprevention of <span class="hlt">oral</span> premalignant lesions along with use of GTE as a chemopreventive agent in various other cancers as well. It is worthwhile to include green tea extract in an <span class="hlt">oral</span> screening program for evaluating the premalignant lesions comparing the results between the treated and untreated group. Given the wide acceptance of green tea, its benefits may help in effective chemoprevention <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer. PMID:24678188</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi; Krishnamurthy, Arvind</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25313329"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cyclic Penta- and Hexaleucine Peptides without N-Methylation Are <span class="hlt">Orally</span> Absorbed.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Development of peptide-based drugs has been severely <span class="hlt">limited</span> by lack of <span class="hlt">oral</span> bioavailability with less than a handful of peptides being truly <span class="hlt">orally</span> bioavailable, mainly cyclic peptides with N-methyl amino acids and few hydrogen bond donors. Here we report that cyclic penta- and hexa-leucine peptides, with no N-methylation and five or six amide NH protons, exhibit some degree of <span class="hlt">oral</span> bioavailability (4-17%) approaching that of the heavily N-methylated drug cyclosporine (22%) under the same <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. These simple cyclic peptides demonstrate that <span class="hlt">oral</span> bioavailability is achievable for peptides that fall outside of rule-of-five guidelines without the need for N-methylation or modified amino acids. PMID:25313329</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hill, Timothy A; Lohman, Rink-Jan; Hoang, Huy N; Nielsen, Daniel S; Scully, Conor C G; Kok, W Mei; Liu, Ligong; Lucke, Andrew J; Stoermer, Martin J; Schroeder, Christina I; Chaousis, Stephanie; Colless, Barbara; Bernhardt, Paul V; Edmonds, David J; Griffith, David A; Rotter, Charles J; Ruggeri, Roger B; Price, David A; Liras, Spiros; Craik, David J; Fairlie, David P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' 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onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21495324"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Aspects of complex <span class="hlt">oral</span> rehabilitation with <span class="hlt">oral</span> osseointegrated implants].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dentists and patients become increasingly aware of the complex and predictible results offered by implant-supported dentures. These alternatives fulfill the demands of modern dentistry to rehabilitate the <span class="hlt">oral</span> health <span class="hlt">condition</span> according to the highest standards. A deficient residual crest represents a great challenge for the healing and osseointegration of the implants. Dental implants have an essential effect on stopping bone atrophy in the edentulous crest and preserving its <span class="hlt">condition</span>. Function and esthetics and the patients comfort can be rehabilitated within normal <span class="hlt">limits</span>. The prosthetic reconstruction based on osseointegration implants has better long-term prognosis if the therapeutic option is judiciously selected. The risk of relative movements at the bone-implant interface decreases according to the difference in value between the elasticity module of the implant and the bone. Prosthetic reconstruction based on implants has a better long-term prognosis if the therapeutic option is judiciously selected from all possibilities according to the osteointegration of an adequate number of implants. PMID:21495324</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Balog, Cristiana; B?ciu?, Mihaela; B?ciu?, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21897734"> <span id="translatedtitle">Moral and professional responsibility of <span class="hlt">oral</span> physician toward geriatric patient with interdisciplinary management - The time to act is now!</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mouth is the mirror of overall health. With advancements in <span class="hlt">oral</span> health promotion and preventive measures instituted in developed countries, more people retain their natural teeth into their old age as compared to half a century ago. The effect of aging on <span class="hlt">oral</span> health includes effect on <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa, lips, teeth and other associated structures, and their functional activity leading to impairment of speech, mastication, swallowing and pain leading to anxiety and depression. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> tissues are not <span class="hlt">limited</span> to the teeth and supporting structures (periodontium) but also include salivary glands, temporomandibular joint, orofacial/mastication muscles, oropharyngeal mucosa, and <span class="hlt">oral</span> sensory/motor nerve systems. In India, the second most populous country in the world, there is a rapidly growing population of older adults and there are 70 million elderly people over 60 years of age. Geriatric health problems with respect to the quality of life often remain neglected. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> health care for an increasingly large segment of elderly people will be a fact of life for dentists everywhere. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> health can be both a benchmark for and a determinant of the quality of life rather than the length of life span. Older adults are more susceptible to <span class="hlt">oral</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> or diseases due to an increase in chronic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and physical/mental disabilities. Thus, a careful initial interview ensuring that the dentist is familiar with the patient's health history, followed by a thorough <span class="hlt">oral</span> examination plays a very important role. In this paper, we briefly review the age-related <span class="hlt">oral</span> changes occurring in geriatric patients and the role of <span class="hlt">oral</span> physician in imparting a healthy life to the elderly. PMID:21897734</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rai, Shalu; Kaur, Mandeep; Goel, Sumit; Bhatnagar, Puneet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25762041"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> medicine and the ageing population.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity is subject to age related processes such as cellular ageing and immunosenescence. The ageing population bears an increased burden of intraoral pathology. In <span class="hlt">oral</span> medicine, the majority of presenting patients are in their fifth to seventh decade of life. In this review, we discuss the ageing population's susceptibility to mucosal disorders and the increased prevalence of potentially malignant disorders and <span class="hlt">oral</span> squamous cell carcinoma, as well as dermatoses including <span class="hlt">oral</span> lichen planus and immunobullous <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. We also address the ageing population's susceptibility to <span class="hlt">oral</span> discomfort and explore salivary secretion, ulceration and the symptoms of <span class="hlt">oral</span> burning. Finally, we will describe orofacial pain <span class="hlt">conditions</span> which are more likely encountered in an older population. This update highlights clinical presentations which are more likely to be encountered in the ageing population in a general practice setting and the importance of screening both new and long-term patients. PMID:25762041</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yap, T; McCullough, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-14/pdf/2011-26557.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 63822 - Special <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G280 Airplane, <span class="hlt">Limit</span> Engine Torque Loads...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...novel or unusual design feature involving engine size and related torque load that affect sudden engine-stoppage <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Discussion The size, configuration, and failure modes of jet engines have changed considerably from those...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-03-07/pdf/2011-5103.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 12274 - Special <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>: Bell Helicopter Textron Canada <span class="hlt">Limited</span> Model 206B and 206L Series Helicopters...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...pounds, depending on the model. The major design features include a 2-blade, teetering main rotor, a 2-blade anti-torque tail rotor, a skid landing...helicopters because of a novel or unusual design feature, special <span class="hlt">conditions</span> are...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol5-sec301-76-5.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 301.76-5 - General <span class="hlt">conditions</span> governing the issuance of any certificate or <span class="hlt">limited</span> permit; provisions for...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-5 General <span class="hlt">conditions</span>...7714) 2 /> to prevent the spread of Asian citrus psyllid; and 2 An inspector may hold...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol5-sec301-76-5.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 301.76-5 - General <span class="hlt">conditions</span> governing the issuance of any certificate or <span class="hlt">limited</span> permit; provisions for...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-5 General <span class="hlt">conditions</span>...7714) 2 /> to prevent the spread of Asian citrus psyllid; and 2 An inspector may hold...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol5-sec301-76-5.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 301.76-5 - General <span class="hlt">conditions</span> governing the issuance of any certificate or <span class="hlt">limited</span> permit; provisions for...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-5 General <span class="hlt">conditions</span>...7714) 2 /> to prevent the spread of Asian citrus psyllid; and 2 An inspector may hold...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol5-sec301-76-5.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 301.76-5 - General <span class="hlt">conditions</span> governing the issuance of any certificate or <span class="hlt">limited</span> permit; provisions for...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Citrus Greening and Asian Citrus Psyllid § 301.76-5 General <span class="hlt">conditions</span>...C. 7714) 2 to prevent the spread of Asian citrus psyllid; and 2 An inspector may hold...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25677170"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> mucositis in pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Clinical outcomes in a context of specialized <span class="hlt">oral</span> care using low-level laser therapy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">OM is a painful inflammatory <span class="hlt">condition</span> of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa, derived from the toxic effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. High OM severity is frequently present in HSCT pediatric patients, who exhibit multiple painful ulcers that <span class="hlt">limit</span> their mastication and swallowing, leading to poor nutritional status. Few studies have demonstrated OM clinical outcomes in young patients undergoing HSCT. Feasibility of <span class="hlt">oral</span> care and LLLT on OM prophylaxis and treatment is also poorly discussed. The aim of this study was to describe a specialized <span class="hlt">oral</span> care protocol that included LLLT for pediatric patients undergoing transplantation and to demonstrate the clinical outcomes after OM prevention and treatment. Data from OM-related morbidity were collected from 51 HSCT pediatric patients treated daily with LLLT, followed by standard <span class="hlt">oral</span> care protocols. All the patients, even infants and young children, accepted the daily <span class="hlt">oral</span> care and LLLT well. The majority (80.0%) only exhibited erythema in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa, and the maximum OM degree was WHO II. Patients who had undergone autologous and HLA-haploidentical transplants showed OM with the lowest severity. The frequency of total body irradiation and methotrexate prescriptions was higher in adolescents when compared with infants (p = 0.044), and adolescents also exhibited OM more severely than infants and young children. We found that good clinical outcomes were obtained using this therapy, mainly in regard to the control of OM severity and pain reduction in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. Specialized <span class="hlt">oral</span> care, including LLLT, is feasible and affordable for HSCT pediatric patients, although some adaptation in the patient's <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene routine must be adopted with help from parents/companions and clinical staff. PMID:25677170</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eduardo, Fernanda de Paula; Bezinelli, Leticia Mello; de Carvalho, Danielle Lima Corrêa; Lopes, Roberta Marques da Graça; Fernandes, Juliana Folloni; Brumatti, Melina; Vince, Carolina Sgaroni Camargo; de Azambuja, Alessandra Milani Prandini; Vogel, Cristina; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Correa, Luciana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3177673"> <span id="translatedtitle">No evidence of carbon <span class="hlt">limitation</span> with tree age and height in Nothofagus pumilio under Mediterranean and temperate climate <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background and Aims Trees universally decrease their growth with age. Most explanations for this trend so far support the hypothesis that carbon (C) gain becomes <span class="hlt">limited</span> with age; though very few studies have directly assessed the relative reductions of C gain and C demand with tree age. It has also been suggested that drought enhances the effect of C gain <span class="hlt">limitation</span> in trees. Here tests were carried out to determine whether C gain <span class="hlt">limitation</span> is causing the growth decay with tree age, and whether drought accentuates its effect. Methods The balance between C gain and C demand across tree age and height ranges was estimated. For this, the concentration of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in stems and roots of trees of different ages and heights was measured in the deciduous temperate species Nothofagus pumilio. An ontogenetic decrease in NSCs indicates support for C <span class="hlt">limitation</span>. Furthermore, the importance of drought in altering the C balance with ontogeny was assessed by sampling the same species in Mediterranean and humid climate locations in the southern Andes of Chile. Wood density (WD) and stable carbon isotope ratios (?13C) were also determined to examine drought constraints on C gain. Key Results At both locations, it was effectively found that tree growth ultimately decreased with tree age and height. It was found, however, that NSC concentrations did not decrease with tree age or height when WD was considered, suggesting that C <span class="hlt">limitation</span> is not the ultimate mechanism causing the age/height-related declining tree growth. ?13C decreased with tree age/height at the Mediterranean site only; drought effect increased with tree age/height, but this pattern was not mirrored by the levels of NSCs. Conclusions The results indicate that concentrations of C storage in N. pumilio trees do not decrease with tree age or height, and that reduced C assimilation due to summer drought does not alter this pattern. PMID:21852277</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Piper, Frida I.; Fajardo, Alex</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1774560"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sinus lifting before Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy: a suitable method for <span class="hlt">oral</span> rehabilitation of edentulous patients with skelettal class-III <span class="hlt">conditions</span>: review of the literature and report of a case</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Functional rehabilitation of patients afflicted with severe mandibular and maxillary alveolar atrophy might be challenging especially in malformed patients. Methods Treatment planning using sinus lifting and implant placement before Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy in a patient with severe mandibular and posterior maxillary alveolar atrophy and skelettal class-III <span class="hlt">conditions</span> due to cleft palate are described. Results A full functional and esthetic rehabilitation of the patient was achieved by a stepwise surgical approach performed through sinus lifting as the primary approach followed by implant placement and subsequent Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy to correct the maxillo-mandibular relation. Conclusion Stabilisation of the maxillary complex by a sinus lifting procedure in combination with computer aided implant placement as preorthodontic planning procedure before Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy seems to be suitable in order to allow ideal <span class="hlt">oral</span> rehabilitation especially in malformed patients. PMID:17204134</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Depprich, Rita A; Handschel, Jörg GK; Naujoks, Christian; Hahn, Tobias; Meyer, Ulrich; Kübler, Norbert R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29691346"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genetics of Acid Adaptation in <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Streptococci</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A growing body of information has provided insights into the mechanisms by which the <span class="hlt">oral</span> streptococci maintain their niches in the human mouth. In at least one case, Streptococcus mutans, the organism apparently uses a panel of proteins to survive in acidic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> while it promotes the formation of dental caries. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> streptococci, which are not as inherently resistant to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert G. Quivey; Wendi L. Kuhnert; Kristina Hahn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=spanish+AND+discourse&pg=6&id=EJ733044"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Language and Reading in Bilingual Children</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article examines the question: Do lexical, syntactic, fluency, and discourse measures of <span class="hlt">oral</span> language collected under narrative <span class="hlt">conditions</span> predict reading achievement both within and across languages for bilingual children? More than 1,500 Spanish-English bilingual children attending kindergarten-third grade participated. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> narratives…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miller, Jon F.; Heilmann, John; Nockerts, Ann; Iglesias, Aquiles; Fabiano, Leah; Francis, David J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9534442"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> and nonoral sources of halitosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> malodor (halitosis, bad breath) is a <span class="hlt">condition</span> affecting millions of Americans. In healthy individuals complaining of bad breath, the mouth is the main source of their <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor, more specifically the posterior dorsum of the tongue. Nonoral sources should also be considered. It is always easy to recognize halitosis, but identifying the exact cause is more complex. PMID:9534442</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Messadi, D V</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25165640"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> submucous fibrosis and its dermatological relation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> submucous fibrosis is a chronic insidious disease and is well-recognized as a premalignant <span class="hlt">condition</span>. It is a collagen related disorder associated with betel quid chewing and characterized by progressive hyalinization of the submucosa. The <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis needs to be differentiated from scleroderma showing <span class="hlt">oral</span> manifestations, as these diseases have different pathogenesis and prognostic aspects. The patients of <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis can approach the dermatologist. The aim of this article is to present concise overview of the disease and its dermatological relation. PMID:25165640</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ali, Fareedi Mukram; Patil, Ashok; Patil, Kishor; Prasant, M C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title46-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title46-vol8-sec201-166.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">46 CFR 201.166 - <span class="hlt">Oral</span> argument.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Argument...should confine their argument to points of controlling importance and shall <span class="hlt">limit</span> their argument to...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title46-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title46-vol8-sec201-166.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">46 CFR 201.166 - <span class="hlt">Oral</span> argument.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Argument...should confine their argument to points of controlling importance and shall <span class="hlt">limit</span> their argument to...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title46-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title46-vol8-sec201-166.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">46 CFR 201.166 - <span class="hlt">Oral</span> argument.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Argument...should confine their argument to points of controlling importance and shall <span class="hlt">limit</span> their argument to...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title46-vol8/pdf/CFR-2012-title46-vol8-sec201-166.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">46 CFR 201.166 - <span class="hlt">Oral</span> argument.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Argument...should confine their argument to points of controlling importance and shall <span class="hlt">limit</span> their argument to...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First 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target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42675175"> <span id="translatedtitle">Racial and Ethnic Differences in General Health Status and <span class="hlt">Limiting</span> Health <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Among American Children: Parental Reports in the 1999 National Survey of America's Families1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives. This research investigates the association between race\\/ethnicity and child health, and examines the role of family structure, family socioeconomic status (SES), and healthcare factors in this association. Five major racial\\/ethnic groups in the US are studied. Two child health outcomes, including parent-rated health and <span class="hlt">limiting</span> health <span class="hlt">condition</span>, are examined. The analysis is stratified into three age groups: age 0–5,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ming Wen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48413255"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metabolic regulation of Escherichia coli and its phoB and phoR genes knockout mutants under phosphate and nitrogen <span class="hlt">limitations</span> as well as at acidic <span class="hlt">condition</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background  The phosphorus compounds serve as major building blocks of many biomolecules, and have important roles in signal transduction.\\u000a The phosphate is involved in many biochemical reactions by the transfer of phosphoryl groups. All living cells sophisticatedly\\u000a regulate the phosphate uptake, and survive even under phosphate-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">condition</span>, and thus phosphate metabolism is closely\\u000a related to the diverse metabolism including energy and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lolo Wal Marzan; Kazuyuki Shimizu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810068713&hterms=alcohol+content+percentage+determination&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dalcohol%2Bcontent%2Bpercentage%2Bdetermination"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Method for Rapid Determination of the Icing <span class="hlt">Limit</span> of a Body in Terms of the Stream <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of existing frictional heating were analyzed to determine the <span class="hlt">conditions</span> under which ice formations on aircraft surfaces can be prevented. A method is presented for rapidly determining by means of charts the combination of-Mach number, altitude, and stream temperature which will maintain an ice-free surface in an icing cloud. The method can be applied to both subsonic and supersonic flow. The charts presented are for Mach numbers up to 1.8 and pressure altitudes from sea level to 45,000 feet.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Callaghan, Edmund E.; Serafini, John S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1953-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3832787"> <span id="translatedtitle">Differential regulation of two types of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase in membrane lipid remodeling under phosphate-<span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in sesame plants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phosphate (Pi) <span class="hlt">limitation</span> causes drastic lipid remodeling in plant membranes. Glycolipids substitute for the phospholipids that are degraded, thereby supplying Pi needed for essential biological processes. Two major types of remodeling of membrane lipids occur in higher plants: whereas one involves an increase in the concentration of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol in plastids to compensate for a decreased concentration of phosphatidylglycerol, the other involves digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) synthesis in plastids and the export of DGDG to extraplastidial membranes to compensate for reduced abundances of phospholipids. Lipid remodeling depends on an adequate supply of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), which is a substrate that supports the elevated rate of DGDG synthesis that is induced by low Pi availability. Regulation of MGDG synthesis has been analyzed most extensively using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, although orthologous genes that encode putative MGDG synthases exist in photosynthetic organisms from bacteria to higher plants. We recently hypothesized that two types of MGDG synthase diverged after the appearance of seed plants. This divergence might have both enabled plants to adapt to a wide range of Pi availability in soils and contributed to the diversity of seed plants. In the work presented here, we found that membrane lipid remodeling also takes place in sesame, which is one of the most common traditional crops grown in Asia. We identified two types of MGDG synthase from sesame (encoded by SeMGD1 and SeMGD2) and analyzed their enzymatic properties. Our results show that both genes correspond to the Arabidopsis type-A and -B isoforms of MGDG synthase. Notably, whereas Pi <span class="hlt">limitation</span> up-regulates only the gene encoding the type-B isoform of Arabidopsis, low Pi availability up-regulates the expression of both SeMGD1 and SeMGD2. We discuss the significance of the different responses to low Pi availability in sesame and Arabidopsis. PMID:24312111</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shimojima, Mie; Watanabe, Takahide; Madoka, Yuka; Koizumi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Masayuki P.; Masuda, Kyojiro; Yamada, Kyoji; Masuda, Shinji; Ohta, Hiroyuki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.simplestepsdental.com/SS/ihtSSPrint/r.WSIHW000/st.35394/t.35387/pr.3/c.365869.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physical <span class="hlt">Limitations</span> Can Affect <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Hygiene</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... natural teeth. Losing teeth can further reduce chewing efficiency. People with chewing problems may alter their diets. ... early stage, so you can avoid major dental work or losing teeth. Your dental hygienist and dentist ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3782970"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Status and the Treatment Needs of Salt Workers at Sambhar Lake, Jaipur, India</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Salt workers are exposed to the adversities of environmental <span class="hlt">conditions</span> such as direct sunlight, salt dust and contact with brine, which have an impact on the health of workers. Since <span class="hlt">oral</span> health is an integral part of the general health, we planned to determine its effect on the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. Objectives: To assess the <span class="hlt">oral</span> health status and the treatment needs among the workers of Sambhar Salts <span class="hlt">Limited</span> at Sambhar Lake, Jaipur, India. Material and Methods: A cross sectional, descriptive survey was conducted among 979 subjects (509 males; 470 females) who were aged between 19–68 years, who were the workers of Sambhar Salts <span class="hlt">Limited</span>, Sambhar Lake, Jaipur, India. An interview on the demographic profile followed a clinical examination for recording the <span class="hlt">oral</span> health status, based on the World Health Organization guidelines. The Chi–square test, t–test, One way Analysis of Variance and a Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Females had a significantly greater prevalence of dental fluorosis (71.7%) and periodontal disease (96.4%) as compared to males (p= 0.001). The mean number of healthy sextants (0.71 ± 0.09) and the mean DMFT (5.19 ± 4.11) were also significantly higher in females as compared to those in males (p=0.001). One surface filling (78.2%), followed by pulp care and restoration (76.1%) were the most prevalent treatment needs. The gender and <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene practices for dental caries and periodontal disease were respectively identified as the best predictors. Conclusion: Considerable percentages of salt workers have demonstrated a higher prevalence of <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases. Higher unmet treatment needs suggest a poor accessibility and availability of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health care, in addition to a low utilization of preventive or therapeutic <span class="hlt">oral</span> health services. PMID:24086913</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Sharda, Archana Jagat; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Batra, Mehak; Daryani, Hemasha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EPJB...79..107I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Homogeneous bubble nucleation <span class="hlt">limit</span> of mercury under the normal working <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of the planned European spallation neutron source</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In spallation neutron sources, liquid mercury, upon adsorbing the proton beam, is exhibited to large thermal and pressure shocks. These local changes in the state of mercury can cause the formation of unstable bubbles in the liquid, which can damage at their collapse the enclosing the liquid solid material. While there are methods to deal with the pressure shock, the local temperature shock cannot be avoided. In our paper we calculated the work of the critical cluster formation (for mercury micro-bubbles) together with the rate of their formation (nucleation rate). It is shown that the homogeneous nucleation rates are very low at the considered process <span class="hlt">conditions</span> even after adsorbing several proton pulses, therefore, the probability of temperature induced homogeneous bubble nucleation is negligible.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Imre, A. R.; Abyzov, A. S.; Barna, I. F.; Schmelzer, J. W. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24670351"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparative bioavailability of two <span class="hlt">oral</span> formulations of clopidogrel: determination of clopidogrel and its carboxylic acid metabolite (SR26334) under fasting and fed <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in healthy subjects.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two randomized, single dose, 2-period, 2-sequence crossover studies were conducted to evaluate the comparative bioavailability of two clopidogrel formulations under fasting and fed <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Assessment of bioequivalence was based upon measurement of plasma concentrations of the parent drug, clopidogrel, and its major (inactive) metabolite, clopidogrel carboxylic acid, using improved methanol-free extraction. Bioequivalence of Krka's formulation to the innovator's formulation was demonstrated under both fasting and fed <span class="hlt">conditions</span> on 205 volunteers. Confidence intervals for AUC0-t, AUC0-inf and Cmax of clopidogrel and its main metabolite were well within the acceptance range of 80.00 to 125.00 %. Food substantially increased the bioavailability of clopidogrel from both formulations, while no effect of food on the extent and rate of exposure to the metabolite was observed. The effect of food was comparable between the two formulations, as indicated by the same direction and rank of food impact on the bioavailability of both formulations. PMID:24670351</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brvar, Nina; Lachance, Sylvain; Lévesque, Ann; Breznik, Marjanca; Cvitkovi? Mar?i?, Lea; Merslavi?, Mateja; Grabnar, Iztok; Mateovi?-Rojnik, Tatjana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/xt6g85581354833k.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Investigation into the Influence of Experimental <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> on In Vitro Drug Release from Immediate-Release Tablets of Levothyroxine Sodium and Its Relation to <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Bioavailability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of experimental <span class="hlt">conditions</span> on levothyroxine sodium release from two\\u000a immediate-release tablet formulations which narrowly passed the standard requirements for bioequivalence studies. The in vivo study was conducted as randomised, single-dose, two-way cross-over pharmacokinetic study in 24 healthy subjects. The in vitro study was performed using various dissolution media, and obtained</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ivana Kocic; Irena Homsek; Mirjana Dacevic; Jelena Parojcic; Branislava Miljkovic</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=children+AND+with+AND+cancer&pg=7&id=EJ897114"> <span id="translatedtitle">Review of the Evidence for <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Promotion Effectiveness</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dental caries, periodontal diseases, tooth loss and <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancers have significant burden of disease effects, quality of life and cost implications for the Australian community. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> health promotion is a key approach to addressing these <span class="hlt">conditions</span> endorsed as part of the National <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Plan. Understanding the evidence for effectiveness of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Satur, Julie G.; Gussy, Mark G.; Morgan, Michael V.; Calache, Hanny; Wright, Clive</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a687007.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Zidovudine <span class="hlt">Oral</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... to the liver and a blood <span class="hlt">condition</span> called lactic acidosis.Call your doctor immediately if you experience ... interferon, lorazepam (Ativan), oxazepam (Serax), probenecid (Benemid), valproic acid (Depakene, Depakote), and vitamins.tell your doctor if ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a682608.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Minoxidil <span class="hlt">Oral</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Minoxidil is used with other medications to treat high blood pressure. It is in a class of medications called ... blood can flow more easily through the body.High blood pressure is a common <span class="hlt">condition</span> and when not treated, ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a608007.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Budesonide <span class="hlt">Oral</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Budesonide is used to treat Crohn's disease (a <span class="hlt">condition</span> in which the body attacks the lining of ... tract, causing pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and fever). Budesonide is in a class of medications called corticosteroids. ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://incite.columbia.edu/storage/Columbia%20Oral%20History%20Booklet.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Columbia <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History Columbia University Center for <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Columbia <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History Columbia University Center for <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History Annual Report AUGUST 1, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Rule of Law <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History Project Carnegie Corporation <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History Project BIOGRAPHICAL INTERVIEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History Master of Arts Summer Institute 2012 <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History Workshop Series 2011­12 <span class="hlt">Oral</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Philip</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.hsdm.harvard.edu/file-richtext/Lewando.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Care 2025 Innovation/Finance/Delivery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">%) Enhanced benefits for related medical <span class="hlt">conditions</span> (75%) Adult orthodontics (73%) Dental Implants (72 of Contents Dental Insurance Market Trends Dental Insurance Benefit Trends Value Proposition Differentiation Evidence Based Dental Benefits <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health and Overall Health Integration · BCBSMA Total Health Program</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Yiling</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3696028"> <span id="translatedtitle">Non-parallel recombination <span class="hlt">limits</span> Cre-LoxP-based reporters as precise indicators of <span class="hlt">conditional</span> genetic manipulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cre/LoxP-mediated recombination allows for <span class="hlt">conditional</span> gene activation or inactivation. When combined with an independent lineage-tracing reporter allele, this technique traces the lineage of presumptive genetically modified Cre-expressing cells. Several studies have suggested that floxed alleles have differential sensitivities to Cre-mediated recombination, which raises concerns regarding utilization of common Cre-reporters to monitor recombination of other floxed loci of interest. Here, we directly investigate the recombination correlation, at cellular resolution, between several floxed alleles induced by Cre-expressing mouse lines. The recombination correlation between different reporter alleles varied greatly in otherwise genetically identical cell types. The chromosomal location of floxed alleles, distance between LoxP sites, sequences flanking the LoxP sites, and the level of Cre activity per cell all likely contribute to observed variations in recombination correlation. These findings directly demonstrate that, due to non-parallel recombination events, commonly available Cre reporter mice cannot be reliably utilized, in all cases, to trace cells that have DNA recombination in independent-target floxed alleles, and that careful validation of recombination correlations are required for proper interpretation of studies designed to trace the lineage of genetically modified populations, especially in mosaic situations. PMID:23441020</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Jing; Willet, Spencer G.; Bankaitis, Eric D.; Xu, Yanwen; Wright, Chris; Gu, Guoqiang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3957427"> <span id="translatedtitle">mGluR1 within the nucleus accumbens regulates alcohol intake in mice under <span class="hlt">limited</span>-access <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Idiopathic or alcohol-induced increases in the expression and function of the Group1 metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGluR1) within the extended amygdala are theorized to contribute to an individual’s propensity to consume excessive amounts of alcohol. In the past, the detailed study of the functional relevance of mGluR1 for alcoholism-related behaviors in animal models was hampered by the poor solubility and non-specific side effects of available inhibitors; however, the advent of the highly potent and soluble mGluR1 negative allosteric modulator JNJ-16259685 [(3,4-Dihydro-2H-pyrano[2,3-b]quinolin-7-yl)-(cis-4-methoxycyclohexyl)-methanone] has instigated a re-examination of the role for this mGluR subtype in mediating the behavioral effects of alcohol. In this regard, systemic pretreatment with JNJ-16259685 was proven effective at reducing alcohol reinforcement and motivation for the drug. mGluR1 is a G?q/o-coupled receptor, the stimulation of which activates phospholipase C (PLC). Thus, the present study investigated potential neuroanatomical substrates and intracellular molecules involved in the ability of JNJ-16259685 to reduce alcohol intake. JNJ-16259685 (0–30 pg/side) was infused into the shell subregion of the nucleus accumbens (NAC) of C57BL/6J and Homer2 knock-out (KO) mice, either alone or in combination with the PLC inhibitor U-73122 (5.8 fg/side). Alcohol intake was then assessed under Drinking-in-the-Dark (DID) procedures. Intra-NAC JNJ-16259685 infusion dose-dependently reduced alcohol consumption by C57BL/6J mice; this effect was not additive with that produced by U-73122, nor was it present in Homer2 KO animals. These data provide novel evidence in support of a critical role for mGluR1-PLC signaling, scaffolded by Homer2, within the NAC shell, in maintaining alcohol consumption under <span class="hlt">limited</span> access procedures. Such findings have relevance for both the pharmacotherapeutics and pharmacogenetics of risky alcohol drinking and alcoholism. PMID:24467847</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lum, Emily N.; Campbell, Rianne R.; Rostock, Charlotte; Szumlinski, Karen K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25187906"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> treprostinil for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare yet progressive and life-threatening <span class="hlt">condition</span> that, despite the availability of FDA-approved therapies, remains incurable. Prostacyclin analogues are a mainstay of therapy for patients with PAH, but in spite of demonstrated improvements in survival, exercise capacity and hemodynamics, these agents have been <span class="hlt">limited</span> by poor pharmacokinetics and complex administration requirements. Treprostinil diolamine (Orenitram™; United Therapeutics) is a novel <span class="hlt">oral</span> formulation that joins the approved parenteral and inhaled formulations (Remodulin® and Tyvaso®; United Therapeutics). It displays similar pharmacokinetic properties, while offering the potential for improved patient compliance through the convenience of <span class="hlt">oral</span> dosing. Following the demonstration of improved exercise capacity as monotherapy in patients with de novo PAH (FREEDOM-M), treprostinil diolamine was recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of patients with WHO group 1 PAH and continues to be evaluated in a number of clinical trials in this patient population. PMID:25187906</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de Lartigue, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3800206"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reversal of <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Anticoagulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although the use of dabigatran and rivaroxaban are increasing, data on reversal of their effects are <span class="hlt">limited</span>. The lack of reliable monitoring methods and specific reversal agents renders treatment strategies empirical and as a result, , treatment consists mainly of supportive measures. Therefore, we performed a systematic search of the PubMed database to find studies and reviews pertaining to <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulation reversal strategies. This review discusses current anticoagulation reversal recommendations for the <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulants warfarin, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban for patients at a heightened risk of bleeding, actively bleeding or those in need for pre-procedural anticoagulation reversal. We highlight the literature that shaped these recommendations and provide directions for future research to address knowledge gaps. While reliable recommendations are available for anticoagulation reversal in patients treated with warfarin, guidance on reversal of dabigatran and rivaroxaban is varied and equivocal. Given the increasing use of the newer agents, focused research is needed to identify effective reversal strategies and develop and implement an accurate method (assay) to guide reversal of the newer agents. Determining patient-specific factors that influence the effectiveness of reversal treatments and comparing the effectiveness of various treatment strategies are pertinent areas for future anticoagulation reversal research. PMID:23606318</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Limdi, Nita A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3574626"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nanoparticles for <span class="hlt">oral</span> delivery: Targeted nanoparticles with peptidic ligands for <span class="hlt">oral</span> protein delivery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As the field of biotechnology has advanced, <span class="hlt">oral</span> protein delivery has also made significant progress. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> delivery is the most common method of drug administration with high levels of patient acceptance. Despite the preference of <span class="hlt">oral</span> delivery, administration of therapeutic proteins has been extremely difficult. Increasing the bioavailability of <span class="hlt">oral</span> protein drugs to the therapeutically acceptable level is still a challenging goal. Poor membrane permeability, high molecular weight, and enzymatic degradation of protein drugs have remained unsolved issues. Among diverse strategies, nanotechnology has provided a glimpse of hope in <span class="hlt">oral</span> delivery of protein drugs. Nanoparticles have advantages, such as small size, high surface area, and modification using functional groups for high capacity or selectivity. Nanoparticles with peptidic ligands are especially worthy of notice because they can be used for specific targeting in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This article reviews the transport mechanism of the GI tract, barriers to protein absorption, current status and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> of nanotechnology for <span class="hlt">oral</span> protein delivery system. PMID:23123292</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yun, Yeonhee; Cho, Yong Woo; Park, Kinam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030064123&hterms=oil+refinery&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Doil%2Brefinery"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Fuel Composition, Engine Operating Variables, and Spark-Plug Type and <span class="hlt">Condition</span> on Preignition-<span class="hlt">Limited</span> Performance of an R-2800 Cylinder</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The preignition characteristics of the R-2800 cylinder, as effected by fuel consumption, engine operating variables, and spark plug type and <span class="hlt">condition</span>, were evaluated. The effects on preignition-<span class="hlt">limited</span> performance of various percentages of aromatics (benzene, toluene, cumene, xylene) in a base fuel of triptane were investigated. Two paraffins (triptane and S + 6.0 ml TEL/gal) and two refinery blends (28-R and 33-R) were preignition rated. The effect of changes in the following engine operating variables on preignition <span class="hlt">limit</span> was determined: inlet-air temperature, rear spark plug gasket temperature, engine speed, spark advance, tappet clearance, and oil consumption. Preignition <span class="hlt">limits</span> of the R-2800 cylinder using Champion C34S and C35S and AC-LS86, LS87, and LS88 spark plugs were established and the effect of spark plug deterioration was investigated. No definite trends in preignition-<span class="hlt">limited</span> indicated mean effective pressure were indicated for aromatics as a class when increased percentages of different aromatics were added to a base fuel of triptane. Three types of fuel (aromatics, paraffins, and refinery blends) showed a preignition range for this cylinder from 65 to 104 percent when based on the performance of S plus 6.0 ml TEL per gallon as 100 percent. The R-2800 cylinder is therefore relatively insensitive to fuel composition when compared to a CFR F-4 engine, which had a pre-ignition range from 72 to 100 percent for the same fuels. Six engine operating variables were investigated with the following results: preignition-<span class="hlt">limited</span> indicated mean effective pressure decreased, with increases in engine speed, rear spark plug gasket temperature, inlet-air temperature, and spark advance beyond 20 F B.T.C. and was unaffected by rate of oil consumption or by tappet clearance. Spark plugs were rated over a range of preignition-<span class="hlt">limited</span> indicated mean effective pressure from 200 to 390 pounds per square inch at a fuel-air ratio of 0.07 in the following order of increased resistance to preignition: AC-LS97, AC-LS88, Champion C358, AC-LS86, and Champion C34S. Spark plug deterioration in the form of cracks in the porcelain had been broken away from the center electrode and were retained in the spark plug cavity, the preignition <span class="hlt">limit</span> was decreased as much as 57 percent. When the broken pieces had been removed, the preignition <span class="hlt">limit</span> increased from that of the undamaged porcelain as the weight of removed porcelain was increased.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pfender, John F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1946-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17268583"> <span id="translatedtitle">Drug testing in <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid (saliva) for drug testing. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection <span class="hlt">limits</span> required. Drug testing outside laboratory environments has become widespread and provides presumptive results within minutes of collection of specimens. This review focuses on the developments, particularly over the last 10 years, and outlines the roles and applications of testing for drugs in <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid, describes the difficulties associated with this form of testing and illustrates applications of <span class="hlt">oral</span> fluid testing for specific drugs. PMID:17268583</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Drummer, Olaf H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3834656"> <span id="translatedtitle">Micronutrients and <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Clefts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Little is known about <span class="hlt">oral</span> clefts in developing countries. We aimed to identify micronutrient-related and environmental risk factors for <span class="hlt">oral</span> clefts in Thailand. We tested hypotheses that maternal exposure during the periconceptional period to multivitamins or liver consumption would decrease cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL ± P) risk and that menstrual regulation supplements would increase CL ± P risk. We conducted a multisite hospital-based case-control study in Thailand. We enrolled cases with CL ± P and 2 live births as controls at birth from the same hospital. Mothers completed a questionnaire. <span class="hlt">Conditional</span> logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Eighty-six cases and 172 controls were enrolled. Mothers who took a vitamin (adjusted OR, 0.39; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.94) or ate liver (adjusted OR, 0.26; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.57) were less likely than those who did not to have an affected child. Mothers who took a menstrual regulation supplement were more likely than mothers who did not to have an affected child. Findings did not differ for infants with a family history of other anomalies or with isolated CL ± P. If replicated, our finding that liver decreases CL ± P risk could offer a low-cost primary prevention strategy. PMID:24097855</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McKinney, C.M.; Chowchuen, B.; Pitiphat, W.; DeRouen, T.; Pisek, A.; Godfrey, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4044857"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phycobilisome-Deficient Strains of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Have Reduced Size and Require Carbon-<span class="hlt">Limiting</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> to Exhibit Enhanced Productivity1[W][OPEN</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reducing excessive light harvesting in photosynthetic organisms may increase biomass yields by <span class="hlt">limiting</span> photoinhibition and increasing light penetration in dense cultures. The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 harvests light via the phycobilisome, which consists of an allophycocyanin core and six radiating rods, each with three phycocyanin (PC) discs. Via targeted gene disruption and alterations to the promoter region, three mutants with two (pcpcT?C) and one (?CpcC1C2:pcpcT?C) PC discs per rod or lacking PC (olive) were generated. Photoinhibition and chlorophyll levels decreased upon phycobilisome reduction, although greater penetration of white light was observed only in the PC-deficient mutant. In all strains cultured at high cell densities, most light was absorbed by the first 2 cm of the culture. Photosynthesis and respiration rates were also reduced in the ?CpcC1C2:pcpcT?C and olive mutants. Cell size was smaller in the pcpcT?C and olive strains. Growth and biomass accumulation were similar between the wild-type and pcpcT?C under a variety of <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Growth and biomass accumulation of the olive mutant were poorer in carbon-saturated cultures but improved in carbon-<span class="hlt">limited</span> cultures at higher light intensities, as they did in the ?CpcC1C2:pcpcT?C mutant. This study shows that one PC disc per rod is sufficient for maximal light harvesting and biomass accumulation, except under <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of high light and carbon <span class="hlt">limitation</span>, and two or more are sufficient for maximal oxygen evolution. To our knowledge, this study is the first to measure light penetration in bulk cultures of cyanobacteria and offers important insights into photobioreactor design. PMID:24760817</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lea-Smith, David J.; Bombelli, Paolo; Dennis, John S.; Scott, Stuart A.; Smith, Alison G.; Howe, Christopher J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2168710"> <span id="translatedtitle">Alginate Production by Pseudomonas putida Creates a Hydrated Microenvironment and Contributes to Biofilm Architecture and Stress Tolerance under Water-<span class="hlt">Limiting</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biofilms exist in a variety of habitats that are routinely or periodically not saturated with water, and residents must integrate cues on water abundance (matric stress) or osmolarity (solute stress) into lifestyle strategies. Here we examine this hypothesis by assessing the extent to which alginate production by Pseudomonas putida strain mt-2 and by other fluorescent pseudomonads occurs in response to water <span class="hlt">limitations</span> and how the presence of alginate in turn influences biofilm development and stress tolerance. Total exopolysaccharide (EPS) and alginate production increased with increasing matric, but not solute, stress severity, and alginate was a significant component, but not the major component, of EPS. Alginate influenced biofilm architecture, resulting in biofilms that were taller, covered less surface area, and had a thicker EPS layer at the air interface than those formed by an mt-2 algD mutant under water-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, properties that could contribute to less evaporative water loss. We examined this possibility and show that alginate reduces the extent of water loss from biofilm residents by using a biosensor to quantify the water potential of individual cells and by measuring the extent of dehydration-mediated changes in fatty acid composition following a matric or solute stress shock. Alginate deficiency decreased survival of desiccation not only by P. putida but also by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a. Our findings suggest that in response to water-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, pseudomonads produce alginate, which influences biofilm development and EPS physiochemical properties. Collectively these responses may facilitate the maintenance of a hydrated microenvironment, protecting residents from desiccation stress and increasing survival. PMID:17601783</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang, Woo-Suk; van de Mortel, Martijn; Nielsen, Lindsey; Nino de Guzman, Gabriela; Li, Xiaohong; Halverson, Larry J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4170154"> <span id="translatedtitle">The mucosal immune system in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity—an orchestra of T cell diversity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mucosal immune system defends against a vast array of pathogens, yet it exhibits <span class="hlt">limited</span> responses to commensal microorganisms under healthy <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. The <span class="hlt">oral</span>-pharyngeal cavity, the gateway for both the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, is composed of complex anatomical structures and is constantly challenged by antigens from air and food. The mucosal immune system of the <span class="hlt">oral</span>-pharyngeal cavity must prevent pathogen entry while maintaining immune homeostasis, which is achieved via a range of mechanisms that are similar or different to those utilized by the gastrointestinal immune system. In this review, we summarize the features of the mucosal immune system, focusing on T cell subsets and their functions. We also discuss our current understanding of the <span class="hlt">oral</span>-pharyngeal mucosal immune system. PMID:25105816</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wu, Rui-Qing; Zhang, Dun-Fang; Tu, Eric; Chen, Qian-Ming; Chen, WanJun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AAS...22325901H"> <span id="translatedtitle">HAD <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History Project</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct <span class="hlt">oral</span> history interviews since May 2013. Each <span class="hlt">oral</span> history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holbrook, Jarita</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4390683"> <span id="translatedtitle">EXPERTS 1—experiences of long-term life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> among patients and carers: protocol for a qualitative meta-synthesis and conceptual modelling study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction Increasing numbers of the population are living with long-term life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> with a significant proportion characterised by multimorbidity. Patients with these <span class="hlt">conditions</span> often experience high volumes of clinical interaction involving them, their caregivers and healthcare providers in complex patterns of organising, coordinating, negotiating and managing care. A better understanding of the sources of experienced complexity and multimorbidity, from the patient perspective is paramount to improve capacity and manage workload to promote improved experience of illness, more effective healthcare utilisation and improved healthcare outcomes. To better understand the sources of complexity we will undertake an evidence synthesis of qualitative studies of patient and informal carer experiences of three common long-term life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. We will investigate what is known about these diseases at different stages in disease progression, treatment regimens and places of care. Method and analysis We will include qualitative studies of patients’ and carers’ (aged >18) accounts of their experiences of healthcare provision in a range of settings and healthcare systems. We will conduct an extensive electronic database search of publications in English between 2000 and 2014. Results and discussions sections of the papers will be regarded as formal data using the constant comparison method of qualitative analysis. From the meta-synthesis results, we will build a conceptual model of mechanisms and processes that shape patients’ journeys towards end of life to suggest where in the patient journey new interventions to improve patient and carer experience can be developed and delivered. The study is being conducted between 1 December 2014 and 31 December 2015. Ethics and dissemination No human subjects or personal data are involved and no ethical issues are anticipated. An important element of dissemination is informing user communities about the practical implications of the work through workshops, meetings and social media. Scientific results will be published in peer reviewed journals and disseminated through conferences. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42014014547. PMID:25838511</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">May, Carl R; Masters, Jayne; Welch, Lindsay; Hunt, Katherine; Pope, Catherine; Myall, Michelle; Griffiths, Peter; Roderick, Paul; Glanville, Julie; Richardson, Alison</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3929149"> <span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulants: are coagulation units still required?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chronic antithrombotic therapy involves the use of anticoagulants, antiplatelets given either as monotherapy or in combination for the prevention of thrombotic complications. The most feared and sometimes fatal complication with this therapy is bleeding. It should be considered a “golden rule” that a drug or combination of drugs that maximizes efficiency (decreased thromboembolic risk) will probably be less safe (increased risk of bleeding), and this holds true either for single therapy or during combined therapy. The chances of bleeding indicated by risk tables can be useful but show only a snapshot, and the biological, social, environmental, and drug changes and therapeutic adherence also determine changes in the risk of thrombosis and bleeding. Bleeding is an eventuality that occurs in places of “locus minoris resistentiae,” and the results of careful phase 3 studies thus cannot be completely predictive of outcomes when a medication is introduced on the pharmaceutical market. With the use of warfarin, the International Normalized Ratio (INR) that has been established to indicate adequately balanced therapy is between 2.0 and 3.0. With the new <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulants, the pharmaceutical companies emphasize that it is not necessary to monitor anticoagulant effects. In studies with different doses of new <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulants, however, incidence of clinically significant bleeding complications have been directly related to the doses. Therefore, therapeutic excesses can <span class="hlt">condition</span> bleeding risk and therapeutic <span class="hlt">limitation</span> can increase thrombotic risk, especially when short-acting drugs such as the new <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulants are used. Hence, it is imperative to establish an appropriate method for monitoring new <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulants, setting levels of safety and effectiveness through periodic dosage and monitoring of their anticoagulant effects. Therefore, we still recommend the use of anticoagulation units for monitoring during treatment with the new <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulants. PMID:24491189</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4144262"> <span id="translatedtitle">Killed <span class="hlt">oral</span> cholera vaccines: history, development and implementation challenges</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cholera is still a major global health problem, affecting mainly people living in unsanitary <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and who are at risk for outbreaks of cholera. During the past decade, outbreaks are increasingly reported from more countries. From the early killed <span class="hlt">oral</span> cholera vaccine, rapid improvements in vaccine development occurred as a result of a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, pathogenesis of cholera infection and immunity. The newer-generation <span class="hlt">oral</span> killed cholera vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective in field trials conducted in cholera endemic areas. Likewise, they have been shown to be protective when used during outbreak settings. Aside from providing direct protection to vaccinated individuals, recent studies have demonstrated that these killed <span class="hlt">oral</span> vaccines also confer indirect protection through herd immunity. Although new-generation <span class="hlt">oral</span> cholera vaccines should not be considered in isolation from other preventive approaches in countries where they are most needed, especially improved water quality and sanitation, these vaccines serve as immediately available public health tools for preventing further morbidity and mortality from cholera. However, despite its availability for more than two decades, use of these vaccines has not been optimized. Although there are <span class="hlt">limitations</span> of the currently available <span class="hlt">oral</span> cholera vaccines, recent data show that the vaccines are safe, feasible to use even in difficult circumstances and able to provide protection in various settings. Clear identification of the areas and target population groups who will benefit from the use of the cholera vaccines will be required and strategies to facilitate accessibility and usage of these vaccines in these areas and population groups will need to be developed. PMID:25177492</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gonzales, Maria Liza Antoinette; Aldaba, Josephine G.; Nair, G. Balakrish</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18028759"> <span id="translatedtitle">Small mouths ... Big problems? A review of scleroderma and its <span class="hlt">oral</span> health implications.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Scleroderma, or progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), an autoimmune rheumatic <span class="hlt">condition</span> affecting the connective tissues, has a profound impact on <span class="hlt">oral</span> health. Common orofacial findings include xerostomia, gastroesophageal reflux disease and <span class="hlt">limited</span> mouth opening. This review article describes scleroderma, or PSS, and its various manifestations. The features of CREST syndrome and morphea are reviewed. Concerns relevant to the prevention of dental disease and the safe delivery of dental care in this group of challenging patients are emphasized. PMID:18028759</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Albilia, Jonathan B; Lam, David K; Blanas, Nick; Clokie, Cameron M L; Sándor, George K B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Oral+AND+communication&pg=5&id=ED543700"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Transliterating. PEPNet Tipsheet</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An <span class="hlt">oral</span> transliterator provides communication access to a person who is deaf or hard of hearing and who uses speechreading and speaking as a means of communicating. The <span class="hlt">oral</span> transliterator, positioned in front of the speechreader, inaudibly repeats the spoken message, making it as speechreadable as possible. This is called Expressive <span class="hlt">Oral</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Troiano, Claire A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3687384"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> mucositis in children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aim of the study <span class="hlt">Oral</span> mucositis is the most commonly reported side effect observed in neoplastic patients treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy of the head and neck region as well as in patients who have received a haematopoietic stem cell transplant. The aim of the study was to assess the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa status in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) during antineoplastic therapy. Material and methods The clinical examination included 78 children aged 2-18 with ALL. The clinical examination was conducted using the dental preset tray. The <span class="hlt">condition</span> of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa was determined using the WHO scale for <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis. Results In the first period of antineoplastic therapy the pathological lesions of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa of the mucositis type were observed among the examined patients. The lesions had various levels of intensity. Pain was found to be the primary symptom of <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis. In this study the following were observed: local erythema of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa in 35%, white pseudomembranous lesions in 18%, erosions in 40% and <span class="hlt">oral</span> ulcerative lesions in 4% of patients who underwent the antineoplastic therapy. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> mucositis was observed in 3.17% of children after 6 months of chemotherapy. Conclusion Local treatment of <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis with polyantibiotic-antifungal mixture, supporting antifungal systemic treatment, and improving the overall peripheral blood <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia improve the <span class="hlt">condition</span> of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa. PMID:23788849</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15702101"> <span id="translatedtitle">Methotrexate and <span class="hlt">oral</span> ulceration.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Methotrexate is well established in the drug treatment of various neoplastic diseases. More recently it has become increasingly used as a once-weekly, low-dose treatment of disorders such as psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical trials have shown its effectiveness in these <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and it is likely that dentists will encounter patients taking this drug in general dental practice. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> ulceration can occur as a side effect of methotrexate therapy. This may be due to lack of folic acid supplementation or overdosage due to confusion regarding its once-weekly regime. Illustrations of these problems, which have initially presented in a dental setting, are given. Important drug interactions of methotrexate relevant to dentistry are discussed. PMID:15702101</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deeming, G M J; Collingwood, J; Pemberton, M N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3269347"> <span id="translatedtitle">Randomized Phase III evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a novel glycopyrrolate <span class="hlt">oral</span> solution for the management of chronic severe drooling in children with cerebral palsy or other neurologic <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aim To evaluate the efficacy of glycopyrrolate <span class="hlt">oral</span> solution (1 mg/5 mL) in managing problem drooling associated with cerebral palsy and other neurologic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Method Thirty-eight patients aged 3–23 years weighing at least 27 lb (12.2 kg) with severe drooling (clothing damp 5–7 days/week) were randomized to glycopyrrolate (n = 20), 0.02–0.1 mg/kg three times a day, or matching placebo (n = 18). Primary efficacy endpoint was responder rate, defined as percentage showing ?3-point change on the modified Teacher’s Drooling Scale (mTDS). Results Responder rate was significantly higher for the glycopyrrolate (14/19; 73.7%) than for the placebo (3/17; 17.6%) group (P = 0.0011), with improvements starting 2 weeks after treatment initiation. Mean improvements in mTDS at week 8 were significantly greater in the glycopyrrolate than in the placebo group (3.94 ± 1.95 vs 0.71 ± 2.14 points; P < 0.0001). In addition, 84% of physicians and 100% of parents/caregivers regarded glycopyrrolate as worthwhile compared with 41% and 56%, respectively, for placebo (P ? 0.014). Most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse events (glycopyrrolate vs placebo) were dry mouth, constipation, and vomiting. Interpretation Children aged 3–16 years with problem drooling due to neurologic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> showed a significantly better response, as assessed by mTDS, to glycopyrrolate than to placebo. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00425087. PMID:22298950</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zeller, Robert S; Lee, Hak-Myung; Cavanaugh, Paul F; Davidson, Jennifer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3941266"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> microbial habitat a dynamic entity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> microbial habitat is composed of wide variety of species. These species play a significant role in maintaining the well being of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity by contributing in various ways. However the proper functioning of these <span class="hlt">oral</span> microbes can be detrimental for the human <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity if the <span class="hlt">conditions</span> are not suitable such as redox potential (Eh), pH of a site, the activity of the host defenses, and the presence of antimicrobial agents. The <span class="hlt">oral</span> microbial community represents the best-characterized group associated with the human host. There are strong correlations between the qualitative composition of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> microbiota and clinically healthy or diseased states. Amongst the bacteria of more than 700 species now identified within the human <span class="hlt">oral</span> microbiota, it is the streptococci that are numerically predominant. Interactions between mucosal surfaces and microbial microbiota are key to host defense, health, and disease. These surfaces are exposed to high numbers of microbes and must be capable of distinguishing between those that are beneficial or avirulent and those that will invade and cause disease. Our understanding of the mechanisms involved in these discriminatory processes has recently begun to expand as new studies bring to light the importance of epithelial cells and novel immune cell subsets such as T(h)17 T cells in these processes. In this review article we have tried to find out the factors responsible for maintaining <span class="hlt">oral</span> microbial habitat intact and the reasons which cause changes in its composition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Faran Ali, Syed Muhammad; Tanwir, Farzeen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3649212"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of a theory-driven e-learning intervention for future <span class="hlt">oral</span> healthcare providers on secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> healthcare providers have a clinical opportunity for early detection of disordered eating behaviors because they are often the first health professionals to observe overt <span class="hlt">oral</span> and physical signs. Curricula regarding early recognition of this <span class="hlt">oral</span>/systemic medical <span class="hlt">condition</span> are <span class="hlt">limited</span> in <span class="hlt">oral</span> health educational programs. Web-based learning can supplement and reinforce traditional learning and has the potential to develop skills. The study purpose was to determine the efficacy of a theory-driven Web-based training program to increase the capacity of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health students to perform behaviors related to the secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance evaluation framework, a longitudinal group-randomized controlled trial involving 27 <span class="hlt">oral</span> health classes from 12 <span class="hlt">oral</span> health education programs in the United States was implemented to assess the efficacy of the Web-based training on attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy and skills related to the secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Mixed-model analysis of covariance indicated substantial improvements among students in the intervention group (effect sizes: 0.51–0.83) on all six outcomes of interest. Results suggest that the Web-based training program may increase the capacity of <span class="hlt">oral</span> healthcare providers to deliver secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Implications and value of using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework are discussed. PMID:23564725</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">DeBate, Rita D.; Severson, Herbert H.; Cragun, Deborah L.; Gau, Jeff M.; Merrell, Laura K.; Bleck, Jennifer R.; Christiansen, Steve; Koerber, Anne; Tomar, Scott L.; McCormack Brown, Kelli R.; Tedesco, Lisa A.; Hendricson, William</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4065449"> <span id="translatedtitle">Myofibroblasts in <span class="hlt">oral</span> lesions: A review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Myofibroblasts (MFs) are modified fibroblasts that express features of smooth muscle differentiation and were first observed in granulation tissue during wound healing. These cells play a key role in physiologic and pathologic processes like wound healing and tumorigenesis. The presence of MFs has been reported in normal <span class="hlt">oral</span> tissues and pathologic <span class="hlt">conditions</span> like reactive lesions, benign tumors, locally aggressive tumors and malignancies affecting the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. This article briefly reviews the important hallmarks related to the discovery, characterization and tissue distribution of MFs in <span class="hlt">oral</span> health and disease. PMID:24959038</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pinisetti, Soujanya; Manyam, Ravikanth; Suresh, Babburi; Aparna, V</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24266878"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> glycopyrrolate for refractory pediatric and adolescent hyperhidrosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Primary hyperhidrosis is a common disorder affecting children and adolescents, and it can have a significant negative psychosocial effect. Treatment for pediatric hyperhidrosis tends to be <span class="hlt">limited</span> by low efficacy, low adherence, and poor tolerance. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> glycopyrrolate is emerging as a potential second-line treatment option, but experience with safety, efficacy, and dosing is especially <span class="hlt">limited</span> in children. We present an institutional review of 12 children with severe, refractory hyperhidrosis treated with <span class="hlt">oral</span> glycopyrrolate; 11 (92%) noted improvement and 9 (75%) would recommend <span class="hlt">oral</span> glycopyrrolate to their friends. No significant side effects were noted. Our retrospective analysis suggests that <span class="hlt">oral</span> glycopyrrolate is safe and effective in children with hyperhidrosis. PMID:24266878</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kumar, Monique G; Foreman, Rebecca S; Berk, David R; Bayliss, Susan J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.simplestepsdental.com/SS/ihtSSPrint/r.WSIHW000/st.31848/t.32263/pr.3/c.354212.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">STDs and Related <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> (and <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... and dental personnel who treat you will use "universal precautions" to prevent the spread of infection. This ... or nasal secretions from other children. The first time children are infected, they may have a fever, ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4008927"> <span id="translatedtitle">Switch over from intravenous to <span class="hlt">oral</span> therapy: A concise overview</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Majority of the patients admitted to a hospital with severe infections are initially started with intravenous medications. Short intravenous course of therapy for 2-3 days followed by <span class="hlt">oral</span> medications for the remainder of the course is found to be beneficial to many patients. This switch over from intravenous to <span class="hlt">oral</span> therapy is widely practiced in the case of antibiotics in many developed countries. Even though intravenous to <span class="hlt">oral</span> therapy conversion is inappropriate for a patient who is critically ill or who has inability to absorb <span class="hlt">oral</span> medications, every hospital will have a certain number of patients who are eligible for switch over from intravenous to <span class="hlt">oral</span> therapy. Among the various routes of administration of medications, <span class="hlt">oral</span> administration is considered to be the most acceptable and economical method of administration. The main obstacle <span class="hlt">limiting</span> intravenous to <span class="hlt">oral</span> conversion is the belief that <span class="hlt">oral</span> medications do not achieve the same bioavailability as that of intravenous medications and that the same agent must be used both intravenously and <span class="hlt">orally</span>. The advent of newer, more potent or broad spectrum <span class="hlt">oral</span> agents that achieve higher and more consistent serum and tissue concentration has paved the way for the popularity of intravenous to <span class="hlt">oral</span> medication conversion. In this review, the advantages of intravenous to <span class="hlt">oral</span> switch over therapy, the various methods of intravenous to <span class="hlt">oral</span> conversion, bioavailability of various <span class="hlt">oral</span> medications for the switch over program, the patient selection criteria for conversion from parenteral to <span class="hlt">oral</span> route and application of intravenous to <span class="hlt">oral</span> switch over through case studies are exemplified. PMID:24799810</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cyriac, Jissa Maria; James, Emmanuel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4006880"> <span id="translatedtitle">Functional Characterization of the Rice UDP-glucose 4-epimerase 1, OsUGE1: A Potential Role in Cell Wall Carbohydrate Partitioning during <span class="hlt">Limiting</span> Nitrogen <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plants grown under inadequate mineralized nitrogen (N) levels undergo N and carbon (C) metabolic re-programming which leads to significant changes in both soluble and insoluble carbohydrate profiles. However, relatively little information is available on the genetic factors controlling carbohydrate partitioning during adaptation to N-<span class="hlt">limitation</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> in plants. A gene encoding a uridine-diphospho-(UDP)-glucose 4-epimerase (OsUGE-1) from rice (Oryza sativa) was found to be N-responsive. We developed transgenic rice plants to constitutively over-express the OsUGE-1 gene (OsUGE1-OX1–2). The transgenic rice lines were similar in size to wild-type plants at the vegetative stage and at maturity regardless of the N-level tested. However, OsUGE1-OX lines maintained 18–24% more sucrose and 12–22% less cellulose in shoots compared to wild-type when subjected to sub-optimal N-levels. Interestingly, OsUGE1-OX lines maintained proportionally more galactose and glucose in the hemicellulosic polysaccharide profile of plants compared to wild-type plants when grown under low N. The altered cell wall C-partitioning during N-<span class="hlt">limitation</span> in the OsUGE1-OX lines appears to be mediated by OsUGE1 via the repression of the cellulose synthesis associated genes, OsSus1, OsCesA4, 7, and 9. This relationship may implicate a novel control point for the deposition of UDP-glucose to the complex polysaccharide profiles of rice cell walls. However, a direct relationship between OsUGE1 and cell wall C-partitioning during N-<span class="hlt">limitation</span> requires further investigation. PMID:24788752</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guevara, David R.; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Yaish, Mahmoud W.; Mei-Bi, Yong; Rothstein, Steven J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21833324"> <span id="translatedtitle">Growth of Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 in Thiosulfate Under Oxygen-<span class="hlt">Limiting</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Generates Extracellular Sulfur Globules by Means of a Secreted Tetrathionate Hydrolase.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Production of sulfur globules during sulfide or thiosulfate oxidation is a characteristic feature of some sulfur bacteria. Although their generation has been reported in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, its mechanism of formation and deposition, as well as the physiological significance of these globules during sulfur compounds oxidation, are currently unknown. Under oxygen-sufficient <span class="hlt">conditions</span> (OSC), A. ferrooxidans oxidizes thiosulfate to tetrathionate, which accumulates in the culture medium. Tetrathionate is then oxidized by a tetrathionate hydrolase (TTH) generating thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, and sulfate as final products. We report here a massive production of extracellular conspicuous sulfur globules in thiosulfate-grown A. ferrooxidans cultures shifted to oxygen-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> (OLC). Concomitantly with sulfur globule deposition, the extracellular concentration of tetrathionate greatly diminished and sulfite accumulated in the culture supernatant. A. ferrooxidans cellular TTH activity was negligible in OLC-incubated cells, indicating that this enzymatic activity was not responsible for tetrathionate disappearance. On the other hand, supernatants from both OSC- and OLC-incubated cells showed extracellular TTH activity, which most likely accounted for tetrathionate consumption in the culture medium. The extracellular TTH activity described here: (i) gives experimental support to the TTH-driven model for hydrophilic sulfur globule generation, (ii) explains the extracellular location of A. ferrooxidans sulfur deposits, and (iii) strongly suggests that the generation of sulfur globules in A. ferrooxidans corresponds to an early step during its adaptation to an anaerobic lifestyle. PMID:21833324</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beard, Simón; Paradela, Alberto; Albar, Juan P; Jerez, Carlos A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3711531"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Conditional</span> MHCII expression reveals a <span class="hlt">limited</span> role for B cell antigen presentation in primary and secondary CD4 T cell responses1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The activation, differentiation and subsequent effector functions of CD4 T cells depend on interactions with a multitude of MHCII-expressing antigen presenting cells (APCs). To evaluate the individual contribution of various APCs to CD4 T cell function, we have designed a new murine tool for selective in vivo expression of MHCII in subsets of APCs. <span class="hlt">Conditional</span> expression of MHCII in B cells was achieved using a cre-loxP approach. After intravenous or subcutaneous priming, partial proliferation and activation of CD4 T cells was observed in mice expressing MHCII only by B cells. Restricting MHCII expression to B cells constrained secondary CD4 T cell responses in vivo, as demonstrated in a CD4 T cell-dependent model of autoimmunity, EAE. These results highlight the <span class="hlt">limitations</span> of B cell antigen presentation during initiation and propagation of CD4 T cell function in vivo using a novel system to study individual APCs by the <span class="hlt">conditional</span> expression of MHCII. PMID:23772037</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Archambault, Angela S.; Carrero, Javier A.; Barnett, Lisa G.; McGee, Nigel G.; Sim, Julia; Wright, Jonathan O.; Raabe, Tobias; Chen, Peiquin; Ding, Hua; Allenspach, Eric J.; Dragatsis, Ioannis; Laufer, Terri M.; Wu, Gregory F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3153044"> <span id="translatedtitle">Growth of Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 in Thiosulfate Under Oxygen-<span class="hlt">Limiting</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span> Generates Extracellular Sulfur Globules by Means of a Secreted Tetrathionate Hydrolase</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Production of sulfur globules during sulfide or thiosulfate oxidation is a characteristic feature of some sulfur bacteria. Although their generation has been reported in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, its mechanism of formation and deposition, as well as the physiological significance of these globules during sulfur compounds oxidation, are currently unknown. Under oxygen-sufficient <span class="hlt">conditions</span> (OSC), A. ferrooxidans oxidizes thiosulfate to tetrathionate, which accumulates in the culture medium. Tetrathionate is then oxidized by a tetrathionate hydrolase (TTH) generating thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, and sulfate as final products. We report here a massive production of extracellular conspicuous sulfur globules in thiosulfate-grown A. ferrooxidans cultures shifted to oxygen-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> (OLC). Concomitantly with sulfur globule deposition, the extracellular concentration of tetrathionate greatly diminished and sulfite accumulated in the culture supernatant. A. ferrooxidans cellular TTH activity was negligible in OLC-incubated cells, indicating that this enzymatic activity was not responsible for tetrathionate disappearance. On the other hand, supernatants from both OSC- and OLC-incubated cells showed extracellular TTH activity, which most likely accounted for tetrathionate consumption in the culture medium. The extracellular TTH activity described here: (i) gives experimental support to the TTH-driven model for hydrophilic sulfur globule generation, (ii) explains the extracellular location of A. ferrooxidans sulfur deposits, and (iii) strongly suggests that the generation of sulfur globules in A. ferrooxidans corresponds to an early step during its adaptation to an anaerobic lifestyle. PMID:21833324</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beard, Simón; Paradela, Alberto; Albar, Juan P.; Jerez, Carlos A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol1-sec2-1207.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">10 CFR 2.1207 - Process and schedule for submissions and presentations in an <span class="hlt">oral</span> hearing.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...false Process and schedule for submissions and presentations in an <span class="hlt">oral</span> hearing. 2.1207 Section 2.1207 Energy...1207 Process and schedule for submissions and presentations in an <span class="hlt">oral</span> hearing. (a) Unless otherwise <span class="hlt">limited</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2270752"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Tolerance: Therapeutic Implications for Autoimmune Diseases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> tolerance is classically defined as the suppression of immune responses to antigens (Ag) that have been administered previously by the <span class="hlt">oral</span> route. Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by <span class="hlt">oral</span> Ag. Low doses favor active suppression, whereas higher doses favor clonal anergy/deletion. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Ag induces Th2 (IL-4/IL-10) and Th3 (TGF-?) regulatory T cells (Tregs) plus CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells and LAP+T cells. Induction of <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance is enhanced by IL-4, IL-10, anti-IL-12, TGF-?, cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), Flt-3 ligand, anti-CD40 ligand and continuous feeding of Ag. In addition to <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance, nasal tolerance has also been shown to be effective in suppressing inflammatory <span class="hlt">conditions</span> with the advantage of a lower dose requirement. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> and nasal tolerance suppress several animal models of autoimmune diseases including experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis and diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, plus non-autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, colitis and stroke. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> tolerance has been tested in human autoimmune diseases including MS, arthritis, uveitis and diabetes and in allergy, contact sensitivity to DNCB, nickel allergy. Positive results have been observed in phase II trials and new trials for arthritis, MS and diabetes are underway. Mucosal tolerance is an attractive approach for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases because of lack of toxicity, ease of administration over time and Ag-specific mechanism of action. The successful application of <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance for the treatment of human diseases will depend on dose, developing immune markers to assess immunologic effects, route (nasal versus <span class="hlt">oral</span>), formulation, mucosal adjuvants, combination therapy and early therapy. PMID:17162357</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Faria, Ana M. C.; Weiner, Howard L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4316856"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> health and elite sport performance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While the research base is <span class="hlt">limited</span>, studies have consistently reported poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on <span class="hlt">oral</span> health. Poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the <span class="hlt">oral</span> health of athletes including nutritional, <span class="hlt">oral</span> dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25263651</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25263651"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> health and elite sport performance.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While the research base is <span class="hlt">limited</span>, studies have consistently reported poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on <span class="hlt">oral</span> health. Poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the <span class="hlt">oral</span> health of athletes including nutritional, <span class="hlt">oral</span> dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25263651</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15752094"> <span id="translatedtitle">The rationale and potential for the reduction of <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodour using Streptococcus salivarius probiotics.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The primary treatment for <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodour is the reduction of bacterial populations, especially those present on the tongue, by use of a variety of antimicrobial agents or mechanical devices. However, shortly after treatment the problematic bacteria quickly repopulate the tongue and the malodour returns. In our studies, we have used a broadly-active antimicrobial (chlorhexidine) to effect temporary depletion of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> microbiota and then have attempted to repopulate the tongue surface with Streptococcus salivarius K12, a benign commensal probiotic. The objective of this is to prevent re-establishment of non-desirable bacterial populations and thus help <span class="hlt">limit</span> the re-occurrence of <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodour over a prolonged period. In this paper, we discuss why contemporary probiotics are inadequate for treatment of <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodour and examine the rationale for selection of particular bacterial species for future use in the treatment of this <span class="hlt">condition</span>. In our preliminary trials of the use of a chlorhexidine rinse followed by strain K12 lozenges, the majority (8/13) of subjects with confirmed halitosis maintained reduced breath levels of volatile sulphur compounds for at least 2 weeks. We conclude that probiotic bacterial strains originally sourced from the indigenous <span class="hlt">oral</span> microbiotas of healthy humans may have potential application as adjuncts for the prevention and treatment of halitosis. PMID:15752094</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burton, J P; Chilcott, C N; Tagg, J R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4035829"> <span id="translatedtitle">Protein expression and transcription profiles of three strains of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida under normal and iron-<span class="hlt">limited</span> culture <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Aeromonas salmonicida is an important fish pathogen that produces a wide and varied array of virulence factors. Here we used iron deprivation by addition of the chelator 2’2-dipyridyl to induce the expression of several such virulence factors in three isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida (one avirulent and two virulent). By using SDS-PAGE followed by mass spectrometry, we identified proteins that appeared differentially expressed under these <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. The differential transcription of the identified gene products were subsequently measured by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Results Our initial screening using SDS-PAGE identified five proteins that appeared differentially expressed in virulent and avirulent isolates or, within the same isolates, between bacteria cultivated under iron-rich or iron-deprived <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. The transcription of the genes coding for these proteins were subsequently quantified by RT-qPCR. Results of this analysis demonstrated that the gene coding for alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC), a protein involved in oxidative stress response, was transcribed at a higher rate in the virulent strain as compared to the avirulent strain. Additionally, it was observed that addition of an iron chelator to the culture medium lead to a reduction of the transcription levels of the regulatory histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS). This was consistent in all three isolates. On the other hand, the transcription levels of the virulence array protein (VapA) and the protein ATP-synthetase F (ATPF) displayed only <span class="hlt">limited</span> changes, despite being the dominant component of a protein fraction that displayed changes during the preliminary SDS-PAGE screening. This was true regardless of the culture <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and of the isolates considered. Finally, transcription of the enzyme enolase was upregulated in the iron-deprived broths in all isolates. Conclusions We identified several genes differentially expressed under culture <span class="hlt">conditions</span> known to lead to the overexpression of virulence factors. In addition, we identified alkyl hydroperoxide as being overexpressed in the virulent isolates compared to the avirulent isolates. The results from this study will contribute to enhance our understanding of the virulence of A. salmonicida and may suggest new directions for further research. PMID:24872729</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20739689"> <span id="translatedtitle">What psychosocial factors influence adolescents' <span class="hlt">oral</span> health?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Few studies have examined, comprehensively and prospectively, determinants of <span class="hlt">oral</span>-health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between psychosocial factors and <span class="hlt">oral</span> health status, health perceptions, and quality of life. Measures of symptom and functional status, health perceptions, quality of life, <span class="hlt">oral</span> health beliefs, and psychological (sense of coherence, self-esteem, health locus of control) and social factors (parents' income and education) were collected from 439 12- and 13-year-olds at baseline and six-month follow-up, together with a clinical examination at baseline. Structural equation modeling indicated that increased levels of caries and more symptoms predicted more functional <span class="hlt">limitations</span>, and, cross-sectionally, greater functional impact was associated with worse health perceptions, which were linked to lower quality of life. Sense of coherence was the most important psychosocial predictor. These factors are important in understanding how <span class="hlt">oral</span> health affects young people's daily lives. PMID:20739689</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baker, S R; Mat, A; Robinson, P G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20668585"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiation induced <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">PATIENTS RECEIVING RADIOTHERAPY OR CHEMOTHERAPY WILL RECEIVE SOME DEGREE OF <span class="hlt">ORAL</span> MUCOSITIS THE INCIDENCE OF <span class="hlt">ORAL</span> MUCOSITIS WAS ESPECIALLY HIGH IN PATIENTS: (i) With primary tumors in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene. PMID:20668585</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ps, Satheesh Kumar; Balan, Anita; Sankar, Arun; Bose, Tinky</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3740676"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis in a maxillofacial trauma patient</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Myiasis is a rare disease primarily caused by the invasion of tissue by larvae of certain dipteran flies. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis is still more “rare” and “unique” owing to the fact that <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity rarely provides the necessary habitat conducive for a larval lifecycle. Common predisposing factors are poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene, halitosis, trauma, senility, learning disabilities, physically and mentally challenged <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis can lead to rapid tissue destruction and disfigurement and requires immediate treatment. Treatment consists of manual removal of maggots from the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity after application of chemical agents. Good sanitation, personal and environmental hygiene and cleanliness and special care for debilitated persons are the best methods to prevent <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis. This case report describes the presentation of <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis caused by musca nebulo (common house fly) in a 40-year-old male patient, with recent maxillofacial trauma. The patient was treated by manual removal larvae by topical application of turpentine oil, followed by surgical debridement of the wound and open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture. PMID:23956607</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vinit, Grandim Balarama Gupta; Jayavelu, Perumal; Shrutha, Santhebachali Prakasha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23956607"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis in a maxillofacial trauma patient.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Myiasis is a rare disease primarily caused by the invasion of tissue by larvae of certain dipteran flies. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis is still more "rare" and "unique" owing to the fact that <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity rarely provides the necessary habitat conducive for a larval lifecycle. Common predisposing factors are poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene, halitosis, trauma, senility, learning disabilities, physically and mentally challenged <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis can lead to rapid tissue destruction and disfigurement and requires immediate treatment. Treatment consists of manual removal of maggots from the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity after application of chemical agents. Good sanitation, personal and environmental hygiene and cleanliness and special care for debilitated persons are the best methods to prevent <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis. This case report describes the presentation of <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis caused by musca nebulo (common house fly) in a 40-year-old male patient, with recent maxillofacial trauma. The patient was treated by manual removal larvae by topical application of turpentine oil, followed by surgical debridement of the wound and open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture. PMID:23956607</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vinit, Grandim Balarama Gupta; Jayavelu, Perumal; Shrutha, Santhebachali Prakasha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/5684"> <span id="translatedtitle">Christopher Draven <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Under the Rainbow: <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Christopher Draven <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History Interviewed by Tami Albin February 9, 2008 http...://hdl.handle.net/1808/5684 This interview was made possible by the generous support of the University of Kansas Libraries and the University of Kansas grants 2302114, 2301283, 2301334. © Under the Rainbow: <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Draven, Christopher; Albin, Tami</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3144034"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Inequalities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite impressive worldwide improvements in <span class="hlt">oral</span> health, inequalities in <span class="hlt">oral</span> health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health from overall health, or without recognizing that <span class="hlt">oral</span> health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing <span class="hlt">oral</span> health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address <span class="hlt">oral</span> health inequalities through the engagement of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The <span class="hlt">oral</span> health community must be “at the table” with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Garcia, I.; Tabak, L.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9086681"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> malodor: philosophical and practical aspects.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor or bad breath is an unpleasant <span class="hlt">condition</span> experienced by most individuals, it typically results in transient discomfort. At least 50 per cent of the population suffer from chronic <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor, however, and approximately half of these individuals experience a severe problem that creates personal discomfort and social embarrassment. The mouth air of chronic malodor sufferers is tainted with compounds such as hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan and organic acids, which produce a stream of foul air that is gravely offensive to the people in their vicinity. Sufferers often make desperate attempts to mask their <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor with mints and chewing gum, compulsive brushing, and repeatedly rinsing with commercial mouthwashes. While dental diseases have been strongly associated with this <span class="hlt">condition</span>, there is considerable evidence that dentally healthy individuals can exhibit significant levels of mouth odor. Proteolytic activity by microorganisms residing on the tongue and teeth results in foul-smelling compounds, and is the most common cause of <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor. A specialized device called the halimeter is available to measure the volatile sulphur compounds in mouth air. Many of the manufacturers of bad breath remedies claim that their products contain antibacterial mechanisms with sufficient strength to control <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor over long periods of time. None, however, effectively eliminate the problem. Interest in <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor research and clinical treatment has increased in the last few years, and this distressing problem is finally getting the attention it deserves. PMID:9086681</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bosy, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3264323"> <span id="translatedtitle">Synergistic Interaction between Candida albicans and Commensal <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Streptococci in a Novel In Vitro Mucosal Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Candida albicans is a commensal colonizer of the gastrointestinal tract of humans, where it coexists with highly diverse bacterial communities. It is not clear whether this interaction <span class="hlt">limits</span> or promotes the potential of C. albicans to become an opportunistic pathogen. Here we investigate the interaction between C. albicans and three species of streptococci from the viridans group, which are ubiquitous and abundant <span class="hlt">oral</span> commensal bacteria. The ability of C. albicans to form biofilms with Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguinis, or Streptococcus gordonii was investigated using flow cell devices that allow abiotic biofilm formation under salivary flow. In addition, we designed a novel flow cell system that allows mucosal biofilm formation under <span class="hlt">conditions</span> that mimic the environment in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> and esophageal mucosae. It was observed that C. albicans and streptococci formed a synergistic partnership where C. albicans promoted the ability of streptococci to form biofilms on abiotic surfaces or on the surface of an <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa analogue. The increased ability of streptococci to form biofilms in the presence of C. albicans could not be explained by a growth-stimulatory effect since the streptococci were unaffected in their growth in planktonic coculture with C. albicans. Conversely, the presence of streptococci increased the ability of C. albicans to invade organotypic models of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> and esophageal mucosae under <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of salivary flow. Moreover, characterization of mucosal invasion by the biofilm microorganisms suggested that the esophageal mucosa is more permissive to invasion than the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa. In summary, C. albicans and commensal <span class="hlt">oral</span> streptococci display a synergistic interaction with implications for the pathogenic potential of C. albicans in the upper gastrointestinal tract. PMID:22104105</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xie, Zhihong; Sobue, Takanori; Thompson, Angela; Biyikoglu, Basak; Ricker, Austin; Ikonomou, Laertis; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3213714"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of inhalation therapy on <span class="hlt">oral</span> health</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Inhalation therapy has been employed as the mainstay of the treatment in chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Beta-2 agonists, anticholinergic bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, and sodium cromoglycate are often used alone or in combination in an inhaled form. Studies have shown that inhaled drugs used in the treatment have some adverse effects on the <span class="hlt">oral</span> health based on their dosage, frequency, and duration of use. Several <span class="hlt">oral</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> such as xerostomia, dental caries, candidiasis, ulceration, gingivitis, periodontitis, and taste changes have been associated with inhalation therapy. Since the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases is rising, it is important to provide optimal <span class="hlt">oral</span> care to the individuals receiving inhalation therapy. This article will review the influence of inhaled drugs on the <span class="hlt">oral</span> health of individuals and adequate management and prevention of the same. PMID:22084541</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Godara, Navneet; Godara, Ramya; Khullar, Megha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.uky.edu/sites/www.uky.edu.registrar/files/ODM_10.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">College of Dentistry ODM <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Diagnosis and <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Medicine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">College of Dentistry ODM <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Diagnosis and <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Medicine KEY: # = new course * = course changed. Prereq: Admission to the College of Dentistry. ODM 820 <span class="hlt">ORAL</span> AND MAXILLOFACIAL RADIOLOGY AND DIAGNOSTIC</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MacAdam, Keith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000011419&hterms=continuous+comprehensive+evaluation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcontinuous%2Bcomprehensive%2Bevaluation"> <span id="translatedtitle">Initial Piloted Simulation Evaluation of the Reference-H High-Speed Civil Transport Design During Takeoff and Recovery From <span class="hlt">Limit</span> Flight <span class="hlt">Conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An initial assessment of a proposed High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) was conducted in the fall of 1995 at the NASA Langley Research Center. This configuration, known as the Industry Reference-H (Ref.-H), was designed by the Boeing Aircraft Company as part of their work in the High Speed Research program. It included a conventional tail, a cranked-arrow wing, four mixed-flow turbofan engines, and capacity for transporting approximately 300 passengers. The purpose of this assessment was to evaluate and quantify operational aspects of the Reference-H configuration from a pilot's perspective with the additional goal of identifying design strengths as well as any potential configuration deficiencies. This study was aimed at evaluating the Ref.-H configuration at many points of the aircraft's envelope to determine the suitability of the vehicle to accomplish typical mission profiles as well as emergency or envelope-<span class="hlt">limit</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Pilot-provided Cooper-Harper ratings and comments constituted the primary vehicle evaluation metric. The analysis included simulated real-time piloted evaluations, performed in a 6 degree of freedom motion base NASA Langley Visual-Motion Simulator, combined with extensive bath analysis. The assessment was performed using the third major release of the simulation data base (known as Ref.-H cycle 2B).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Glaab, Louis J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24270996"> <span id="translatedtitle">'Why does it happen like this?' Consulting with users and providers prior to an evaluation of services for children with life <span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and their families.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Children with life <span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and their families have complex needs. Evaluations must consider their views and perspectives to ensure care is relevant, appropriate and acceptable. We consulted with children, young people, their parents and local professionals to gain a more informed picture of issues affecting them prior to preparing a bid to evaluate services in the area. Multiple methods included focus groups, face-to-face and telephone interviews and participatory activities. Recordings and products from activities were analysed for content to identify areas of relevance and concern. An overarching theme from parents was 'Why does it happen like this?' Services did not seem designed to meet their needs. Whilst children and young people expressed ideas related to quality of environment, services and social life, professionals focused on ways of meeting the families' needs. The theme that linked families' concerns with those of professionals was 'assessing individual needs'. Two questions to be addressed by the evaluation are (1) to what extent are services designed to meet the needs of children and families and (2) to what extent are children, young people and their families consulted about what they need? Consultations with families and service providers encouraged us to continue their involvement as partners in the evaluation. PMID:24270996</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hunt, Anne; Brown, Erica; Coad, Jane; Staniszewska, Sophie; Hacking, Suzanne; Chesworth, Brigit; Chambers, Lizzie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29552475"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carbon dioxide laser <span class="hlt">oral</span> safety parameters for teeth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The carbon dioxide laser is used in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity for a variety of procedures. Although the procedures may not involve the teeth directly, precaution should be exercised to preserve their integrity. The results of this study indicate that the most <span class="hlt">limiting</span> parameter for <span class="hlt">oral</span> use of the COâ laser is damage to the enamel surface, which could be inflicted</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Lynn Powell; Brian K. Whisenant; Thomas H. Morton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/90/10/91/PDF/hal-00901091.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE <span class="hlt">ORAL</span> VACCINATION OF FOXES AGAINST RABIES AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">THE <span class="hlt">ORAL</span> VACCINATION OF FOXES AGAINST RABIES AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY Michèle DUBREUIL L. ANDRAL M), continuent à <span class="hlt">limiter</span> les applications de la vaccination par voie <span class="hlt">orale</span> comme méthode de prophylaxie de la'Etudes sur la Rage, B. P. 9, 54220 Malzeville, France Résumé VACCINATION DES RENARDS CONTRE LA RAGE PAR VOIE</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25801535"> <span id="translatedtitle">Separation of parent homopolymers from poly(ethylene oxide) and polystyrene-based block copolymers by liquid chromatography under <span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of desorption - 1. Determination of the suitable molar mass range and optimization of chromatographic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We studied molar mass <span class="hlt">limits</span> for the LC LCD separation of parent polystyrene (PS) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) homopolymers from PEO/PS based block copolymers and we identified optimized chromatographic <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Time delays between barriers and sample injections were 0-2-3'10. Eluent was composed of dimethylformamide (DMF) 40wt.% and 1-chlorobutane (CLB) 60wt.%; Barrier 1 (B1), which retained block copolymer, was composed of 100wt.% CLB and Barrier 2 (B2), which retained PEO, was a mixture of DMF and CLB, which proportions were adjusted to studied block copolymers. With B2 composed of DMF 23wt.% and CLB 77wt.%, we obtained successful separation of PS23K-b-PEO35K-b-PS23K (56.5wt.% of PS, the subscripts indicate the molar mass in kgmol(-1) of each polymer part in the block copolymer) from its parent homopolymers. With B2 adjusted to DMF 30wt.% and CLB 70wt.%, PS2.3K-b-PEO3.1K (42.6wt.% of PS) was also efficiently separated from its parent homopolymers. PMID:25801535</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rollet, Marion; Pelletier, Bérengère; Altounian, Anaïs; Berek, Dusan; Maria, Sébastien; Phan, Trang N T; Gigmes, Didier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25015036"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlated analysis of semi-quantitative immunohistochemical features of E-cadherin, VEGF and CD105 in assessing malignant potentiality of <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> submucous fibrosis, a potentially premalignant <span class="hlt">condition</span> for <span class="hlt">oral</span> squamous cell carcinoma, manifests both non-dysplastic and dysplastic grades. Early and specific identification of its malignant potentiality suffers from diagnostic <span class="hlt">limitations</span> that may be addressed by correlated molecular pathology attributes having histopathological backdrop. Present study correlates expressional alteration in prime epithelial marker E-cadherin, with neo-angiogenic molecules viz. VEGF and CD105 for elucidation of malignant potentiality in different stages of <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis. Sixty-eight incision biopsies from normal <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa (n = 10), non-dysplastic (n = 18) and different dysplastic grades (n = 40) of <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis were semi-quantitatively analyzed for immunohistochemical expressions of E-cadherin (membranous and cytoplasmic), VEGF and CD105 which were further statistically correlated. The loss of membranous E-cadherin with increase in cytoplasmic accumulation in differentiative layers of epithelium through the progression of dysplasia was noted along with up-regulation in VEGF expressions. The number of CD105(+) blood vessels and their major axis also showed significant increase from non-dysplasia toward higher grades of dysplasia. The positive correlation between deregulated expression of epithelial cell-cell adhesion molecule and increase in neo-angiogenic attributes of <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis with increase in dysplastic grades indicated elucidatory potential of molecular expression features in assessment of malignant potentiality in <span class="hlt">oral</span> submucous fibrosis. PMID:25015036</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anura, Anji; Das, Raunak Kumar; Pal, Mousumi; Paul, Ranjan Rashmi; Ray, Ajoy Kumar; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.toronto.edu/~frank/Download/CommunicatingWithMachines_CL.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">signal processing and <span class="hlt">oral</span> communication</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SPOClab signal processing and <span class="hlt">oral</span> communication Computational Linguistics, 5 December 2012 Frank University of Toronto #12;SPOClab signal processing and <span class="hlt">oral</span> communication An introduction to SPOClab · SPOClab (Signal Processing and <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Communication) is a new lab intersecting Computer Science</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Penn, Gerald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.aaom.com"> <span id="translatedtitle">American Academy of <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Medicine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Fall Meeting AAOM: Representing the Discipline of <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Medicine <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for <span class="hlt">oral</span> medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands We ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.youngwomenshealth.org/pcos_and_the_pill.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Contraceptive Pill and PCOS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">PCOS: The <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . Updated 25 February 2014. +Related Content Key Facts ... of <span class="hlt">oral</span> contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: <span class="hlt">Oral</span> contraceptive pills can ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25621959"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diagnosing <span class="hlt">oral</span> ulcers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> ulcers are common and can have many causes, making diagnosis challenging. This article provides an overview of common <span class="hlt">oral</span> ulcers and an algorithmic approach to establishing the correct diagnosis. Factors such as duration, pattern of recurrence, clinical appearance, mucosal location, and presence or absence of systemic symptoms are useful clues to determining an ulcer's cause. PMID:25621959</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bruce, Alison J; Dabade, Tushar S; Burkemper, Nicole M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/6891"> <span id="translatedtitle">Steven Brown <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Under the Rainbow: <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Histories of GLBTQ People in Kansas Steven Brown <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History Part 2 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 3 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player... Part 4 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 5 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 6 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 7 video platform video...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brown, Steven; Albin, Tami</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Art+AND+in+AND+its+AND+essence&pg=5&id=ED309499"> <span id="translatedtitle">Teaching <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Language Appreciation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discovering pleasure in words should begin at a young age. But the discovery can continue among college students if <span class="hlt">oral</span> communication courses offer parallels to the art and music appreciation courses which are part of most collegiate curricula. Some class activities which can enlarge appreciation of <span class="hlt">oral</span> language are: (1) students may be assigned…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jensen, Marvin D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39231886"> <span id="translatedtitle">Materiality and <span class="hlt">oral</span> documents</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Information professionals focus on artifacts. This focus shows the value information science has placed on materiality or physicality in its efforts to preserve and make artifacts in specific media accessible. But this focus has proven less useful when dealing with information that becomes available <span class="hlt">orally</span>. As a strategy to increase understanding of <span class="hlt">oral</span> information, Turner asserted that it can emerge</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deborah Turner; Warren Allen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/c2726681016737x7.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Smoking and drinking in relation to <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer and <span class="hlt">oral</span> epithelial dysplasia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective  Risks associated with smoking and drinking are not necessarily constant over the multistage pathway to <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer. We investigated\\u000a whether smoking and drinking patterns differ for persons with <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer (OC) relative to those with <span class="hlt">oral</span> epithelial dysplasia\\u000a (OED), a precancerous <span class="hlt">condition</span>.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Incident cases of OC and OED were interviewed using a questionnaire containing questions on smoking and drinking. Odds</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Douglas E. Morse; Walter J. Psoter; Deborah Cleveland; Donald Cohen; Mireseyed Mohit-Tabatabai; Diane L. Kosis; Ellen Eisenberg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32069780"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dentition, <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene, and risk of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer: a case-control study in Beijing, People's Republic of China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A case-control study of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer was conducted in Beijing, People's Republic of China. The study was hospitalbased and controls were hospital in-patients matched to the cases by age and gender. A total of 404 case\\/control pairs were interviewed. This paper provides data regarding <span class="hlt">oral</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> as risk factors for <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer, with every patient having an intact mouth examined</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tongzhang Zheng; Peter Boyle; Huanfang Hu; Jun Duan; Peijue Jiang; Daquan Ma; Liangpeng Shui; Shiru Niu; Crispian Scully; Brian MacMahon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4270670"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effectiveness of <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Ketamine, Midazolam, and Atropine Cocktail Versus <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Diphenhydramine for Pediatric Sedation in the Emergency Department</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Sedation is a <span class="hlt">condition</span> of reduced level of consciousness (LOC) for a patient that is created to decrease irritability, anxiety, and restlessness. Objectives: In this study, we compared the sedative effect of <span class="hlt">oral</span> administration of ketamine, midazolam, and atropine cocktail with diphenhydramine in the referent children to the emergency department. Patients and Methods: Based on the double-blind randomized clinical trial in this investigation, 80 children, who needed to repair their wounds with suture were randomly divided into two groups: group 1 and group 2, who have received <span class="hlt">oral</span> diphenhydramine and <span class="hlt">oral</span> ketamine, midazolam, and atropine cocktail, respectively. Behavioral changes were collected and recorded before, during intervention and two weeks after intervention. Statistical data were analyzed by SPSS-16 software and chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests were employed to study the relations among variables. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups in terms of drug acceptance and anxiety degree in children before intervention. Group 2 had achieved better and deeper sedation than group 1 during 45-minute post-medication (P < 0.05, P = 0.01). Regarding pediatric general behavior such as crying or interruptive moves, there was also a significant statistical difference between group 2 and group 1 (P = 0.009) based on Houpt Classification. The mean recovery times in groups 1 and 2 were 34.37 ± 14.23 min and 27.25 ± 5.14 min, respectively (P = 0.003). In terms of behavioral changes, the rate of cumulative frequency was computed for behavioral changes two weeks after the discharge from emergency department in which there were less behavioral changes in group 2 than in group 1 (P = 0.04). Conclusions: <span class="hlt">Oral</span> administration of ketamine, midazolam, and atropine cocktail induces better sedation than diphenhydramine with respect to its <span class="hlt">limited</span> mood changes in children, who need a medical procedure at emergency department. PMID:25593736</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Soleimanpour, Hassan; Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Eftekhari Milani, Farid; Shahsavari Nia, Kavous; Mehdizadeh Esfanjani, Robab; Safari, Saeid</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5609S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Increased belowground C release during initial plant development of Populus deltoides x nigra grown under light and C reserve <span class="hlt">limited</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plants might be a key factor for the long-term stabilisation of carbon (C) in the soil, e.g. through enhanced physical protection of root-derived C against microbial decomposition in soil aggregates. On the other hand C released by the plants into the soil might promote the decomposition of native soil organic matter (SOM) through the stimulation of microbial activity. We measured the C budget of developing plant-soil systems (Populus deltoides x nigra, Cambisol soil) in the laboratory under controlled environmental <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. In order to distinguish plant-derived from native C in the SOM and the soil CO2 efflux, we labelled the poplar shoots continuously with 13C-CO2 from first emergence of leaves (sprouting from stem cuttings). Throughout the experiment the CO2 fluxes (photosynthetic assimilation, dark respiratory loss, soil CO2 efflux) were measured frequently (every 30 min) and the 13C was traced in the soil CO2 efflux (1-2 times a week). After 10 weeks the plant-soil systems were destructively harvested and the distribution of the 13C distribution was analysed. The plants developed slowly (compared to previous experiments), most likely due to <span class="hlt">limitation</span> in C reserves (long term cutting storage) and C supply (low light intensities). The amount of 13C recovered in the roots, microbial biomass and soil CO2 efflux was directly correlated with the leaf area of the different plant individuals. After 3-4 weeks of plant development we observed a high peak in the total soil CO2 efflux. During this time the relative belowground C release was increased massively over the basal rate of 17 % of net C assimilated, whereby the variability between the plant individuals was large. The smallest plants, i.e. the plants that were most resource <span class="hlt">limited</span>, obtained the highest belowground C release accounting at the peak time for up to 57 % of net assimilated C. We hypothesize that the plants released specific compounds, which either directly (enzymatically) or indirectly (priming) enhanced the decomposition of native SOM as a survival mechanisms (e.g. mine for nutrients). The results of this study confirm linear correlations between aboveground plant traits (leaf area) and belowground C allocation into roots, microbial biomass and plant-derived respiration. However it also highlights that plant-soil systems are not permanently in a steady state. C allocation patterns can change massively when the plant is under stress, which affects other fluxes within the terrestrial C cycle, such as the microbial decomposition of SOM.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Studer, Mirjam S.; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.; Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Abiven, Samuel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21749875"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">oral</span> ulceration associated with Morgellons disease: a case report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Morgellons disease is a psycho-dermatologic <span class="hlt">condition</span> in which patients report fibers or filaments "growing" out of their skin. This case report highlights an <span class="hlt">oral</span> ulceration in a young woman associated with Morgellons disease, a <span class="hlt">condition</span> that has not been previously described in the dental literature. An increasing number of individuals are self-reporting this <span class="hlt">condition</span> and <span class="hlt">oral</span> health care providers must be familiar with this disorder. PMID:21749875</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grosskopf, Courtney; Desai, Bhavik; Stoopler, Eric T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED221332.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Literatura <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Hispanica (Hispanic <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Literature).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As part of a class in Hispanic <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17 "chistes" (jokes), 1…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McAlpine, Dave</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=oral+AND+presentation&pg=2&id=EJ821684"> <span id="translatedtitle">Peer Assessment in Thesis <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Presentation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Peer assessment has been studied in various situations and actively pursued as a means by which students are given more control over their learning and assessment achievement. This study investigated the reliability of staff and student assessments in two <span class="hlt">oral</span> presentations with <span class="hlt">limited</span> feedback for a school-based thesis course in engineering…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liow, Jong-Leng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3578149"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanism of <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Tolerance Induction to Therapeutic Proteins</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> tolerance is defined as the specific suppression of humoral and / or cellular immune responses to an antigen by administration of the same antigen through the <span class="hlt">oral</span> route. Due to its absence of toxicity, easy administration, and antigen specificity, <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance is a very attractive approach to prevent unwanted immune responses that cause a variety of diseases or that complicate treatment of a disease. Many researchers have induced <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance to efficiently treat autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in different animal models. However, clinical trials yielded <span class="hlt">limited</span> success. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance induction to therapeutic proteins is critical for paving the way for clinical development of <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance protocols. This review will summarize progress on understanding the major underlying tolerance mechanisms and contributors, including antigen presenting cells, regulatory T cells, cytokines, and signaling pathways. Potential applications, examples for therapeutic proteins and disease targets, and recent developments in delivery methods are discussed. PMID:23123293</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Xiaomei; Sherman, Alexandra; Liao, Gongxian; Leong, Kam W.; Daniell, Henry; Terhorst, Cox; Herzog, Roland W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16858138"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> malodor associated with internal resorption.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report a case of <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor associated with internal resorption. A 39-year-old male attended our hospital complaining of <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor. Utilizing organoleptic measurement, the halimeter test and gas chromatography, it was diagnosed as a strong halitosis caused by <span class="hlt">oral</span> origin. The pocket probing depth of tooth 21 was 10 mm, and X-ray examination revealed a vertical bone loss around this tooth. The patient had received periodontal treatment at two dental offices previously, but the periodontal <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor persisted. We performed an initial periodontal preparation, however a deep pocket remained. We therefore performed a surgical inspection including flap reflection, and found that the tooth had a large perforating defect in the distal surface. The extracted tooth had multiple perforating defects covered with granulation tissues on all root surfaces including the root apex. Taking into consideration the anamnesis and X-ray examination of the extracted tooth, internal absorption was considered to have been the cause of the multiple perforating defects. After extraction of the causative tooth, <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor dramatically decreased. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodor associated with internal resorption. PMID:16858138</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoneda, Masahiro; Naito, Toru; Suzuki, Nao; Yoshikane, Toru; Hirofuji, Takao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3087208"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pathogenesis and treatment of <span class="hlt">oral</span> candidosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> infections caused by yeast of the genus Candida and particularly Candida albicans (<span class="hlt">oral</span> candidoses) have been recognised throughout recorded history. However, since the 1980s a clear surge of interest and associated research into these infections have occurred. This has largely been due to an increased incidence of <span class="hlt">oral</span> candidosis over this period, primarily because of the escalation in HIV-infection and the AIDS epidemic. In addition, changes in medical practice leading to a greater use of invasive clinical procedures and a more widespread use of immunosuppressive therapies have also contributed to the problem. Whilst <span class="hlt">oral</span> candidosis has previously been considered to be a disease mainly of the elderly and very young, its occurrence throughout the general population is now recognised. Candida are true ‘opportunistic pathogens’ and only instigate <span class="hlt">oral</span> infection when there is an underlying predisposing <span class="hlt">condition</span> in the host. Treatment of these infections has continued (and in some regards continues) to be problematic because of the potential toxicity of traditional antifungal agents against host cells. The problem has been compounded by the emergence of Candida species other than C. albicans that have inherent resistance against traditional antifungals. The aim of this review is to give the reader a contemporary overview of <span class="hlt">oral</span> candidosis, the organisms involved, and the management strategies that are currently employed or could be utilised in the future. PMID:21547018</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Williams, David; Lewis, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3961934"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> myiasis involving palatal mucosa of a young female</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In literal terms myiasis is the invasion of the tissues and organs of human beings by fly larvae. This phenomenon is well documented in the skin, especially among animals and people in developed and developing countries. When the tissues of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity are invaded by the parasitic larvae of flies, the <span class="hlt">condition</span> is called as <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis. With the paper we are presenting a case of 19-year-old female suffering from <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis of upper lip and palate. The treatment consisted of manual removal of the larvae, surgical debridement of the wound and <span class="hlt">oral</span> therapy with doxycycline used as a locally acting drug for faster and better recovery. PMID:24678227</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yadav, Suresh; Tyagi, Shallu; Kumar, Prince; Puri, Naveen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ914022.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Methodology in Seeking Stakeholder Perceptions of Effective Technical <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Presentations: An Exploratory Pilot Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Engineering communication studies indicate the importance of <span class="hlt">oral</span> presentations as an indispensable component of workplace <span class="hlt">oral</span> communication activities; however, since there is <span class="hlt">limited</span> literature regarding stakeholder perceptions of effective presentation skills and attributes in technical <span class="hlt">oral</span> presentations or final year engineering project…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bhattacharyya, Ena; Patil, Arun; Sargunan, Rajeswary Appacutty</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23244438"> <span id="translatedtitle">Increasing <span class="hlt">oral</span> absorption of polar neuraminidase inhibitors: a prodrug transporter approach applied to oseltamivir analogue.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> absorption is one of the <span class="hlt">limiting</span> factors in utilizing the full potential of polar antiviral agents. The neuraminidase target site requires a polar chemical structure for high affinity binding, thus <span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">oral</span> efficacy of many high affinity ligands. The aim of this study was to overcome this poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> absorption barrier, utilizing prodrug to target the apical brush border peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1). Guanidine oseltamivir carboxylate (GOCarb) is a highly active polar antiviral agent with insufficient <span class="hlt">oral</span> bioavailability (4%) to be an effective therapeutic agent. In this report we utilize a carrier-mediated targeted prodrug approach to improve the <span class="hlt">oral</span> absorption of GOCarb. Acyloxy(alkyl) ester based amino acid linked prodrugs were synthesized and evaluated as potential substrates of mucosal transporters, e.g., PEPT1. Prodrugs were also evaluated for their chemical and enzymatic stability. PEPT1 transport studies included [(3)H]Gly-Sar uptake inhibition in Caco-2 cells and cellular uptake experiments using HeLa cells overexpressing PEPT1. The intestinal membrane permeabilities of the selected prodrugs and the parent drug were then evaluated for epithelial cell transport across Caco-2 monolayers, and in the in situ rat intestinal jejunal perfusion model. Prodrugs exhibited a pH dependent stability with higher stability at acidic pHs. Significant inhibition of uptake (IC(50) <1 mM) was observed for l-valyl and l-isoleucyl amino acid prodrugs in competition experiments with [(3)H]Gly-Sar, indicating a 3-6 times higher affinity for PEPT1 compared to valacyclovir, a well-known PEPT1 substrate and >30-fold increase in affinity compared to GOCarb. The l-valyl prodrug exhibited significant enhancement of uptake in PEPT1/HeLa cells and compared favorably with the well-absorbed valacyclovir. Transepithelial permeability across Caco-2 monolayers showed that these amino acid prodrugs have a 2-5-fold increase in permeability as compared to the parent drug and showed that the l-valyl prodrug (P(app) = 1.7 × 10(-6) cm/s) has the potential to be rapidly transported across the epithelial cell apical membrane. Significantly, only the parent drug (GOCarb) appeared in the basolateral compartment, indicating complete activation (hydrolysis) during transport. Intestinal rat jejunal permeability studies showed that l-valyl and l-isoleucyl prodrugs are highly permeable compared to the <span class="hlt">orally</span> well absorbed metoprolol, while the parent drug had essentially zero permeability in the jejunum, consistent with its known poor low absorption. Prodrugs were rapidly converted to parent in cell homogenates, suggesting their ability to be activated endogenously in the epithelial cell, consistent with the transport studies. Additionally, l-valyl prodrug was found to be a substrate for valacyclovirase (K(m) = 2.37 mM), suggesting a potential cell activation mechanism. Finally we determined the <span class="hlt">oral</span> bioavailability of our most promising candidate, GOC-l-Val, in mice to be 23% under fed <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and 48% under fasted <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. In conclusion, GOC-l-Val prodrug was found to be a very promising antiviral agent for <span class="hlt">oral</span> delivery. These findings indicate that the carrier-mediated prodrug approach is an excellent strategy for improving <span class="hlt">oral</span> absorption of polar neuraminidase inhibitors. These promising results demonstrate that the <span class="hlt">oral</span> peptide transporter-mediated prodrug strategy has enormous promise for improving the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosal cell membrane permeability of polar, poorly absorbed antiviral agents and treating influenza via the <span class="hlt">oral</span> route of administration. PMID:23244438</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gupta, Deepak; Varghese Gupta, Sheeba; Dahan, Arik; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Hilfinger, John; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9195622"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> mucosal melanomas: the WESTOP Banff workshop proceedings. Western Society of Teachers of <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Pathology.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A workshop to discuss primary <span class="hlt">oral</span> melanomas was convened at the annual Western Society of Teachers of <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Pathology meeting in Bannf, Alberta, Canada. Fifty <span class="hlt">oral</span> melanomas, identified from the files of the participants, were reviewed in order to better understand the clinical features, histologic spectrum, and natural history of these perplexing lesions. Results confirmed that <span class="hlt">oral</span> melanomas occur in adults almost three times more frequently in men than women and have a decided predilection for the palate and gingiva. Some lesions exhibit a clinically detectable and prolonged in situ growth phase, whereas others seem to lack this property and exhibit only or predominantly invasive characteristics. Recurrences, metastases, and death from tumor were characteristic of the follow-up of a <span class="hlt">limited</span> number of patients. Until definitive prospective data are collected that elucidate natural history, <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosal melanomas should be tracked separately from cutaneous lesions. All <span class="hlt">oral</span> pigmented lesions that are not clinically diagnostic should be biopsied. Lesions with equivocal histopathologic features might be referred to as "atypical melanocytic proliferation" and should be excised. Recognition of lesions in an early in situ phase and aggressive treatment should have a favorable effect on prognosis. To enhance future or prospective study of these rare neoplasms, guidelines for reporting <span class="hlt">oral</span> melanomas are suggested. PMID:9195622</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barker, B F; Carpenter, W M; Daniels, T E; Kahn, M A; Leider, A S; Lozada-Nur, F; Lynch, D P; Melrose, R; Merrell, P; Morton, T; Peters, E; Regezi, J A; Richards, S D; Rick, G M; Rohrer, M D; Slater, L; Stewart, J C; Tomich, C E; Vickers, R A; Wood, N K; Young, S K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol6-sec520-2612.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 520.2612 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine <span class="hlt">oral</span> suspension.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...infections, acute bacterial complications of distemper, acute respiratory tract infections, acute alimentary tract infections, wound infections, and abscesses. (3) <span class="hlt">Limitations</span>. For <span class="hlt">oral</span> use only. Administer the recommended dose once...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol6/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol6-sec520-2612.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 520.2612 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine <span class="hlt">oral</span> suspension.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...infections, acute bacterial complications of distemper, acute respiratory tract infections, acute alimentary tract infections, wound infections, and abscesses. (3) <span class="hlt">Limitations</span>. For <span class="hlt">oral</span> use only. Administer the recommended dose once...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol6-sec520-2612.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 520.2612 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine <span class="hlt">oral</span> suspension.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...infections, acute bacterial complications of distemper, acute respiratory tract infections, acute alimentary tract infections, wound infections, and abscesses. (3) <span class="hlt">Limitations</span>. For <span class="hlt">oral</span> use only. Administer the recommended dose once...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2897872"> <span id="translatedtitle">Probiotics and <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The number of products containing probiotics, viable bacteria with proven health benefits, entering the market is increasing. Traditionally, probiotics have been associated with gut health, and most clinical interest has been focused on their use for prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal infections and diseases; however, during the last decade several investigators have also suggested the use of probiotics for <span class="hlt">oral</span> health purposes. The aim of this review is to examine potential mechanisms of probiotic bacteria in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity and summarize observed effects of probiotics with respect to <span class="hlt">oral</span> health. The review focuses on probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, genera that are most used in various probiotic products. PMID:20613927</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haukioja, Anna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.adha.org/resources"> <span id="translatedtitle">ADHA <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Resources</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Provided by the American Dental Hygienists' Association, this site's resources are valuable for both dental patients and hygienists to help understand "the importance of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health to total health." Patients will find informative fact sheets describing potential <span class="hlt">oral</span> health problems as well as tips for preventing them. Hygienists will find the free posters useful as well as the instructions included for proper brushing and flossing techniques in order to educate and support their patients. The site underscores dental hygienists' roles in tobacco cessation efforts, a major topic of concern in the allied health professions. Providing free "life-saving advice", the ADHA hopes to promote overall heath beginning with <span class="hlt">oral</span> care.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.toronto.edu/~frank/Download/rudzicz_SLS.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">signal processing and <span class="hlt">oral</span> communication</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SPOClab signal processing and <span class="hlt">oral</span> communication #12;SPOClab signal processing and <span class="hlt">oral</span> communication Introduction 2 #12;SPOClab signal processing and <span class="hlt">oral</span> communication Hey everybody! My name's James Institute of Health) #12;SPOClab signal processing and <span class="hlt">oral</span> communication · Types of dysarthria are related</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Penn, Gerald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.toronto.edu/~frank/Download/rudzicz_SPASR13_public.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">signal processing and <span class="hlt">oral</span> communication</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SPOClab signal processing and <span class="hlt">oral</span> communication #12;SPOClab signal processing and <span class="hlt">oral</span> Institute of Health) #12;SPOClab signal processing and <span class="hlt">oral</span> communication · Types of dysarthria are related and <span class="hlt">oral</span> communication Dysarthria 5 (After Darley et al., 1969) Ataxic Flaccid Hypo- kinetic Hyper- kinetic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Penn, Gerald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/12526"> <span id="translatedtitle">Leona Anderson <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> history interview with Leona Anderson conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Burdick, Kansas, on September 18, 2009. In this interview, Leona Anderson discusses her experiences as a member of the Missouri Synod Lutheran ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anderson, Leona; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/12570"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phil Friedl <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> history interview with Phil Friedl conducted by Sara Vestal and Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Delia, Kansas, on November 11, 2009. Phil Friedl is a follower of David Bawden, who is also known as Pope Michael. In this interview, ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Friedl, Phil; Vestal, Sara; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/12583"> <span id="translatedtitle">Glenn Lindell <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> history interview with Glenn Lindell conducted by Jeffrey Caton in Johnson County, Kansas, on October 24, 2009. In this interview, Glen Lindell, pastor emeritus of the Hillcrest Covenant Church in Prairie Village, Kansas, discusses his training...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lindell, Glenn; Caton, Jeffrey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/12586"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anna Manning <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> history interview with Anna Manning conducted by Sean Manning in Overland Park, Kansas, on November 5, 2009. In this interview, Anna Manning discusses the Hispanic ministries in Catholic Churches in Johnson County, Kansas. This interview...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Manning, Anna; Manning, Sean</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/12568"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evelyn Forsberg <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> history interview with Evelyn Forsberg conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson on September 18, 2009. In this interview, Evelyn Forsberg discusses the experience of growing up Catholic in the Herrington, Kansas, area, and, after her marriage to a...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Forsberg, Evelyn; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/12580"> <span id="translatedtitle">Terry Koenig <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> history interview with Terry Koenig conducted by Lauren Helmer in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 16, 2010. In this interview, Terry Koenig discusses her childhood growing up as a member of the Missouri Synod Lutheran Church, the importance...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koenig, Terry L.; Helmer, Lauren</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/12560"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dan Chaverin <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> history interview with Dan Chaverin conducted by Clint Shriner in Lenexa, Kansas, on December 6, 2009. In this interview, Dan Chaverin, executive pastor of Westside Family Church in Lenexa, Kansas, discusses the operations, missions...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chaverin, Dan; Shriner, Clint</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/12697"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mary Tholen <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> history interview with Mary Tholen conducted by Clint Shriner in Kansas City, Missouri, on December 10, 2009. In this interview, Mary Tholen describes her experiences growing up as a member of the Catholic Church, primarily in Hays, Kansas. She...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tholen, Mary; Shriner, Clint</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/12556"> <span id="translatedtitle">Janice Bryant <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> history interview with Janice Bryant conducted by Lauren Helmer in Marion, Kansas, on December 29, 2010. In this interview, Janice Bryant, a former church secretary for Valley Methodist Church, discusses the history, organization, and programs...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bryant, Janice; Helmer, Lauren</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.skinsight.com/adult/oralMelanoticMacule.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Melanotic Macule</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... mouth. Similarly, any existing spot that changes size, shape, or color should also be evaluated promptly. Treatments Your Physician ... the <span class="hlt">oral</span> melanotic macule stays stable in size, shape, and color, no treatment is needed. Nonetheless, some people want ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/data/Journals/PEDS/5208/pap05005_784_784.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dehydration and <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Rehydration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... v <span class="hlt">Oral</span> rehydration fluids. These are also called electrolyte solutions. These fluids are made for situations when ... diarrhea. These fluids provide water as well as electrolytes (like salt), which the body loses during vomiting ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/prevention/oral/Patient/page3"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Cancer Prevention</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... partners of people with HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer . Sun exposure Being exposed to sunlight may increase the risk of lip cancer. Lip ... factors, such as drinking alcohol, HPV infection, and sun exposure, increase the risk of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer. It ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/5679"> <span id="translatedtitle">David Ollington <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">in the Under the Rainbow: <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas are copyrighted and protected by copyright law (Title 17, U. S. Code). Requests for permission to publish quotations beyond "fair use" from...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ollington, David; Albin, Tami</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/12552"> <span id="translatedtitle">Edith Bogart <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> history interview with Edith Bogart conducted by Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas, on September 14, 2010. In this interview, Edith Bogart discusses her experiences with a variety of denominations, including Episcopalian, Jehovah's Witnesses...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bogart, Edith; Miller, Timothy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/12676"> <span id="translatedtitle">Leni Salkind <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> history interview with Leni Salkind conducted by Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 11, 2009. In this interview, Leni Salkind describes her experiences as a member of the Jewish community in Lawrence. She discusses the issue...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Salkind, Leni; Miller, Timothy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/OralHealth/Topics/OralCancer/OralCancerVideo.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Cancer Exam</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videosandcooltools.html">MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/16749"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chris Husbands <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> history interview with Chris Husbands conducted by Chhaya Kolavalli in Kansas City, Kansas, on June 12, 2014. Chris Husbands, a 24-year old Kansas City resident, discusses his 7-years of experience living in various ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Husbands, Chris; Kolavalli, Chhaya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/12554"> <span id="translatedtitle">Beverly Boyd <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> history interview with Beverly Boyd conducted by Steve Teichgraeber in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 12, 2010. In this interview, Beverly Boyd discusses the life of Saint Rose-Phillippine Duchesne (1769-1852), a Catholic nun of the Society...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boyd, Beverly; Teichgraeber, Steve</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/12669"> <span id="translatedtitle">David Nelson <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> history interview with David Nelson conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Kansas City, Kansas, on October 31, 2009. In this interview, David Nelson discusses his journey from his childhood experiences in the Swedish Lutheran church in Burdick...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nelson, David; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/12670"> <span id="translatedtitle">Naomi Nelson <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> history interview with Naomi Nelson conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Kansas City, Kansas, on September 18, 2009. In this interview, Naomi Nelson describes her early childhood experiences attending church in Wilsey, Kansas. After marriage, she...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nelson, Naomi; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/16756"> <span id="translatedtitle">Joshua Shepherd <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> history interview with Joshua Shepherd conducted by Chhaya Kolavalli in Kansas City, Missouri, on June 15, 2014. In this interview, Joshua Shepherd discusses the organization of his intentional community in Kansas ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shepherd, Joshua; Kolavalli, Chhaya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/12566"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seth Davidson <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> history interview with Seth Davidson conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on October 22, 2010. In this interview, Seth Davidson, lead pastor and founder of what is now the non-denominational Vintage Church in Lawrence, discusses...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davidson, Seth; Stratton, Emily</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://journal.oraltradition.org/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Tradition Journal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stretching back thousands of years, the <span class="hlt">oral</span> traditions that have enriched and documented human existence remain a subject of much fascination. The <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Tradition Journal was founded in 1986 in order to "serve as an international and interdisciplinary forum for discussion of worldwide <span class="hlt">oral</span> traditions and related forms." The journal is based at the University of Missouri, and visitors to the site can search the entire run of the journal on this site by keyword or author. Clicking over to the "Browse the Journal" area, visitors can look over back issues that include special issues on the Serbo-Croatian <span class="hlt">oral</span> tradition, performance literature, and the performance artistry of Bob Dylan. The site is a real treat for anyone interested in the subject, and visitors can also learn how to submit their own work for possible inclusion in a forthcoming volume.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.astrobio.net/index.php?option=com_exclusive&task=detail&id=578"> <span id="translatedtitle">Life's <span class="hlt">Limit</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dr. Rocco Mancinelli of the SETI Institute is featured in this web article discussing the environmental <span class="hlt">limits</span> to life including extreme life forms that can thrive in harsh <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of salt, pressure, temperature and pH, but share a common theme of needing liquid water. Links to related websites and astrobiology stories, the NASA Astrobiology Institute, and the Ames Astrobiology portal can also be accessed through this page.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rocco Mancinelli</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/3139"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oralidad, narración <span class="hlt">oral</span> y narración <span class="hlt">oral</span> escénica</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">de la fuente <span class="hlt">oral</span> o literaria, análisis estuctural del relato, Antropología, Creatividad, Comunicación, Investigación del Folclore, 72 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Motivación a la Lectura, Movimiento Corporal, Pedagogía, Psico y Neurolingüística... (91), y en el Internacional de Títeres de Bilbao (92). Así como la presencia en el Encuentro Nacional de Cuenteros (México, 1987 y 88), la Feria Internacional del Libro Infantil y Juvenil (México, 87), las Mesas Redondas sobre el Teatro...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Garzó n Cé spedes, Francisco</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> 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</span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4211224"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Crohn's disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">’Crohn's disease’ is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Padmavathi, BN; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, GV</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25198382"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aerodigestive cancers: <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Worldwide, approximately 260,000 new cases of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer occur, and more than 125,000 mortalities are attributed to <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancers each year. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> cancers most commonly arise in the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth and the lower gum. Tobacco and alcohol use are the major risk factors, although human papillomavirus has been identified as an etiology in a small percentage of <span class="hlt">oral</span> squamous cell cancers. Although the evidence to support routine annual screening for <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancers is inconclusive, family physicians and dental practitioners should be attentive to precursor lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia, and strongly consider obtaining or referring for biopsy patients with suspicious lesions. Depending on stage, management of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancers often involves surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who have been treated for these cancers should undergo close surveillance by otolaryngology subspecialists, but their family physicians primarily will be responsible for their long-term care. Complications relating to management, including difficulties with speech, swallowing, and chewing, will need to be addressed. For patients with advanced-stage disease, family physicians also may be responsible for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:25198382</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://intl-biomed.gerontologyjournals.org/cgi/reprint/63/5/495.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cognitive Function and <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background. Both <span class="hlt">oral</span> health problems and cognitive impairment are relatively common among older adults. Poorer <span class="hlt">oral</span> health appears to contribute to a decline in quality of life and to be related to various medical <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Little is known about the relationship of cognitive function to <span class="hlt">oral</span> health among community-dwelling older adults. Methods. The sample included 1984 dentate community-dwelling older adults</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bei Wu; Brenda L. Plassman; Richard J. Crout; Jersey Liang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3982355"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exuberant <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Myiasis Caused by Musca domestica (Housefly)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tissues of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity, when invaded by the parasitic larvae of houseflies, the <span class="hlt">condition</span> is called as <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis. It is a rare disease that is most common in developing countries and is associated with <span class="hlt">conditions</span> leading to persistent mouth opening along with poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene, suppurative lesions, severe halitosis and maxillofacial trauma. A case of exuberant <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis in a 42-year-old female patient is described here. She reported with swelling, pain, mobility of teeth and foul odor. Diagnosis was based primarily on history and clinical features. Management included use of turpentine oil, mechanical removal of larvae followed by extraction of mobile teeth and curettage along with supportive antibiotic and analgesic therapy. Supportive nutritional supplements and timely institution of treatment encompassing removal of the offending larvae and carious teeth with proper education and motivation of the patient including <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene instructions led to the resolution of these lesions. PMID:24741230</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parwani, Rajkumar N; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Simran R; Wanjari, Sangeeta P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24741230"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exuberant <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Myiasis Caused by Musca domestica (Housefly).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tissues of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity, when invaded by the parasitic larvae of houseflies, the <span class="hlt">condition</span> is called as <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis. It is a rare disease that is most common in developing countries and is associated with <span class="hlt">conditions</span> leading to persistent mouth opening along with poor <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene, suppurative lesions, severe halitosis and maxillofacial trauma. A case of exuberant <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis in a 42-year-old female patient is described here. She reported with swelling, pain, mobility of teeth and foul odor. Diagnosis was based primarily on history and clinical features. Management included use of turpentine oil, mechanical removal of larvae followed by extraction of mobile teeth and curettage along with supportive antibiotic and analgesic therapy. Supportive nutritional supplements and timely institution of treatment encompassing removal of the offending larvae and carious teeth with proper education and motivation of the patient including <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene instructions led to the resolution of these lesions. PMID:24741230</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parwani, Rajkumar N; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Simran R; Wanjari, Sangeeta P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15591601"> <span id="translatedtitle">The aetiology and treatment of <span class="hlt">oral</span> halitosis: an update.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Halitosis refers to the <span class="hlt">condition</span> of offensive mouth odour. More than 90% of cases of halitosis originate from the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. The implicated bacteria (Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, and Tannerella forsythensis) are located in stagnant areas in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity, such as the dorsal surface of tongue, periodontal pockets, and interproximal areas. These bacteria proteolyse the amino acids releasing volatile sulphur compounds. The management of halitosis involves determining and eliminating the causes, which includes identifying any contributory factors, because certain medical <span class="hlt">conditions</span> are also associated with characteristic smells. Professional advice should be given on <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene and diet, and treatments should include dental scaling, and root planing of the associated periodontal pockets to reduce the bacterial loading. In addition to the normal <span class="hlt">oral</span> hygiene practice, tongue cleaning and use of mouthwash are advocated. This paper discusses the common aetiological factors, classification of <span class="hlt">oral</span> halitosis, and its treatment. PMID:15591601</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, P P C; Mak, W Y; Newsome, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24805802"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spray-dried polyelectrolyte microparticles in <span class="hlt">oral</span> antigen delivery: stability, biocompatibility, and cellular uptake.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the past decade, extensive research has undeniably improved the formulation and delivery of <span class="hlt">oral</span> vaccines. Nevertheless, several factors, such as the harsh gastrointestinal environment together with tolerance induction to exogenous antigens, have thus far impeded the optimal effectiveness and clinical application of <span class="hlt">oral</span> delivery systems. The current study encompasses an initial evaluation of the stability, biocompatibility, and cellular uptake of two promising candidate systems for <span class="hlt">oral</span> antigen delivery, that is, calcium carbonate- (CP) and mannitol-templated (MP) porous microspheres. Both spray-dried formulations were efficiently internalized by human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2 and HT-29) and degraded into phagolysosomal intracellular compartments. In addition, cellular particle uptake and processing significantly up-regulated the expression of (HLA) class-II and costimulatory molecules on intestinal epithelial cells. Even though the high surface-area-to-volume ratio of the microspheres was expected to favor protease access, antigen release was remarkably <span class="hlt">limited</span> in simulated intestinal fluid and was even absent under gastric <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. Finally, neither CP nor MP exerted cytotoxicity upon prolonged in vitro incubation with high antigen concentration. Altogether, these data support the potential of CP and MP for <span class="hlt">oral</span> antigen delivery and motivate the further development of these promising carrier systems in in vivo studies. PMID:24805802</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">De Smet, Rebecca; Verschuere, Stephanie; Allais, Liesbeth; Leclercq, Georges; Dierendonck, Marijke; De Geest, Bruno G; Van Driessche, Isabel; Demoor, Tine; Cuvelier, Claude A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8805E..04C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optical imaging of <span class="hlt">oral</span> pathological tissue using optical coherence tomography and synchrotron radiation computed microtomography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The efforts aimed at early diagnosis of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cancer should be prioritized towards developing a new screening instrument, based on optical coherence tomography (OCT), to be used directly intraorally, able to perform a <strong>fast, real time, 3D and non-invasive diagnosis </strong>of <span class="hlt">oral</span> malignancies. The first step in this direction would be to optimize the OCT image interpretation of <span class="hlt">oral</span> tissues. Therefore we propose plastination as a tissue preparation method that better preserves three-dimensional structure for study by new optical imaging techniques. The OCT and the synchrotron radiation computed microtomography (micro-CT) were employed for tissue sample analyze. For validating the OCT results we used the gold standard diagnostic procedure for any suspicious lesion - histopathology. This is a preliminary study of comparing features provided by OCT and Micro-CT. In the <span class="hlt">conditions</span> of the present study, OCT proves to be a highly promising imaging modality. The use of x-ray based topographic imaging of small biological samples has been <span class="hlt">limited</span> by the low intrinsic x-ray absorption of non-mineralized tissue and the lack of established contrast agents. Plastination can be used to enhance optical imagies of <span class="hlt">oral</span> soft tissue samples.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cânj?u, Silvana; Todea, Carmen; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda L.; Duma, Virgil; M?nescu, Adrian; Topal?, Florin I.; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3484829"> <span id="translatedtitle">Orthodontic Treatment and the <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health-Related Quality of Life of Patients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: Malocclusion is a common <span class="hlt">oral</span> disorder, can cause negative impacts on <span class="hlt">oral</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, social life and patients’ self confidence. The objective of this study was to determine whether orthodontic treatment influence <span class="hlt">oral</span> health related quality of life (OHQoL). Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional design with self-reported data were collected from 302 participants attended at professional orthodontic office (62% female; mean age, 21.71 years) in two “treatment” and “no treatment” groups. The measure namely (<span class="hlt">oral</span> health impact profile) OHIP-14 was used to assess the patient’s OHQol. Linear regression model was used in the data analysis. Results: A significant relationship was found in one question and one domain of OHIP-14 between the two groups (P<0.05) which showed difference in physical <span class="hlt">limitation</span>. Linear regression model showed that in the treatment group, this domain of OHQoL was 1.86 times less likely complicated than in the “no treatment” group. Conclusion: Patients who had completed orthodontic treatment had a better OHQoL in physical aspects than those who never had treatment. PMID:23119134</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Navabi, N.; Farnudi, H.; Rafiei, H.; Arashlow, M. Tahmasbi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57207117"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tissue-engineered <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Mucosa</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Advances in tissue engineering have permitted the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of human <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa for various in vivo and in vitro applications. Tissue-engineered <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa have been further optimized in recent years for clinical applications as a suitable graft material for intra-<span class="hlt">oral</span> and extra-<span class="hlt">oral</span> repair and treatment of soft-tissue defects. Novel 3D in vitro models of <span class="hlt">oral</span> diseases such as</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Moharamzadeh; H. Colley; C. Murdoch; V. Hearnden; W. L. Chai; I. M. Brook; M. H. Thornhill; S. MacNeil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol2-sec203-42.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 203.42 - What <span class="hlt">conditions</span> and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> apply to royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...<span class="hlt">limitations</span> apply to royalty relief for deep wells and phase 1 ultra-deep wells? 203.42 Section 203... Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION... Royalty Relief for Drilling Deep Gas Wells on Leases Not...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23905867"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> immunotherapy and tolerance induction in childhood.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Prevalence rates of food allergy have increased rapidly in recent decades. Of concern, rates of increase are greatest among children under 5 yrs of age and for those food allergies that persist into adulthood such as peanut or tree nut allergy and shellfish allergy. Given these trends, the overall prevalence of food allergy will compound over time as the number of children affected by food allergy soars and a greater proportion of food-allergic children are left with persistent disease into adulthood. It is therefore vital to identify novel curative treatment approaches for food allergy. Acquisition of <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance to the diverse array of ingested food antigens and intestinal microbiota is an active immunologic process that is successfully established in the majority of individuals. In subjects who develop food allergy, there is a failure or loss of <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance acquisition to a <span class="hlt">limited</span> number of food allergens. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> immunotherapy (OIT) offers a promising approach to induce specific <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance to selected food allergens and represents a potential strategy for long-term curative treatment of food allergy. This review will summarize the current understanding of <span class="hlt">oral</span> tolerance and clinical trials of OIT for the treatment of food allergy. PMID:23905867</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tang, M L K; Martino, D J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20113721"> <span id="translatedtitle">Novel colorimetric sensor for <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodour.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Volatile sulphur compounds are the primary constituents of <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodour. Quantitative tools for the detection of <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodour are beneficial to evaluate the intensity of malodour, analyse its causes and monitor the effectiveness of customized treatments. We have developed an objective, cost effective, do-it-yourself colorimetric sensor for <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodour quantification. The sensor consisted of a sensing solution, a gas sampling unit for collecting a known volume of mouth air and a photometric detector. The sensing solution was iodine and the depletion of iodine on reaction with hydrogen sulphide was detected colorimetrically using starch. The detection <span class="hlt">limit</span> of the sensor is 0.05 microg L(-1) of hydrogen sulphide, which is fit-for-purpose for <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodour detection in healthy subjects as well as halitosis patients. Volatile sulphur compounds in mouth air were quantified in healthy human volunteers using this portable sensor and the detected levels were in the range of 0.2-0.4 microg L(-1). There was a good correlation between the VSC levels detected by the colorimetric sensor and halimeter (R(2)=0.934). The developed sensor can be easily fabricated in the laboratory, and it shows high potential to be used as a clinical evaluation tool for <span class="hlt">oral</span> malodour assessments. PMID:20113721</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alagirisamy, Nethaji; Hardas, Sarita S; Jayaraman, Sujatha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17465250"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cancer treatment-induced <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> mucositis is one of the main complications in non-surgical cancer treatments. It represents the major dose-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> toxicity for some chemotherapeutic agents, for radiotherapy of the head and neck region and for some radiochemotherapy combined treatments. Many reviews and clinical studies have been published in order to define the best clinical protocol for prophylaxis or treatment of mucositis, but a consensus has not yet been obtained. This paper represents an updated review of prophylaxis and treatment of antineoplastic-therapy-related mucositis using a MEDLINE search up to May 2006, in which more than 260 clinical studies have been found. They have been divided according to antineoplastic therapy (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, chemo-radiotherapy, high-dose chemotherapy). The prophylactic or therapeutic use of the analysed agents, the number of enrolled patients and the study design (randomized or not) were also specified for most studies. Accurate pre-treatment assessment of <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity hygiene, frequent review of symptoms during treatment, use of traditional mouthwashes to obtain mechanical cleaning of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity and administration of some agents like benzydamine, imidazole antibiotics, tryazolic antimycotics, povidone iodine, keratinocyte growth factor and vitamin E seem to reduce the intensity of mucositis. Physical approaches like cryotherapy, low energy Helium-Neon laser or the use of modern radiotherapy techniques with the exclusion of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity from radiation fields have been shown to be efficacious in preventing mucositis onset. Nevertheless a consensus protocol of prophylaxis and treatment of <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis has not yet been obtained. PMID:17465250</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alterio, Daniela; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja; Fiore, Maria Rosaria; Piperno, Gaia; Ansarin, Mohssen; Orecchia, Roberto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3943513"> <span id="translatedtitle">Atypical esthesioneuroblastoma invading <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity: a case report and review of the literature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Esthesioneuroblastoma is an uncommon tumour of neuroectodermal origin. The authors describe a rare presentation of an atypical esthesioneuroblastoma invading <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity. The clinical presentation, aetiology, diagnosis, and management of this <span class="hlt">condition</span> are discussed. The patient developed significant swelling in the right anterosuperior alveolar mucosa and had moderate tooth mobility. Conventional x-rays and computed tomography revealed a large osteolytic lesion, with imprecise <span class="hlt">limits</span>. Histological findings along with immunohistochemical staining results and clinical features led to the diagnosis of high-grade esthesioneuroblastoma. Local recurrences and neck metastasis were detected. The rare <span class="hlt">oral</span> findings produced delayed in diagnosis which may lead to a compromise in planning and execution of further radical management and thus a poor prognosis. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1168853011139286. PMID:24443792</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3338629"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Canine <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Microbiome</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Determining the bacterial composition of the canine <span class="hlt">oral</span> microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human <span class="hlt">oral</span> microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the <span class="hlt">oral</span> microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine <span class="hlt">oral</span> bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of <span class="hlt">oral</span> taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the <span class="hlt">oral</span> microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine <span class="hlt">oral</span> microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=spp&id=EJ958435"> <span id="translatedtitle">Perspectives of Parents and Tutors on a Self-Management Program for Parents/Guardians of Children with Long-Term and Life-<span class="hlt">Limiting</span> <span class="hlt">Conditions</span>: "A Life Raft We Can Sail along with"</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The lay-led, community-based Supporting Parents Programme (SPP) aims to assist parents caring for children with long-term or life-<span class="hlt">limiting</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span> through support and cognitive behavioral techniques. The value of the SPP from the perspectives of parent participants and tutors was examined in focus groups and telephone interviews. Data were…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barlow, Julie; Swaby, Laura; Turner, Andrew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.stat.cmu.edu/~fienberg/Confidentiality-ESM-2005.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Confidentiality and Disclosure <span class="hlt">Limitation</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Confidentiality and Disclosure <span class="hlt">Limitation</span> Stephen E. Fienberg Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA Glossary confidentiality Broadly, a quality or <span class="hlt">condition</span> accorded. disclosure <span class="hlt">limitation</span> The broad array of methods used to protect confidentiality of statistical data</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fienberg, Stephen E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol2-sec42-111.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 42.111 - Sampling plans for reduced <span class="hlt">condition</span> of container inspection, Tables III and III-A; and <span class="hlt">limit</span>...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Reduced <span class="hlt">Condition</span> of Container Inspection Code Lot size ranges—Number of containers in lot Type of plan Sample size Acceptable quality...size ranges—No. of containers in lot Type of plan Sample size Acceptable...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4069285"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can affect a variety of organ systems with significant morbidity and mortality. Some of the most frequently reported EHM of HCV infection, involve the <span class="hlt">oral</span> region predominantly or exclusively. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory <span class="hlt">condition</span> that is potentially malignant and represents cell-mediated reaction to a variety of extrinsic antigens, altered self-antigens, or super antigens. Robust epidemiological evidence support the link between OLP and HCV. As the virus may replicate in the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa and attract HCV-specific T lymphocytes, HCV may be implicated in OLP pathogenesis. Sjögren syndrome (SjS) is an autoimmune exocrinopathy, characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes and a multitude of other systemic signs and symptoms. SjS patients have also an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients with chronic hepatitis C do frequently have histological signs of Sjögren-like sialadenitis with mild or even absent clinical symptoms. However, it is still unclear if HCV may cause a disease mimicking SjS or it is directly responsible for the development of SjS in a specific subset of patients. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> squamous cell carcinoma is the most common <span class="hlt">oral</span> malignant tumour and at least in some part of the world could be linked to HCV. PMID:24976694</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carrozzo, Marco; Scally, Kara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24458845"> <span id="translatedtitle">Timing of <span class="hlt">oral</span> contraceptive use and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is not clear if early <span class="hlt">oral</span> contraceptive use increases the risk of breast cancer among young women with a breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) mutation. Given the benefit of <span class="hlt">oral</span> contraceptives for the prevention of ovarian cancer, estimating age-specific risk ratios for <span class="hlt">oral</span> contraceptive use and breast cancer is important. We conducted a case-control study of 2,492 matched pairs of women with a deleterious BRCA1 mutation. Breast cancer cases and unaffected controls were matched on year of birth and country of residence. Detailed information about <span class="hlt">oral</span> contraceptive use was collected from a routinely administered questionnaire. <span class="hlt">Conditional</span> logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the association between <span class="hlt">oral</span> contraceptive and breast cancer, by age at first use and by age at diagnosis. Among BRCA1 mutation carriers, <span class="hlt">oral</span> contraceptive use was significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer for women who started the pill prior to age 20 (OR 1.45; 95 % CI 1.20-1.75; P = 0.0001) and possibly between ages 20 and 25 as well (OR 1.19; 95 % CI 0.99-1.42; P = 0.06). The effect was <span class="hlt">limited</span> to breast cancers diagnosed before age 40 (OR 1.40; 95 % CI 1.14-1.70; P = 0.001); the risk of early-onset breast cancer increased by 11 % with each additional year of pill use when initiated prior to age 20 (OR 1.11; 95 % CI 1.03-1.20; P = 0.008). There was no observed increase for women diagnosed at or after the age of 40 (OR 0.97; 95 % CI 0.79-1.20; P = 0.81). <span class="hlt">Oral</span> contraceptive use before age 25 increases the risk of early-onset breast cancer among women with a BRCA1 mutation and the risk increases with duration of use. Caution should be taken when advising women with a BRCA1 mutation to take an <span class="hlt">oral</span> contraceptive prior to age 25. PMID:24458845</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Lubinski, Jan; Moller, Pal; Lynch, Henry T; Singer, Christian F; Eng, Charis; Neuhausen, Susan L; Karlan, Beth; Kim-Sing, Charmaine; Huzarski, Tomasz; Gronwald, Jacek; McCuaig, Jeanna; Senter, Leigha; Tung, Nadine; Ghadirian, Parviz; Eisen, Andrea; Gilchrist, Dawna; Blum, Joanne L; Zakalik, Dana; Pal, Tuya; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://collections.mnhs.org/ioh/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Minnesota Immigrant <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Histories</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">How can the Hmong history of Minnnesota be best understood? One good place to start is with <span class="hlt">oral</span> histories of their own experiences. Various Hmong experiences, along with other ethnic groups, are told with a flourish on the Minnesota Immigrant <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Histories site. Created by the Minnesota Historical Society, this site contains over 360 <span class="hlt">oral</span> history interviews conducted between 1967 and 2012. Visitors can click on any of the groups listed to get started, then find detailed transcripts, streaming audio, and thumbnail sketches of participants. The Tibetan collection is quite a gem as visitors can learn about the U.S. Tibetan Resettlement Project from 1990. Overall, it's a wonderful way to learn about the diversity of the people who have come to call Minnesota home.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24081895"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recurrent <span class="hlt">oral</span> thrush.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is characterized by the presence of at least two out of three clinical features, which include chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), Addison's disease and hypoparathyroidism. The authors' present an one and a half year old girl with recurrent <span class="hlt">oral</span> thrush who presented with generalised afebrile seizure. Evaluation revealed severe hypocalcemia with low parathormone and normal vitamin D level consistent with hypoparathyroidism. In view of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> candidiasis and hypoparathyroidism, a clinical possibility of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (type 1) was strongly considered. Her mother, on subsequent pregnancy was subjected to gene analysis of the fetus (chorionic villus sampling) and also for this child (index case). Both the fetus and index child were confirmed to have the AIRE gene mutation of APS1. After detailed counseling the parents opted for medical termination of the pregnancy. In children who present with recurrent <span class="hlt">oral</span> thrush we need to consider but also look beyond immunodeficiency. PMID:24081895</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sivabalan, Somu; Mahadevan, Shriraam; Srinath, M V</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1542854"> <span id="translatedtitle">Miconazole in <span class="hlt">oral</span> candidiasis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Twenty-four patients were treated with <span class="hlt">oral</span> miconazole (250 mg) for a total of 35 episodes of <span class="hlt">oral</span> candidiasis. Sixteen had various forms of leukaemia and all were massively predisposed to fungal infection because of granulocytopenia and treatment with prednisolone and antibiotics. Clinical cure was observed in all 35 of the treated episodes, with a mean treatment time of five days, cure being observed in two to three days. When patients violating the protocol were excluded, the mycological cure rate was 97%. In 21 episodes there was a recurrence less than one month after miconazole treatment, probably because of reinfection. No side-effects ascribable to miconazole were observed, even in the severely debilitated patients, and the <span class="hlt">orally</span> administered drug appeared to be superior to other commercially available antimycotic preparations. Images p29-a PMID:122644</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brincker, H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25219865"> <span id="translatedtitle">Current developments for the <span class="hlt">oral</span> delivery of heparin.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anticoagulant therapy is widely used for the treatment and prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis and coronary syndromes. Until now, drugs such as unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparins need to be administered parenterally. Parenteral administration results in lower patient compliance compared to <span class="hlt">oral</span> therapy and for this reason, the focus of various research groups is to develop an <span class="hlt">oral</span> heparin formulation which is as effective as the parenteral formulation, easy to use and non-toxic. In the last few years, some new <span class="hlt">oral</span> anticoagulants like Rivaroxaban (Xarelto(®)), Apixaban (Eliquis(®)) and Dabigatranetexilat (Pradaxa(®)) have reached the market, but their use is <span class="hlt">limited</span> to certain indications. Therefore, the development of <span class="hlt">oral</span> formulations with well-established anti-coagulant drugs is still relevant and in demand. In this paper, we reviewed strategies that have been developed so far to achieve an adequate anticoagulant effect using <span class="hlt">oral</span> formulations of unfractionated and low molecular weight heparins. PMID:25219865</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schlüter, Anna; Lamprecht, Alf</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=303734"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biochemical acclimation, stomatal <span class="hlt">limitation</span> and precipitation patterns underlie decreases in photosynthetic stimulation of Soybean (Glycine max) at elevated [CO2] and temperatures under fully open air field <span class="hlt">conditions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The net effect of elevated [CO2] and temperature on photosynthetic acclimation and plant productivity is poorly resolved. We assessed the effects of canopy warming and fully open air [CO2] enrichment on 1) the acclimation of two biochemical parameters that frequently <span class="hlt">limit</span> photosynthesis (A), the ma...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2944498"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Human <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Microbiome? † ?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The human <span class="hlt">oral</span> cavity contains a number of different habitats, including the teeth, gingival sulcus, tongue, cheeks, hard and soft palates, and tonsils, which are colonized by bacteria. The <span class="hlt">oral</span> microbiome is comprised of over 600 prevalent taxa at the species level, with distinct subsets predominating at different habitats. The <span class="hlt">oral</span> microbiome has been extensively characterized by cultivation and culture-independent molecular methods such as 16S rRNA cloning. Unfortunately, the vast majority of unnamed <span class="hlt">oral</span> taxa are referenced by clone numbers or 16S rRNA GenBank accession numbers, often without taxonomic anchors. The first aim of this research was to collect 16S rRNA gene sequences into a curated phylogeny-based database, the Human <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Microbiome Database (HOMD), and make it web accessible (www.homd.org). The HOMD includes 619 taxa in 13 phyla, as follows: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydiae, Chloroflexi, Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, SR1, Synergistetes, Tenericutes, and TM7. The second aim was to analyze 36,043 16S rRNA gene clones isolated from studies of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> microbiota to determine the relative abundance of taxa and identify novel candidate taxa. The analysis identified 1,179 taxa, of which 24% were named, 8% were cultivated but unnamed, and 68% were uncultivated phylotypes. Upon validation, 434 novel, nonsingleton taxa will be added to the HOMD. The number of taxa needed to account for 90%, 95%, or 99% of the clones examined is 259, 413, and 875, respectively. The HOMD is the first curated description of a human-associated microbiome and provides tools for use in understanding the role of the microbiome in health and disease. PMID:20656903</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Chen, Tuste; Izard, Jacques; Paster, Bruce J.; Tanner, Anne C. R.; Yu, Wen-Han; Lakshmanan, Abirami; Wade, William G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4280077"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nanoporous sorbent material as an <span class="hlt">oral</span> phosphate binder and for aqueous phosphate, chromate, and arsenate removal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phosphate removal is both biologically and environmentally important. Biologically, hyperphosphatemia is a critical <span class="hlt">condition</span> in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Patients with hyperphosphatemia are treated long-term with <span class="hlt">oral</span> phosphate binders to prevent phosphate absorption to the body by capturing phosphate in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract followed by fecal excretion. Environmentally, phosphate levels in natural water resources must be regulated according to <span class="hlt">limits</span> set forth by the US Environmental Protection Agency. By utilizing nanotechnology and ligand design, we developed a new material to overcome <span class="hlt">limitations</span> of traditional sorbent materials such as low phosphate binding capacity, slow binding kinetics, and negative interference by other anions. A phosphate binder based on iron-ethylenediamine on nanoporous silica (Fe-EDA-SAMMS) has been optimized for substrates and Fe(III) deposition methods. The Fe-EDA-SAMMS material had a 4-fold increase in phosphate binding capacity and a broader operating pH window compared to other reports. The material had a faster phosphate binding rate and was significantly less affected by other anions than Sevelamer HCl, the gold standard <span class="hlt">oral</span> phosphate binder, and AG® 1-X8, a commercially available anion exchanger. It had less cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells than lanthanum carbonate, another prescribed <span class="hlt">oral</span> phosphate binder. The Fe-EDA-SAMMS also had high capacity for arsenate and chromate, two of the most toxic anions in natural water. PMID:25554735</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sangvanich, Thanapon; Ngamcherdtrakul, Worapol; Lee, Richard; Morry, Jingga; Castro, David; Fryxell, Glen E.; Yantasee, Wassana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3532199"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> cleft prevention program (OCPP)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background <span class="hlt">Oral</span> clefts are one of the most common birth defects with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> clefts have a complex etiology with genetic and environmental risk factors. There are suggestive results for decreased risks of cleft occurrence and recurrence with folic acid supplements taken at preconception and during pregnancy with a stronger evidence for higher than lower doses in preventing recurrence. Yet previous studies have suffered from considerable design <span class="hlt">limitations</span> particularly non-randomization into treatment. There is also well-documented effectiveness for folic acid in preventing neural tube defect occurrence at 0.4 mg and recurrence with 4 mg. Given the substantial burden of clefting on the individual and the family and the supportive data for the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation as well as its low cost, a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of high versus low dose folic acid for prevention of cleft recurrence is warranted. Methods/design This study will assess the effect of 4 mg and 0.4 mg doses of folic acid, taken on a daily basis during preconception and up to 3 months of pregnancy by women who are at risk of having a child with nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without palate (NSCL/P), on the recurrence of NSCL/P. The total sample will include about 6,000 women (that either have NSCL/P or that have at least one child with NSCL/P) randomly assigned to the 4 mg and the 0.4 mg folic acid study groups. The study will also compare the recurrence rates of NSCL/P in the total sample of subjects, as well as the two study groups (4mg, 0.4 mg) to that of a historical control group. The study has been approved by IRBs (ethics committees) of all involved sites. Results will be disseminated through publications and presentations at scientific meetings. Discussion The costs related to <span class="hlt">oral</span> clefts are high, including long term psychological and socio-economic effects. This study provides an opportunity for huge savings in not only money but the overall quality of life. This may help establish more specific clinical guidelines for <span class="hlt">oral</span> cleft prevention so that the intervention can be better tailored for at-risk women. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00397917 PMID:23181832</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sweep&pg=4&id=EJ938004"> <span id="translatedtitle">Syntactically Cued Text Facilitates <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Reading Fluency in Developing Readers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Can fluency in <span class="hlt">oral</span> reading be facilitated by formatting text to preserve major syntactic boundaries? Seven-, 8-, and 9-year-old children read aloud passages under two text format <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. In the structure-preserving <span class="hlt">condition</span>, the ends of lines coincided with ends of clauses; in the phrase-disrupting <span class="hlt">condition</span>, line breaks always interrupted a…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">LeVasseur, Valerie Marciarille; Macaruso, Paul; Palumbo, Laura Conway; Shankweiler, Donald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3136857"> <span id="translatedtitle">Per-<span class="hlt">oral</span> cholangioscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Direct endoscopic views of bile duct have been described in literature since the 1970s. Since then rapid strides have been made with the advent of technologically advanced systems with better image quality and maneuverability. The single operator semi-disposable per-<span class="hlt">oral</span> cholangioscope and other novel methods such as the cholangioscopy access balloon are likely to revolutionize this field. Even though cholangioscopy is currently used primarily for characterization of indeterminate strictures and management of large bile duct stones, the diagnostic and therapeutic indications are likely to expand in future. The following is an overview of the currently available per-<span class="hlt">oral</span> cholangioscopy equipments, indications for use and future directions. PMID:21776429</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Monga, Amitabh; Ramchandani, Mohan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/5629"> <span id="translatedtitle">Michael Johnson <span class="hlt">Oral</span> History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">support groups or whatever like that and then it just turned into, Well there's Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 5 Under the Rainbow: <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas porn online too. (laugh) So it's like—it's like you just kind... stepmother had found my Xanga site as well. Along with that she had found, on his computer, links to porn site—like gay porn Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 7 Under the Rainbow: <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas sites, right...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, Michael; Albin, Tami</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3406207"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> Myiasis : Case Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Myiasis occurs when living tissues of mammals are invaded by eggs or larvae of flies, mainly from the order of Diptera. Most of the previousty reported cases are in the tropics and they were usually associated with inadequate personal hygiene, sometimes with poor manual dexterity. This report describes two cases of <span class="hlt">oral</span> myiasis in cerebral palsy patients in Seremban General Hospital, Malaysia. This article also discusses the therapeutic property of maggots and highlights the importance of <span class="hlt">oral</span> health care in the special needs patients. PMID:22844224</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramli, Roszalina; Abd Rahman, Roslan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22376100"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of cone beam computed tomography in <span class="hlt">oral</span> and maxillofacial surgery.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the past decade, the utility of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images in <span class="hlt">oral</span> and maxillofacial surgery has seen continuous increase. However, CBCT images are not always able to replace other imaging modalities. Based on the current published knowledge, this paper discusses advantages and <span class="hlt">limitations</span> of CBCT images in the diagnosis and surgical planning of dentoalveolar procedures, odontogenic cysts, benign and malignant tumours, inflammatory changes, orthognathic surgery, maxillofacial trauma, sinus disorders, and systemic and osseous <span class="hlt">conditions</span> that manifest in the maxillofacial area. This paper also suggests alternative imaging modalities when CBCT images are not adequate for surgical planning. PMID:22376100</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahmad, Mansur; Jenny, J; Downie, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21917599"> <span id="translatedtitle">The paradox of better subjective <span class="hlt">oral</span> health in older age.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyzed data from the 2004-06 Australian National Survey of Adult <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health to investigate the paradoxical relationship of better subjective <span class="hlt">oral</span> health in older adults compared with young or middle-aged adults. In interviews with 14,092 adults, prevalence of problems with eating or appearance was not significantly associated with age among dentate people with no denture(s). In contrast, among dentate denture-wearers, prevalence ranged from 18.7% in ? 65-year-olds to 46.7% in 25- to 34-year-olds (p < 0.01). Dentate interviewees (n = 3,724) underwent <span class="hlt">oral</span> epidemiological examinations and completed the 14-item <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire, evaluating adverse impacts of <span class="hlt">oral</span> <span class="hlt">conditions</span>. In multivariable analysis, mean OHIP-14 scores were only weakly associated with age among people who had none of 5 clinical <span class="hlt">conditions</span> [? 5 missing teeth, denture(s), untreated decay, moderate/severe periodontitis, toothache]. However, for people with ? 2 clinical <span class="hlt">conditions</span>, there was a three-fold, inverse association between age and mean OHIP-14 scores (p < 0.01). The findings show that experience of <span class="hlt">oral</span> disease is more deleterious to subjective <span class="hlt">oral</span> health when it occurs early in adulthood than when it occurs in old age, a pattern that likely reflects high expectations of young generations and, conversely, great resilience in Australia's oldest generation. PMID:21917599</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Slade, G D; Sanders, A E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4401336"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> submucous fibrosis: an update</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a premalignant <span class="hlt">condition</span> caused by betel chewing. It is very common in Southeast Asia but has started to spread to Europe and North America. OSF can lead to squamous cell carcinoma, a risk that is further increased by concomitant tobacco consumption. OSF is a diagnosis based on clinical symptoms and confirmation by histopathology. Hypovascularity leading to blanching of the <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucosa, staining of teeth and gingiva, and trismus are major symptoms. Major constituents of betel quid are arecoline from betel nuts and copper, which are responsible for fibroblast dysfunction and fibrosis. A variety of extracellular and intracellular signaling pathways might be involved. Treatment of OSF is difficult, as not many large, randomized controlled trials have been conducted. The principal actions of drug therapy include antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxygen radical mechanisms. Potential new drugs are on the horizon. Surgery may be necessary in advanced cases of trismus. Prevention is most important, as no healing can be achieved with available treatments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wollina, Uwe; Verma, Shyam B; Ali, Fareedi Mukram; Patil, Kishor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AtmEn..41.1960C"> <span id="translatedtitle">What are the sources and <span class="hlt">conditions</span> responsible for exceedences of the 24 h PM 10 <span class="hlt">limit</span> value (50 ?g m -3) at a heavily trafficked London site?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The European Union has set <span class="hlt">limit</span> values for PM 10 to be met in 2005. At Marylebone Road, London, where the traffic is heavy, the daily <span class="hlt">limit</span> value of 50 ?g m -3 is exceeded more than 35 times a year. A total of 185 days with daily PM 10 concentrations exceeding the <span class="hlt">limit</span> value of 50 ?g m -3 measured between January 2002 and December 2004 (data capture of 89.5%) are discussed in this paper. These exceedences were more frequent in early spring and in autumn. Concentrations have been disaggregated into regional, urban (background) and local (street) contributions. Most of the episodes of gravimetric PM 10 above the <span class="hlt">limit</span> value were associated with a high regional background and very often the regional contribution dominated the PM 10 mass. The secondary aerosol (especially the particulate nitrate) made a major contribution to the PM 10 load. These situations were frequently observed when air masses came from the European mainland (showing that both emissions from the UK and other EU countries contributed to the exceedences), and less frequently with maritime air masses that have stagnated over the UK (showing that emissions from the UK alone less frequently contributed to the high regional background). However, the higher frequency of episodes breaching the <span class="hlt">limit</span> value at the roadside site than at the rural site and the higher frequency of PM 10 concentrations above the <span class="hlt">limit</span> value on weekdays show that the high regional contributions are additional to local and urban emissions. Local emissions mainly due to traffic were the second important contributor to the exceedences, while the contribution of the urban background of London was less important than the local emissions and the regional background. Applying the pragmatic mass closure model of Harrison et al. [2003. A pragmatic mass closure model for airborne particulate matter at urban background and roadside sites. Atmospheric Environment 37, 4927-4933], revealed that the regional aerosol is comprised very largely of ammonium nitrate and sulphate and secondary organic aerosol. Findings suggest that international abatement of secondary aerosol precursors may be the most effective measure to fulfil the requirements of the European Directive 1999/30/CE by lowering the regional background.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Charron, Aurélie; Harrison, Roy M.; Quincey, Paul</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ong&pg=3&id=EJ527336"> <span id="translatedtitle">The New <span class="hlt">Orality</span>: <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Characteristics of Computer-Mediated Communication.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Considers the characteristics of <span class="hlt">orality</span> and literacy developed in the work of scholars such as Walter Ong to consider computer-mediated communication (CMC) as the potential site of a "new <span class="hlt">orality</span>" which is neither purely <span class="hlt">oral</span> or literate. Notes that the medium of CMC is writing, which has traditionally represented the "literate," while the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ferris, Sharmila Pixy; Montgomery, Maureen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">439</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24069711"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence-based <span class="hlt">oral</span> care for <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nurses must intervene to provide evidence-based supportive care and symptom management for cancer patients. <span class="hlt">Oral</span> mucositis, a distressing side effect of cancer treatment, is both a research and clinical priority. Nurses can lead improvements with evidence-based <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis interventions. This article describes application of evidence-based clinical recommendations for <span class="hlt">oral</span> mucositis across diverse patient populations. PMID:24069711</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Farrington, Michele; Cullen, Laura; Dawson, Cindy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">440</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=HEAD+AND+NECK&pg=3&id=EJ359543"> <span id="translatedtitle">Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral <span class="hlt">Oral</span> Diagnosis/<span class="hlt">Oral</span> Medicine.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Oral</span> diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in <span class="hlt">oral</span> diagnosis/<span class="hlt">oral</span> medicine is presented. (MLW)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Journal of Dental Education, 1987</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a>