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1

42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

2011-10-01

2

42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

2010-10-01

3

42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

2013-10-01

4

42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

2012-10-01

5

STDs and Related Conditions (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

... Conditions Herpes Simplex Virus Cytomegalovirus Gonorrhea Hepatitis Syphilis Epstein-Barr Virus Dentists and dental personnel who treat you will ... At the Dentist Avoid non-emergency dental treatment. Epstein-Barr Virus Oral Effects The most common disease associated with ...

6

Oral bismuth for chronic intractable diarrheal conditions?  

PubMed Central

Objective Bismuth has antidiarrheal, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties. We report our single-center experience with oral colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) treatment for patients with chronic intractable diarrhea. Method We interrogated our web-based Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinical and Research database to ascertain clinical details on all patients in our tertiary hospital gastroenterology service treated with CBS between 2000 and 2010. Treatment responses were based on prospective scoring of daily number of liquid stools. Responses were recorded prior to commencement of CBS and at follow-up visits over 12 months. Results Thirty-one patients, mean age 47 years (range 17–79 years) and a mean duration of diarrhea of 22 weeks (range 6–104 weeks), were prescribed CBS at doses ranging from 120 mg to 480 mg/day for ?1 month. Of these, 23 patients (74%) had an initial clinical response and 12 (39%) who continued with this treatment had a sustained clinical response at 1 year. Twelve patients with pouchitis and four patients with indeterminate colitis had initial responses of 92% and 75%, respectively, and sustained responses of 50% and 75%, respectively. Ulcerative colitis patients (n = 5) responded poorly with respect to both initial and sustained responses. Three patients with microscopic colitis showed encouraging initial response of 100% but did not have any sustained benefit. Three of four patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (dIBS) had an initial response and two (50%) had good sustained responses. There were no serious adverse events. One patient stopped therapy because of nausea. Conclusion This is the largest report of oral bismuth treatment in chronic intractable diarrhea. CBS is cheap and appears to have the potential to be effective for ameliorating diarrheal symptoms in indeterminate colitis, pouchitis, and dIBS. An appropriately powered, blinded, randomized, controlled study appears warranted to establish the position of oral bismuth in routine practice. PMID:23515887

Thazhath, Sony S; Haque, Mazhar; Florin, Timothy H

2013-01-01

7

Respiratory Diseases and Conditions (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

Respiratory Diseases and Conditions Asthma Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Bronchitis and Emphysema Tuberculosis Sinusitis If you have a respiratory condition, make sure that your dentist always has an up-to-date ...

8

Chronic conditions policies: oral health, a felt absence.  

PubMed

The global health scenario shows an epidemic of non-communicable diseases that lead to long-term chronic conditions, some of which are incurable. Many infectious diseases, owing to their development and length, also generate chronic conditions. Similarly, non-morbid states, such as pregnancy, and some life cycles such as adolescence and ageing, follow the same logic. Among all these chronic conditions there is a significant interrelationship with oral health, both in parallel events and common risk factors. This article presents cross-sectional qualitative research into World Health Organisation recommended health policies to address chronic conditions. Several documents published by the organisation were analysed to verify the presence of references to oral health in relation to chronic conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes as these most frequently have oral manifestations. The analysis showed no significant references to oral health or its indicators within the published texts. The study recognises the value of the work developed by the World Health Organisation, as well as its worldwide leadership role in the development of health policies for chronic conditions. This article proposes a coalition of dentistry organisations that could, in a more forceful and collective way, advocate for a greater presence of oral health in drafting policies addressing chronic conditions. PMID:24571079

Luis Schwab, Gerson; Tetu Moysés, Simone; Helena Sottile França, Beatriz; Iani Werneck, Renata; Frank, Erica; Jorge Moysés, Samuel

2014-04-01

9

[An oral function improvement program utilizing health behavior theories ameliorates oral functions and oral hygienic conditions of pre-frail elderly persons].  

PubMed

Oral function improvement programs utilizing health behavior theories are considered to be effective in preventing the need for long-term social care. In the present study, an oral function improvement program based upon health behavior theories was designed, and its utility was assessed in 102 pre-frail elderly persons (33 males, 69 females, mean age: 76.9 +/- 5.7) considered to be in potential need of long-term social care and attending a long-term care prevention class in Sayama City, Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The degree of improvement in oral functions (7 items) and oral hygienic conditions (3 items) was assessed by comparing oral health before and after participation in the program. The results showed statistically significant improvements in the following oral functions: (1) lip functions (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllable "Pa"), (2) tongue functions, (3) tongue root motor skills (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllables "Ta" and "Ka"), (4) tongue extension/retraction, (5) side-to-side tongue movement functions, (6) cheek motor skills, and (7) repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST). The following measures of oral hygiene also showed a statistically significant improvement: (1) debris on dentures or teeth, (2) coated tongue, and (3) frequency of oral cleaning. These findings demonstrated that an improvement program informed by health behavior theories is useful in improving oral functions and oral hygiene conditions. PMID:25244722

Hideo, Sakaguchi

2014-06-01

10

The effects of airborne fluorides on oral conditions in Morocco  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of dental caries and dental fluorosis, as well as various other oral conditions, in 2378 subjects (ages seven to 60) living in the fluoridated area of Khouribga and the non-fluoridated area of Beni Mellal, Morocco. The community index of dental fluorosis (CFI) ranged from 1.99 to 2.80 in the high-fluoride area: Over 90% of the population was affected, and more than one-third of the subjects showed moderate dental fluorosis. However, in Beni Mellal, more than 96% of the dentate subjects examined were free of dental fluorosis, and the CFI of 0.02 was considered not significant. Significant differences were observed between the two areas with respect to caries prevalence. DMFT and DMFS indices were markedly lower in the fluorosis area of Khouribga. The oral conditions of subjects appeared to be better in Khouribga, where the gingival and calculus indices were significantly lower than in Beni Mellal. The analyses of covariance showed no significant differences in plaque accumulation (PI) between the Khouribga and Beni Mellal samples. However, a close statistical correlation was found between PI and GI in Beni Mellal and Khouribga.

Haikel, Y.; Cahen, P.M.; Turlot, J.C.; Frank, R.M. (Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France))

1989-08-01

11

34 CFR 34.9 - Conditions for an oral hearing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...in-person oral hearing with regard to administrative debts only in Washington D.C. (3) We provide an in-person oral hearing with regard to debts based on student loan or grant obligations only at our regional...

2012-07-01

12

34 CFR 34.9 - Conditions for an oral hearing.  

...in-person oral hearing with regard to administrative debts only in Washington D.C. (3) We provide an in-person oral hearing with regard to debts based on student loan or grant obligations only at our regional...

2014-07-01

13

34 CFR 34.9 - Conditions for an oral hearing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...in-person oral hearing with regard to administrative debts only in Washington D.C. (3) We provide an in-person oral hearing with regard to debts based on student loan or grant obligations only at our regional...

2011-07-01

14

34 CFR 34.9 - Conditions for an oral hearing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in-person oral hearing with regard to administrative debts only in Washington D.C. (3) We provide an in-person oral hearing with regard to debts based on student loan or grant obligations only at our regional...

2010-07-01

15

34 CFR 34.9 - Conditions for an oral hearing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in-person oral hearing with regard to administrative debts only in Washington D.C. (3) We provide an in-person oral hearing with regard to debts based on student loan or grant obligations only at our regional...

2013-07-01

16

Oral health conditions in Italian Special Olympics athletes.  

PubMed

During three Italian Special Olympics National Games, 365 athletes were screened. Dental and medical conditions and demographic data were recorded. The athletes were divided into two groups: those with Down syndrome (DS) and those without DS but who had intellectual disabilities (non-DS). Most of the subjects were in good systemic health. Total DMFt was 10.3 (SD 5.8; D=1.3; M=6.1; F=2.8). Decayed and filled teeth were significantly more frequent in athletes who did not have DS compared to those with DS. No significant differences were found between the two groups in the number of subjects with filled, sealed, or traumatized teeth. Athletes with DS and without DS who participated in the Italian Special Olympics had a similar oral status, which was better than Italian persons who were institutionalized and who had an intellectual disability. PMID:19284505

Dellavia, Claudia; Allievi, Cristina; Pallavera, Andrea; Rosati, Riccardo; Sforza, Chiarella

2009-01-01

17

Mouthwash Use and Oral Conditions in the Risk of Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interviews with 866 patients with cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx and 1249 controls of similar age and sex from the general population in four areas of the United States revealed increased risks associated with the regular use of mouthwash. Risks of oral cancer were elevated by 40% among male and 60% among female mouthwash users, after adjusting for

Deborah M. Winn; William J. Blot; Joseph K. McLaughlin; Donald F. Austin; Raymond S. Greenberg; Susan Preston-Martin; Janet B. Schoenberg; Joseph F. Fraumeni

1991-01-01

18

Suitability of limited sampling strategy to cyclosporine A oral formulation.  

PubMed

Therapeutic drug monitoring of cyclosporine A in renal transplant patients is normally performed by measuring pre-dose trough levels or doing area under the curve profiles from all possible sampling points. On the basis of good correlation between predicted area under the curve from limited sampling points and actual area under the curve (literature survey), a limited sampling strategy at 1, 3 and 5 hr was used and extended this strategy as a criteria for pilot evaluation of modified cyclosporine A formulations. Hemodialysis patients served as subjects for the study. Panimun Bioral was used as a test formulation while Sandimmun Neoral as standard reference. The study revealed that both formulations had similar restricted AUC0-5h profiles. PMID:12557917

Singh, S; Sharma, D R; Singh, A

2000-08-01

19

Limitations in Life Participation and Independence Due to Secondary Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of secondary conditions across adults with autism, Down syndrome, and cerebral palsy were explored in terms of overall limitation in life participation and independence, changes over time, and the degree and nature of limitation in specific secondary conditions. Information was obtained for 35 adults with autism, 49 with Down syndrome,…

Koritsas, Stella; Iacono, Teresa

2009-01-01

20

Relationships between self-rated oral health, subjective symptoms, oral health behavior and clinical conditions in Japanese university students: a cross-sectional survey at Okayama University  

PubMed Central

Background Self-rated oral health is a valid and useful summary indicator of overall oral health status and quality of life. However, few studies on perception of oral health have been conducted among Japanese young adults. This study investigated whether oral health behavior, subjective oral symptoms, or clinical oral status were associated with self-rated oral health in Japanese young adults. Methods This cross-sectional survey included 2,087 students (1,183 males, 904 females), aged 18 and 19 years, at Okayama University, Japan. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed and an oral examination was performed. Results In a structural equation modeling analysis, the score of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) significantly affected self-rated oral health (p <0.05) and the effect size was highest. Malocclusion, subjective symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and stomatitis, and poor oral health behavior significantly induced self-rated poor oral health with small effect sizes (p <0.05). Clinical periodontal conditions and Oral Hygiene Index-simplified were not related to self-rated oral health. Conclusion Self-rated oral health was influenced by subjective symptoms of TMD and stomatitis, oral health behavior, the score of DMFT, and malocclusion. The evaluation of these parameters may be a useful approach in routine dental examination to improve self-rated oral health in university students. PMID:24195632

2013-01-01

21

Cariogenic Microorganisms and Oral Conditions in Asthmatic Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the caries risk of asthmatic patients on the basis of mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli levels in saliva samples as well as the index of oral hygiene and dental caries (DMFT index). The study population was composed of 80 asthmatic children, aged 3–15 years, who use specific medication, and 80 matched, healthy control children. The parents were

M. P. J. Botelho; S. M. Maciel; A. Cerci Neto; C. C. Dezan; K. B. P. Fernandes; F. B. de Andrade

2011-01-01

22

Oral Health Condition and Treatment Needs of a Group of Nigerian Individuals with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study was carried out to determine the oral health condition and treatment needs of a group of individuals with Down syndrome in Nigeria. Method: Participants were examined for oral hygiene status, dental caries, malocclusion, hypoplasia, missing teeth, crowding and treatment needs. Findings were compared with controls across age…

Oredugba, Folakemi A.

2007-01-01

23

Oral mucosal conditions in preschool children of low socioeconomic status: prevalence and determinant factors.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of oral mucosal conditions and associated factors among 541 preschoolers of low socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Sociodemographic data and information on harmful oral habits were gathered with the use of a questionnaire. A clinical exam was performed for the determination of oral mucosal conditions, dental caries and level of oral hygiene. Data analysis involved statistical analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney test, chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and multivariate regression (p < 0.05, 95 % CI). The prevalence of oral mucosal conditions was 40.7 %. The most prevalent oral mucosal conditions were coated tongue (23.4 %), melanotic macules (14.4 %), oral ulcers (11.8 %), Fordyce's spots (8.1 %), angular cheilitis (3.0 %), geographic tongue (2.8 %), linea alba (1.5 %) and fistula (1.3 %). Children between 3 and 5 years of age had a greater chance of exhibiting coated tongue (OR, 2.55; 95 % CI, 1.6-4.1), melanotic macules (OR, 4.07; 95 % CI, 2.3-7.2) and Fordyce's spots (OR, 12.70; 95 % CI, 7.2-28.6). The female gender had a greater chance of exhibiting melanotic macules (OR, 2.23; 95 % CI, 1.3-1.8). Coated tongue was more prevalent among children from low-income families (OR, 2.35; 95 % CI, 1.3-4.3) and those with inadequate oral hygiene (OR, 4.65; 95 % CI, 2.9-7.4). Caries constituted a predictive factor for oral ulcers (OR, 2.15; 95 % CI, 1.2-3.9) and fistula (OR, 12.00; 95 % CI, 1.4-11.3). Bruxism (teeth clenching/grinding) was a predictive factor for angular cheilitis (OR, 5.55; 95 % CI, 1.9-16.3). The determinant factors for oral mucosal conditions were the female gender, age between 3 and 5 years, inadequate oral hygiene, low household income, residence in rural areas and presence of dental caries and bruxism. PMID:23354789

Vieira-Andrade, Raquel Gonçalves; Martins-Júnior, Paulo Antônio; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Stella, Paulo Eduardo Melo; Marinho, Sandra Aparecida; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia

2013-05-01

24

Survey of medical ethnobotanicals for dental and oral medicine conditions and pathologies.  

PubMed

Ethnomedical questionnaires were distributed in Chicago, Costa Rica, and Colombia to identify the most common over-the-counter (OTC) plant or plant-based products advocated for treating oral pain, ulcerative conditions, and cancer within these locations. Over 100 plants or plant-based herbal preparations and commercial products, purchased from local botanical markets and pharmacies, were advocated for the treatment of oral medicine conditions. Locally familiar and common language names were attributed to the plant products at the time of purchase. Plant products or plant-based commercial products containing plant-based essential oils, anesthetic constituents, and or chemical compounds recommended as OTC oral medicine preparations were systematized, tabulated, and correlated with the published phytotherapeutic literature. Though pharmacognostic research is available for some of the species collected, further ethnographic research is needed to correlate common names with the accurate taxonomic identification for each plant species. Furthermore, epidemiological research is needed to verify the use and standardized dosage for OTC ethnomedicine preparations for oral medicine conditions. Pharmacognostic research and clinical trails which can verify taxonomy, dose, safety, active principles, and efficacy of these OTC oral medicine products must be enhanced in order to verify the claimed validity in contemporary, global, oral medicine practice. PMID:16735102

Colvard, Michael D; Cordell, Geoffrey A; Villalobos, Rodrigo; Sancho, Gina; Soejarto, Doel D; Pestle, William; Echeverri, Tatiana Lobo; Perkowitz, Kathleen M; Michel, Joanna

2006-08-11

25

Technical Note Kitagawa-Takahashi diagrams define the limiting conditions  

E-print Network

Technical Note Kitagawa-Takahashi diagrams define the limiting conditions for cyclic fatigue Abstract: As cyclic fatigue is considered to be a major cause of clinical tooth fractures, achieving fatigue) loading, rather than a single trau- matic loading event.2,3 Cyclic stresses play a simi- larly

Ritchie, Robert

26

Socio-demographic factors and oral health conditions in the elderly: a population-based study.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between oral health conditions and socio-demographic factors in an elderly population from Macaíba/RN (Brazil). A questionnaire was used to characterize the socio-demographic profiles and a clinical examination was performed to assess oral health conditions such as tooth decay, gum disease, use of dental prosthesis, need for dental prosthesis and soft tissue injuries. The technique of random sampling by conglomerates was used, taken from randomly selected census drafts, with a total sample of 441 individuals. The prevalence of edentulism, bleeding and dental calculus was 50.8%, 27.2% and 32%, respectively, excluding all sextants in 59% of the elderly. Data analysis was conducted using the chi-squared test with the level of significance set at 5%. Prior to association tests, the dependant variables were submitted to principal component analysis. Four factors were extracted to represent the oral health conditions of elderly individuals. A statistically significant association was found between the following variables: gender and the presence of a caregiver with gum disease; age, residence area, presence of a caregiver and household density with need for dental prosthesis; and household density with soft tissue injuries. Therefore, precarious oral health conditions were found among the elderly and associations were found between these conditions and the socio-demographic factors, particularly gender, age and residence area. The results obtained demonstrated the need for improved oral health conditions in the elderly. The study of these conditions, allied to socio-demographic factors, is important in terms of both dental care and public policy planning related to these individuals. PMID:23773366

de Oliveira, Tamires Carneiro; da Silva, Diviane Alves; Leite de Freitas, Yan Nogueira; da Silva, Romerito Lins; Pegado, Carla Patrícia de Castro; de Lima, Kenio Costa

2013-01-01

27

Flammability Limits of Gases Under Low Gravity Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this combustion science investigation is to determine the effect of zero, fractional, and super gravity on the flammability limits of a premixed methane air flame in a standard 51 mm diameter flammability tube and to determine, if possible, the fluid flow associated with flame passage under zero-g conditions and the density (and hence, temperature) profiles associated with the flame under conditions of incipient extinction. This is accomplished by constructing an appropriate apparatus for placement in NASA's Lewis Research Center Lear Jet facility and flying the prescribed g-trajectories while the experiment is being performed. Data is recorded photographically using the visible light of the flame. The data acquired is: (1) the shape and propagation velocity of the flame under various g-conditions for methane compositions that are inside the flammable limits, and (2) the effect of gravity on the limits. Real time accelerometer readings for the three orthogonal directions are displayed in full view of the cameras and the framing rate of the cameras is used to measure velocities.

Strehlow, R. A.

1985-01-01

28

Global burden of oral conditions in 1990-2010: a systematic analysis.  

PubMed

The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2010 Study produced comparable estimates of the burden of 291 diseases and injuries in 1990, 2005, and 2010. This article reports on the global burden of untreated caries, severe periodontitis, and severe tooth loss in 2010 and compares those figures with new estimates for 1990. We used disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs) metrics to quantify burden. Oral conditions affected 3.9 billion people, and untreated caries in permanent teeth was the most prevalent condition evaluated for the entire GBD 2010 Study (global prevalence of 35% for all ages combined). Oral conditions combined accounted for 15 million DALYs globally (1.9% of all YLDs; 0.6% of all DALYs), implying an average health loss of 224 years per 100,000 population. DALYs due to oral conditions increased 20.8% between 1990 and 2010, mainly due to population growth and aging. While DALYs due to severe periodontitis and untreated caries increased, those due to severe tooth loss decreased. DALYs differed by age groups and regions, but not by genders. The findings highlight the challenge in responding to the diversity of urgent oral health needs worldwide, particularly in developing communities. PMID:23720570

Marcenes, W; Kassebaum, N J; Bernabé, E; Flaxman, A; Naghavi, M; Lopez, A; Murray, C J L

2013-07-01

29

The reported impact of oral condition on children in the United Kingdom, 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The 2003 Children's Dental Health Survey is the fourth in a series of decennial national children's dental health surveys of the United Kingdom.Aims This paper is concerned with how children are reported to have been affected by their oral condition during the 12 month period immediately preceding the survey and how this relates to the children's experience of caries,

J G Steele; D Evans; B Chadwick; A J Morris; K Hill; N M Nuttall

2006-01-01

30

Feasibility and benefits of methanogenesis under oxygen-limited conditions  

SciTech Connect

Methanogenic and aerobic (or microaerophilic) biological processes are often considered mutually exclusive and separated as biological wastewater treatment options. However, under oxygen-limited conditions, both aerobic respiration and methanogenesis can be practically accomplished by a single mixed culture. This paper describes sustained batch culture, oxygen-limited methanogenic serum bottle and bench-scale systems. Serum bottle cultures exhibited methanogenic activity similar to or greater than that of a strictly anaerobic culture maintained in parallel. The COD removal efficiencies of anaerobic, oxygen-limited, and aerobic bench-scale reactors receiving 30,000 mg/l of sucrose were all greater than 93%, a system receiving 1 g O{sub 2}/L{sub R}-day achieved a lower final effluent COD than the strictly anaerobic reactor. After a shock-load of sucrose, the pH recovered in low-aeration batch reactors in 28--34 days, whereas anaerobic pH did not recover after 52 days of observation. In the future, methanogenesis under limited-aeration may be employed as an energy efficient treatment option to achieve low final COD concentrations, minimal biosolids generation, and mineralization of a broad range of specific organic chemicals.

Zitomer, D.H.; Shrout, J.D. [Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States)] [Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States)

1998-12-31

31

Oxygen consumption rates of bacteria under nutrient-limited conditions.  

PubMed

Many environments on Earth experience nutrient limitation and as a result have nongrowing or very slowly growing bacterial populations. To better understand bacterial respiration under environmentally relevant conditions, the effect of nutrient limitation on respiration rates of heterotrophic bacteria was measured. The oxygen consumption and population density of batch cultures of Escherichia coli K-12, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 were tracked for up to 200 days. The oxygen consumption per CFU (QO2) declined by more than 2 orders of magnitude for all three strains as they transitioned from nutrient-abundant log-phase growth to the nutrient-limited early stationary phase. The large reduction in QO2 from growth to stationary phase suggests that nutrient availability is an important factor in considering environmental respiration rates. Following the death phase, during the long-term stationary phase (LTSP), QO2 values of the surviving population increased with time and more cells were respiring than formed colonies. Within the respiring population, a subpopulation of highly respiring cells increased in abundance with time. Apparently, as cells enter LTSP, there is a viable but not culturable population whose bulk community and per cell respiration rates are dynamic. This result has a bearing on how minimal energy requirements are met, especially in nutrient-limited environments. The minimal QO2 rates support the extension of Kleiber's law to the mass of a bacterium (100-fg range). PMID:23770901

Riedel, Timothy E; Berelson, William M; Nealson, Kenneth H; Finkel, Steven E

2013-08-01

32

Oral health conditions and frailty in Mexican community-dwelling elderly: a cross sectional analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Oral health is an important component of general well-being for the elderly. Oral health-related problems include loss of teeth, nonfunctional removable dental prostheses, lesions of the oral mucosa, periodontitis, and root caries. They affect food selection, speaking ability, mastication, social relations, and quality of life. Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that confers vulnerability to negative health-related outcomes. The association between oral health and frailty has not been explored thoroughly. This study sought to identify associations between the presence of some oral health conditions, and frailty status among Mexican community-dwelling elderly. Methods Analysis of baseline data of the Mexican Study of Nutritional and Psychosocial Markers of Frailty, a cohort study carried out in a representative sample of people aged 70 and older residing in one district of Mexico City. Frailty was defined as the presence of three or more of the following five components: weight loss, exhaustion, slowness, weakness, and low physical activity. Oral health variables included self-perception of oral health compared with others of the same age; utilization of dental services during the last year, number of teeth, dental condition (edentate, partially edentate, or completely dentate), utilization and functionality of removable partial or complete dentures, severe periodontitis, self-reported chewing problems and xerostomia. Covariates included were gender, age, years of education, cognitive performance, smoking status, recent falls, hospitalization, number of drugs, and comorbidity. The association between frailty and dental variables was determined performing a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Final models were adjusted by socio-demographic and health factors Results Of the 838 participants examined, 699 had the information needed to establish the criteria for diagnosis of frailty. Those who had a higher probability of being frail included women (OR?=?1.9), those who reported myocardial infarction (OR?=?3.8), urinary incontinence (OR?=?2.7), those who rated their oral health worse than others (OR?=?3.2), and those who did not use dental services (OR?=?2.1). For each additional year of age and each additional drug consumed, the probability of being frail increased 10% and 30%, respectively. Conclusions Utilization of dental services and self-perception of oral health were associated with a higher probability of being frail. PMID:22971075

2012-01-01

33

National Survey of Oral/Dental Conditions Related to Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Mexican Adults  

PubMed Central

Oral diseases are a major burden on individuals and health systems. The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of tobacco and alcohol were associated with the prevalence of oral/dental problems in Mexican adults. Using data from the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2003, a cross-sectional study part of the World Health Survey, dental information from a representative sample of Mexico (n = 22,229, N = 51,155,740) was used to document self-reported oral/dental problems in the 12 months prior to the survey. Questionnaires were used to collect information related to sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and other risk factors. Three models were generated for each age group (18–30, 31–45 and 46–98 years). The prevalence of oral/dental conditions was 25.7%. Adjusting for sex, schooling, socioeconomic position, diabetes, and self-reported health, those who used tobacco (sometimes or daily) (OR = 1.15, p = 0.070; OR = 1.24, p < 0.01; and OR = 1.16, p < 0.05, for each age group respectively) or alcohol (moderate or high) (OR = 1.26, p < 0.001; OR = 1.18, p < 0.01 and OR = 1.30, p < 0.001, for each age group respectively) had a higher risk of reporting oral/dental problems. Because tobacco and alcohol use were associated with self-reported oral/dental problems in one out of four adults, it appears advisable to ascertain how direct is such link; more direct effects would lend greater weight to adopting measures to reduce consumption of tobacco and alcohol for the specific purpose of improving oral health. PMID:24642844

Medina-Solis, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, America Patricia; Perez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernandez-Cruz, Pedro; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodriguez, Martha; Maupome, Gerardo

2014-01-01

34

National survey of oral/dental conditions related to tobacco and alcohol use in Mexican adults.  

PubMed

Oral diseases are a major burden on individuals and health systems. The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of tobacco and alcohol were associated with the prevalence of oral/dental problems in Mexican adults. Using data from the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2003, a cross-sectional study part of the World Health Survey, dental information from a representative sample of Mexico (n = 22,229, N = 51,155,740) was used to document self-reported oral/dental problems in the 12 months prior to the survey. Questionnaires were used to collect information related to sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and other risk factors. Three models were generated for each age group (18-30, 31-45 and 46-98 years). The prevalence of oral/dental conditions was 25.7%. Adjusting for sex, schooling, socioeconomic position, diabetes, and self-reported health, those who used tobacco (sometimes or daily) (OR = 1.15, p = 0.070; OR = 1.24, p < 0.01; and OR = 1.16, p < 0.05, for each age group respectively) or alcohol (moderate or high) (OR = 1.26, p < 0.001; OR = 1.18, p < 0.01 and OR = 1.30, p < 0.001, for each age group respectively) had a higher risk of reporting oral/dental problems. Because tobacco and alcohol use were associated with self-reported oral/dental problems in one out of four adults, it appears advisable to ascertain how direct is such link; more direct effects would lend greater weight to adopting measures to reduce consumption of tobacco and alcohol for the specific purpose of improving oral health. PMID:24642844

Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

2014-03-01

35

Assessment of the oral health condition of nursing home residents by primary care nurses.  

PubMed

We interviewed 36 primary care nurses in three Dutch nursing homes regarding the functional oral health and dental treatment needs of 331 care-dependent residents (average age 77.8 years). The nurses assessed the residents' oral health condition as good (8.3 on a scale of 0 to 10). Edentulous residents wearing dentures were considered to have better functional oral health than dentate residents wearing partial dentures and edentulous residents not wearing dentures. According to the nurses, only 9% of the residents required dental treatment. This finding is in contrast with an intraoral study of the same population, in which dentists determined that 73% of the residents needed dental treatment. PMID:25353656

Gerritsen, P F M; Schrijvers, A J P; Cune, M S; van der Bilt, A; de Putter, C

2014-11-01

36

Enhancement of oscillatory activity in the endopiriform nucleus of rats raised under abnormal oral conditions.  

PubMed

Endopiriform nucleus (EPN) is located deep to the piriform cortex, and has neural connections with not only neighboring sensory areas but also subcortical areas where emotional and nociceptive information is processed. Well-balanced oral condition might play an important role in stability of brain activities. When the oral condition is impaired, several areas in the brain might be affected. In the present study, we investigated whether abnormal conditions of oral region influence neural activities in the EPN. Orthodontic appliance that generates continuous force and chronic pain-related stress was fixed to maxillary incisors of rats, and raised. Field potential recordings were made from the EPN of brain slices. We previously reported that the EPN has an ability to generate membrane potential oscillation. In the present study, we have applied the same methods to assess activities of neuron clusters in the EPN. In the case of normal rats, stable field potential oscillations were induced in the EPN by application of low-frequency electrical stimulation under the medium with caffeine. In the case of rats with the orthodontic appliance, stable field potential oscillations were also induced, but both duration of oscillatory activities and wavelet number were increased. The enhanced oscillations were depressed by blockade of NMDA receptors. Thus, impairment of oral health under application of continuous orthodontic force and chronic pain-related stress enhanced neural activities in the EPN, in which up-regulation of NMDA receptors may be concerned. These findings suggest that the EPN might be involved in information processing with regard to abnormal conditions of oral region. PMID:24406147

Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Hasumoto-Honjo, Miho; Sugai, Tokio; Segami, Natsuki; Kato, Nobuo

2014-02-21

37

Survey of hospital doctors' attitudes and knowledge of oral conditions in older patients  

PubMed Central

The study was designed to assess the views and knowledge of hospital doctors in general and geriatric medicine on oral health in older people. Eighty two doctors in general and geriatric medicine at two hospitals were shown 12 colour slides of oral mucosal conditions and asked to give a diagnosis for each slide and complete a questionnaire. Completed questionnaires with the answers to the coloured slides were returned completed by 70 doctors.?The majority of doctors (84%) felt it was important to examine older patients' mouths, however only 19% (?2 p=0.0001) routinely do so. If asked to prescribe nystatin by the nursing staff, 30% said they would do so without examining the mouth itself. Only 9% of doctors knew that wearing dentures was a specific risk factor for oral candidiasis (?2 p=0.001). Altogether 56% of doctors did not feel confident in examining the oral cavity and most (77%) did not think they had had sufficient training in this examination. Only two doctors correctly diagnosed all of the slides. An early squamous carcinoma was misdiagnosed by 80% of the doctors (?2 p=0.0001).?Hospital doctors do not routinely inspect older patients' mouths. Even if shown slides of typical oral mucosal lesions many hospital doctors are unable to diagnose them. Issues on training need to be addressed. From the patients' point of view a public health campaign is required to educate older people on the need for a regular dental review and be aware that doctors may not be able to diagnose serious oral conditions.? PMID:11375454

Morgan, R; Tsang, J; Harrington, N; Fook, L

2001-01-01

38

[Oral health conditions diagnostic in cerebral palsy individuals of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].  

PubMed

Cerebral Palsy (CP) is an encephalic static lesion defined as a non-progressive disorder of movements and posture. It is usually associated with epilepsy, speaking, hearing and sight disorders and also mental retardation. Even though, people who have CP need special care for the prevention of factors linked to oral problems, in the odontological context, the literary information is contradictory when it comes to the incidence of oral diseases on patients who have cerebral palsy. In order to determine the oral health and associated factors conditions, an epidemiological research has been made in 41 children who have cerebral palsy. The variables taken into account were: social-economical aspects, risk factors for the development of oral diseases, access to odontological care, caries index, periodontal disease, malocclusion and dental fluorose. Children who were examined showed a higher level of gingivitis and caries experience, mainly on the primary dentition, and also severe malocclusions, factors that indicate the need of early intervention, whether with educational programs or healing assistance. The study has shown that, in addition to the quantitative necessity of care, it is also necessary to improve the quality of these patients' consultations. PMID:19851607

Guerreiro, Patrícia Osório; Garcias, Gilberto de Lima

2009-01-01

39

First-wall and limiter conditioning in TFTR  

SciTech Connect

A progress report on the experimental studies of vacuum vessel conditioning during the first year of TFTR operation is presented. A previous paper described the efforts expended to condition the TFTR vessel prior to and during the initial plasma start-up experiments. During the start-up phase, discharge cleaning was performed with the vessel at room temperature. For the second phase of TFTR operations, which was directed towards the optimization of ohmically heated plasmas, the vacuum vessel could be heated to 150/sup 0/C. The internal configuration of the TFTR vessel was more complex during the second phase with the addition of a TiC/C moveable limiter array, Inconel bellows cover plates, and ZrAl getter pumps. A quantitative comparison is given on the effectiveness of vessel bakeout, glow discharge cleaning, and pulse discharge cleaning in terms of the total quantity of removed carbon and oxygen, residual gas base pressures and the resulting plasma impurity levels as measured by visible, uv, and soft x-ray spectroscopy. The initial experience with hydrogen isotope changeover in TFTR is presented including the results of the attempt to hasten the changeover time by using a glow discharge to precondition the vessel with the new isotope.

Dylla, H.F.; Blanchard, W.R.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hill, K.W.; Krawchuk, R.B.; Mueller, D.; Owens, D.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Sesnic, S.; Tenney, F.H.

1984-10-01

40

Limits of deterministic predictability in limited area models due to sensible dependence on initial conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the late 50ies and the 60ies the limit of predictability of weather has been shown to be 5 to 14 days by theoretical and numerical studies as consequence of sensible dependence on initial conditions. The simulation of an ensemble is the standard approach to address this uncertainty. Climatological means over time scales of 30 years are regarded as 'certain' under constant climate forcing conditions. A systematic analysis of predictability limits on different space and time scales in the earth system is still missing. It is relevant in particular for time scales between the time scales of weather and climate and helps avoiding misinterpretation of the results and/or to find an optimal configuration for the ensemble. In terms of statistics, the predictability of weather can be associated with the predictability of 6h and 100 km mean values. In mid latitudes it reaches a saturation value at the time scale of baroclinic instability Ti of 3-5 days. In the case of a purely stochastic process, this uncertainty is decreasing with N- where N is the number of instability time periods. One of the open questions is, which field variables exhibit a purely stochastic behavior and where. The application of Earth System Models is computationally demanding. Chaotic behavior may occur in some regions at certain conditions affecting the analysis. A huge number of degrees of freedom makes very long simulation times necessary. The application of limited area modeling opens the opportunity to analyse the behavior in different regions independently und thus to investigate the stochastic properties in different climates. Three different regions Europe, Africa and Central America have been simulated twice (reference and disturbance run) at standard grid resolution of 18 to 25 km using the community model COSMO-CLM. In Europe a purely stochastic behavior was found for the momentum, pressure and precipitation. A strong memory effect was found for soil moisture and temperature and a weak memory effect for the atmospheric temperature. The analysis of the simulation for Africa and Meso-America is ongoing. Predictability limits for different thresholds and variables can be calculated in terms of the ensemble size needed to keep the uncertainty below the threshold. Such maps will be presented and the differences between the variables and regions will be discussed.

Will, Andreas

2014-05-01

41

Oral complementary medicine and alternative practitioner use varies across chronic conditions and attitudes to risk  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether chronic conditions and patient factors, such as risk perception and decision-making preferences, are associated with complementary medicine and alternative practitioner use in a representative longitudinal population cohort. Participants and setting Analysis of data from Stage 2 of the North West Adelaide Health Study of 3161 adults who attended a study clinic visit in 2004–2006. The main outcome measures were the medications brought by participants to the study clinic visit, chronic health conditions, attitudes to risk, levels of satisfaction with conventional medicine, and preferred decision-making style. Results At least one oral complementary medicine was used by 27.9% of participants, and 7.3% were visiting alternative practitioners (naturopath, osteopath). Oral complementary medicine use was significantly associated with arthritis, osteoporosis, and mental health conditions, but not with other chronic conditions. Any pattern of complementary medicine use was generally significantly associated with female gender, age at least 45 years, patient-driven decision-making preferences (odds ratio [OR] 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08–1.77), and frequent general practitioner visits (>five per year; OR 3.62, 95% CI: 2.13–6.17). Alternative practitioner visitors were younger, with higher levels of education (diploma/trade [OR 1.88, 95% CI: 1.28–2.76], bachelor’s degree [OR 1.77, 95% CI: 1.11–2.82], income >$80,000 (OR 2.28, 95% CI: 1.26–4.11), female gender (OR 3.15, 95% CI: 2.19–4.52), joint pain not diagnosed as arthritis (OR 1.68, 95% CI: 1.17–2.41), moderate to severe depressive symptoms (OR 2.15, 95% CI: 1.04–4.46), and risk-taking behavior (3.26, 1.80–5.92), or low-to-moderate risk aversion (OR 2.08, 95% CI: 1.26–4.11). Conclusion Although there is widespread use of complementary medicines in the Australian community, there are differing patterns of use between those using oral complementary medicines and those using alternative practitioners. PMID:21152252

Adams, Robert J; Appleton, Sarah L; Cole, Antonia; Gill, Tiffany K; Taylor, Anne W; Hill, Catherine L

2010-01-01

42

Oral anticancer drugs: how limited dosing options and dose reductions may affect outcomes in comparative trials and efficacy in patients.  

PubMed

Historically, cancer medicine has avoided the problem of unequal dosing by comparing maximum-tolerated doses of intravenous regimens with proportionate dose reductions for toxicity. However, in recent years, with the development of numerous oral anticancer agents, dosing options are arbitrarily and increasingly limited by the size of pills. We contend that an underappreciated consequence of pill size is unequal dosing in comparative clinical trials and that this can have an impact on outcomes. We discuss how comparative effectiveness trials can be unbalanced and how the use of doses that are not sustainable might affect outcomes, especially marginal ones. We further argue that because of their poor tolerability and their limited dosing options, which often result in large dose adjustments in response to toxicity, the real-world clinical effectiveness of oral anticancer agents may be diminished and may not emulate results achieved in registration trials. PMID:24711558

Prasad, Vinay; Massey, Paul R; Fojo, Tito

2014-05-20

43

A Case of Sublingual Dermoid Cyst: Extending the Limits of the Oral Approach  

PubMed Central

We present the case of a dermoid cyst with an oral and a submental component in a 21-year-old Japanese woman who presented with complaints of a mass in the oral cavity and difficulty in chewing and swallowing solid foods for about 2 years. MRI shows a 55 × 65?mm well-circumscribed cystic mass extending from the sublingual area to the mylohyoid muscle. Under general anesthesia and with nasotracheal intubation, the patient underwent surgical removal of the mass. Although the cyst was large and extending mylohyoid muscle, intraoral midline incision was performed through the mucosa overlying the swelling and the cyst was separated from the surrounding tissues with appropriate traction and countertraction and successfully removed without extraoral incision. Oral approach in surgical enucleation is useful procedure to avoid cosmetic problems in large and extending mylohyoid muscle cyst. PMID:23056976

Ohta, Nobuo; Watanabe, Tomoo; Ito, Tsukasa; Kubota, Toshinori; Suzuki, Yusuke; Ishida, Akihiro; Kakehata, Seiji; Aoyagi, Masaru

2012-01-01

44

Development of a multispecies oral bacterial community in a saliva-conditioned flow cell.  

PubMed

Microbial communities within the human oral cavity are dynamic associations of more than 500 bacterial species that form biofilms on the soft and hard tissues of the mouth. Understanding the development and spatial organization of oral biofilms has been facilitated by the use of in vitro models. We used a saliva-conditioned flow cell, with saliva as the sole nutritional source, as a model to examine the development of multispecies biofilm communities from an inoculum containing the coaggregation partners Streptococcus gordonii, Actinomyces naeslundii, Veillonella atypica, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Biofilms inoculated with individual species in a sequential order were compared with biofilms inoculated with coaggregates of the four species. Our results indicated that flow cells inoculated sequentially produced biofilms with larger biovolumes compared to those biofilms inoculated with coaggregates. Individual-species biovolumes within the four-species communities also differed between the two modes of inoculation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with genus- and species-specific probes revealed that the majority of cells in both sequentially and coaggregate-inoculated biofilms were S. gordonii, regardless of the inoculation order. However, the representation of A. naeslundii and V. atypica was significantly higher in biofilms inoculated with coaggregates compared to sequentially inoculated biofilms. Thus, these results indicate that the development of multispecies biofilm communities is influenced by coaggregations preformed in planktonic phase. Coaggregating bacteria such as certain streptococci are especially adapted to primary colonization of saliva-conditioned surfaces independent of the mode of inoculation and order of addition in the multispecies inoculum. Preformed coaggregations favor other bacterial strains and may facilitate symbiotic relationships. PMID:15240317

Foster, Jamie S; Kolenbrander, Paul E

2004-07-01

45

Children's trust in unexpected oral versus printed suggestions: Limitations of the power of print.  

PubMed

Children have a bias to trust spoken testimony, yet early readers have an even stronger bias to trust print. Here, we ask how enduring is the influence of printed testimony: Can the learning be applied to new scenarios? Using hybrid pictures more dominant in one animal species (e.g., squirrel) than another (e.g., rabbit), we examined 3-6-year-olds' (N = 130) acceptance of an unexpected, non-dominant label suggested only orally or via print. Consistent with previous findings, early readers, but not pre-readers, accepted printed labels more frequently than when spoken. Children were then presented with identical but unlabelled hybrid exemplars and frequently applied the non-dominant labels to these. Despite early readers' prior greater acceptance of text, when oral suggestions were accepted they retained a greater influence. Findings highlight potential implications for educators regarding knowledge being applied to new scenarios: For early readers, unexpected information from text may be fragile, while a greater confidence might be placed in such information gained from spoken testimony. PMID:24986692

Eyden, Julie; Robinson, Elizabeth J; Einav, Shiri

2014-11-01

46

Effect of handling and storage conditions and stabilizing agent on the recovery of viral RNA from oral fluid of pigs.  

PubMed

There is an increasing interest in using oral fluid to determine herd health and documenting the circulation of viruses in commercial swine populations but little is known about the stability of viruses in oral fluid. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic virus which is widespread in swine herds. Information on optimal handling methods such as heat treatments, freezing and RNA stabilization agents is needed to prevent or minimize degradation of viral RNA by degradative enzymes. The objectives of the study were to determine optimum handling conditions of the oral fluid before RNA extraction and to compare the performance of the RNeasy Protect Saliva Mini kit, which contains a stabilizing agent, with that of the QIAamp Viral RNA Mini kit, which does not contain a stabilizing agent. Preliminary studies with oral fluid inoculated with HEV indicated that a heat treatment of 60°C for 15min was detrimental to HEV RNA. HEV was recovered from 25/25 and 24/25 samples of oral fluid when samples were incubated for ?24h at 4°C and 30days at -20°C, respectively, without a stabilizing agent and extracted with the QiaAMP kit. In contrast, HEV RNA was detected in 16/25 and 11/25 samples when samples were incubated with a stabilizing agent for 24h at 37°C and 30days at -20°C, respectively, and extracted with the RNeasy Protect Saliva kit. Moreover, the mean number of genome copies/ml of HEV recovered from oral fluid stored at -20°C without the stabilizing agent was 2.9 log units higher than oral fluid stored at -20°C in the presence of the stabilizing agent. The recovery of RNA from HEV, F-RNA coliphage MS2 and murine norovirus (MNV), which are surrogates for norovirus, was significantly greater when oral fluid was incubated for 24h at 4°C than when oral fluid was stabilized with RNAprotect Saliva Reagent for 24h at 37°C, where the relative differences between the two processes were 1.4, 1.8, and 2.7 log genome copies/ml for MS2, MNV, and HEV, respectively. The findings suggest that it is unnecessary to stabilize oral fluid from swine for the detection of viral RNA, provided the samples are stored at 4°C or frozen at -20°C, and that the RNeasy Protect Saliva Mini kit did not perform well for the detection of viral RNA. PMID:24384096

Jones, T H; Muehlhauser, V

2014-03-01

47

42 CFR 410.23 - Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and limitations on coverage...Services § 410.23 Screening for glaucoma: Conditions for and limitations on coverage...Individual with a family history of glaucoma. (iii) African-Americans age...

2010-10-01

48

Plasma, oral fluid and sweat wipe ecstasy concentrations in controlled and real life conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a double-blind placebo controlled study on psychomotor skills important for car driving (Study 1), a 75mg dose of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) was administered orally to 12 healthy volunteers who were known to be recreational MDMA-users. Toxicokinetic data were gathered by analysis of blood, urine, oral fluid and sweat wipes collected during the first 5h after administration. Resultant plasma concentrations varied

Nele Samyn; Gert De Boeck; Michelle Wood; Caroline T. J Lamers; Dick De Waard; Karel A Brookhuis; Alain G Verstraete; Wim J Riedel

2002-01-01

49

Hydrodynamic modelling of aquatic suction performance and intra-oral pressures: limitations for comparative studies  

PubMed Central

The magnitude of sub-ambient pressure inside the bucco-pharyngeal cavity of aquatic animals is generally considered a valuable metric of suction feeding performance. However, these pressures do not provide a direct indication of the effect of the suction act on the movement of the prey item. Especially when comparing suction performance of animals with differences in the shape of the expanding bucco-pharyngeal cavity, the link between speed of expansion, water velocity, force exerted on the prey and intra-oral pressure remains obscure. By using mathematical models of the heads of catfishes, a morphologically diverse group of aquatic suction feeders, these relationships were tested. The kinematics of these models were fine-tuned to transport a given prey towards the mouth in the same way. Next, the calculated pressures inside these models were compared. The results show that no simple relationship exists between the amount of generated sub-ambient pressure and the force exerted on the prey during suction feeding, unless animals of the same species are compared. Therefore, for evaluating suction performance in aquatic animals in future studies, the focus should be on the flow velocities in front of the mouth, for which a direct relationship exists with the hydrodynamic force exerted on prey. PMID:16849247

Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Aerts, Peter; Herrel, Anthony

2006-01-01

50

Numerical simulation of the flow over a coastal structure in depth-limited conditions  

E-print Network

of detailed measurements of irregular wave transformation in front of the structure in depth-limited conditions. The second data set consists of several test runs to study the irregular wave reflection and runup on the coastal structure in depth...

Ginting, Victor Eralingga

2012-06-07

51

50 CFR 22.32 - Conditions and limitations on taking under depredation control order.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS Depredation Control Orders on Golden Eagles § 22.32 Conditions and limitations...order. (a) Whenever the taking of golden eagles without a permit is authorized for...

2011-10-01

52

50 CFR 22.32 - Conditions and limitations on taking under depredation control order.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS Depredation Control Orders on Golden Eagles § 22.32 Conditions and limitations...order. (a) Whenever the taking of golden eagles without a permit is authorized for...

2010-10-01

53

Parameter Estimation of Dynamic Air-conditioning Component Models Using Limited Sensor Data  

E-print Network

This thesis presents an approach for identifying critical model parameters in dynamic air-conditioning systems using limited sensor information. The expansion valve model and the compressor model parameters play a crucial role in the system model...

Hariharan, Natarajkumar

2011-08-08

54

Oral health-related quality of life in complete denture wearers depending on their socio-demographic background, prosthetic-related factors and clinical condition  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the differences in impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among complete denture wearers depending on their socio-demographic characteristics, prosthetic-related factors and oral status. Study Design: 51 patients aged 50-90 years treated, from 2005 to 2010, with at least one complete denture at the Department of Buccofacial Prostheses of the Complutense University (Madrid) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. All of the participants answered the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14sp) questionnaire. The additive scoring method was used. The prevalence of impacts was calculated by using the occasional threshold (OHIP-14sp score?2). Socio-demographic and prosthetic-related variables were gathered. Patients underwent clinical examination to assess their oral condition. Descriptive probes and Chi-Square tests were run (p?0.05). Results: The predominant participants’ profile was that of a man with a mean age of 69 years wearing complete dentures in both the maxilla and the mandible. The prevalence of impact was 23.5%, showing an average score of 19±9.8. The most affected domains were “functional limitation” and “physical pain”, followed by “physical disability”. Minor impacts were recorded for the psychological and social subscales (“psychological discomfort”, “psychological disability”, “social disability” and “handicap”). The prosthesis’ location significantly influenced the overall patient satisfaction, the lower dentures being the less comfortable. Having a complete removable denture as antagonist significantly hampered the patient satisfaction. Patients without prosthetic stomatitis and those who need repairing or changing their prostheses, recorded significantly higher OHIP-14sp total scores. Conclusions: The use of conventional complete dentures brings negative impacts in the OHRQoL of elderly patients, mainly in case of lower prostheses that required reparation or substitution, with a removable total denture as antagonist. The prosthetic stomatitis in this study was always associated to other severe illness, which may have influenced the self-perceived discomfort with the prostheses, as those patients were daily medicated with painkillers. Key words:Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP), oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), patient satisfaction, complete denture, elderly patients. PMID:23385509

Perea, Carmen; Suarez-Garcia, Maria J.; Del Rio, Jaime; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Montero, Javier

2013-01-01

55

Al-hijamah and oral honey for treating thalassemia, conditions of iron overload, and hyperferremia: toward improving the therapeutic outcomes  

PubMed Central

Iron overload causes iron deposition and accumulation in the liver, heart, skin, and other tissues resulting in serious tissue damages. Significant blood clearance from iron and ferritin using wet cupping therapy (WCT) has been reported. WCT is an excretory form of treatment that needs more research efforts. WCT is an available, safe, simple, economic, and time-saving outpatient modality of treatment that has no serious side effects. There are no serious limitations or precautions to discontinue WCT. Interestingly, WCT has solid scientific and medical bases (Taibah mechanism) that explain its effectiveness in treating many disease conditions differing in etiology and pathogenesis. WCT utilizes an excretory physiological principle (pressure-dependent excretion) that resembles excretion through renal glomerular filtration and abscess evacuation. WCT exhibits a percutaneous excretory function that clears blood (through fenestrated skin capillaries) and interstitial fluids from pathological substances without adding a metabolic or detoxification burden on the liver and the kidneys. Interestingly, WCT was reported to decrease serum ferritin (circulating iron stores) significantly by about 22.25% in healthy subjects (in one session) and to decrease serum iron significantly to the level of causing iron deficiency (in multiple sessions). WCT was reported to clear blood significantly of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol, uric acid, inflammatory mediators, and immunoglobulin antibodies (rheumatoid factor). Moreover, WCT was reported to enhance the natural immunity, potentiate pharmacological treatments, and to treat many different disease conditions. There are two distinct methods of WCT: traditional WCT and Al-hijamah (WCT of prophetic medicine). Both start and end with skin sterilization. In traditional WCT, there are two steps, skin scarification followed by suction using plastic cups (double S technique); Al-hijamah is a three-step procedure that includes skin suction using cups, scarification (shartat mihjam in Arabic), and second skin suction (triple S technique). Al-hijamah is a more comprehensive technique and does better than traditional WCT, as Al-hijamah includes two pressure-dependent filtration steps versus one step in traditional WCT. Whenever blood plasma is to be cleared of an excess pathological substance, Al-hijamah is indicated. We will discuss here some reported hematological and therapeutic benefits of Al-hijamah, its medical bases, methodologies, precautions, side effects, contraindications, quantitative evaluation, malpractice, combination with oral honey treatment, and to what extent it may be helpful when treating thalassemia and other conditions of iron overload and hyperferremia. PMID:25382989

El Sayed, Salah Mohamed; Baghdadi, Hussam; Abou-Taleb, Ashraf; Mahmoud, Hany Salah; Maria, Reham A; Ahmed, Nagwa S; Helmy Nabo, Manal Mohamed

2014-01-01

56

Can conditions experienced during migration limit the population levels of birds?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of migratory birds are usually considered to be limited by conditions in breeding or wintering areas, but some\\u000a might be limited by conditions encountered on migration. This could occur at stopover sites where competition for restricted\\u000a food supplies can reduce subsequent survival or breeding success, or during the flights themselves, when adverse weather can\\u000a occasionally kill large numbers of

Ian Newton

2006-01-01

57

42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

2010-10-01

58

42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations...following definitions apply: (1) Prostate cancer screening tests means any of the...

2012-10-01

59

Brownian motion on a manifold as limit of stepwise conditioned standard Brownian motions  

E-print Network

Brownian motion on a manifold as limit of stepwise conditioned standard Brownian motions O. G of a general study of the relation between the law of Brownian motion on M and the flat Wiener measure a standard n­dimensional Brownian motion in the surrounding space which is conditioned to return to M

von Weizsäcker, Heinrich

60

The impact of low power laser in the treatment of conditioning-induced oral mucositis: A report of 11 clinical cases and their review  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the clinical effects of low power laser therapy (LPLT) on the treatment of conditioning-induced oral mucositis (OM) in patients submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The evaluation of OM was done using the Oral Mucositis Assessment Scale (OMAS) and World Health Organization (WHO) scale. In the context of a randomized placebo-controlled trial with 38 patients for

Valkiria D'Aiuto de Matos; Claudia Tereza Pinheiro; Carlos Gil Ferreira; Héliton Spíndola Antunes

61

Classical limit of master equation for harmonic oscillator coupled to oscillator bath with separable initial conditions  

E-print Network

The equation for the Wigner function describing the reduced dynamics of a single harmonic oscillator, coupled to an oscillator bath, was obtained by Karrlein and Grabert [Phys. Rev. E, vol. 55, 153 (1997)]. It was shown that for some special correlated initial conditions the equation reduces, in the classical limit, to the corresponding classical Fokker-Planck equation obtained by Adelman [J. Chem Phys., vol. 64, 124 (1976)]. However for separable initial conditions the Adelman equations were not recovered. We resolve this problem by showing that, for separable initial conditions, the classical Langevin equation obtained from the oscillator bath model is somewhat different from the one considered by Adelman. We obtain the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation and show that it exactly matches the classical limit of the equation for the Wigner function obtained from the master equation for separable initial conditions. We also discuss why the special correlated initial conditions correspond to Adelman's solution.

Subhashish Banerjee; Abhishek Dhar

2005-11-28

62

Effects of surface voids on burning rate measurements of pulverized coal at diffusion-limited conditions  

SciTech Connect

This research explores the effects of voids (pores on the particle surface that are deeper than their surface radius) on burning area at diffusion-limited combustion conditions. Scanning electron microscopy and digital processing of images of quenched particles were used to quantify surface void area, perimeter, and reacting void wall area for voids with diameters larger than 1 {micro}m. After careful analysis, the most accurate determination of particle burning area at diffusion-limited conditions was achieved by measuring particle surface area using the technique of discrete revolution, subtracting surface void area, and adding reacting void wall area. In situ measurements of reacting coal particle temperatures and images were taken for three coals and spherocarb particles at conditions that limit the formation of CO{sub 2} from reacting carbon under various oxygen concentrations and heating rates. The results of these experiments indicate that correcting the measured surface area for void area and reacting void wall area produces calculated burning rates closely matching diffusion-limited burning rates for all conditions and all coals investigated. These results suggest that void area effects should be included for accurate determination of burning area at diffusion-limited conditions.

Bayless, D.J.; Schroeder, A.R.; Peters, J.E.; Buckius, R.O. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering] [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

1997-01-01

63

Reducing Conservatism in Aircraft Engine Response Using Conditionally Active Min-Max Limit Regulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current aircraft engine control logic uses a Min-Max control selection structure to prevent the engine from exceeding any safety or operational limits during transients due to throttle commands. This structure is inherently conservative and produces transient responses that are slower than necessary. In order to utilize the existing safety margins more effectively, a modification to this architecture is proposed, referred to as a Conditionally Active (CA) limit regulator. This concept uses the existing Min-Max architecture with the modification that limit regulators are active only when the operating point is close to a particular limit. This paper explores the use of CA limit regulators using a publicly available commercial aircraft engine simulation. The improvement in thrust response while maintaining all necessary safety limits is demonstrated in a number of cases.

May, Ryan D.; Garg, Sanjay

2012-01-01

64

Temperature limits for LMFBR fuel cladding under upset and emergency operating conditions  

SciTech Connect

LMFBR fuel pin cladding tube is subjected to high transient temperatures during incidents such as pump trip, pump to grid plate pipe rupture etc. It is required to know temperature limits under such transient operating conditions for components involved while analyzing such incidents. A methodology for deriving such limits for fuel clad tube is worked out in this paper by making use of the transient damage correlation proposed by W.F. Brizes et. al.

Govindarajan, S.; Chetal, S.C. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam Tamilnadu (India). Nuclear Systems Division

1996-07-01

65

[Oral hygiene and gingival condition among 12-year-old children in the Brussels Region].  

PubMed

The study analyses oral hygiene and gingival status in a group of 12-yr-old children from the Region of Brussels. In 1998, a total of 496 children from eight selected schools participated in the sample. All children were interviewed about their socio-economic status and oral health care. Records of the plaque index and the gingival index were made. The mean plaque and gingivitis were 1.24 (+/- 0.03) and 1.32 (+/- 0.03), respectively. Seventy percent of the examined sites presented plaque and gingivitis. Privileged children showed lower means than non-privileged counterparts. Multiple linear regression showed that dental plaque was significantly associated to age, toothbrushing and appointment in case of discomfort or pain (P = 0.02). Age, gender, type of the toothbrush and use of dental floss were associated to gingivitis (P = 0.05). Daily home-based mechanical plaque removal is critical for the maintenance of gingival health and when efficiently performed it leads to remission of gingivitis. Dentists should be encouraged to give information and training on regular plaque removal to their patients. PMID:11890038

Carvalho, J C; Van Nieuwenhuysen, J P; D'Hoore, W

2001-01-01

66

Impact of Hiv-Associated Conditions on Mortality in People Commencing Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Resource Limited Settings  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify associations between specific WHO stage 3 and 4 conditions diagnosed after ART initiation and all cause mortality for patients in resource-limited settings (RLS). Design, Setting Analysis of routine program data collected prospectively from 25 programs in eight countries between 2002 and 2010. Subjects, Participants 36,664 study participants with median ART follow-up of 1.26 years (IQR 0.55–2.27). Outcome Measures Using a proportional hazards model we identified factors associated with mortality, including the occurrence of specific WHO clinical stage 3 and 4 conditions during the 6-months following ART initiation. Results There were 2922 deaths during follow-up (8.0%). The crude mortality rate was 5.41 deaths per 100 person-years (95% CI: 5.21–5.61). The diagnosis of any WHO stage 3 or 4 condition during the first 6 months of ART was associated with increased mortality (HR: 2.21; 95% CI: 1.97–2.47). After adjustment for age, sex, region and pre-ART CD4 count, a diagnosis of extrapulmonary cryptococcosis (aHR: 3.54; 95% CI: 2.74–4.56), HIV wasting syndrome (aHR: 2.92; 95%CI: 2.21 -3.85), non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection (aHR: 2.43; 95% CI: 1.80–3.28) and Pneumocystis pneumonia (aHR: 2.17; 95% CI 1.80–3.28) were associated with the greatest increased mortality. Cerebral toxoplasmosis, pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, Kaposi’s sarcoma and oral and oesophageal candidiasis were associated with increased mortality, though at lower rates. Conclusions A diagnosis of certain WHO stage 3 and 4 conditions is associated with an increased risk of mortality in those initiating ART in RLS. This information will assist initiatives to reduce excess mortality, including prioritization of resources for diagnostics, therapeutic interventions and research. PMID:23935870

Marshall, Catherine S.; Curtis, Andrea J.; Spelman, Tim; O’Brien, Daniel P.; Greig, Jane; Shanks, Leslie; du Cros, Philipp; Casas, Esther C.; da Fonseca, Marcio Silveira; Athan, Eugene; Elliott, Julian H.

2013-01-01

67

People with limiting long-term conditions report poorer experiences and more problems with hospital care  

PubMed Central

Background Long-term conditions have a significant impact on individuals, their families, and the health service. As people with these conditions represent a high proportion of hospital admissions, investigating their experiences of inpatient care has become an important area of investigation. We conducted a secondary analysis of the NHS adult inpatient survey for England to compare the hospital experiences of three groups of patients: those without long-term conditions, those with a single long-term condition, and those with multiple long-term conditions. We were particularly interested in the extent to which these patients received self-management support from hospital staff, so we developed a brief summary tool drawn from salient questions in the survey to aid the comparison. Methods Analysis of data from the 2011 national adult inpatient survey (n?=?65,134) to compare the experiences of three groups of patients: those with no limiting long-term conditions (No-LLTC), those with one limiting long-term condition (S-LLTC), and those with two or more limiting long-term conditions (M-LLTC). The main outcome measure was patients’ self-reports of their experience of inpatient care, including staff-patient interactions, information provision, involvement in decisions and support for self-care and overall ratings of care. A short form scale, the Oxford Patient Involvement and Experience scale (OxPIE) was developed from the adult inpatient survey and used to compare the groups using logistic regression. Results There were significant differences between the No-LLTC group in comparison to both the S-LLTC and M-LLTC groups. Patients with limiting long-term conditions reported significantly worse hospital experiences than those without, as measured by OxPIE: S-LLTC odds ratio?=?1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.48; M-LLTC odds ratio?=?1.64, 95% CI 1.19 – 2.26. Responses to a single global rating question were more positive but not strongly correlated with OxPIE. Conclusions Patients with LLTCs were more critical of their inpatient care than those with no LLTCs. Those with more than one long-term condition reported worse experiences than those with a single limiting condition. Simple rating questions may not be sufficiently sensitive to reflect important aspects of patients’ experience. PMID:24456971

2014-01-01

68

Modelling reference conditions for the upper limit of Posidonia oceanica meadows: a morphodynamic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upper portion of the meadows of the protected Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica occurs in the region of the seafloor mostly affected by surf-related effects. Evaluation of its status is part of monitoring programs, but proper conclusions are difficult to draw due to the lack of definite reference conditions. Comparing the position of the meadow upper limit with the beach morphodynamics (i.e. the distinctive type of beach produced by topography and wave climate) provided evidence that the natural landwards extension of meadows can be predicted. Here we present an innovative predictive cartographic approach able to identify the seafloor portion where the meadow upper limit should naturally lies (i.e. its reference conditions). The conceptual framework of this model is based on 3 essential components: i) Definition of the breaking depth geometry: the breaking limit represents the major constrain for the landward meadow development. We modelled the breaking limit (1 year return time) using the software Mike 21 sw. ii) Definition of the morphodynamic domain of the beach using the surf scaling index ?; iii) Definition of the P. oceanica upper limit geometry. We coupled detailed aerial photo with thematic bionomic cartography. In GIS environment, we modelled the seafloor extent where the meadow should naturally lies according to the breaking limit position and the morphodynamic domain of the beach. Then, we added the GIS layer with the meadow upper limit geometry. Therefore, the final output shows, on the same map, both the reference condition and the actual location of the upper limit. It make possible to assess the status of the landward extent of a given P. oceanica meadow and quantify any suspected or observed regression caused by anthropic factors. The model was elaborated and validated along the Ligurian coastline (NW Mediteraanean) and was positively tested in other Mediterranean areas.

Vacchi, Matteo; Misson, Gloria; Montefalcone, Monica; Archetti, Renata; Nike Bianchi, Carlo; Ferrari, Marco

2014-05-01

69

Influence of the weld conditions on the forming-limit strains of tailor-welded blanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the present work is to study experimentally the influence of just the weld conditions, namely the weld region, weld orientation, and weld location, on the forming-limit strains of steel laser-welded blanks. Transverse and longitudinal weld orient- ations are considered for this study. The weld location includes both centre and offset weld positions in the transverse weld

R Ganesh Narayanan; K Narasimhan

2008-01-01

70

Model-based condition monitoring of PEM fuel cell using Hotelling T 2 control limit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a variety of design and control strategies have been proposed to improve the performance of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems, temporary faults in such systems still might occur during operations due to the complexity of the physical process and the functional limitations of some components. The development of an effective condition monitoring system that can detect these

X. Xue; J. Tanga; N. Sammes; Y. Ding

2006-01-01

71

Humic substances enhance growth and respiration in the basidiomycetes Trametes maxima under carbon limited conditions.  

PubMed

Humic substances (HS) represent the major reservoir of carbon (C) in ecosystems, and their turnover is crucial for understanding the global C cycle. Although basidiomycetes clearly have a role in HS degradation, much less is known about the effect of HS on fungal traits. We studied the alteration of physiological, biochemical, and morphological characteristics of Trametes maxima in the presence of HS. Both complete medium and minimal (C-limited) medium mimicking natural environmental conditions were used. Adding HS led to increased biomass yield, but under C-limited conditions the effect was more apparent. This result indicated that HS were used as an additional substrate and agreed with data showing a greater penetration of tritium-labeled HS into the cell interior under C-limited conditions. Humic substances induced ultra-structural changes in fungal cells, especially under C limitation, including reducing the thicknesses of the hyphal sheath and cell wall. In the minimal medium, cellular respiration increased nearly three-fold under HS application, while the corresponding effect in complete medium was lower. In addition, in the presence of inhibitors, HS stimulated either the cytochrome or the alternative pathway of respiration, depending on presence or absence of glucose in the medium. Our results suggest that, under conditions mimicking the natural environment, HS may play three major roles: as a surplus substrate for fungal growth, as a factor positively affecting cell morphology, and as an activator of physiological respiration. PMID:24859517

Klein, Olga I; Isakova, Elena P; Deryabina, Yulia I; Kulikova, Natalia A; Badun, Gennadii A; Chernysheva, Maria G; Stepanova, Elena V; Koroleva, Olga V

2014-06-01

72

Nitration of the salivary component 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid in the human oral cavity: enhancement of nitration under acidic conditions.  

PubMed

4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HPA) and nitrite are present in human mixed whole saliva, and HPA can be nitrated by peroxidase/hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))/nitrite systems in the oral cavity. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to estimate the concentrations of HPA, nitrated HPA [4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetic acid (NO(2)HPA)], nitrite, and thiocyanate (SCN(-)) in saliva from 73 patients with periodontal diseases and to elucidate the conditions necessary to induce nitration of HPA. High concentrations of HPA, nitrite, and SCN(-) were found in the saliva of patients older than 50 yr of age. NO(2)HPA was detected in seven patients who were older than 60 yr of age. Nitrite-dependent formation of NO(2)HPA by a bacterial fraction prepared from mixed whole saliva was faster at pH 5.3 than at pH 7, and increased as the rate of H(2)O(2) formation increased. The formation of NO(2)HPA was inhibited by SCN(-) and by salivary antioxidants such as uric acid, ascorbic acid, and glutathione. These results suggest that nitration can proceed at an acidic site in the oral cavity where H(2)O(2) is produced under conditions of decreased concentrations of SCN(-) and of antioxidants. PMID:19758252

Takahama, Umeo; Imamura, Hitoshi; Hirota, Sachiko

2009-10-01

73

Limiter  

DOEpatents

A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

1984-10-19

74

Limiter  

DOEpatents

A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

Cohen, Samuel A. (Hopewell, NJ); Hosea, Joel C. (Princeton, NJ); Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ)

1986-01-01

75

Numerical boundary conditions with minimal reflection for limited-area models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possible boundary conditions for minimal disturbances which can be imposed in order to make a set of differential equations describing the boundary layer soluble are studied. This set is underdetermined when solved discretely. The consequences for the possible solutions of the discrete approximations of a differential equation are tested. It is shown that the discrete approximation of the advection equation with central differences gives rise to two possible wave equations: the first approximates the analytic solution, the second is the so-called computational mode. Several boundary conditions were tested for the one-dimensional linear advection equation. The condition of Sundstrom and Elvius is the most suited because of its simplicity. The boundary conditions necessary for the numerical solution of a linearized two-dimensional hydrostatic Boussinesq set of equations on a limited domain were examined. The leap-frog time discretization scheme and a central difference for the space derivative are shown to be suited.

Vandenberg, J. I.

1986-07-01

76

Physiological requirements for growth and competitiveness of Dekkera bruxellensis under oxygen-limited or anaerobic conditions.  

PubMed

The effect of glucose and oxygen limitation on the growth and fermentation performances of Dekkera bruxellensis was investigated in order to understand which factors favour its propagation in ethanol or wine plants. Although D. bruxellensis has been described as a facultative anaerobe, no growth was observed in mineral medium under complete anaerobiosis while growth was retarded under severe oxygen limitation. In a continuous culture with no gas inflow, glucose was not completely consumed, most probably due to oxygen limitation. When an air/nitrogen mixture (O(2)-content ca. 5%) was sparged to the culture, growth became glucose-limited. In co-cultivations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ethanol yields/g consumed sugar were not affected by the co-cultures as compared to the pure cultures. However, different population responses were observed in both systems. In oxygen-limited cultivation, glucose was depleted within 24?h after challenging with S. cerevisiae and both yeast populations were maintained at a stable level. In contrast, the S. cerevisiae population constantly decreased to about 1% of its initial cell number in the sparged glucose-limited fermentation, whereas the D. bruxellensis population remained constant. To identify the requirements of D. bruxellensis for anaerobic growth, the yeast was cultivated in several nitrogen sources and with the addition of amino acids. Yeast extract and most of the supplied amino acids supported anaerobic growth, which points towards a higher nutrient demand for D. bruxellensis compared to S. cerevisiae in anaerobic conditions. PMID:22674754

Blomqvist, Johanna; Nogué, Violeta Sànchez; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie; Passoth, Volkmar

2012-07-01

77

A water use and growth model for Eucalyptus plantation in water-limited conditions  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the environmental impact of plantation forestry using fast-growing tree species in southern India, a program of field studies was initiated in 1987 specifically to measure the water use, nutrient uptake and growth rates of the plantations. A water use and growth (WAG) model is proposed for calculating transpiration and growth of Eucalyptus plantation in water-limited conditions. The model is based on the measured relationships between transpiration rate and basal cross-sectional area and soil moisture availability. The volume growth rate (in water-limited conditions) is assumed to be proportional to the volume of water transpired. The model is calibrated using (deuterium tracing) measurements of transpiration and measurements of growth recorded at the Puradal experimental plantation, Karnataka, southern India.

Calder, I.R. [Inst. of Hydrology, Wallingford (United Kingdom)

1992-12-31

78

The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health.  

PubMed Central

This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral mucosal lesions and oropharyngeal cancers, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related oral disease and orodental trauma are major public health problems worldwide and poor oral health has a profound effect on general health and quality of life. The diversity in oral disease patterns and development trends across countries and regions reflects distinct risk profiles and the establishment of preventive oral health care programmes. The important role of sociobehavioural and environmental factors in oral health and disease has been shown in a large number of socioepidemiological surveys. In addition to poor living conditions, the major risk factors relate to unhealthy lifestyles (i.e. poor diet, nutrition and oral hygiene and use of tobacco and alcohol), and limited availability and accessibility of oral health services. Several oral diseases are linked to noncommunicable chronic diseases primarily because of common risk factors. Moreover, general diseases often have oral manifestations (e.g. diabetes or HIV/AIDS). Worldwide strengthening of public health programmes through the implementation of effective measures for the prevention of oral disease and promotion of oral health is urgently needed. The challenges of improving oral health are particularly great in developing countries. PMID:16211157

Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Estupinan-Day, Saskia; Ndiaye, Charlotte

2005-01-01

79

Impact of oral health conditions on the quality of life of preschool children and their families: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Dental caries, traumatic dental injury (TDI) and malocclusion are common oral health conditions among preschool children and can have both physical and psychosocial consequences. Thus, it is important to measure the impact these on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of oral health conditions on the OHRQoL of preschool children and their families. Methods A preschool-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 preschool children in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered the Brazilian Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale and a questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data as well as the parent’s/caregiver’s perceptions regarding their child’s health. Clinical exams were performed by three researchers who had undergone a calibration process for the diagnosis of dental caries, TDI and malocclusion (K?=?0.83-0.85). Hierarchical Poisson regression was employed to determine the strength of associations between oral health conditions and OHRQoL (??=?5%). The multivariate model was run on three levels obeying a hierarchical approach from distal to proximal determinants: 1) socio-demographic data; 2) perceptions of health; and 3) oral health conditions. Results The prevalence of impact from oral health conditions on OHRQoL was 32.1% among the children and 26.2% among the families. The following variables were significantly associated with a impact on OHRQoL among the children: birth order of child (PR?=?1.430; 95% CI: 1.045-1.958), parent’s/caregiver’s perception of child’s oral health as poor (PR?=?1.732; 95% CI: 1.399-2.145), cavitated lesions (PR?=?2.596; 95% CI: 1.982-3.400) and TDI (PR?=?1.413; 95% CI: 1.161-1.718). The following variables were significantly associated with a impact on OHRQoL among the families: parent’s/caregiver’s perception of child’s oral health as poor (PR?=?2.116; 95% CI: 1.624-2.757), cavitated lesions (PR?=?2.809; 95% CI: 2.009-3.926) and type of TDI (PR?=?2.448; 95% CI: 1.288-4.653). Conclusion Cavitated lesions and TDI exerted a impact on OHRQoL of the preschool children and their families. Parents’/caregivers’ perception of their child’s oral health as poor and the birth order of the child were predictors of a greater impact on OHRQoL. PMID:24745700

2014-01-01

80

Enhanced efficacy of an attenuated Flavobacterium psychrophilum strain cultured under iron-limited conditions.  

PubMed

An attenuated strain of Flavobacterium psychrophilum (CSF259-93B.17) has shown potential as a vaccine for prevention of bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Because BCWD outbreaks can result in high mortality in other salmonid species, specifically coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum), the live-attenuated strain was tested as a vaccine in this species. Additionally, we hypothesized that culture of the vaccine strain under iron-limited conditions would lead to improved protection against BCWD. To test this hypothesis, coho salmon were either injection or immersion immunized with CSF259-93B.17 cultured in iron-replete or iron-limited medium. Resultant antibody titers were low and not significantly different between the two treatments regardless of vaccine delivery method (P > 0.05). Following injection challenge with a virulent F. psychrophilum strain, mortality for injection vaccinated fish was significantly reduced compared to the control but did not differ by treatment (P > 0.05). Relative percent survival (RPS) was high in both treatments (90% in iron-replete, 98% in iron-limited medium). Fish immunized by immersion with CSF259-93B.17 grown in iron-replete medium exhibited lower mortality (29.3%; RPS 46%) when compared to mock immunized fish, but this was not significant. However, mortality was significantly lower in fish immunized with CSF259-93B.17 grown in iron-limited medium (14.7%; RPS 73%) when compared to mock immunized fish. The results demonstrate that the live-attenuated F. psychrophilum strain can confer protection to coho salmon and vaccine efficacy is enhanced by culturing the strain under iron-limited conditions. PMID:23989039

Long, Amy; Fehringer, Tyson R; Swain, Marissa A; LaFrentz, Benjamin R; Call, Douglas R; Cain, Kenneth D

2013-11-01

81

Identification of siderophore biosynthesis genes essential for growth of Aeromonas salmonicida under iron limitation conditions.  

PubMed

Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the etiological agent of furunculosis in fish, produces a catechol-type siderophore under iron-limiting conditions. In this study, the Fur titration assay (FURTA) was used to identify a cluster of six genes, asbG, asbF, asbD, asbC, asbB, and asbI, encoding proteins similar to components of the siderophore biosynthetic machinery in other bacteria. Reverse transcriptase PCR analyses showed that this cluster consists of four iron-regulated transcriptional units. Mutants with deletions in either asbD (encoding a multidomain nonribosomal peptide synthetase), asbG (encoding a histidine decarboxylase), or asbC (encoding a predicted histamine monooxygenase) did not grow under iron-limiting conditions and did not produce siderophores. Growth of the DeltaasbG strain under iron starvation conditions was restored by addition of histamine, suggesting that the siderophore in this species could contain a histamine-derived moiety. None of the mutants could grow in the presence of transferrin, indicating that A. salmonicida uses the catechol-type siderophore for removal of iron from transferrin rather than relying on a receptor for this iron-binding protein. All 18 A. salmonicida strains analyzed by DNA probe hybridization were positive in tests for the presence of the asbD gene, and all of them promoted the growth of asbD, asbG, and asbC mutants, suggesting that this siderophore-mediated iron uptake system is conserved among A. salmonicida isolates. This study provides the first description of siderophore biosynthesis genes in this fish pathogen, and the results demonstrate that the asbD, asbG, and asbC genes are necessary for the production of a catecholate siderophore that is essential for the growth of A. salmonicida under iron limitation conditions. PMID:18296539

Najimi, Mohsen; Lemos, Manuel L; Osorio, Carlos R

2008-04-01

82

Identification of Siderophore Biosynthesis Genes Essential for Growth of Aeromonas salmonicida under Iron Limitation Conditions? †  

PubMed Central

Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the etiological agent of furunculosis in fish, produces a catechol-type siderophore under iron-limiting conditions. In this study, the Fur titration assay (FURTA) was used to identify a cluster of six genes, asbG, asbF, asbD, asbC, asbB, and asbI, encoding proteins similar to components of the siderophore biosynthetic machinery in other bacteria. Reverse transcriptase PCR analyses showed that this cluster consists of four iron-regulated transcriptional units. Mutants with deletions in either asbD (encoding a multidomain nonribosomal peptide synthetase), asbG (encoding a histidine decarboxylase), or asbC (encoding a predicted histamine monooxygenase) did not grow under iron-limiting conditions and did not produce siderophores. Growth of the ?asbG strain under iron starvation conditions was restored by addition of histamine, suggesting that the siderophore in this species could contain a histamine-derived moiety. None of the mutants could grow in the presence of transferrin, indicating that A. salmonicida uses the catechol-type siderophore for removal of iron from transferrin rather than relying on a receptor for this iron-binding protein. All 18 A. salmonicida strains analyzed by DNA probe hybridization were positive in tests for the presence of the asbD gene, and all of them promoted the growth of asbD, asbG, and asbC mutants, suggesting that this siderophore-mediated iron uptake system is conserved among A. salmonicida isolates. This study provides the first description of siderophore biosynthesis genes in this fish pathogen, and the results demonstrate that the asbD, asbG, and asbC genes are necessary for the production of a catecholate siderophore that is essential for the growth of A. salmonicida under iron limitation conditions. PMID:18296539

Najimi, Mohsen; Lemos, Manuel L.; Osorio, Carlos R.

2008-01-01

83

Postural stability limits in manifest and premanifest Huntington's disease under different sensory conditions.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence indicates that Huntington's disease (HD) produces postural control impairments even before the clinical diagnosis. It has been suggested that postural disorders of HD patients are explained by deficits in the processing and integration of sensory information, but this hypothesis has been under-explored. In the present study, we evaluated the amplitude of the center of pressure (COP) displacement during maximum leaning in four directions (forward, backward, rightward and leftward) and under three sensory conditions (eyes open, eyes closed and eyes closed standing on foam). We assessed the stability limits in 20 individuals with a positive HD genetic test (12 premanifests; eight manifests HD) and 15 healthy controls. The COP displacements were analyzed during the first and second phases of maintenance of the maximum leaning position. Manifest HD patients showed significantly greater COP ranges than healthy controls in both learning phases and all sensory conditions, but the greatest deterioration of their performance was found in the foam condition. In contrast, premanifest HD patients displayed larger COP ranges than controls only during the second phase of maximum learning, especially in the foam condition. Furthermore, both HD groups had significantly smaller limits of stability than healthy subjects during the second phase of maximum learning. However, their ability to maintain the maximum leaning position was degraded during both learning phases. Together, these findings demonstrate that HD reduces the limits of stability even before the clinical disease onset. Furthermore, our results indicate that dynamic postural tasks with high demand for sensorimotor integration and especially the use of proprioception are highly sensitive to early HD disease processes. This dynamic postural task may become a useful biomarker of HD progression. PMID:25168735

Blanchet, M; Prince, F; Chouinard, S; Messier, J

2014-10-24

84

Liquid Lithium Limiter for Carbon Wall Conditioning on RFX-mod  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Liquid Lithium Limiter (Li3) with capillary porous system originally developed for the FTU tokamak, has been tested for the first time on the Reversed Field Pinch RFX-mod, a machine equipped with a first wall completely covered by graphite tiles. The operation in limiter configuration was restricted by a defect on the limiter, which coupled with the plasma wall interaction with a relatively limited power (2-3 MW/m^2) caused a damage to the device. The Li3 has then been operated as an evaporator, being the Lithium depositions preceded by prolonged glow discharges in Helium to remove the Hydrogen trapped into the graphite. The enhanced retention capability and the lowered recycling factor of the first wall obtained with this treatments in respect to standard operational conditions, allowed a good degree of control on the density of the RFP discharges and to reach high density regimes at high current (n/nGreenwald ˜ 0.8 at plasma current ˜ 1.6 MA).

Cavazzana, R.; Scarin, P.; Spizzo, G.; Agostini, M.; de Masi, G.; Marrelli, L.; Puiatti, M. E.; Mazzitelli, G.

2012-10-01

85

Calcification and photosynthesis of the coral acropora cervicornis under calcium limited conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differing hypothesis about the function of calcification are based on an interesting dilemma. Is the purpose of calcification mainly a structural and protective one or does calcification serve other functions? Does photosynthesis increase carbonate ion activity and cause calcification or does calcification increase CO2 levels and stimulate photsynthesis? It is proposed that calcification in corals is not dependent upon photosynthesis but upon calcium levels in the water. Under normal ocean conditions, corals convert a certain percentage of energy to photosynthesis and respiration and another percentage to calcification. As corals become nutrient stressed, particularly calcium limited, the ratio of photosynthesis to calcification shifts towards calcification in order to generate protons. The protons generated during calcification may stimulate photosynthesis and aid in the uptake of nutrients and biocarbonates. The results of the calcification experiment show a trend towards increased calcification and decreased photosynthesis when the coral Acropora cervicornis is calcium limited, but the data are inconclusive and further research is needed.

Rathfon, Megan; Brewer, Debbie

1997-01-01

86

The Agony of Choice: How Plants Balance Growth and Survival under Water-Limiting Conditions1  

PubMed Central

When confronted with water limitation, plants actively reprogram their metabolism and growth. Recently, it has become clear that growing tissues show specific and highly dynamic responses to drought, which differ from the well-studied responses in mature tissues. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in understanding shoot growth regulation in water-limiting conditions. Of special interest is the balance between maintained growth and competitiveness on the one hand and ensured survival on the other hand. A number of master regulators controlling this balance have been identified, such as DELLAs and APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR-type transcription factors. The possibilities of engineering or breeding crops that maintain growth in periods of mild drought, while still being able to activate protective tolerance mechanisms, are discussed. PMID:23766368

Claeys, Hannes; Inze, Dirk

2013-01-01

87

Evaluation of a Theory-Driven E-Learning Intervention for Future Oral Healthcare Providers on Secondary Prevention of Disordered Eating Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oral healthcare providers have a clinical opportunity for early detection of disordered eating behaviors because they are often the first health professionals to observe overt oral and physical signs. Curricula regarding early recognition of this oral/systemic medical condition are limited in oral health educational programs. Web-based learning…

DeBate, Rita D.; Severson, Herbert H.; Cragun, Deborah L.; Gau, Jeff M.; Merrell, Laura K.; Bleck, Jennifer R.; Christiansen, Steve; Koerber, Anne; Tomar, Scott L.; Brown, Kelli R. McCormack; Tedesco, Lisa A.; Hendricson, William

2013-01-01

88

Oral Health Conditions and Dental Visits Among Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women of Childbearing Age in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004  

PubMed Central

Introduction Oral diseases can be prevented or improved with regular dental visits. Our objective was to assess and compare national estimates on self-reported oral health conditions and dental visits among pregnant women and nonpregnant women of childbearing age by using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We analyzed self-reported oral health information on 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women of childbearing age (15–44 years) from NHANES 1999–2004. We used ?2 and 2-sample t tests to assess statistical differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, poverty, and education. We applied the Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons. Results Our data show significant differences in self-reported oral health conditions and dental visits among women, regardless of pregnancy status, when stratified by selected sociodemographic characteristics. Significant differences were also found in self-reported oral health conditions and dental visits between pregnant and nonpregnant women, especially among young women, women from minority race/ethnicity groups, and women with less than high school education. Conclusion We found disparities in self-reported oral health conditions and use of dental services among women regardless of pregnancy status. Results highlight the need to improve dental service use among US women of childbearing age, especially young pregnant women, those who are non-Hispanic black or Mexican American, and those with low family income or low education level. Prenatal visits could be used as an opportunity to encourage pregnant women to seek preventive dental care during pregnancy. PMID:25232750

Yeung, Lorraine F.; Alverson, C. J.; Beltran-Aguilar, Eugenio

2014-01-01

89

Optimization of plant mineral nutrition under growth-limiting conditions in a lunar greenhouse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It may be assumed that the first plants in a lunar base will play a main role in forming a protosoil of acceptable fertility needed for purposively growing second generation plants like wheat, rice, tulips, etc. The residues of the first-generation plants could be composted and transformed by microorganisms into a soil-like substrate within a loop of regenerative life support system. The lunar regolith may be used as a substrate for plant growth at the very beginning of a mission to reduce its cost. The use of microbial communities for priming plants will allow one to facilitate adaption to stressful conditions and to support the plant development under growth limiting conditions. Well-defined plant-associated bacteria were used for growing three cultivars to colonize French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) in anorthosite, a substrate of low bioavailability, analogous to a lunar rock. The consortium was composed of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and the bacterium Paenibacillus sp. IMBG156 which stimulated seed germination, better plant development, and finally, the flowering of inoculated tagetes. In contrast, control plants grew poorly in the anorthosite and practically did not survive until flowering. Analysis of bacterial community composition showed that all species colonized plant roots, however, the rate of colonization depended on the allelopatic characteristics of marigold varieties. Bacteria of consortium were able to liberate some elements (Ca, Fe, Mn, Si, Ni, Cu, Zn) from substrate anorthosite. Plant colonization by mixed culture of bacterial strains resulted in the increase of accumulation of K, Mg, Mn by the plant and in the lowering of the level of toxic metal accumulation. It was assumed that a rationally assembled consortium of bacterial strains promoted germination of marygold seeds and supported the plant development under growth limiting conditions by means of bioleaching plant essential nutritional elements and by protecting the plant against hyperaccumulation of some toxic metals.

Zaets, I.; Voznyuk, T.; Kovalchuk, M.; Rogutskyy, I.; Lukashov, D.; Mytrokhyn, O.; Mashkovska, S.; Foing, B.; Kozyrovska, N.

90

MYB10 and MYB72 Are Required for Growth under Iron-Limiting Conditions  

PubMed Central

Iron is essential for photosynthesis and is often a limiting nutrient for plant productivity. Plants respond to conditions of iron deficiency by increasing transcript abundance of key genes involved in iron homeostasis, but only a few regulators of these genes have been identified. Using genome-wide expression analysis, we searched for transcription factors that are induced within 24 hours after transferring plants to iron-deficient growth conditions. Out of nearly 100 transcription factors shown to be up-regulated, we identified MYB10 and MYB72 as the most highly induced transcription factors. Here, we show that MYB10 and MYB72 are functionally redundant and are required for plant survival in alkaline soil where iron availability is greatly restricted. myb10myb72 double mutants fail to induce transcript accumulation of the nicotianamine synthase gene NAS4. Both myb10myb72 mutants and nas4-1 mutants have reduced iron concentrations, chlorophyll levels, and shoot mass under iron-limiting conditions, indicating that these genes are essential for proper plant growth. The double myb10myb72 mutant also showed nickel and zinc sensitivity, similar to the nas4 mutant. Ectopic expression of NAS4 rescues myb10myb72 plants, suggesting that loss of NAS4 is the primary defect in these plants and emphasizes the importance of nicotianamine, an iron chelator, in iron homeostasis. Overall, our results provide evidence that MYB10 and MYB72 act early in the iron-deficiency regulatory cascade to drive gene expression of NAS4 and are essential for plant survival under iron deficiency. PMID:24278034

Palmer, Christine M.; Hindt, Maria N.; Schmidt, Holger; Clemens, Stephan; Guerinot, Mary Lou

2013-01-01

91

Genomic sweep and potential genetic rescue during limiting environmental conditions in an isolated wolf population  

PubMed Central

Genetic rescue, in which the introduction of one or more unrelated individuals into an inbred population results in the reduction of detrimental genetic effects and an increase in one or more vital rates, is a potentially important management tool for mitigating adverse effects of inbreeding. We used molecular techniques to document the consequences of a male wolf (Canis lupus) that immigrated, on its own, across Lake Superior ice to the small, inbred wolf population in Isle Royale National Park. The immigrant's fitness so exceeded that of native wolves that within 2.5 generations, he was related to every individual in the population and his ancestry constituted 56 per cent of the population, resulting in a selective sweep of the total genome. In other words, all the male ancestry (50% of the total ancestry) descended from this immigrant, plus 6 per cent owing to the success of some of his inbred offspring. The immigration event occurred in an environment where space was limiting (i.e. packs occupied all available territories) and during a time when environmental conditions had deteriorated (i.e. wolves' prey declined). These conditions probably explain why the immigration event did not obviously improve the population's demography (e.g. increased population numbers or growth rate). Our results show that the beneficial effects of gene flow may be substantial and quickly manifest, short-lived under some circumstances, and how the demographic benefits of genetic rescue might be masked by environmental conditions. PMID:21450731

Adams, Jennifer R.; Vucetich, Leah M.; Hedrick, Philip W.; Peterson, Rolf O.; Vucetich, John A.

2011-01-01

92

29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart T to... - Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Hyperbaric Conditions A Appendix A to Subpart T to Part 1910 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor...Commercial Diving Operations Pt. 1910, Subpt. T, App. A Appendix A to Subpart T to Part 1910—Examples of Conditions Which May...

2010-07-01

93

29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart T of... - Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Hyperbaric Conditions A Appendix A to Subpart T of Part 1910 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor...Commercial Diving Operations Pt. 1910, Subpt. T, App. A Appendix A to Subpart T of Part 1910—Examples of Conditions Which May...

2013-07-01

94

29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart T of... - Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions  

...Hyperbaric Conditions A Appendix A to Subpart T of Part 1910 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor...Commercial Diving Operations Pt. 1910, Subpt. T, App. A Appendix A to Subpart T of Part 1910—Examples of Conditions Which May...

2014-07-01

95

29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart T to... - Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Hyperbaric Conditions A Appendix A to Subpart T to Part 1910 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor...Commercial Diving Operations Pt. 1910, Subpt. T, App. A Appendix A to Subpart T to Part 1910—Examples of Conditions Which May...

2012-07-01

96

29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart T to... - Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Hyperbaric Conditions A Appendix A to Subpart T to Part 1910 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor...Commercial Diving Operations Pt. 1910, Subpt. T, App. A Appendix A to Subpart T to Part 1910—Examples of Conditions Which May...

2011-07-01

97

[Questionnaire survey of air extruded jelly dosage form (I) - oral condition of elder patients and applicability of air extruded jelly formulation - ].  

PubMed

Elderly patients tend to have troubles with oral conditions such as the impairment of deglutition capability (difficulty in swallowing), in addition to a decline in physical performance. An air extruded jelly formulation (AEJF) has been developed as a new formulation consisting of jelly and clean air under increased pressure. As jelly is discharged smoothly by pushing the air portion, elderly patients are able to easily take jelly from the package. In this study, survey questionnaires after a patient's trial of AEJF were conducted to characterize the intra-oral condition and reveal the applicability of AEJF in elderly patients. The subjects were 108 patients (ranging in age from 50 to 79) with chronic diseases who take some oral medicine regularly. A questionnaire on the oral state and compliance level was conducted before the trial of AEJF. The ratios of subjects with deglutition impairment and dryness of the mouth were 29.7% and 36.1%, respectively. Non-compliance was observed in 31.5% of the subjects. After the trial using AEJF, 94.5% of subjects felt that AEJF was easy to swallow. The ratio of the patients expecting AEJF to be an oral formulation was 89.3%, and those with an intention of daily use was 83.4%. A majority of the subjects, 63.9%, intended to switch their present formulations to AEJF. Especially, a high ratio was found among subjects who presently take a powder formulation or more than 5 kinds of medicines daily. Based on these results, AEJF is expected to improve the adherence of elderly patients to their medicine dosage regimens, and to improve compliance among those with oral troubles or some other hindrance to compliance. PMID:22986222

Hanawa, Takehisa; Tokutake, Noboru; Oguchi, Toshio

2012-01-01

98

Herpes - oral  

MedlinePLUS

... HSV-2 is spread to the mouth during oral sex, causing oral herpes. Herpes viruses spread easily. You ... if someone has oral herpes. Do not have oral sex if you have oral herpes, especially if you ...

99

Performance of Airborne Precision Spacing Under Realistic Wind Conditions and Limited Surveillance Range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the expected worldwide increase of air traffic during the coming decade, both the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), as well as Eurocontrol's Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) program have, as part of their plans, air traffic management (ATM) solutions that can increase performance without requiring time-consuming and expensive infrastructure changes. One such solution involves the ability of both controllers and flight crews to deliver aircraft to the runway with greater accuracy than they can today. Previous research has shown that time-based spacing techniques, wherein the controller assigns a time spacing to each pair of arriving aircraft, can achieve this goal by providing greater runway delivery accuracy and producing a concomitant increase in system-wide performance. The research described herein focuses on one specific application of time-based spacing, called Airborne Precision Spacing (APS), which has evolved over the past ten years. This research furthers APS understanding by studying its performance with realistic wind conditions obtained from atmospheric sounding data and with realistic wind forecasts obtained from the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) short-range weather forecast. In addition, this study investigates APS performance with limited surveillance range, as provided by the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) system, and with an algorithm designed to improve APS performance when ADS-B surveillance data is unavailable. The results presented herein quantify the runway threshold delivery accuracy of APS under these conditions, and also quantify resulting workload metrics such as the number of speed changes required to maintain spacing.

Wieland, Frederick; Santos, Michel; Krueger, William; Houston, Vincent E.

2011-01-01

100

Detection of influenza A virus nucleoprotein antibodies in oral fluid specimens from pigs infected under experimental conditions using a blocking ELISA.  

PubMed

In commercial swine populations, influenza is an important component of the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) and a pathogen with major economic impact. Previously, a commercial blocking ELISA (FlockChek(™) Avian Influenza Virus MultiS-Screen(®) Antibody Test Kit, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Westbrook, ME, USA) designed to detect influenza A nucleoprotein (NP) antibodies in avian serum was shown to accurately detect NP antibodies in swine serum. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this assay could detect NP antibodies in swine oral fluid samples. Initially, the procedure for performing the NP-blocking ELISA on oral fluid was modified from the serum testing protocol by changing sample dilution, sample volume, incubation time and incubation temperature. The detection of NP antibody was then evaluated using pen-based oral fluid samples (n = 182) from pigs inoculated with either influenza A virus subtype H1N1 or H3N2 under experimental conditions and followed for 42 days post inoculation (DPI). NP antibodies in oral fluid were detected from DPI 7 to 42 in all inoculated groups, that is, the mean sample-to-negative (S/N) ratio of influenza-inoculated pigs was significantly different (P < 0.0001) from uninoculated controls (unvaccinated or vaccinated-uninoculated groups) through this period. Oral fluid versus serum S/N ratios from the same pen showed a correlation of 0.796 (Pearson's correlation coefficient, P < 0.0001). The results showed that oral fluid samples from influenza virus-infected pigs contained detectable levels of NP antibodies for ?42 DPI. Future research will be required to determine whether this approach could be used to monitor the circulation of influenza virus in commercial pig populations. PMID:23046061

Panyasing, Y; Goodell, C K; Wang, C; Kittawornrat, A; Prickett, J R; Schwartz, K J; Ballagi, A; Lizano, S; Zimmerman, J J

2014-04-01

101

Condition for production of circulating proton beam with intensity greater than space charge limit.  

SciTech Connect

Transverse e-p instability in proton rings could be damped by increasing the beam density and the rate of secondary particles production above the threshold level, with the corresponding decrease of unstable wavelength {lambda} below the transverse beam size h (increase of beam density n{sub b} and ion density n{sub i} above the threshold level: n{sub b} + n{sub i} > {beta}{sup 2}/(r{sub e} h{sup 2}), where r{sub e} = e{sup 2}/mc{sup 2}). Such island of stability can be reached by a fast charge-exchange injection without painting and enhanced generation of secondary plasma, which was demonstrated in a small scale Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia. With successful damping of e-p instability, the intensity of circulating proton beam, with a space charge neutralization was increased up to 6 times above a space charge limit. Corresponding tune shift without space charge neutralization should be up to {Delta}v=0.85 x 6 (in the ring with v = 0.85). In this paper, they review experimental observations of transverse instability of proton beams in various rings. they also discuss methods which can be used to damp the instability. Such experimental data could be useful for verification of computer simulation tools developed for the studies of the space charge and instabilities in realistic conditions.

Vadim Dudnikov

2002-11-19

102

The Impact of low power laser in the treatment of conditioning-induced oral mucositis: a report of 11 clinical cases and their review.  

PubMed

We have investigated the clinical effects of low power laser therapy (LPLT) on the treatment of conditioning-induced oral mucositis (OM) in patients submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The evaluation of OM was done using the Oral Mucositis Assessment Scale (OMAS) and World Health Organization (WHO) scale. In the context of a randomized placebo-controlled trial with 38 patients for the evaluation of preventive LPLT, eleven individuals were submitted to allogeneic (AL) HSCT and developed oral mucositis grade 4 (WHO) or a total area of OM of 12 cm (OMAS) and due to that were treated with LPLT with the purpose of symptom relief. The irradiation used was a diode InGaAlP, emitting light at 660 nm, 50 mW and 8 J/cm(2) measured at the end of fiber optic with 0.196 cm(2) of section area during the treatment. The tip of the laser device touched the oral mucosa and patients recovered on average 6 days (3-12 days) from the beginning of the laser application. Our results have indicated that the use of LPLT in HSCT patients is a powerful instrument in the treatment of overt OM and is now a standard procedure in this group of patients in our hospital. PMID:18305441

Antunes, Héliton Spíndola; Ferreira, Elza Maria de Sá; de Matos, Valkiria D'Aiuto; Pinheiro, Claudia Tereza; Ferreira, Carlos Gil

2008-03-01

103

The Transcriptional Landscape of Campylobacter jejuni under Iron Replete and Iron Limited Growth Conditions  

PubMed Central

The genome-wide Campylobacter jejuni transcriptional response under iron replete and iron limited conditions was characterized using RNA-seq. We have identified 111 novel C. jejuni 5’UTRs and mapped 377 co-transcribed genes into 230 transcriptional operons. In contrast to previous microarray results, the C. jejuni iron stimulon is less extensive than previously believed and consists of 77 iron activated genes and 50 iron repressed genes. As anticipated, the iron repressed genes are primarily those involved in iron acquisition or oxidative stress defense. Interestingly, these experiments have revealed that iron is an important modulator of flagellar biogenesis with almost all the components of the flagella found to be iron activated. Given that motility is a well-known C. jejuni colonization factor, this suggests that there is an important regulatory coupling of flagellar biogenesis and iron level in C. jejuni. In addition we have identified several consensus mutations in the C. jejuni NCTC11168 strain that are widespread in the Campylobacter research community and which may explain conflicting phenotypic reports for this strain. Comparative analysis of iron responsive genes with the known Fur regulon indicates that many iron responsive genes are not Fur responsive; suggesting that additional iron regulatory factors remain to be characterized in C. jejuni. Further analysis of the RNA-seq data identified multiple novel transcripts including 19 potential ncRNAs. The expression of selected ncRNAs was confirmed and quantified with qRT-PCR. The qRT-PCR results indicate that several of these novel transcripts are either Fur and/or iron responsive. The fact that several of these ncRNAs are iron responsive or Fur regulated suggests that they may perform regulatory roles in iron homeostasis. PMID:24223952

Butcher, James; Stintzi, Alain

2013-01-01

104

A comparison of effects of oral premedication with clonidine and metoprolol on intraoperative hemodynamics and surgical conditions during functional endoscopic sinus surgery  

PubMed Central

Context: Establishing a near perfect surgical field during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is essential and even a minor bleeding can severely compromise an already restricted view. So, if controlled hypotension can be provided without compromising the safety of patient by a relatively effortless method, surgical field can be improved greatly. Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamic changes and surgical conditions during FESS following oral premedication with clonidine and metoprolol. Settings and Design: A total of 40 patients undergoing FESS were included in this prospective, randomized controlled study. Subjects and Methods: Patients were divided into two equal groups. Group A patients were premedicated with oral clonidine 300 mcg and Group B with oral metoprolol 50 mg, 2 h before surgery. All patients received fentanyl 2 mcg/kg and induced with propofol 2 mg/kg. Intubation was done following vecuronium 1 mg/kg. Anesthesia was maintained with 66% N2O, 33% O2 and 1% isoflurane. The heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured before induction and thereafter every 15 min up to 2 h. The surgeons were asked to estimate the quality of the operative field using a pre-defined category scale with scores 1-5. Statistical Analysis: Difference within the groups was analyzed using analysis of variance and post-hoc test was used to test the difference between individual groups. Chi-square test was used to find out the association between categorical variables. Results: Comparison of category scale revealed a lower score in Group A up to 60 min. Group B patients showed a statistically lower HR from pre-induction up to 90 min while systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP) and mean arterial pressure did not show a significant difference. Conclusions: Oral premedication with 300 mcg of clonidine produced a better operative field than oral metoprolol 50 mg during FESS.

Puthenveettil, Nitu; Rajan, Sunil; Kumar, Lakshmi; Nair, Suresh Gangadharan

2013-01-01

105

Classical limit of master equation for a harmonic oscillator coupled to an oscillator bath with separable initial conditions.  

PubMed

The Wigner transform of the master equation describing the reduced dynamics of the system, of a harmonic oscillator coupled to an oscillator bath, was obtained by Karrlein and Grabert [Phys. Rev. E 55, 153 (1997)]. It was shown that for some special correlated initial conditions the master equation reduces, in the classical limit, to the corresponding classical Fokker-Planck equation obtained by Adelman [J. Chem Phys. 64, 124 (1976)]. However, for separable initial conditions the Adelman equations were not recovered. We resolve this problem by showing that, for separable initial conditions, the classical Langevin equations are somewhat different from the one considered by Adelman. We obtain the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation and show that they exactly match the classical limit of the evolution of the Wigner function obtained from the master equation for separable initial conditions. We also discuss why thermal initial conditions correspond to Adelman's solution. PMID:16907031

Banerjee, Subhashish; Dhar, Abhishek

2006-06-01

106

First assessment of classical swine fever marker vaccine candidate CP7_E2alf for oral immunization of wild boar under field conditions.  

PubMed

Oral vaccination against classical swine fever (CSF) is a potent tool to control disease outbreaks in wild boar. So far, vaccination campaigns have been carried out using live attenuated vaccines that do not allow serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). Although this drawback is acceptable for wild boar, the use of marker vaccines would facilitate studies on disease and vaccination dynamics. Recently, the CSF marker vaccine candidate CP7_E2alf was assessed for oral immunization under laboratory conditions. Promising results prompted efforts to study the vaccine candidate under field conditions and in bait formulation. In this context, two oral vaccination campaigns were carried out with CP7_E2alf bait vaccines in two areas called 'faunistic-hunting farms' in the region of Umbria, Italy. One campaign was conducted using single vaccination, the second with the routinely employed double vaccination strategy. Both campaigns were carried out before concerted hunting actions were performed. Bait uptake, vaccine virus detection and antibody responses were assessed along with inspections upon gutting. As a comparator, seven wild boar were hand-fed with baits under laboratory conditions. In the field, bait uptake ranged from 63.7% to 98.7%, whereas antibody prevalence reached only 33.3-35.1%. The marker serology showed a strong influence of sample quality on the test outcome with a total of 85% of samples being classified correctly. Vaccine virus was not detectable. Under hand feeding conditions, six out of seven wild boar took up at least one bait, and five of them showed detectable antibody levels seven weeks after vaccination. These results were supplemented by stability tests. Appropriate stability of vaccine virus was shown both under field and laboratory conditions. In total, most results were in line with our expectations. However, optimization of the DIVA assay has to be attempted in the future. PMID:24565752

Feliziani, Francesco; Blome, Sandra; Petrini, Stefano; Giammarioli, Monica; Iscaro, Carmen; Severi, Giulio; Convito, Luca; Pietschmann, Jana; Beer, Martin; De Mia, Gian Mario

2014-04-11

107

A novel excipient, 1-perfluorohexyloctane shows limited utility for the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs.  

PubMed

The applicability of the semi-fluorinated alkane 1-perfluorohexyloctane (F6H8) as a novel excipient in lipid based drug delivery systems was studied. Solubility studies of 11 poorly water soluble drugs (cinnarizine, danazol, estradiol, fenofibrate, griseofulvin, halofantrine, lidocaine, prednisolone, probucol, rolipram and siramesine) showed significantly lower equilibrium solubility in F6H8 compared to soy bean oil (long chain triglyceride). F6H8 was miscible with medium chain triglycerides (MCT) but not miscible with long chain triglycerides, neither was pure F6H8 nor the mixture F6H8:MCT (1:1) miscible with 7 commonly used surfactants (Cremophor EL, Span 20, Span 80, Labrasol, Softigen 767 and Gelucire 44/14, polysorbate 80). In vitro lipolysis studies confirmed that F6H8 was non-digestible. F6H8:MCT (1:1) showed initially faster lipolysis compared to pure MCT. Thus, final phase lipolysis was lower indicating that F6H8 may affect the lipolysis of MCT. However, in vivo bioavailability studies in rats showed the same plasma concentration-time profiles when dosing 10mg/kg halofantrine at two dose levels of F6H8, MCT or F6H8:MCT (1:1) (AUC ranged from 3058 to 3447hng/ml, T(max)?6.0h, C(max) ranged from 168 to 265mg/ml). Generally, the addition of polysorbate 80 shortened the time to reach C(max) (T(max) ranged 1.3-4.5h), but had limited effect on the bioavailability from F6H8 or MCT in combination with polysorbate 80 (4:1) (AUC ranged from 3807 to 4403 (hng/ml)). Although a synergistic effect was obtained with halofantrine in F6H8:MCT:polysorbate 80 (2:2:1) (AUC 5574±675hng/ml; mean±SEM), it was not superior to dosing halofantrine in pure polysorbarte 80 (AUC 7370±579hng/ml; mean±SEM). The applicability of F6H8 as an excipient for future use in lipid based formulations for poorly water soluble drugs is therefore considered to be very limited. PMID:21256961

Holm, René; Jørgensen, Erling Bonne; Harborg, Michael; Larsen, Rune; Holm, Per; Müllertz, Anette; Jacobsen, Jette

2011-03-18

108

Performance of transient limiters under laboratory, simulated, and rocket-triggered lightning conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype system was designed and tested that implements a lightning protection method referred to as the fortress concept. The fortress, a structure similar to a Faraday cage, protects the critical system by surrounding it with a continuous metallic skin. Each electrical conductor that must enter the fortress is enclosed within a cable, which is, in turn, enclosed in a metallic shield that terminates at the entry point and is electrically bonded to the fortress' outer metallic surface. Within the fortress, each penetrating conductor is protected by a transient limiter. The system was tested by means of full-threat-level simulated lightning and actual lightening triggered by rockets. Several limited components were subsequently tested by using a laboratory-type surge generator to investigate certain anomalous responses. The fortress concept is reviewed, the operation of the limiters is discussed, and their performance are examined. Explanations are offered for the anomalous responses, and several important design considerations and trade-offs are offered.

Hasbrouck, R. T.; Johnson, J. P.; Breitmeier, J.

1989-07-01

109

Neighborhood conditions, diabetes, and risk of lower-body functional limitations among middle-aged African Americans: A cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between presence of diabetes and adverse neighborhood and housing conditions and their effect on functional decline is unclear. We examined the association of adverse neighborhood (block face) and housing conditions with incidence of lower-body functional limitations among persons with and those without diabetes using a prospective population-based cohort study of 563 African Americans 49-65 years of age at their 2000-2001 baseline interviews. Methods Participants were randomly sampled African Americans living in the St. Louis area (response rate: 76%). Physician-diagnosed diabetes was self reported at baseline interview. Lower-body functional limitations were self reported based on the Nagi physical performance scale at baseline and the three-year follow-up interviews. The external appearance of the block the respondent lived on and five housing conditions were rated by study interviewers. All analyses were done using propensity score methods to control for confounders. Results 109 (19.4%) of subjects experienced incident lower-body functional limitations at three-year follow-up. In adjusted analysis, persons with diabetes who lived on block faces rated as fair-poor on each of the five conditions had higher odds (7.79 [95% confidence interval: 1.36-37.55] to 144.6 [95% confidence interval: 4.45-775.53]) of developing lower-body functional limitations than the referent group of persons without diabetes who lived on block faces rated as good-excellent. At least 80 percent of incident lower-body functional limitations was attributable to the interaction between block face conditions and diabetes status. Conclusions Adverse neighborhood conditions appear to exacerbate the detrimental effects on lower-body functioning associated with diabetes. PMID:20507573

2010-01-01

110

Effects of operating conditions, compression ratio, and gasoline reformate on SI engine knock limits  

E-print Network

A set of experiments was performed to investigate the effects of air-fuel ratio, inlet boost pressure, hydrogen rich fuel reformate, and compression ratio on engine knock behavior. For each condition the effect of spark ...

Gerty, Michael D

2005-01-01

111

Hydrodynamic Limit for a Hamiltonian System with Boundary Conditions and Conservative Noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the hyperbolic scaling limit for a chain of N coupled anharmonic oscillators. The chain is attached to a point on the left and there is a force (tension) ? acting on the right. In order to provide good ergodic properties to the system, we perturb the Hamiltonian dynamics with random local exchanges of velocities between the particles, so that momentum and energy are locally conserved. We prove that in the macroscopic limit the distributions of the elongation, momentum and energy converge to the solution of the Euler system of equations in the smooth regime.

Braxmeier-Even, Nadine; Olla, Stefano

2014-08-01

112

Nitrogen dioxide-dependent oxidation of uric acid in the human oral cavity under acidic conditions: implications for its occurrence in acidic dental plaque.  

PubMed

The pH in dental plaque falls to below 5 after the ingestion of foods, and it may remain low if acid-tolerant bacteria grow in the plaque. Certain nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity can proliferate in dental plaque at low pH, and nitrite is detected in such plaque. In acidic dental plaque, NO(2) can be produced by self-decomposition of nitrous acid and also by peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of nitrite, and it may oxidize uric acid, a major antioxidant in the oral cavity. Under experimental conditions that simulate oral cavity, the oxidation of uric acid by nitrite and by nitrite/peroxidase systems was much more rapid at pH 5 than at pH 7, suggesting the more rapid production of NO(2) in dental plaque at lower pH. We propose that if the pH of plaque developed in a dental crevice decreased, NO(2) and other nitrogen oxides produced in the plaque would diffuse into the adjoining gingival tissues. The results of this study seem to contribute to the understanding of the induction of periodontal diseases in the context of nitrite-dependent production of nitrogen oxides in acidic dental plaque. PMID:20446708

Takahama, Umeo; Hirota, Sachiko

2010-06-21

113

77 FR 69785 - Public Use Limit on Commercial Dog Walking; Revised Disposal Conditions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pacific Avenue from the Broadway Gate to the 14th Avenue Gate, as well as the areas east of the...Area B in order to avoid the permit fees, requirements, and limit on the...more dogs at one time in the Golden Gate National Recreation Area...

2012-11-21

114

78 FR 6273 - Public Use Limit on Commercial Dog Walking; Revised Disposal Conditions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Francisco for consideration (Commercial Dog Walkers). The limit will require any person...San Francisco (City). Commercial Dog Walkers with four or more dogs at one time in...proposing that throughout Area B, all pet walkers, whether or not for consideration,...

2013-01-30

115

Detailed ice studies under atmospheric conditions - potential and inherent limitations of the molecular beam method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular beam techniques are traditionally applied under high vacuum to obtain detailed information about gas-surface interactions and to probe surface properties. We here evaluate the potential and limitations for molecular beam studies of ice surfaces at elevated pressures using direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) calculations. Simplified experimental setups are treated and the results demonstrate that well-defined experiments are feasible at

Jan B. C. Pettersson; Xiangrui Kong

2010-01-01

116

Teenagers' and parents' views on a short-break service for children with life-limiting conditions: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Few opportunities exist outside the home for children and teenagers with life-limiting conditions to have a break in a setting specifically designed and adequately staffed and resourced to meet their complex clinical, practical and emotional needs; until recently provision focused primarily on providing respite for parents/carers. Based on policy recommendations, a short-break service was established with the aim of working in partnership with families and voluntary and statutory agencies to provide a fun break for children and teenagers with life-limiting conditions and complement the range of services available. This qualitative study used interviews and focus groups to determine teenagers' and parents' views of the service. Three themes emerged: accessibility and communication; needs and boundaries; and shaping the service. Teenagers enjoyed regular planned residential breaks, access to skilled staff and bespoke facilities to support their needs, opportunities to meet others with life-limiting conditions and fun time away from home, thereby giving parents peace of mind, a regular planned break from care-giving, opportunities to meet other parents and to spend exclusive time with their other children. If specialist short-break services become part of the national range of services available, children and teenagers with life-limiting conditions and their parents and siblings could all benefit. PMID:21474621

Swallow, Veronica; Forrester, Tracey; Macfadyen, Ann

2012-04-01

117

Classical limit of master equation for a harmonic oscillator coupled to an oscillator bath with separable initial conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wigner transform of the master equation describing the reduced dynamics of the system, of a harmonic oscillator coupled to an oscillator bath, was obtained by Karrlein and Grabert [Phys. Rev. E 55, 153 (1997)]. It was shown that for some special correlated initial conditions the master equation reduces, in the classical limit, to the corresponding classical Fokker-Planck equation obtained

Subhashish Banerjee; Abhishek Dhar

2006-01-01

118

Effect of labour market conditions on reporting of limiting long-term illness and permanent sickness in England and Wales.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To identify any bias in the reporting of limiting long term illness and permanent sickness due to labour market conditions, and show the absence of the effect in mortality rates. DESIGN: A geographically based study using data from the 1991 census. Standardised ratios for mortality and long term illness in people aged 0-64 years and permanent sickness in people of working age were compared with Carstairs deprivation scores in multilevel models which separated the effects operating at three geographical scales: census wards, travel to work areas, and standard regions. Holding ward and regional effects constant, variations between travel to work areas were compared with long term unemployment rates. SETTING: Altogether 8690 wards and 262 travel to work areas in England and Wales. MAIN RESULTS: Variations in mortality, limiting long term illness, and permanent sickness were related to Carstairs deprivation scores and standard region. With these relationships controlled, limiting long term illness and permanent sickness were significantly related to long term unemployment levels in travel to work areas, but mortality was not affected. Self reported morbidity was more sensitive to variations in long term unemployment rates in conditions of high social deprivation than in affluent populations. CONCLUSIONS: Limiting long term illness and permanent sickness measures may reflect a tendency for higher positive response in difficult labour market conditions. For average social deprivation conditions, standardised limiting long term illness for people aged 0-64 years was 20% higher in travel to work areas where employment prospects were relatively poor compared with areas with relatively good employment prospects. This casts doubt on the use of limiting long term illness as an indicator of objective health care needs for resource allocation purposes at national level. PMID:9229058

Haynes, R; Bentham, G; Lovett, A; Eimermann, J

1997-01-01

119

Hydrogen isotope exchange and conditioning in graphite limiters used in TFTR  

SciTech Connect

Isotopic exchange experiments performed in TFTR are used to examine the outgassing and diffusive properties of graphite used as the plasma limiter. Changeover from hydrogen to deuterium for different periods ranges from approx.600 to 60 plasma discharges, which appears to be correlated to the limiter temperature. We present a simple analytical model that predicts a fast transient (approx.10 plasma discharges) changeover where the deuterium fueling dilutes the adsorbed and near-surface hydrogen, and a slowly changing term where bulk hydrogen diffuses to the surface. Using this model we can extract an activation energy for diffusion of 0.15 +- 0.02 eV. We hypothesize that interpore diffusion for this porous (approx.15%) material is consistent with our observations. 19 refs.

LaMarche, P.H.; Dylla, H.F.; McCarthy, P.J.; Ulrickson, M.

1986-02-01

120

The condition of a finite Markov chain and perturbation bounds for the limiting probabilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inequalities bounding the relative error the norm of w- w squiggly/the norm of w are exhibited by a very simple function of E and A. Let T denote the transition matrix of an ergodic chain, C, and let A = I - T. Let E be a perturbation matrix such that T squiggly = T - E is also the transition matrix of an ergodic chain, C squiggly. Let w and w squiggly denote the limiting probability (row) vectors for C and C squiggly. The inequality is the best one possible. This bound can be significant in the numerical determination of the limiting probabilities for an ergodic chain. In addition to presenting a sharp bound for the norm of w-w squiggly/the norm of w an explicit expression for w squiggly will be derived in which w squiggly is given as a function of E, A, w and some other related terms.

Meyer, C. D., Jr.

1979-01-01

121

Performance of transient limiters under laboratory, simulated, and rocket-triggered lightning conditions  

SciTech Connect

We have designed and tested a prototype system that implements a lightning-protection method referred to as the ''fortress concept.'' The fortress, a structure similar to a Faraday cage, protects the critical system by surrounding it with a continuous metallic skin. Each electrical conductor that must enter the fortress is enclosed within a cable, which is, in turn, enclosed in a metallic shield that terminates at the entry point and is electrically bonded to the fortress' outer metallic surface. Within the fortress, each penetrating conductor is protected by a transient limiter. The system was tested by means of full-threat-level simulated lightning and actual lightening triggered by rockets. Several limited components were subsequently tested by using a laboratory-type surge generator to investigate certain anomalous responses. This paper reviews the fortress concept, discusses the operation of the limiters, and examines their performance. Explanations are offered for the anomalous responses, and several important design considerations and trade-offs are offered. 3 refs., 15 figs.

Hasbrouck, R.T.; Johnson, J.P.; Breitmeier, J.

1989-07-02

122

Teleportation of qubit states through dissipative channels: Conditions for surpassing the no-cloning limit  

E-print Network

Teleportation of qubit states through dissipative channels: Conditions for surpassing the no investigate quantum teleportation through dissipative channels and calculate teleportation fidelity as a function of damping rates. It is found that the average fidelity of teleportation and the range of states

Miranowicz, Adam

123

Oral tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculous lesions of the oral cavity have become so infrequent that it is virtually a forgotten disease entity and may pose a diagnostic problem. Fifteen patients with conditions that were histologically diagnosed as oral tuberculosis were reviewed. All were men ranging in age from 29 to 78 years. The most common clinical presentation was odynophagia with a duration from less than 1 week to several years. The most frequently affected sites were the tongue base and gingiva. The oral lesions took the form of an irregular ulceration or a discrete granular mass. Mandibular bone destruction was evident in two patients. Two patients had a fever, and four had cervical lymphadenopathy. Eight cases were clinically suspicious for malignancy before biopsy. Only four patients had a history of tuberculosis, but 14 of the 15 patients were later found to have active pulmonary tuberculosis. Acid-fast bacilli were demonstrated in all patients. Tuberculosis should be considered in patients with an inflamed ulcer lesion. A biopsy specimen for histologic study, acid-fast stains, and cultures should be obtained for confirmation and differential diagnosis with other conditions. If a tuberculous lesion is suspected, a chest radiograph is indicated to investigate the possibility of pulmonary involvement. PMID:8705586

Eng, H L; Lu, S Y; Yang, C H; Chen, W J

1996-04-01

124

Oral candidiasis  

PubMed Central

Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of Candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic candidiasis, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors include impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, and extremes of life, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndrome, malignancies, and immunosuppressive conditions. Management involves taking a history, an examination, and appropriate antifungal treatment with a few requiring samples to be taken for laboratory analysis. In certain high risk groups antifungal prophylaxis reduces the incidence and severity of infections. The prognosis is good in the great majority of cases. PMID:12185216

Akpan, A; Morgan, R

2002-01-01

125

Global burden of dental condition among children in nine countries participating in an international oral health promotion programme, 2012-2013.  

PubMed

The Live.Learn.Laugh. phase 2 programme is a unique global partnership between FDI World Dental Federation and Unilever Oral Care which aims to provide measurable improvement of oral health on a global scale through encouraging twice-daily brushing with a fluoride toothpaste. It was based on international recommendations using the principles of health promotion within school for the implementation of preventive health strategies. This paper is an overview of the dental caries condition of children from 2012 to 2013 in nine countries included in four World Health Organisation (WHO) regions. A cross-sectional study was conducted in each country before the implementation of health-promotion measures focused on twice-daily toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste. The sample was based on stratified sampling according to the WHO pathfinder recommendations. From a total of 7,949 children examined, there were 517 children (1-2 years of age), 1,667 preschool children (3-5 years of age) and 5,789 schoolchildren (6-13 years of age). The prevalence and severity of primary dental caries, early childhood caries and temporary dental caries were described using decayed, filled teeth (dft), permanent decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) indices and the significant caries index (SCI). The major findings were a high prevalence of caries, identification of high-risk groups and inequality in the distribution of the severity of dental conditions. Aggregated data from this overview should provide justification for implementing an oral health programme. The main point is the need to retain and expand the community fluoridation programme as an effective preventive measure. At the individual level, the aggregated data identify the need for more targeted efforts to reach children early - especially among specific high-risk groups. PMID:25209648

Bourgeois, Denis M; Llodra, Juan Carlos

2014-10-01

126

Teleportation of qubit states through dissipative channels: Conditions for surpassing the no-cloning limit  

E-print Network

We investigate quantum teleportation through dissipative channels and calculate teleportation fidelity as a function of damping rates. It is found that the average fidelity of teleportation and the range of states to be teleported depend on the type and rate of the damping in the channel. Using the fully entangled fraction, we derive two bounds on the damping rates of the channels: one is to beat the classical limit and the second is to guarantee the non-existence of any other copy with better fidelity. Effect of the initially distributed maximally entangled state on the process is presented; and the concurrence and the fully entangled fraction of the shared states are discussed. We intend to show that prior information on the dissipative channel and the range of qubit states to be teleported is helpful for the evaluation of the success of teleportation, where success is defined as surpassing the fidelity limit imposed by the fidelity of 1-to-2 optimal cloning machine for the specific range of qubits.

Sahin Kaya Ozdemir; Karol Bartkiewicz; Yu-xi Liu; Adam Miranowicz

2007-09-11

127

Bearing performance limits with grease lubrication: the interaction of bearing design, operating conditions and grease properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of rolling element bearings in use today are lubricated by grease. Grease is a two-phase lubricant with complex rheological properties and poses severe challenges for the prediction for lubricating performance. Grease lubricated contacts are liable to starvation and as a result the film thickness is reduced, which can result in surface damage or premature bearing failure. It is important to know when starvation occurs and the effect of grease type, bearing design and operation on lubrication replenishment. The influence of bearing design and operation in controlling lubricant supply to the contact zone is examined in this paper. The aim is to develop a starvation parameter capable of predicting the operating limits for a particular bearing/grease system. A number of bearing design parameters are examined in the paper; these include cage design, ball spin and bearing size. Ball spin and cage effects can be efficient mechanisms for maintaining the lubricant supply to the track. Increased bearing size, line contact geometries and high load result in reduced lubricant replenishment of the contact. Using this analysis it will be possible to establish operating limits for families of bearings.

Cann, P. M. E.; Lubrecht, A. A.

2007-09-01

128

Head-to-head, randomised, crossover study of oral versus subcutaneous methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: drug-exposure limitations of oral methotrexate at doses >=15 mg may be overcome with subcutaneous administration  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the relative bioavailability, safety and tolerability of oral methotrexate (MTX) and subcutaneous (SC) MTX administered via an auto-injector (MTXAI) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods In this randomised, multicenter, open-label, three-way crossover study, patients ?18?years with adult RA undergoing treatment with MTX for ?3?months were assigned to receive MTX 10, 15, 20 and 25?mg weekly in a random sequence of three treatments: oral, SC into the abdomen and SC into the thigh. For 24?h after administration of each treatment, blood samples were collected for pharmacokinetic analysis and injection sites were assessed. Results Forty-seven patients completed the study. Systemic exposure of oral MTX plateaued at doses ?15?mg/week. In contrast, SC MTX demonstrated a linear increase in systemic exposure that was greater than oral MTX at each dose. No unexpected AEs were noted for either formulation. Conclusions Unlike oral MTX, the systemic exposure of SC MTX did not plateau over the doses studied, particularly at doses ?15?mg/week. In this study, higher systemic MTX exposure was not associated with increases in AEs. Patients with an inadequate clinical response to oral MTX may benefit from higher drug exposure by switching to SC MTX. Trial registration number NCT01618968. PMID:24728329

Schiff, Michael H; Jaffe, Jonathan S; Freundlich, Bruce

2014-01-01

129

Oral Medication  

MedlinePLUS

... Size: A A A Listen En Español Oral Medication The first treatment for type 2 diabetes blood ... new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money ...

130

Water-Limiting Conditions Alter the Structure and Biofilm-Forming Ability of Bacterial Multispecies Communities in the Alfalfa Rhizosphere  

PubMed Central

Biofilms are microbial communities that adhere to biotic or abiotic surfaces and are enclosed in a protective matrix of extracellular compounds. An important advantage of the biofilm lifestyle for soil bacteria (rhizobacteria) is protection against water deprivation (desiccation or osmotic effect). The rhizosphere is a crucial microhabitat for ecological, interactive, and agricultural production processes. The composition and functions of bacterial biofilms in soil microniches are poorly understood. We studied multibacterial communities established as biofilm-like structures in the rhizosphere of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) exposed to 3 experimental conditions of water limitation. The whole biofilm-forming ability (WBFA) for rhizospheric communities exposed to desiccation was higher than that of communities exposed to saline or nonstressful conditions. A culture-dependent ribotyping analysis indicated that communities exposed to desiccation or saline conditions were more diverse than those under the nonstressful condition. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of selected strains showed that the rhizospheric communities consisted primarily of members of the Actinobacteria and ?- and ?-Proteobacteria, regardless of the water-limiting condition. Our findings contribute to improved understanding of the effects of environmental stress factors on plant-bacteria interaction processes and have potential application to agricultural management practices. PMID:24223979

Bogino, Pablo; Abod, Ayelen; Nievas, Fiorela; Giordano, Walter

2013-01-01

131

On the choice of limiters in a numerical approximation of a chemotaxis system with non-linear boundary conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model for haematopoietic stem cells migration towards their niche in the bone marrow has been proposed in the literature. It consists of a chemotaxis system of partial differential equations with nonlinear boundary conditions and an additional ordinary differential equation on a part of the computational boundary. The aim in the current paper is first to answer some of the open questions of a recently introduced finite volume scheme for this chemotaxis system of differential equations and second to investigate the influence of the boundary conditions on the choice of flux limiters (the generalized minmod, Koren, van Leer limiters are investigated) used to ensure positivity and non-oscillating nature of the numerical solution.

Bencheva, G.

2012-10-01

132

Fate of dissolved toluene during steady infiltration throughout unsaturated soil: II. Biotransformation under nutrient-limited conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotransformation rates for dissolved toluene in unsaturated sandy soil were determined in dynamic column infiltration experiments. Transformation rates under N-limited conditions and in the presence of sufficient oxygen were 8 to 35 mg (kg d)⁻¹ and appeared to follow zero order kinetics. Toluene-degrading microoganisms were demonstrated to increase significantly in both activity and numbers with exposure to toluene. Relatively low

Richelle M. Allen-King; Robert W. Gillham; James F. Barker; Edward A. Sudicky

1996-01-01

133

Personal resuscitation plans and end of life planning for children with disability and life-limiting\\/life-threatening conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the need for person-specific planning for the increasing numbers of disabled children with life-limiting and life-threatening conditions. It describes the system developed in Nottingham for this client group to have a family-held personal resuscitation plan, (PRP) which is developed with the child and family by their lead paediatrician. The PRP is an emergency medical care plan which

A Wolff; J Browne; W P Whitehouse

2011-01-01

134

Comparative studies of S-layer proteins from Bacillus stearothermophilus strains expressed during growth in continuous culture under oxygen-limited and non-oxygen-limited conditions.  

PubMed Central

The specific properties of S-layer proteins from three different Bacillus stearothermophilus strains revealing oblique, square, or hexagonal lattice symmetry were preserved during growth in continuous culture on complex medium only under oxygen-limited conditions in which glucose was used as the sole carbon source. When oxygen limitation was relieved, amino acids became metabolized, cell density increased, and different S-layer proteins from wild-type strains became rapidly replaced by a new common type of S-layer protein with an apparent subunit molecular weight of 97,000 which assembled into an identical oblique (p2) lattice type. During switching from wild-type strains to variants, patches of the S-layer lattices characteristics for wild-type strains, granular regions, and areas with oblique lattice symmetry could be observed on the surface of individual cells from all organisms. The granular regions apparently consisted of mixtures of the S-layer proteins from the wild-type strains and the newly synthesized p2 S-layer proteins from the variants. S-layer proteins from wild-type strains possessed identical N-terminal regions but led to quite different cleavage products upon peptide mapping, indicating that they are encoded by different genes. Chemical analysis including N-terminal sequencing and peptide mapping showed that the oblique S-layer lattices synthesized under increased oxygen supply were composed of identical protein species. Images PMID:7961489

Sára, M; Sleytr, U B

1994-01-01

135

Condition for Production of Circulating Proton Beam with Intensity Greater than Space Charge Limit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transverse e-p instability in the proton rings could be damped by increase a beam density and the rate of secondary particles generation above a threshold level, corresponded a decrease of the unstable wavelength ? below a transverse beam size h( increase a beam density nb and ion density ni above a threshold level: nb + ni> ?2 /re h2.; re =e2/mc2 ).In high current proton rings is possible to reach this "Island of stability" by fast. concentrated charge exchange injection without painting and enhanced generation of secondary plasma as it was demonstrated in small scale PSR at BINP [1]. After damping of e-p instability has been accumulated a circulating proton beam with intensity, corresponding a tune shift ?v=0.85×6 in the ring with v=0.85. Experimental observations of a transverse instability of proton beams in different accelerators and storage rings will be discussed. The methods of instability damping will be considered. These experimental dates could be useful for verification of computer simulation tools developed for investigation of space charge and instabilities in realistic conditions [4,5].

Dudnikov, Vadim

2002-12-01

136

3D scalar model as a 4D perfect conductor limit: Dimensional reduction and variational boundary conditions  

SciTech Connect

Under dimensional reduction, a system in D spacetime dimensions will not necessarily yield its D-1-dimensional analog version. Among other things, this result will depend on the boundary conditions and the dimension D of the system. We investigate this question for scalar and Abelian gauge fields under boundary conditions that obey the symmetries of the action. We apply our findings to the Casimir piston, an ideal system for detecting boundary effects. Our investigation is not limited to extra dimensions and we show that the original piston scenario proposed in 2004, a toy model involving a scalar field in 3D (2+1) dimensions, can be obtained via dimensional reduction from a more realistic 4D electromagnetic (EM) system. We show that for perfect conductor conditions, a D-dimensional EM field reduces to a D-1 scalar field and not its lower-dimensional version. For Dirichlet boundary conditions, no theory is recovered under dimensional reduction and the Casimir pressure goes to zero in any dimension. This ''zero Dirichlet'' result is useful for understanding the EM case. We then identify two special systems where the lower-dimensional version is recovered in any dimension: systems with perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) and Neumann boundary conditions. We show that these two boundary conditions can be obtained from a variational procedure in which the action vanishes outside the bounded region. The fields are free to vary on the surface and have zero modes, which survive after dimensional reduction.

Edery, Ariel [Physics Department, Bishop's University, 2600 College Street, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1M 0C8 (Canada); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Kohn Hall, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Graham, Noah [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Kohn Hall, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States); MacDonald, Ilana [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Physics Department, Bishop's University, 2600 College Street, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1M 0C8 (Canada)

2009-06-15

137

Benefits and limitations of pig slurry to reclaim bare mine soils under Mediterranean semiarid conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the effects of pig slurry application on reclamation of mine soils from Cartagena-La Unión Mining District (SE Spain) were investigated in a field experiment. Exchangeable metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, soluble carbon, microbial biomass and three enzyme activities were periodically monitored during 67 days. In addition, one year after the application of the pig slurry, soil and developed vegetation was sampled. Results showed that only exchangeable Cd and Zn significantly decreased in the amended plots, mainly for Cd, with decreases of 98%. The rest of metals and chemical properties did not change with time after application of amendments, showing values not significantly different than those present before pig slurry application. Soluble carbon, microbial biomass carbon and the enzyme activities increased after the application of pig slurry. However, after various days these parameters started a decreasing trend until reaching values similar to the control from approximately day 25. Thus, mainly precipitation as phosphate from the waste was very effective for Cd immobilization. No increments were observed in soil organic carbon because the organic carbon applied with the slurry was too low to be significantly detected. Nonetheless, pig slurry is a good fertilizer owing to the high quantity of nutrients provided, needed to promote the development of vegetation. One year after application, a native vegetation cover (25-30%) was reached by spontaneous colonization. Triggered plant growth by the effect of amendment improved soil conditions, particularly by the help of the medium created by their rhizosphere systems. Increments in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, and decreases in the exchangeable metals fraction concentration were observed in rhizospheric soils when compared to the bare soils. This improvement in soil quality mediated by vegetation was more efficient than the direct effect of the amendment. In conclusion, the use of pig slurry to reclaim bare contaminated soils by heavy metals brings indirect positive effects by triggering a vegetation cover which can stabilize metals and increase soil quality (phytostabilization). Keywords: heavy metals, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, phytoremediation.

Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Acosta, Jose A.; Kabas, Sebla; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Ángeles Muñoz, M.

2013-04-01

138

Oil viscosity limitation on dispersibility of crude oil under simulated at-sea conditions in a large wave tank.  

PubMed

This study determined the limiting oil viscosity for chemical dispersion of oil spills under simulated sea conditions in the large outdoor wave tank at the US National Oil Spill Response Test Facility in New Jersey. Dispersant effectiveness tests were completed using crude oils with viscosities ranging from 67 to 40,100 cP at test temperature. Tests produced an effectiveness-viscosity curve with three phases when oil was treated with Corexit 9500 at a dispersant-to-oil ratio of 1:20. The oil viscosity that limited chemical dispersion under simulated at-sea conditions was in the range of 18,690 cP to 33,400 cP. Visual observations and measurements of oil concentrations and droplet size distributions in the water under treated and control slicks correlated well with direct measurements of effectiveness. The dispersant effectiveness versus oil viscosity relationship under simulated at sea conditions at Ohmsett was most similar to those from similar tests made using the Institut Francais du Pétrole and Exxon Dispersant Effectiveness (EXDET) test methods. PMID:20723943

Trudel, Ken; Belore, Randy C; Mullin, Joseph V; Guarino, Alan

2010-09-01

139

Physiology of Geobacter metallireducens under excess and limitation of electron donors. Part II. Mimicking environmental conditions during cultivation in retentostats.  

PubMed

The strict anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens was cultivated in retentostats under acetate and acetate plus benzoate limitation in the presence of Fe(III) citrate in order to investigate its physiology under close to natural conditions. Growth rates below 0.003h(-1) were achieved in the course of cultivation. A nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach (nano-LC-MS/MS) with subsequent label-free quantification was performed on proteins extracted from cells sampled at different time points during retentostat cultivation. Proteins detected at low (0.002h(-1)) and high (0.06h(-1)) growth rates were compared between corresponding growth conditions (acetate or acetate plus benzoate). Carbon limitation significantly increased the abundances of several catabolic proteins involved in the degradation of substrates not present in the medium (ethanol, butyrate, fatty acids, and aromatic compounds). Growth rate-specific physiology was reflected in the changed abundances of energy-, chemotaxis-, oxidative stress-, and transport-related proteins. Mimicking natural conditions by extremely slow bacterial growth allowed to show how G. metallireducens optimized its physiology in order to survive in its natural habitats, since it was prepared to consume several carbon sources simultaneously and to withstand various environmental stresses. PMID:24736031

Marozava, Sviatlana; Röling, Wilfred F M; Seifert, Jana; Küffner, Robert; von Bergen, Martin; Meckenstock, Rainer U

2014-06-01

140

Carbon isotopic fractionation by the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under nutrient- and light-limited growth conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical model was developed to explain the characteristics of carbon isotopic fractionation ( ?P) by the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under nutrient- and light-limited growth conditions. The model takes into consideration active transport and diffusion of inorganic carbon through the cell membrane and chloroplast membrane and the energetic tradeoff between production of Rubisco and operation of a carbon-concentrating mechanism to achieve a given growth rate. The model is able to explain 88% of the variance in experimental ?p data reported in this study and in previous work and is able to account for the observed pattern of Rubisco activity in nitrate-limited chemostats. Two important implications of the model include the fact that ?p is not a unique function of the ratio of growth rate to external CO 2 concentration (as opposed to the predictions of several previous models) and that changes in light-limited and nutrient-limited growth rates have opposite effects on the fraction of CO 2 taken up by the chloroplast that is lost to diffusion and hence on certain patterns of carbon isotopic fractionation.

Cassar, Nicolas; Laws, Edward A.; Popp, Brian N.

2006-11-01

141

Assessing the Influence of Lateral Boundary Conditions in Limited Area Numerical Weather Prediction Modelling for the Territory of Latvia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increase in available computing power has allowed even more research centres to begin work on atmospheric modelling and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). When Limited Area Models (LAM) are used, the possible influence of boundary conditions must be taken into account for sufficient analysis of the modelling results. However, there is no universally applicable approach and the analysis must be performed for each domain setup. The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model [1] is currently used in University of Latvia for research in NWP. The region of interest is the territory of Latvia that is situated in the North-Eastern part of Europe and on the Eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. The terrain is relatively flat (highest elevation ~ 300 m ASL). The climate of Latvia is hemiboreal (Dfb) according to the Köppen classification. In the winter the climate is strongly influenced by mid-latitude cyclones. The target computational domain covers the territory of Latvia with the resolution of 3 km (301x301 grid points) and is nested in a lower-resolution outer computational domain. The aim of this study is to assess the uncertainty that is caused by the choice of the computational domain and consequently the influence of the applied boundary conditions. Due to the limited computational resources selected events characteristic of different meteorological conditions are chosen for investigation. Several aspects are analysed such as: (1) domain sizes (2) positioning of the domains (with the aim of better cyclone description) and (3) boundary condition data sources (4) influence of the model spin-up times. The results are compared with the surface meteorological observations from the Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre (LEGMC) observational network. References: [1] Skamarock, William C. and Klemp, Joseph B. A time-split nonhydrostatic atmospheric model for weather research and forecasting applications. Journal of Computational Physics. 227, 2008, pp. 3465-3485.

S?le, Tija; Se??ikovs, Juris; Bethers, Uldis

2013-04-01

142

Fate of dissolved toluene during steady infiltration throughout unsaturated soil: II. Biotransformation under nutrient-limited conditions  

SciTech Connect

Biotransformation rates for dissolved toluene in unsaturated sandy soil were determined in dynamic column infiltration experiments. Transformation rates under N-limited conditions and in the presence of sufficient oxygen were 8 to 35 mg (kg d){sup {minus}1} and appeared to follow zero order kinetics. Toluene-degrading microoganisms were demonstrated to increase significantly in both activity and numbers with exposure to toluene. Relatively low CO{sub 2} production to oxygen consumption ratios were observed during these experiments suggesting incomplete toluene mineralization. Over the ranges tested, water flux (20-80 cm d{sup {minus}1}) and toluene concentration (4-46 mg L{sup {minus}1}) appeared to have a secondary control on rate relative to nutrient and/or oxygen limitations. Under conditions where the oxygen concentration was near zero due to removal of toluene degradation in the soil columns, the transformation rate was sufficiently low to be insignificant relative to column residence time. 32 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Allen-King, R.M. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Gillham, R.W.; Barker, J.F.; Sudicky, E.A. [Univ. of Waterloo, ON (Canada)

1996-03-01

143

Oxygen Response of the Wine Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 Grown under Carbon-Sufficient, Nitrogen-Limited Enological Conditions  

PubMed Central

Discrete additions of oxygen play a critical role in alcoholic fermentation. However, few studies have quantitated the fate of dissolved oxygen and its impact on wine yeast cell physiology under enological conditions. We simulated the range of dissolved oxygen concentrations that occur after a pump-over during the winemaking process by sparging nitrogen-limited continuous cultures with oxygen-nitrogen gaseous mixtures. When the dissolved oxygen concentration increased from 1.2 to 2.7 ?M, yeast cells changed from a fully fermentative to a mixed respirofermentative metabolism. This transition is characterized by a switch in the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and an activation of NADH shuttling from the cytosol to mitochondria. Nevertheless, fermentative ethanol production remained the major cytosolic NADH sink under all oxygen conditions, suggesting that the limitation of mitochondrial NADH reoxidation is the major cause of the Crabtree effect. This is reinforced by the induction of several key respiratory genes by oxygen, despite the high sugar concentration, indicating that oxygen overrides glucose repression. Genes associated with other processes, such as proline uptake, cell wall remodeling, and oxidative stress, were also significantly affected by oxygen. The results of this study indicate that respiration is responsible for a substantial part of the oxygen response in yeast cells during alcoholic fermentation. This information will facilitate the development of temporal oxygen addition strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations. PMID:23001663

Aceituno, Felipe F.; Orellana, Marcelo; Torres, Jorge; Mendoza, Sebastian; Slater, Alex W.; Melo, Francisco

2012-01-01

144

Oxygen response of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 grown under carbon-sufficient, nitrogen-limited enological conditions.  

PubMed

Discrete additions of oxygen play a critical role in alcoholic fermentation. However, few studies have quantitated the fate of dissolved oxygen and its impact on wine yeast cell physiology under enological conditions. We simulated the range of dissolved oxygen concentrations that occur after a pump-over during the winemaking process by sparging nitrogen-limited continuous cultures with oxygen-nitrogen gaseous mixtures. When the dissolved oxygen concentration increased from 1.2 to 2.7 ?M, yeast cells changed from a fully fermentative to a mixed respirofermentative metabolism. This transition is characterized by a switch in the operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and an activation of NADH shuttling from the cytosol to mitochondria. Nevertheless, fermentative ethanol production remained the major cytosolic NADH sink under all oxygen conditions, suggesting that the limitation of mitochondrial NADH reoxidation is the major cause of the Crabtree effect. This is reinforced by the induction of several key respiratory genes by oxygen, despite the high sugar concentration, indicating that oxygen overrides glucose repression. Genes associated with other processes, such as proline uptake, cell wall remodeling, and oxidative stress, were also significantly affected by oxygen. The results of this study indicate that respiration is responsible for a substantial part of the oxygen response in yeast cells during alcoholic fermentation. This information will facilitate the development of temporal oxygen addition strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations. PMID:23001663

Aceituno, Felipe F; Orellana, Marcelo; Torres, Jorge; Mendoza, Sebastián; Slater, Alex W; Melo, Francisco; Agosin, Eduardo

2012-12-01

145

[Oral ulcers].  

PubMed

Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology. PMID:16277953

Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

2005-10-29

146

Enhanced Interaction of Vibrio cholerae Virulence Regulators TcpP and ToxR under Oxygen-Limiting Conditions  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the diarrheal disease cholera. The ability of V. cholerae to colonize and cause disease requires the intricately regulated expression of a number of virulence factors during infection. One of the signals sensed by V. cholerae is the presence of oxygen-limiting conditions in the gut. It has been shown that the virulence activator AphB plays a key role in sensing low oxygen concentrations and inducing the transcription of another key virulence activator, TcpP. In this study, we used a bacterial two-hybrid system to further examine the effect of oxygen on different virulence regulators. We found that anoxic conditions enhanced the interaction between TcpP and ToxR, identified as the first positive regulator of V. cholerae virulence genes. We further demonstrated that the TcpP-ToxR interaction was dependent on the primary periplasmic protein disulfide formation enzyme DsbA and cysteine residues in the periplasmic domains of both ToxR and TcpP. Furthermore, we showed that in V. cholerae, an interaction between TcpP and ToxR is important for virulence gene induction. Under anaerobic growth conditions, we detected ToxR-TcpP heterodimers, which were abolished in the presence of the reducing agent dithiothreitol. Our results suggest that V. cholerae may sense intestinal anoxic signals by multiple components to activate virulence. PMID:24491579

Fan, Fenxia; Liu, Zhi; Jabeen, Nusrat; Birdwell, L. Dillon

2014-01-01

147

Determination of ability of several arbor and shrub species to endure and survive extreme aridity with limited-areas methods under field conditions in Horqin Sandy Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using limited-areas methods, the ability of several arbor and shrub species to endure and survive extreme aridity under field conditions in Horqin Sandy Land was studied, and the lowest critical soil water content that was endurable for each of these species was determined. By limiting the horizontal distribution range of the plant roots system, the limited-areas methods could decrease the

Jiyi Zhang; Zhenzhen Wei; Halin Zhao

2006-01-01

148

A relational understanding of sibling experiences of children with rare life-limiting conditions: findings from a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) and Batten disease are rare life-limiting conditions (LLCs) characterised by progressive and permanent physical and cognitive decline. The impact of such conditions on families, and notably on siblings, has not yet been described or documented. This paper presents data from a UK-wide study that sought to understand the family experience of supporting a child with the rare degenerative LLCs of MPS and Batten disease. The aim of this paper is to report sibling experiences related to these rare degenerative and progressive conditions, in order to inform the future development of supportive interventions. Eight siblings of children with MPS (n = 7) and Batten Disease (n = 1) participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews. A card sort technique was utilised to support and engage the children. Siblings are clearly impacted emotionally, pragmatically and relationally by the ill health of another child in the family. The data indicate four key themes which demonstrate impacts on siblings: perceptions of the condition and its symptoms, impact on daily life, emotional consequences and ways of coping. Siblings often had considerable knowledge of the condition and took on important roles in symptom management. However, these experiences were in the context of managing relationships within the family (often protecting parents from an awareness of how much they knew) and relationships at school (including distraction from learning and being bullied by peers). The data highlight how sibling experiences are generated through a combination of negative disability discourses and support through peers and family members. The data indicate how these features shift as a consequence of witnessing the advancement of their brother's or sister's condition and the emotional sequelae of disease progression. Exploration of siblings' experiences of living with such rare progressive and degenerative LLCs suggest the focus of interventions to support this group should address their emotional health and ways to overcome isolation and build connections with other siblings who share their unique experiences. Critically, the data suggest that sibling support should be cognisant of the trajectory of the illness as well as the family, school and peer relational contexts that siblings inhabit. PMID:23754839

Malcolm, Cari; Gibson, Faith; Adams, Sally; Anderson, Gillian; Forbat, Liz

2014-09-01

149

Prevalence of life-limiting conditions in children and young people in England: time trends by area type.  

PubMed

Palliative care services in England lack data on the number of children with 'life limiting conditions' (LLCs). Recent research determined that the prevalence of LLCs in children in England was double previous estimates. We build on this by analysing time-trends in the prevalence of LLCs by small area deprivation and geodemographic area types. Prevalence is highest for children aged less than one year but time trends show no increase for the youngest age group but significant increases for older children. These increases are mirrored by a decrease in all cause mortality for children suggesting improved survival. Rates are highest in more deprived areas and those typified by multicultural populations. Increasing prevalence and number of cases over time may require increased paediatric palliative care service provision in the future. PMID:24468834

Norman, Paul; Fraser, Lorna

2014-03-01

150

Conditional solvation thermodynamics of isoleucine in model peptides and the limitations of the group-transfer model.  

PubMed

The hydration thermodynamics of the amino acid X relative to the reference G (glycine) or the hydration thermodynamics of a small-molecule analog of the side chain of X is often used to model the contribution of X to protein stability and solution thermodynamics. We consider the reasons for successes and limitations of this approach by calculating and comparing the conditional excess free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of hydration of the isoleucine side chain in zwitterionic isoleucine, in extended penta-peptides, and in helical deca-peptides. Butane in gauche conformation serves as a small-molecule analog for the isoleucine side chain. Parsing the hydrophobic and hydrophilic contributions to hydration for the side chain shows that both of these aspects of hydration are context-sensitive. Furthermore, analyzing the solute-solvent interaction contribution to the conditional excess enthalpy of the side chain shows that what is nominally considered a property of the side chain includes entirely nonobvious contributions of the background. The context-sensitivity of hydrophobic and hydrophilic hydration and the conflation of background contributions with energetics attributed to the side chain limit the ability of a single scaling factor, such as the fractional solvent exposure of the group in the protein, to map the component energetic contributions of the model-compound data to their value in the protein. But ignoring the origin of cancellations in the underlying components the group-transfer model may appear to provide a reasonable estimate of the free energy for a given error tolerance. PMID:24650057

Tomar, Dheeraj S; Weber, Valéry; Pettitt, B Montgomery; Asthagiri, D

2014-04-17

151

Pyruvate and Lactate Metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under Fermentation, Oxygen Limitation, and Fumarate Respiration Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe that derives energy by coupling organic matter oxidation to the reduction of wide range of electron acceptors. Here, we quantitatively assessed lactate and pyruvate metabolism of MR-1 under three distinct conditions: electron acceptor limited growth on lactate with O2; lactate with fumarate; and pyruvate fermentation. The latter does not support growth but provides energy for cell survival. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of that needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensible for growth, respiration of fumarate does not contribute significantly to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory conditions S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, whereby the TCA cycle did not contribute significantly. Pyruvate dehydrogenase was not involved in lactate metabolism under O2 limitation but was required for anaerobic growth likely by supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. The results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination of substrate-level phosphorylation and respiration, where pyruvate serves as electron donor and electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H independent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). The results further indicate that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by proton motive force generation.

Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Hill, Eric A.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2011-12-01

152

Pyruvate and Lactate Metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under Fermentation, Oxygen Limitation, and Fumarate Respiration Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe growing by coupling organic matter oxidation to reduction of wide range of electron acceptors. Here we quantitatively assessed lactate and pyruvate metabolism of these bacteria under three distinct conditions: electron acceptor limited growth on lactate with O2 and fumarate, and pyruvate fermentation, which does not sustain growth but allows cells to survive for prolonged period. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of all ATP needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensible for growth, respiration of fumarate does not contribute much to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory conditions S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, and TCA cycle did not contribute significantly to substrate oxidation. Pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction was not involved in lactate metabolism under O2 limitation, however was important for anaerobic growth probably supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. Unexpectedly, obtained results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination between substrate-level phosphorylation and a respiratory process, where pyruvate serves as electron donor and electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H independent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). Based on involved enzymes localization we hypothesize that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by proton motive force generation.

Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Hill, Eric A.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2011-12-30

153

Use of the Priestley-Taylor evaporation equation for soil water limited conditions in a small forest clearcut  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Priestley-Taylor equation, a simplification of the Penman equation, was used to allow calculations of evapotranspiration under conditions where soil water supply limits evapotranspiration. The Priestley-Taylor coefficient, ??, was calculated to incorporate an exponential decrease in evapotranspiration as soil water content decreases. The method is appropriate for use when detailed meteorological measurements are not available. The data required to determine the parameter for the ?? coefficient are net radiation, soil heat flux, average air temperature, and soil water content. These values can be obtained from measurements or models. The dataset used in this report pertains to a partially vegetated clearcut forest site in southwest Oregon with soil depths ranging from 0.48 to 0.70 m and weathered bedrock below that. Evapotranspiration was estimated using the Bowen ratio method, and the calculated Priestley-Taylor coefficient was fitted to these estimates by nonlinear regression. The calculated Priestley-Taylor coefficient (?????) was found to be approximately 0.9 when the soil was near field capacity (0.225 cm3 cm-3). It was not until soil water content was less than 0.14 cm3 cm-3 that soil water supply limited evapotranspiration. The soil reached a final residual water content near 0.05 cm3 cm-3 at the end of the growing season. ?? 1991.

Flint, A. L.; Childs, S. W.

1991-01-01

154

Enhanced production of ganoderic acids in static liquid culture of Ganoderma lucidum under nitrogen-limiting conditions.  

PubMed

The effect of nitrogen limitation on the production of the antitumor compounds, ganoderic acids (GAs), by Ganoderma lucidum and on transcription levels of triterpene biosynthesis genes in this mushroom was investigated. At 3mM glutamine, a maximal content of GA-Mk, GA-T, GA-S, and GA-Me was 2.16, 11.76, 31.09, and 7.04 ?g/mg cell dry weight, respectively, which was 2.8-, 5.8-, 8.3-, and 5.1-fold that obtained at 60mM glutamine. The transcription levels of biosynthetic genes encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, squalene synthase, lanosterol synthase, and a putative nitrogen regulator, AreA, were up-regulated by 37-, 18-, 4.5-, 3.2-, and 13-fold, respectively, in nitrogen limitation conditions, suggesting that increased GAs biosynthesis may result from higher expression of those genes. This study demonstrated a useful strategy for enhancing GAs production and provided useful information for further investigation on its biosynthesis regulation. PMID:21742489

Zhao, Wei; Xu, Jun-Wei; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

2011-09-01

155

19 CFR 148.12 - Oral declarations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... § 148.12 Oral declarations. (a) Generally...States may make an oral declaration under the conditions...However, written declarations may be required...permitted. Oral declarations may be permitted under...resident may make an oral declaration if: (i)...

2010-04-01

156

Analysis of Vertical Turbulent Heat Flux Limit in Stable Conditions with a Local Equilibrium, Turbulence Closure Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assuming that the vertical turbulent heat flux vanishes at extremely stable conditions, one should expect its maximal absolute value to occur somewhere at moderate stability, between a neutral and extremely stable equilibrium. Consequently, in some situations duality of solutions may be encountered (e.g. two different values of temperature difference associated with the same values of heat flux and wind speed). A quantitative analysis of this feature with a local equilibrium Reynolds-stress model is presented. The fixed-wind / fixed-shear maximum has been identified both in the bulk and in single-point flux-gradient relationships (that is, in the vertical temperature gradient and wind-shear parameter domain). The value of the Richardson number corresponding to this maximum is derived from the model equations. To study the possible feedback in strongly stable conditions, weak and intense cooling scenarios have been simulated with a one-dimensional numerical, high-resolution atmospheric boundary-layer model. Despite the rapid cooling, flow decoupling at the surface has not been observed; instead, a stability-limited heat flux is maintained, with a gradual increase of the Richardson number towards the top of the turbulent layer, with some signs of oscillatory behaviour at intermediate heights. Vertical changes of wind shear and the Brunt-Väisälä frequency display a remarkably non-monotonic character, with some signs of a gradually developing instability.

?obocki, Lech

2013-09-01

157

The Activity of Nodules of the Supernodulating Mutant Mtsunn Is not Limited by Photosynthesis under Optimal Growth Conditions  

PubMed Central

Legumes match the nodule number to the N demand of the plant. When a mutation in the regulatory mechanism deprives the plant of that ability, an excessive number of nodules are formed. These mutants show low productivity in the fields, mainly due to the high carbon burden caused through the necessity to supply numerous nodules. The objective of this study was to clarify whether through optimal conditions for growth and CO2 assimilation a higher nodule activity of a supernodulating mutant of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) can be induced. Several experimental approaches reveal that under the conditions of our experiments, the nitrogen fixation of the supernodulating mutant, designated as sunn (super numeric nodules), was not limited by photosynthesis. Higher specific nitrogen fixation activity could not be induced through short- or long-term increases in CO2 assimilation around shoots. Furthermore, a whole plant P depletion induced a decline in nitrogen fixation, however this decline did not occur significantly earlier in sunn plants, nor was it more intense compared to the wild-type. However, a distinctly different pattern of nitrogen fixation during the day/night cycles of the experiment indicates that the control of N2 fixing activity of the large number of nodules is an additional problem for the productivity of supernodulating mutants. PMID:24727372

Cabeza, Ricardo A.; Lingner, Annika; Liese, Rebecca; Sulieman, Saad; Senbayram, Mehmet; Trankner, Merle; Dittert, Klaus; Schulze, Joachim

2014-01-01

158

Towards the limit of quantifying low-amplitude strains on bone and in coagulum around immediately loaded oral implants in extraction sockets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to quantify strains in coagulum around immediately loaded oral implants in extraction sockets\\u000a at the ex vivo level. Bilateral maxillary premolar teeth of two fresh human cadavers were extracted and Ø 4.1 ×12 mm Straumann\\u000a TE® implants were placed in the sockets of first and second premolars by utilizing mesio-distal and palatal anchorage, respectively.\\u000a Installation torque

Murat Cavit Cehreli; Ayhan Comert; Murat Akkocaoglu; Ibrahim Tekdemir; Kivanc Akca

2006-01-01

159

Planning ahead with children with life-limiting conditions and their families: development, implementation and evaluation of 'My Choices'  

PubMed Central

Background The United Kingdom has led the world in the development of children’s palliative care. Over the past two decades, the illness trajectories of children with life-limiting conditions have extended with new treatments and better home-based care. Future planning is a critically under-researched aspect of children’s palliative care globally. This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of innovative child and parent-held palliative care planning resources. The resources were designed to facilitate parent and child thinking and engagement in future planning, and to determine care preferences and preferred locations of care for children with life-limiting conditions from diagnosis onwards. These resources fill a significant gap in palliative care planning before the end-of-life phase. Methods Drawing on contemporaneous research on producing evidence-based children’s health information, we collaborated with leading children’s not-for-profit organisations, parents, children, and professionals. A set of resources (My Choices booklets) were developed for parents and children and evaluated using interviews (parents, children, professionals) and questionnaires (professionals) and an open web-based consultation. Results Parents and children responded in three ways: Some used the booklets to produce detailed written plans with clear outcomes and ideas about how best to achieve desired outcomes. Others preferred to use the booklet to help them think about potential options. Remaining parents found it difficult to think about the future and felt there was no point because they perceived there to be no suitable local services. Professionals varied in confidence in their ability to engage with families to plan ahead and identified many challenges that prevented them from doing so. Few families shared their plans with professionals. Parents and children have far stronger preferences for home-care than professionals. Conclusion The My Choices booklets were revised in light of findings, have been endorsed by Together for Short Lives, and are free to download in English and Welsh for use by parents and young people globally. More work needs to be done to support families who are not yet receptive to planning ahead. Professionals would benefit from more training in person-centred approaches to future planning and additional communications skills to increase confidence and ability to engage with families to deliver sensitive palliative care planning. PMID:23384400

2013-01-01

160

The course of physical functional limitations and occupational conditions in a middle-aged working population in France  

PubMed Central

Background Physical functional limitations (PFL) have mainly been studied in older populations. The aim of this study was to better understand the course of PFL and associations with occupational factors by gender in a middle-aged working population. Methods The data came from 16,950 workers in the ESTEV (Enquête Santé Travail et Vieillissement) cohort in France. PFL were assessed using the physical abilities section of the Nottingham Health Profile. Occupational conditions were measured with a self-administered questionnaire covering physical and psychosocial factors in 1990 and 1995. Multivariate analyses were used to assess the associations. Results The PFL appearance rate in 1995 was the same by gender (6.3%); the rate of PFL recovery was higher in men (23.9% versus 20.9%). Age was an independent factor of PFL at age 47?years or older in both genders after adjusting for confounding factors. The PFL appearance rate in 1995 was higher with physical occupational exposure in 1990, such as awkward work with a dose relation in both genders, while the PFL recovery rate decreased significantly only for men. Exposure to psychosocial occupational conditions, such as having the means to produce quality work in 1990, was significantly associated with a decreased PFL appearance rate in 1995 in both genders, and having high decision latitude in 1990 was associated with a decreased PFL appearance rate in 1995 only in men. Changes in exposure to occupational factors between 1990 and 1995 were associated with the PFL appearance and recovery rates in 1995 in both genders. Conclusions After five years, the course of PFL in this working population changed and was associated with physical and psychosocial occupational factors. Relationships were stronger for the PFL appearance rate in both genders and were weaker for recovery from PFL, mainly among women. PMID:22494385

2012-01-01

161

7 CFR 42.111 - Sampling plans for reduced condition of container inspection, Tables III and III-A; and limit...  

...limit number for reduced inspection, Table III-B. 42.111 Section 42.111 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...Procedures for Stationary Lot Sampling and Inspection § 42.111 Sampling plans for reduced condition of...

2014-01-01

162

40 CFR Appendix L to Subpart A of... - Approved Critical Uses and Limiting Critical Conditions for Those Uses for the 2013 Control Period  

...A Column B Column C Approved Critical Uses Approved Critical User and Location of Use Limiting Critical Conditions that exist...arise without methyl bromide fumigation: PRE-PLANT USES Cucurbits Georgia growers on fewer...

2014-07-01

163

Menopause and oral health.  

PubMed

Different phases of a woman's life: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause have varied influence on her oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production, affecting their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels directly affect the oral cavity. A few oral conditions and or diseases are seen more frequently during post menopausal years. Role of hormones affecting the health of oro-dental tissues, as well as treatment by HRT in ameliorating these conditions is not clear. There is paucity of randomized controlled trials in this field and more data is needed, before the recommendations for oral health care in post menopausal women can be made. A gynecologist sitting in menopausal clinic should be aware of oral changes happening during this period, and dental needs of these women and should refer them to the dental specialists accordingly. On the other hand, a dentist should also be sensitized about the menopausal status of the woman, her HRT status and special preventive and treatment needs. PMID:25316996

Suri, Vanita; Suri, Varun

2014-07-01

164

Menopause and oral health  

PubMed Central

Different phases of a woman's life: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause have varied influence on her oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production, affecting their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels directly affect the oral cavity. A few oral conditions and or diseases are seen more frequently during post menopausal years. Role of hormones affecting the health of oro-dental tissues, as well as treatment by HRT in ameliorating these conditions is not clear. There is paucity of randomized controlled trials in this field and more data is needed, before the recommendations for oral health care in post menopausal women can be made. A gynecologist sitting in menopausal clinic should be aware of oral changes happening during this period, and dental needs of these women and should refer them to the dental specialists accordingly. On the other hand, a dentist should also be sensitized about the menopausal status of the woman, her HRT status and special preventive and treatment needs. PMID:25316996

Suri, Vanita; Suri, Varun

2014-01-01

165

21 CFR 310.201 - Exemption for certain drugs limited by new-drug applications to prescription sale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hydrochloride) preparations meeting all the following conditions: (i) The dicyclomine hydrochloride is prepared with suitable antacid and other components, in tablet or other dosage form for oral use in self-medication, and containing no drug limited...

2013-04-01

166

21 CFR 310.201 - Exemption for certain drugs limited by new-drug applications to prescription sale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hydrochloride) preparations meeting all the following conditions: (i) The dicyclomine hydrochloride is prepared with suitable antacid and other components, in tablet or other dosage form for oral use in self-medication, and containing no drug limited...

2012-04-01

167

21 CFR 310.201 - Exemption for certain drugs limited by new-drug applications to prescription sale.  

...hydrochloride) preparations meeting all the following conditions: (i) The dicyclomine hydrochloride is prepared with suitable antacid and other components, in tablet or other dosage form for oral use in self-medication, and containing no drug limited...

2014-04-01

168

21 CFR 310.201 - Exemption for certain drugs limited by new-drug applications to prescription sale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hydrochloride) preparations meeting all the following conditions: (i) The dicyclomine hydrochloride is prepared with suitable antacid and other components, in tablet or other dosage form for oral use in self-medication, and containing no drug limited...

2011-04-01

169

21 CFR 310.201 - Exemption for certain drugs limited by new-drug applications to prescription sale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hydrochloride) preparations meeting all the following conditions: (i) The dicyclomine hydrochloride is prepared with suitable antacid and other components, in tablet or other dosage form for oral use in self-medication, and containing no drug limited...

2010-04-01

170

Aerobactin mediates virulence and accounts for increased siderophore production under iron-limiting conditions by hypervirulent (hypermucoviscous) Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

Hypervirulent (hypermucoviscous) Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) strains are an emerging variant of "classical" K. pneumoniae (cKP) that cause organ and life-threatening infection in healthy individuals. An understanding of hvKP-specific virulence mechanisms that enabled evolution from cKP is limited. Observations by our group and previously published molecular epidemiologic data led us to hypothesize that hvKP strains produced more siderophores than cKP strains and that this trait enhanced hvKP virulence. Quantitative analysis of 12 hvKP strains in iron-poor minimal medium or human ascites fluid showed a significant and distinguishing 6- to 10-fold increase in siderophore production compared to that for 14 cKP strains. Surprisingly, high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-mass spectrometry and characterization of the hvKP strains hvKP1, A1142, and A1365 and their isogenic aerobactin-deficient (?iucA) derivatives established that aerobactin accounted for the overwhelming majority of increased siderophore production and that this was not due to gene copy number. Further, aerobactin was the primary factor in conditioned medium that enhanced the growth/survival of hvKP1 in human ascites fluid. Importantly the ex vivo growth/survival of hvKP1 ?iucA was significantly less than that of hvKP1 in human ascites fluid, and the survival of outbred CD1 mice challenged subcutaneously or intraperitoneally with hvKP1 was significantly less than that of mice challenged with hvKP1 ?iucA. The lowest subcutaneous and intraperitoneal challenge inocula of 3 × 10(2) and 3.2 × 10(1) CFU, respectively, resulted in 100% mortality, demonstrating the virulence of hvKP1 and its ability to cause infection at a low dose. These data strongly support that aerobactin accounts for increased siderophore production in hvKP compared to cKP (a potential defining trait) and is an important virulence factor. PMID:24664504

Russo, Thomas A; Olson, Ruth; Macdonald, Ulrike; Metzger, Daniel; Maltese, Lauren M; Drake, Eric J; Gulick, Andrew M

2014-06-01

171

Behavior of fuel-lean premixed flames in a standard flammability limit tube under controlled gravity conditions. Final report, January-December 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel-lean flames in methane-air mixtures from 4.90 to 6.20 volume percent fuel and propane-air mixtures from 1.90 to 3.00 volume percent fuel were studied in the vicinity of the limit for a variety of gravity conditions. The limits were determined and the behavior of the flames studied for one g upward, one g downward, and zero g propagation. Photographic records

B. L. Wherley; R. A. Strehlow

1986-01-01

172

Oral Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... the frequency of speech/swallowing treatment, and the motivation of the patient. In some cases, reconstructive plastic ... consistency to exercises for weak oral muscles to learning totally new ways to swallow. In many cases, ...

173

Oral Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral ...

174

Oxalic acid, versatile peroxidase secretion and chelating ability of Bjerkandera fumosa in rich and limited culture conditions.  

PubMed

Efficient ligninolytic systems of wood-degrading fungi include not only oxidizing enzymes, but also low-molecular-weight effectors. The ability of Bjerkandera fumosa to secrete oxalic acid and versatile peroxidase (VP) in nitrogen-rich and nitrogen-limited media was studied. Higher activity of VP was determined in the nitrogen-limited media but greater concentration of oxalic acid was observed in the cultures of B. fumosa without nitrogen limitation. Ferric ions chelating ability of Bjerkandera fumosa studied in ferric ions limited media was correlated with the increased level of oxalic acid. The presence of hydroxamate-type siderophores in B. fumosa media were also detected. Oxalate decarboxylase was found to be responsible for regulation of oxalic acid concentration in the tested B. fumosa cultures. PMID:21892253

Gr?z, Marcin; Jarosz-Wilko?azka, Anna

2011-08-01

175

Acute effects and bioaccumulation of nodularin in sea trout ( Salmo trutta m. trutta L .) exposed orally to Nodularia spumigena under laboratory conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nodularin (NODLN) is a cyclic pentapeptide hepatotoxin that is regularly produced in high amounts by the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena in the Baltic Sea, and can bioaccumulate in Baltic biota. Baltic sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta L.) were exposed orally to a single dose of food containing NODLN (125 mg\\/kg ww) from N. spumigena (strain AV1, from the Baltic Sea).

Harri Kankaanpää; Pekka J Vuorinen; Vesa Sipiä; Marja Keinänen

2002-01-01

176

Glucose utilization rate and pancreatic hormone response to oral glucose loads are influenced by the migratory condition and fasting in the garden warbler (Sylvia borin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substrate utilization and regulatory mechanisms of metab- olism were studied in migratory garden warblers by measuring plasma levels of glucose, free fatty acids (FFAs), ‚-hydroxybutyrate, insulin and glucagon in response to oral glucose loads. Three diVerent physiological states were examined: (a) the autumnal migratory period on a high and (b) on a fasted low body mass level, and (c) the

U Totzke; A Hubinger; F Bairlein

1998-01-01

177

Oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification\\/denitrification by ammonia oxidisers enables upward motion towards more favourable conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The hypothesis is formulated that in case of oxygen limitation in the sediment, nitrifiers switch from nitrification to oxygen-limited\\u000a autotrophic nitrification-denitrification (OLAND) in order to survive and maintain activity. During OLAND, ammonium is oxidised\\u000a using nitrite as e-acceptor to form dinitrogen gas. As an additional advantage they benefit from the gaseous N2 formed as a means of transport. In

S. Philips; S. Wyffels; R. Sprengers; W. Verstraete

2002-01-01

178

78 FR 11554 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane, Limit Pilot Forces for Sidestick Control  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

These special conditions for the Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature, specifically sidestick controllers designed to be operated with only one hand. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for this design feature. These special conditions contain the additional safety standards that......

2013-02-19

179

Oral biopsy: oral pathologist's perspective.  

PubMed

Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions. PMID:22842360

Kumaraswamy, K L; Vidhya, M; Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Mukunda, Archana

2012-01-01

180

Growth of a Catharanthus roseus cell suspension culture in a modified chemostat under glucose-limiting conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for the continuous cultivation of plant cells has been developed, based on a commercially available 3–1 turbine-stirred fermentor. A special device was constructed to provide for homogeneous effluent from the culture at low dilution rates. Two steady states with Catharanthus roseus cells growing under glucose limitation are described with respect to biomass yield on the carbon and energy

W. M. Gulik; J. J. Meijer; H. J. G. Hoopen; K. Ch. A. M. Luyben; K. R. Libbenga

1989-01-01

181

Adaptive dissolved oxygen control through the glycerol feeding in a recombinant Pichia pastoris cultivation in conditions of oxygen transfer limitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In high cell density cultivation processes the productivity is frequently constrained by the bioreactor maximum oxygen transfer capacity. The productivity can often be increased by operating the process at low dissolved oxygen concentrations close to the limitation level. This may be accomplished with a closed-loop controller that regulates the dissolved oxygen concentration by manipulating the dominant carbon source feeding rate.

R. Oliveira; J. J. Clemente; A. E. Cunha; M. J. T. Carrondo

2005-01-01

182

High frequency limit of the Transport Cross Section and boundedness of the Total Cross Section in scattering by an obstacle with impedance boundary conditions  

E-print Network

The scalar scattering of the plane wave by a strictly convex obstacle with impedance boundary conditions is considered. The uniform boundedness of the Total Cross Section for all values of frequencies is proved. The high frequency limit of the Transport Cross Section is founded and presented as a classical functional of the variational theory.

A. I. Aleksenko; J. P. Cruz; E. L. Lakshtanov

2007-12-10

183

The Importance of Awareness and Communication for the Inclusion of Young People with Life-Limiting and Life-Threatening Conditions in Mainstream Schools and Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anthea Asprey and Tricia Nash both belong to the Children's Hospice South West Research Group, based at the University of Exeter. In this article, they report one aspect of a research project designed to determine the adequacy of support for young people with life-limiting and life-threatening conditions in the education system. They describe here…

Asprey, Anthea; Nash, Tricia

2006-01-01

184

Limiting conditions for the critical pressure step point behavior in the Global Phase Diagram of binary mixtures composed by spherical molecules of equal sizes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many complex phase diagrams have been clearly systematized by means of the Global Phase Diagram (GPD) approach, no previous analysis has been devoted to establishing the limiting conditions of the critical pressure step point (CPSP) behavior for the case of binary mixtures. The CPSP mechanism implies a stationary inflection in the critical pressure of a mixture which can be

Mauricio Flores; Hugo Segura; María José Tardón; Jaime Wisniak; Ilya Polishuk

2009-01-01

185

No evidence of carbon limitation with tree age and height in Nothofagus pumilio under Mediterranean and temperate climate conditions  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Trees universally decrease their growth with age. Most explanations for this trend so far support the hypothesis that carbon (C) gain becomes limited with age; though very few studies have directly assessed the relative reductions of C gain and C demand with tree age. It has also been suggested that drought enhances the effect of C gain limitation in trees. Here tests were carried out to determine whether C gain limitation is causing the growth decay with tree age, and whether drought accentuates its effect. Methods The balance between C gain and C demand across tree age and height ranges was estimated. For this, the concentration of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in stems and roots of trees of different ages and heights was measured in the deciduous temperate species Nothofagus pumilio. An ontogenetic decrease in NSCs indicates support for C limitation. Furthermore, the importance of drought in altering the C balance with ontogeny was assessed by sampling the same species in Mediterranean and humid climate locations in the southern Andes of Chile. Wood density (WD) and stable carbon isotope ratios (?13C) were also determined to examine drought constraints on C gain. Key Results At both locations, it was effectively found that tree growth ultimately decreased with tree age and height. It was found, however, that NSC concentrations did not decrease with tree age or height when WD was considered, suggesting that C limitation is not the ultimate mechanism causing the age/height-related declining tree growth. ?13C decreased with tree age/height at the Mediterranean site only; drought effect increased with tree age/height, but this pattern was not mirrored by the levels of NSCs. Conclusions The results indicate that concentrations of C storage in N. pumilio trees do not decrease with tree age or height, and that reduced C assimilation due to summer drought does not alter this pattern. PMID:21852277

Piper, Frida I.; Fajardo, Alex

2011-01-01

186

Rapid post-oral stimulation of intake and flavor conditioning in rats by glucose but not a non-metabolizable glucose analog.  

PubMed

Mice adapted to drink a flavored saccharin solution (CS-) paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of water rapidly increase their intake of a new flavored solution (CS+) that is paired with IG glucose self-infusions. The present study extends this method to examine post-oral glucose appetition in rats. Food-restricted rats were trained to consume a CS- flavor (e.g., grape saccharin) paired with IG water in 5 daily 1-h tests. In the next 3 tests, they drank a CS+ (e.g., cherry saccharin) paired with IG glucose. Rats infused with 8% glucose increased intake significantly on CS+ Test 1, but those infused with 16% glucose showed only a small increase in intake, which may reflect a counteracting satiating effect. Both groups further increased CS+ intakes in Tests 2 and 3, and preferred (81%) the CS+ to the CS- in a two-bottle test without infusions. A second experiment investigated rats' responses to IG alpha-methyl-d-glucopyranoside (MDG), a non-metabolizable sugar analog which stimulates CS+ intake and preference in mice. The rats reduced their intake of the MDG-paired CS+ flavor over sessions, and preferred the CS- to the CS+ in the choice test. The glucose data show that rats, like mice, rapidly detect the sugar's positive post-oral effects that can stimulate intake within the first hour of exposure. The MDG avoidance may indicate a greater sensitivity to its post-oral inhibitory effects in rats than in mice, or perhaps slower clearance of MDG in rats. The test protocol described here can be used to investigate the peripheral and central processes involved in stimulation of intake by post-oral nutrients in rats. PMID:24811140

Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

2014-06-22

187

The patient with recurrent oral ulceration.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the range of recurrent oral ulceration which affects the oral mucosa. Types of ulceration covered in this paper include traumatic, infective, aphthous, ulceration related to the oral dermatoses, drug-induced, ulceration as a manifestation of systemic disease and ulceration indicating malignancy. Aspects of the aetiology, diagnosis and management of common oral recurrent ulcerative conditions are reviewed from a clinical perspective as an aid to practising dentists. PMID:20553241

Talacko, A A; Gordon, A K; Aldred, M J

2010-06-01

188

Current Guidelines Have Limited Applicability to Patients with Comorbid Conditions: A Systematic Analysis of Evidence-Based Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundGuidelines traditionally focus on the diagnosis and treatment of single diseases. As almost half of the patients with a chronic disease have more than one disease, the applicability of guidelines may be limited. The aim of this study was to assess the extent that guidelines address comorbidity and to assess the supporting evidence of recommendations related to comorbidity.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe conducted

Marjolein Lugtenberg; Jako S. Burgers; Carolyn Clancy; Gert P. Westert; Eric C. Schneider; Peter McCulloch

2011-01-01

189

Free amino acid pools of Trichoderma aureoviride during conditions of glucose-limited growth and glucose starvation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose-limited and glucose-starved cultures of Trichoderma aureoviride were analyzed for the size and composition of the mycelial free amino acid pool. In glucoselimited mycelia the pool size increased as a function of the specific growth rate above a value of ca. 0.08 h-1 and this was due principally to increasing concentrations of alanine and glutamic acid. During glucose starvation, the

David E. Pitt; Alan T. Bull

1981-01-01

190

26 CFR 20.2056(b)-3 - Marital deduction; interest of spouse conditioned on survival for limited period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...subject to the condition that she does not die as a result of a common disaster which...the decedent and his spouse should both die as a result of a common disaster, or...decedent by 3 months, and did not thereafter die as a result of a common disaster which...

2010-04-01

191

Assessment of Environmental Conditions That Favor Hepatotoxic and Neurotoxic Anabaena spp. Strains Cultured under Light Limitation at Different Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic cyanobacterial mass occurrences have caused animal poisonings worldwide and may pose a health hazard for humans. Strains\\u000a of the genus Anabaena are either non-toxic or produce hepatotoxins, microcystins (MCYST), or neurotoxins (such as anatoxin-a). In order to study\\u000a which growth conditions favor hepatotoxic vs neurotoxic strains and how production of toxins varies, we compared the responses\\u000a of two microcystin-

J. Rapala; K. Sivonen

1998-01-01

192

Modeling quantum transport under AC conditions: application to intrinsic high-frequency limits for nanoscale double-gate Si MOSFETs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach for studying the performance of phase-coherent devices under high-frequency conditions is presented. Quantum predictions on cutoff frequencies are obtained by directly solving the time-dependent Schrodinger equation under oscillating potential profiles at frequencies comparable with the inverse of the electron transit time. As an example, the small-signal admittance parameters for a simple double-gate Si transistor are computed, showing that

E. Fernandez-Diaz; A. Alarcon; X. Oriols

2005-01-01

193

Oral tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the mucosal immune system to distinguish between harmful and harmless antigens is essential for mounting protective immune responses and preventing the induction of mucosal pathology yet the basis for this remains unclear. As fed antigen can also exert systemic effects understanding oral tolerance and priming will also have important consequences for therapy and vaccination. Here we will

P Garside; A. McI Mowat

2001-01-01

194

Photosynthetic energy conversion under extreme conditions--I: important role of lipids as structural modulators and energy sink under N-limited growth in Antarctic sea ice diatoms.  

PubMed

The availability of dissolved nutrients such as nitrate under extreme low temperatures is a strong determinant in the development and growth of ice diatoms. Consequently we investigated regulation of photosynthesis in a mixed culture of three diatom species, which grew in chemostats at -1 degrees C, 15 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1) under N-limitation. When nitrogen is limiting, pigment-protein complexes are one of the most affected structures under low-light conditions. The loss of integral polar thylakoid components destabilized the bilayer structure of the membrane with consequences for lipid composition and the degree of fatty acid desaturation. N-Limitation caused a decrease in monogalactosydiacylglycerol (MGDG) and a simultaneous increase in bilayer forming digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG). Their ratio MGDG:DGDG decreased from 3.4 +/- 0.1 to 1.1 +/- 0.4, while 20:5 n-3 fatty acids of chloroplast related phospholipid classes such as phosphatidylglycerol (PG) increased under N-limitation. These data reveal that lipids are important components, required to sustain membrane structure under a deficiency of integral membrane bound proteins and pigments. Nonetheless, energy conversion at photosystem II is still affected by N-limitation despite this structural regulation. Photosynthetic quantum yield (F(v)/F(m)) and electron transport rates decreased under N-limitation caused by an increasing amount of electron acceptors (second stable electron acceptor = Q(B)) which had slower reoxidation kinetics. The energy surplus under these conditions is stored in triacylglycerols, the main energy sink in Antarctic sea ice diatoms under N-limitation. PMID:12165301

Mock, Thomas; Kroon, Bernd M A

2002-09-01

195

Differential regulation of two types of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase in membrane lipid remodeling under phosphate-limited conditions in sesame plants  

PubMed Central

Phosphate (Pi) limitation causes drastic lipid remodeling in plant membranes. Glycolipids substitute for the phospholipids that are degraded, thereby supplying Pi needed for essential biological processes. Two major types of remodeling of membrane lipids occur in higher plants: whereas one involves an increase in the concentration of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol in plastids to compensate for a decreased concentration of phosphatidylglycerol, the other involves digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) synthesis in plastids and the export of DGDG to extraplastidial membranes to compensate for reduced abundances of phospholipids. Lipid remodeling depends on an adequate supply of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), which is a substrate that supports the elevated rate of DGDG synthesis that is induced by low Pi availability. Regulation of MGDG synthesis has been analyzed most extensively using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, although orthologous genes that encode putative MGDG synthases exist in photosynthetic organisms from bacteria to higher plants. We recently hypothesized that two types of MGDG synthase diverged after the appearance of seed plants. This divergence might have both enabled plants to adapt to a wide range of Pi availability in soils and contributed to the diversity of seed plants. In the work presented here, we found that membrane lipid remodeling also takes place in sesame, which is one of the most common traditional crops grown in Asia. We identified two types of MGDG synthase from sesame (encoded by SeMGD1 and SeMGD2) and analyzed their enzymatic properties. Our results show that both genes correspond to the Arabidopsis type-A and -B isoforms of MGDG synthase. Notably, whereas Pi limitation up-regulates only the gene encoding the type-B isoform of Arabidopsis, low Pi availability up-regulates the expression of both SeMGD1 and SeMGD2. We discuss the significance of the different responses to low Pi availability in sesame and Arabidopsis. PMID:24312111

Shimojima, Mie; Watanabe, Takahide; Madoka, Yuka; Koizumi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Masayuki P.; Masuda, Kyojiro; Yamada, Kyoji; Masuda, Shinji; Ohta, Hiroyuki

2013-01-01

196

Influence of Propolis on Hygiene, Gingival Condition, and Oral Microflora in Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate Treated with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 3% ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) on hygiene, gingival and microbiological status of oral cavity in patients with cleft lip and palate treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. The study included forty-one nonsyndromic complete unilateral of bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects with fixed appliance on at least 10 teeth. Twenty-one subjects were instructed to brush their teeth three times a day using toothpaste with propolis. Control group included twenty subjects who were asked to brush their teeth three times a day using a toothpaste without propolis. API, OPI, GI, and supragingival bacterial plaque were taken from each subject twice: baseline and after using the toothpaste for 35 days. The final examinations showed statistically significant decrease in OPI, GI, and the percentage of the Actinomyces spp. and Capnocytophaga spp. compared with baseline in propolis group subjects. The improvement in oral health in these patients confirms antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative properties of propolis. PMID:23762106

Machorowska-Pieniazek, Agnieszka; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Krol, Wojciech

2013-01-01

197

Oral health care for hospitalized children.  

PubMed

Oral health care may be the greatest unmet health need of children in the U.S. Half of the children in the U.S. suffer from tooth decay by 8 years of age. The consequences of poor oral health are many, including mouth pain, inability to chew and eat, abscess and soft tissue infection, diminished self-esteem, and impaired school performance. Numerous medical conditions, such as asthma and diabetes, and developmental disabilities, such as cerebral palsy and autism, have associated oral health implications. Oral health care is often neglected by nondental health providers. Nurses are in a unique position to contribute to the improvement of this national health problem by promoting oral health care among hospitalized children and their families. A hospital program for oral health care is proposed, including assessment of teeth and gingiva, ensuring oral care for all, as well as oral health education as part of patient education. PMID:22132567

Blevins, Jo Young

2011-01-01

198

Quasineutral limit to the drift–diffusion models for semiconductors with physical contact-insulating boundary conditions and the general sign-changing doping profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quasi-neutral limit in a bipolar drift–diffusion model for semiconductors with physical contact-insulating boundary conditions, the general sign-changing doping profile and general initial data which allow the presence of the left and right boundary layers and the initial layers is studied in the one-dimensional case. The dynamic structure stability of the solution with respect to the scaled Debye length is

Shu Wang; Ke Wang

2010-01-01

199

Comparative performance of invasive alien Eichhornia crassipes and native Ludwigia stolonifera under non-limiting nutrient conditions in Lake Naivasha, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Ludwigia stolonifera to thrive in the presence of Eichhornia crassipes was investigated in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. L. stolonifera (indigenous) and E. crassipes (invasive alien) were grown in outdoor experimental boxes in monocultures and mixtures under non-limiting nutrient conditions.\\u000a An additive series design with eight combinations of planting densities and four replicates was used. Competitive interactions\\u000a between the

Josephine Njambuya; Ludwig Triest

2010-01-01

200

The transcriptional activator NrpA is crucial for inducing nitrogen fixation in Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 under nitrogen-limited conditions.  

PubMed

With the aim of unraveling their potential involvement in the regulation of nitrogen metabolism in Methanosarcina mazei strain Gö1, we characterized five genes that are differentially transcribed in response to changing nitrogen availability and encoding putative transcriptional regulators. Study of the respective mutant strains under nitrogen-limited conditions revealed a growth delay for M. mazei MM0444::pac and MM1708::pac, and strongly reduced diazotrophic growth for MM0872::pac, whereas the absence of MM2441 or MM2525 did not affect growth behaviour. Transcriptome analyses further demonstrated that only MM1708 - encoding a CxxCG zinc finger protein - plays a regulatory role in nitrogen metabolism, most likely by specifically enhancing transcription of the N2 fixation (nif) operon under nitrogen-limited conditions. In agreement with this, a palindromic binding motif was predicted in silico in the nifH promoter region, nine nucleotides upstream of the BRE box, and confirmed to bind purified maltose-binding protein-MM1708 by electromobility shift assays. As MM1708 itself is under the control of the global nitrogen repressor NrpR, this adds a secondary level to the transcriptional regulation of the nif genes, and is most likely crucial for maximal nif induction under nitrogen-limited conditions. This is in accordance with the finding that protein expression of NifH is highly reduced in the absence of MM1708 under nitrogen-limited conditions. On the basis of our findings, we hypothesize that, in M. mazei, nitrogen fixation is controlled by a hierarchical network of two transcriptional regulators, the global nitrogen repressor NrpR, and the newly identified activator NrpA (MM1708), thereby providing tight control of N2 fixation. PMID:24930989

Weidenbach, Katrin; Ehlers, Claudia; Schmitz, Ruth A

2014-08-01

201

Tectonic drift versus climatic variations: rhodoliths as indicators of limits between tropical and nontropical sedimentary conditions: examples from Pacific Miocene  

SciTech Connect

Modern examples show that rhodoliths or red algal nodules are forming around the 18/sup 0/C winter isocline and that huge amounts of these red coralline algae are living and accumulating in the subtidal zones, from -60 m to sea level, of temperate seas, such as the English Channel and Rockall. In the Pacific Ocean, several high carbonate platforms, so-called uplifted atolls, show uniform, extended, and thick accumulation of rhodoliths. These accumulations have been recognized in the Solomon Islands (Rennell) and in the Loyalty Islands (Mare and Lifu, New Caledonia), but also in the Vanuatu (Vila), in the Austral Archipelago (Rurutu), where their age can be proved or estimated as middle Miocene. They are also mentioned in the literature on the Emperor Rise (northwest Pacific). On other high carbonate islands, such as Makatea (Tuamotu), red algae and rhodolith formations appear at the top of a sedimentary pile of lower Miocene coral accumulation. The same observations and perhaps the same age can be said for Nauru (central Pacific). Such a wide distribution, from the east to the west part of the Pacific Ocean and between the tropics, seems to be due to climate variations during the Miocene, more than tectonic drift due to oceanic spreading. Temperate conditions shown by this shallow platform sedimentation, just under the coral growth conditions, seem to be confirmed by isotopic studies on pelagic and benthic Foraminifera and could confirm the existence of climate variations affecting the surface water of the Pacific in an extensive area that does not consider the presence of trenches, arcs, and ridges.

Bourrouilh-le Jan, F.G.

1986-05-01

202

Oral calcitonin  

PubMed Central

Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget’s disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through ?-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl)-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC) (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ). Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis) failed to meet key end points, and in December 2011, Novartis Pharma AG announced that it would not pursue further clinical development of oral calcitonin for postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteoarthritis. A unique feature of calcitonin is that it is able to uncouple bone turnover, reducing bone resorption without affecting bone formation and therefore increasing bone mass and improving bone quality. This effect, however, may be dose-dependent, with higher doses inhibiting both resorption and formation. Because so many factors affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcitonin, especially orally administered calcitonin, much work remains to be done to explore the full pharmacologic spectrum and potential of calcitonin and determine the optimum dose and timing of administration, as well as water and food intake. PMID:23071417

Hamdy, Ronald C; Daley, Dane N

2012-01-01

203

Pace of glacial retreat and limits on paleoclimate conditions for the Pine Creek Glacier, Montana, during the Pinedale Glaciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timing of glaciation and the changes in climate that occurred both during and after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the Rocky Mountains are not well defined. Given the sensitivity of mountain glaciers to factors such as temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation, reconstructions of the history and extent of paleo-glaciers can be used to infer paleoclimate. Pine Creek Valley, located in the Absaroka Mountains in southwestern Montana, is an ideal setting for this type of research because it was occupied by a discrete valley glacier, the extent of which is precisely known during the LGM. To determine the pace and timing of ice retreat in this valley, glacially polished bedrock surfaces along the path of deglaciation were sampled at several points for cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure dating. The ages obtained range from 17.9 ± 0.8 to 13.2 ± 0.5 ka. When combined with the reconstructed ice extent during the LGM and subsequent deglaciation, these ages yield maximum and minimum retreat rates of 3.1 m/yr and 1.1 m/yr, respectively. These values constrain how long it took the glacier to retreat into a well-defined cirque from the terminal moraines. Paleoclimate conditions for the LGM were estimated using a two-dimensional, numerical, combined energy and mass balance and ice flow model. Previous qualitative inferences of paleoclimate in southern Montana indicate climate during the local LGM was colder and drier than modern values. If precipitation values were held constant or reduced for the Pine Creek glacier, the model suggests a temperature depression of at least 8°C.

Huss, E.; Laabs, B. J.; Leonard, E. M.; Licciardi, J. M.; Plummer, M. A.; Caffee, M. W.

2012-12-01

204

Conditional inactivation of MRG15 gene function limits survival during larval and adult stages of Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

The mammalian MRG15 gene encodes a chromodomain protein predicted to bind to chromatin via methylated histone tails. Human MORF4 encodes a related but truncated protein that is capable of promoting cellular senescence in a subset of human tumor cell lines. Drosophila contains a single homolog of human MRG15, called DmMRG15. Null mutation of MRG15 is embryonic lethal in mice and Drosophila, making study of MRG15 requirements in adults difficult. In these studies the DmMRG15 gene was over-expressed in Drosophila, during developmental stages and in adults, using a doxycycline-regulated system (Tet-on). In addition an inverted-repeated construct was designed to inactivate DmMRG15 via the RNAi pathway, and RNAi constructs were expressed using both the Tet-on system and Geneswitch system. The DmMRG15 protein was readily expressed in adult flies in a doxycycline-dependent manner. A truncated form of DmMRG15 (called DmMT1) was designed to mimic the structure of human MORF4, and expression of this mutant protein or the inverted repeat constructs inhibited fertility in females. Conditional expression of the DmMRG15 inverted-repeat constructs during larval development or in adults caused reductions in survival. These experiments indicate that Drosophila DmMRG15 gene function is required for female fertility, larval survival and adult life span, and provide reagents that should be useful for further dissecting the role of DmMRG15 in cell proliferation and aging. PMID:20600782

Zhang, Hongjun; Li, Yishi; Yang, Junsheng; Tominaga, Kaoru; Pereira-Smith, Olivia M.; Tower, John

2010-01-01

205

Oral Appliances for Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The objective of this review was to determine the clinical effectiveness of oral appliances compared to ‘no treatment’, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), or surgery for the management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population OSA is characterized by repeated occurrences of upper airway collapse and obstruction during sleep. The condition leads to excessive daytime sleepiness, diminished quality of life, and increased risks of accidents, cardiovascular disease and death. In the general population, the prevalence of OSA is estimated to be 4% in men and 2% in women. Risk factors for OSA include obesity, male gender, increasing age, alcohol use, sedative use, and a family history of OSA. Description of Oral Appliances Oral appliances for OSA fall into two broad categories: mandibular advancement splints (MAS), also known as mandibular repositioning devices, and tongue repositioning or retaining devices. The aim of MAS devices is to advance the mandible forward slightly to enlarge the upper airway and prevent it from collapsing. Similarly, tongue repositioning devices suction the tongue forward to prevent it from falling back and obstructing the airway during sleep. The alternatives to oral appliances include continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices, surgery, drug therapy, positional devices, and lifestyle modification. CPAP is the gold standard of treatment, but despite its effectiveness, compliance rates for CPAP have declined because required systems are noisy and because wearing the mask can be uncomfortable, causing claustrophobia in some users. Evidence-Based Analysis Methods Research Questions Are oral appliances effective in improving sleep-disordered breathing in patients with OSA compared to alternative treatments? Are there safety concerns with oral appliances? What is the evidence regarding patient preference, quality of life, and compliance for oral appliances? If effective, are oral appliances cost effective? Literature Search A literature search was conducted up to February 2009. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with more than 20 adults with OSA were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcomes of interest were the Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI), measures of daytime sleepiness, patient preference, compliance, and adverse events. Summary of Findings Five systematic reviews and 16 RCTs that met the inclusion criteria were identified. The systematic reviews consistently concluded that CPAP was more effective than oral appliances at improving sleep disordered breathing, although there may be a niche area for the latter, especially among those with mild OSA as CPAP is difficult to tolerate by some users. Based on the results of the RCTs analyzed for this review, MAS devices are less effective than CPAP when AHI is used as the outcome of interest. MAS devices were shown to decrease AHI levels, but whether this reduction is clinically meaningful is uncertain. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was not able to achieve statistical significance in comparisons of MAS versus CPAP and MAS versus placebo. Nonetheless, after treatment with either MAS or CPAP, patients seem to be able to achieve normal ESS levels. The ESS has substantial limitations including its subjective nature and low construct validity (i.e. it is unclear if the scale is an accurate measure of sleepiness). Adverse events among patients with MAS devices in the RCTs were common, but mostly mild and transient. Jaw discomfort was the most commonly reported adverse event. Based on the results of the RCTs, compliance does not seem to be better or worse with MAS or CPAP. Similarly, there is no clear patient preference for MAS or CPAP among the studies reporting preference and satisfaction. Keywords Obstructive sleep apnea, oral appliances, mandibular advancement splints, tongue repositioning devices PMID:23074535

2009-01-01

206

Effects of cocaine self-administration history under limited and extended access conditions on in vivo striatal dopamine neurochemistry and acoustic startle in rhesus monkeys  

PubMed Central

Rationale The transition from infrequent and controlled cocaine use to dependence may involve enduring changes in neurobiology as a consequence of persistent drug use. Objective The present study utilized an intravenous drug self-administration protocol of increasing cocaine access to evaluate potential changes in dopamine function in vivo, including changes in sensitivity to psychostimulants. Materials and methods Drug-naïve rhesus monkeys were provided limited access (1 h) to cocaine self-administration for 60 days followed by 60 days under an extended access condition (4 h). Basal levels of striatal extracellular dopamine and its metabolites, as well as the effectiveness of cocaine and amphetamine to elevate dopamine, were determined with in vivo microdialysis before the initiation of cocaine self-administration and during limited and extended access. The effect of cocaine and amphetamine on the acoustic startle response was also examined to assess complementary behavioral changes as a function of drug history. Results Extended access to cocaine self-administration lead to increased daily intake compared to limited access conditions but did not result in escalated intake over time. However, cocaine- and amphetamine-induced increases in striatal dopamine were diminished as a function of cocaine self-administration history. Surprisingly, there was no effect of drug-taking history on sensitivity to psychostimulant-induced enhancement of startle amplitude. Conclusions The present experiments provide evidence of a hypofunctional dopamine system that is not associated with an escalation in drug intake or reflected in measures of acoustic startle. PMID:19365621

Henry, Porche’ Kirkland; Davis, Michael

2009-01-01

207

Oral Haemangioma  

PubMed Central

Vascular anomalies comprise a widely heterogeneous group of tumours and malformations. Haemangioma is the most common benign tumour of vascular origin of the head and neck region. The possible sites of occurrence in oral cavity are lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate. Despite its benign origin and behaviour, it is always of clinical importance to the dental profession and requires appropriate management. This case study reports a rare case of capillary haemangioma on the palatal gingiva in a 14-year-old female. PMID:22431929

Gill, Jaspreet Singh; Gill, Sharanjeet; Bhardwaj, Amit; Grover, Harpreet Singh

2012-01-01

208

The analgesic effect of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), morphine, and a THC-morphine combination in healthy subjects under experimental pain conditions.  

PubMed

From folk medicine and anecdotal reports it is known that Cannabis may reduce pain. In animal studies it has been shown that delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has antinociceptive effects or potentiates the antinociceptive effect of morphine. The aim of this study was to measure the analgesic effect of THC, morphine, and a THC-morphine combination (THC-morphine) in humans using experimental pain models. THC (20 mg), morphine (30 mg), THC-morphine (20 mg THC+30 mg morphine), or placebo were given orally and as single doses. Twelve healthy volunteers were included in the randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, crossover study. The experimental pain tests (order randomized) were heat, cold, pressure, single and repeated transcutaneous electrical stimulation. Additionally, reaction time, side-effects (visual analog scales), and vital functions were monitored. For the pharmacokinetic profiling, blood samples were collected. THC did not significantly reduce pain. In the cold and heat tests it even produced hyperalgesia, which was completely neutralized by THC-morphine. A slight additive analgesic effect could be observed for THC-morphine in the electrical stimulation test. No analgesic effect resulted in the pressure and heat test, neither with THC nor THC-morphine. Psychotropic and somatic side-effects (sleepiness, euphoria, anxiety, confusion, nausea, dizziness, etc.) were common, but usually mild. PMID:14499423

Naef, Myrtha; Curatolo, Michele; Petersen-Felix, Steen; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Zbinden, Alex; Brenneisen, Rudolf

2003-09-01

209

Pharmacokinetics of desmopressin administered as tablet and oral lyophilisate formulation in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis.  

PubMed

Desmopressin 120 ?g oral lyophilisate and 200 ?g tablet are considered bioequivalent, based on extrapolation of studies in a limited number of adults and on one dose-finding study of desmopressin oral lyophilisate in children. However, no comparative pharmacokinetic study in children was executed confirming this statement. No data are available on the influence of food intake on the bioavailability of desmopressin tablet in a pediatric setting, although studies in adults have documented that food intake results in a significantly lower desmopressin plasma concentration. In this study, we analyzed plasma concentrations of desmopressin oral lyophilisate and tablet with concomitant food intake. Twenty-three children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (mean age, 12.7 years) were recruited. Two tests were performed on two separate days in identical conditions with a standardized food and fluid intake. Desmopressin was administered as desmopressin tablet or desmopressin oral lyophilisate immediately after a meal. Desmopressin plasma concentration was measured at 1 h, 2 h, and 6 h postdosing. No significant difference in plasma concentration of 120 ?g desmopressin oral lyophilisate and 200 ?g tablet was demonstrated, even with concomitant food intake. A significant difference in variability was found, identifying a smaller variance for desmopressin oral lyophilisate plasma concentrations at all time points. This study demonstrates comparable plasma levels for desmopressin oral lyophilisate, despite the lower dose. The dosage for desmopressin oral lyophilisate is more predictable due to the significantly smaller variance. Therefore, desmopressin oral lyophilisate seems more suitable, especially in the younger age group for which time interval between dinner and drug administration is limited. PMID:23989967

De Bruyne, Pauline; De Guchtenaere, Ann; Van Herzeele, Charlotte; Raes, Ann; Dehoorne, Jo; Hoebeke, Piet; Van Laecke, Erik; Vande Walle, Johan

2014-02-01

210

Moral and professional responsibility of oral physician toward geriatric patient with interdisciplinary management - The time to act is now!  

PubMed Central

Mouth is the mirror of overall health. With advancements in oral health promotion and preventive measures instituted in developed countries, more people retain their natural teeth into their old age as compared to half a century ago. The effect of aging on oral health includes effect on oral mucosa, lips, teeth and other associated structures, and their functional activity leading to impairment of speech, mastication, swallowing and pain leading to anxiety and depression. Oral tissues are not limited to the teeth and supporting structures (periodontium) but also include salivary glands, temporomandibular joint, orofacial/mastication muscles, oropharyngeal mucosa, and oral sensory/motor nerve systems. In India, the second most populous country in the world, there is a rapidly growing population of older adults and there are 70 million elderly people over 60 years of age. Geriatric health problems with respect to the quality of life often remain neglected. Oral health care for an increasingly large segment of elderly people will be a fact of life for dentists everywhere. Oral health can be both a benchmark for and a determinant of the quality of life rather than the length of life span. Older adults are more susceptible to oral conditions or diseases due to an increase in chronic conditions and physical/mental disabilities. Thus, a careful initial interview ensuring that the dentist is familiar with the patient's health history, followed by a thorough oral examination plays a very important role. In this paper, we briefly review the age-related oral changes occurring in geriatric patients and the role of oral physician in imparting a healthy life to the elderly. PMID:21897734

Rai, Shalu; Kaur, Mandeep; Goel, Sumit; Bhatnagar, Puneet

2011-01-01

211

Characterization of the Proteomic Profiles of the Brown Tide Alga Aureoumbra lagunensis under Phosphate- and Nitrogen-Limiting Conditions and of Its Phosphate Limitation-Specific Protein with Alkaline Phosphatase Activity  

PubMed Central

The persistent bloom of the brown tide alga Aureoumbra lagunensis has been reported in coastal embayments along southern Texas, but the molecular mechanisms that sustain such algal bloom are unknown. We compared the proteome and physiological parameters of A. lagunensis grown in phosphate (P)-depleted, P- and nitrogen (N)-depleted, and nutrient-replete cultures. For the proteomic analysis, samples from three conditions were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Because of the paucity of genomic resources in this species, a de novo cross-species protein search was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins, which revealed their involvement in several key biological processes, such as chlorophyll synthesis, antioxidative protection, and protein degradation, suggesting that A. lagunensis may adopt intracellular nutrient compensation, extracellular organic nutrient regeneration, and damage protection to thrive in P-depleted environments. A highly abundant P limitation-specific protein, tentatively identified as a putative alkaline phosphatase, was further characterized by enzyme activity assay on nondenaturing gel and confocal microscopy, which confirmed that this protein has alkaline phosphatase activity, is a cytoplasmic protein, and is closely associated with the cell membrane. The abundance, location, and functional expression of this alkaline phosphatase all indicate the importance of organic P utilization for A. lagunensis under P limitation and the possible role of this alkaline phosphatase in regenerating phosphate from extra- or intracellular organic phosphorus. PMID:22247172

Sun, Ming-Ming; Sun, Jin; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Jing, Hongmei

2012-01-01

212

Phycobilisome-Deficient Strains of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Have Reduced Size and Require Carbon-Limiting Conditions to Exhibit Enhanced Productivity1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Reducing excessive light harvesting in photosynthetic organisms may increase biomass yields by limiting photoinhibition and increasing light penetration in dense cultures. The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 harvests light via the phycobilisome, which consists of an allophycocyanin core and six radiating rods, each with three phycocyanin (PC) discs. Via targeted gene disruption and alterations to the promoter region, three mutants with two (pcpcT?C) and one (?CpcC1C2:pcpcT?C) PC discs per rod or lacking PC (olive) were generated. Photoinhibition and chlorophyll levels decreased upon phycobilisome reduction, although greater penetration of white light was observed only in the PC-deficient mutant. In all strains cultured at high cell densities, most light was absorbed by the first 2 cm of the culture. Photosynthesis and respiration rates were also reduced in the ?CpcC1C2:pcpcT?C and olive mutants. Cell size was smaller in the pcpcT?C and olive strains. Growth and biomass accumulation were similar between the wild-type and pcpcT?C under a variety of conditions. Growth and biomass accumulation of the olive mutant were poorer in carbon-saturated cultures but improved in carbon-limited cultures at higher light intensities, as they did in the ?CpcC1C2:pcpcT?C mutant. This study shows that one PC disc per rod is sufficient for maximal light harvesting and biomass accumulation, except under conditions of high light and carbon limitation, and two or more are sufficient for maximal oxygen evolution. To our knowledge, this study is the first to measure light penetration in bulk cultures of cyanobacteria and offers important insights into photobioreactor design. PMID:24760817

Lea-Smith, David J.; Bombelli, Paolo; Dennis, John S.; Scott, Stuart A.; Smith, Alison G.; Howe, Christopher J.

2014-01-01

213

Oral dirofilariasis.  

PubMed

Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic. PMID:24992859

Janardhanan, Mahija; Rakesh, S; Savithri, Vindhya

2014-01-01

214

An Investigation into the Influence of Experimental Conditions on In Vitro Drug Release from Immediate-Release Tablets of Levothyroxine Sodium and Its Relation to Oral Bioavailability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of experimental conditions on levothyroxine sodium release from two\\u000a immediate-release tablet formulations which narrowly passed the standard requirements for bioequivalence studies. The in vivo study was conducted as randomised, single-dose, two-way cross-over pharmacokinetic study in 24 healthy subjects. The in vitro study was performed using various dissolution media, and obtained

Ivana Kocic; Irena Homsek; Mirjana Dacevic; Jelena Parojcic; Branislava Miljkovic

215

Oral health as a predictive factor for oral mucositis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Oral mucositis is a complication frequently associated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, decreasing a patient's quality of life and increasing the occurrence of opportunistic infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and severity of oral mucositis and to assess the correlation of this disease with the oral health of an individual at the time of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. METHODS: Before transplantation, patients' oral health and inflammatory conditions were determined using the gingival index and the plaque index, which are based on gingival bleeding and the presence of dental plaque, respectively. Additionally, the dental health status was determined using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. The monitoring of oral mucositis was based on the World Health Organization grading system and was performed for five periods: from Day 0 to D+5, from D+6 to D+10, from D+11 to D+15, from D+16 to D+20, and from D+21 to D+30. RESULTS: A total of 97 patients (56% male and 44% female) who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo between January 2008 and July 2009 were prospectively examined. The incidence of ulcerative mucositis was highest from days +6 to +10 and from days +11 to +15 in the patients who underwent autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, respectively. CONCLUSION: The data, including the dental plaque and periodontal status data, showed that these oral health factors were predictive of the incidence and severity of oral mucositis in a cohort of patients with similar conditioning regimens before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:23778491

Coracin, Fabio Luiz; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sergio; Gallottini, Marina H. C.; Saboya, Rosaura; Musqueira, Priscila Tavares; Barban, Alessandra; de Alencar Fischer Chamone, Dalton; Dulley, Frederico Luiz; Nunes, Fabio Daumas

2013-01-01

216

Oral myiasis: a case report.  

PubMed

Myiasis is a condition caused by the invasion of tissues by larvae of Diptera flies. This phenomenon is well documented in the skin especially among animals and people in tropical and subtropical areas. The condition causes extensive tissue destruction as the larvae, at least for a certain period, feed on the host's dead or living tissue, liquid body substances, or ingested food. Mouth breathing during sleep, poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, mental disability, cerebral palsy, and hemiplegia may facilitate the development of myiasis. We present a case report of oral myiasis in a 22-year-old male with cerebral palsy and severe mental retardation treated successfully by manual removal of the larvae by topical application of turpentine oil and oral systemic therapy with ivermectin. PMID:24382372

Zachariah, Jane Emily; Sehgal, Khushboo; Dixit, Uma B; Bhatia, Rupinder

2014-01-01

217

Oral Language and Reading in Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the question: Do lexical, syntactic, fluency, and discourse measures of oral language collected under narrative conditions predict reading achievement both within and across languages for bilingual children? More than 1,500 Spanish-English bilingual children attending kindergarten-third grade participated. Oral narratives…

Miller, Jon F.; Heilmann, John; Nockerts, Ann; Iglesias, Aquiles; Fabiano, Leah; Francis, David J.

2006-01-01

218

Vesiculobullous disorders affecting the oral cavity.  

PubMed

Vesiculobullous disorders of the oral cavity managed by oral medicine specialists include erythema multiforme, pemphigus vulgaris, paraneoplastic pemphigus and mucous membrane pemphigoid. These conditions can have significant effects on quality of life and potentially serious sequelae if not identified early. PMID:25216166

Shephard, Martina; Hodgson, Tim; Hegarty, Anne M

2014-09-01

219

Functional method for assessing oral perceptual skills in children.  

PubMed

An alternative method for assessing oral perceptual skills was developed to address some of the practical limitations of the standard form test. The alternate forms and standard NIH Oral Stereognostic Forms were administered to 182 children. Scores resulting from presentation of standard NIH forms and alternate edibles correlated .76. Suggestions for using the alternate forms for routine oral stereognostic testing are presented. PMID:6739256

Kumin, L; Saltysiak, E; Bell, K; Forget, K; Goodman, M; Padden, J; Goytisolo, M; Schroeter, N; Thomas, S

1984-04-01

220

In conditions of limited chromophore supply rods entrap 11-cis-retinal leading to loss of cone function and cell death.  

PubMed

RPE65 is a retinoid isomerase required for the production of 11-cis-retinal, the chromophore of both cone and rod visual pigments. We recently established an R91W knock-in mouse strain as homologous animal model for patients afflicted by this mutation in RPE65. These mice have impaired vision and can only synthesize minute amounts of 11-cis-retinal. Here, we investigated the consequences of this chromophore insufficiency on cone function and pathophysiology. We found that the R91W mutation caused cone opsin mislocalization and progressive geographic cone atrophy. Remnant visual function was mostly mediated by rods. Ablation of rod opsin corrected the localization of cone opsin and improved cone retinal function. Thus, our analyses indicate that under conditions of limited chromophore supply rods and cones compete for 11-cis-retinal that derives from regeneration pathway(s) which are reliant on RPE65. Due to their higher number and the instability of cone opsin, rods are privileged under this condition while cones suffer chromophore deficiency and degenerate. These findings reinforce the notion that in patients any effective gene therapy with RPE65 needs to target the cone-rich macula directly to locally restore the cones' chromophore supply outside the reach of rods. PMID:19147682

Samardzija, Marijana; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Kostic, Corinne; Beck, Susanne; Oberhauser, Vitus; Joly, Sandrine; Thiersch, Markus; Fahl, Edda; Arsenijevic, Yvan; von Lintig, Johannes; Wenzel, Andreas; Seeliger, Mathias W; Grimm, Christian

2009-04-01

221

Intracellular aspartic proteinase Apr1p of Candida albicans is required for morphological transition under nitrogen-limited conditions but not for macrophage killing.  

PubMed

Vacuolar hydrolases have been thoroughly characterized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but their homologues in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans have received less attention. The genes APR1 and CPY1 of C. albicans encode putative vacuolar aspartic proteinase and serine carboxypeptidase, respectively. We examined properties of apr1? and cpy1? mutants, showing that Cpy1p molecular species detected in cell lysates of apr1? and its parental strain did not differ in molar mass. Processing of Cpy1p precursor is apparently independent of Apr1p. This is in contrast to S. cerevisiae, where vacuolar aspartic proteinase Pep4p is known to participate in the activation of other vacuolar hydrolases including serine carboxypeptidase. We also found that both apr1? and cpy1? strains are able to form hyphae in nutrient-rich filamentation media. However, proline as a sole nitrogen source induced filamentation only in cpy1? and its parental strain, but not in apr1?. This indicates the importance of Apr1p for the morphological transition under nitrogen-limited conditions. Despite that, the ability of apr1? to kill murine macrophages was not reduced under the conditions tested. PMID:24880249

Bauerová, Václava; Hájek, Miroslav; Pichová, Iva; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga

2014-11-01

222

Dantrolene Oral  

MedlinePLUS

... associated with spinal cord injuries, stroke, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, or other conditions.This medication is sometimes prescribed ... Dantrolene may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: muscle ...

223

Using dried blood spots collected under field condition to determine HIV-1 diversity and drug resistance mutations in resource limited Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Introduction A dried blood spot (DBS) on filter paper has been used for different tests globally and has gained popularities in resource limited settings especially during HIV/AIDS epidemic. We assessed the efficiency of molecular characterization of HIV-1 subtypes using DBS collected under field conditions in northern Tanzania. Materials and Methods In 2011 and 2012, 60 DBS samples were collected under field conditions from exposed and newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected children from Kilimanjaro (n=20), Arusha (n=20), Tanga (n=10) and Manyara (n=10). Results and discussion Of 60 DBS analyzed at both Protease (PR) and Reverse Transcriptase (RT) regions, 45 (75%) were analyzed, including 17 (85%) from Kilimanjaro, 15 (75%) from Arusha, 8 (80%) from Tanga, and 5 (50%) from Manyara region. All 45 DBS characterized had viral load above 1000 copies/mL with mean log10 viral loads of 3.87 copies/mL (SD 0.995). The phylogenetic results indicated presence of subtype and circulating recombinant form (CRF). In which, 24 were subtype A1 (53.33%), 16 were subtype C (35.55%), 3 were subtype D (6.67%) and 2 were CRF10_CD (4.35%). All major mutations were detected in the RT region, none from protease (PR) region. The mutations detected were Y181C (n=8), K103 (n=4) and G190A (n=1), conferring resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and M184V (n=1), conferring resistance to lamivudine and emtricitabine. Conclusions Our results indicate that DBS collected from field conditions in resource scarcity areas can be used to determine the phylogeny of the virus and drug resistance mutations in areas with diverse HIV-1 group M subtypes. PMID:25397436

Kimaro, James; Shao, Elichilia; Nyombi, Balthazar; Kifaro, Emanuel; Maruapula, Dorcas; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Musonda, Rosemary

2014-01-01

224

Lifestyle risk factors for oral cancer.  

PubMed

The "style of life is the unique way in which individuals try to realize their fictional final goal and meet or avoid the three main tasks of life: work, community, love" (Alfred Adler, founder of the Individual Psychology). Lifestyle refers to the way individuals live their lives and how they handle problems and interpersonal relations. The lifestyle behaviours associated to oral cancer with convincing evidence are tobacco use, betel quid chewing, alcohol drinking, low fruit and vegetable consumption (the detrimental lifestyle is high fat and/or sugar intake, resulting in low fruit and/or vegetable intake). Worldwide, 25% of oral cancers are attributable to tobacco usage (smoking and/or chewing), 7-19% to alcohol drinking, 10-15% to micronutrient deficiency, more than 50% to betel quid chewing in areas of high chewing prevalence. Carcinogenicity is dose-dependent and magnified by multiple exposures. Conversely, low and single exposures do not significantly increase oral cancer risk. These behaviours have common characteristics: (i) they are widespread: one billion men, 250 million women smoke cigarettes, 600-1200 million people chew betel quid, two billion consume alcohol, unbalanced diet is common amongst developed and developing countries; (ii) they were already used by animals and human forerunners millions of years ago because they were essential to overcome conditions such as cold, hunger, famine; their use was seasonal and limited by low availability, in contrast with the pattern of consumption of the modern era, characterized by routine, heavy usage, for recreational activities and with multiple exposures; (iii) their consumption in small doses is not recognized as detrimental by the human body and activates the dopaminergic reward system of the brain, thus giving instant pleasure, "liking" (overconsumption) and "wanting" (craving). For these reasons, effective Public Health measures aimed at preventing oral cancer and other lifestyle-related conditions fail to realize their final goal to eradicate these lifestyles. Following Adler's theory and the principles of the "Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion", conditions such as education, sustainable resources, social justice, and equity must be satisfied before the implementation of physical health promotion campaigns. PMID:18674956

Petti, Stefano

2009-01-01

225

Columbia Oral History Columbia University Center for Oral History  

E-print Network

Columbia Oral History Columbia University Center for Oral History Annual Report AUGUST 1, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Rule of Law Oral History Project Carnegie Corporation Oral History Project BIOGRAPHICAL INTERVIEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Oral History Master of Arts Summer Institute 2012 Oral History Workshop Series 2011­12 Oral

Kim, Philip

226

A deficiency in the flavoprotein of Arabidopsis mitochondrial complex II results in elevated photosynthesis and better growth in nitrogen-limiting conditions.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial complex II (succinate dehydrogenase [SDH]) plays roles both in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the respiratory electron transport chain. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), its flavoprotein subunit is encoded by two nuclear genes, SDH1-1 and SDH1-2. Here, we characterize heterozygous SDH1-1/sdh1-1 mutant plants displaying a 30% reduction in SDH activity as well as partially silenced plants obtained by RNA interference. We found that these plants displayed significantly higher CO(2) assimilation rates and enhanced growth than wild-type plants. There was a strong correlation between CO(2) assimilation and stomatal conductance, and both mutant and silenced plants displayed increased stomatal aperture and density. By contrast, no significant differences were found for dark respiration, chloroplastic electron transport rate, CO(2) uptake at saturating concentrations of CO(2), or biochemical parameters such as the maximum rates of carboxylation by Rubisco and of photosynthetic electron transport. Thus, photosynthesis is enhanced in SDH-deficient plants by a mechanism involving a specific effect on stomatal function that results in improved CO(2) uptake. Metabolic and transcript profiling revealed that mild deficiency in SDH results in limited effects on metabolism and gene expression, and data suggest that decreases observed in the levels of some amino acids were due to a higher flux to proteins and other nitrogen-containing compounds to support increased growth. Strikingly, SDH1-1/sdh1-1 seedlings grew considerably better in nitrogen-limiting conditions. Thus, a subtle metabolic alteration may lead to changes in important functions such as stomatal function and nitrogen assimilation. PMID:21921116

Fuentes, Daniela; Meneses, Marco; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Araújo, Wagner L; Tapia, Rodrigo; Gómez, Isabel; Holuigue, Loreto; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A; Fernie, Alisdair R; Jordana, Xavier

2011-11-01

227

Quality of Life and Psychological Problems of Patients with Oral Mucosal Disease in Dermatological Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dermatologists see patients with oral mucosal conditions. Objectives: To evaluate oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and the burden of disease of dermatological patients with oral mucosal diseases. Methods: All consecutive patients (April 2005 to November 2006) coming to the oral health care unit of the IDI-IRCCS in Rome were asked to complete oral health-specific (14-item Oral Health Impact

S. Tabolli; F. Bergamo; L. Alessandroni; C. Di Pietro; F. Sampogna; D. Abeni

2009-01-01

228

Fermentation and growth response of a primary poultry isolate of Salmonella typhimurium grown under strict anaerobic conditions in continuous culture and amino acid-limited batch culture.  

PubMed

Salmonella typhimurium is a significant hazard to consumer health that is carried asymptomatically in poultry gastrointestinal tracts. Nurmi cultures may prevent Salmonella colonization in young chicks, but the mechanism of competitive exclusion is unclear. Modeling Salmonella's metabolism in pure culture may allow for greater definition in choosing strains for Nurmi cultures. The growth rates and affinity constants of S. typhimurium growing in amino acid-limited conditions were determined in batch culture and compared to primary poultry isolates of cecal strains. Serine and NH4Cl were the best N sources for growth of all organisms tested in this study. The fermentation response of S. typhimurium was also monitored in continuous culture at a slow dilution rate of 0.021 h-1. S. typhimurium was found to adapt to VL media, with trends in protein disappearance, Yglucose, and Yprotein. This may show that amino acid or protein concentrations may be an integral component of the initial establishment of S. typhimurium in the cecum. PMID:9192013

Maciorowski, K G; Nisbet, D J; Ha, S D; Corrier, D E; DeLoach, J R; Ricke, S C

1997-01-01

229

Initial Piloted Simulation Evaluation of the Reference-H High-Speed Civil Transport Design During Takeoff and Recovery From Limit Flight Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An initial assessment of a proposed High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) was conducted in the fall of 1995 at the NASA Langley Research Center. This configuration, known as the Industry Reference-H (Ref.-H), was designed by the Boeing Aircraft Company as part of their work in the High Speed Research program. It included a conventional tail, a cranked-arrow wing, four mixed-flow turbofan engines, and capacity for transporting approximately 300 passengers. The purpose of this assessment was to evaluate and quantify operational aspects of the Reference-H configuration from a pilot's perspective with the additional goal of identifying design strengths as well as any potential configuration deficiencies. This study was aimed at evaluating the Ref.-H configuration at many points of the aircraft's envelope to determine the suitability of the vehicle to accomplish typical mission profiles as well as emergency or envelope-limit conditions. Pilot-provided Cooper-Harper ratings and comments constituted the primary vehicle evaluation metric. The analysis included simulated real-time piloted evaluations, performed in a 6 degree of freedom motion base NASA Langley Visual-Motion Simulator, combined with extensive bath analysis. The assessment was performed using the third major release of the simulation data base (known as Ref.-H cycle 2B).

Glaab, Louis J.

1999-01-01

230

Metabolic and transcriptomic response of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain EC1118 after an oxygen impulse under carbon-sufficient, nitrogen-limited fermentative conditions.  

PubMed

During alcoholic fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to continuously changing environmental conditions, such as decreasing sugar and increasing ethanol concentrations. Oxygen, a critical nutrient to avoid stuck and sluggish fermentations, is only discretely available throughout the process after pump-over operation. In this work, we studied the physiological response of the wine yeast S. cerevisiae strain EC1118 to a sudden increase in dissolved oxygen, simulating pump-over operation. With this aim, an impulse of dissolved oxygen was added to carbon-sufficient, nitrogen-limited anaerobic continuous cultures. Results showed that genes related to mitochondrial respiration, ergosterol biosynthesis, and oxidative stress, among other metabolic pathways, were induced after the oxygen impulse. On the other hand, mannoprotein coding genes were repressed. The changes in the expression of these genes are coordinated responses that share common elements at the level of transcriptional regulation. Beneficial and detrimental effects of these physiological processes on wine quality highlight the dual role of oxygen in 'making or breaking wines'. These findings will facilitate the development of oxygen addition strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations. PMID:24387769

Orellana, Marcelo; Aceituno, Felipe F; Slater, Alex W; Almonacid, Leonardo I; Melo, Francisco; Agosin, Eduardo

2014-05-01

231

Section three: oral cancers.  

PubMed

Oral cancers are uncommon in the United States. Risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and high-risk oral human papillomavirus infection. Precancerous lesions, such as leukoplakia, may lead to oral cancers, but the majority of precancerous lesions never undergo malignant transformation. Management and prognosis for oral cancers vary widely depending on the site of the cancer. Lip cancers typically are detected early and have the greatest likelihood for cure and long-term patient survival. Cancers of the pharynx and tonsil have poor survival rates even when diagnosed in early stages. The best approach to preventing oral cancers is to control risk factors. PMID:24328950

Hueston, William J; Kaur, Dipinpreet

2013-12-01

232

World Health Organization global oral health strategies for oral health promotion and disease prevention in the twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite great improvements in oral health in the past decades, oral disease remains a major public health problem worldwide.\\u000a The burden of oral disease is particularly high among the disadvantaged population groups in both developing and developed\\u000a countries. The pattern of oral disease reflects distinct risk profiles across countries that are related to living conditions,\\u000a lifestyles, environmental factors, and the

P. E. Petersen; S. Kwan

2009-01-01

233

Nanoparticles for oral delivery: Targeted nanoparticles with peptidic ligands for oral protein delivery  

PubMed Central

As the field of biotechnology has advanced, oral protein delivery has also made significant progress. Oral delivery is the most common method of drug administration with high levels of patient acceptance. Despite the preference of oral delivery, administration of therapeutic proteins has been extremely difficult. Increasing the bioavailability of oral protein drugs to the therapeutically acceptable level is still a challenging goal. Poor membrane permeability, high molecular weight, and enzymatic degradation of protein drugs have remained unsolved issues. Among diverse strategies, nanotechnology has provided a glimpse of hope in oral delivery of protein drugs. Nanoparticles have advantages, such as small size, high surface area, and modification using functional groups for high capacity or selectivity. Nanoparticles with peptidic ligands are especially worthy of notice because they can be used for specific targeting in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This article reviews the transport mechanism of the GI tract, barriers to protein absorption, current status and limitations of nanotechnology for oral protein delivery system. PMID:23123292

Yun, Yeonhee; Cho, Yong Woo; Park, Kinam

2012-01-01

234

Increased belowground C release during initial plant development of Populus deltoides x nigra grown under light and C reserve limited conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants might be a key factor for the long-term stabilisation of carbon (C) in the soil, e.g. through enhanced physical protection of root-derived C against microbial decomposition in soil aggregates. On the other hand C released by the plants into the soil might promote the decomposition of native soil organic matter (SOM) through the stimulation of microbial activity. We measured the C budget of developing plant-soil systems (Populus deltoides x nigra, Cambisol soil) in the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions. In order to distinguish plant-derived from native C in the SOM and the soil CO2 efflux, we labelled the poplar shoots continuously with 13C-CO2 from first emergence of leaves (sprouting from stem cuttings). Throughout the experiment the CO2 fluxes (photosynthetic assimilation, dark respiratory loss, soil CO2 efflux) were measured frequently (every 30 min) and the 13C was traced in the soil CO2 efflux (1-2 times a week). After 10 weeks the plant-soil systems were destructively harvested and the distribution of the 13C distribution was analysed. The plants developed slowly (compared to previous experiments), most likely due to limitation in C reserves (long term cutting storage) and C supply (low light intensities). The amount of 13C recovered in the roots, microbial biomass and soil CO2 efflux was directly correlated with the leaf area of the different plant individuals. After 3-4 weeks of plant development we observed a high peak in the total soil CO2 efflux. During this time the relative belowground C release was increased massively over the basal rate of 17 % of net C assimilated, whereby the variability between the plant individuals was large. The smallest plants, i.e. the plants that were most resource limited, obtained the highest belowground C release accounting at the peak time for up to 57 % of net assimilated C. We hypothesize that the plants released specific compounds, which either directly (enzymatically) or indirectly (priming) enhanced the decomposition of native SOM as a survival mechanisms (e.g. mine for nutrients). The results of this study confirm linear correlations between aboveground plant traits (leaf area) and belowground C allocation into roots, microbial biomass and plant-derived respiration. However it also highlights that plant-soil systems are not permanently in a steady state. C allocation patterns can change massively when the plant is under stress, which affects other fluxes within the terrestrial C cycle, such as the microbial decomposition of SOM.

Studer, Mirjam S.; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.; Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Abiven, Samuel

2014-05-01

235

Nicotine Oral Inhalation  

MedlinePLUS

Nicotine oral inhalation is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine oral inhalation should be used together with ... you understand why you were not able to stop smoking and make plans to try again.

236

Rich Crank Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Rich Crank Oral History Interviewed by Tami Albin December 7, 2008 http..., Transgender, Intersex and Queer People and Kansas Copyright and permissions All oral histories in the Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas are copyrighted and protected by copyright...

Crank, Rich; Albin, Tami

2010-11-24

237

The ZmASR1 Protein Influences Branched-Chain Amino Acid Biosynthesis and Maintains Kernel Yield in Maize under Water-Limited Conditions1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Abscisic acid-, stress-, and ripening-induced (ASR) proteins were first described about 15 years ago as accumulating to high levels during plant developmental processes and in response to diverse stresses. Currently, the effects of ASRs on water deficit tolerance and the ways in which their physiological and biochemical functions lead to this stress tolerance remain poorly understood. Here, we characterized the ASR gene family from maize (Zea mays), which contains nine paralogous genes, and showed that maize ASR1 (ZmASR1) was encoded by one of the most highly expressed paralogs. Ectopic expression of ZmASR1 had a large overall impact on maize yield that was maintained under water-limited stress conditions in the field. Comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of wild-type and ZmASR1-overexpressing leaves led to the identification of three transcripts and 16 proteins up- or down-regulated by ZmASR1. The majority of them were involved in primary and/or cellular metabolic processes, including branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis. Metabolomic and transcript analyses further indicated that ZmASR1-overexpressing plants showed a decrease in BCAA compounds and changes in BCAA-related gene expression in comparison with wild-type plants. Interestingly, within-group correlation matrix analysis revealed a close link between 13 decreased metabolites in ZmASR1-overexpressing leaves, including two BCAAs. Among these 13 metabolites, six were previously shown to be negatively correlated to biomass, suggesting that ZmASR1-dependent regulation of these 13 metabolites might contribute to regulate leaf growth, resulting in improvement in kernel yield. PMID:21852416

Virlouvet, Laetitia; Jacquemot, Marie-Pierre; Gerentes, Denise; Corti, Helene; Bouton, Sophie; Gilard, Francoise; Valot, Benoit; Trouverie, Jacques; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Falque, Matthieu; Damerval, Catherine; Rogowsky, Peter; Perez, Pascual; Noctor, Graham; Zivy, Michel; Coursol, Sylvie

2011-01-01

238

The prrAB Two-Component System Is Essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Viability and Is Induced under Nitrogen-Limiting Conditions  

PubMed Central

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis prrA-prrB (Rv0903c-Rv0902c) two-component regulatory system is expressed during intracellular growth in human macrophages and is required for early intracellular multiplication in murine macrophages, suggesting its importance in establishing infection. To better understand the function of the prrA-prrB two-component system, we defined the transcriptional characteristics of the prrA and prrB genes during exponential and stationary growth and upon exposure to different environmental stresses and attempted to generate a prrA-prrB deletion mutant. The prrA and prrB genes constitute an operon and are cotranscribed during logarithmic growth, with transcriptional levels decreasing in stationary phase and during hypoxia. Despite the transcriptional differences, PrrA protein levels remained relatively stable throughout growth and in hypoxia. Under conditions of nitrogen limitation, prrAB transcription was induced, while acidic pH stress and carbon starvation did not significantly alter transcript levels. Deletion of the prrAB operon on the chromosome of M. tuberculosis H37Rv occurred only in the presence of an episomal copy of the prrAB genes, indicating that this two-component system is essential for viability. Characterization of the prrAB locus in M. tuberculosis Mt21D3, a previously described prrA transposon mutant, revealed that this strain is not a true prrA knockout mutant. Rather, Tn5367 transposon insertion into the prrA promoter only decreased prrA and prrB transcription and PrrA levels in Mt21D3 compared to those in the parental Mt103 clinical strain. These data provide the first report describing the essentiality of the M. tuberculosis prrAB two-component system and reveal insights into its potential role in mycobacterial growth and metabolism. PMID:22081401

Malhotra, Vandana; Cornelison, Garrett L.; Clark-Curtiss, Josephine E.

2012-01-01

239

Life's Limit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Rocco Mancinelli of the SETI Institute is featured in this web article discussing the environmental limits to life including extreme life forms that can thrive in harsh conditions of salt, pressure, temperature and pH, but share a common theme of needing liquid water. Links to related websites and astrobiology stories, the NASA Astrobiology Institute, and the Ames Astrobiology portal can also be accessed through this page.

Mancinelli, Rocco; Magazine, Astrobiology

240

Two cases of "cannabis acute psychosis" following the administration of oral cannabis  

PubMed Central

Background Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal drug and its therapeutic aspects have a growing interest. Short-term psychotic reactions have been described but not clearly with synthetic oral THC, especially in occasional users. Case presentations We report two cases of healthy subjects who were occasional but regular cannabis users without psychiatric history who developed transient psychotic symptoms (depersonalization, paranoid feelings and derealisation) following oral administration of cannabis. In contrast to most other case reports where circumstances and blood concentrations are unknown, the two cases reported here happened under experimental conditions with all subjects negative for cannabis, opiates, amphetamines, cocaine, benzodiazepines and alcohol, and therefore the ingested dose, the time-events of effects on behavior and performance as well as the cannabinoid blood levels were documented. Conclusion While the oral route of administration achieves only limited blood concentrations, significant psychotic reactions may occur. PMID:15804348

Favrat, Bernard; Menetrey, Annick; Augsburger, Marc; Rothuizen, Laura E; Appenzeller, Monique; Buclin, Thierry; Pin, Marie; Mangin, Patrice; Giroud, Christian

2005-01-01

241

The mucosal immune system in the oral cavity--an orchestra of T cell diversity  

PubMed Central

The mucosal immune system defends against a vast array of pathogens, yet it exhibits limited responses to commensal microorganisms under healthy conditions. The oral-pharyngeal cavity, the gateway for both the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, is composed of complex anatomical structures and is constantly challenged by antigens from air and food. The mucosal immune system of the oral-pharyngeal cavity must prevent pathogen entry while maintaining immune homeostasis, which is achieved via a range of mechanisms that are similar or different to those utilized by the gastrointestinal immune system. In this review, we summarize the features of the mucosal immune system, focusing on T cell subsets and their functions. We also discuss our current understanding of the oral-pharyngeal mucosal immune system. PMID:25105816

Wu, Rui-Qing; Zhang, Dun-Fang; Tu, Eric; Chen, Qian-Ming; Chen, WanJun

2014-01-01

242

New oral anticoagulants: are coagulation units still required?  

PubMed Central

Chronic antithrombotic therapy involves the use of anticoagulants, antiplatelets given either as monotherapy or in combination for the prevention of thrombotic complications. The most feared and sometimes fatal complication with this therapy is bleeding. It should be considered a “golden rule” that a drug or combination of drugs that maximizes efficiency (decreased thromboembolic risk) will probably be less safe (increased risk of bleeding), and this holds true either for single therapy or during combined therapy. The chances of bleeding indicated by risk tables can be useful but show only a snapshot, and the biological, social, environmental, and drug changes and therapeutic adherence also determine changes in the risk of thrombosis and bleeding. Bleeding is an eventuality that occurs in places of “locus minoris resistentiae,” and the results of careful phase 3 studies thus cannot be completely predictive of outcomes when a medication is introduced on the pharmaceutical market. With the use of warfarin, the International Normalized Ratio (INR) that has been established to indicate adequately balanced therapy is between 2.0 and 3.0. With the new oral anticoagulants, the pharmaceutical companies emphasize that it is not necessary to monitor anticoagulant effects. In studies with different doses of new oral anticoagulants, however, incidence of clinically significant bleeding complications have been directly related to the doses. Therefore, therapeutic excesses can condition bleeding risk and therapeutic limitation can increase thrombotic risk, especially when short-acting drugs such as the new oral anticoagulants are used. Hence, it is imperative to establish an appropriate method for monitoring new oral anticoagulants, setting levels of safety and effectiveness through periodic dosage and monitoring of their anticoagulant effects. Therefore, we still recommend the use of anticoagulation units for monitoring during treatment with the new oral anticoagulants. PMID:24491189

2014-01-01

243

7 CFR 42.111 - Sampling plans for reduced condition of container inspection, Tables III and III-A; and limit...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sampling plans for reduced condition of container...CONTAINERS Procedures for Stationary Lot Sampling and Inspection § 42.111 Sampling plans for reduced condition of...

2010-01-01

244

Oral health in the elderly with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is a common endocrine disease affecting the elderly in particular. Long-term complications involve the vasculature; vision, renal, and neural function; and the periodontium. Knowledge about the oral health of the elderly and the effects of NIDDM is limited. The objective of this study was to compare the oral health of patients aged 60+ years, who have NIDDM, with patients who do not have NIDDM. To evaluate oral health, we recorded retention and condition of the teeth, periodontal health, and condition of the oral mucosa. We also assessed oral hygiene, smoking history, regularity of dental checkups, and medication use. The study group was selected from among patients who came to the ambulatory care clinic at University of Medicine and Dentistry, New Jersey, Center for Aging with a diagnosis of NIDDM. The control group, which did not have NIDDM, was selected from among the same patient group and was matched for age and gender. Patients with severe dementia, those having fewer than 10 teeth or those who were in need of antibiotic prophylaxis were excluded from the study. Patients underwent a short interview and a clinical evaluation. Our study involved 32 elderly adults with NIDDM and 40 elderly adults who did not have NIDDM. Both groups had similar oral hygiene levels and regularity of professional dental care. In addition, the plasma glucose levels among the study group were well controlled. This study did not show statistically significant differences in oral health parameters between participants with diabetes and those in a control group. PMID:12240893

Zielinski, Marzenna B; Fedele, Denise; Forman, Lloyd J; Pomerantz, Sherry C

2002-01-01

245

Photosynthetic energy conversion under extreme conditions—II: the significance of lipids under light limited growth in Antarctic sea ice diatoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low photosynthetic active radiation is a strong determinant in the development and growth of sea ice algae. The algae appear to have universal mechanisms to overcome light limitation. One important process, which is induced under light limitation, is the desaturation of chloroplast membrane lipids. In order to discover whether this process is universally valid in sea ice diatoms, we investigated

Thomas Mock; Bernd M. A. Kroon

2002-01-01

246

Evaluation of a theory-driven e-learning intervention for future oral healthcare providers on secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors  

PubMed Central

Oral healthcare providers have a clinical opportunity for early detection of disordered eating behaviors because they are often the first health professionals to observe overt oral and physical signs. Curricula regarding early recognition of this oral/systemic medical condition are limited in oral health educational programs. Web-based learning can supplement and reinforce traditional learning and has the potential to develop skills. The study purpose was to determine the efficacy of a theory-driven Web-based training program to increase the capacity of oral health students to perform behaviors related to the secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance evaluation framework, a longitudinal group-randomized controlled trial involving 27 oral health classes from 12 oral health education programs in the United States was implemented to assess the efficacy of the Web-based training on attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy and skills related to the secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Mixed-model analysis of covariance indicated substantial improvements among students in the intervention group (effect sizes: 0.51–0.83) on all six outcomes of interest. Results suggest that the Web-based training program may increase the capacity of oral healthcare providers to deliver secondary prevention of disordered eating behaviors. Implications and value of using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework are discussed. PMID:23564725

DeBate, Rita D.; Severson, Herbert H.; Cragun, Deborah L.; Gau, Jeff M.; Merrell, Laura K.; Bleck, Jennifer R.; Christiansen, Steve; Koerber, Anne; Tomar, Scott L.; McCormack Brown, Kelli R.; Tedesco, Lisa A.; Hendricson, William

2013-01-01

247

Improving oral health and oral health care delivery for children.  

PubMed

National and state-level evidence has documented ongoing disparities in children's health and utilization of oral health care services, prompting a re-examination of factors associated with poor oral health and low use of oral health services. These efforts have yielded a wide array of proposals for improving children's oral health and oral health care delivery. This paper offers a perspective on the current context of efforts to improve children's oral health and oral health care delivery. PMID:21485933

Crall, James J

2011-02-01

248

Photosynthetic energy conversion under extreme conditions—I: important role of lipids as structural modulators and energy sink under N-limited growth in Antarctic sea ice diatoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of dissolved nutrients such as nitrate under extreme low temperatures is a strong determinant in the development and growth of ice diatoms. Consequently we investigated regulation of photosynthesis in a mixed culture of three diatom species, which grew in chemostats at ?1 °C, 15 ?mol photons m?2 s?1 under N-limitation. When nitrogen is limiting, pigment–protein complexes are one of

Thomas Mock; Bernd M. A. Kroon

2002-01-01

249

Oral cancer treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world, and it continues to represent a serious public health problem. Oral\\u000a cancer is a preventable disease, related to behavioral and lifestyle factors, including tobacco and alcohol. Prevention and\\u000a early detection of oral cancer remain the goals of national efforts to reduce the impact of this disease on the

Terry A. Day; Betsy K. Davis; M. Boyd Gillespie; John K. Joe; Megan Kibbey; Bonnie Martin-Harris; Brad Neville; Susan G. Reed; Mary S. Richardson; Steven Rosenzweig; Anand K. Sharma; Michelle M. Smith; Stacy Stewart; Robert K. Stuart

2003-01-01

250

Pat Miller Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Pat Miller Oral History Interviewed by Tami Albin March 21, 2008 http...://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/dspace/handle/1808/5558 This interview was made possible by the generous support of the University of Kansas Libraries and the University of Kansas grants 2302114, 2301283, 2301334. © Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual...

Miller, Pat; Albin, Tami

2009-10-28

251

Kelly Barth Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Kelly Barth Oral History Interviewed by Tami Albin February 5, 2008 http://hdl.handle.net/1808.../13170 This interview was made possible by the generous support of the University of Kansas Libraries and the University of Kansas grants 2302114, 2301283, 2301334. © Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer...

Barth, Kelly; Albin, Tami

2014-03-13

252

Gilbert Baker Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Gilbert Baker Oral History Interviewed by Tami Albin June 19, 2008 http... law (Title 17, U. S. Code). Requests for permission to publish quotations beyond “fair use” from this collection should be addressed to: Tami Albin (albin@ku.edu or tami.albin@gmail.com ) Director of Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ...

Baker, Gilbert; Albin, Tami

2010-11-24

253

40 CFR Appendix L to Subpart A of... - Approved Critical Uses and Limiting Critical Conditions for Those Uses for the 2012 Control Period  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. L Appendix...Conditions for Those Uses for the 2012 Control Period Approved critical uses Approved...Maryland growers Moderate to severe fungal pathogen infestation....

2012-07-01

254

40 CFR Appendix L to Subpart A of... - Approved critical uses and limiting critical conditions for those uses for the 2012 control period  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. L Appendix...conditions for those uses for the 2012 control period Approved critical uses Approved...Maryland growers Moderate to severe fungal pathogen infestation....

2013-07-01

255

40 CFR Appendix L to Subpart A of... - Approved Critical Uses and Limiting Critical Conditions for Those Uses for the 2010 Control Period  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Conditions for Those Uses for the 2010 Control Period Approved critical uses Approved...disease infestation. Moderate to severe fungal pathogen infestation. (b) Alabama...Maryland growers Moderate to severe fungal pathogen infestation....

2010-07-01

256

40 CFR Appendix L to Subpart A of... - Approved Critical Uses and Limiting Critical Conditions for Those Uses for the 2010 Control Period  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Conditions for Those Uses for the 2010 Control Period Approved critical uses Approved...disease infestation. Moderate to severe fungal pathogen infestation. (b) Alabama...Maryland growers Moderate to severe fungal pathogen infestation....

2011-07-01

257

Switching between oral anticoagulants.  

PubMed

Until about 4 years ago, warfarin was the only oral anticoagulant approved in the United States, and switching between oral anticoagulants has become an option since the emergence of the novel oral anticoagulants dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. What are the reasons one may switch between the agents and how is this done? Discussed in this article are the 4 agents approved in the United States, their characteristics, reasons one may switch, and methods for conversion. After a thorough search of original trial data and recent expert review articles, we have summarized the most recent recommendations below and briefly discuss upcoming oral anticoagulants that show promise. PMID:25255408

Strasser, Kristen M; Qasem, Abdulraheem; Madhusudhana, Sheshadri

2014-08-01

258

David Ollington Oral History  

E-print Network

's Oral History in KU ScholarWorks Tami Albin, Director for Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTQ People in Kansas Anschutz Library University of Kansas 1301 Hoch Auditoria Drive Lawrence, KS 66045 Phone: 785-691-5748 All oral histories... this collection should be addressed to: Tami Albin (albin@ku.edu or tami.albin@gmail.com ) Director of Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas Anschutz Library 1301 Hoch Auditoria Dr. University of Kansas Lawrence, KS 66045 Requestors must...

Ollington, David; Albin, Tami

2010-01-11

259

Perspectives of Parents and Tutors on a Self-Management Program for Parents/Guardians of Children with Long-Term and Life-Limiting Conditions: "A Life Raft We Can Sail along with"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lay-led, community-based Supporting Parents Programme (SPP) aims to assist parents caring for children with long-term or life-limiting conditions through support and cognitive behavioral techniques. The value of the SPP from the perspectives of parent participants and tutors was examined in focus groups and telephone interviews. Data were…

Barlow, Julie; Swaby, Laura; Turner, Andrew

2008-01-01

260

Effects of herpes simplex virus on human oral cancer cells, and potential use of mutant viruses in therapy of oral cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) might be useful in treatment of oral cancer because it is strongly cytolytic, and its natural target tissue is the source of oral squamous cell carcinomas. Use of a wild-type virus would be limited by its spread and neurotoxicity, but it might be possible to develop mutants whose range could be restricted to oral

E. J Shillitoe; E Gilchrist; C Pellenz; V Murrah

1999-01-01

261

Impact of inhalation therapy on oral health  

PubMed Central

Inhalation therapy has been employed as the mainstay of the treatment in chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Beta-2 agonists, anticholinergic bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, and sodium cromoglycate are often used alone or in combination in an inhaled form. Studies have shown that inhaled drugs used in the treatment have some adverse effects on the oral health based on their dosage, frequency, and duration of use. Several oral conditions such as xerostomia, dental caries, candidiasis, ulceration, gingivitis, periodontitis, and taste changes have been associated with inhalation therapy. Since the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases is rising, it is important to provide optimal oral care to the individuals receiving inhalation therapy. This article will review the influence of inhaled drugs on the oral health of individuals and adequate management and prevention of the same. PMID:22084541

Godara, Navneet; Godara, Ramya; Khullar, Megha

2011-01-01

262

Current limiter device for railway and distribution network design and tests on railway conditions : 1000 A - 25 kV - 50 Hz  

Microsoft Academic Search

A current limiter device is designed and tested for the railway electrical network 25 kV-50 Hz, and the grid network 20 kV-50 Hz. It is based on static switches issued from the latest light triggered thyristor technology which are triggered to assume a by-pass on an inductive impedance in the normal status, and are switched off when a fault current

G. Coqueryt; R. Lallemandt; G. Josse; H. Caron; E. Joncquel; F. Herrmann; D. Klaja

2005-01-01

263

Steven Brown Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTQ People in Kansas Steven Brown Oral History Part 2 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 3 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player... Part 4 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 5 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 6 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 7 video platform video...

Brown, Steven; Albin, Tami

2010-11-24

264

Contemporary Heroes as Role Models for Oral Language Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oral language has primacy both developmentally and by virtue of use for most individuals in our society; however, the development of oral language for many children is left to chance. Although English education journals have resounded with exhortations to teachers about the importance of encouraging children to talk, the recent limited research…

Davis, Diana F.

265

17 `eme Congr`es Francais de Mecanique Troyes, septembre 2005 Generateur de conditions aux limites amont pour les simulations de type  

E-print Network

17 `eme Congr`es Franc¸ais de M´ecanique Troyes, ­ septembre 2005 G´en´erateur de conditions aux´ecomposition a ´et´e choisie car elle permet d'extraire les 1 #12;17 `eme Congr`es Franc¸ais de M´ecanique Troyes

266

American Academy of Oral Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... the Date! AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands We ...

267

Gastroprotective effects of oral nucleotide administration  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Nucleotides form the building blocks of DNA and are marketed as dietary supplements, alone or in combination with other ingredients, to promote general health. However, there has been only limited scientific study regarding the true biological activity of orally administered nucleotides. We therefore tested their efficacy in a variety of models of epithelial injury and repair. Methods Effects on proliferation ([3H] thymidine incorporation) and restitution (cell migration of wounded monolayers) were analysed using HT29 and IEC6 cells. The ability of a nucleotide mixture to influence gastric injury when administered orally and subcutaneously was analysed using a rat indomethacin (20?mg/kg) restraint model. Results In both cell lines, cell migration was increased by approximately twofold when added at 1?mg/ml (p<0.01); synergistic responses were seen when a mixture of nucleotides was used. Cell proliferation was stimulated by adenosine monophosphate (AMP) in HT29, but not in IEC6, cells. Gastric injury was reduced by approximately 60% when gavaged at 4–16?mg/ml (p<0.05), concentrations similar to those likely to be found in consumers taking nucleotide supplements. Systemic administration of nucleotides was unhelpful. Conclusions Nucleotides possess biological activity when analysed in a variety of models of injury and repair and could provide a novel inexpensive approach for the prevention and treatment of the injurious effects of non steroidal anti?inflammatory drugs and other ulcerative conditions of the bowel. Further studies on their potential benefits (and risks) appear justified. PMID:16091553

Belo, A; Marchbank, T; Fitzgerald, A; Ghosh, S; Playford, R J

2006-01-01

268

Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17 "chistes" (jokes), 1…

McAlpine, Dave

269

Photosynthetic energy conversion under extreme conditions--II: the significance of lipids under light limited growth in Antarctic sea ice diatoms.  

PubMed

Low photosynthetic active radiation is a strong determinant in the development and growth of sea ice algae. The algae appear to have universal mechanisms to overcome light limitation. One important process, which is induced under light limitation, is the desaturation of chloroplast membrane lipids. In order to discover whether this process is universally valid in sea ice diatoms, we investigated three species coexisting in chemostats illuminated with 15 and 2 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1) at -1 degrees C. Growth under 2 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1) caused a 50% increase in monogalactosyldiacylglycerols (MGDG) thylakoid membrane related 20:5 n-3 fatty acids. This fatty acid supports the fluidity of the thylakoid membrane and therefore the velocity of electron flow, which is indicated by increasing rate constants for the electron transport between Q(A) (first stable electron acceptor) and bound Q(B) (second stable electron acceptor) (11.16 +/- 1.34 to 23.24 +/- 1.35 relative units). Two micromol photons m(-2) s(-1) furthermore resulted in higher amounts of non-lipid bilayer forming MGDG in relation to other bilayer forming lipids, especially digalactosydiacylglycerol (DGDG). The ratio of MGDG:DGDG increased from 3.4 +/- 0.3 to 5.7 +/- 0.3. The existence of bilayer thylakoid membranes with high proportions of non. bilayer forming lipids is only possible when sufficient thylakoid pigment-protein complexes are present. If more thylakoid pigment-protein complexes are present in membranes, as found under extreme light limitation, less bilayer forming lipids such as DGDG are required to stabilize the bilayer structure. Differences in protein contents between both light intensities were not found. Consequently pigment contents which nearly doubled under 2 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1) must be responsible in balancing the potential stability loss resulting from an increase in MGDG:DGDG ratio. PMID:12165302

Mock, Thomas; Kroon, Bernd M A

2002-09-01

270

The Phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Has Three High-Affinity Iron-Scavenging Systems Functional under Iron Limitation Conditions but Dispensable for Pathogenesis?¶  

PubMed Central

High-affinity iron scavenging through the use of siderophores is a well-established virulence determinant in mammalian pathogenesis. However, few examples have been reported for plant pathogens. Here, we use a genetic approach to investigate the role of siderophores in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000) virulence in tomato. DC3000, an agronomically important pathogen, has two known siderophores for high-affinity iron scavenging, yersiniabactin and pyoverdin, and we uncover a third siderophore, citrate, required for growth when iron is limiting. Though growth of a DC3000 triple mutant unable to either synthesize or import these siderophores is severely restricted in iron-limited culture, it is fully pathogenic. One explanation for this phenotype is that the DC3000 triple mutant is able to directly pirate plant iron compounds such as heme/hemin or iron-nicotianamine, and our data indicate that DC3000 can import iron-nicotianamine with high affinity. However, an alternative explanation, supported by data from others, is that the pathogenic environment of DC3000 (i.e., leaf apoplast) is not iron limited but is iron replete, with available iron of >1 ?M. Growth of the triple mutant in culture is restored to wild-type levels by supplementation with a variety of iron chelates at >1 ?M, including iron(III) dicitrate, a dominant chelate of the leaf apoplast. This suggests that lower-affinity iron import would be sufficient for DC3000 iron nutrition in planta and is in sharp contrast to the high-affinity iron-scavenging mechanisms required in mammalian pathogenesis. PMID:21441525

Jones, Alexander M.; Wildermuth, Mary C.

2011-01-01

271

Adjusting the light in the limit conditions of consciousness by the means of ascending reticular activating system (ARAS*) and of subordinated systems Part 1: Introduction and Aims  

PubMed Central

Background: In our activity in the Ambulance Service of Bucharest Municipality during March 2002 – March 2003 we studied a casuistry of patients who had fallen in a coma of varying degrees. To aid better understanding of coma, the concept of “pre-coma stage” or diencephalic “0 stage” was introduced. This concept complements the Arseni classification already used in medical practice, because some doctors alternatively use the term of “inaugural coma” for the same condition that we call diencephalic “0 stage”. In the median hypothalamus and on the retino-hypothalamic path (SCN - AN) optical waves are transmitted, probably in the near infrared spectral range (800–1000 nm). These waves would constitute a means of transmitting information about the infradian biorhythm of coordination (frequencies below 1 cycle/28 hours), essential for the modulation and pre-processing of the consciousness and wakefulness, a fact which has already been demonstrated in animals. Methods: The current work is based on observations made on a group of 51 patients with the precoma and coma conditions, and on a thorough study of the specialized (especially Romanian) literature. Also, we used validated scientific proof of torture in conditions of lack of light. Results: We found a perfect interpenetration between the ARAS and the following two complementary subsystems: 1. The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, that has the role of coordinating the periodicity of some biological functions depending on the circadian rhythm; and 2. The main photoperiodic organ, the pineal gland (epiphysis), which together with the ARAS has a role in the photoperiodicity modulation of some biological functions during the state of vigilance. Conclusion: From the above mentioned one may conclude that the consciousness condition is the unitary result of action of all human brain systems and especially sub-systems, which are controlled and led by a psycho-neurological process of integration at the cortex level. “Everyone knows what the consciousness is, until one tries to define it” (William James: The Stream of Consciousness”, 1892). PMID:24771969

Siposan, Dan Georgel; Aliu, Octavian Florin

2014-01-01

272

Carotenoids in nestling Montagu’s harriers: variations according to age, sex, body condition and evidence for diet-related limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoids are colored pigments forming the basis of many avian social traits. Before their utilization carotenoids must\\u000a be acquired through diet and mobilized for specific uses. The relationships between carotenoid-based coloration, circulating\\u000a carotenoids and body condition have been well studied in adult birds, but little is known in nestlings. Here, we investigated\\u000a variations in carotenoid-based coloration in a raptor nestling,

Audrey Sternalski; François Mougeot; Cyril Eraud; Benoît Gangloff; Alexandre Villers; Vincent Bretagnolle

2010-01-01

273

Non-fatal injuries resulting in activity limitations in Estonia—risk factors and association with the incidence of chronic conditions and quality of life: a retrospective study among the population aged 20–79  

PubMed Central

Objectives Evidence about the health and quality-of-life outcomes of injuries is obtained mainly from follow-up studies of surviving trauma patients; population-based studies are rarer, in particular for countries in Eastern Europe. This study examines the incidence, prevalence and social variation in non-fatal injuries resulting in activity limitations and outcomes of injuries in Estonia. Design A retrospective population-based study. Setting Estonia. Participants 7855 respondents of the face-to-face interviews of the second round of the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey conducted between 2004 and 2005 based on the nationally representative probability sample (n=11?192) of the resident population of Estonia aged 20–79. Primary and secondary outcome measures The cumulative incidence and prevalence of injuries leading to activity limitations was estimated. Survival models were applied to analyse variations in the injury risk across sociodemographic groups. The association between injuries and the development of chronic conditions and quality of life was examined using survival and logistic regression models. Results 10% (95% CI 9.4 to 10.7) of the population aged 20–79 had experienced injuries leading to activity limitations; the prevalence of activity limitations due to injuries was 4.4% (95% CI 3.9% to 4.9%). Significant differences in injury risk were associated with gender, education, employment, marital status and nativity. Limiting injury was associated with a doubling of the likelihood of having chronic conditions (adjusted HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.58 to 2.46). Injury exhibited a statistically significant negative association with most quality-of-life measures. Although reduced, these effects persisted after recovery from activity limitations. Conclusions Substantial variation in injury risk across population groups suggests potential for prevention. Men and workers in manual occupations constitute major target groups for injury prevention in Estonia. The association of injury with the development of chronic conditions and reduced quality of life warrants further investigation. PMID:23901024

Puur, Allan; Altmets, Katre; Saava, Astrid; Uusküla, Anneli; Sakkeus, Luule

2013-01-01

274

Dentition, oral hygiene, and risk of oral cancer: a case-control study in Beijing, People's Republic of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case-control study of oral cancer was conducted in Beijing, People's Republic of China. The study was hospitalbased and controls were hospital in-patients matched to the cases by age and gender. A total of 404 case\\/control pairs were interviewed. This paper provides data regarding oral conditions as risk factors for oral cancer, with every patient having an intact mouth examined

Tongzhang Zheng; Peter Boyle; Huanfang Hu; Jun Duan; Peijue Jiang; Daquan Ma; Liangpeng Shui; Shiru Niu; Crispian Scully; Brian MacMahon

1990-01-01

275

[Self-rated oral health and associated factors among adults in rural settlements, Pernambuco State, Brazil].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of negative self-rated oral health and associated factors among adults in rural settlements. The probabilistic sample consisted of 557 adults 20 to 59 years of age in rural settlements in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The dependent variable was self-rated oral health, with the following independent variables: demographic characteristics, predisposition and availability of resources, oral health-related behavior, objective oral health conditions, and subjective oral health conditions. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated using a Poisson regression model. Prevalence of negative self-rated oral health was 70.5%. Negative self-rated oral health was associated with younger age, lower schooling, female gender, and black or brown skin color. Predictors of negative self-rated oral health included skin color, self-defined need for dental care, and the impact of oral health problems on quality of life. PMID:24714950

Moura, Cristiano; Gusmão, Estela Santos; Santillo, Patrícia Morgana Hordonho; Soares, Renata de Souza Coelho; Cimões, Renata

2014-03-01

276

Oral Mucositis: understanding the pathology and management  

PubMed Central

Oral Mucositis is a common complication of cancer therapy which may limit the completion of treatment and affect the quality of life of the patient. As we have come to understand its pathogenesis new developments in its management and prevention have allowed us minimize this side effect. PMID:23935285

Georgiou, M; Patapatiou, G; Domoxoudis, S; Pistevou-Gompaki, K; Papanikolaou, A

2012-01-01

277

Alterations of the oxygen-evolving apparatus induced by a 305Arg --> 305Ser mutation in the CP43 protein of photosystem II from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under chloride-limiting conditions.  

PubMed

The psbC gene encodes CP43, a component of Photosystem II (PSII) in higher plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. Previous work demonstrated that alteration of an arginine residue occurring at position 305 to serine produced a strain (R305S) with altered PSII activity (Knoepfle, N., Bricker, T. M., and Putnam-Evans, C. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 1582-1588). This strain grew at wild-type rates in complete BG-11 media (480 microM chloride) and evolved oxygen at rates that were 60-70% of the observed wild-type rates. The R305S strain assembled approximately 70-80% of the functional PSII centers contained in the control strain, and these PSII centers were very sensitive to photoinactivation at high light intensities. We recently observed that the R305S mutant exhibited a pronounced chloride effect. When this mutant was grown in media depleted of chloride (30 microM chloride), it exhibited a severely reduced photoautotrophic growth rate. The effect of chloride depletion on the growth rate of the mutant was reversed by the addition of 480 microM bromide to the chloride-depleted BG-11 media. Oxygen evolution rates for the mutant were further depressed to about 22% of that observed in control cells under chloride-limiting conditions. Addition of bromide restored these rates to those observed under chloride-sufficient conditions. The mutant exhibited a significantly lower relative quantum yield for oxygen evolution than did the control strain, and this was exacerbated under chloride-limiting conditions. Fluorescence yield measurements indicated that both the mutant and the control strains assembled fewer PSII reaction centers under chloride-limiting conditions. The reaction centers assembled by the mutant exhibited an enhanced sensitivity to photoinactivation under chloride-limiting conditions, with a t(1/2) of photoinactivation of 2.6 min under chloride-limiting conditions as compared to a t(1/2) of 4.7 min under normal growth conditions. The mutant also exhibited an enhanced stability of its S(2) state and increased number of centers in the S(1) state following dark incubation. These results indicate that the mutant R305S exhibits a defect in its ability to utilize chloride in support of efficient oxygen evolution in PSII. This is the first mutant of this type described in the CP43 protein. PMID:12501203

Young, Andrew; McChargue, Myriam; Frankel, Laurie K; Bricker, Terry M; Putnam-Evans, Cindy

2002-12-31

278

An oral ulceration associated with Morgellons disease: a case report.  

PubMed

Morgellons disease is a psycho-dermatologic condition in which patients report fibers or filaments "growing" out of their skin. This case report highlights an oral ulceration in a young woman associated with Morgellons disease, a condition that has not been previously described in the dental literature. An increasing number of individuals are self-reporting this condition and oral health care providers must be familiar with this disorder. PMID:21749875

Grosskopf, Courtney; Desai, Bhavik; Stoopler, Eric T

2011-08-01

279

Growth and neutral lipid synthesis by Yarrowia lipolytica on various carbon substrates under nutrient-sufficient and nutrient-limited conditions.  

PubMed

Growth and TAG production by Yarrowia lipolytica were compared for cells cultured in nitrogen-complete medium containing waste glycerol derived from biodiesel production, as well as pure glycerol, dextrose, or canola oil as the carbon sources. Growth and TAG production were also analyzed for Y. lipolytica cells cultured in nitrogen-limited media containing either pure glycerol or glycerol plus dextrose. Significantly greater amounts of TAGs were synthesized by Y. lipolytica cultured in minimal media compared to rich media (approximately 3-fold on dry weight basis when grown on glycerol). Cultures in minimal medium containing glycerol yielded 31% TAGs on a dry cell weight (dcw) basis, while cultures in minimal medium containing glycerol plus dextrose produced 38% TAGs (dcw), with glycerol consumption favored over dextrose consumption. Our results suggest that Y. lipolytica could serve as a source of TAGs for biodiesel production using crude waste glycerol generated by biodiesel synthesis. PMID:24835917

Sestric, Ryan; Munch, Garret; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David B

2014-07-01

280

From global to local genetic structuring in the red gorgonian Paramuricea clavata: the interplay between oceanographic conditions and limited larval dispersal.  

PubMed

Defining the scale of connectivity among marine populations and identifying the barriers to gene flow are tasks of fundamental importance for understanding the genetic structure of populations and for the design of marine reserves. Here, we investigated the population genetic structure at three spatial scales of the red gorgonian Paramuricea clavata (Cnidaria, Octocorallia), a key species dwelling in the coralligenous assemblages of the Mediterranean Sea. Colonies of P. clavata were collected from 39 locations across the Mediterranean Sea from Morocco to Turkey and analysed using microsatellite loci. Within three regions (Medes, Marseille and North Corsica), sampling was obtained from multiple locations and at different depths. Three different approaches (measures of genetic differentiation, Bayesian clustering and spatially explicit maximum-difference algorithm) were used to determine the pattern of genetic structure. We identified genetic breaks in the spatial distribution of genetic diversity, which were concordant with oceanographic conditions in the Mediterranean Sea. We revealed a high level of genetic differentiation among populations and a pattern of isolation by distance across the studied area and within the three regions, underlining short effective larval dispersal in this species. We observed genetic differentiation among populations in the same locality dwelling at different depths, which may be explained by local oceanographic conditions and which may allow a process of local adaptation of the populations to their environment. We discuss the implications of our results for the conservation of the species, which is exposed to various threats. PMID:21762434

Mokhtar-Jamaï, K; Pascual, M; Ledoux, J-B; Coma, R; Féral, J-P; Garrabou, J; Aurelle, D

2011-08-01

281

ADHA Oral Health Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the American Dental Hygienists' Association, this site's resources are valuable for both dental patients and hygienists to help understand "the importance of oral health to total health." Patients will find informative fact sheets describing potential oral health problems as well as tips for preventing them. Hygienists will find the free posters useful as well as the instructions included for proper brushing and flossing techniques in order to educate and support their patients. The site underscores dental hygienists' roles in tobacco cessation efforts, a major topic of concern in the allied health professions. Providing free "life-saving advice", the ADHA hopes to promote overall heath beginning with oral care.

2006-11-10

282

Ryan Campbell Oral History  

E-print Network

Return to Ryan Campbell's Oral History in KU ScholarWorks Tami Albin, Director for Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTQ People in Kansas Anschutz Library University of Kansas 1301 Hoch Auditoria Drive Lawrence, KS 66045 Phone: 785-691-5748 All... beyond "fair use" from this collection should be addressed to: Tami Albin (albin@ku.edu or tami.albin@gmail.com ) Director of Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas Anschutz Library 1301 Hoch Auditoria Dr. University of Kansas...

Campbell, Ryan; Albin, Tami

2009-12-16

283

The aetiology and treatment of oral halitosis: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Halitosis refers to the condition of offensive mouth odour. More than 90% of cases of halitosis originate from the oral cavity. The implicated bacteria (Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, and Tannerella forsythensis) are located in stagnant areas in the oral cavity, such as the dorsal surface of tongue, periodontal pockets, and interproximal areas. These bacteria proteolyse the amino acids releasing volatile

PPC Lee; WY Mak; P Newsome

284

Vision and Oral Health Needs of Individuals with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past 20 years, there has been an increased emphasis on health promotion, including prevention activities related to vision and oral health, for the general population, but not for individuals with intellectual disability (ID). This review explores what is known about the prevalence of vision problems and oral health conditions among…

Owens, Pamela L.; Kerker, Bonnie D.; Zigler, Edward; Horwitz, Sarah M.

2006-01-01

285

Methodology in Seeking Stakeholder Perceptions of Effective Technical Oral Presentations: An Exploratory Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engineering communication studies indicate the importance of oral presentations as an indispensable component of workplace oral communication activities; however, since there is limited literature regarding stakeholder perceptions of effective presentation skills and attributes in technical oral presentations or final year engineering project…

Bhattacharyya, Ena; Patil, Arun; Sargunan, Rajeswary Appacutty

2010-01-01

286

Organic matter production response to CO2 increase in open subarctic plankton communities: Comparison of six microcosm experiments under iron-limited and -enriched bloom conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increase in seawater pCO2 and the corresponding decrease in pH caused by the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration (i.e., ocean acidification) may affect organic matter production by phytoplankton communities. Organic matter production forms the basis of marine food webs and plays a crucial role in oceanic CO2 uptake through the biological carbon pump, and hence will potentially affect future marine ecosystem dynamics. However, responses of organic matter production in open ocean plankton ecosystems to CO2 increase have not been fully examined. We conducted on-deck microcosm experiments using high nutrient, low chlorophyll (HNLC) waters in the western subarctic Pacific and oceanic Bering Sea basin in summer 2008 and 2009, respectively, to examine the impacts of elevated CO2 on particulate and dissolved organic matter (i.e., POM and DOM, respectively) production. Iron deficient natural plankton communities were incubated for 7-14 days under multiple CO2 levels with and without iron enrichments (hereafter +Fe and -Fe treatments, respectively). By combining with our previous experiments at two sites, we created a comprehensive dataset on responses of organic matter production to CO2 increase during macronutrient replete conditions in HNLC waters. Significant differences in net particulate organic carbon production among CO2 treatments were observed only in the -Fe treatments, whereas that in net dissolved organic carbon production were mainly observed in the +Fe treatments, suggesting that CO2 may affect different processes depending on the Fe nutritional status. However, impacts of CO2 were not consistent among experiments and were much smaller than the consistent positive effects of Fe enrichment. In contrast, no significant differences among the CO2 treatments were observed for organic carbon partitioning into POM and DOM, and carbon to nitrogen ratio of net produced POM. We conclude that CO2 does not play a primary role, but could have secondary effects on controlling the organic matter production under macronutrient replete conditions in HNLC waters. On the other hand, in a nutrient-depleted, declining phase of the phytoplankton bloom induced by Fe enrichment, carbon overconsumption was found in an experiment with elevated CO2 conditions suggesting that CO2 impacts might become more significant in such environments.

Yoshimura, Takeshi; Sugie, Koji; Endo, Hisashi; Suzuki, Koji; Nishioka, Jun; Ono, Tsuneo

2014-12-01

287

What Are Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?  

MedlinePLUS

... oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? What are oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? Oral cavity cancer, or just ... parts of the mouth and throat. The oral cavity (mouth) and oropharynx (throat) The oral cavity includes ...

288

Oral Chemotherapy: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

Oral Chemotherapy: What You Need to Know Oral chemo is any drug you take by mouth to treat cancer. ... be ready for oral chemo. What is oral chemotherapy? There are many types of chemotherapy (chemo). Oral ...

289

Using Oral Language Skills to Build on the Emerging Literacy of Adult English Learners. CAELA Network Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In addition to learning to read and write for the first time, adult English language learners with limited or emerging literacy skills must acquire oral English. Often, learners with limited print literacy in their first language have oral skills in English that exceed their English literacy skills (Geva & Zadeh, 2006). While this mismatch of oral…

Vinogradov, Patsy; Bigelow, Martha

2010-01-01

290

Apoplastic infusion of sucrose into stem internodes during female flowering does not increase grain yield in maize plants grown under nitrogen-limiting conditions.  

PubMed

Nitrogen (N) limitation reduces leaf growth and photosynthetic rates of maize (Zea mays), and constrains photosynthate translocation to developing ears. Additionally, the period from about 1 week before to 2 weeks after silking is critical for establishing the reproductive sink capacity necessary to attain maximum yield. To investigate the influence of carbohydrate availability in plants of differing N status, a greenhouse study was performed in which exogenous sucrose (Suc) was infused around the time of silking into maize stems grown under different N regimes. N deficiency significantly reduced leaf area, leaf longevity, leaf chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate. High N-delayed leaf senescence, particularly of the six uppermost leaves, compared to the other two N treatments. While N application increased ear leaf soluble protein concentration, it did not influence glucose and suc concentrations. Interestingly, ear leaf starch concentration decreased with increasing N application. Infusion of exogenous suc tended to increase non-structural carbohydrate concentrations in the developing ears of all N treatments at silking and 6 days after silking. However, leaf photosynthetic rates were not affected by suc infusion, and suc infusion failed to increase grain yield in any N treatment. The lack of an effect of suc infusion on ear growth and the high ear leaf starch concentration of N-deficient maize, suggest that yield reduction under N deficiency may not be due to insufficient photosynthate availability to the developing ear during silking, and that yield reduction under N deficiency may be determined at an earlier growth stage. PMID:23061679

Peng, Yunfeng; Li, Chunjian; Fritschi, Felix B

2013-08-01

291

Garrett Fugate Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Garrett Fugate conducted by Jeremy Adkison in 2010. In this interview, University of Kansas student Garrett Fugate discusses his childhood experiences as a member of the Greek Orthodox community, ...

Fugate, Garrett; Adkison, Jeremy

2010-01-01

292

Edith Bogart Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Edith Bogart conducted by Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas, on September 14, 2010. In this interview, Edith Bogart discusses her experiences with a variety of denominations, including Episcopalian, Jehovah's Witnesses...

Bogart, Edith; Miller, Timothy

2010-09-14

293

Kansas Lawsonians Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with John and Paula Mook and George Hunergaaurd conducted by Jamie Reeve in Wichita, Kansas, on December 8, 2009. In this interview, John and Paul Mook and George Hunergaaurd discuss the biography ...

Mook, John; Mook, Paula; Hunergaaurd, George; Reeve, Jamie

2009-12-08

294

Anna Manning Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Anna Manning conducted by Sean Manning in Overland Park, Kansas, on November 5, 2009. In this interview, Anna Manning discusses the Hispanic ministries in Catholic Churches in Johnson County, ...

Manning, Anna; Manning, Sean

2009-11-05

295

Barnabas Senecal Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Abbot Barnabas Senecal of St. Benedict’s Abbey in Atchison, Kansas, conducted by Ben Nelson on December 9, 2009. In this interview, Abbot Barnabas discusses his childhood ties with the Catholic Church, the history...

Senecal, Barnabas; Nelson, Ben

2009-12-09

296

Communication (Oral & Written) Leadership  

E-print Network

Team Work Communication (Oral & Written) Leadership Decision Making Creativity Ethics Computer Organization REQUIRED SKILLS Sport Teams Public Recreation Facilities Health/Fitness Centers and Event Management POSSIBLE EMPLOYERS EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES What Can I Do With a Major in... Sport

Jiang, Huiqiang

297

Oral compound nevus.  

PubMed

The melanocytic nevus is a benign and focal proliferation of nevus cells that can be congenital or acquired. Intraoral lesions are uncommon, and the etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood. The occurrence rate of oral compound nevus is about 5.9% to 16.5% of all oral melanocytic nevi. A 22-year-old male patient presented with a dark brown macule on the buccal mucosa of the maxilla in the region of tooth 26. The lesion was elliptical, 0.7 x 0.5 cm, well circumscribed, asymptomatic, and the evolution time was unknown. An excisional biopsy was performed and microscopic analysis revealed nests of nevus cells in the epithelium and underlying connective tissue that were compatible with melanocytic compound nevus. Owing to the clinical similarity between oral melanocytic nevus and oral melanoma, a histopathological analysis is mandatory for definitive diagnosis. PMID:24612575

Cardoso, Lyzete Berriel; Consalaro, Alberto; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sérgio; da Silva Sampieri, Marcelo Bonifácio; Tinoco-Araújo, José Endrigo

2014-02-01

298

Leni Salkind Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Leni Salkind conducted by Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 11, 2009. In this interview, Leni Salkind describes her experiences as a member of the Jewish community in Lawrence. She discusses the issue...

Salkind, Leni; Miller, Timothy

2009-11-11

299

Phil Friedl Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Phil Friedl conducted by Sara Vestal and Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Delia, Kansas, on November 11, 2009. Phil Friedl is a follower of David Bawden, who is also known as Pope Michael. In this interview, ...

Friedl, Phil; Vestal, Sara; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-11-11

300

Justin Jenkins Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Justin Jenkins conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on June 6, 2013. Justin Jenkins is the founder and lead pastor of Velocity Church. Velocity Church is a recent non-denominational ...

Jenkins, Justin; Stratton, Emily

2013-06-06

301

Virgil Dean Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Virgil Dean conducted by Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas on November 9, 2010. In this interview, Virgil Dean, director for publications for the Kansas State Historical Society and editor of ...

Dean, Virgil; Miller, Timothy

2010-11-09

302

Oral Cancer Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... partners of people with HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer . Sun exposure Being exposed to sunlight may increase the risk of lip cancer. Lip ... factors, such as drinking alcohol, HPV infection, and sun exposure, increase the risk of oral cancer. It ...

303

Eleanor Symons Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Eleanor Symons conducted by Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas, on October 14, 2009. In this interview, Eleanor Symons, a retired University of Kansas librarian, discusses the history of the ...

Symons, Eleanor; Miller, Timothy

2009-10-14

304

Naomi Nelson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Naomi Nelson conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Kansas City, Kansas, on September 18, 2009. In this interview, Naomi Nelson describes her early childhood experiences attending church in Wilsey, ...

Nelson, Naomi; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-09-18

305

Oral Cancer Exam  

MedlinePLUS

... and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral ...

306

Oral Crohn's disease.  

PubMed

'Crohn's disease' is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

Padmavathi, Bn; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, Gv

2014-09-01

307

Hypertension and oral contraceptives.  

PubMed

Large prospective epidemiologic studies have shown that long-term use of oral contraceptives containing estrogen induce an increase in blood pressure and sharply increase the risk of hypertension. Susceptibility to the hypertensive effects of oral contraceptives is heightened where risk factors such as age, family history of hypertension, preexisting or occult renal disease, parity and obesity exist. Hypertension among pill users usually develops within the first 6 months of usage and occasionally is delayed for as long as 6 years. Anitihypertensive therapy is seldom needed as the hypertension that developes is generally mild and uncomplicated, and rapidly reverses when the pills are discontinued. However, a small percentage of patients develop severe, even life-threatening hypertension and the hypertensive effects are felt long after the pills are discontinued. Cases of malignant hypertension and irreversible renal failure requiring maintenance hemodialysis, bilateral nephrectomy, and renal transplantation have occurred following administration of oral contraceptive pills. The mechanism by which oral pills induce hypertension in susceptible women is not known and needs further research. Before oral contraceptives are prescribed, physicians should take a careful history and perform a detailed physicial examination with special attention to the cardiovascular system. Multiple blood pressure measurements should be made and routine laboratory studies including urinalysis, blood urea and nitrogen and serum creatinine should be performed. It is preferable to start with a relatively low (50 mcg) estrogenic content preparation. Patients who develop hypertension (diastolic pressure, 90 mm Hg) on oral contraceptives should stop taking the pills immediately, and should be considered to have estrogen-induced hypertension. They should never again receive estrogen-containing oral pills, although they can try pills containing only progestogen. There is no contraindication to pregnancy in these patients, as most women who become hypertensive on oral pills go on to have normotensive pregnancies. Pregnancy in women who are susceptible to essential hypertension however should be treated as high risk. PMID:12263383

Oparil, S

1981-04-01

308

Oral Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

’Crohn's disease’ is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

Padmavathi, BN; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, GV

2014-01-01

309

George Paris Oral History  

E-print Network

management video solutionsvideo player Part 7 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Return to George Paris's Oral History in KU ScholarWorks Tami Albin, Director for Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTQ People... are copyrighted and protected by copyright law (Title 17, U. S. Code). Requests for permission to publish quotations beyond "fair use" from this collection should be addressed to: Tami Albin (albin@ku.edu or tami.albin@gmail.com ) Director of Under the Rainbow...

Paris, George; Albin, Tami

2010-01-11

310

Human papilloma virus and oral infections: an update.  

PubMed

Human papilloma virus (HPV) is one of the most common virus groups affecting the skin and mucosal areas of the body in the world today. It is also a known fact that HPV causes many lesions in the oral cavity. The most common conditions induced by oral HPV infection are usually benign-like oral papillomas, oral condylomas, and focal epithelial hyperplasia. Oral HPV infection has been found to be associated with some cases of oropharyngeal cancer, but it is not the main risk factor for this kind of cancer. HPV is been proved to be the causative agent in causation of cervical cancers without doubt, but its role as a etiologic agent in causing oral cancers needs to be evaluated and studied more to come into any conclusion. We have used review papers, case reports, cohort studies, case control studies, and various internet sources published from 1960 to 2011 to prepare this review of literature. PMID:21768696

Kumaraswamy, K L; Vidhya, M

2011-01-01

311

ORAL HYGIENE AND INSTITUTIONALIZED ELDERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oral hygiene of institutionalized elders is poor. This population exhibits an increased risk of oral infections such as periodontal disease, caries, inflammatory mucosal disorders, and denture-related problems. Poor oral health has been associated with systemic infections, such as respiratory infections, and nutritional inadequa- cies. Thus the maintenance of oral health among institu- tionalized elders is of significant value as

ALNAR ALTANI; C. C. L. WYATT

2002-01-01

312

Oral and systemic photoprotection.  

PubMed

Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight. PMID:24313740

Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

2014-01-01

313

Aerodigestive cancers: oral cancer.  

PubMed

Worldwide, approximately 260,000 new cases of oral cancer occur, and more than 125,000 mortalities are attributed to oral cancers each year. Oral cancers most commonly arise in the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth and the lower gum. Tobacco and alcohol use are the major risk factors, although human papillomavirus has been identified as an etiology in a small percentage of oral squamous cell cancers. Although the evidence to support routine annual screening for oral cancers is inconclusive, family physicians and dental practitioners should be attentive to precursor lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia, and strongly consider obtaining or referring for biopsy patients with suspicious lesions. Depending on stage, management of oral cancers often involves surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who have been treated for these cancers should undergo close surveillance by otolaryngology subspecialists, but their family physicians primarily will be responsible for their long-term care. Complications relating to management, including difficulties with speech, swallowing, and chewing, will need to be addressed. For patients with advanced-stage disease, family physicians also may be responsible for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:25198382

Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

2014-09-01

314

The effects of food on the pharmacokinetic profile of oral vinorelbine.  

PubMed

The effects of food on the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of a soft-gel capsule formulation of vinorelbine (Navelbine Oral) were evaluated in fed and fasted patients with solid tumours or lymphomas. A group of 18 patients (12 planned) were entered into a multicentre phase I pharmacokinetic study following a crossover design with a 1-week wash-out period. Patients received the first dose of 80 mg/m(2) oral vinorelbine either after fasting or after ingestion of a standard continental breakfast. The second dose of 80 mg/m(2) was administered 1 week later in the alternate feeding condition to the first dose. Of the 18 patients, 13 were eligible for pharmacokinetic evaluation. The mean time to maximum concentration (T(max)) was shorter in fasted patients (1.63+/-0.98 h in blood, 1.67+/-0.96 h in plasma) than in fed patients (2.48+/-1.40 h in blood, 2.56+/-1.65 h in plasma) but these differences are not likely to modify the safety and/or efficacy of oral vinorelbine. Values for C(max) and AUC were similar in fed and fasted patients and no significant differences were observed. The safety profile of oral vinorelbine observed in this limited number of patients appears to be comparable to that usually reported for vinorelbine, the main toxicity being neutropenia. Only one episode of febrile neutropenia was reported. The main nonhaematological toxicities encountered were gastrointestinal, consisting of nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and constipation. A tendency for a lower incidence of vomiting was suggested when oral vinorelbine was administered after a standard breakfast. Based on this study, the administration of oral vinorelbine to fasted patients is not mandatory since administration after a standard breakfast does not lead to differences in body exposure to the drug. As the comfort of patients may be improved when the treatment is administered after a light meal, this procedure can be recommended in clinical practice. PMID:12357302

Bugat, Roland; Variol, Philippe; Roché, Henri; Fumoleau, Pierre; Robinet, Gilles; Senac, Isabelle

2002-10-01

315

Modulation of inflammatory gene expression by a bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract and single anthocyanins considering their limited stability under cell culture conditions.  

PubMed

Studies with nonintestinal models indicate that anthocyanin-rich extracts can modulate inflammatory gene expression and may help prevent development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This work investigated the influence of a bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract (BE) and comprising anthocyanins on pro-inflammatory genes in IFN-?/IL-1?/TNF-? stimulated human colon epithelial cells (T84) by qRT-PCR and cytokine arrays. Moreover, the stability of selected anthocyanins under cell culture conditions was examined to assess their anti-inflammatory properties. BE and single anthocyanins significantly inhibited the expression and secretion of IBD-associated pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-?, IP-10, I-TAC, sICAM-1, GRO-?) in the stimulated cells. The anti-inflammatory activity thereby strongly depends on the aglycon structure (hydroxylation and methylation pattern) and the sugar moiety. In contrast to anthocyanidins, which were highly unstable in cell culture medium, suggesting that their degradation products might contribute to the inhibitory effects assigned to the parent compounds, anthocyanins have higher stability and may directly contribute to BE's effects. PMID:22913378

Triebel, Sven; Trieu, Hai-Linh; Richling, Elke

2012-09-12

316

NADH plays the vital role for chiral pure D-(-)-2,3-butanediol production in Bacillus subtilis under limited oxygen conditions.  

PubMed

Compared with traditional pathogenic producers, Bacillus subtilis as a Class I microorganism offers many advantages for industrial-scale 2,3-butanediol production. Unlike previous reports in which two stereoisomers (with a ratio of 3:2) were produced, we first found that wild type B. subtilis 168 generates only D-(-)-2,3-butanediol (purity >99%) under low oxygen conditions. The total high yield of 2,3-butanediol and acetoin, and acetoin reductase enzyme assay indicate that it is the high level of NADH availability, instead of high acetoin reductase activity, contributes more to 2,3-butanediol production in B. subtilis. The strategy for increasing the pool of NADH availability, the key factor for 2,3-butanediol production, was designed through low dissolved oxygen control, adding reducing substrates and rationally metabolic engineering. A transhydrogenase encoded by udhA was introduced to provide more NADH from NADPH and allowed enhanced 2,3-butanediol production. Finally, BSF20 produced 49.29?g/L D(-)-2,3-butanediol. These results demonstrated that B. subtilis is a competitive producer for chiral 2,3-butanediol production. PMID:24788512

Fu, Jing; Wang, Zhiwen; Chen, Tao; Liu, Weixi; Shi, Ting; Wang, Guanglu; Tang, Ya-jie; Zhao, Xueming

2014-10-01

317

Orthographic Learning During Oral and Silent Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined orthographic learning in oral and silent reading conditions. Dutch third graders read, either aloud or silently, short texts containing novel target (pseudo) words. The acquisition of new word-specific orthographic knowledge was assessed several days later by comparing target spellings with homophonic spellings in tasks requiring orthographic choice, spelling, and naming. It was predicted that orthographic learning would

Peter F. de Jong; David L. Share

2007-01-01

318

Orthographic Learning during Oral and Silent Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined orthographic learning in oral and silent reading conditions. Dutch third graders read, either aloud or silently, short texts containing novel target (pseudo) words. The acquisition of new word-specific orthographic knowledge was assessed several days later by comparing target spellings with homophonic spellings in tasks…

de Jong, Peter F.; Share, David L.

2007-01-01

319

HPV-associated oral warts.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is strictly epitheliotropic, infecting stratified squamous cutaneous and mucosal epithelial cells. Oral HPV infection may be subclinical or putatively associated with benign or malignant oral neoplasms. The benign HPV-associated oral lesions, focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease), oral squamous cell papilloma, oral verruca vulgaris (common wart) and oral condyloma acuminatum, are collectively referred to as oral warts. Oral warts are usually asymptomatic, may be persistent or uncommonly, may regress spontaneously. HPV-associated oral warts have a prevalence of 0.5% in the general population, occur in up to 5% of HIV-seropositive subjects, and in up to 23% of HIV-seropositive subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy. This paper is a clinico-pathological review of HPV-associated oral warts. PMID:21608502

Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Wood, N H; Marnewick, J C; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

2011-03-01

320

Turbulence Considerations for Comparing Ecosystem Exchange over Old-Growth and Clear-Cut Stands For Limited Fetch and Complex Canopy Flow Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide, water vapor and energy fluxes were measured using eddy covariance (EC) methodology over three adjacent forests in southern Washington State to identify stand-level age-effects on ecosystem exchange. The sites represent Douglas-fir forest ecosystems at two contrasting successional stages: old-growth (OG) and early seral (ES). Here we present eddy flux and meteorological data from two early seral stands and the Wind River AmeriFlux old-growth forest during the growing season (March-October) in 2006 and 2007. We show an alternative approach to the usual friction velocity (u*) method for determining periods of adequate atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) mixing based on the ratio of mean horizontal ({bar u}) and vertical ({bar w}) wind flow to a modified turbulent kinetic energy scale (uTKE). This new parameter in addition to footprint modeling showed that daytime CO{sub 2} fluxes (F{sub NEE}) in small clear-cuts (< 10 hectares) can be measured accurately with EC if micrometeorological conditions are carefully evaluated. Peak midday CO{sub 2} fluxes (F{sub NEE} = -14.0 to -12.3 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) at OG were measured in April in both 2006 and 2007 before bud break when air and soil temperatures and vapor pressure deficit were relatively low, and soil moisture and light levels were favorable for photosynthesis. At the early seral stands, peak midday CO{sub 2} fluxes (F{sub NEE} = -11.0 to -8.7 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) were measured in June and July while spring-time CO{sub 2} fluxes were much smaller (F{sub NEE} = -3.8 to -3.6 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}). Overall, we measured lower evapotranspiration (OG = 230 mm; ES = 297 mm) higher midday F{sub NEE} (OG F{sub NEE} = -9.0 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}; ES F{sub NEE} = -7.3 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and higher Bowen ratios (OG {beta} = 2.0. ES {beta} = 1.2) at the old-growth forest than at the ES sites during the summer months (May-August). Eddy covariance studies such as ours add critical land-atmosphere exchange data for an abundant, but rarely studied Douglas-fir age class.

Wharton, S; Schroeder, M; Paw U, K T; Falk, M; Bible, K

2009-01-08

321

Treatment of Children with Protein - Losing Enteropathy After Fontan and Other Complex Congenital Heart Disease Procedures in Condition with Limited Human and Technical Resources  

PubMed Central

Background Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is a disorder characterized by abnormal and often profound enteric protein loss. It’s relatively uncommon complication of Fontan and other complex congenital heart disease (CCHD) procedures. Because of the complexity and rarity of this disease process, the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of protein-losing enteropathy remain poorly understood, and attempts at treatment seldom yield long-term success. Aim of presentation is to describe single centre experience in diagnosis, evaluation, management and treatment of children with protein-losing enteropathy after Fontan and other CCHD procedures in the current era and in centre with limited human and technical resources, follows with a comprehensive review of protein-losing enteropathy publications, and concludes with suggestions for prevention and treatment. Material and methodology Retrospectively we analyzed patients with CCHD and protein-losing enteropathy in our institution, starting from January 2000 to December 2012. The including criteria were age between two and 17 years, to have a complex congenital heart disease and available complete documentation of cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. Results Of all patients we evaluated 18 cases with protein-losing enteropathy, aged 6 to 19 years (mean 14±9); there were three children who had undergone screening procedure for D-transposition, one Tetralogy of Fallot, and remaining 14 patients had undergone Fontan procedures; (anatomic diagnosis are: six with tricuspid atresia, seven with d-transposition, double outlet right ventricle and pulmonary atresia and two with hypoplastic left heart syndrome). The diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy was made at median age of 5.6 years, ranging from 13 months to 15 years. Diagnosis was made using alpha 1-antitrypsin as a gold marker in stool. By physical examination in 14 patients edema was found, in three ascites, and six patients had pleural effusion. Laboratory findings at the time of diagnosis are: abnormal enteric protein loss was documented at the time of diagnosis in all 18 patients. At the time of diagnosis all patients receiving some form of anticoagulation, 17 patients receiving other medication: 17 – diuretics and ACE inhibitors, 12 digoxin, 9 antiarrhytmics. Cross-sectional echocardiography was performed for all patients and different abnormalities were registered. In 14 patients also magnetic resonance was performed. Therapeutic approach was based on the non-specific medication (diet, diuretics, digoxin, ACE inhibitors, and anticoagulants), heparin and corticosteroids therapy. Long-term response to this type of therapy was registered in three patients. Nine patients underwent treatment with heparin and corticosteroids and no one experienced long term benefit. Despite of needs for catheter therapy or surgical intervention in our study, in the absent of technical and human resources now any one had underwent those procedures. Six patients has been transferred abroad and in five of them surgical intervention was perform. Conclusion Protein-losing enteropathy remains a devastating complication of Fontan procedure and despite in advantages in surgical and medical therapy there is no evidence that protein-losing enteropathy is less common in the current area. PMID:24757400

Bejiqi, Ramush; Retkoceri, Ragip; Zeka, Naim; Bejiqi, Hana; Vuqiterna, Armend; Maloku, Arlinda

2014-01-01

322

Exuberant Oral Myiasis Caused by Musca domestica (Housefly).  

PubMed

Tissues of oral cavity, when invaded by the parasitic larvae of houseflies, the condition is called as oral myiasis. It is a rare disease that is most common in developing countries and is associated with conditions leading to persistent mouth opening along with poor oral hygiene, suppurative lesions, severe halitosis and maxillofacial trauma. A case of exuberant oral myiasis in a 42-year-old female patient is described here. She reported with swelling, pain, mobility of teeth and foul odor. Diagnosis was based primarily on history and clinical features. Management included use of turpentine oil, mechanical removal of larvae followed by extraction of mobile teeth and curettage along with supportive antibiotic and analgesic therapy. Supportive nutritional supplements and timely institution of treatment encompassing removal of the offending larvae and carious teeth with proper education and motivation of the patient including oral hygiene instructions led to the resolution of these lesions. PMID:24741230

Parwani, Rajkumar N; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Simran R; Wanjari, Sangeeta P

2014-01-01

323

Optical imaging of oral pathological tissue using optical coherence tomography and synchrotron radiation computed microtomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efforts aimed at early diagnosis of oral cancer should be prioritized towards developing a new screening instrument, based on optical coherence tomography (OCT), to be used directly intraorally, able to perform a fast, real time, 3D and non-invasive diagnosis of oral malignancies. The first step in this direction would be to optimize the OCT image interpretation of oral tissues. Therefore we propose plastination as a tissue preparation method that better preserves three-dimensional structure for study by new optical imaging techniques. The OCT and the synchrotron radiation computed microtomography (micro-CT) were employed for tissue sample analyze. For validating the OCT results we used the gold standard diagnostic procedure for any suspicious lesion - histopathology. This is a preliminary study of comparing features provided by OCT and Micro-CT. In the conditions of the present study, OCT proves to be a highly promising imaging modality. The use of x-ray based topographic imaging of small biological samples has been limited by the low intrinsic x-ray absorption of non-mineralized tissue and the lack of established contrast agents. Plastination can be used to enhance optical imagies of oral soft tissue samples.

Cânj?u, Silvana; Todea, Carmen; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda L.; Duma, Virgil; M?nescu, Adrian; Topal?, Florin I.; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

2013-06-01

324

Orthodontic Treatment and the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life of Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective: Malocclusion is a common oral disorder, can cause negative impacts on oral conditions, social life and patients’ self confidence. The objective of this study was to determine whether orthodontic treatment influence oral health related quality of life (OHQoL). Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional design with self-reported data were collected from 302 participants attended at professional orthodontic office (62% female; mean age, 21.71 years) in two “treatment” and “no treatment” groups. The measure namely (oral health impact profile) OHIP-14 was used to assess the patient’s OHQol. Linear regression model was used in the data analysis. Results: A significant relationship was found in one question and one domain of OHIP-14 between the two groups (P<0.05) which showed difference in physical limitation. Linear regression model showed that in the treatment group, this domain of OHQoL was 1.86 times less likely complicated than in the “no treatment” group. Conclusion: Patients who had completed orthodontic treatment had a better OHQoL in physical aspects than those who never had treatment. PMID:23119134

Navabi, N.; Farnudi, H.; Rafiei, H.; Arashlow, M. Tahmasbi

2012-01-01

325

The Canine Oral Microbiome  

PubMed Central

Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

2012-01-01

326

Illness-related behaviour and utilization of oral health services among adult city-dwellers in Burkina Faso: evidence from a household survey  

PubMed Central

Background In sub-Saharan Africa, the availability and accessibility of oral health services are seriously constrained and the provision of essential oral care is limited. Reports from the region show a very low utilization of oral health care services, and visits to dental-care facilities are mostly undertaken for symptomatic reasons. The objectives of the present study were to describe the prevalence of oral symptoms among adults in Ouagadougou, capital city of Burkina Faso and the use of oral health services and self-medication in response to these symptoms and to measure the associations between predisposing, enabling and needs factors and decisions to seek oral health care. Methods The conceptual design of the study was derived from both the Andersen-Newman model of health care utilization and the conceptual framework of the WHO International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes. Data were obtained by two-stage stratified sampling through four areas representative of different stages of urbanization of Ouagadougou. The final study population comprised 3030 adults aged 15 years or over and the response rate was 65%. Results Overall, 28% of the respondents had experienced an oral health problem during the past 12 months; a high proportion (62%) reported pain or acute discomfort affecting daily life. In response to symptoms, only 28% used oral health facilities, 48% used self-medication and 24% sought no treatment at all. Multivariate analyses revealed that several socio-economic and socio-cultural factors such as religious affiliation, material living conditions and participation in a social network were significantly associated with the use of oral health care services by adults who had experienced oral health problems during the previous year. Conclusion The proportion of people who have obtained oral health care is alarmingly low in Ouagadougou and self-medication appears to be an important alternative source of care for adult city-dwellers. Decision-makers in sub-Saharan countries must seek to ensure that access to essential oral health care is improved. PMID:17192172

Varenne, Benoit; Petersen, Poul Erik; Fournet, Florence; Msellati, Philippe; Gary, Jean; Ouattara, Seydou; Harang, Maud; Salem, Gerard

2006-01-01

327

Oral graft-versus-host disease  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients receiving hematopoietic cell transplant. It is estimated that 40–70% of engrafted patients surviving the initial transplant eventually develop chronic GVHD (cGVHD), which can persist for months to years and require long-term management from multiple disciplines. This review describes the oral component of this transplant complication. DESIGN: The search related to GVHD patho-biology, salivary gland disease after hematopoietic cell transplant and treatments for oral GVHD encompassed literature from 1966 through 2008. Searches were limited to the MEDLINE/PubMed database and English language literature in peer-reviewed journals. RESULTS: Our understanding of the patho-biology of oral cGVHD is based on studies of other affected tissues. It is difficult to determine the prevalence and incidence of salivary gland disease after transplant because there is no universally accepted case definition. In general, clinical trials for treatment of oral cGVHD have been too small to make strong recommendations for use in clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: Larger well-designed clinical studies are needed to understand the patho-biology of oral cGVHD and determine best treatments for this disease. PMID:18593456

Imanguli, MM; Alevizos, I; Brown, R; Pavletic, SZ; Atkinson, JC

2008-01-01

328

Novel colorimetric sensor for oral malodour.  

PubMed

Volatile sulphur compounds are the primary constituents of oral malodour. Quantitative tools for the detection of oral malodour are beneficial to evaluate the intensity of malodour, analyse its causes and monitor the effectiveness of customized treatments. We have developed an objective, cost effective, do-it-yourself colorimetric sensor for oral malodour quantification. The sensor consisted of a sensing solution, a gas sampling unit for collecting a known volume of mouth air and a photometric detector. The sensing solution was iodine and the depletion of iodine on reaction with hydrogen sulphide was detected colorimetrically using starch. The detection limit of the sensor is 0.05 microg L(-1) of hydrogen sulphide, which is fit-for-purpose for oral malodour detection in healthy subjects as well as halitosis patients. Volatile sulphur compounds in mouth air were quantified in healthy human volunteers using this portable sensor and the detected levels were in the range of 0.2-0.4 microg L(-1). There was a good correlation between the VSC levels detected by the colorimetric sensor and halimeter (R(2)=0.934). The developed sensor can be easily fabricated in the laboratory, and it shows high potential to be used as a clinical evaluation tool for oral malodour assessments. PMID:20113721

Alagirisamy, Nethaji; Hardas, Sarita S; Jayaraman, Sujatha

2010-02-19

329

Atypical esthesioneuroblastoma invading oral cavity: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Esthesioneuroblastoma is an uncommon tumour of neuroectodermal origin. The authors describe a rare presentation of an atypical esthesioneuroblastoma invading oral cavity. The clinical presentation, aetiology, diagnosis, and management of this condition are discussed. The patient developed significant swelling in the right anterosuperior alveolar mucosa and had moderate tooth mobility. Conventional x-rays and computed tomography revealed a large osteolytic lesion, with imprecise limits. Histological findings along with immunohistochemical staining results and clinical features led to the diagnosis of high-grade esthesioneuroblastoma. Local recurrences and neck metastasis were detected. The rare oral findings produced delayed in diagnosis which may lead to a compromise in planning and execution of further radical management and thus a poor prognosis. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1168853011139286. PMID:24443792

2014-01-01

330

Taste-masking assessment of solid oral dosage forms--a critical review.  

PubMed

Approaches to improve the taste of oral dosage forms that contain unpleasant tasting drugs are versatile. Likewise, the analytical in vitro and in vivo methods to assess taste-masking efficacy are diverse. Taste-masking has gained in importance since the EU legislation on medicines for children came into force in 2007, and taste-masking attributes are often required by regulatory authorities. However, standardized guidance for the analytical evaluation is still poor. Published protocols rarely consider real conditions, such as the volume of saliva or the residence time of solid oral dosage forms in the mouth. Methodological limitations and problems regarding time point of evaluation, sampling or sample pretreatment are hardly ever addressed. This critical review aims to evaluate and discuss published strategies in this context. PMID:24509066

Pein, Miriam; Preis, Maren; Eckert, Carolin; Kiene, Florian E

2014-04-25

331

Oral Health Students ’ Perceptions on Addressing Oral Signs of Disordered Eating Behaviors  

E-print Network

Spring 2012One of the numerous challenges faced by the oral health curriculum is how to prepare dental and dental hygiene students to address sensitive oral- systemic health issues in a way that will positively benefit their patients ’ health. Oral-systemic health topics may include, but are not limited to: heart and lung diseases, stroke, low-birth-weight, premature births, tobacco cessation, hypertension, skin cancer, domestic and substance abuse and eating disorders. 7,13,15 In the United States heart disease and cancers have claimed the lives of over 1,167,041 people in 2009, these are the two leading disease causing deaths. 1 Due to the lack of awareness regarding the significant connection among oral health and systemic heath, many individuals are oblivious to its significance to overall health. Many of the health issues listed above can be detected in the oral cavity of the patient thus allowing dentists and dental hygienists to be the first to encounter the symptoms, making diagnosing and treating these diseases crucial. With major oral systemic diseases such as heart disease and cancer many overlook the destructive power of eating disorders. The American College of Physicians lists eating disorders such as: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified, as one of the nine most serious problems affecting adolescents and young adults, and anorexia nervosa as

Frank Laga

332

Oral Health Attitudes and Practices Among a German Mexican Mennonite Farmworker Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oral health needs of migrant farm laborers are greater and more immediate than those of comparable populations. However,\\u000a little is known about the conditions of oral health care among German-speaking Mexican Mennonites, a distinctive cultural\\u000a subgroup of migrant farm laborers. The purpose of this study was to examine the oral health practices, perceived oral health\\u000a status, and barriers to

Paula M. Rowden; Angelia M. Paschal; Suzanne R. Hawley; Tracy Hsiao

333

Miconazole in oral candidiasis.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-four patients were treated with oral miconazole (250 mg) for a total of 35 episodes of oral candidiasis. Sixteen had various forms of leukaemia and all were massively predisposed to fungal infection because of granulocytopenia and treatment with prednisolone and antibiotics. Clinical cure was observed in all 35 of the treated episodes, with a mean treatment time of five days, cure being observed in two to three days. When patients violating the protocol were excluded, the mycological cure rate was 97%. In 21 episodes there was a recurrence less than one month after miconazole treatment, probably because of reinfection. No side-effects ascribable to miconazole were observed, even in the severely debilitated patients, and the orally administered drug appeared to be superior to other commercially available antimycotic preparations. Images p29-a PMID:122644

Brincker, H

1977-01-01

334

Smokeless tobacco, viruses and oral cancer.  

PubMed

Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common epithelial malignancy in the oral cavity. OSCCs and their variants constitute over 90% of oral malignancies, and the disease is associated with poor prognosis. OSCC is a complex malignancy where environmental factors, viral infections, and genetic alterations most likely interact, and thus give rise to the malignant condition. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2007 concluded: "there is sufficient evidence in humans to establish smokeless tobacco as carcinogenic, i.e. smokeless tobacco causes cancer of the oral cavity and pancreas". ST products contain a large array of carcinogens, although the number found is actually smaller than in cigarette smoke. Worldwide, ST products have many different names depending on the region where it is produced. However, there are two main types of ST, chewing tobacco and snuff. It is estimated that approximately 150 million people in the world use ST. Herein, we review available literature regarding smokeless tobacco and oral Carcinogenesis. We also discuss the role of viral infections in combination with ST in OSCC development. PMID:24984650

Sand, Lars; Wallström, Mats; Hirsch, Jan-Michaél

2014-06-01

335

Strategies and approaches in oral disease prevention and health promotion.  

PubMed Central

Oral health is an important element of general health and well-being. Although largely preventable, many people across the world still suffer unnecessarily from the pain and discomfort associated with oral diseases. In addition, the costs of dental treatment are high, both to the individual and to society. Effective evidence-based preventive approaches are needed to address this major public health problem. The aim of this paper is to outline public health strategies to promote oral health and reduce inequalities. An extensive collection of public health policy documents produced by WHO are reviewed to guide the development of oral health strategies. In addition a range of Cochrane and other systematic reviews assessing the evidence base for oral health interventions are summarized. Public health strategies should tackle the underlying social determinants of oral health through the adoption of a common risk approach. Isolated interventions which merely focus on changing oral health behaviours will not achieve sustainable improvements in oral health. Radical public health action on the conditions which determine unhealthy behaviours across the population is needed rather than relying solely on the high-risk approach. Based upon the Ottawa Charter, a range of complementary strategies can be implemented in partnership with relevant local, national and international agencies. At the core of this public health approach is the need to empower local communities to become actively involved in efforts to promote their oral health. PMID:16211164

Watt, Richard G.

2005-01-01

336

Christopher Draven Oral History  

E-print Network

is and they should just accept me for who and what I am. But when I was growing up if someone would come to me after I came out—if they would come to me and say, Are you gay, then I wouldn't deny it, I would tell them the truth. But I never brought it up in class... Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Christopher Draven Oral History Interviewed by Tami Albin February 9, 2008 http...

Draven, Christopher; Albin, Tami

2010-01-12

337

Immunology of oral candidiasis  

PubMed Central

A successful pathogen is one that is able to effectively survive and evade detection by the host immune defense. Oral candidiasis has adopted strategies, which evade host defense and eventually cause disease in at-risk patients. Host defense against infections with Candida spp. depends on rapid activation of an acute inflammatory response by innate immunity, followed by an incremental stimulation of specific immune responses mediated by T-cells (cellular immunity) or B-cells (humoral immunity). Understanding these complex pathways of immune evasion can potentially contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies against oral candidiasis. PMID:25210393

Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Sivakumar, Muniapillai; Karthikeyan, M.; Udayakumar, P.; Shanmugam, K. T.; Kesavan, G.

2014-01-01

338

Michael Johnson Oral History  

E-print Network

support groups or whatever like that and then it just turned into, Well there's Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 5 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas porn online too. (laugh) So it's like—it's like you just kind... stepmother had found my Xanga site as well. Along with that she had found, on his computer, links to porn site—like gay porn Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 7 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas sites, right...

Johnson, Michael; Albin, Tami

2009-12-16

339

Current developments for the oral delivery of heparin.  

PubMed

Anticoagulant therapy is widely used for the treatment and prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis and coronary syndromes. Until now, drugs such as unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparins need to be administered parenterally. Parenteral administration results in lower patient compliance compared to oral therapy and for this reason, the focus of various research groups is to develop an oral heparin formulation which is as effective as the parenteral formulation, easy to use and non-toxic. In the last few years, some new oral anticoagulants like Rivaroxaban (Xarelto(®)), Apixaban (Eliquis(®)) and Dabigatranetexilat (Pradaxa(®)) have reached the market, but their use is limited to certain indications. Therefore, the development of oral formulations with well-established anti-coagulant drugs is still relevant and in demand. In this paper, we reviewed strategies that have been developed so far to achieve an adequate anticoagulant effect using oral formulations of unfractionated and low molecular weight heparins. PMID:25219865

Schluter, Anna; Lamprecht, Alf

2014-01-01

340

College of Dentistry ODM Oral Diagnosis and Oral Medicine  

E-print Network

AND MAXILLOFACIAL RADIOLOGY. (2) Thiscoursepresentsthebasicprinciplesoforalandmaxillofacialradiology. Prereq: Admission to the College of Dentistry. ODM 820 ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL RADIOLOGY AND DIAGNOSTIC

MacAdam, Keith

341

Partial nitrification under limited dissolved oxygen conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial nitrification to nitrite is technically feasible and economically favourable, especially when wastewaters contained high ammonium concentrations or low C\\/N ratios. Partial nitrification can be obtained by selectively inhibiting nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) through appropriate regulation of the pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. The effect of pH, DO levels and temperature on ammonia oxidation rate and nitrite accumulation was

Wang Jianlong; Yang Ning

2004-01-01

342

Leukoencephalopathy due to oral methotrexate.  

PubMed

Methotrexate (MTX) is considered the main agent for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Neurotoxicity is often mild, but severe encephalopathy can develop, especially with intrathecal or intravenous administration. In rare cases, this syndrome has been observed in patients on long-term low-dose oral administration. A 68-year-old male was diagnosed with RA and on treatment with oral MTX 25 mg weekly for 4 years. The patient started with progressive dysarthria, ataxia and cognitive dysfunction. Complementary tests were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hyperintense lesions in both cerebellar hemispheres on T2-weighted and FLAIR images with a diffusion restriction on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and on the apparent diffusion coefficient map (ADC). On postgadolinium T1-weighted images, there were mild enhancements. Spectroscopy showed a demyelinating pattern. A pharmacogenetics determination was made, showing a heterozygous genotype in the MTHFR and ABCB1 genes. Medication with antirheumatic drug was stopped immediately on admission, and the patient gradually improved. MTX-induced leukoencephalopathy can occur even with low-dose administration. The exact pathogenic mechanism is still unknown, but it is hypothesised that it could be the result of a cumulative toxic effect on the blood-brain barrier. The nature of the relationship between the polymorphism and CNS toxicity is still unclear, and thus, further studies are warranted. Often located in the occipital lobes, the involvement of the cerebellum is quite rare. Early recognition of the condition and withdrawal of the drug lead to a better prognosis. PMID:24068485

González-Suárez, I; Aguilar-Amat, M J; Trigueros, M; Borobia, A M; Cruz, A; Arpa, J

2014-02-01

343

Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)

Journal of Dental Education, 1987

1987-01-01

344

Current limiters  

SciTech Connect

The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1996-09-01

345

signal processing and oral communication  

E-print Network

communication Introduction 4 Dysarthria #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral communication Automatic speech processing and oral communication Dysarthria Neuro-motor articulatory difficulties resulting Dysarthria and ASR word accuracy Non-dysarthric Dysarthric Background 7 #12;SPOClab signal processing

Penn, Gerald

346

Kidney Disease (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

Kidney Disease Oral Effects At the Dentist Oral Effects People with kidney disease often have other health issues. They often have ... body cannot absorb calcium properly. Therefore, people with kidney disease are at risk for losing bone from their ...

347

Lin Tongqi : an oral history  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I explore the life of Professor Lin Tongqi, a well-known scholar of American Chinese studies, by using an oral history methodology. This oral history is named "Suffering and Thinking," and my goal is to ...

Chen, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

348

Oral Anticoagulant Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background: The objective of this article is to summarize the published literature concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral anticoagulant drugs that are currently available for clinical use and other aspects related to their management. Methods: We carried out a standard review of published articles focusing on the laboratory and clinical characteristics of the vitamin K antagonists; the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate; and the direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban Results: The antithrombotic effect of each oral anticoagulant drug, the interactions, and the monitoring of anticoagulation intensity are described in detail and discussed without providing specific recommendations. Moreover, we describe and discuss the clinical applications and optimal dosages of oral anticoagulant therapies, practical issues related to their initiation and monitoring, adverse events such as bleeding and other potential side effects, and available strategies for reversal. Conclusions: There is a large amount of evidence on laboratory and clinical characteristics of vitamin K antagonists. A growing body of evidence is becoming available on the first new oral anticoagulant drugs available for clinical use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban. PMID:22315269

Gallus, Alexander S.; Wittkowsky, Ann; Crowther, Mark; Hylek, Elaine M.; Palareti, Gualtiero

2012-01-01

349

Ann Cobb Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Ann Cobb conducted by Dr. Timothy Miller in Smith Hall on the University of Kansas campus on November 18, 2009. In this interview, Ann Cobb discusses growing up as a Catholic in Seneca, Kansas, and her later conversion...

Cobb, Ann; Miller, Timothy

2009-11-18

350

Oral Health Presentation Objectives  

E-print Network

and mouth care we can develop dental caries or tooth decay. This is caused by bacteria in our mouths and direction, amount of tooth paste, and timing (2 times per day and after sugary snack). 2. Flossing Teeth, increase calcium intake, tobacco prevention (chew r/t oral cancer and dental decay). 4. Dental Decay

Maxwell, Bruce D.

351

Learning Oral Presentation Skills  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Oral presentation skills are central to physician-physician communication; however, little is known about how these skills are learned. Rhetoric is a social science which studies communication in terms of context and explores the action of language on knowledge, attitudes, and values. It has not previously been applied to medical discourse. We used rhetorical principles to qualitatively study how students learn oral presentation skills and what professional values are communicated in this process. DESIGN Descriptive study. SETTING Inpatient general medicine service in a university-affiliated public hospital. PARTICIPANTS Twelve third-year medical students during their internal medicine clerkship and 14 teachers. MEASUREMENTS One-hundred sixty hours of ethnographic observation. including 73 oral presentations on rounds. Discoursed-based interviews of 8 students and 10 teachers. Data were qualitatively analyzed to uncover recurrent patterns of communication. MAIN RESULTS Students and teachers had different perceptions of the purpose of oral presentation, and this was reflected in performance. Students described and conducted the presentation as a rule-based, data-storage activity governed by “order” and “structure.” Teachers approached the presentation as a flexible means of “communication” and a method for “constructing” the details of a case into a diagnostic or therapeutic plan. Although most teachers viewed oral presentations rhetorically (sensitive to context), most feedback that students received was implicit and acontextual, with little guidance provided for determining relevant content. This led to dysfunctional generalizations by students, sometimes resulting in worse communication skills (e.g., comment “be brief” resulted in reading faster rather than editing) and unintended value acquisition (e.g., request for less social history interpreted as social history never relevant). CONCLUSIONS Students learn oral presentation by trial and error rather than through teaching of an explicit rhetorical model. This may delay development of effective communication skills and result in acquisition of unintended professional values. Teaching and learning of oral presentation skills may be improved by emphasizing that context determines content and by making explicit the tacit rules of presentation. PMID:11359549

Haber, Richard J; Lingard, Lorelei A

2001-01-01

352

Oral Papillomatosis in Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed 11 cases of oral papillomatosis among 48 free-ranging Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) that had been shipped to Colorado for translocation purposes. Lesions were 1-3 mm, multifocal, nonpigmented ses- sile masses and occurred on the ventral lingual surface. Adverse clinical signs were not ob- served. Six of the 11 cases resolved and the remainder appeared to be self-limiting when

Lisa L. Wolfe; Terry R. Spraker

2007-01-01

353

Probiotics and oral health.  

PubMed

Probiotics are living microorganisms (e.g., bacteria) that are either the same as or similar to organisms found naturally in the human body and may be beneficial to health. Current researches have shown that the balance between beneficial and pathogenic bacteria is essential in order to maintain the oral health. Therefore, oral cavity has recently been suggested as a relevant target for probiotic applications. Dental caries can be seen as a microbial imbalance where the oral microbiota shift towards community dominance which produces acidogenic and acid-tolerant gram positive bacteria. Similarly, the accumulation of bacteria within the biofilm, facilitated by poor oral hygiene, predisposes to allogenic shifts in the microbial community, leading to the onset of periodontal inflammation. Probiotic bacteria belonging to the genus of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus have been proven effective for preventing caries by reducing the number of cariogenic bacteria in saliva after a short period of consuming the probiotic. In contrast, the effect of probiotics on improving gingivitis and periodontitis has been less investigated. The currently available studies on the effect of probiotics on periodontal pathogens and clinical periodontal parameters showed differing results depending on the strains used and the endpoints analyzed. Many of the clinical studies are pilot in nature and with low quality, therefore, properly conducted clinical trials, using probiotic strains with in vitro proven periodontal probiotic effects, are needed. The putative beneficial effects of probiotics on oral malodour have also been evaluated, but further evidence is needed to fully explore the potential of probiotics for preventing malodour. PMID:22632388

Bizzini, Bernard; Pizzo, Giuseppe; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Nuzzo, Domenico; Vasto, Sonya

2012-01-01

354

Oral healthcare challenges for older Punjabi-speaking immigrants.  

PubMed

This study explored how older Punjabi-speaking South-Asian immigrants (four focus groups; 33 participants) in Surrey, British Columbia, perceive oral health and related problems. Content analysis revealed two umbrella themes: (a) interpretations of mouth conditions and (b) challenges to oral health. The umbrella themes had four sub-themes: damage caused by heat (wai), disturbances caused by caries, coping with dentures, and quality of life. Three challenges were considered: home remedies, Western dentistry, and difficulties accessing dentists. Participants explained oral diseases in terms of a systemic infection (resha), and preferred to decrease imbalances of wai in the mouth with home remedies from India. We conclude that older Punjabi-speaking immigrants interpret oral health and disease in the context of both Western and Ayurvedic traditions, and that they manage dental problems with a mix of traditional remedies supplemented, if possible, by elective oral health care in India, and by emergency dental care in Canada. PMID:24806541

MacEntee, Michael I; Wong, Sabrina T; Smith, André; Beattie, B Lynn; Brondani, Mario; Bryant, S Ross; Graf, Peter; Soheilipour, Shimae

2014-06-01

355

A History of Oral Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This historical account of the oral interpretation of literature establishes a chain of events comprehending 25 centuries of verbal tradition from the Homeric Age through 20th Century America. It deals in each era with the viewpoints and contributions of major historical figures to oral interpretation, as well as with oral interpretation's…

Bahn, Eugene; Bahn, Margaret L.

356

Minor Oral Injuries in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic injuries involving the oral cavity in children often result from falls or collisions with stationary objects. Repair of lacerations involving the soft tissue structures within the oral cavity is described. These injuries often can be managed by emergency department personnel, with referral to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon for follow-up care. Initial management of more extensive injuries such as

KATHY BANKS; PHYLLIS G. MERLINO

357

Florfenicol broad-spectrum antibiotic developed veterinary application oral concentrate intended dilution drinking water. drug product dosed via drinking water farm setting number variables including pH chlorine content hardness water dilution container material affect stability leading decrease drug potency. stability florfenicol after dilution Florfenicol Drinking Water Concentrate Oral Solution 23 mg/mL drinking water studied. stability-indicating validated liquid chromatographic method evaluate florfenicol stability 25 degrees 5 10 24 h after dilution. results indicate florfenicol stable under range simulated field conditions including pipe materials conditions hard soft chlorinated nonchlorinated water low high pH. Significant degradation ( 10%) observed only isolated combinations Stability florfenicol drinking water Hayes JM Eichman J Katz T Gilewicz R  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Search instead for Florfenicol broad-spectrum antibiotic developed veterinary application oral concentrate intended dilution drinking water. drug product dosed via drinking water farm setting number variables including pH chlorine content hardness water dilution container material affect stability leading decrease drug potency. stability florfenicol after dilution Florfenicol Drinking Water Concentrate Oral Solution 23 mg/mL drinking water studied. stability-indicating validated liquid chromatographic method evaluate florfenicol stability 25 degrees 5 10 24 h after dilution. results indicate florfenicol stable under range simulated field conditions including pipe materials conditions hard soft chlorinated nonchlorinated water low high pH. Significant degradation ( 10%) observed only isolated combinations Stability florfenicol drinking water Hayes JM Eichman J Katz T Gilewicz R ?

358

A Review on the Oral Health Impacts of Acculturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of acculturation on systemic health has been extensively investigated and is regarded as an important explanatory\\u000a factor for health disparity. However, information is limited and fragmented on the oral health implications of acculturation.\\u000a This study aimed to review the current evidence on the oral health impact of acculturation. Papers were retrieved from five\\u000a electronic databases. Twenty-seven studies were

Xiaol-Li Gao; Colman McGrath

2011-01-01

359

Oral Phenytoin Toxicity Causing Sinus Arrest: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

We present a case of sinus node arrest leading to symptomatic junctional bradycardia from oral phenytoin toxicity, which is a rare presentation. Our patient had no prior cardiac history and was on phenytoin therapy for seizure disorder. Although bradycardia is more commonly associated with intravenous phenytoin and there were few case reports of bradycardia with oral phenytoin reported, the literature is limited. In this case report, we also reviewed the pathophysiology of phenytoin-induced cardiac toxicity. PMID:25343048

Thimmisetty, Ravi K.; Gorthi, Janardhana Rao

2014-01-01

360

Oral absorption of the HIV protease inhibitors: a current update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors are highly effective, they are characterized by low and\\/or variable bioavailability with limited penetration into the central nervous system (CNS). Their clinical use is limited by patient compliance and by drug–drug interactions. The effect of drug solubility on their oral absorption has been investigated but further evaluation of this relationship is required.

Gregory C. Williams; Patrick J. Sinko

1999-01-01

361

Cryotherapy effect on oral mucositis severity among recipients of bone marrow transplantation: a literature review.  

PubMed

Oral mucositis is a distressing toxic effect of cancer therapy and one of the major side effects of the myeloablative conditioning used to prepare patients for bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Oral cryotherapy is one of the recent modalities used to prevent and manage oral mucositis. The purpose of this review is to clarify the cryotherapy effect on oral mucositis severity among patients receiving myeloablative conditioning followed by BMT. A literature search was performed using six different electronic databases: CINAHL®, MEDLINE®, Nursing Ovid, PubMed, Springer, and Science Direct. Six articles were deemed relevant and included in this review. Oral mucositis increases mortality rate, length of hospital stay, opioid use, and the need for parenteral nutrition usage. It also decreases patient's quality of life and his or her desire to complete treatment. However, oral cryotherapy significantly minimizes the incidence and severity of oral mucositis and decreases secondary oral mucositis complications. Using oral cryotherapy concurrently with a regular oral care protocol can improve its efficacy for preventing and managing oral mucositis. Additional studies should be conducted to create standard oral cryotherapy protocols. PMID:25095309

Tayyem, Abdel-Qader Mahmoud

2014-08-01

362

Oral care of hospitalised older patients in the acute medical setting.  

PubMed

Oral health care is an essential aspect of nursing care. There are many variances in the quality and frequency of the oral care that is delivered to patients by nursing staff, such as oral care being given a low priority when compared to other nursing care elements, oral care being neglected, and oral care delivery being dependent on the nurse's knowledge of oral hygiene. Additionally, there are some particular patient groups known to be at risk of oral health problems or who have existing oral diseases and conditions. As people age their susceptibility increases to chronic and life-threatening diseases, and they can be at increased risk of acute infections increases compromised by ageing immune systems. The aim of this literature review was to ignite the discussion related to the oral care practices of nurses for older acute medical hospitalised patients. The review revealed that nursing staff know that good nursing includes oral health care, but this knowledge does not always mean that oral health care is administered. Oral health care seems to be separated from other nursing activities and is not discussed when nursing care plans are written, only when oral problems are obvious. PMID:23819046

Salamone, Kathryn; Yacoub, Elaine; Mahoney, Anne-Marie; Edward, Karen-Leigh

2013-01-01

363

Oral health policies in Brazil.  

PubMed

Since Oral Health policies in Brazil have been constructed according to circumstances and possibilities, they should be understood within a given context. The present analysis contextualizes several issues of the Brazilian Oral Health Policy, called "Smiling Brazil", and describes its present stage of development. Today it involves re-organizing basic oral health care by deploying Oral Health Teams within the Family Health strategy, setting up Centers of Dental Specialists within an Oral Health network as a secondary care measure, setting up Regional Laboratories of Dental Prosthesis and a more extensive fluoridation of the public water supply. PMID:19838553

Pucca, Gilberto Alfredo; Costa, José Felipe Riani; Chagas, Luciana de Deus; Sivestre, Rosa Maria

2009-01-01

364

Interspecies Interactions within Oral Microbial Communities  

PubMed Central

Summary: While reductionism has greatly advanced microbiology in the past 400 years, assembly of smaller pieces just could not explain the whole! Modern microbiologists are learning “system thinking” and “holism.” Such an approach is changing our understanding of microbial physiology and our ability to diagnose/treat microbial infections. This review uses oral microbial communities as a focal point to describe this new trend. With the common name “dental plaque,” oral microbial communities are some of the most complex microbial floras in the human body, consisting of more than 700 different bacterial species. For a very long time, oral microbiologists endeavored to use reductionism to identify the key genes or key pathogens responsible for oral microbial pathogenesis. The limitations of reductionism forced scientists to begin adopting new strategies using emerging concepts such as interspecies interaction, microbial community, biofilms, polymicrobial disease, etc. These new research directions indicate that the whole is much more than the simple sum of its parts, since the interactions between different parts resulted in many new physiological functions which cannot be observed with individual components. This review describes some of these interesting interspecies-interaction scenarios. PMID:18063722

Kuramitsu, Howard K.; He, Xuesong; Lux, Renate; Anderson, Maxwell H.; Shi, Wenyuan

2007-01-01

365

Intercellular communications in multispecies oral microbial communities  

PubMed Central

The oral cavity contains more than 700 microbial species that are engaged in extensive cell–cell interactions. These interactions contribute to the formation of highly structured multispecies communities, allow them to perform physiological functions, and induce synergistic pathogenesis. Co-adhesion between oral microbial species influences their colonization of oral cavity and effectuates, to a large extent, the temporal and spatial formation of highly organized polymicrobial community architecture. Individual species also compete and collaborate with other neighboring species through metabolic interactions, which not only modify the local microenvironment such as pH and the amount of oxygen, making it more suitable for the growth of other species, but also provide a metabolic framework for the participating microorganisms by maximizing their potential to extract energy from limited substrates. Direct physical contact of bacterial species with its neighboring co-habitants within microbial community could initiate signaling cascade and achieve modulation of gene expression in accordance with different species it is in contact with. In addition to communication through cell–cell contact, quorum sensing (QS) mediated by small signaling molecules such as competence-stimulating peptides (CSPs) and autoinducer-2 (AI-2), plays essential roles in bacterial physiology and ecology. This review will summarize the evidence that oral microbes participate in intercellular communications with co-inhabitants through cell contact-dependent physical interactions, metabolic interdependencies, as well as coordinative signaling systems to establish and maintain balanced microbial communities. PMID:25071741

Guo, Lihong; He, Xuesong

2014-01-01

366

Association of p62/SQSTM1 Excess and Oral Carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

p62/SQSTM1 (sequestosome1) has never been evaluated in oral epithelium. In order to clarify the role of p62/SQSTM1 in carcinogenesis in oral epithelium, both p62/SQSTM1 and Nrf2 were immunohistochemically evaluated in 54 carcinomas and 14 low grade dysplasias. p62/SQSTM1 knockdowns were also designed in oral cancer cells, and we analyzed the Nrf2 pathway, GSH contents and ROS accumulation. The association between p62/SQSTM1 excess and prognosis was addressed in a clinical cohort of oral carcinoma cases. p62/SQSTM1 excess was more obvious in carcinomas, but Nrf2 was abundant in almost all samples of the oral epithelium. In oral carcinoma cells, p62/SQSTM1 knockdown did not affect the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway but did significantly reduce GSH content with subsequent ROS accumulation, and caused cell growth inhibition in the irradiated condition. Finally, p62/SQSTM1 excess was associated with poor prognosis in a clinical cohort. In oral epithelial carcinogenesis, p62/SQSTM1 excess played a role in GSH induction rather than Nrf2 accumulation, and may cause resistance to cytotoxic stresses such as radiation or chemotherapy. Immunohistochemical evaluation of p62/SQSTM1 may be a potential significant marker to identify early carcinogenesis, chemo-radiotherapeutic resistance or poor prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:24086340

Inui, Takuma; Chano, Tokuhiro; Takikita-Suzuki, Mikiko; Nishikawa, Masanori; Yamamoto, Gaku; Okabe, Hidetoshi

2013-01-01

367

The role of Fe and redox conditions in olivine carbonation rates: An experimental study of the rate limiting reactions at 90 and 150 °C in open and closed systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanisms and rates of olivine carbonation reactions have been the object of a number of studies, but the thermodynamic limitations and the kinetics of the elementary processes that control the overall reaction are still poorly understood and characterized. The main objective of this study is to probe the effect of Fe on the measured rates of olivine carbonation and its role in the formation of Si-rich surface layers, which can significantly inhibit olivine dissolution and limit the extent of the carbonation reaction. A series of batch and flow-through reactor experiments was conducted in pure water at 90 and 150 °C and under a CO2 partial pressure of 100 and 200 bar, using both a natural sample of Fe-bearing olivine (Fo88) and a synthetic sample of pure forsterite (Fo100). Experimental results show that Fe plays an ambivalent role in the carbonation rates of olivine. On one hand, the presence of Fe favors the formation of Fe-Si-rich protective layers at the interface between olivine and aqueous solution, slowing down the dissolution reaction and limiting the extent of carbonation, whereas pure silica coatings have little to no inhibiting effect on measured carbonation rates. On the other hand, Fe enhances olivine to carbonate conversion rates at low degrees of supersaturation, by promoting the formation of fast precipitating Mg-Fe carbonate solid solutions. The passivating properties of Fe-Si-rich layers originate from the strong Fe(III)-Si interaction and are linked to the permanence of oxidizing conditions in the aqueous fluid. As a consequence, under reducing conditions, olivine carbonation rates can be significantly increased by higher extents of dissolution and by the formation of ferroan magnesites (Mg,Fe)CO3, which nucleate faster than the pure Mg end-member. Forsterite and olivine carbonation reactions can be hindered by the formation of secondary Mg sheet-silicates but, at the conditions studied, the formation of such silicate phases was observed to be transitional and not affecting significantly the rates of carbonation at the end of one-month long experimental runs. This work presents new measurements of olivine carbonation rates and delivers relevant information that suggest new reference criteria for the assessment of the sequestration potential of CO2 repositories and the optimization of the mineral carbonation process in mafic and ultramafic rocks.

Saldi, Giuseppe D.; Daval, Damien; Morvan, Gilles; Knauss, Kevin G.

2013-10-01

368

A Comparison of the Oral Health Status of Children Who Are Blind and Children Who Are Sighted in Istanbul  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintaining oral health is central to a high quality of life because it limits the risks of disease. The oral health status of children with visual impairments should be investigated so their health care needs can be determined and preventive dental procedures can be implemented. This paper presents a study that aimed to evaluate the oral health…

Ozdemir-Ozenen, Didem; Sungurtekin, Elif; Cildir, Sule; Sandalli, Nuket

2012-01-01

369

Immunopharmacology of oral betalactams.  

PubMed

Among the oral beta-lactam antibiotics only cefaclor has demonstrated a consistent in vitro and in vivo immunopharmacological effect which favors phagocytic chemotaxis and antimicrobial potential by inducing a T-helper 1 or pro-inflammatory response. Together with cefpimizole, cefaclor significantly reduces the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against some bacterial species when cultured together with a suspension of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, as opposed to some other oral beta-lactams, co-amoxiclav and cefixime, which do not show this effect. The pro-inflammatory component of cefaclor's activity explains the clinical success of this antibiotic in a high percentage of cases, even when laboratory tests indicate in vitro resistance by the pathogen. PMID:9603632

Periti, P

1998-04-01

370

Histatins enhance wound closure with oral and non-oral cells.  

PubMed

The role of human saliva in oral wound-healing has never been fully elucidated. We previously demonstrated that parotid-salivary histatins enhance in vitro wound closure. The question remains whether other salivary-gland secretions enhance wound closure, and also the effects of histatins on primary and non-oral cells. Since the presence of histatins is not limited to parotid saliva, we expected to observe wound-closure activity of other salivary-gland secretions. However, here we show that non-parotid saliva does not stimulate wound closure, most probably due to the presence of mucins, since the addition of MUC5B to parotid saliva abolished its effect. Furthermore, we found that histatins stimulated wound closure of (primary) cells of both oral and non-oral origin. This suggests that the cellular receptor of histatins is widely expressed and not confined to cells derived from the oral cavity. These findings encourage the future therapeutic application of histatins in the treatment of all kinds of wounds. PMID:19767583

Oudhoff, M J; van den Keijbus, P A M; Kroeze, K L; Nazmi, K; Gibbs, S; Bolscher, J G M; Veerman, E C I

2009-09-01

371

Oral mucosal adhesive films containing royal jelly accelerate recovery from 5-fluorouracil-induced oral mucositis.  

PubMed

Oral mucositis induced by chemotherapy or radiotherapy has an impact upon quality-of-life, is dose-limiting for chemotherapy, and causes considerable morbidity. We evaluated the effect of royal jelly (RJ) on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced oral mucositis in hamsters. Oral mucositis was induced in hamsters through a combination of 5-FU treatment and mild abrasion of the cheek pouch. RJ was contained in chitosan-sodium alginate film (RJ film). Films were attached to the oral mucosa and the healing process examined by measuring the area of mucositis, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, microscopic aspects, and RT-PCR for detection of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?). Furthermore, we evaluated the radical-scavenging activity of RJ and generation of keratinocyte growth factor from human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. RJ films (10%, 30%) significantly improved recovery from 5-FU-induced damage, reduced MPO activity and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, RJ showed radical-scavenging activity. These data suggest that topical application of films that contain RJ had a healing effect on the severe oral mucositis induced by 5-FU and that the effect was caused by the anti-inflammatory or anti-oxidative activities of RJ. PMID:23357874

Watanabe, Shinichi; Suemaru, Katsuya; Takechi, Kenshi; Kaji, Hiroaki; Imai, Kimie; Araki, Hiroaki

2013-01-01

372

Kristi Parker Oral History  

E-print Network

before she goes into the system. So that's kind of how that all happened. And so they snagged me before I went into the adoption process. And it was all done through a private attorney with contracts and whatnot. And I asked my mom just recently... level of 1 Added and edited by narrator during the review process. 2 Added and edited by narrator during the review process. 2 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas Kristi...

Parker, Kristi; Albin, Tami

2012-09-15

373

Oral Cavity Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Oral Cavity Lip C000–C009, Base of Tongue C019, Other Parts of Tongue C020–C029, Gum C030–C039, Floor of Mouth C040–C049, Palate C050–C059, Other Parts of Mouth C060–C069 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967,

374

Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, in the year 2000, there were approx 450,000 new cases of and 240,000 deaths attributable to cancer of the lip,\\u000a oral cavity, pharynx, and salivary glands (ICD-9 140–149) (1). A diagnosis of cancer at these sites is important because it can result in facial disfigurement, speech impairment, chewing\\u000a and\\/or swallowing difficulties, mental anguish, a decreased quality of life, and

Douglas E. Morse

375

Kristie Stremel Oral History  

E-print Network

Part 3 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 4 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Return to Kristie Stremel Oral History in KU ScholarWorks Tami Albin, Director for Under the Rainbow..., Intersex and Queer People in Kansas are copyrighted and protected by copyright law (Title 17, U. S. Code). Requests for permission to publish quotations beyond "fair use" from this collection should be addressed to: Tami Albin (albin@ku.edu or tami.albin...

Stremel, Kristie; Albin, Tami

2009-10-27

376

Skylab oral health studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation of Skylab crewmembers for mission related effects on oral health in relation to possible dental injuries provided the following distinctive changes: (1) increased counts of specific anaerobic and streptococcal components; (2) elevations in levels of secretory IgA concurrent with diminutions of salivary lysozyme; and (3) increases in dental calculus and gingival inflammations. The clinical changes are considered to be more influenced by the preexisting state of dental health than by any mission related effects.

Brown, L. R.; Frome, W. J.; Handler, S.; Wheatcroft, M. G.; Rider, L. J.

1977-01-01

377

The role of diagnostic ultrasound as a new diagnostic aid in oral and maxillofacial surgery  

PubMed Central

Only very few studies have been done in the past to evaluate the usefulness and limitations of ultrasonography in oral and maxillofacial surgery. This study, though in an embryonic stage, has been done to bring this technique to limelight and to put forth the importance of its use and limitations in the branch of oral surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate and study the characteristic pattern of the oral tissues on gray scale ultrasonography and to assess the practical applicability of this new diagnostic technique in diagnosing various tissue pathologies in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery. PMID:23066231

Venkataraman, Siva Subramaniyam; Aravind, Ramraj Jayabalan; Kavin, Thangavelu

2012-01-01

378

[Ofloxacin in prophylactic therapy of oral infections].  

PubMed

86 patients (46 females, 40 males; mean age 37 years) were divided into 2 groups: one group of 40 patients with acute infectious odontostomatitis, and another group of 46 patients going to have their oral cavity surgically operated. The first group was treated with 300 mg oral tablets of ofloxacin 12 hourly for 5 days, the second group with the same posology for 3 days, for prophylactic purposes. 54 cases (24 in the first group and 30 in the second one) had Fans drugs integrating antibiotic therapy. At the end of the antibiotic treatment the first group showed a complete abatement of symptoms in 16 cases, a significant improvement in 19 cases, and better clinical conditions in 5 cases. The second group, examined again 4 and 7 days after surgical intervention, showed the prophylactic antibiotic treatment beneficial in 30 cases after 4 days, and in 14 cases after 7 days; for 2 cases it was necessary to replace the antibiotic drug by other. Side effects in both groups (14 cases) were slight and did not cause any treatment interruption. Given these results and the good tolerability of the drug, we conclude that orally administered ofloxacin is a valid alternative to the parenteral drug for the treatment of infectious odontostomatitis and for prophylaxis after oral surgery. PMID:2397832

Ferrari, G; Rendo, R; Martini, G; Musso, M; Frojo, R

1990-02-28

379

Preferred place of death for children and young people with life-limiting and life-threatening conditions: A systematic review of the literature and recommendations for future inquiry and policy  

PubMed Central

Background: Home is often cited as preferred place of death in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. This position, however, usually relies on data concerning adults and not evidence about children. The latter data are scant, primarily retrospective and from parents. Aim: To review the literature on preference for place of death for children and young people with life-limiting or life-threatening illnesses. Design and data sources: The databases MEDLINE, CINAHL and EMBASE were searched from 2004 to 2012, as well as bibliography, key author and grey literature searches. Policy documents, empirical, theoretical and peer-reviewed studies and conference abstracts were included. Articles were assessed for study quality. Results: Nine studies were included from five countries. Six reported a majority of parents (only one study interviewed adolescents) expressing preference for death at home. Other studies differed significantly in their findings; one reporting 35.1% and another 0% preferring death at home. Some parents did not express a preference. Six of the studies included only parents of children who died from cancer while being treated at tertiary centres that offered palliative care services. Such results cannot be generalised to the population of all life-limiting and life-threatening illnesses. Furthermore, the methods of the studies reviewed failed to accommodate the full range and dynamic character of preference. Conclusion: The evidence base for current policies that stress the need to increase home death rates for children and young people with life-limiting and life-threatening conditions is inadequate. Further rigorous research should collect data from parents, children and siblings. PMID:23612958

Beecham, Emma; Candy, Bridget; Langner, Richard; Jones, Louise

2013-01-01

380

The Impact of Edentulism on Oral and General Health  

PubMed Central

An adequate dentition is of importance for well-being and life quality. Despite advances in preventive dentistry, edentulism is still a major public health problem worldwide. In this narrative review, we provide a perspective on the pathways that link oral to general health. A better understanding of disease indicators is necessary for establishing a solid strategy through an organized oral health care system to prevent and treat this morbid chronic condition. PMID:23737789

Emami, Elham; de Souza, Raphael Freitas; Kabawat, Marla; Feine, Jocelyne S.

2013-01-01

381

Antimicrobial Activity of Antrodia camphorata Extracts against Oral Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) is a unique, endemic and extremely rare mushroom species native to Taiwan, and both crude extracts of and purified chemical compounds from A. camphorata have been reported to have a variety of significant beneficial effects, such as anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activity. However, reports on the effects of A. camphorata against dental pathogens have been limited. Oral health is now recognized as important for overall general health, including conditions such as dental caries, periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) are the most common bacteria associated with dental plaque and periodontopathic diseases, respectively. Thus, our study examined the ability of five various crude extracts of A. camphorata to inhibit the growth of dental bacteria and anti-adherence in vitro. Among the extracts, the ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts exhibited the lowest MICs against P. gingivalis and S. mutans (MIC?=?4?16 µg/mL). The MIC of the aqueous extract was greater than 2048 µg/mL against both P. gingivalis and S. mutans. In vitro adherence of S. mutans was significantly inhibited by the addition of either the ethyl acetate extract or chloroform extract (MIC?=?16?24 µg/mL), while the ethanol extract (MIC?=?32?64 µg/mL) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity. Based on the result of this study, the ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of A. camphorata may be good candidates for oral hygiene agents to control dental caries and periodontopathic conditions. PMID:25144619

Lien, Hsiu-Man; Tseng, Chin-Jui; Huang, Chao-Lu; Lin, Yu-Ting; Chen, Chia-Chang; Lai, Ya-Yun

2014-01-01

382

Rationale for the prevention of oral diseases in primary health care: an international collaborative study in oral health education.  

PubMed

Ensuring that members of society are healthy and reaching their full potential requires the prevention of oral diseases through the promotion of oral health and well-being. The present article identifies the best policy conditions of effective public health and primary care integration and the actors who promote and sustain these efforts. In this review, arguments and recommendations are provided to introduce an oral health collaborative promotion programme called Live.Learn.Laugh. phase 2, arising from an unique partnership between FDI World Dental Federation, the global company Unilever plc and an international network of National Dental Associations, health-care centres, schools and educators populations. PMID:25209645

Bourgeois, Denis M; Phantumvanit, Prathip; Llodra, Juan Carlos; Horn, Virginie; Carlile, Monica; Eiselé, Jean-Luc

2014-10-01

383

New Oral Anticoagulants for Atrial Fibrillation  

PubMed Central

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in the U.S. Anticoagulation is recommended for stroke prevention in AF patients with intermediate-to-high stroke risk (i.e., patients with a CHADS2 score of 1 or greater). Warfarin was previously the only option for oral anticoagulation in these patients, but three new oral anticoagulants have become available as alternatives for warfarin in patients with nonvalvular AF. The advantages of the newer agents include a rapid onset, predictable pharmacokinetics, and no need for routine anticoagulation monitoring. Dabigatran (Pradaxa) and apixaban (Eliquis) have demonstrated improved efficacy compared with warfarin. Rivaroxaban (Xarelto) was non-inferior to warfarin for stroke prevention in AF. Apixaban demonstrated a reduced incidence of major bleeding compared with warfarin and a reduction in all-cause mortality. Limitations to the use of the new oral anticoagulants include the lack of a reversal agent; an inability to use the therapies in specific patient populations (such as those with severe renal or hepatic impairment); limited experience with drug–drug and drug–disease interactions; and a lack of available coagulation tests to quantify their effects. Although the newer agents have higher acquisition costs, the benefits of cost savings may be derived from the potential for decreasing the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke and intracranial bleeding and reducing the need for anticoagulation monitoring. Benefits and risks should be carefully weighed before these agents are prescribed for patients presenting with new-onset AF. PMID:24672216

Shafeeq, Hira; Tran, Tran H.

2014-01-01

384

Oral burn contractures in children.  

PubMed

Oral burn contractures in children present major reconstructive problem. Only few reports in literature discussed oral burns in children. Electrical, chemical, and thermal agents are the main causative agents for oral burns. Oral contractures can be classified into anterior, posterior, and total. Anterior contractures are usually caused by electrical burns and involve the oral commissure, lips, anterior buccal sulcus and surrounding mucosa, and anterior tongue. Posterior oral contractures are caused by caustic ingestion and involve the posterior buccal mucosa, posterior tongue, retro-molar area and oro-pharynx. Total oral contractures involve the lips, tongue, oral cavity, and oro-pharyngeal mucosa and are caused by lye caustic ingestion. This report reviews three children; one with posterior, two with total oral cavity contracture. All cases were managed by linear release of scar contracture and skin grafting followed by a prolonged intra-oral splinting with a fixed mouth-block and commissural splint. A successful outcome was observed in all cases. PMID:14595182

Hashem, Fuad K; Al Khayal, Zikra

2003-11-01

385

Oral tuberculosis following successful treatment of oral malignancy.  

PubMed

Coexistence of tuberculosis and neoplastic lesion in the oral cavity is a rare phenomenon. Till date, only three such cases have been reported in the English literature. A case of oral tuberculosis manifesting 3 months following the successful treatment of cancer of the oral tongue with chemoradiotherapy is presented. The diagnostic dilemma it posed, and its eventual successful control by anti-tubercular treatment, is discussed. PMID:23361293

Bagga, Preeti; Dewan, Abhinav; Agarwal, Pankaj; Garg, Charu; Datta, Niloy R

2012-01-01

386

A review of the epidemiology of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma: update  

PubMed Central

Oral and pharyngeal cancers are the sixth most common cancers internationally. In the United States, there are about 30,000 new cases of oral and pharyngeal cancers diagnosed each year. Furthermore, survival rates for oral and pharyngeal cancers have not significantly improved over the last three decades. This review examines the scientific literature surrounding the epidemiology of oral and pharyngeal cancers, including but not limited to risk factors, disparities, preventative factors, and the epidemiology in countries outside the United States. The literature review revealed that much of the research in this field has been focused on alcohol, tobacco, and their combined effects on oral and pharyngeal cancers. The literature on oral and pharyngeal cancer disparities among racial groups also appears to be growing. However, less literature is available on the influence of dietary factors on these cancers. Finally, effective interventions for the reduction of oral and pharyngeal cancers are discussed. PMID:22244087

2012-01-01

387

Transmembrane transport of peptide type compounds: prospects for oral delivery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synthesis and delivery of potential therapeutic peptides and peptidomimetic compounds has been the focus of intense research over the last 10 years. While it is widely recognized that numerous limitations apply to oral delivery of peptides, some of the limiting factors have been addressed and their mechanisms elucidated, which has lead to promising strategies. This article will briefly summarize the challenges, results and current approaches of oral peptide delivery and give some insight on future strategies. The barriers determining peptide bioavailability after oral administration are intestinal membrane permability, size limitations, intestinal and hepatic metabolism and in some cases solubility limitations. Poor membrane permeabilities of hydrophilic peptides might be overcome by structurally modifying the compounds, thus increasing their membrane partition characteristics and/or their affinity to carrier proteins. Another approach is the site-specific delivery of the peptide to the most permeable parts of the intestine. The current view on size limitation for oral drug delivery has neglected partition considerations. Recent studies suggest that compounds with a molecular weight up to 4000 might be significantly absorbed, assuming appropriate partition behavior and stability. Metabolism, probably the most significant factor in the absorption fate of peptides, might be controlled by coadministration of competitive enzyme inhibitors, structural modifications and administration of the compound as a well absorbed prodrug that is converted into the therapeutically active agent after its absorption. For some peptides poor solubility might present a limitation to oral absorption, an issue that has been addressed by mechanistically defining and therefore improving formulation parameters. Effective oral peptide delivery requires further development in understanding these complex mechanisms in order to maximize the therapeutic potential of this class of compounds.

Lipka, E.; Crison, J.; Amidon, G. L.

1996-01-01

388

Effects of tetrahydrouridine on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral decitabine  

PubMed Central

The deoxycytidine analog decitabine (DAC) can deplete DNA methyl-transferase 1 (DNMT1) and thereby modify cellular epigenetics, gene expression, and differentiation. However, a barrier to efficacious and accessible DNMT1-targeted therapy is cytidine deaminase, an enzyme highly expressed in the intestine and liver that rapidly metabolizes DAC into inactive uridine counterparts, severely limiting exposure time and oral bioavailability. In the present study, the effects of tetrahydrouridine (THU), a competitive inhibitor of cytidine deaminase, on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral DAC were evaluated in mice and nonhuman primates. Oral administration of THU before oral DAC extended DAC absorption time and widened the concentration-time profile, increasing the exposure time for S-phase–specific depletion of DNMT1 without the high peak DAC levels that can cause DNA damage and cytotoxicity. THU also decreased interindividual variability in pharmacokinetics seen with DAC alone. One potential clinical application of DNMT1-targeted therapy is to increase fetal hemoglobin and treat hemoglobinopathy. Oral THU-DAC at a dose that would produce peak DAC concentrations of less than 0.2?M administered 2×/wk for 8 weeks to nonhuman primates was not myelotoxic, hypomethylated DNA in the ?-globin gene promoter, and produced large cumulative increases in fetal hemoglobin. Combining oral THU with oral DAC changes DAC pharmacology in a manner that may facilitate accessible noncytotoxic DNMT1-targeted therapy. PMID:22160381

Lavelle, Donald; Vaitkus, Kestis; Ling, Yonghua; Ruiz, Maria A.; Mahfouz, Reda; Ng, Kwok Peng; Negrotto, Soledad; Smith, Nicola; Terse, Pramod; Engelke, Kory J.; Covey, Joseph; Chan, Kenneth K.; DeSimone, Joseph

2012-01-01

389

Approaches for Enhancing Oral Bioavailability of Peptides and Proteins  

PubMed Central

Oral delivery of peptide and protein drugs faces immense challenge partially due to the gastrointestinal (GI) environment. In spite of considerable efforts by industrial and academic laboratories, no major breakthrough in the effective oral delivery of polypeptides and proteins has been accomplished. Upon oral administration, gastrointestinal epithelium acts as a physical and biochemical barrier for absorption of proteins resulting in low bioavailability (typically less than 1–2%). An ideal oral drug delivery system should be capable of a) maintaining the integrity of protein molecules until it reaches the site of absorption, b) releasing the drug at the target absorption site, where the delivery system appends to that site by virtue of specific interaction, and c) retaining inside the gastrointestinal tract irrespective of its transitory constraints. Various technologies have been explored to overcome the problems associated with the oral delivery of macromolecules such as insulin, gonadotropin-releasing hormones, calcitonin, human growth factor, vaccines, enkephalins, and interferons, all of which met with limited success. This review article intends to summarize the physiological barriers to oral delivery of peptides and proteins and novel pharmaceutical approaches to circumvent these barriers and enhance oral bioavailability of these macromolecules. PMID:23428883

Renukuntla, Jwala; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Patel, Ashaben; Boddu, Sai HS.; Mitra, Ashim K

2013-01-01

390

Consensus statement: Oral health and elite sport performance.  

PubMed

While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25415018

Needleman, I; Ashley, P; Fine, P; Haddad, F; Loosemore, M; de Medici, A; Donos, N; Newton, T; van Someren, K; Moazzez, R; Jaques, R; Hunter, G; Khan, K; Shimmin, M; Brewer, J; Meehan, L; Mills, S; Porter, S

2014-11-21

391

Innovative Oral Treatments of Uterine Leiomyoma  

PubMed Central

Uterine fibroids (leiomyoma), the benign tumors of the uterine wall, are very common cause of morbidity in reproductive age women usually in the form of excessive vaginal bleeding, chronic pelvic pain, miscarriage and infertility. These tumors are the leading indication for hysterectomy in the United States. Uterine fibroids are about 4 times higher in blacks compared to whites and constitute a major health disparity challenge. The estimated cost of uterine fibroids is up to $34.4 billion annually. Additionally, women who suffer from this disease and desire to maintain their future fertility have very limited treatment choices. Currently, there is no effective long-term medicinal treatment for uterine fibroids. While surgery has traditionally been the gold standard for the treatment of uterine fibroids, there is growing interest towards orally administered medications for the management of leiomyoma-related symptoms. In this paper, we will discuss these promising innovative oral medical treatments in detail. PMID:22518167

Sabry, Mohamed; Al-Hendy, Ayman

2012-01-01

392

Esophageal Melanocytosis in Oral Opium Consumption  

PubMed Central

Esophageal melanocytosis is a rare and benign condition, characterized by melanocytic proliferation of the esophageal squamous epithelium with heavy melanin deposition. The etiology and pathogenesis has not been exactly known but it seems to be a chronic stimulus such as gastroesophageal reflux. This condition is very rare and about 35 cases have been reported so far, most of which have been from India and Japan. Herein, we present a case of esophageal melanocytosis in a patient with long history of oral opium consumption. To the best of our knowledge, such a history has not been reported. PMID:24719715

Geramizadeh, Bita; Asadian, Fatemeh; Taghavi, Alireza

2014-01-01

393

Oral Lesions and Lymphoproliferative Disorders  

PubMed Central

Lymphoproliferative disorders are heterogeneous malignancy characterized by the expansion of a lymphoid clone more or less differentiated. At the level of the oral cavity, the lymphoproliferative disorder can occur in various ways, most commonly as lymphoid lesions with extranodal externalization, but sometimes, oral lesions may represent a localization of a disease spread. With regard to the primary localizations of lymphoproliferative disorders, a careful examination of the head and neck, oral, and oropharyngeal area is necessary in order to identify suspicious lesions, and their early detection results in a better prognosis for the patient. Numerous complications have been described and frequently found at oral level, due to pathology or different therapeutic strategies. These complications require precise diagnosis and measures to oral health care. In all this, oral pathologists, as well as dental practitioners, have a central role in the treatment and long-term monitoring of these patients. PMID:20871659

Castellarin, P.; Pozzato, G.; Tirelli, G.; Di Lenarda, R.; Biasotto, M.

2010-01-01

394

Oral tuberculosis: unusual radiographic findings  

PubMed Central

Oral tuberculosis and its radiographic findings are not commonly encountered in an oral and maxillofacial radiology practice. Literature has occasional mention of the radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis, which are still ambiguous. When affected, it is manifested majorly in the oral mucosa and rarely in the jaw bones. Here, we report certain unusual radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis which have been rarely mentioned in the literature. Four illustrative cases describe bony resorption, condylar resorption, resorption of the inferior border of the mandible and rarefaction of the alveolar bone as radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis. Follow up of the first case demonstrated regeneration of the condylar head after anti-Kochs therapy was completed, a hitherto unreported phenomenon. The importance of including tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of some of the unusual radiographic manifestations is emphasized. PMID:21493882

Sansare, K; Gupta, A; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F

2011-01-01

395

Environmental Conditions Environmental Conditions  

E-print Network

, developed complex life histories through time that responded to the subbasin's considerable variation in this habitat. Loss of grassland habitat greatly reduced such populations. Today subbasin habitat conditions/optimal) conditions in the year 2050, and examines what future conditions might be expected if no additional future

396

Oligotyping analysis of the human oral microbiome  

PubMed Central

The Human Microbiome Project provided a census of bacterial populations in healthy individuals, but an understanding of the biomedical significance of this census has been hindered by limited taxonomic resolution. A high-resolution method termed oligotyping overcomes this limitation by evaluating individual nucleotide positions using Shannon entropy to identify the most information-rich nucleotide positions, which then define oligotypes. We have applied this method to comprehensively analyze the oral microbiome. Using Human Microbiome Project 16S rRNA gene sequence data for the nine sites in the oral cavity, we identified 493 oligotypes from the V1-V3 data and 360 oligotypes from the V3-V5 data. We associated these oligotypes with species-level taxon names by comparison with the Human Oral Microbiome Database. We discovered closely related oligotypes, differing sometimes by as little as a single nucleotide, that showed dramatically different distributions among oral sites and among individuals. We also detected potentially pathogenic taxa in high abundance in individual samples. Numerous oligotypes were preferentially located in plaque, others in keratinized gingiva or buccal mucosa, and some oligotypes were characteristic of habitat groupings such as throat, tonsils, tongue dorsum, hard palate, and saliva. The differing habitat distributions of closely related oligotypes suggest a level of ecological and functional biodiversity not previously recognized. We conclude that the Shannon entropy approach of oligotyping has the capacity to analyze entire microbiomes, discriminate between closely related but distinct taxa and, in combination with habitat analysis, provide deep insight into the microbial communities in health and disease. PMID:24965363

Eren, A. Murat; Borisy, Gary G.; Huse, Susan M.; Mark Welch, Jessica L.

2014-01-01

397

Oligotyping analysis of the human oral microbiome.  

PubMed

The Human Microbiome Project provided a census of bacterial populations in healthy individuals, but an understanding of the biomedical significance of this census has been hindered by limited taxonomic resolution. A high-resolution method termed oligotyping overcomes this limitation by evaluating individual nucleotide positions using Shannon entropy to identify the most information-rich nucleotide positions, which then define oligotypes. We have applied this method to comprehensively analyze the oral microbiome. Using Human Microbiome Project 16S rRNA gene sequence data for the nine sites in the oral cavity, we identified 493 oligotypes from the V1-V3 data and 360 oligotypes from the V3-V5 data. We associated these oligotypes with species-level taxon names by comparison with the Human Oral Microbiome Database. We discovered closely related oligotypes, differing sometimes by as little as a single nucleotide, that showed dramatically different distributions among oral sites and among individuals. We also detected potentially pathogenic taxa in high abundance in individual samples. Numerous oligotypes were preferentially located in plaque, others in keratinized gingiva or buccal mucosa, and some oligotypes were characteristic of habitat groupings such as throat, tonsils, tongue dorsum, hard palate, and saliva. The differing habitat distributions of closely related oligotypes suggest a level of ecological and functional biodiversity not previously recognized. We conclude that the Shannon entropy approach of oligotyping has the capacity to analyze entire microbiomes, discriminate between closely related but distinct taxa and, in combination with habitat analysis, provide deep insight into the microbial communities in health and disease. PMID:24965363

Eren, A Murat; Borisy, Gary G; Huse, Susan M; Mark Welch, Jessica L

2014-07-15

398

Validation of an EMIT® Screening Method to Detect 6-Acetylmorphine in Oral Fluid.  

PubMed

An automated assay was modified and validated to qualitatively screen for 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) in oral fluid using the Siemens EMIT II(®) Plus 6-AM urine assay. The validation utilized an oral fluid calibrator at the currently proposed Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration cutoff concentration of 4 ng/mL, as well as quality control material prepared and validated through liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All calibrator, quality control and unknown specimens were analyzed based on the dilution and buffering system of the Quantisal(®) oral fluid collection device. Immunoassay parameters such as the pipetted sample and reagent volumes as well as photometric read times were adjusted as part of the assay modification process. Validation experiments included the determination of intra- and inter-day precision and reproducibility, limits of detection (LODs), assay selectivity, stability studies and a specimen agreement study (n = 132). The 6-AM assay performed well in all validation experiments, over multiple days and under various laboratory conditions. The LOD was determined to be 1.844 ng/mL. The assay sensitivity, specificity and overall misclassification rate were found to be 90, 100 and 6%, respectively. PMID:25217554

Sarris, Gregory; Borg, Damon; Liao, Stephanie; Stripp, Richard

2014-10-01

399

Oral transmucosal drug delivery--current status and future prospects.  

PubMed

Oral transmucosal drug delivery (OTDD) dosage forms have been available since the 1980s. In contrast to the number of actives currently delivered locally to the oral cavity, the number delivered as buccal or sublingual formulations remains relatively low. This is surprising in view of the advantages associated with OTDD, compared with conventional oral drug delivery. This review examines a number of aspects related to OTDD including the anatomy of the oral cavity, models currently used to study OTDD, as well as commercially available formulations and emerging technologies. The limitations of current methodologies to study OTDD are considered as well as recent publications and new approaches which have advanced our understanding of this route of drug delivery. PMID:24879936

Sattar, Mohammed; Sayed, Ossama M; Lane, Majella E

2014-08-25

400

Review of oral cholera vaccines: efficacy in young children  

PubMed Central

Background: Young children are one of the most vulnerable groups who may be infected with cholera. The following literature review of the efficacy of the currently available cholera vaccines provides a clear evidence base for the clinical administration of cholera vaccine, particularly in an epidemic situation. Aim: To assess the efficacy of oral cholera vaccines in preventing cases of cholera in young children. Methods: A systematic literature review was undertaken for the period 1983 to 2011 using PubMed and the search terms “oral cholera vaccines,” “children,” and “efficacy,” limited to “clinical trials” and “human studies”. Results: Oral cholera vaccine provides an acceptable level of protection in young children, with the level of protection being greater at 12 or 24 months following immunization. Conclusions: Children exposed to a potential risk of cholera are recommended to be vaccinated with an oral cholera vaccine, irrespective of whether its constituents include the B subunit. PMID:22114507

Aumatell, Cristina Masuet; Torrell, JM Ramon; Zuckerman, Jane N

2011-01-01

401

Katherine Oral History  

E-print Network

about whether or not I was gay or not would have been during summer camp. I went to summer camp for ten summers—nine summers and then there was a big break and then the tenth summer I went back as a counselor. ALBIN: So what year at summer camp... system, or they were then. And it was at that point that I had come to the realization that I was gay— ALBIN: And do you think— 6 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas Kathrine May 31, 2008 KATHERINE: And again...

Albin, Tami

2014-03-13

402

Route 66 Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The folks at Missouri State University have interviewed a range of business owners along the celebrated Route 66 to tell the amazing story of what life was like living along this American landmark. Visitors can read through interviews with a variety of people, including the long-time owner of the Boots Motel in Carthage, Missouri and Sheldon and Julia Chaney, owner of a popular gas station. It's the type of popular oral history that makes for excellent reading and contemplation. They plan on adding more material in the future, so curious visitors would do well to make return visits to see what's added next.

403

The World Oral Literature Project  

E-print Network

. Consider the option of submitting an opinion piece – between 750 and 1 250 words. Show respect to all by not using language that is discriminatory, obscene or abusive, or that could be construed as hate speech or as a personal attack. If you feel that any... language is not just about words, syntax and grammar. Languages convey unique forms of cultural knowledge; speech forms encode oral traditions and provide form for oral literatures. The broad term ‘oral literature’ includes ritual texts, curative chants...

Anon.

2010-04-12

404

City limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

City limits are to be seen not only as geographical and temporal boundaries but also as perceived and effective horizons imposed by social arrangements. Making use of both philosophical and fictional resources, Gail Weiss develops an inter?corporeal cartography of the city that explores how these horizons impinge on people's lives. Drawing on the work of Merleau?Ponty and Elizabeth Grosz, this

Gail Weiss

2005-01-01

405

Measurement of Warfarin in the Oral Fluid of Patients Undergoing Anticoagulant Oral Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background Patients on warfarin therapy undergo invasive and expensive checks for the coagulability of their blood. No information on coagulation levels is currently available between two controls. Methodology A method was developed to determine warfarin in oral fluid by HPLC and fluorimetric detection. The chromatographic separation was performed at room temperature on a C-18 reversed-phase column, 65% PBS and 35% methanol mobile phase, flow rate 0.7 mL/min, injection volume 25 µL, excitation wavelength 310 nm, emission wavelength 400 nm. Findings The method was free from interference and matrix effect, linear in the range 0.2–100 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.2 ng/mL. Its coefficient of variation was <3% for intra-day measurements and <5% for inter-day measurements. The average concentration of warfarin in the oral fluid of 50 patients was 2.5±1.6 ng/mL (range 0.8–7.6 ng/mL). Dosage was not correlated to INR (r?=??0.03, p?=?0.85) but positively correlated to warfarin concentration in the oral fluid (r?=?0.39, p?=?0.006). The correlation between warfarin concentration and pH in the oral fluid (r?=?0.37, p?=?0.009) confirmed the importance of pH in regulating the drug transfer from blood. A correlation between warfarin concentration in the oral fluid and INR was only found in samples with pH values ?7.2 (r?=?0.84, p?=?0.004). Conclusions Warfarin diffuses from blood to oral fluid. The method allows to measure its concentration in this matrix and to analyze correlations with INR and other parameters. PMID:22164240

Ghimenti, Silvia; Lomonaco, Tommaso; Onor, Massimo; Murgia, Laura; Paolicchi, Aldo; Fuoco, Roger; Ruocco, Lucia; Pellegrini, Giovanni; Trivella, Maria Giovanna; Di Francesco, Fabio

2011-01-01

406

[Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].  

PubMed

The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies. PMID:21773665

Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

2011-02-01

407

The effect of low level laser therapy in different wavelengths in the treatment of oral mucositis---proposal for extra-oral implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oral mucositis is the most frequent acute oral complication resulting from antineoplastic treatment and may worsen the clinical condition of the patient and interfere with his\\/her quality of life. This study aimed to comparatively evaluate, from a clinical point of view, the effect of Laser Therapy lambda660 nm (wavelength of the red Laser) and lambda830 nm (wavelength of the

J. J. C. Moraes; A. S. Queiroga; R. C. C. G. de Biase; E. P. Leite; C. R. Cabral Júnior; F. A. Limeira Júnior

2009-01-01

408

Archives, Oral History and Oral Tradition: A RAMP Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Records and Archives Management Programme (RAMP) report provides information on the nature of oral tradition/history; the role of recorded oral history as documentation in the absence of written records, or as a supplement where written records exist; problems in recording and administering such materials; and basic considerations involved in…

Moss, William W.; Mazikana, Peter C.

409

Le Discours Oral (Oral Discourse). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1972.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contrast between written language and oral language did not really begin to attract attention until second language teaching defined as its goal the acquisition of a communicative tool rather than a literary tool. This focus on communication made necessary the distinction between language used for oral communication and language used for…

Boulanger, C.; And Others

410

Oral health of foreign domestic workers: exploring the social determinants.  

PubMed

Foreign domestic helpers constitute a significant proportion of migrant workers worldwide. This population subgroup provides an opportunity for understanding social determinants of oral health in immigrant community. A random sample of 122 Indonesian domestic helpers in Hong Kong completed a questionnaire on their demographic background, social characteristics (competency in local languages, immigration history, living condition, social connections, and leisure activities) and oral health behaviours (knowledge, attitudes, practice and self-efficacy). Their tooth status and periodontal health were assessed. Participants tended to start flossing after settling in Hong Kong. Favourable oral health knowledge was found in more acculturated participants, as indicated by proficiency in local languages and immigration history. Engagement in social and/or religious activities and decent living condition provided by employers were associated with favourable oral health behaviours and/or better oral health. Social determinants explained 13.2 % of variance in caries severity. Our findings support the significant impact of social circumstances on oral health of domestic workers. PMID:23430462

Gao, Xiaoli; Chan, Chi Wai; Mak, Siu Lun; Ng, Zevon; Kwong, Wai Hang; Kot, Ching Ching Shirley

2014-10-01

411

Betel nut chewing and its deleterious effects on oral cavity.  

PubMed

The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ) and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer. PMID:25313728

Anand, Richa; Dhingra, Chandan; Prasad, Sumanth; Menon, Ipseeta

2014-01-01

412

Oral manifestation in inflammatory bowel disease: A review  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis, not only affect the intestinal tract but also have an extraintestinal involvement within the oral cavity. These oral manifestations may assist in the diagnosis and the monitoring of disease activity, whilst ignoring them may lead to an inaccurate diagnosis and useless and expensive workups. Indurated tag-like lesions, cobblestoning, and mucogingivitis are the most common specific oral findings encountered in CD cases. Aphthous stomatitis and pyostomatitis vegetans are among non-specific oral manifestations of IBD. In differential diagnosis, side effects of drugs, infections, nutritional deficiencies, and other inflammatory conditions should also be considered. Treatment usually involves managing the underlying intestinal disease. In severe cases with local symptoms, topical and/or systemic steroids and immunosuppressive drugs might be used. PMID:24379574

Lankarani, Kamran B; Sivandzadeh, Gholam Reza; Hassanpour, Shima

2013-01-01

413

Oral manifestation in inflammatory bowel disease: a review.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis, not only affect the intestinal tract but also have an extraintestinal involvement within the oral cavity. These oral manifestations may assist in the diagnosis and the monitoring of disease activity, whilst ignoring them may lead to an inaccurate diagnosis and useless and expensive workups. Indurated tag-like lesions, cobblestoning, and mucogingivitis are the most common specific oral findings encountered in CD cases. Aphthous stomatitis and pyostomatitis vegetans are among non-specific oral manifestations of IBD. In differential diagnosis, side effects of drugs, infections, nutritional deficiencies, and other inflammatory conditions should also be considered. Treatment usually involves managing the underlying intestinal disease. In severe cases with local symptoms, topical and/or systemic steroids and immunosuppressive drugs might be used. PMID:24379574

Lankarani, Kamran B; Sivandzadeh, Gholam Reza; Hassanpour, Shima

2013-12-14

414

Impact of oral health on physical and psychosocial dimensions: an analysis using structural equation modeling.  

PubMed

This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of impact of oral health conditions on physical and psychosocial dimensions among adolescents and to identify factors associated with severity of impact. The impact of oral health status was assessed by the instrument Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). The covariates were: socioeconomic status, habits and health care, use of dental services, and normative conditions of oral health. Structural equation modeling was performed, and 15.6% of adolescents reported impact in at least one dimension of the OHIP-14. The dimensions that showed the highest prevalence of impact were psychological distress (11.8%) and physical pain (6.6%). The number of teeth needing dental treatment, number of filled teeth, and CPI significantly affected severity of impact. In this adolescent population, unfavorable socioeconomic conditions were associated with reduced use of dental services, associated in turn with precarious oral health conditions and increased severity of impact. PMID:25099041

Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Marôco, João P; Freire, Rafael Silveira; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Marcopito, Luiz Francisco

2014-06-01

415

Tobacco Use and Oral Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)

Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove

1982-01-01

416

Pan-Hispanic Oral Tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are concerned here with the oral traditions of Hispanic or Iberian peoples: speakers of Spanish (Castilian), Portuguese, Catalan, and Judeo- Spanish, and also various Spanish and Portuguese creoles in South America, Africa, and Asia. Basque, as an indigenous language of the Iberian Peninsula, should also definitely be counted as part of the Hispanic world. Oral tradition involves any manifestation

Samuel G. Armistead

2004-01-01

417

Learning Strategies for Oral Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the study of learning strategies employed by successful (defined in terms of oral communicative abilities) Chinese learners of English. These strategies are compared to those of less successful learners and those of other population types from other studies. The test of oral communicative abilities is described. A strategies…

Huang, Xiao-Hua; van Naerssen, Margaret

1987-01-01

418

Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives  

MedlinePLUS

... If you have had a miscarriage or an abortion, you can start taking progestin-only oral contraceptives the next day.Progestin-only oral contraceptives are safe for use by breast-feeding mothers. If you are fully breastfeeding (not giving your ...

419

Estrogen and Progestin (Oral Contraceptives)  

MedlinePLUS

... as scheduled and use a backup method of birth control until your questions are answered. ... about which oral contraceptive or other method of birth control may be the best choice for you.Oral contraceptives may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual ...

420

Acute Oral Toxicity (LD50) of 4-Nitrophenyl Monochloromethyl (Phenyl) Phosphinate (TA009) in Female Rats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The acute oral toxicity of 4-nitrophenyl monochloromethyl (phenyl) phosphinate was determined in female, albino, Sprague-Dawley rats by using the single dose oral gavage method. LD1, LD50, and LD95 with the 95% confidence limits were calculated by probit ...

C. W. White, J. Rodriguez, T. P. Kellner

1984-01-01

421

Oral diagnosis and treatment planning: part 8. Reviews and maintenance of restorations.  

PubMed

The oral environment is hostile to dental materials and to dental treatments. Microorganisms, warmth, moisture and high stresses impose severe limitations on the ability to maintain the initial results of dental treatment. Therefore, continuous periodic reviews and maintenance of oral health are required to retain the restored dentition. PMID:23099691

Smales, R; Yip, K

2012-10-01

422

New oral anticoagulants in thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome.  

PubMed

A main goal in clinical management of patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is to prevent thrombotic recurrences and/or miscarriages. For many decades, the only available oral anticoagulant drugs have been vitamin K antagonists (VKA), which are still the cornerstone of long-term treatment of thromboembolism. However, the limits of VKA treatment are well known: narrow therapeutic window and high patient-to-patient variability of response. Moreover, in some patients with APS a higher international normalized ratio (INR) therapeutic target was suggested, and INR inaccuracy due to antiphospholipid antibodies was reported. Therefore, VKA management in APS patients is frequently cumbersome, requires close INR monitoring and may affect patient's quality of life. A new class of oral anticoagulant agents has been developed, the Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOA), which directly inhibit a single enzyme of the coagulation cascade. Compared with VKA, they have more stable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles, little interaction with food or drugs