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Sample records for conditional lethal mutants

  1. A nutritional conditional lethal mutant due to pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Chi, Wanhao; Zhang, Li; Du, Wei; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2014-06-01

    The concept of auxotrophic complementation has been proposed as an approach to identify genes in essential metabolic pathways in Drosophila melanogaster. However, it has achieved limited success to date, possibly due to the low probability of finding mutations fit with the chemically defined profile. Instead of using the chemically defined culture media lacking specific nutrients, we used bare minimum culture medium, i.e., 4% sucrose, for adult Drosophila. We identified a nutritional conditional lethal mutant and localized a c.95C > A mutation in the Drosophila pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase gene [dPNPO or sugarlethal (sgll)] using meiotic recombination mapping, deficiency mapping, and whole genome sequencing. PNPO converts dietary vitamin B6 such as pyridoxine to its active form pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). The missense mutation (sgll(95)) results in the substitution of alanine to aspartate (p.Ala32Asp). The sgll(95) flies survive well on complete medium but all die within 6 d on 4% sucrose only diet, which can be rescued by pyridoxine or PLP supplement, suggesting that the mutation does not cause the complete loss of PNPO activity. The sgll knockdown further confirms its function as the Drosophila PNPO. Because better tools for positional cloning and cheaper whole genome sequencing have made the identification of point mutations much easier than before, alleviating the necessity to pinpoint specific metabolic pathways before gene identification, we propose that nutritional conditional screens based on bare minimum growth media like ours represent promising approaches for discovering important genes and mutations in metabolic pathways, thereby accelerating the establishment of in vivo models that recapitulate human metabolic diseases. PMID:24739647

  2. Conditional lethality of cell shape mutations of Salmonella typhimurium: rodA and mre mutants are lethal on solid but not in liquid medium.

    PubMed

    Costa, C S; Antón, D N

    1999-03-01

    Round-cell (rodA, mre, divD) derivatives of a conditional alaS mutant of Salmonella typhimurium were studied under conditions allowing expression of tolerance to lethal cell shape mutations (41 degrees C), and under nontolerant conditions (30 degrees C). The rodA22::Tn10d(Kan) derivative grew normally (OD650 nm) in LB-broth at 30 degrees C; however, doubling of total cell count took much longer (130 min) than at 41 degrees C (57 min). Although the cells were able to divide in LB-broth at 30 degrees C, viable count on LB-agar at 30 degrees C was 10(3)-fold lower than on LB-agar at 41 degrees C. Phase-contrast microscopy of rodA cells incubated under different conditions showed that their size increased on LB-soft agar at 30 degrees C, but they failed to divide and finally lysed. In contrast, division occurred in LB-broth at 30 degrees C and also in LB-broth and LB-soft agar at 41 degrees C. The mre-17::Tn10d(Kan) derivative acted like the rodA strain whereas the divD135::Tn10d(Kan) mutant behaved normally both at 30 degrees C and 41 degrees C. It is concluded that rodA and mre mutations delay cell division, but are lethal only on solid medium. Mutations conferring tolerance to "lethal" rodA and mre mutations improve division performance both in liquid and solid media. PMID:9922463

  3. Lethal infection by Bordetella pertussis mutants in the infant mouse model.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, A A; Goodwin, M S

    1989-01-01

    Different aspects of lethal infection of infant mice with Bordetella pertussis were examined. Mutants deficient in vir-regulated genes were tested for the ability to cause a lethal infection in the infant mouse model. Adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin and pertussis toxin were required to cause a lethal infection at low doses. Mixed infection caused by challenging the mice with an equal number of pertussis toxin and adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin mutants at a dose at which neither alone was lethal was also unable to cause a lethal infection. Production of the filamentous hemagglutinin and the dermonecrotic toxin was not required to cause a lethal infection. Nine other mutants in vir-regulated genes whose phenotypes have yet to be determined were also tested. Only two of these mutants were impaired in the ability to cause a lethal infection. Expression of fimbriae does not appear to affect the dose required to cause a lethal infection; however, fimbrial expression was correlated with the later stages of a nonlethal, persistent infection. Growth of the bacteria in MgSO4, a condition which reversibly suppresses expression of the genes required for virulence, did not alter the ability of the bacteria to cause a lethal infection. Auxotrophic mutants deficient in leucine biosynthesis were as virulent as the parental strain; however, mutants deficient in methionine biosynthesis were less virulent. A B. parapertussis strain was much less effective in promoting a lethal infection than any of the wild-type B. pertussis strains examined. A persistent infection in the lungs was observed for weeks after challenge for mice given a sublethal dose of B. pertussis, and transmission from infected infants to the mother was never observed. PMID:2572561

  4. Temperature-Sensitive Cell-Lethal Mutants of Drosophila: Isolation and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Arking, Robert

    1975-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-one temperature-sensitive (ts) sex-linked lethals were screened by means of X-ray-induced somatic crossing over to determine if any were ts cell-lethal mutants. Cell-lethal mutations were identified by their ability to block the development of homozygous clones when raised under restrictive conditions (29°). Twenty-two ts cell-lethal mutants were isolated and categorized into three classes, depending upon the patterns of damage observed in larval and imaginal tissues. The phenotypes produced by these mutations ranged from those which affected only a limited set of structures (i.e., genital discs only) to those which affected diverse tissues at all stages of the life cycle. Each mutation has its own characteristic time-dependent pattern, frequency, and type of damage. All the mutations affect imaginal tissue, but only one-third of the mutations affect both larval and imaginal tissue. The fastest-acting lethals need 15 hours at the restrictive temperature to kill the cells and the slowest-acting lethals require at least 48 hours. By choosing the appropriate mutant and by manipulating the times of exposure to the restrictive temperature, it has proven possible to produce duplications and deficiencies in specific structures of the adult. A mechanism by which lethality might yield such structures is suggested. In addition, 15 of the mutants are ts female sterile mutants. Only one of these 15 mutants can recover its fertility when shifted back down to the permissive temperature (22°). PMID:821813

  5. Resveratrol Antagonizes Antimicrobial Lethality and Stimulates Recovery of Bacterial Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanli; Zhou, Jinan; Qu, Yilin; Yang, Xinguang; Shi, Guojing; Wang, Xiuhong; Hong, Yuzhi; Drlica, Karl; Zhao, Xilin

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS; superoxide, peroxide, and hydroxyl radical) are thought to contribute to the rapid bactericidal activity of diverse antimicrobial agents. The possibility has been raised that consumption of antioxidants in food may interfere with the lethal action of antimicrobials. Whether nutritional supplements containing antioxidant activity are also likely to interfere with antimicrobial lethality is unknown. To examine this possibility, resveratrol, a popular antioxidant dietary supplement, was added to cultures of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus that were then treated with antimicrobial and assayed for bacterial survival and the recovery of mutants resistant to an unrelated antimicrobial, rifampicin. Resveratrol, at concentrations likely to be present during human consumption, caused a 2- to 3-fold reduction in killing during a 2-hr treatment with moxifloxacin or kanamycin. At higher, but still subinhibitory concentrations, resveratrol reduced antimicrobial lethality by more than 3 orders of magnitude. Resveratrol also reduced the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) characteristic of treatment with quinolone (oxolinic acid). These data support the general idea that the lethal activity of some antimicrobials involves ROS. Surprisingly, subinhibitory concentrations of resveratrol promoted (2- to 6-fold) the recovery of rifampicin-resistant mutants arising from the action of ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, or daptomycin. This result is consistent with resveratrol reducing ROS to sublethal levels that are still mutagenic, while the absence of resveratrol allows ROS levels to high enough to kill mutagenized cells. Suppression of antimicrobial lethality and promotion of mutant recovery by resveratrol suggests that the antioxidant may contribute to the emergence of resistance to several antimicrobials, especially if new derivatives and/or formulations of resveratrol markedly increase bioavailability. PMID:27045517

  6. Resveratrol Antagonizes Antimicrobial Lethality and Stimulates Recovery of Bacterial Mutants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanli; Zhou, Jinan; Qu, Yilin; Yang, Xinguang; Shi, Guojing; Wang, Xiuhong; Hong, Yuzhi; Drlica, Karl; Zhao, Xilin

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS; superoxide, peroxide, and hydroxyl radical) are thought to contribute to the rapid bactericidal activity of diverse antimicrobial agents. The possibility has been raised that consumption of antioxidants in food may interfere with the lethal action of antimicrobials. Whether nutritional supplements containing antioxidant activity are also likely to interfere with antimicrobial lethality is unknown. To examine this possibility, resveratrol, a popular antioxidant dietary supplement, was added to cultures of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus that were then treated with antimicrobial and assayed for bacterial survival and the recovery of mutants resistant to an unrelated antimicrobial, rifampicin. Resveratrol, at concentrations likely to be present during human consumption, caused a 2- to 3-fold reduction in killing during a 2-hr treatment with moxifloxacin or kanamycin. At higher, but still subinhibitory concentrations, resveratrol reduced antimicrobial lethality by more than 3 orders of magnitude. Resveratrol also reduced the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) characteristic of treatment with quinolone (oxolinic acid). These data support the general idea that the lethal activity of some antimicrobials involves ROS. Surprisingly, subinhibitory concentrations of resveratrol promoted (2- to 6-fold) the recovery of rifampicin-resistant mutants arising from the action of ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, or daptomycin. This result is consistent with resveratrol reducing ROS to sublethal levels that are still mutagenic, while the absence of resveratrol allows ROS levels to high enough to kill mutagenized cells. Suppression of antimicrobial lethality and promotion of mutant recovery by resveratrol suggests that the antioxidant may contribute to the emergence of resistance to several antimicrobials, especially if new derivatives and/or formulations of resveratrol markedly increase bioavailability. PMID:27045517

  7. Extragenic Suppression and Synthetic Lethality among Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Mutants Resistant to anti-Microtubule Drugs

    PubMed Central

    James, S. W.; Silflow, C. D.; Thompson, M. D.; Ranum, LPW.; Lefebvre, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    The antimicrotubule agents oryzalin (ORY), colchicine (COL) and taxol (TAX) were used to select three recessive, conditional lethal (ts(-)) mutants which defined two new essential loci, ory1 and cor1. The two ory1 mutants conferred resistance to ORY, TAX, and COL; the cor1 mutant conferred resistance only to COL. Each of the mutants displayed wild-type sensitivity to a number of unrelated inhibitors. Assembly and disassembly of flagellar microtubules in the ory1 mutants displayed wild-type sensitivity to ORY and COL, suggesting that the ory1 gene product either does not participate in these processes or the ory1 gene product alone is not sufficient to confer resistance. The ory1 locus mapped to linkage group X; cor1 was mapped to the left arm of linkage group XII. A synthetic lethal interaction was observed between ory1 and cor1 mutations, i.e., inferred ory1 cor1 double mutants were inviable at the permissive temperature. The conditional lethal phenotype of ory1-1 was used to select many spontaneous TS(+) revertants, which arose at high frequencies. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of the revertants demonstrated that (1) the revertants fell into four phenotypic classes, including some which conferred supersensitivity to ORY and others which conferred cold-sensitive lethality, (2) reversion was caused in most or all cases by extragenic suppressors, (3) suppressor mutations displayed complex behavior in heterozygous (sup/+) diploids, (4) many different loci may be capable of suppressing ory1 mutants, and (5) suppressors of ory1-1 efficiently suppressed an independently isolated allele, ory1-2. Taken together the ory1, cor1, and suppressor mutations identify a number of interacting loci involved in essential cellular processes which are specifically susceptible to antimicrotubule agents. PMID:2569432

  8. Medical Conditions and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikeda, Robin M.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Powell, Kenneth E.; Simon, Thomas R.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Durant, Tonji M.; Swahn, Monica H.

    2002-01-01

    This population-based, case-control study examined physical illness as a risk factor for suicidal behavior. Case patients were more likely than controls to report having any serious medical conditions. Results suggest that young men with medical conditions are at increased risk for nearly lethal suicide attempts. (Contains 33 references and 3…

  9. Structure-Based Systematic Isolation of Conditional-Lethal Mutations in the Single Yeast Calmodulin Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ohya, Y.; Botstein, D.

    1994-01-01

    Conditional-lethal mutations of the single calmodulin gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been very difficult to isolate by random and systematic methods, despite the fact that deletions cause recessive lethality. We report here the isolation of numerous conditional-lethal mutants that were recovered by systematically altering phenylalanine residues. The phenylalanine residues of calmodulin were implicated in function both by structural studies of calmodulin bound to target peptides and by their extraordinary conservation in evolution. Seven single and 26 multiple Phe -> Ala mutations were constructed. Mutant phenotypes were examined in a haploid cmd1 disrupted strain under three conditions: single copy, low copy, and overexpressed. Whereas all but one of the single mutations caused no obvious phenotype, most of the multiple mutations caused obvious growth phenotypes. Five were lethal, 6 were lethal only in synthetic medium, 13 were temperature-sensitive lethal and 2 had no discernible phenotypic consequences. Overexpression of some of the mutant genes restored the phenotype to nearly wild type. Several temperature-sensitive calmodulin mutations were suppressed by elevated concentration of CaCl(2) in the medium. Mutant calmodulin protein was detected at normal levels in extracts of most of the lethal mutant cells, suggesting that the deleterious phenotypes were due to loss of the calmodulin function and not protein instability. Analysis of diploid strains heterozygous for all combinations of cmd1-ts alleles revealed four intragenic complementation groups. The contributions of individual phe->ala changes to mutant phenotypes support the idea of internal functional redundancy in the symmetrical calmodulin protein molecule. These results suggest that the several phenylalanine residues in calmodulin are required to different extents in different combinations in order to carry out each of the several essential tasks. PMID:7896089

  10. Pleiotropic phenotypes of a Yersinia enterocolitica flhD mutant include reduced lethality in a chicken embryo model

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Megan K; Carr, Nathan J; Iyer, Jyoti G; Horne, Shelley M; Gibbs, Penelope S; Prüß, Birgit M

    2008-01-01

    Background The Yersinia enterocolitica flagellar master regulator FlhD/FlhC affects the expression levels of non-flagellar genes, including 21 genes that are involved in central metabolism. The sigma factor of the flagellar system, FliA, has a negative effect on the expression levels of seven plasmid-encoded virulence genes in addition to its positive effect on the expression levels of eight of the flagellar operons. This study investigates the phenotypes of flhD and fliA mutants that result from the complex gene regulation. Results Phenotypes relating to central metabolism were investigated with Phenotype MicroArrays. Compared to the wild-type strain, isogenic flhD and fliA mutants exhibited increased growth on purines and reduced growth on N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and D-mannose, when used as a sole carbon source. Both mutants grew more poorly on pyrimidines and L-histidine as sole nitrogen source. Several intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid and the urea cycle, as well as several dipeptides, provided differential growth conditions for the two mutants. Gene expression was determined for selected genes and correlated with the observed phenotypes. Phenotypes relating to virulence were determined with the chicken embryo lethality assay. The assay that was previously established for Escherichia coli strains was modified for Y. enterocolitica. The flhD mutant caused reduced chicken embryo lethality when compared to wild-type bacteria. In contrast, the fliA mutant caused wild-type lethality. This indicates that the virulence phenotype of the flhD mutant might be due to genes that are regulated by FlhD/FlhC but not FliA, such as those that encode the flagellar type III secretion system. Conclusion Phenotypes of flhD and fliA mutants are related to central metabolism and virulence and correlate with gene regulation. PMID:18215272

  11. Postnatal lethality and abnormal development of foregut and spleen in Ndrg4 mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xianghu; Li, Jing; Baldwin, H Scott

    2016-02-12

    NDRG4 is a member of the NDRG family (N-myc downstream-regulated gene), which is highly expressed in brain and heart. Previous studies showed that Ndrg1-deficient mice exhibited a progressive demyelinating disorder of peripheral nerves and Ndrg4-deficient mice had spatial learning deficits and vulnerabilities to cerebral ischemia. Here, we report generation of Ndrg4 mutant alleles that exhibit several development defects different from those previously reported. Our homozygous mice showed growth retardation and postnatal lethality. Spleen and thymuses of Ndrg4(-/-) mice are considerably reduced in size from 3 weeks of age. Histological analysis revealed abnormal hyperkeratosis in the squamous foregut and abnormal loss of erythrocytes in the spleen of Ndrg4(-/-) mice. In addition, we observed an abnormal hind limb clasping phenotype upon tail suspension suggesting neurological abnormalities. Consistent to these abnormalities, Ndrg4 is expressed in smooth muscle cells of the stomach, macrophages of the spleen and neurons. Availability of the conditional allele for Ndrg4 should facilitate further detailed analyses of the potential roles of Ndrg4 in gut development, nervous system and immune system. PMID:26801554

  12. CDK1 Is a Synthetic Lethal Target for KRAS Mutant Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Costa-Cabral, Sara; Brough, Rachel; Konde, Asha; Aarts, Marieke; Campbell, James; Marinari, Eliana; Riffell, Jenna; Bardelli, Alberto; Torrance, Christopher; Lord, Christopher J.; Ashworth, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Activating KRAS mutations are found in approximately 20% of human cancers but no RAS-directed therapies are currently available. Here we describe a novel, robust, KRAS synthetic lethal interaction with the cyclin dependent kinase, CDK1. This was discovered using parallel siRNA screens in KRAS mutant and wild type colorectal isogenic tumour cells and subsequently validated in a genetically diverse panel of 26 colorectal and pancreatic tumour cell models. This established that the KRAS/CDK1 synthetic lethality applies in tumour cells with either amino acid position 12 (p.G12V, pG12D, p.G12S) or amino acid position 13 (p.G13D) KRAS mutations and can also be replicated in vivo in a xenograft model using a small molecule CDK1 inhibitor. Mechanistically, CDK1 inhibition caused a reduction in the S-phase fraction of KRAS mutant cells, an effect also characterised by modulation of Rb, a master control of the G1/S checkpoint. Taken together, these observations suggest that the KRAS/CDK1 interaction is a robust synthetic lethal effect worthy of further investigation. PMID:26881434

  13. Conditional lethality strains for the biological control of Anastrepha species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pro-apoptotic cell death genes are promising candidates for biologically-based autocidal control of pest insects as demonstrated by tetracycline (tet)-suppressible systems for conditional embryonic lethality in Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and the medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Cc). However, for medfly...

  14. Histone acetylation and gene expression analysis of sex lethal mutants in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Bhadra, U; Pal-Bhadra, M; Birchler, J A

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of sex determination mechanisms is often accompanied by reduction in dosage of genes on a whole chromosome. Under these circumstances, negatively acting regulatory genes would tend to double the expression of the genome, which produces compensation of the single-sex chromosome and increases autosomal gene expression. Previous work has suggested that to reduce the autosomal expression to the female level, these dosage effects are modified by a chromatin complex specific to males, which sequesters a histone acetylase to the X. The reduced autosomal histone 4 lysine 16 (H4Lys16) acetylation results in lowered autosomal expression, while the higher acetylation on the X is mitigated by the male-specific lethal complex, preventing overexpression. In this report, we examine how mutations in the principal sex determination gene, Sex lethal (Sxl), impact the H4 acetylation and gene expression on both the X and autosomes. When Sxl expression is missing in females, we find that the sequestration occurs concordantly with reductions in autosomal H4Lys16 acetylation and gene expression on the whole. When Sxl is ectopically expressed in Sxl(M) mutant males, the sequestration is disrupted, leading to an increase in autosomal H4Lys16 acetylation and overall gene expression. In both cases we find relatively little effect upon X chromosomal gene expression. PMID:10835396

  15. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae early secretion mutant tip20 is synthetic lethal with mutants in yeast coatomer and the SNARE proteins Sec22p and Ufe1p.

    PubMed

    Frigerio, G

    1998-05-01

    Tip20p is an 80 kDa cytoplasmic protein bound to the cytoplasmic surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by interaction with the type II integral membrane protein Sec20p. Both proteins are required for vesicular transport between the ER and Golgi complex. Recently, sec20-1 was found to be defective in retrograde transport. A collection of temperature-sensitive tip20 mutants are shown to be lethal in combination with ufe1-1, a target SNARE of the ER and ret2-1, yeast delta-COP. A subset of tip20 mutants was found to be lethal in combination with sec20-1, sec21-1, sec22-3 and sec27-1. Since all pairwise combinations of a tip20 mutant, sec20-1, and ufe1-1 are lethal, Tip20p and Sec20p might be part of the docking complex for Golgi-derived retrograde transport vesicles. Since carboxy-terminal tip20 truncations are lethal in combination with mutants in three coatomer subunits, Tip20p might be involved in binding or uncoating of COPI coated retrograde transport vesicles. PMID:9639310

  16. Dysfunctional conformational dynamics of protein kinase A induced by a lethal mutant of phospholamban hinder phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonggul; Masterson, Larry R.; Cembran, Alessandro; Verardi, Raffaello; Shi, Lei; Gao, Jiali; Taylor, Susan S.; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic interplay between kinases and substrates is crucial for the formation of catalytically committed complexes that enable phosphoryl transfer. However, a clear understanding on how substrates modulate kinase structural dynamics to control catalytic efficiency is still missing. Here, we used solution NMR spectroscopy to study the conformational dynamics of two complexes of the catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A with WT and R14 deletion phospholamban, a lethal human mutant linked to familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Phospholamban is a central regulator of heart muscle contractility, and its phosphorylation by protein kinase A constitutes a primary response to β-adrenergic stimulation. We found that the single deletion of arginine in phospholamban’s recognition sequence for the kinase reduces its binding affinity and dramatically reduces phosphorylation kinetics. Structurally, the mutant prevents the enzyme from adopting conformations and motions committed for catalysis, with concomitant reduction in catalytic efficiency. Overall, these results underscore the importance of a well-tuned structural and dynamic interplay between the kinase and its substrates to achieve physiological phosphorylation levels for proper Ca2+ signaling and normal cardiac function. PMID:25775607

  17. Inactivated pep27 mutant as an effective mucosal vaccine against a secondary lethal pneumococcal challenge in mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sang-Yoon; Tran, Thao Dang-Hien; Briles, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A pep27 mutant may be able to elicit mucosal immunity against pneumococcal diseases, and could be employed as an inexpensive attenuated vaccine. However, this particular mutant contains an erythromycin-resistance marker. The purpose of the current study is to develop a markerless pep27 mutant and assess whether this inactivated mutant is able to induce mucosal immunity. Materials and Methods Mice were vaccinated intranasally with the inactivated markerless pep27 mutant every 2 weeks for a total of three times, after which time serum samples were analyzed for antibody titers. The mice were then challenged with a lethal D39 strain and their survival time was measured. The cross-reactivity of the antisera against pep27 was also compared to other mutant serotypes. Results Intranasal immunization of mice with the inactivated markerless pep27 mutant provides effective protection and rapidly cleared bacterial colonization in vivo. Moreover, antisera raised against the pep27 mutant may cross-react with several other serotype strains. Conclusion Intranasal immunization with the inactivated pep27 mutant may be able to provide mucosal immunity, and could represent an efficient mucosal vaccine. PMID:23596592

  18. Identification of two loci involved in phytochrome expression in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and lethality of the corresponding double mutant.

    PubMed

    Kraepiel, Y; Jullien, M; Cordonnier-Pratt, M M; Pratt, L

    1994-03-01

    Four Nicotiana plumbaginifolia mutants exhibiting long hypocotyls and chlorotic cotyledons under white light, have been isolated from M2 seeds following mutagenesis with ethyl methane sulphonate. In each of these mutants, this partly etiolated in white light (pew) phenotype is due to a recessive nuclear mutation at a single locus. Complementation analysis indicates that three mutants, dap5, ems28 and ems3-6-34, belong to a single complementation group called pew1, while dap1 defines the pew2 locus. The mutants at pew1 contain normal levels of immunochemically detectable apoprotein of the phytochrome that is relatively abundant in etiolated seedlings, but are deficient in spectrophotometrically detectable phytochrome, whether seedlings are grown in darkness or light. Moreover, biliverdin, a precursor of the phytochrome chromophore, restores light-regulated responses in pew1 mutants and increases their level of photoreversible phytochrome when grown in darkness. These results indicate that the pew1 locus may be involved in chromophore biosynthesis. The mutant at the pew2 locus displays no photoreversible phytochrome in etiolated seedlings, but does contain normal levels of photoreversible phytochrome when grown in the light. Biliverdin had little effect on light-regulated responses in this mutant. In addition, biliverdin did not alter the level of phytochrome in etiolated seedlings. These observations lead us to propose that this mutant could be affected in the phyA gene itself. We have also obtained the homozygous double mutant at the pew1 and pew2 loci. This double mutant is lethal at an early stage of development, consistent with a critical role for phytochrome in early development of higher plants. PMID:8121413

  19. Conditional lethal amber mutations in essential Escherichia coli genes.

    PubMed

    Herring, Christopher D; Blattner, Frederick R

    2004-05-01

    The essential genes of microorganisms encode biological functions important for survival and thus tend to be of high scientific interest. Drugs that interfere with essential functions are likely to be interesting candidates for antimicrobials. However, these genes are hard to study genetically because knockout mutations in them are by definition inviable. We recently described a conditional mutation system in Escherichia coli that uses a plasmid to produce an amber suppressor tRNA regulated by the arabinose promoter. This suppressor was used here in the construction of amber mutations in seven essential E. coli genes. Amber stop codons were introduced as "tagalong" mutations in the flanking DNA of a downstream antibiotic resistance marker by lambda red recombination. The drug marker was removed by expression of I-SceI meganuclease, leaving a markerless mutation. We demonstrate the method with the genes frr, gcpE, lpxC, map, murA, ppa, and rpsA. We were unable to isolate an amber mutation in ftsZ. Kinetics of cell death and morphological changes were measured following removal of arabinose. As expected given the wide range of cellular mechanisms represented, different mutants showed widely different death curves. All of the mutations were bactericidal except the mutation in gcpE, which was bacteriostatic. The strain carrying an amber mutation in murA was by far the most sensitive, showing rapid killing in nonpermissive medium. The MurA protein is critical for peptidoglycan synthesis and is the target for the antibiotic fosfomycin. Such experiments may inexpensively provide valuable information for the identification and prioritization of targets for antibiotic development. PMID:15090508

  20. Conditional epidermal expression of TGFβ1 blocks neonatal lethality but causes a reversible hyperplasia and alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Alexander, Valarie; Vijayachandra, Kinnimulki; Bhogte, Ervind; Diamond, Ilysa; Glick, Adam

    2001-01-01

    To study the role of transforming growth factor type β1 (TGFβ1) in epidermal growth control and disease, we have generated a conditional expression system by using the bovine keratin 5 promoter to drive expression of the tetracycline-regulated transactivators tTA and rTA, and a constitutively active mutant of TGFβ1 linked to the tetO target sequence for the transactivator. This model allows for induction or suppression of exogenous TGFβ1 with oral doxycycline. Maximal expression of TGFβ1 during gestation caused embryonic lethality, whereas partial suppression allowed full-term development with neonatal lethality characterized by runting, epidermal hypoproliferation, and blocked hair follicle growth. With complete suppression, phenotypically normal double transgenic (DT) mice were born. Acute induction of TGFβ1 in the epidermis of adult mice inhibited basal and follicular keratinocyte proliferation and reentry of telogen hair follicles into anagen. However, chronic expression of TGFβ1 in adult DTs caused severe alopecia characterized by epidermal and follicular hyperproliferation, apoptosis, as well as dermal fibrosis and inflammation. Readministration of doxycycline to tTA DT mice caused hair regrowth within 14 days. The mRNA and protein for Smad7, an inhibitor of TGFβ signaling, were up-regulated in the epidermis and hair follicles of alopecic skin and rapidly induced in rTA mice in parallel with the TGFβ1 transgene, suggesting that the hyperproliferative phenotype may result in part from development of a sustained negative feedback loop. Thus, this conditional expression system provides an important model for understanding the role of TGFβ1 during development, in normal skin biology, and in disease. PMID:11481479

  1. Dynein Modifiers in C. elegans: Light Chains Suppress Conditional Heavy Chain Mutants

    PubMed Central

    O'Rourke, Sean M; Dorfman, Marc D; Carter, J. Clayton; Bowerman, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule-dependent motor protein that functions in mitotic cells during centrosome separation, metaphase chromosome congression, anaphase spindle elongation, and chromosome segregation. Dynein is also utilized during interphase for vesicle transport and organelle positioning. While numerous cellular processes require cytoplasmic dynein, the mechanisms that target and regulate this microtubule motor remain largely unknown. By screening a conditional Caenorhabditis elegans cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain mutant at a semipermissive temperature with a genome-wide RNA interference library to reduce gene functions, we have isolated and characterized twenty dynein-specific suppressor genes. When reduced in function, these genes suppress dynein mutants but not other conditionally mutant loci, and twelve of the 20 specific suppressors do not exhibit sterile or lethal phenotypes when their function is reduced in wild-type worms. Many of the suppressor proteins, including two dynein light chains, localize to subcellular sites that overlap with those reported by others for the dynein heavy chain. Furthermore, knocking down any one of four putative dynein accessory chains suppresses the conditional heavy chain mutants, suggesting that some accessory chains negatively regulate heavy chain function. We also identified 29 additional genes that, when reduced in function, suppress conditional mutations not only in dynein but also in loci required for unrelated essential processes. In conclusion, we have identified twenty genes that in many cases are not essential themselves but are conserved and when reduced in function can suppress conditionally lethal C. elegans cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain mutants. We conclude that conserved but nonessential genes contribute to dynein function during the essential process of mitosis. PMID:17676955

  2. Synthetic lethality in ATM-deficient RAD50-mutant tumors underlie outlier response to cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Iyer, Gopa; Hohl, Marcel; Asthana, Saurabh; Inagaki, Akiko; Schultz, Nikolaus; Hanrahan, Aphrothiti J.; Scott, Sasinya N.; Brannon, A. Rose; McDermott, Gregory C.; Pirun, Mono; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Kim, Philip; Socci, Nicholas D.; Viale, Agnes; Schwartz, Gary K.; Reuter, Victor; Bochner, Bernard H.; Rosenberg, Jonathan E.; Bajorin, Dean F.; Berger, Michael F.; Petrini, John H.J.; Solit, David B.; Taylor, Barry S.

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic solid tumors are almost invariably fatal. Patients with disseminated small-cell cancers have a particularly unfavorable prognosis with most succumbing to their disease within two years. Here, we report on the genetic and functional analysis of an outlier curative response of a patient with metastatic small cell cancer to combined checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) inhibition and DNA damaging chemotherapy. Whole-genome sequencing revealed a clonal hemizygous mutation in the Mre11 complex gene RAD50 that attenuated ATM signaling which in the context of Chk1 inhibition contributed, via synthetic lethality, to extreme sensitivity to irinotecan. As Mre11 mutations occur in a diversity of human tumors, the results suggest a tumor-specific combination therapy strategy whereby checkpoint inhibition in combination with DNA damaging chemotherapy is synthetically lethal in tumor but not normal cells with somatic mutations that impair Mre11 complex function. PMID:24934408

  3. KRAS mutant NSCLC, a new opportunity for the synthetic lethality therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    de Castro Carpeño, Javier; Belda-Iniesta, Cristóbal

    2013-04-01

    K-RAS accounts for 90% of RAS mutations in lung adenocarcinomas, the most commonly mutated oncogene in NSCLC, with mutations detected in about 25% of all tumors. Direct inhibition of KRAS has proven clinically challenging. So far, no successful targeted therapy has been developed and remains an elusive target for cancer therapy. Despite significant efforts, currently there are no drugs directly targeting mutated KRAS. Thus, new strategies have emerged for targeting RAS including the use of synthetic lethality. A specific knowledge of individual tumor molecular abnormalities that result in oncogene-specific "synthetic lethal" interactions will allow the rationale to combine promising targeted therapies for KRAS-mutated NSCLC. In this article, we review the new approach based on testing drugs or combinations of agents that work downstream of activated K-RAS. PMID:25806225

  4. Ear tuftedness: a lethal condition in the Araucana fowl.

    PubMed

    Somes, R G; Pabilonia, M S

    1981-01-01

    The lethal effects of the ear-tuft trait of the Araucana chicken are reported and the genetic basis of its inheritance is verified. The ear-tuft (Et) gene acts as an autosomal dominant with reduced penetrance in heterozygotes. This study gave two estimates of reduced penetrance, 4 and 14 percent. Homozygotes die during 17-19 days of incubation, although a few may hatch. Most of these die within a week, but occasionally an "escaper" will live to maturity; one such Et/Et individual was verified. Heterozygotes also experience increased embryonic mortality at about 20 or 21 days of incubation. In this study the average embryonic mortality among heterozygotes was 41.6 percent. Posthatch mortality also was significantly greater among tufted chicks than among nontufted chicks. PMID:7276512

  5. C. elegans ten-1 is synthetic lethal with mutations in cytoskeleton regulators, and enhances many axon guidance defective mutants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Teneurins are transmembrane proteins that assist morphogenetic processes in many organisms. ten-1 is the C. elegans teneurin homolog with two transcripts, ten-1a and ten-1b, that respectively encode a long (TEN-1L) and short (TEN-1S) form of the protein. We previously isolated a C. elegans mutant where one pharyngeal neuron was frequently misplaced, and now show that it corresponds to a novel allele of ten-1. Results The novel ten-1(et5) allele is a hypomorph since its post-embryonic phenotype is weaker than the null alleles ten-1(ok641) and ten-1(tm651). ten-1 mutants have defects in all pharyngeal neurons that we examined, and in vivo reporters show that only the long form of the ten-1 gene is expressed in the pharynx, specifically in six marginal cells and the M2 neurons. Defects in the pharyngeal M2 neurons were enhanced when the ten-1(ok641) mutation was combined with mutations in the following genes: mig-14, unc-5, unc-51, unc-52 and unc-129. None of the body neurons examined show any defects in the ten-1(ok641) mutant, but genetic interaction studies reveal that ten-1(ok641) is synthetic lethal with sax-3, unc-34 and unc-73, and examination of the hypodermal cells in embryos of the ten-1(ok641) mutant point to a role of ten-1 during hypodermal cell morphogenesis. Conclusions Our results are consistent with ten-1 normally providing a function complementary to the cytoskeletal remodeling processes that occur in migrating cells or cells undergoing morphogenesis. It is possible that ten-1 influences the composition/distribution of extracellular matrix. PMID:20497576

  6. Characteristics of Plant Essential Genes Allow for within- and between-Species Prediction of Lethal Mutant Phenotypes[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, John P.; Seddon, Alexander E.; Moghe, Gaurav D.; Simenc, Matthew C.; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2015-01-01

    Essential genes represent critical cellular components whose disruption results in lethality. Characteristics shared among essential genes have been uncovered in fungal and metazoan model systems. However, features associated with plant essential genes are largely unknown and the full set of essential genes remains to be discovered in any plant species. Here, we show that essential genes in Arabidopsis thaliana have distinct features useful for constructing within- and cross-species prediction models. Essential genes in A. thaliana are often single copy or derived from older duplications, highly and broadly expressed, slow evolving, and highly connected within molecular networks compared with genes with nonlethal mutant phenotypes. These gene features allowed the application of machine learning methods that predicted known lethal genes as well as an additional 1970 likely essential genes without documented phenotypes. Prediction models from A. thaliana could also be applied to predict Oryza sativa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae essential genes. Importantly, successful predictions drew upon many features, while any single feature was not sufficient. Our findings show that essential genes can be distinguished from genes with nonlethal phenotypes using features that are similar across kingdoms and indicate the possibility for translational application of our approach to species without extensive functional genomic and phenomic resources. PMID:26286535

  7. Transgenic expression of the N525S-tuberin variant in Tsc2 mutant (Eker) rats causes dominant embryonic lethality.

    PubMed

    Shiono, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Riichi; Ueda, Masatsugu; Ishioka, Chikashi; Hino, Okio

    2014-01-01

    The Tsc2 product, tuberin, negatively regulates the mTOR pathway. We have exploited the Eker (Tsc2-mutant) rat system to analyse various Tsc2 mutations. Here, we focus on the N525S-Tsc2 variant (NSM), which is known to cause distinct symptoms in patients even though normal suppression of mTOR is observed. Unexpectedly, we were repeatedly unable to generate viable rats carrying the NSM transgene. Genotypic analysis revealed that most of the embryos carrying the transgene died around embryonic day after 14.5-similar to the stage of lethality observed for Eker homozygotes. Thus, the NSM transgene appeared to have a dominant lethal effect in our rat model. Further, no significant differences were observed for various signal transduction molecules in transiently expressed NSM cells compared to WT. These results indicate that a non-mTOR pathway, critical for embryogenesis, is being regulated by tuberin, providing a link between tuberin expression and the severity of Tsc2 mutation-related pathogenesis. PMID:25088526

  8. Natural and glucosyl flavonoids inhibit poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity and induce synthetic lethality in BRCA mutant cells

    PubMed Central

    MAEDA, JUNKO; ROYBAL, ERICA J.; BRENTS, COLLEEN A.; UESAKA, MITSURU; AIZAWA, YASUSHI; KATO, TAKAMITSU A.

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have been proven to represent superior clinical agents targeting DNA repair mechanisms in cancer therapy. We investigated PARP inhibitory effects of the natural and synthetic flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, monoglucosyl rutin and maltooligosyl rutin) and tested the synthetic lethality in BRCA2 mutated cells. In vitro ELISA assay suggested that the flavonoids have inhibitory effects on PARP activity, but glucosyl modifications reduced the inhibitory effect. Cytotoxicity tests of Chinese hamster cells defective in BRCA2 gene (V-C8) and its parental V79 cells showed BRCA2-dependent synthetic lethality when treated with the flavonoids. BRCA2 mutated cells were three times more sensitive to the flavonoids than the wild-type and gene complemented cells. Reduced toxicity was observed in a glucosyl modification-dependent manner. The present study provides support for the clinical use of new treatment drugs, and is the beginning of the potential application of flavonoids in cancer prevention and the periodic consumption of appropriate flavonoids to reduce cancer risk in individuals carrying a mutant allele of the BRCA2 gene. PMID:24317580

  9. KRAS mutant NSCLC, a new opportunity for the synthetic lethality therapeutic approach

    PubMed Central

    Belda-Iniesta, Cristóbal

    2013-01-01

    K-RAS accounts for 90% of RAS mutations in lung adenocarcinomas, the most commonly mutated oncogene in NSCLC, with mutations detected in about 25% of all tumors. Direct inhibition of KRAS has proven clinically challenging. So far, no successful targeted therapy has been developed and remains an elusive target for cancer therapy. Despite significant efforts, currently there are no drugs directly targeting mutated KRAS. Thus, new strategies have emerged for targeting RAS including the use of synthetic lethality. A specific knowledge of individual tumor molecular abnormalities that result in oncogene-specific “synthetic lethal” interactions will allow the rationale to combine promising targeted therapies for KRAS-mutated NSCLC. In this article, we review the new approach based on testing drugs or combinations of agents that work downstream of activated K-RAS. PMID:25806225

  10. The Structural Variation Is Associated with the Embryonic Lethality of a Novel Red Egg Mutant Fuyin-lre of Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiongyan; Zhao, Qiaoling; Yang, Weike; Zhu, Shuifen; Wu, Fang; He, Rongfan; Dong, Zhanpeng; Huang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Bombyx mori presents several types of egg color mutations, all of which have been extensively discussed in sericulture. While the red egg mutation has been previously observed, lethal red-egg mutants have not been reported. In the present work, the red egg mutant Fuyin-lre (Fuyin-lethal red egg) was discovered from the Fuyin germplasm resource of B. mori. This mutant features red-colored eggs and embryonic lethality. Genetic analysis showed that Fuyin-lre follows recessive inheritance, with the red egg gene re governing the egg color, and the embryonic lethality of Fuyin-lre may be caused by mutations of other genes closely linked to re. Digital gene expression (DGE) was employed to compare the transcription profiles of Fuyin and Fuyin-lre eggs after 24 and 48 h of incubation. A total of 48 differentially expressed genes followed the same expression patterns in both groups at both time points (FDR < 0.01 and log 2 Ratio ≥ 1). Further analyses indicated that 8 out of the 48 genes (including re) were closely linked to re. These 8 genes were highly expressed in wild-type Fuyin and the red egg mutant re but showed nearly absent expression in Fuyin-lre. Sequencing of the re gene confirmed that the re gene itself does not induce embryonic lethality, and structure analysis showed that the structural variation of the region where the 8 genes were located may be associated with the embryonic lethality of Fuyin-lre. The present work provides a good foundation for future studies on the mechanism of embryonic lethality and embryonic development in Fuyin-lre. PMID:26030868

  11. The Structural Variation Is Associated with the Embryonic Lethality of a Novel Red Egg Mutant Fuyin-lre of Silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Chen, Anli; Liao, Pengfei; Li, Qiongyan; Zhao, Qiaoling; Yang, Weike; Zhu, Shuifen; Wu, Fang; He, Rongfan; Dong, Zhanpeng; Huang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Bombyx mori presents several types of egg color mutations, all of which have been extensively discussed in sericulture. While the red egg mutation has been previously observed, lethal red-egg mutants have not been reported. In the present work, the red egg mutant Fuyin-lre (Fuyin-lethal red egg) was discovered from the Fuyin germplasm resource of B. mori. This mutant features red-colored eggs and embryonic lethality. Genetic analysis showed that Fuyin-lre follows recessive inheritance, with the red egg gene re governing the egg color, and the embryonic lethality of Fuyin-lre may be caused by mutations of other genes closely linked to re. Digital gene expression (DGE) was employed to compare the transcription profiles of Fuyin and Fuyin-lre eggs after 24 and 48 h of incubation. A total of 48 differentially expressed genes followed the same expression patterns in both groups at both time points (FDR < 0.01 and log 2 Ratio ≥ 1). Further analyses indicated that 8 out of the 48 genes (including re) were closely linked to re. These 8 genes were highly expressed in wild-type Fuyin and the red egg mutant re but showed nearly absent expression in Fuyin-lre. Sequencing of the re gene confirmed that the re gene itself does not induce embryonic lethality, and structure analysis showed that the structural variation of the region where the 8 genes were located may be associated with the embryonic lethality of Fuyin-lre. The present work provides a good foundation for future studies on the mechanism of embryonic lethality and embryonic development in Fuyin-lre. PMID:26030868

  12. A plasmid vector with positive selection and directional cloning based on a conditionally lethal gene.

    PubMed

    Yazynin, S A; Deyev, S M; Jucovic, M; Hartley, R W

    1996-02-22

    A plasmid vector with a multiple cloning site (MCS) for positive selection of cloned inserts in Escherichia coli (Ec) has been devised, based on the expression plasmid (pMT416) for the bacterial ribonuclease barnase (Barn). The host is protected from the lethal effect of moderate expression of barn by expression of the gene bars, encoding its inhibitor, barstar (Bars), placed on the same plasmid. Full expression, however, is lethal. Induction is also lethal with the derived plasmid, pMT440, which has the pUC19 MCS inserted into barn. Under inducing conditions, transformation by the vector is lethal unless the product of the modified barn is inactivated by insertion of cloned DNA fragments into the MCS. Plasmid pMT440 is, therefore, a generally useful selective cloning vector not requiring any special strain of Ec. PMID:8635737

  13. Strategy for enhanced transgenic strain development for embryonic conditional lethality in Anastrepha suspensa

    PubMed Central

    Schetelig, Marc F.; Handler, Alfred M.

    2012-01-01

    Here the first reproductive sterility system for the tephritid fruit fly pest, Anastrepha suspensa, is presented, based on lethality primarily limited to embryos heterozygous for a conditional lethal transgene combination. This tetracycline (Tet)-suppressible system uses a driver construct having the promoter from the newly isolated embryo-specific A. suspensa serendipity α gene linked to the Tet-transactivator. This was used to drive expression of a phosphomutated variant of the pro-apoptotic cell death gene, hid, from A. ludens, that was isolated, based on its identity to A. suspensa hid. The AlhidAla2 variant was shown to have the highest cell death activity in an in vitro A. suspensa cell death assay compared to the orthologous genes Ashid, Dmhid, and the variant DmhidAla5. These cell death assays also allowed a determination of the most-efficient driver-effector cassette combinations for use in A. suspensa transformants, resulting in two hybrid strains exhibiting 100% lethality. One strain was 96% lethal in embryos in the absence of tetracycline, with none surviving past the first larval instar, which is critical for pests that are most damaging in late-larval stages. We demonstrate that the isolation and in vitro validation of species-specific promoters and lethal effector genes can greatly improve the efficiency of creating high-performance conditional lethality strains that may be extended to other insect pest species. PMID:22647610

  14. Lethality in PARP-1/Ku80 double mutant mice reveals physiologicalsynergy during early embryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Henrie, Melinda S.; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Burma, Sandeep; Menissier-de Murcia, Josiane; de Murcia, Gilbert; Li, Gloria C.; Chen,David J.

    2002-09-24

    Ku is an abundant heterodimeric nuclear protein, consisting of 70-kDa and 86-kDa tightly associated subunits that comprise the DNA binding component of DNA-dependent protein kinase. Poly(ADP)ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a 113-kDa protein that catalyzes the synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) on target proteins. Both Ku and PARP-1 recognize and bind to DNA ends. Ku functions in the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathway whereas PARP-1 functions in the single strand break repair and base excision repair (BER) pathways. Recent studies have revealed that PARP-1 and Ku80 interact in vitro. To determine whether the association of PARP-1 and Ku80 has any physiological significance or synergistic function in vivo, mice lacking both PARP-1 and Ku80 were generated. The resulting offspring died during embryonic development displaying abnormalities around the gastrulation stage. In addition, PARP-1-/-Ku80-/- cultured blastocysts had an increased level of apoptosis. These data suggest that the functions of both Ku80 and PARP-1 are essential for normal embryogenesis and that a loss of genomic integrity leading to cell death through apoptosis is likely the cause of the embryonic lethality observed in these mice.

  15. Lethality in PARP-1/Ku80 double mutant mice reveals physiological synergy during early embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Henrie, Melinda S; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Burma, Sandeep; Ménissier-de Murcia, Josiane; de Murcia, Gilbert; Li, Gloria C; Chen, David J

    2003-02-01

    Ku is an abundant heterodimeric nuclear protein, consisting of 70- and 86-kDa tightly associated subunits that comprise the DNA binding component of DNA-dependent protein kinase. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a 113-kDa protein that catalyzes the synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) on target proteins. Both Ku and PARP-1 recognize and bind to DNA ends. Ku functions in the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathway whereas PARP-1 functions in the single strand break repair and base excision repair (BER) pathways. Recent studies have revealed that PARP-1 and Ku80 interact in vitro. To determine whether the association of PARP-1 and Ku80 has any physiological significance or synergistic function in vivo, mice lacking both PARP-1 and Ku80 were generated. The resulting offspring died during embryonic development displaying abnormalities around the gastrulation stage. In addition, PARP-1-/-/Ku80-/- cultured blastocysts had an increased level of apoptosis. These data suggest that the functions of both Ku80 and PARP-1 are essential for normal embryogenesis and that a loss of genomic integrity leading to cell death through apoptosis is likely the cause of the embryonic lethality observed in these mice. PMID:12531386

  16. Pathogenesis of Lethal Cardiac Arrhythmias in Mecp2 Mutant Mice: Implication for Therapy in Rett Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Mark D.; Wang, Tiannan; Mike, Elise; Herrera, Jose; Beavers, David L.; Huang, Teng-Wei; Ward, Christopher S.; Skinner, Steven; Percy, Alan K.; Glaze, Daniel G.; Wehrens, Xander H. T.; Neul, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Rett Syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder typically caused by mutations in Methyl-CpG-Binding Protein 2 (MECP2) in which 26% of deaths are sudden and of unknown cause. To explore the hypothesis that these deaths may be due to cardiac dysfunction, we characterized the electrocardiograms (ECGs) in 379 people with Rett syndrome and found that 18.5% show prolongation of the corrected QT interval (QTc), indicating a repolarization abnormality that can predispose to the development of an unstable fatal cardiac rhythm. Male mice lacking MeCP2 function, Mecp2Null/Y, also have prolonged QTc and show increased susceptibility to induced ventricular tachycardia. Female heterozygous null mice, Mecp2Null/+, show an age-dependent prolongation of QTc associated with ventricular tachycardia and cardiac-related death. Genetic deletion of MeCP2 function in only the nervous system was sufficient to cause long QTc and ventricular tachycardia, implicating neuronally-mediated changes to cardiac electrical conduction as a potential cause of ventricular tachycardia in Rett syndrome. The standard therapy for prolonged QTc in Rett syndrome, β-adrenergic receptor blockers, did not prevent ventricular tachycardia in Mecp2Null/Y mice. To determine whether an alternative therapy would be more appropriate, we characterized cardiomyocytes from Mecp2Null/Y mice and found increased persistent sodium current, which was normalized when cells were treated with the sodium channel-blocking anti-seizure drug phenytoin. Treatment with phenytoin reduced both QTc and sustained ventricular tachycardia in Mecp2Null/Y mice. These results demonstrate that cardiac abnormalities in Rett syndrome are secondary to abnormal nervous system control, which leads to increased persistent sodium current. Our findings suggest that treatment in people with Rett syndrome would be more effective if it targeted the increased persistent sodium current in order to prevent lethal cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:22174313

  17. Effects of metallothionein on zinc metabolism in lethal-milk mutant mice

    SciTech Connect

    Grider, A. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The lethal-milk mice (C57BL/6J-Im) exhibit various pleiotropic effects, including a congenital otolith defect, production of zinc-deficient milk, and clinical signs of a systemic Zn deficiency by one year of age. The clinical signs include alopecia, dermatitis, and skin lesions. The systemic zinc deficiency may be due to increased levels of metallothionein (MT) in the intestine and/or liver of Im mice. The untreated Im mice contain twice as much intestinal MT as do C57BL/6J-(+/sup im//+ /sup Im/) (B6) controls. This was determined by a sulfhydryl assay, by the /sup 109/Cd-saturation/hemolysate method, and by the /sup 65/Zn-binding assay. Various concentrations of Cd or Zn were added to the drinking water three days before assaying for MT. Compared to B6 mice, the Im mice exhibited more MT in their liver by the /sup 65/Zn-MT binding assay (3-fold) and by the /sup 109/Cd-saturation/hemolysate method (18-fold). The effects of the two zinc treatments did not differ significantly between Im and B6 mice. The retention and excretion of /sup 65/Zn (administered intraperitoneally) were determined over a 14-day period, but the results did not different between the Im and B6 mice. The increased concentrations of MT within the Im mice was not significantly different for the intestine and liver. Based on these data and other studies, the Im mice may exhibit alterations in zinc homeostasis due to some deregulation of MT metabolism, including the inner ear of the fetus, the lactating mammary gland, and the intestine and liver of adults by one year of age.

  18. Cancer susceptibility and embryonic lethality in Mob1a/1b double-mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, Miki; Hamada, Koichi; Kawahara, Kohichi; Sasaki, Masato; Noguchi, Fumihito; Chiba, Shuhei; Mizuno, Kensaku; Suzuki, Satoshi O.; Dong, Youyi; Tokuda, Masaaki; Morikawa, Takumi; Hikasa, Hiroki; Eggenschwiler, Jonathan; Yabuta, Norikazu; Nojima, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Kentaro; Hata, Yutaka; Nishina, Hiroshi; Mimori, Koshi; Mori, Masaki; Sasaki, Takehiko; Mak, Tak W.; Nakano, Toru; Itami, Satoshi; Suzuki, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Mps one binder 1a (MOB1A) and MOB1B are key components of the Hippo signaling pathway and are mutated or inactivated in many human cancers. Here we show that intact Mob1a or Mob1b is essential for murine embryogenesis and that loss of the remaining WT Mob1 allele in Mob1aΔ/Δ1btr/+ or Mob1aΔ/+1btr/tr mice results in tumor development. Because most of these cancers resembled trichilemmal carcinomas, we generated double-mutant mice bearing tamoxifen-inducible, keratinocyte-specific homozygous-null mutations of Mob1a and Mob1b (kDKO mice). kDKO mice showed hyperplastic keratinocyte progenitors and defective keratinocyte terminal differentiation and soon died of malnutrition. kDKO keratinocytes exhibited hyperproliferation, apoptotic resistance, impaired contact inhibition, enhanced progenitor self renewal, and increased centrosomes. Examination of Hippo pathway signaling in kDKO keratinocytes revealed that loss of Mob1a/b altered the activities of the downstream Hippo mediators LATS and YAP1. Similarly, YAP1 was activated in some human trichilemmal carcinomas, and some of these also exhibited MOB1A/1B inactivation. Our results clearly demonstrate that MOB1A and MOB1B have overlapping functions in skin homeostasis, and exert their roles as tumor suppressors by regulating downstream elements of the Hippo pathway. PMID:23143302

  19. A null mutation in VAMP1/synaptobrevin is associated with neurological defects and prewean mortality in the lethal-wasting mouse mutant.

    PubMed

    Nystuen, Arne M; Schwendinger, Jamie K; Sachs, Andrew J; Yang, Andy W; Haider, Neena B

    2007-01-01

    The soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment receptors are a large family of membrane-associated proteins that are critical for Ca(2+)-mediated synaptic vesicle release. This family includes the VAMP, synaptosomal-associated protein, and syntaxin proteins. In this report, we describe a mutation in vesicle-associated membrane protein 1(VAMP1)/synaptobrevin in the mouse neurological mutant lethal-wasting (lew). The lethal-wasting mutant phenotype is characterized by a general lack of movement and wasting, eventually leading to death before weaning. Mutants are visibly immobile and lay on their side by postnatal day 10 (P10). Before this stage, mutants can be identified by a failure to attempt to right themselves. Affected mice die on average at P15. We used a positional cloning strategy to identify the mutation associated with this neurological phenotype. Lethal wasting had previously been linked to chromosome 6. We further narrowed the genetic disease interval and selected a small number of candidate genes for mutation screening. Genes were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect differences in their expression levels between control and mutant brain ribonucleic acid (RNA) samples. VAMP1 mRNA was found to be significantly downregulated in the lethal-wasting brain compared to wild-type littermates. Subsequently, a nonsense mutation was identified in the coding region of the gene. This mutation is predicted to truncate approximately half of the protein; however, Western blot analysis showed that no protein is detectable in the mutant. VAMP1 is selectively expressed in the retina and in discrete areas of the brain including the zona incerta and rostral periolivary region, although no gross histological abnormalities were observed in these tissues. Taken together, these data indicate that VAMP1 has a vital role in a subset of central nervous system tissues. PMID:17102983

  20. A novel method to generate unmarked gene deletions in the intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi using 5-fluorocytosine conditional lethality

    PubMed Central

    van der Geize, R.; de Jong, W.; Hessels, G. I.; Grommen, A. W. F.; Jacobs, A. A. C.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2008-01-01

    A novel method to efficiently generate unmarked in-frame gene deletions in Rhodococcus equi was developed, exploiting the cytotoxic effect of 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) by the action of cytosine deaminase (CD) and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) enzymes. The opportunistic, intracellular pathogen R. equi is resistant to high concentrations of 5-FC. Introduction of Escherichia coli genes encoding CD and UPRT conferred conditional lethality to R. equi cells incubated with 5-FC. To exemplify the use of the codA::upp cassette as counter-selectable marker, an unmarked in-frame gene deletion mutant of R. equi was constructed. The supA and supB genes, part of a putative cholesterol catabolic gene cluster, were efficiently deleted from the R. equi wild-type genome. Phenotypic analysis of the generated ΔsupAB mutant confirmed that supAB are essential for growth of R. equi on cholesterol. Macrophage survival assays revealed that the ΔsupAB mutant is able to survive and proliferate in macrophages comparable to wild type. Thus, cholesterol metabolism does not appear to be essential for macrophage survival of R. equi. The CD-UPRT based 5-FC counter-selection may become a useful asset in the generation of unmarked in-frame gene deletions in other actinobacteria as well, as actinobacteria generally appear to be 5-FC resistant and 5-FU sensitive. PMID:18984616

  1. Lung-cancer chemoprevention by induction of synthetic lethality in mutant KRAS premalignant cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shaoyi; Ren, Xiaoyang; Wang, Lai; Zhang, Ling; Wu, Xiangwei

    2011-05-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States, with a low 5-year survival rate despite improved treatment strategies. These data underscore the great need for effective chemoprevention of this cancer. Mutations and activation of KRAS occur frequently in, and are thought to be a primary driver of the development of, non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) of the adenocarcinoma subtype. In this study, we developed a new approach for the chemoprevention of NSCLC involving specific targeting of apoptosis in mutant KRAS cells. This approach is based on a synthetic lethal interaction among TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), the second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase Smac/DIABLO (Smac), and KRAS. Mutational activation of KRAS modulated the expression of TRAIL receptors by upregulating death receptors and downregulating decoy receptors. Furthermore, oncogenic KRAS repressed cellular FADD-like interleukin 1β-converting enzyme (FLICE)-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) expression through activation of Erk/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated activation of c-Myc. Smac overcame KRAS-induced cell-survival signaling by antagonizing X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). Therefore, the combination of TRAIL and a small molecule mimic of Smac induced apoptosis specifically in mutant KRAS cells without harming normal cells. We further showed that short-term, intermittent in vivo treatment with TRAIL and Smac mimic induced apoptosis in tumor cells and reduced tumor burden in a murine model of KRAS-induced lung cancer. These results reflect the potential benefit of a selective therapeutic approach for the chemoprevention of NSCLC. PMID:21543344

  2. When a Fly Has to Fly to Reproduce: Selection against Conditional Recessive Lethals in "Drosophila"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plunkett, Andrea D.; Yampolsky, Lev Y.

    2010-01-01

    We propose an experimental model suitable for demonstrating allele frequency change in Drosophila melanogaster populations caused by selection against an easily scorable conditional lethal, namely recessive flightless alleles such as apterous and vestigial. Homozygotes for these alleles are excluded from reproduction because the food source used

  3. When a Fly Has to Fly to Reproduce: Selection against Conditional Recessive Lethals in "Drosophila"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plunkett, Andrea D.; Yampolsky, Lev Y.

    2010-01-01

    We propose an experimental model suitable for demonstrating allele frequency change in Drosophila melanogaster populations caused by selection against an easily scorable conditional lethal, namely recessive flightless alleles such as apterous and vestigial. Homozygotes for these alleles are excluded from reproduction because the food source used…

  4. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis contributes to a skeletal dysplasia resembling platyspondylic lethal skeletal dysplasia, Torrance type, in a novel Col2a1 mutant mouse line.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Makoto; Ichimura, Satoki; Sasaki, Kuniaki; Masuya, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Wakana, Shigeharu; Ikegawa, Shiro; Furuichi, Tatsuya

    In humans, mutations in the COL2A1 gene encoding the α1(II) chain of type II collagen, create many clinical phenotypes collectively termed type II collagenopathies. However, the mechanisms generating this diversity remain to be determined. Here we identified a novel Col2a1 mutant mouse line by screening a large-scale N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutant mouse library. This mutant possessed a p.Tyr1391Ser missense mutation in the C-propeptide coding region, and this mutation was located in positions corresponding to the human COL2A1 mutation responsible for platyspondylic lethal skeletal dysplasia, Torrance type (PLSD-T). As expected, p.Tyr1391Ser homozygotes exhibited lethal skeletal dysplasias resembling PLSD-T, including extremely short limbs and severe dysplasia of the spine and pelvis. The secretion of the mutant proteins into the extracellular space was disrupted, accompanied by an abnormally expanded endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the up-regulation of ER stress-related genes in chondrocytes. Chondrocyte apoptosis was severely induced in the growth plate of the homozygotes. These findings strongly suggest that ER stress-mediated apoptosis caused by the accumulated mutant proteins in ER contributes to skeletal dysplasia in Co12a1 mutant mice and PLSD-T patients. PMID:26545783

  5. Low-temperature conditional cell division mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Sturgeon, J A; Ingram, L O

    1978-01-01

    Fifteen low-temperature conditional division mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 was isolated. They grew normally at 39 degrees C but formed filaments at 30 degrees C. All exhibited a coordinated burst of cell division when the filaments were shifted to the permissive temperature (39 degrees C). None of the various agents that stimulate cell division in other mutant systems (salt, sucrose, ethanol, and chloramphenicol) was very effective in restoring colony-forming ability at 25 degrees C or in stimulating cell division in broth. One of these mutants, strain JS10, was found to have an altered cell envelope as evidenced by increased sensitivity to deoxycholate and antibiotics, as well as leakage of ribonulcease I, a periplasmic enzyme. This mutant had normal rates of DNA synthesis, RNA synthesis, and phospholipid synthesis at both the nonpermissive and permissive temperatures. However, strain JS10 required new protein synthesis in the apparent absence of new RNA synthesis for division of filaments at the permissive temperature. The division of lesion in strain JS10 is cotransducible with malA, aroB, and glpD and maps within min 72 to 75 on the E. coli chromosome. Images PMID:338580

  6. sigE facilitates the adaptation of Bordetella bronchiseptica to stress conditions and lethal infection in immunocompromised mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The cell envelope of a bacterial pathogen can be damaged by harsh conditions in the environment outside a host and by immune factors during infection. Cell envelope stress responses preserve the integrity of this essential compartment and are often required for virulence. Bordetella species are important respiratory pathogens that possess a large number of putative transcription factors. However, no cell envelope stress responses have been described in these species. Among the putative Bordetella transcription factors are a number of genes belonging to the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) group of alternative sigma factors, some of which are known to mediate cell envelope stress responses in other bacteria. Here we investigate the role of one such gene, sigE, in stress survival and pathogenesis of Bordetella bronchiseptica. Results We demonstrate that sigE encodes a functional sigma factor that mediates a cell envelope stress response. Mutants of B. bronchiseptica strain RB50 lacking sigE are more sensitive to high temperature, ethanol, and perturbation of the envelope by SDS-EDTA and certain β-lactam antibiotics. Using a series of immunocompromised mice deficient in different components of the innate and adaptive immune responses, we show that SigE plays an important role in evading the innate immune response during lethal infections of mice lacking B cells and T cells. SigE is not required, however, for colonization of the respiratory tract of immunocompetent mice. The sigE mutant is more efficiently phagocytosed and killed by peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) than RB50, and exhibits decreased cytotoxicity toward macrophages. These altered interactions with phagocytes could contribute to the defects observed during lethal infection. Conclusions Much of the work on transcriptional regulation during infection in B. bronchiseptica has focused on the BvgAS two-component system. This study reveals that the SigE regulon also mediates a discrete subset of functions associated with virulence. SigE is the first cell envelope stress-sensing system to be described in the bordetellae. In addition to its role during lethal infection of mice deficient in adaptive immunity, our results indicate that SigE is likely to be important for survival in the face of stresses encountered in the environment between hosts. PMID:22897969

  7. NADH Dehydrogenase Defects Confer Isoniazid Resistance and Conditional Lethality in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    PubMed Central

    Miesel, Lynn; Weisbrod, Torin R.; Marcinkeviciene, Jovita A.; Bittman, Robert; Jacobs, William R.

    1998-01-01

    Isoniazid (INH) is a highly effective drug used in the treatment and prophylaxis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. Resistance to INH in clinical isolates has been correlated with mutations in the inhA, katG, and ahpC genes. In this report, we describe a new mechanism for INH resistance in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Mutations that reduce NADH dehydrogenase activity (Ndh; type II) cause multiple phenotypes, including (i) coresistance to INH and a related drug, ethionamide; (ii) thermosensitive lethality; and (iii) auxotrophy. These phenotypes are corrected by expression of one of two enzymes: NADH dehydrogenase and the NADH-dependent malate dehydrogenase of the M. tuberculosis complex. The genetic data presented here indicate that defects in NADH oxidation cause all of the mutant traits and that an increase in the NADH/NAD+ ratio confers INH resistance. PMID:9573199

  8. A conditional mutant allele for analysis of Mixl1 function in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Pulina, Maria V.; Sahr, Kenneth E.; Nowotschin, Sonja; Baron, Margaret H.; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Mixl1 is the only member of the Mix/Bix homeobox gene family identified in mammals. During mouse embryogenesis, Mixl1 is first expressed at embryonic day (E)5.5 in cells of the visceral endoderm (VE). At the time of gastrulation, Mixl1 expression is detected in the vicinity of the primitive streak. Mixl1 is expressed in cells located within the primitive streak, in nascent mesoderm cells exiting the primitive streak, and in posterior VE overlying the primitive streak. Genetic ablation of Mixl1 in mice has revealed its crucial role in mesoderm and endoderm cell specification and tissue morphogenesis during early embryonic development. However, the early lethality of the constitutive Mixl1−/− mutant precludes the study of its role at later stages of embryogenesis and in adult mice. To circumvent this limitation, we have generated a conditional Mixl1 allele (Mixl1cKO) that permits temporal as well as spatial control of gene ablation. Animals homozygous for the Mixl1cKO conditional allele were viable and fertile. Mixl1KO/KO embryos generated by crossing of Mixl1cKO/cKO mice with Sox2-Cre or EIIa-Cre transgenic mice were embryonic lethal at early somite stages. By contrast to wild-type embryos, Mixl1KO/KO embryos contained no detectable Mixl1, validating the Mixl1cKO as a protein null after Cre-mediated excision. Mixl1KO/KO embryos resembled the previously reported Mixl1−/− mutant phenotype. Therefore, the Mixl1 cKO allele provides a tool for investigating the temporal and tissue-specific requirements for Mixl1 in the mouse. PMID:24596343

  9. Production of viable seeds from the seedling lethal mutant ppi2-2 lacking the atToc159 chloroplast protein import receptor using plastic containers, and characterization of the homozygous mutant progeny.

    PubMed

    Tada, Akari; Adachi, Fumi; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Inaba, Takehito

    2014-01-01

    Biogenesis of chloroplasts is essential for plant growth and development. A number of homozygous mutants lacking a chloroplast protein exhibit an albino phenotype. In general, it is challenging to grow albino Arabidopsis plants on soil until they set seeds. Homozygous albino mutants are usually obtained as progenies of heterozygous parents. Here, we describe a method of recovering seeds from the seedling lethal Arabidopsis mutant ppi2-2, which lacks the atToc159 protein import receptor at the outer envelope membrane of chloroplast. Using plastic containers, we were able to grow homozygous ppi2-2 plants until these set seed. Although the germination rate of the harvested seeds was relatively low, it was still sufficient to allow us to further analyze the ppi2-2 progeny. Using ppi2-2 homozygous seeds, we were able to analyze the role of plastid protein import in the light-regulated induction of nuclear genes. We propose that this method be applied to other seedling lethal Arabidopsis mutants to obtain homozygous seeds, helping us further investigate the roles of plastid proteins in plant growth and development. PMID:24926298

  10. Enhancing the stability and ecological safety of mass-reared transgenic strains for field release by redundant conditional lethality systems.

    PubMed

    Handler, Alfred M

    2016-04-01

    The genetic manipulation of agriculturally important insects now allows the development of genetic sexing and male sterility systems for more highly efficient biologically-based population control programs, most notably the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), for both plant and animal insect pests. Tetracycline-suppressible (Tet-off) conditional lethal systems may function together so that transgenic strains will be viable and fertile on a tetracycline-containing diet, but female-lethal and male sterile in tetracycline-free conditions. This would allow their most efficacious use in a unified system for sterile male-only production for SIT. A critical consideration for the field release of such transgenic insect strains, however, is a determination of the frequency and genetic basis of lethality revertant survival. This will provide knowledge essential to evaluating the genetic stability of the lethality system, its environmental safety, and provide the basis for modifications ensuring optimal efficacy. For Tet-off lethal survival determinations, development of large-scale screening protocols should also allow the testing of these modifications, and test the ability of other conditional lethal systems to fully suppress propagation of rare Tet-off survivors. If a dominant temperature sensitive (DTS) pupal lethality system proves efficient for secondary lethality in Drosophila, it may provide the safeguard needed to support the release of sexing/sterility strains, and potentially, the release of unisex lethality strains as a form of genetic male sterility. Should the DTS Prosβ2(1) mutation prove effective for redundant lethality, its high level of structural and functional conservation should allow host-specific cognates to be created for a wide range of insect species. PMID:26097098

  11. BRCA1, PARP, and 53BP1: conditional synthetic lethality and synthetic viability

    PubMed Central

    Aly, Amal; Ganesan, Shridar

    2011-01-01

    BRCA1 plays a critical role in the regulation of homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DNA double-strand break repair. BRCA1-deficient cancers have evolved to tolerate loss of BRCA1 function. This renders them vulnerable to agents, such as PARP inhibitors, that are conditionally ‘synthetic lethal' with their underlying repair defect. Recent studies demonstrate that BRCA1-deficient cells may acquire resistance to these agents by partially correcting their defect in HR-mediated repair, either through reversion mutations in BRCA1 or through ‘synthetic viable' loss of 53BP1. These findings and their clinical implications will be reviewed in this article. PMID:21278454

  12. Random mutagenesis of Schizosaccharomyces pombe SRP RNA: lethal and conditional lesions cluster in presumptive protein binding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Liao, X; Selinger, D; Althoff, S; Chiang, A; Hamilton, D; Ma, M; Wise, J A

    1992-01-01

    Signal recognition particle (SRP), a ribonucleoprotein composed of six polypeptides and one RNA subunit, serves as an adaptor between the cytoplasmic protein synthetic machinery and the translocation apparatus of the endoplasmic reticulum. To begin constructing a functional map of the 7SL RNA component of SRP, we extensively mutagenized the Schizosaccharomyces pombe SRP7 gene. Phenotypes are reported for fifty-two mutant alleles derived from random point mutagenesis, seven alleles created by site-directed mutagenesis to introduce restriction sites into the SRP7 gene, nine alleles designed to pinpoint conditional lesions, and three alleles with extra nucleotides inserted at position 84. Our data indicate that virtually all single nucleotide changes as well as many multiple substitutions in this highly structured RNA are phenotypically silent. Six lethal alleles and eleven which result in sensitivity to the combination of high temperature and elevated osmotic strength were identified. These mutations cluster in conserved regions which, in the mammalian RNA, are protected from nucleolytic agents by SRP proteins. The effects of mutations in the presumptive binding site for a fission yeast SRP 9/14 homolog indicate that both the identity of a conserved residue and the secondary structure within which it is embedded are functionally important. The phenotypes of mutations in Domain IV suggest particular residues as base-specific contacts for the fission yeast SRP54 protein. A single allele which confers temperature-sensitivity in the absence of osmotic perturbants was identified in this study; the growth properties of the mutant strain suggest that the encoded RNA is somewhat defective even at the permissive temperature, and is most likely unable to correctly assemble with SRP proteins at the nonpermissive temperature. PMID:1315954

  13. Embryo-lethal phenotypes in early abp1 mutants are due to disruption of the neighboring BSM gene

    PubMed Central

    Michalko, Jaroslav; Dravecká, Marta; Bollenbach, Tobias; Friml, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    The Auxin Binding Protein1 (ABP1) has been identified based on its ability to bind auxin with high affinity and studied for a long time as a prime candidate for the extracellular auxin receptor responsible for mediating in particular the fast non-transcriptional auxin responses. However, the contradiction between the embryo-lethal phenotypes of the originally described Arabidopsis T-DNA insertional knock-out alleles ( abp1-1 and abp1-1s) and the wild type-like phenotypes of other recently described loss-of-function alleles ( abp1-c1 and abp1-TD1) questions the biological importance of ABP1 and relevance of the previous genetic studies. Here we show that there is no hidden copy of the ABP1 gene in the Arabidopsis genome but the embryo-lethal phenotypes of abp1-1 and abp1-1s alleles are very similar to the knock-out phenotypes of the neighboring gene, BELAYA SMERT ( BSM). Furthermore, the allelic complementation test between bsm and abp1 alleles shows that the embryo-lethality in the abp1-1 and abp1-1s alleles is caused by the off-target disruption of the BSM locus by the T-DNA insertions. This clarifies the controversy of different phenotypes among published abp1 knock-out alleles and asks for reflections on the developmental role of ABP1. PMID:26629335

  14. Lethal phenotype in conditional late-onset arginase 1 deficiency in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kasten, Jennifer; Hu, Chuhong; Bhargava, Ragini; Park, Hana; Tai, Denise; Byrne, James A.; Marescau, Bart; De Deyn, Peter P.; Schlichting, Lisa; Grody, Wayne W.; Cederbaum, Stephen D.; Lipshutz, Gerald S.

    2013-01-01

    Human arginase deficiency is characterized by hyperargininemia and infrequent episodes of hyperammonemia, which lead to neurological impairment with spasticity, loss of ambulation, seizures, and severe mental and growth retardation; uncommonly, patients suffer early death from this disorder. In a murine targeted knockout model, onset of the phenotypic abnormality is heralded by weight loss at around day 15, and death occurs typically by postnatal day 17 with hyperargininemia and markedly elevated ammonia. This discrepancy between the more attenuated juvenile-onset human disease and the lethal neonatal murine model has remained suboptimal for studying and developing therapy for the more common presentation of argianse deficiency. These investigations aimed to address this issue by creating an adult conditional knockout mouse to determine whether later onset of arginase deficiency also resulted in lethality. Animal survival and ammonia levels, body weight, circulating amino acids, and tissue arginase levels were examined as outcome parameters after widespread Cre-recombinase activation in a conditional knockout model of arginase 1 deficiency. One hundred percent of adult female and 70 percent of adult male mice died an average of 21.0 and 21.6 days, respectively, after the initiation of tamoxifen administration. Animals demonstrated elevated circulating ammonia and arginine at the onset of phenotypic abnormalities. In addition, brain and liver amino acids demonstrated abnormalities. These studies demonstrate that (a) the absence of arginase in adult animals results in a disease profile (leading to death) similar to that of the targeted knockout and (b) the phenotypic abnormalities seen in the juvenile-onset model are not exclusive to the age of the animal but instead to the biochemistry of the disorder. This adult model will be useful for developing gene- and cell-based therapies for this disorder that will not limited by by the small animal size of neonatal therapy and for developing a better understanding of the characteristics of hyperargininemia. PMID:23920045

  15. Mitochondrial degeneration and not apoptosis is the primary cause of embryonic lethality in ceramide transfer protein mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Rao, Raghavendra Pralhada; Kosakowska-Cholody, Teresa; Masood, M. Athar; Southon, Eileen; Zhang, Helin; Berthet, Cyril; Nagashim, Kunio; Veenstra, Timothy K.; Tessarollo, Lino; Acharya, Usha; Acharya, Jairaj K.

    2009-01-01

    Ceramide transfer protein (CERT) functions in the transfer of ceramide from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi. In this study, we show that CERT is an essential gene for mouse development and embryonic survival and, quite strikingly, is critical for mitochondrial integrity. CERT mutant embryos accumulate ceramide in the ER but also mislocalize ceramide to the mitochondria, compromising their function. Cells in mutant embryos show abnormal dilation of the ER and degenerating mitochondria. These subcellular changes manifest as heart defects and cause severely compromised cardiac function and embryonic death around embryonic day 11.5. In spite of ceramide accumulation, CERT mutant mice do not die as a result of enhanced apoptosis. Instead, cell proliferation is impaired, and expression levels of cell cycleassociated proteins are altered. Individual cells survive, perhaps because cell survival mechanisms are activated. Thus, global compromise of ER and mitochondrial integrity caused by ceramide accumulation in CERT mutant mice primarily affects organogenesis rather than causing cell death via apoptotic pathways. PMID:19139267

  16. We want what’s best for our baby: Prenatal Parenting of Babies with Lethal Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Côté-Arsenault, Denise; Krowchuk, Heidi; Hall, Wendasha Jenkins; Denney-Koelsch, Erin

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on qualitative research into the experience of couples who chose to continue their pregnancies after receiving a lethal fetal diagnosis, and to embrace the parenting of their baby in the shortened time they have. This analysis of interview data is part of a larger research project describing parents’ experiences of continuing pregnancy with a known lethal fetal diagnosis (LFD). PMID:26594107

  17. A microfluidic live cell assay to study anthrax toxin induced cell lethality assisted by conditioned medium

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Cai, Changzu; Yu, Zhilong; Pang, Yuhong; Zhou, Ying; Qian, Lili; Wei, Wensheng; Huang, Yanyi

    2015-01-01

    It is technically challenging to investigate the function of secreted protein in real time by supply of conditioned medium that contains secreted protein of interest. The internalization of anthrax toxin is facilitated by a secreted protein Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and its receptor, and eventually leads to cell lethality. To monitor the dynamic interplay between these components in live cells, we use an integrated microfluidic device to perform the cell viability assays with real-time controlled culture microenvironment in parallel. Conditioned medium, which contains the secreted proteins from specific cell lines, can be continuously pumped towards the cells that exposed to toxin. The exogenous DKK1 secreted from distant cells is able to rescue the sensitivity to toxin for those DKK1-knocked-down cells. This high-throughput assay allows us to precisely quantify the dynamic interaction between key components that cause cell death, and provide independent evidence of the function of DKK1 in the complex process of anthrax toxin internalization. PMID:25731605

  18. Synthetic Lethality of Retinoblastoma Mutant Cells in the Drosophila Eye by Mutation of a Novel Peptidyl Prolyl Isomerase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Kyle A.; Belvin, Marcia; Parks, Annette L.; Whittaker, Kellie; Mahoney, Matt B.; Nicoll, Monique; Park, Christopher C.; Winter, Christopher G.; Chen, Feng; Lickteig, Kim; Ahmad, Ferhad; Esengil, Hanife; Lorenzi, Matthew V.; Norton, Amanda; Rupnow, Brent A.; Shayesteh, Laleh; Tabios, Mariano; Young, Lynn M.; Carroll, Pamela M.; Kopczynski, Casey; Plowman, Gregory D.; Friedman, Lori S.; Francis-Lang, Helen L.

    2005-01-01

    Mutations that inactivate the retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway are common in human tumors. Such mutations promote tumor growth by deregulating the G1 cell cycle checkpoint. However, uncontrolled cell cycle progression can also produce new liabilities for cell survival. To uncover such liabilities in Rb mutant cells, we performed a clonal screen in the Drosophila eye to identify second-site mutations that eliminate Rbf− cells, but allow Rbf+ cells to survive. Here we report the identification of a mutation in a novel highly conserved peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PPIase) that selectively eliminates Rbf− cells from the Drosophila eye. PMID:15744054

  19. Use of a conditionally lethal gene in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 to select for double recombinants and to entrap insertion sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Y P; Wolk, C P

    1990-01-01

    Use of the sacB gene (J. L. Ried and A. Collmer, Gene 57:239-246, 1987) provides a simple, effective, positive selection for double recombinants in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, a filamentous cyanobacterium. This gene, which encodes the secretory levansucrase of Bacillus subtilis, was inserted into the vector portion of a suicide plasmid bearing a mutant version of a chromosomal gene. Cells of colonies in which such a plasmid had integrated into the Anabaena chromosome through single recombination were plated on solid medium containing 5% sucrose. Under this condition, the presence of the sacB gene is lethal. A small fraction of the cells from initially sucrose-sensitive colonies became sucrose resistant; the majority of these sucrose-resistant derivatives had undergone a second recombinational event in which the sacB-containing vector had been lost and the wild-type form of the chromosomal gene had been replaced by the mutant form. By the use of this technique, we mutated two selected genes in the chromosome of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. The conditionally lethal nature of the sacB gene was also used to detect insertion sequences from this Anabaena strain. Sucrose-resistant colonies derived from cells bearing a sacB-containing autonomously replicating plasmid were analyzed. Five different, presumed insertion sequences were found to have inserted into the sacB gene of the plasmids in these colonies. One of them, denoted IS892, was characterized by physical mapping. It is 1.7 kilobases in size and is present in at least five copies in the genome of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. Images PMID:2160938

  20. Use of a conditionally lethal gene in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 to select for double recombinants and to entrap insertion sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yuping; Wolk, C.P. )

    1990-06-01

    Use of the sacB gene provides a simple, effective, positive selection for double recombinants in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, a filamentous cyanobacterium. This gene, which encodes the secretory levansucrase of Bacillus subtilis, was inserted into the vector portion of a suicide plasmid bearing a mutant version of a chromosomal gene. Cells of colonies in which such a plasmid had integrated into the Anabaena chromosome through single recombination were plated on solid medium containing 5% sucrose. Under this condition, the presence of the sacB gene is lethal. A small fraction of the cells from initially sucrose-sensitive colonies became sucrose resistant; the majority of these sucrose-resistant derivatives had undergone a second recombinational event in which the sacB-containing vector had been lost and the wild-type form of the chromosomal gene had been replaced by the mutant form. By the use of this technique, they mutated two selected genes in the chromosome of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. The conditionally lethal nature of the sacB gene was also used to detect insertion sequences from this Anabaena strain. Sucrose-resistant colonies derived from cells bearing a sacB-containing autonomously replicating plasmid were analyzed. Five different, presumed insertion sequences were found to have inserted into the sacB gene of the plasmids in these colonies. One of them, denoted IS892, was characterized by physical mapping. It is 1.7 kilobases in size and is present in at least five copies in the genome of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

  1. Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Schetelig, Marc F; Caceres, Carlos; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Franz, Gerald; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2009-01-01

    Background The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae). Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dependent on newly isolated medfly promoter/enhancer elements of cellularization-specifically-expressed genes. These elements act differently in expression strength and their ability to drive lethal effector gene activation. Moreover, position effects strongly influence the efficiency of the system. Out of 60 combinations of driver and effector construct integrations, several lines resulted in larval and pupal lethality with one line showing complete embryonic lethality. This line was highly competitive to wildtype medfly in laboratory and field cage tests. Conclusion The high competitiveness of the transgenic lines and the achieved 100% embryonic lethality causing reproductive sterility without the need of irradiation can improve the efficacy of operational medfly SIT programs. PMID:19173707

  2. [Characterization of attenuated Salmonella C500 strain with a delta asd mutant and use as an Asd+ balanced-lethal host-vector system].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhanqin; Xu, Yindi; Wu, Bin; Cheng, Xiangchao; Li, Yinju; Tang, Xibiao; Zhang, Chunjie; Chen, Huanchun

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis strain C500 is a live, attenuated vaccine that has been used in China for over 40 years to prevent piglet paratyphoid. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis C500 strain with a delta asd mutant as an effective live vaccine vector by the Asd+ balanced-lethal host-vector system. Here, we compared the characteristics of S. enterica serovar Choleraesuis delta asdC500 strain with the parent C500 strain, including phenotype, growth rate, virulence, safety, and expression for heterologous antigen. The mean generation times of delta asdC500 mutant, the vector control delta asdC500 (pYA3493), and the parent avirulent C500 vaccine strain in Luria broth were 30.7, 28.1, and 27.9 min, respectively. The fermentation patterns of theses three strains on different carbohydrates, and the levels of production of H2S, were similar. The O and H antigens of delta asdC500 mutant, delta asdC500 (pYA3493) and delta asdC500 (pYA-F1P2) were 6,7:C:1,5, identical to the parent strain C500. By the method of Reed and Muench, groups of mice were challenged by the intraperitoneal route with different amounts of delta asdC500 (pYA3493) or the parent C500 strain, and the virulence of delta asdC500 (pYA3493) with LD50 of 1.1 x 10(7) CFU was a little lower than C500 with LD50 of 4.4 x 10(6) CFU. All piglets inoculated with delta asdC500 (pYA3493) or C500 survived, and no signs of disease were observed during the entire experimental period. No major differences were found in these two groups. In addition, the recombinant pYA-F1P2 plasmid was very stable in the recombinant delta asdC500 (pYA-F1P2) strain, which expressed secretorily a large amount of the recombinant filamentous hemagglutinin type I domain and pertactin region 2 domain antigen (rF1P2) of Bordetella bronchiseptica. In this study, we have shown that the delta asdC500 mutant had a series of biological characteristics similar to the parent vaccine strain C500. Furthermore, the strain could express secretorily a large amount of heterologous antigen. It is likely that this Salmonella expression and delivery system could be easily adapted to develop multivalent recombinant Salmonella vaccines against infectious agents using the Asd+ balanced-lethal host-vector system. PMID:19441223

  3. Identification of two DNA helicases UvrD and DinG as suppressors for lethality caused by mutant cspA mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jihwan; Lee, Kangseok; Phadtare, Sangita; Inouye, Masayori

    2012-01-01

    CspA is a major cold-shock inducible protein (70 aa), and its major role in the cold-shock response was shown to be as an RNA chaperone destabilizing secondary structure of mRNAs at low temperature. Previously, we showed that the overexpression of mutant cspA containing premature nonsense codons at various positions led to stalled ribosomes on mutant cspA transcripts, ultimately leading to cell death. This lethality is primarily due to the highly translatable cspA 5′-UTR that recruits most of the ribosomes from other mRNAs, which are then stalled at the abnormal stop codon. This was called the ‘LACE’ effect. We show here that nonsense mutation even at 67th position as well as substitutions of aromatic amino acid residues present on the RNA-binding surface of CspA protein to alanine caused the LACE effect by trapping a substantial amount of ribosomes on cspA mRNAs. In an attempt to identify a suppressor(s), which may help the cells to recover from the inhibitory LACE effect, genetic screening of an E. coli genomic library was performed. We isolated suppressors that contained the genomic fragments encoding uvrD and dinG, respectively, whose gene products are ATP-dependent DNA helicases. The nucleic acid-binding and ATPase activities of these two helicases were found to be essential for their suppression activity. This genomic screening offers an approach to shed light on the mechanistic of 5′-UTR of cspA mRNA and novel roles of E. coli helicases that function in DNA repair. PMID:22832783

  4. The zebrafish early arrest mutants.

    PubMed

    Kane, D A; Maischein, H M; Brand, M; van Eeden, F J; Furutani-Seiki, M; Granato, M; Haffter, P; Hammerschmidt, M; Heisenberg, C P; Jiang, Y J; Kelsh, R N; Mullins, M C; Odenthal, J; Warga, R M; Nüsslein-Volhard, C

    1996-12-01

    This report describes mutants of the zebrafish having phenotypes causing a general arrest in early morphogenesis. These mutants identify a group of loci making up about 20% of the loci identified by mutants with visible morphological phenotypes within the first day of development. There are 12 Class I mutants, which fall into 5 complementation groups and have cells that lyse before morphological defects are observed. Mutants at three loci, speed bump, ogre and zombie, display abnormal nuclei. The 8 Class II mutants, which fall into 6 complementation groups, arrest development before cell lysis is observed. These mutants seemingly stop development in the late segmentation stages, and maintain a body shape similar to a 20 hour embryo. Mutations in speed bump, ogre, zombie, specter, poltergeist and troll were tested for cell lethality by transplanting mutant cells into wild-type hosts. With poltergeist, transplanted mutant cells all survive. The remainder of the mutants tested were autonomously but conditionally lethal: mutant cells, most of which lyse, sometimes survive to become notochord, muscles, or, in rare cases, large neurons, all cell types which become postmitotic in the gastrula. Some of the genes of the early arrest group may be necessary for progression though the cell cycle; if so, the survival of early differentiating cells may be based on having their terminal mitosis before the zygotic requirement for these genes. PMID:9007229

  5. Conditional DNA repair mutants enable highly precise genome engineering

    PubMed Central

    Nyerges, Ákos; Csörgő, Bálint; Nagy, István; Latinovics, Dóra; Szamecz, Béla; Pósfai, György; Pál, Csaba

    2014-01-01

    Oligonucleotide-mediated multiplex genome engineering is an important tool for bacterial genome editing. The efficient application of this technique requires the inactivation of the endogenous methyl-directed mismatch repair system that in turn leads to a drastically elevated genomic mutation rate and the consequent accumulation of undesired off-target mutations. Here, we present a novel strategy for mismatch repair evasion using temperature-sensitive DNA repair mutants and temporal inactivation of the mismatch repair protein complex in Escherichia coli. Our method relies on the transient suppression of DNA repair during mismatch carrying oligonucleotide integration. Using temperature-sensitive control of methyl-directed mismatch repair protein activity during multiplex genome engineering, we reduced the number of off-target mutations by 85%, concurrently maintaining highly efficient and unbiased allelic replacement. PMID:24500200

  6. Secretory pathway retention of mutant prion protein induces p38-MAPK activation and lethal disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Puig, Berta; Altmeppen, Hermann C; Ulbrich, Sarah; Linsenmeier, Luise; Krasemann, Susanne; Chakroun, Karima; Acevedo-Morantes, Claudia Y; Wille, Holger; Tatzelt, Jörg; Glatzel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Misfolding of proteins in the biosynthetic pathway in neurons may cause disturbed protein homeostasis and neurodegeneration. The prion protein (PrP(C)) is a GPI-anchored protein that resides at the plasma membrane and may be misfolded to PrP(Sc) leading to prion diseases. We show that a deletion in the C-terminal domain of PrP(C) (PrPΔ214-229) leads to partial retention in the secretory pathway causing a fatal neurodegenerative disease in mice that is partially rescued by co-expression of PrP(C). Transgenic (Tg(PrPΔ214-229)) mice show extensive neuronal loss in hippocampus and cerebellum and activation of p38-MAPK. In cell culture under stress conditions, PrPΔ214-229 accumulates in the Golgi apparatus possibly representing transit to the Rapid ER Stress-induced ExporT (RESET) pathway together with p38-MAPK activation. Here we describe a novel pathway linking retention of a GPI-anchored protein in the early secretory pathway to p38-MAPK activation and a neurodegenerative phenotype in transgenic mice. PMID:27117504

  7. Secretory pathway retention of mutant prion protein induces p38-MAPK activation and lethal disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Berta; Altmeppen, Hermann C.; Ulbrich, Sarah; Linsenmeier, Luise; Krasemann, Susanne; Chakroun, Karima; Acevedo-Morantes, Claudia Y.; Wille, Holger; Tatzelt, Jörg; Glatzel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Misfolding of proteins in the biosynthetic pathway in neurons may cause disturbed protein homeostasis and neurodegeneration. The prion protein (PrPC) is a GPI-anchored protein that resides at the plasma membrane and may be misfolded to PrPSc leading to prion diseases. We show that a deletion in the C-terminal domain of PrPC (PrPΔ214–229) leads to partial retention in the secretory pathway causing a fatal neurodegenerative disease in mice that is partially rescued by co-expression of PrPC. Transgenic (Tg(PrPΔ214–229)) mice show extensive neuronal loss in hippocampus and cerebellum and activation of p38-MAPK. In cell culture under stress conditions, PrPΔ214–229 accumulates in the Golgi apparatus possibly representing transit to the Rapid ER Stress-induced ExporT (RESET) pathway together with p38-MAPK activation. Here we describe a novel pathway linking retention of a GPI-anchored protein in the early secretory pathway to p38-MAPK activation and a neurodegenerative phenotype in transgenic mice. PMID:27117504

  8. Lethal cutaneous disease in transgenic mice conditionally expressing type I human T cell leukemia virus Tax.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hakju; Ogle, Louise; Benitez, Bobby; Bohuslav, Jan; Montano, Mauricio; Felsher, Dean W; Greene, Warner C

    2005-10-21

    Type I human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I) is etiologically linked with adult T cell leukemia, an aggressive and usually fatal expansion of activated CD4+ T lymphocytes that frequently traffic to skin. T cell transformation induced by HTLV-I involves the action of the 40-kDa viral Tax transactivator protein. Tax both stimulates the HTLV-I long terminal repeat and deregulates the expression of select cellular genes by altering the activity of specific host transcription factors, including cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)/activating transcription factor, NF-kappaB/Rel, and serum response factor. To study initiating events involved in HTLV-I Tax-induced T cell transformation, we generated "Tet-off" transgenic mice conditionally expressing in a lymphocyte-restricted manner (EmuSR alpha promoter-enhancer) either wild-type Tax or mutant forms of Tax that selectively compromise the NF-kappaB (M22) or CREB/activating transcription factor (M47) activation pathways. Wild-type Tax and M47 Tax-expressing mice, but not M22-Tax expressing mice, developed progressive alopecia, hyperkeratosis, and skin lesions containing profuse activated CD4 T cell infiltrates with evidence of deregulated inflammatory cytokine production. In addition, these animals displayed systemic lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. These findings suggest that Tax-mediated activation of NF-kappaB plays a key role in the development of this aggressive skin disease that shares several features in common with the skin disease occurring during the preleukemic stage in HTLV-I-infected patients. Of note, this skin disease completely resolved when Tax transgene expression was suppressed by administration of doxycycline, emphasizing the key role played by this viral oncoprotein in the observed pathology. PMID:16105841

  9. Producing Conditional Mutants for Studying Plant Microtubule Function

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Cyr

    2009-09-29

    The cytoskeleton, and in particular its microtubule component, participates in several processes that directly affect growth and development in higher plants. Normal cytoskeletal function requires the precise and orderly arrangement of microtubules into several cell cycle and developmentally specific arrays. One of these, the cortical array, is notable for its role in directing the deposition of cellulose (the most prominent polymer in the biosphere). An understanding of how these arrays form, and the molecular interactions that contribute to their function, is incomplete. To gain a better understanding of how microtubules work, we have been working to characterize mutants in critical cytoskeletal genes. This characterization is being carried out at the subcellular level using vital microtubule gene constructs. In the last year of funding colleagues have discovered that gamma-tubulin complexes form along the lengths of cortical microtubules where they act to spawn new microtubules at a characteristic 40 deg angle. This finding complements nicely the finding from our lab (which was funded by the DOE) showing that microtubule encounters are angle dependent; high angles encounters results in catastrophic collisions while low angle encounters result in favorable zippering. The finding of a 40 deg spawn of new microtubules from extant microtubule, together with aforementioned rules of encounters, insures favorable co-alignment in the array. I was invited to write a New and Views essay on this topic and a PDF is attached (News and Views policy does not permit funding acknowledgments and so I was not allowed to acknowledge support from the DOE).

  10. Burkholderia cenocepacia conditional growth mutant library created by random promoter replacement of essential genes

    PubMed Central

    Bloodworth, Ruhi A M; Gislason, April S; Cardona, Silvia T

    2013-01-01

    Identification of essential genes by construction of conditional knockouts with inducible promoters allows the identification of essential genes and creation of conditional growth (CG) mutants that are then available as genetic tools for further studies. We used large-scale transposon delivery of the rhamnose-inducible promoter, PrhaB followed by robotic screening of rhamnose-dependent growth to construct a genomic library of 106 Burkholderia cenocepacia CG mutants. Transposon insertions were found where PrhaB was in the same orientation of widely conserved, well-characterized essential genes as well as genes with no previous records of essentiality in other microorganisms. Using previously reported global gene-expression analyses, we demonstrate that PrhaB can achieve the wide dynamic range of expression levels required for essential genes when the promoter is delivered randomly and mutants with rhamnose-dependent growth are selected. We also show specific detection of the target of an antibiotic, novobiocin, by enhanced sensitivity of the corresponding CG mutant (PrhaB controlling gyrB expression) within the library. Modulation of gene expression to achieve 30–60% of wild-type growth created conditions for specific hypersensitivity demonstrating the value of the CG mutant library for chemogenomic experiments. In summary, CG mutants can be obtained on a large scale by random delivery of a tightly regulated inducible promoter into the bacterial chromosome followed by a simple screening for the CG phenotype, without previous information on gene essentiality. PMID:23389959

  11. Lethal body residues for pentachlorophenol in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) under varying conditions of temperature and pH.

    PubMed

    Fisher, S W; Hwang, H; Atanasoff, M; Landrum, P F

    1999-07-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) toxicity was measured in the zebra mussel under varying conditions of pH (6.5, 7.5, or 8.5) and temperature (10, 17, or 25 degrees C). Toxicity decreased significantly with increasing pH at all temperatures. At a given pH level, toxicity increased significantly with increasing temperature. PCP was most toxic at pH 6.5, 25 degrees C and least toxic at pH 8.5, 10 degrees C. Toxicokinetic parameters were determined at trace PCP concentrations under each combination of pH and temperature. Increasing temperature generally increased the PCP uptake clearance (ku) although elimination rate constants (kd) were unaffected. The effect of pH on toxicokinetic parameters was inconsistent but ku tended to decrease as pH and ionization of PCP increased. Lethal body residues (LR50s), estimated from kinetic parameters determined at trace PCP concentrations and the LC50 values, varied by a factor of 122 as a function of environmental conditions while LC50s varied by a factor of 381. LR50s were also estimated from the measured PCP tissue concentrations and varied by a factor of 8 across conditions. Calculated LR50s were always higher than measured LR50s, determined under identical conditions, by at least a factor of five. However, when LR50 values were recalculated using ku values measured at the LC25 concentration, the resulting adjusted LR50s varied only by a factor of 2.5 across the range of conditions studied and were more consistent with measured LR50 values. Thus, variance in the PCP concentration required to produce toxicity is reduced when LR50s are used in place of LC50s. Further, the method by which lethal residues (LR50 values) are determined can significantly affect the results and their interpretation. PMID:10381305

  12. Studies on radiosensitive lines of Drosophila. IX. Analysis of fertility and frequency of dominant lethal mutations in the gamma-irradiated females of the mutant line rad(2)201/sup G1/

    SciTech Connect

    Varentsova, E.R.; Sharygin, V.I.; Khromykh, Yu.M.

    1986-03-01

    Fertility and frequency of dominant lethal mutations (DLM) induced by gamma rays in females at the age of 0-5 h and 5-7 days were studied in the radiosensitive mutant rad(2)201/sup G1/ of Drosophila. It has been found that the oocytes of mutant lines are more radiosensitive as compared to those of the wild type flies when compared on the basis of DLM frequency obtained through the entire maturation period. The early oocytes of stages 2-7, i.e., at the stages corresponding to the recombination-defective properties of mutation rad(2)201/sup g1/ are the most sensitive. It has also been demonstrated that the gamma-ray doses exceeding 10 Gy cause a strong sterilizing effect in the mutant females as a result of destruction and resorption of the egg chamber, irradiated at the stages of previtellogenic growth of oocytes. In the radiosensitive mutant females, the sensitivity of the oocytes for DLM induction does not correlate with the sensitivity of the ovarian follicles toward the resorbing effect of gamma rays. The possible involvement of the mutant locus in the genetic processes in different specialized cells of the sexual pathway in Drosophila is discussed.

  13. A targeted deletion/insertion in the mouse Pcsk1 locus is associated with homozygous embryo preimplantation lethality, mutant allele preferential transmission and heterozygous female susceptibility to dietary fat.

    PubMed

    Mbikay, Majambu; Croissandeau, Gilles; Sirois, Francine; Anini, Younes; Mayne, Janice; Seidah, Nabil G; Chrétien, Michel

    2007-06-15

    Proprotein convertase 1 (PC1) is a neuroendocrine proteinase involved in the proteolytic activation of precursors to hormones and neuropeptides. To determine the physiological importance of PC1, we produced a mutant mouse from embryonic stem cells in which its locus (Pcsk1) had been inactivated by homologous recombination. The inactivating mutation consisted of a 32.7-kb internal deletion and a 1.8 kb insertion of the bacterial neomycin resistance gene (neo) under the mouse phosphoglycerate kinase 1 protein (PGKneo). Intercross of Pcsk1(+/-) mice produced no Pcsk1(-/-) offspring or blastocysts; in addition, more than 80% of the offspring were Pcsk1(+/-). These observations suggested that the mutation caused preimplantation lethality of homozygous embryos and preferential transmission of the mutant allele. Interestingly, RT-PCR analysis on RNA from endocrine tissues from Pcsk1(+/-) mice revealed the presence of aberrant transcripts specifying the N-terminal half of the PC1 propeptide fused to neo gene product. Mass spectrometric profiles of proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides in the anterior pituitary were similar between Pcsk1(+/-) and Pcsk1(+/+) mice, but significantly different between male and female mice of the same genotype. Relative to their wild-type counterparts, female mutant mice exhibited stunted growth under a low fat diet, and catch-up growth under a high-fat diet. The complex phenotype exhibited by this Pcsk1 mutant mouse model may be due to PC1 deficiency aggravated by expression of aberrant gene products from the mutant allele. PMID:17490633

  14. Isolation of Temperature-Sensitive Mutants of L-Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, L. H.; Mankovitz, R.; Baker, R. M.; Till, J. E.; Siminovitch, L.; Whitmore, G. F.

    1970-01-01

    Procedures are described for the isolation of conditional lethal mutants of mouse L-60T cells. The mutant lines were temperature sensitive by the following criteria: (a) colony-forming ability, (b) growth in suspension culture, and (c) rate of uptake of tritiated-thymidine. Images PMID:5271170

  15. Physiological and genetic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanin biosynthesis mutants under chronic adverse environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rothstein, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanin production is a characteristic response of flowering plants to unfavourable environmental conditions. The potential roles of flavonoids and anthocyanins in plant growth were investigated by growing Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanin production mutants (transparent testa) under limiting nitrogen and high light conditions. Inability to produce kaempferol or subsequent intermediate compounds by some transparent testa lines was correlated with less biomass accumulation in mature plants compared with wild-type control plants under all growth conditions tested. However, under both limiting nitrogen and high light chronic stress conditions, mutant lines defective in later steps of the anthocyanin production pathway produced the same or more biomass than wild-type plants. No difference in senescence between transparent testa and wild-type plants was found using chlorophyll catabolism and SAG12 expression measurements, and no mutants were impaired in the ability to remobilize nutrients from the vegetative to reproductive tissues. Moreover, the absence of anthocyanin and/or upstream flavonoids does not affect the ability of plants to respond to limiting nitrogen by reducing photosynthetic capacity. These results support a role for kaempferol and quercetin accumulation in normal plant growth and development. Further, the absence of anthocyanins has no effect on plant growth under the chronic stress conditions tested. PMID:23162120

  16. Thiamine Deficiency in Self-Induced Refeeding Syndrome, an Undetected and Potentially Lethal Condition

    PubMed Central

    Hershkowitz, Einat; Reshef, Alon; Munich, Olga; Yosefi, Bracha; Markel, Arie

    2014-01-01

    Rapid restoration of nutrients and electrolytes after prolonged starvation could result in a life threatening condition characterized by sensory and neurological dysfunction and severe metabolic imbalance that has been designated as refeeding syndrome. Its diagnosis is frequently missed resulting in severe complications and even death. We describe a 25-years-old female patient with mental disorders and severe malnutrition who developed severe clinical manifestations and biochemical abnormalities characteristic of the refeeding syndrome, after restarting oral feeding on her own. Schizophrenia was later diagnosed. Increased awareness of this condition and its complications is necessary to prevent its detrimental complications. PMID:25614745

  17. Mycobacterium tuberculosis ECF sigma factor sigC is required for lethality in mice and for the conditional expression of a defined gene set.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ronggai; Converse, Paul J; Ko, Chiew; Tyagi, Sandeep; Morrison, Norman E; Bishai, William R

    2004-04-01

    Bacterial alternative RNA polymerase sigma factors are key global adaptive response regulators with a likely role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis. We constructed a mutant lacking the sigma factor gene, sigC, by allelic exchange, in the virulent CDC1551 strain of M. tuberculosis and compared the resulting mutant with the isogenic wild-type strain and complemented mutant strain. In vitro, compared to the wild-type and complemented strains, the mutant was found to have similar ability to survive in both murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and activated J774 macrophages. In time-to-death experiments in the mouse model, the DeltasigC mutant was significantly attenuated, causing no death in infected mice whereas the wild-type and complemented strains caused 100% mortality within 235 days after aerosol infection with a median time to death of 170 days. Mouse organ bacterial burdens indicated that the mutant proliferated and persisted at the same level as the wild-type and complemented strains in lung tissue and was able to persist in mice without causing death for > 300 days. A complete genomic microarray study demonstrated that SigC modulates the expression of several key virulence-associated genes including hspX, senX3 and mtrA, encoding the alpha-crystallin homologue, a two-component sensor kinase and a two-component response regulator respectively. Altered expression of a subset of these genes was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Analysis of genes modulated by SigC also revealed a putative consensus DNA recognition sequence for SigC of SSSAAT-N(16-20)-CGTSSS (S = C or G). Promoter recognition for one of these genes was confirmed by in vitro transcription analysis after purification of recombinant SigC and reconstitution of an Esigma(C) RNA polymerase holoenzyme. These data indicate that the M. tuberculosis transcription factor SigC governs expression of an important M. tuberculosis regulon and is essential for lethality in mice, but is not required for bacterial survival in this species. These observations place the DeltasigC mutant in a class of M. tuberculosis mutants which persist in tissues but are attenuated in their ability to elicit lethal immunopathology. PMID:15049808

  18. Conditional Budding Yeast Mutants with Temperature-Sensitive and Auxin-Inducible Degrons for Screening of Suppressor Genes.

    PubMed

    Devrekanli, Asli; Kanemaki, Masato T

    2016-01-01

    The conditional control of protein expression is useful to characterize the function of proteins, especially of those that are essential for cell viability. Two degron-based systems, temperature-sensitive and auxin-inducible degrons, can be used to generate conditional mutants of budding yeast, simply by transforming appropriate cells with PCR-amplified DNA. We describe a protocol for the generation of temperature-sensitive and auxin-inducible degron mutants. We also show that a conditional mutant with few spontaneous revertants was generated by combining two degron systems for the Inn1 protein. Finally, we describe a suppressor screening method that uses the dual degron-Inn1 mutant to identify mutant proteins that suppress Inn1-K31A, which has a defect in cytokinesis. PMID:26519318

  19. Partial Müllerian Duct Retention in Smad4 Conditional Mutant Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Fabrice G.; Deng, Chuxia; Jamin, Soazik P.

    2016-01-01

    Müllerian duct regression is a complex process which involves the AMH signalling pathway. We have previously demonstrated that besides AMH and its specific type II receptor (AMHRII), BMPR-IA and Smad5 are two essential factors implicated in this mechanism. Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (Smad4) is a transcription factor and the common Smad (co-Smad) involved in transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signalling pathway superfamily. Since Smad4 null mutants die early during gastrulation, we have inactivated Smad4 in the Müllerian duct mesenchyme. Specific inactivation of Smad4 in the urogenital ridge leads to the partial persistence of the Müllerian duct in adult male mice. Careful examination of the urogenital tract reveals that the Müllerian duct retention is randomly distributed either on one side or both sides. Histological analysis shows a uterus-like structure, which is confirmed by the expression of estrogen receptor α. As previously described in a β-catenin conditional mutant mouse model, β-catenin contributes to Müllerian duct regression. In our mutant male embryos, it appears that β-catenin expression is locally reduced along the urogenital ridge as compared to control mice. Moreover, the expression pattern is similar to those observed in control female mice. This study shows that reduced Smad4 expression disrupts the Wnt/β-catenin signalling leading to the partial persistence of Müllerian duct. PMID:27194944

  20. Modulation of phenolic metabolism under stress conditions in a Lotus japonicus mutant lacking plastidic glutamine synthetase.

    PubMed

    García-Calderón, Margarita; Pons-Ferrer, Teresa; Mrázova, Anna; Pal'ove-Balang, Peter; Vilková, Mária; Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M; Vega, José M; Eliášová, Adriana; Repčák, Miroslav; Márquez, Antonio J; Betti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper was aimed to investigate the possible implications of the lack of plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS2) in phenolic metabolism during stress responses in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Important changes in the transcriptome were detected in a GS2 mutant called Ljgln2-2, compared to the wild type, in response to two separate stress conditions, such as drought or the result of the impairment of the photorespiratory cycle. Detailed transcriptomic analysis showed that the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds was affected in the mutant plants in these two different types of stress situations. For this reason, the genes and metabolites related to this metabolic route were further investigated using a combined approach of gene expression analysis and metabolite profiling. A high induction of the expression of several genes for the biosynthesis of different branches of the phenolic biosynthetic pathway was detected by qRT-PCR. The extent of induction was always higher in Ljgln2-2, probably reflecting the higher stress levels present in this genotype. This was paralleled by accumulation of several kaempferol and quercetine glycosides, some of them described for the first time in L. japonicus, and of high levels of the isoflavonoid vestitol. The results obtained indicate that the absence of GS2 affects different aspects of phenolic metabolism in L. japonicus plants in response to stress. PMID:26442073

  1. Modulation of phenolic metabolism under stress conditions in a Lotus japonicus mutant lacking plastidic glutamine synthetase

    PubMed Central

    García-Calderón, Margarita; Pons-Ferrer, Teresa; Mrázova, Anna; Pal'ove-Balang, Peter; Vilková, Mária; Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M.; Vega, José M.; Eliášová, Adriana; Repčák, Miroslav; Márquez, Antonio J.; Betti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper was aimed to investigate the possible implications of the lack of plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS2) in phenolic metabolism during stress responses in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Important changes in the transcriptome were detected in a GS2 mutant called Ljgln2-2, compared to the wild type, in response to two separate stress conditions, such as drought or the result of the impairment of the photorespiratory cycle. Detailed transcriptomic analysis showed that the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds was affected in the mutant plants in these two different types of stress situations. For this reason, the genes and metabolites related to this metabolic route were further investigated using a combined approach of gene expression analysis and metabolite profiling. A high induction of the expression of several genes for the biosynthesis of different branches of the phenolic biosynthetic pathway was detected by qRT-PCR. The extent of induction was always higher in Ljgln2-2, probably reflecting the higher stress levels present in this genotype. This was paralleled by accumulation of several kaempferol and quercetine glycosides, some of them described for the first time in L. japonicus, and of high levels of the isoflavonoid vestitol. The results obtained indicate that the absence of GS2 affects different aspects of phenolic metabolism in L. japonicus plants in response to stress. PMID:26442073

  2. Development of Inducible Systems To Engineer Conditional Mutants of Essential Genes of Helicobacter pylori?

    PubMed Central

    Boneca, Ivo G.; Ecobichon, Chantal; Chaput, Catherine; Mathieu, Aurlie; Guadagnini, Stphanie; Prvost, Marie-Christine; Colland, Frdric; Labigne, Agns; de Reuse, Hilde

    2008-01-01

    The Escherichia coli-Helicobacter pylori shuttle vector pHeL2 was modified to introduce the inducible LacIq-pTac system of E. coli, in which the promoters were engineered to be under the control of H. pylori RNA polymerase. The amiE gene promoter of H. pylori was taken to constitutively express the LacIq repressor. Expression of the reporter gene lacZ was driven by either pTac (pILL2150) or a modified version of the ureI gene promoter in which one or two LacI-binding sites and/or mutated nucleotides between the ribosomal binding site and the ATG start codon (pILL2153 and pILL2157) were introduced. Promoter activity was evaluated by measuring ?-galactosidase activity. pILL2150 is a tightly regulated expression system suitable for the analysis of genes with low-level expression, while pILL2157 is well adapted for the controlled expression of genes encoding recombinant proteins in H. pylori. To exemplify the usefulness of these tools, we constructed conditional mutants of the putative essential pbp1 and ftsI genes encoding penicillin-binding proteins 1 and 3 of H. pylori, respectively. Both genes were cloned into pILL2150 and introduced in the parental H. pylori strain N6. The chromosomally harbored pbp1 and ftsI genes were then inactivated by replacing them with a nonpolar kanamycin cassette. Inactivation was strictly dependent upon addition of isopropyl-?-d-thiogalactopyranoside. Hence, we were able to construct the first conditional mutants of H. pylori. Finally, we demonstrated that following in vitro methylation of the recombinant plasmids, these could be introduced into a large variety of H. pylori isolates with different genetic backgrounds. PMID:18245237

  3. Conditional tradeoffs between aging and organismal performance of Indy long-lived mutant flies.

    PubMed

    Marden, James H; Rogina, Blanka; Montooth, Kristi L; Helfand, Stephen L

    2003-03-18

    Alterations that extend the life span of animals and yeast typically involve decreases in metabolic rate, growth, physical activity, and/or early-life fecundity. This negative correlation between life span and the ability to assimilate and process energy, to move, grow, and reproduce, raises questions about the potential utility of life span extension. Tradeoffs between early-life fitness and longevity are central to theories of the evolution of aging, which suggests there is necessarily a price to be paid for reducing the rate of aging. It is not yet clear whether life span can be extended without undesirable effects on metabolism and fecundity. Here, we report that the long-lived Indy mutation in Drosophila causes a decrease in the slope of the mortality curve consistent with a slowing in the rate of aging without a concomitant reduction in resting metabolic rate, flight velocity, or age-specific fecundity under normal rearing conditions. However, Indy mutants on a decreased-calorie diet have reduced fecundity, suggesting that a tradeoff between longevity and this aspect of performance is conditional, i.e., the tradeoff can occur in a stressful environment while being absent in a more favorable environment. These results provide evidence that there do exist mechanisms, albeit conditional, that can extend life span without significant reduction in fecundity, metabolic rate, or locomotion. PMID:12626742

  4. Genetic and phenotypic analysis of herpes simplex virus type 1 mutants conditionally resistant to immune cytolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Pancake, B A; Aschman, D P; Schaffer, P A

    1983-01-01

    Nine temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1 selected for their inability to render cells susceptible to immune cytolysis after infection at the nonpermissive temperature have been characterized genetically and phenotypically. The mutations in four mutants were mapped physically by marker rescue and assigned to functional groups by complementation analysis. In an effort to determine the molecular basis for cytolysis resistance, cells infected with each of the nine mutants were monitored for the synthesis of viral glycoprotein in total cell extracts and for the presence of these glycoproteins in plasma membranes. The four mutants whose ts mutations were mapped were selected with polypeptide-specific antiserum to glycoproteins gA and gB; however, three of the four mutations mapped to DNA sequences outside the limits of the structural gene specifying these glycoproteins. Combined complementation and phenotypic analysis indicates that the fourth mutation also lies elsewhere. The ts mutations in five additional cytolysis-resistant mutants could not be rescued with single cloned DNA fragments representing the entire herpes simplex virus type 1 genome, suggesting that these mutants may possess multiple mutations. Complementation tests with the four mutants whose ts lesions had been mapped physically demonstrated that each represents a new viral gene. Examination of mutant-infected cells at the nonpermissive temperature for the presence of viral glycoproteins in total cell extracts and in membranes at the cell surface demonstrated that (i) none of the five major viral glycoproteins was detected in extracts of cells infected with one mutant, suggesting that this mutant is defective in a very early function; (ii) cells infected with six of the nine mutants exhibited greatly reduced levels of all the major viral glycoproteins at the infected cell surface, indicating that these mutants possess defects in the synthesis or processing of viral glycoproteins; and (iii) in cells infected with one mutant, all viral glycoproteins were precipitable at the surface of the infected cell, despite the resistance of these cells to cytolysis. This mutant is most likely mutated in a gene affecting a late stage in glycoprotein processing, leading to altered presentation of glycoproteins at the plasma membrane. The finding that the synthesis of both gB and gC was affected coordinately in cells infected with six of the nine mutants suggests that synthesis of these two glycoproteins, their transport to the cell surface, or their insertion into plasma membranes is coordinately regulated. Images PMID:6312082

  5. Phenotypes of Campylobacter jejuni luxS Mutants Are Depending on Strain Background, Kind of Mutation and Experimental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Linda; Alter, Thomas; Sharbati, Soroush; Gölz, Greta

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery that Campylobacter (C.) jejuni produces Autoinducer 2 (AI-2), various studies have been conducted to explore the function and role of AI-2 in C. jejuni. However, the interpretation of these analyses has been complicated by differences in strain backgrounds, kind of mutation and culture conditions used. Furthermore, all research on AI-2 dependent phenotypes has been conducted with AI-2 synthase (luxS) mutants. This mutation also leads to a disruption of the activated-methyl-cycle. Most studies lack sufficient complementation resulting in not knowing whether phenotypes of luxS mutants depend on disrupted metabolism or lack of AI-2. Additionally, no AI-2 receptor has been found yet. All this contributes to an intensive discussion about the exact role of AI-2 in C. jejuni. Therefore, we examined the impact of different experiment settings on three different C. jejuni luxS mutants on growth and motility (37°C and 42°C). Our study showed that differing phenotypes of C. jejuni luxS mutants depend on strain background, mutation strategy and culture conditions. Furthermore, we complemented experiments with synthetic AI-2 or homocysteine as well as the combination of both. Complementation with AI-2 and AI-2+homocysteine significantly increased the cell number of C. jejuni NCTC 11168ΔluxS in stationary phase compared to the non-complemented C. jejuni NCTC 11168ΔluxS mutant. Genetic complementation of both C. jejuni 81-176 luxS mutants resulted in wild type comparable growth curves. Also swarming ability could be partially complemented. While genetic complementation restored swarming abilities of C. jejuni 81-176ΔluxS, it did not fully restore the phenotype of C. jejuni 81-176::luxS, which indicates that compensatory mutations in other parts of the chromosome and/or potential polar effects may appear in this mutant strain. Also with neither synthetic complementation, the phenotype of the wild type-strains was achieved, suggesting yet another reason for differing phenotypes other than communication and methionine metabolism for C. jejuni luxS mutants. PMID:25093839

  6. The tomato res mutant which accumulates JA in roots in non-stressed conditions restores cell structure alterations under salinity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Abellan, José O; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Lopez-Berenguer, Carmen; Egea, Isabel; Flores, Francisco B; Angosto, Trinidad; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael; Pineda, Benito; Moreno, Vicente; Olmos, Enrique; Bolarin, Maria C

    2015-11-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) regulates a wide spectrum of plant biological processes, from plant development to stress defense responses. The role of JA in plant response to salt stress is scarcely known, and even less known is the specific response in root, the main plant organ responsible for ionic uptake and transport to the shoot. Here we report the characterization of the first tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant, named res (restored cell structure by salinity), that accumulates JA in roots prior to exposure to stress. The res tomato mutant presented remarkable growth inhibition and displayed important morphological alterations and cellular disorganization in roots and leaves under control conditions, while these alterations disappeared when the res mutant plants were grown under salt stress. Reciprocal grafting between res and wild type (WT) (tomato cv. Moneymaker) indicated that the main organ responsible for the development of alterations was the root. The JA-signaling pathway is activated in res roots prior to stress, with transcripts levels being even higher in control condition than in salinity. Future studies on this mutant will provide significant advances in the knowledge of JA role in root in salt-stress tolerance response, as well as in the energy trade-off between plant growth and response to stress. PMID:25582191

  7. The Activity of Nodules of the Supernodulating Mutant Mtsunn Is not Limited by Photosynthesis under Optimal Growth Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cabeza, Ricardo A.; Lingner, Annika; Liese, Rebecca; Sulieman, Saad; Senbayram, Mehmet; Tränkner, Merle; Dittert, Klaus; Schulze, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Legumes match the nodule number to the N demand of the plant. When a mutation in the regulatory mechanism deprives the plant of that ability, an excessive number of nodules are formed. These mutants show low productivity in the fields, mainly due to the high carbon burden caused through the necessity to supply numerous nodules. The objective of this study was to clarify whether through optimal conditions for growth and CO2 assimilation a higher nodule activity of a supernodulating mutant of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) can be induced. Several experimental approaches reveal that under the conditions of our experiments, the nitrogen fixation of the supernodulating mutant, designated as sunn (super numeric nodules), was not limited by photosynthesis. Higher specific nitrogen fixation activity could not be induced through short- or long-term increases in CO2 assimilation around shoots. Furthermore, a whole plant P depletion induced a decline in nitrogen fixation, however this decline did not occur significantly earlier in sunn plants, nor was it more intense compared to the wild-type. However, a distinctly different pattern of nitrogen fixation during the day/night cycles of the experiment indicates that the control of N2 fixing activity of the large number of nodules is an additional problem for the productivity of supernodulating mutants. PMID:24727372

  8. Suppression of neuroinflammation in forebrain-specific Cdk5 conditional knockout mice by PPARγ agonist improves neuronal loss and early lethality

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is essential for brain development and function, and its deregulated expression is implicated in some of neurodegenerative diseases. We reported earlier that the forebrain-specific Cdk5 conditional knockout (cKO) mice displayed an early lethality associated with neuroinflammation, increased expression of the neuronal tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), and neuronal migration defects. Methods In order to suppress neuroinflammation in the cKO mice, we first treated these mice with pioglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, and analyzed its effects on neuronal loss and longevity. In a second approach, to delineate the precise role of tPA in neuroinflammation in these mice, we generated Cdk5 cKO; tPA double knockout (dKO) mice. Results We found that pioglitazone treatment significantly reduced astrogliosis, microgliosis, neuronal loss and behavioral deficit in Cdk5 cKO mice. Interestingly, the dKO mice displayed a partial reversal in astrogliosis, but they still died at early age, suggesting that the increased expression of tPA in the cKO mice does not contribute significantly to the pathological process leading to neuroinflammation, neuronal loss and early lethality. Conclusion The suppression of neuroinflammation in Cdk5 cKO mice ameliorates gliosis and neuronal loss, thus suggesting the potential beneficial effects of the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone for the treatment for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24495352

  9. Fluctuation Analysis: The Probability Distribution of the Number of Mutants under Different Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, F. M.; Gordon, D. M.; Levin, B. R.

    1990-01-01

    In the 47 years since fluctuation analysis was introduced by Luria and Delbruck, it has been widely used to calculate mutation rates. Up to now, in spite of the importance of such calculations, the probability distribution of the number of mutants that will appear in a fluctuation experiment has been known only under the restrictive, and possibly unrealistic, assumptions: (1) that the mutation rate is exactly proportional to the growth rate and (2) that all mutants grow at a rate that is a constant multiple of the growth rate of the original cells. In this paper, we approach the distribution of the number of mutants from a new point of view that will enable researchers to calculate the distribution to be expected using assumptions that they believe to be closer to biological reality. The new idea is to classify mutations according to the number of observable mutants that derive from the mutation when the culture is selectively plated. This approach also simplifies the calculations in situations where two, or many, kinds of mutation may occur in a single culture. PMID:2307353

  10. Development of Synthetic Lethality Anticancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The concept of synthetic lethality (the creation of a lethal phenotype from the combined effects of mutations in two or more genes) has recently been exploited in various efforts to develop new genotype-selective anticancer therapeutics. These efforts include screening for novel anticancer agents, identifying novel therapeutic targets, characterizing mechanisms of resistance to targeted therapy, and improving efficacies through the rational design of combination therapy. This review discusses recent developments in synthetic lethality anticancer therapeutics, including poly ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors for BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutant cancers, checkpoint inhibitors for p53 mutant cancers, and small molecule agents targeting RAS gene mutant cancers. Because cancers are caused by mutations in multiple genes and abnormalities in multiple signaling pathways, synthetic lethality for a specific tumor suppressor gene or oncogene is likely cell context-dependent. Delineation of the mechanisms underlying synthetic lethality and identification of treatment response biomarkers will be critical for the success of synthetic lethality anticancer therapy. PMID:24893124

  11. Conditional poliovirus mutants made by random deletion mutagenesis of infectious cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkegaard, K; Nelsen, B

    1990-01-01

    Small deletions were introduced into DNA plasmids bearing cDNA copies of Mahoney type 1 poliovirus RNA. The procedure used was similar to that of P. Hearing and T. Shenk (J. Mol. Biol. 167:809-822, 1983), with modifications designed to introduce only one lesion randomly into each DNA molecule. Methods to map small deletions in either large DNA or RNA molecules were employed. Two poliovirus mutants, VP1-101 and VP1-102, were selected from mutagenized populations on the basis of their host range phenotype, showing a large reduction in the relative numbers of plaques on CV1 and HeLa cells compared with wild-type virus. The deletions borne by the mutant genomes were mapped to the region encoding the amino terminus of VP1. That these lesions were responsible for the mutant phenotypes was substantiated by reintroduction of the sequenced lesions into a wild-type poliovirus cDNA by deoxyoligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. The deletion of nucleotides encoding amino acids 8 and 9 of VP1 was responsible for the VP1-101 phenotype; the VP1-102 defect was caused by the deletion of the sequences encoding the first four amino acids of VP1. The peptide sequence at the VP1-VP3 proteolytic cleavage site was altered from glutamine-glycine to glutamine-methionine in VP1-102; this apparently did not alter the proteolytic cleavage pattern. The biochemical defects resulting from these mutations are discussed in the accompanying report. Images PMID:2152811

  12. Conditions supporting repair of potentially lethal damage cause a significant reduction of ultraviolet light-induced division delay in synchronized and plateau-phase Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iliakis, G.; Nusse, M.

    1982-09-01

    Repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) induced by uv light in synchronized and in plateau-phase cultures of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells was studied by measuring cell survival. In particlar the influence of conditions supporting repair of PLD on growth kinetics was investigated. In synchronized G/sub 1/, S, or G/sub 2/ + M cells as well as in plateau-phase cells, uv light induced, almost exclusively, delay in the next S phase. A significant decrease of this delay was observed when the cells were incubated for 24 hr in balanced salt solution. Repair of PLD after uv irradiation was found to occur in plateau-phase cells and in cells in different phases of the cell cycle provided that after irradiation these were kept under conditions inhibiting cell multiplication (incubation in balanced salt solution or in conditioned medium). The repair time constant t/sub 50/ was significantly higher than those found for X irradiation (5-10 hr compared to 2 hr), and repair was not significantly inhibited by either 20 ..mu..g/ml cycloheximide or 2 mM caffeine in 24 hr.

  13. Conditioned taste aversion memory and c-Fos induction are disrupted in RIIbeta-protein kinase A mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Koh, Ming Teng; Clarke, Sharon N D A; Spray, Kristina J; Thiele, Todd E; Bernstein, Ilene L

    2003-07-14

    The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) signaling pathway has been implicated in many forms of learning. The present studies examined conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning, an amygdala-dependent task, in mice with a targeted disruption of a gene for a specific regulatory subunit of PKA (RIIbeta), which is selectively expressed in amygdala. Null mutant (RIIbeta(-/-)) mice and littermate controls (RIIbeta(+/+)) were tested for protein synthesis-independent short-term memory (STM) and protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory (LTM) for CTAs. The ability of the unconditioned stimulus (US) drug, LiCl, to induce c-Fos in regions thought to be important in this learning was also determined. RIIbeta(-/-) mice showed significant impairment in CTA memory when tested 24h after training (LTM). In contrast, STM was normal. With regard to the c-Fos response to LiCl, the US drug, significant elevations were evident in brainstem (nucleus of the solitary tract) and pontine (parabrachial nucleus) regions, in mutants as well as wild-type controls. However, in amygdala, elevations were seen in controls but were absent in the mutants. These findings suggest that disruption of PKA signaling interferes with LTM consolidation of CTA and that a possible mediator of this effect is interference with c-Fos expression in amygdala which may be necessary for CTA memory. PMID:12842296

  14. Generating conditional mutants to analyze ciliary functions: the use of Cre-lox technology to disrupt cilia in specific organs.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Amber K; Kesterson, Robert A; Yoder, Bradley K

    2009-01-01

    The list of human disordered associated with cilia dysfunction, the ciliopathies, continues to highlight the importance of understanding the many roles of the long overlooked primary cilium. Much of the insights into the clinical importance of the cilium have come from analyses in model organisms, especially the mouse. However, the early embryonic lethality and severe developmental defects associated with cilia disruption has hindered progress in exploring cilia functions in late development or in adult tissues. This hurdle is being surmounted through the use of conditional alleles of genes encoding ciliary proteins and Cre deletor lines with inducible Cre activity or with lines expressing Cre in a cell-type-specific manner. Results from these approaches are providing important insights into the diverse array of cellular and tissue activities regulated by the cilium. Here we provide a recent account of the Cre/lox strategy. The generation and use of well-designed conditional alleles, as well as careful manipulation of embryonic stem cells are discussed. We also provide specific examples to illustrate the use of Cre/lox approaches to evaluate ciliary function in several tissues. With the recent characterization of multiple cilia proteomes along with efforts of several consortia to generate conditional alleles of all genes in the mouse, further use of conditional mutation approaches promise to yield many advances and surprises as we explore the functions of this increasingly complex organelle. PMID:20409823

  15. Conditional deletion of beta1 integrins in the intestinal epithelium causes a loss of Hedgehog expression, intestinal hyperplasia, and early postnatal lethality.

    PubMed

    Jones, Robert G; Li, Xiufen; Gray, Phillip D; Kuang, Jinqiu; Clayton, Frederic; Samowitz, Wade S; Madison, Blair B; Gumucio, Deborah L; Kuwada, Scott K

    2006-11-01

    Conditional deletion of beta1 integrins in the intestinal epithelium, unlike in epidermal and mammary epithelia, of mice does not result in decreased cell adhesion and proliferation, but instead causes a profound increase in epithelial proliferation with dysplasia and polypoid structures. The increased epithelial proliferation inhibited epithelial differentiation that caused severe malnutrition and early postnatal lethality. The striking similarities between beta1 integrin-deleted mice and neonatal mice with defective Hedgehog signaling led to the discovery that Hedgehog expression was markedly reduced in the former mice. beta1 integrins were found to drive the expression of Hedgehogs in intestinal epithelial cells in an HNF-3beta (Foxa2)-dependent fashion. The expression of Tcf-4, a transcription factor known to be required for intestinal epithelial stem cell proliferation, was increased and mislocalized in the intestinal epithelia of the beta1 integrin-deleted mice and in newborn mice treated with the Hedgehog signaling inhibitor cyclopamine. This study shows that beta1 integrins are key regulators of proliferation and homeostasis in the intestine and achieve this not through anchorage-dependent effects but by generating Hh expression and signaling. PMID:17088430

  16. Intronic T-DNA insertion renders Arabidopsis opr3 a conditional jasmonic acid-producing mutant.

    PubMed

    Chehab, E Wassim; Kim, Se; Savchenko, Tatyana; Kliebenstein, Daniel; Dehesh, Katayoon; Braam, Janet

    2011-06-01

    Jasmonic acid and its derived metabolites (JAs) orchestrate plant defense against insects and fungi. 12-Oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), a JA precursor, has also been implicated in plant defense. We sought to define JAs and OPDA functions through comparative defense susceptibility characteristics of three Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genotypes: aos, lacking JAs and OPDA; opda reductase3 (opr3), deficient in JA production but can accumulate OPDA; and transgenics that overexpress OPR3. opr3, like aos, is susceptible to cabbage loopers (Trichoplusia ni) but, relative to aos, opr3 has enhanced resistance to a necrotrophic fungus. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry reveals that opr3 produces OPDA but no detectable JAs following wounding and looper infestation; unexpectedly, substantial levels of JAs accumulate in opr3 upon fungal infection. Full-length OPR3 transcripts accumulate in fungal-infected opr3, potentially through splicing of the T-DNA containing intron. Fungal resistance correlates with levels of JAs not OPDA; therefore, opr3 resistance to some pests is likely due to JA accumulation, and signaling activities ascribed to OPDA should be reassessed because opr3 can produce JAs. Together these data (1) reinforce the primary role JAs play in plant defense against insects and necrotrophic fungi, (2) argue for a reassessment of signaling activities ascribed to OPDA, and (3) provide evidence that mutants with intron insertions can retain gene function. PMID:21487047

  17. Mutant characterization and in vivo conditional repression identify aromatic amino acid biosynthesis to be essential for Aspergillus fumigatus virulence.

    PubMed

    Sasse, Anna; Hamer, Stefanie N; Amich, Jorge; Binder, Jasmin; Krappmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenicity of the saprobe Aspergillus fumigatus strictly depends on nutrient acquisition during infection, as fungal growth determines colonisation and invasion of a susceptible host. Primary metabolism has to be considered as a valid target for antimycotic therapy, based on the fact that several fungal anabolic pathways are not conserved in higher eukaryotes. To test whether fungal proliferation during invasive aspergillosis relies on endogenous biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids, defined auxotrophic mutants of A. fumigatus were generated and assessed for their infectious capacities in neutropenic mice and found to be strongly attenuated in virulence. Moreover, essentiality of the complete biosynthetic pathway could be demonstrated, corroborated by conditional gene expression in infected animals and inhibitor studies. This brief report not only validates the aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathway of A. fumigatus to be a promising antifungal target but furthermore demonstrates feasibility of conditional gene expression in a murine infection model of aspergillosis. PMID:26605426

  18. Conditional Auxin Response and Differential Cytokinin Profiles in Shoot Branching Mutants1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Young, Naomi F.; Ferguson, Brett J.; Antoniadi, Ioanna; Bennett, Mark H.; Beveridge, Christine A.; Turnbull, Colin G.N.

    2014-01-01

    Strigolactone (SL), auxin, and cytokinin (CK) are hormones that interact to regulate shoot branching. For example, several ramosus (rms) branching mutants in pea (Pisum sativum) have SL defects, perturbed xylem CK levels, and diminished responses to auxin in shoot decapitation assays. In contrast with the last of these characteristics, we discovered that buds on isolated nodes (explants) of rms plants instead respond normally to auxin. We hypothesized that the presence or absence of attached roots would result in transcriptional and hormonal differences in buds and subtending stem tissues, and might underlie the differential auxin response. However, decapitated plants and explants both showed similar up-regulation of CK biosynthesis genes, increased CK levels, and down-regulation of auxin transport genes. Moreover, auxin application counteracted these trends, regardless of the effectiveness of auxin at inhibiting bud growth. Multivariate analysis revealed that stem transcript and CK changes were largely associated with decapitation and/or root removal and auxin response, whereas bud transcript profiles related more to SL defects. CK clustering profiles were indicative of additional zeatin-type CKs in decapitated stems being supplied by roots and thus promoting bud growth in SL-deficient genotypes even in the presence of added auxin. This difference in CK content may explain why rms buds on explants respond better to auxin than those on decapitated plants. We further conclude that rapid changes in CK status in stems are auxin dependent but largely SL independent, suggesting a model in which auxin and CK are dominant regulators of decapitation-induced branching, whereas SLs are more important in intact plants. PMID:24904042

  19. Characterization of a conditional interleukin-1 receptor 1 mouse mutant using the Cre/LoxP system.

    PubMed

    Abdulaal, Wesam H; Walker, Catherine R; Costello, Ryan; Redondo-Castro, Elena; Mufazalov, Ilgiz A; Papaemmanouil, Athina; Rothwell, Nancy J; Allan, Stuart M; Waisman, Ari; Pinteaux, Emmanuel; Müller, Werner

    2016-04-01

    IL-1 is a key cytokine known to drive chronic inflammation and to regulate many physiological, immunological, and neuroimmunological responses via actions on diverse cell types of the body. To determine the mechanisms of IL-1 actions as part of the inflammatory response in vivo, we generated a conditional IL-1 receptor 1 (IL-1R1) mouse mutant using the Cre/LoxP system (IL-1R1(fl/fl) ). In the mutant generated, exon 5, which encodes part of the extracellular-binding region of the receptor, is flanked by LoxP sites, thereby inactivating the two previously described functional IL-1R1 gene transcripts after Cre-mediated recombination. Using keratin 14-Cre driver mice, new IL-1R1 deficient (-/-) mice were subsequently generated, in which all signaling IL-1 receptor isoforms are deleted ubiquitously. Furthermore, using vav-iCre driver mice, we deleted IL-1 receptor isoforms in the hematopoietic system. In these mice, we show that both the IL-17 and IL-22 cytokine response is reduced, when mice are challenged by the helminth Trichuris muris. We are currently crossing IL-1R1(fl/fl) mice with different Cre-expressing mice in order to study mechanisms of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26692072

  20. iAID: an improved auxin-inducible degron system for the construction of a 'tight' conditional mutant in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Seiji; Miyazawa-Onami, Mayumi; Iida, Tetsushi; Araki, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    Isolation of a 'tight' conditional mutant of a gene of interest is an effective way of studying the functions of essential genes. Strategies that use ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation to eliminate the product of a gene of interest, such as heat-inducible degron (td) and auxin-inducible degron (AID), are powerful methods for constructing conditional mutants. However, these methods do not work with some genes. Here, we describe an improved AID system (iAID) for isolating tight conditional mutants in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this method, transcriptional repression by the 'Tet-OFF' promoter is combined with proteolytic elimination of the target protein by the AID system. To provide examples, we describe the construction of tight mutants of the replication factors Dpb11 and Mcm10, dpb11-iAID, and mcm10-iAID. Because Dpb11 and Mcm10 are required for the initiation of DNA replication, their tight mutants are unable to enter S phase. This is the case for dpb11-iAID and mcm10-iAID cells after the addition of tetracycline and auxin. Both the 'Tet-OFF' promoter and the AID system have been shown to work in model eukaryotes other than budding yeast. Therefore, the iAID system is not only useful in budding yeast, but also can be applied to other model systems to isolate tight conditional mutants. PMID:26081484

  1. Condition stabilization for Aspergillus niger FCBP-198 and its hyperactive mutants to yield high titres of alpha-amylase.

    PubMed

    Shafique, Sobiya; Bajwa, Rukhsana; Shafique, Shazia

    2010-01-01

    A number of substrates were tested for the cultivation of microorganisms to produce a host of enzymes. The effect of different substrates (wheat and rice straw, sugar cane waste, wood waste), incubation temperatures (20-40 degrees C), initial pH levels (3.5-9.0), incubation periods (0-72 hours) and nitrogen sources (ammonium sulfate, urea, peptone, yeast extract, sodium nitrate) on growth and alpha-amylase activity was studied for the native and mutant strains. Maximum enzyme activity was observed at 1.5% wheat straw for Aspergillus niger FCBP-198 and An-Ch-4.7 and at 2% wheat straw for An-UV-5.6, with sodium nitrate as a principle nitrogen source. The optimum temperature for maximum enzyme activity was 30 degrees C for the parental strain, while An-UV-5.6 and An-Ch-4.7 thrived well at 32.5 degrees C. The best conditions of pH and incubation duration were 4.5 and 48 hours, respectively, for all the strains. Mass production under preoptimized growth conditions demonstrated the suitability of wheat straw for swift mycelial colonization and viability. PMID:20734811

  2. Strong morphological defects in conditional Arabidopsis abp1 knock-down mutants generated in absence of functional ABP1 protein

    PubMed Central

    Perrot-Rechenmann, Catherine; Friml, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    The Auxin Binding Protein 1 (ABP1) is one of the most studied proteins in plants. Since decades ago, it has been the prime receptor candidate for the plant hormone auxin with a plethora of described functions in auxin signaling and development. The developmental importance of ABP1 has recently been questioned by identification of Arabidopsis thaliana abp1 knock-out alleles that show no obvious phenotypes under normal growth conditions. In this study, we examined the contradiction between the normal growth and development of the abp1 knock-outs and the strong morphological defects observed in three different ethanol-inducible abp1 knock-down mutants ( abp1-AS, SS12K, SS12S). By analyzing segregating populations of abp1 knock-out vs. abp1 knock-down crosses we show that the strong morphological defects that were believed to be the result of conditional down-regulation of ABP1 can be reproduced also in the absence of the functional ABP1 protein. This data suggests that the phenotypes in  abp1 knock-down lines are due to the off-target effects and asks for further reflections on the biological function of ABP1 or alternative explanations for the missing phenotypic defects in the abp1 loss-of-function alleles. PMID:26925228

  3. The conditional connexin43G138R mouse mutant represents a new model of hereditary oculodentodigital dysplasia in humans

    PubMed Central

    Dobrowolski, Radoslaw; Sasse, Philipp; Schrickel, Jan W.; Watkins, Marcus; Kim, Jung-Sun; Rackauskas, Mindaugas; Troatz, Clemens; Ghanem, Alexander; Tiemann, Klaus; Degen, Joachim; Bukauskas, Feliksas F.; Civitelli, Roberto; Lewalter, Thorsten; Fleischmann, Bernd K.; Willecke, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD) is a dominant negatively inherited disorder with variable but characteristic anomalies of the fingers and toes, eyes, face and teeth, which are caused by mutations in the connexin 43 (Cx43) gene. All mutations analyzed so far have a negative influence on the conductance through gap junctional channels and hemichannels, as well as trafficking of Cx43 protein in transfected cells. In this study, we inserted the human Cx43G138R point mutation into the mouse Cx43 gene and generated mice conditionally expressing this mutation. All ODDD phenotypic manifestations observed in humans, including syndactyly and enamel hypoplasia as well as craniofacial, bone and heart anomalies, were also observed with significant penetrance in Cx43G138R mice. When this mutation was specifically expressed in cardiomyocytes, characteristic alterations in the electrocardiogram and spontaneous arrhythmias were recorded. In vitro studies with Cx43G138R-expressing cells revealed loss of the Cx43 P2 phosphorylation state, which was also absent in the mutated hearts. This loss has previously been associated with gap junctional dysfunction and increased cellular ATP release. The Cx43G138R mutated mice show significantly increased arrhythmogeneity ex vivo in Langendorff experiments with explanted hearts and in vivo in particular under hypoxic conditions. Our results suggest that the increased activity of ATP-releasing channels in Cx43G138R mutated cardiomyocytes may further reduce the already decreased gap junctional communication and thus aggravate arrhythmogenesis in the mouse mutant. PMID:18003637

  4. LT(R192G), a non-toxic mutant of the heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli, elicits enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses associated with protection against lethal oral challenge with Salmonella spp.

    PubMed

    Chong, C; Friberg, M; Clements, J D

    1998-04-01

    In the current study we examined the ability of a novel mucosal adjuvant, LT(R192G), to enhance the humoral and cellular immune responses against killed Salmonella spp. and to affect protection against lethal oral challenge with wild-type organisms. Mice orally immunized with killed S. dublin in conjunction with LT(R192G) were protected against lethal oral challenge and had higher IFN-gamma, IL-2 and IgG responses than did mice orally immunized with killed S. dublin alone which were not protected. This study demonstrates that the function of LT(R192G) in protection against typhoid-like disease is to upregulate/enhance the Th1 arm of the immune response against killed organisms. When used as a mucosal adjuvant, LT(R192G) enables the use of killed bacteria or viruses as vaccines by enhancing the overall humoral and cellular host immune response to these organisms, especially the Th1 arm of the immune response. These findings have significant implications for vaccine development and further support the potential of LT(R192G) to function as a safe, effective adjuvant for mucosally administered vaccines. PMID:9562694

  5. Complementation of the embryo-lethal T-DNA insertion mutant of AUXIN-BINDING-PROTEIN 1 (ABP1) with abp1 point mutated versions reveals crosstalk of ABP1 and phytochromes.

    PubMed

    Effendi, Yunus; Ferro, Noel; Labusch, Corinna; Geisler, Markus; Scherer, Günther F E

    2015-01-01

    The function of the extracytoplasmic AUXIN-BINDING-PROTEIN1 (ABP1) is largely enigmatic. We complemented a homozygous T-DNA insertion null mutant of ABP1 in Arabidopsis thaliana Wassilewskia with three mutated and one wild-type (wt) ABP1 cDNA, all tagged C-terminally with a strepII-FLAG tag upstream the KDEL signal. Based on in silico modelling, the abp1 mutants were predicted to have altered geometries of the auxin binding pocket and calculated auxin binding energies lower than the wt. Phenotypes linked to auxin transport were compromised in these three complemented abp1 mutants. Red light effects, such as elongation of hypocotyls in constant red (R) and far-red (FR) light, in white light supplemented by FR light simulating shade, and inhibition of gravitropism by R or FR, were all compromised in the complemented lines. Using auxin- or light-induced expression of marker genes, we showed that auxin-induced expression was delayed already after 10 min, and light-induced expression within 60 min, even though TIR1/AFB or phyB are thought to act as receptors relevant for gene expression regulation. The expression of marker genes in seedlings responding to both auxin and shade showed that for both stimuli regulation of marker gene expression was altered after 10-20 min in the wild type and phyB mutant. The rapidity of expression responses provides a framework for the mechanics of functional interaction of ABP1 and phyB to trigger interwoven signalling pathways. PMID:25392478

  6. Selection of Streptomyces ambofaciens mutants that produce large quantities of spiramycin and determination of optimal conditions for spiramycin production.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, L M; Eaton, T E; Godfrey, O W

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a strategy to isolate a morphologically stable mutant of Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC 15154 which produced high titers of spiramycin. The rationale was to grow a nitrosoguanidine-mutated population for many generations under nonselective conditions followed by two cycles of protoplast formation and regeneration. A total of 2,400 surviving colonies were then screened for spiramycin production and subsequently checked for stability. From this experiment, strain 6-37 was isolated that produced 181 mg of spiramycin per liter and only one morphological type. The parent strain (ATCC 15154) produced 107 mg of spiramycin per liter and four morphological types. Strain 6-37 was then mutated with nitrosoguanidine, and 14,000 colonies were screened for spiramycin production. From this experiment, five strains were isolated that produced titers ranging from 187 to 373 mg of spiramycin per liter. Subsequent media and time studies with these strains resulted in a fermentation that produced 1,728 mg of spiramycin per liter. PMID:2268160

  7. Production of infectious RNA transcripts from Sindbis virus cDNA clones: mapping of lethal mutations, rescue of a temperature-sensitive marker, and in vitro mutagenesis to generate defined mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, C M; Levis, R; Strauss, J H; Huang, H V

    1987-01-01

    We constructed full-length cDNA clones of Sindbis virus that can be transcribed in vitro by SP6 RNA polymerase to produce infectious genome-length transcripts. Viruses produced from in vitro transcripts are identical to Sindbis virus and show strain-specific phenotypes reflecting the source of RNA used for cDNA synthesis. The cDNA clones were used to confirm the mapping of the causal mutation of ts2 to the capsid protein. A general strategy for mapping Sindbis virus mutations is described and was used to identify two lethal mutations in an original full-length construct which did not produce infectious transcripts. An XbaI linker was inserted in the cDNA clone near the transcriptional start of the subgenomic mRNA; the resulting virus retains the XbaI recognition sequence, thus providing formal evidence that viruses are derived from in vitro transcripts of cDNA clones. The potential applications of the cDNA clones are discussed. Images PMID:3479621

  8. Protection from genital herpes disease, seroconversion and latent infection in a non-lethal murine genital infection model by immunization with an HSV-2 replication-defective mutant virus.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Fernando M; Knipe, David M

    2016-01-15

    Viral vaccines have traditionally protected against disease, but for viruses that establish latent infection, it is desirable for the vaccine to reduce infection to reduce latent infection and reactivation. While seroconversion has been used in clinical trials of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccines to measure protection from infection, this has not been modeled in animal infection systems. To measure the ability of a genital herpes vaccine candidate to protect against various aspects of infection, we established a non-lethal murine model of genital HSV-2 infection, an ELISA assay to measure antibodies specific for infected cell protein 8 (ICP8), and a very sensitive qPCR assay. Using these assays, we observed that immunization with HSV-2 dl5-29 virus reduced disease, viral shedding, seroconversion, and latent infection by the HSV-2 challenge virus. Therefore, it may be feasible to obtain protection against genital disease, seroconversion and latent infection by immunization, even if sterilizing immunity is not achieved. PMID:26609935

  9. Lethal familial protracted diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Candy, D C A; Larcher, V F; Cameron, D J S; Norman, A P; Tripp, J H; Milla, P J; Pincott, J R; Harries, J T

    1981-01-01

    24 children with severe protracted diarrhoea from 10 families, in which at least one sibling was affected, are reported. In two families the siblings were from 1st-cousin marriages, in one family both parents had unaffected children from previous marriages, and in another family the mother had a normal daughter from an earlier marriage. The onset of the diarrhoea was on the first day of life in 12 infants, some time during the first 17 days in 10, and at 13 weeks and 1 year 6 days in the remaining two. In each case the diarrhoea was `cholera-like'. Investigations failed to show any of the established causes of protracted diarrhoea and 21 (87·5%) infants died after an illness that had lasted between 12 days and 6 years 38 weeks, despite periods of prolonged intravenous feeding and the administration of a wide variety of pharmacological agents. The 2 patients who recovered appeared to do so spontaneously. 14 (58%) had associated extra-gastrointestinal or gastrointestinal-related anomalies. Steady-state perfusion studies were performed in the proximal jejunum of 2 patients, and in the colon of one. In both cases the jejunum was in a net secretory state with respect to water, glucose absorption was markedly reduced, and the transmural potential difference was also depressed; in one of these patients fructose absorption was also reduced, and in the other colonic function appeared to be normal. These studies suggest that the diarrhoea resulted from small intestinal secretion overwhelming the reabsorptive capacity of a normally-functioning colon. Although this series of lethal protracted diarrhoea does not represent a single disease entity, the familial pattern suggests an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance for at least one of the conditions. ImagesFigure PMID:7469448

  10. Comparative study of the function of polytene chromosomes in laboratory stocks of Drosophila melanogaster and the l(3)tl mutant (lethal tumorous larvae). II. Changes of banding pattern and transcriptional activity in the salivary chromosome of l(3)tl.

    PubMed

    Zhimulev, I F; Belyaeva, E S; Lychev, V A

    1976-04-21

    The salivary chromosomes of the l(3)tl mutant of D. melanogaster are considerably thicker and shorter than those of normal larvae. In most nuclei, chromosome shortening is associated with morphological changes of two types. a) The bands lose their distinctive pattern and become loose. The chromosome appears as a granular mass. In extreme cases pompon-like chromosomes arise. Most frequently male X-chromosomes undergo such changes and begin to shorten as early as in the middle of third larval instar. "Pompon" transformation is not associated with a change in the relative intensity of RNA synthesis: the ratio of silver grain number over the male X-chromosome to that over regions 61A-63F is the same in pompon-like l(3)tl chromosomes and in the male and female X-chromosomes of the normal lines. b) Shortened chromosomes occassionally retain distinct band organization and, in these cases, chromosome shortening is observed to be due to the condensation of the chromatin of many puffs and interbands resulting in the fusion of a large number of bands into "new" chromatin blocks. In regions of fused bands, transcriptional activity is decreased as compared with regions where this union does not occur. The chromosomes of l(3)tl larvae lack ecdysone-stimulated puffs and other prominent puffs. In 144-192 hour larvae, puffs can be induced by ecdysone and until 384 hours by temperature shock. The capacity of puff induction decreases with larval age. PMID:816620

  11. A Survey of New Temperature-Sensitive, Embryonic-Lethal Mutations in C. elegans: 24 Alleles of Thirteen Genes

    PubMed Central

    O'Rourke, Sean M.; Garner, Aleena R.; Hamill, Danielle R.; Osterberg, Valerie R.; Lyczak, Rebecca; Madison, Erin E.; Nguyen, Michael H.; Sandberg, Nathan A.; Sedghi, Noushin; Willis, John H.; Yochem, John; Johnson, Eric A.; Bowerman, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    To study essential maternal gene requirements in the early C. elegans embryo, we have screened for temperature-sensitive, embryonic lethal mutations in an effort to bypass essential zygotic requirements for such genes during larval and adult germline development. With conditional alleles, multiple essential requirements can be examined by shifting at different times from the permissive temperature of 15C to the restrictive temperature of 26C. Here we describe 24 conditional mutations that affect 13 different loci and report the identity of the gene mutations responsible for the conditional lethality in 22 of the mutants. All but four are mis-sense mutations, with two mutations affecting splice sites, another creating an in-frame deletion, and one creating a premature stop codon. Almost all of the mis-sense mutations affect residues conserved in orthologs, and thus may be useful for engineering conditional mutations in other organisms. We find that 62% of the mutants display additional phenotypes when shifted to the restrictive temperature as L1 larvae, in addition to causing embryonic lethality after L4 upshifts. Remarkably, we also found that 13 out of the 24 mutations appear to be fast-acting, making them particularly useful for careful dissection of multiple essential requirements. Our findings highlight the value of C. elegans for identifying useful temperature-sensitive mutations in essential genes, and provide new insights into the requirements for some of the affected loci. PMID:21390299

  12. A survey of new temperature-sensitive, embryonic-lethal mutations in C. elegans: 24 alleles of thirteen genes.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    O'Rourke SM; Carter C; Carter L; Christensen SN; Jones MP; Nash B; Price MH; Turnbull DW; Garner AR; Hamill DR; Osterberg VR; Lyczak R; Madison EE; Nguyen MH; Sandberg NA; Sedghi N; Willis JH; Yochem J; Johnson EA; Bowerman B

    2011-01-01

    To study essential maternal gene requirements in the early C. elegans embryo, we have screened for temperature-sensitive, embryonic lethal mutations in an effort to bypass essential zygotic requirements for such genes during larval and adult germline development. With conditional alleles, multiple essential requirements can be examined by shifting at different times from the permissive temperature of 15C to the restrictive temperature of 26C. Here we describe 24 conditional mutations that affect 13 different loci and report the identity of the gene mutations responsible for the conditional lethality in 22 of the mutants. All but four are mis-sense mutations, with two mutations affecting splice sites, another creating an in-frame deletion, and one creating a premature stop codon. Almost all of the mis-sense mutations affect residues conserved in orthologs, and thus may be useful for engineering conditional mutations in other organisms. We find that 62% of the mutants display additional phenotypes when shifted to the restrictive temperature as L1 larvae, in addition to causing embryonic lethality after L4 upshifts. Remarkably, we also found that 13 out of the 24 mutations appear to be fast-acting, making them particularly useful for careful dissection of multiple essential requirements. Our findings highlight the value of C. elegans for identifying useful temperature-sensitive mutations in essential genes, and provide new insights into the requirements for some of the affected loci.

  13. Metabolic flux analysis of Escherichia coli creB and arcA mutants reveals shared control of carbon catabolism under microaerobic growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Nikel, Pablo I; Zhu, Jiangfeng; San, Ka-Yiu; Méndez, Beatriz S; Bennett, George N

    2009-09-01

    Escherichia coli has several elaborate sensing mechanisms for response to availability of oxygen and other electron acceptors, as well as the carbon source in the surrounding environment. Among them, the CreBC and ArcAB two-component signal transduction systems are responsible for regulation of carbon source utilization and redox control in response to oxygen availability, respectively. We assessed the role of CreBC and ArcAB in regulating the central carbon metabolism of E. coli under microaerobic conditions by means of (13)C-labeling experiments in chemostat cultures of a wild-type strain, DeltacreB and DeltaarcA single mutants, and a DeltacreB DeltaarcA double mutant. Continuous cultures were conducted at D = 0.1 h(-1) under carbon-limited conditions with restricted oxygen supply. Although all experimental strains metabolized glucose mainly through the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, mutant strains had significantly lower fluxes in both the oxidative and the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathways. Significant differences were also found at the pyruvate branching point. Both pyruvate-formate lyase and the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex contributed to acetyl-coenzyme A synthesis from pyruvate, and their activity seemed to be modulated by both ArcAB and CreBC. Strains carrying the creB deletion showed a higher biomass yield on glucose compared to the wild-type strain and its DeltaarcA derivative, which also correlated with higher fluxes from building blocks to biomass. Glyoxylate shunt and lactate dehydrogenase were active mainly in the DeltaarcA strain. Finally, it was observed that the tricarboxylic acid cycle reactions operated in a rather cyclic fashion under our experimental conditions, with reduced activity in the mutant strains. PMID:19561129

  14. Heat Shock Transcriptional Responses in an MC-Producing Cyanobacterium (Planktothrix agardhii) and Its MC-Deficient Mutant under High Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thi Du Chi; Bernard, Cecile; Ammar, Myriam; Chaouch, Soraya; Comte, Katia

    2013-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are the most commonly-reported hepatotoxins produced by various cyanobacterial taxa in fresh waters to constitute a potential threat to human and animal health. The biological role of MCs in the producer organisms is not known, and it would be very useful to understand the driving force behind the toxin production. Recent studies have suggested that MCs may have a protective function in cells facing environmental stress. Following this starting premise, we speculate that under adverse conditions the expression of stress-related genes coding for Heat Shock Proteins (Hsp) might be different in an MC-producing strain and its MC-deficient mutant. We therefore used RT-qPCR to compare the expression of 13 hsp genes of an MC-producing strain of Planktothrix agardhii (CYA126/8) and its MC-deficient ΔmcyD mutant over different periods of exposure to high light stress (HL). Three reference genes (RGs) were selected from six candidates to normalize the RT-qPCR data. Of these three RGs (rsh, rpoD, and gltA), gltA is used here for the first time as an RG in prokaryotes. Under HL stress, five genes were found to be strongly up-regulated in both strains (htpG, dnaK, hspA, groES, and groEL). Unexpectedly, we found that the MC-producing wild type strain accumulated higher levels of htpG and dnaK transcripts in response to HL stress than the MC-deficient mutant. In addition, a significant increase in the mcyE transcript was detected in the mutant, suggesting that MCs are required under HL conditions. We discuss several possible roles of MCs in the response to HL stress through their possible involvement in the protective mechanisms of the cells. PMID:24023831

  15. Electroshock weapons can be lethal!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2008-03-01

    Electroshock weapons (EWs)-stun guns, tasers, riot shields-are electroconductive devices designed to safely incapacitate healthy men neuromuscularly, so they are called nonlethal or less-lethal. EW firms seeking large nonmilitary markets targeted law enforcement and corrections personnel, who began using EWs in prisons/jails and on public patrol in 1980 in the USA. This shifted the EW-shocked population from healthy soldiers to a heterogeneous mix of both sexes, ages 6-92, in a wide variety of health conditions! An EW operates by disrupting normal physiological processes, producing transient effects in healthy people. But if a person's health is sufficiently compromised, the margin of safety can be lost, resulting in death or permanent health problems. 325 people have died after EW shock since 1980. Did the EW cause these deaths? Evidence indicates that EWs do play a causal role in most such deaths. EWs can be lethal for people in diabetic shock^1 (hypoglycemia), which may be why Robert Dziekanski-a Polish immigrant to Canada-died so quickly after he was tasered at Vancouver Airport: not having eaten for over 10 hours, he likely was severely hypoglycemic. The EW death rate in North America is 30 times higher than need be, because EW users have not been properly trained to use EWs on a heterogeneous population safely! ^1J. Clinical Engineering 30(3):111(2005).

  16. Strategy for enhanced transgenic strain development for embryonic conditionnal lethality in Anastrepha suspensa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here the first reproductive sterility system for the tephritid pest, Anastrepha suspensa, is presented, based on lethality primarily in embryos heterozygous for a lethal conditional transgene combination. The tetracycline-suppressible system uses the cellularization-specific A. suspensa serendipity...

  17. Endothelial cell specification in the somite is compromised in Pax3-positive progenitors of Foxc1/2 conditional mutants, with loss of forelimb myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mayeuf-Louchart, Alicia; Montarras, Didier; Bodin, Catherine; Kume, Tsutomu; Vincent, Stéphane D; Buckingham, Margaret

    2016-03-01

    Pax3 and Foxc2 have been shown genetically to mutually repress each other in the mouse somite. Perturbation of this balance in multipotent cells of the dermomyotome influences cell fate; upregulation of Foxc2 favours a vascular fate, whereas higher levels of Pax3 lead to myogenesis. Foxc1 has overlapping functions with Foxc2. In Foxc1/2 double-mutant embryos, somitogenesis is severely affected, precluding analysis of somite derivatives. We have adopted a conditional approach whereby mutations in Foxc1 and Foxc2 genes were targeted to Pax3-expressing cells. Inclusion of a conditional reporter allele in the crosses made it possible to follow cells that had expressed Pax3. At the forelimb level, endothelial and myogenic cells migrate from adjacent somites into the limb bud. This population of endothelial cells is compromised in the double mutant, whereas excessive production of myogenic cells is observed in the trunk. However, strikingly, myogenic progenitors fail to enter the limbs, leading to the absence of skeletal muscle. Pax3-positive migratory myogenic progenitors, marked by expression of Lbx1, are specified in the somite at forelimb level, but endothelial progenitors are absent. The myogenic progenitors do not die, but differentiate prematurely adjacent to the somite. We conclude that the small proportion of somite-derived endothelial cells in the limb is required for the migration of myogenic limb progenitors. PMID:26839363

  18. Dynamics of Mitochondrial RNA-Binding Protein Complex in Trypanosoma brucei and Its Petite Mutant under Optimized Immobilization Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhenqiu; Kaltenbrunner, Sabine; imkov, Eva; Stan?k, David

    2014-01-01

    There are a variety of complex metabolic processes ongoing simultaneously in the single, large mitochondrion of Trypanosoma brucei. Understanding the organellar environment and dynamics of mitochondrial proteins requires quantitative measurement in vivo. In this study, we have validated a method for immobilizing both procyclic stage (PS) and bloodstream stage (BS) T. brucei brucei with a high level of cell viability over several hours and verified its suitability for undertaking fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), with mitochondrion-targeted yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Next, we used this method for comparative analysis of the translational diffusion of mitochondrial RNA-binding protein 1 (MRP1) in the BS and in T. b. evansi. The latter flagellate is like petite mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae because it lacks organelle-encoded nucleic acids. FRAP measurement of YFP-tagged MRP1 in both cell lines illuminated from a new perspective how the absence or presence of RNA affects proteins involved in mitochondrial RNA metabolism. This work represents the first attempt to examine this process in live trypanosomes. PMID:25063375

  19. Exome sequencing for gene discovery in lethal fetal disorders--harnessing the value of extreme phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Filges, Isabel; Friedman, Jan M

    2015-10-01

    Massively parallel sequencing has revolutionized our understanding of Mendelian disorders, and many novel genes have been discovered to cause disease phenotypes when mutant. At the same time, next-generation sequencing approaches have enabled non-invasive prenatal testing of free fetal DNA in maternal blood. However, little attention has been paid to using whole exome and genome sequencing strategies for gene identification in fetal disorders that are lethal in utero, because they can appear to be sporadic and Mendelian inheritance may be missed. We present challenges and advantages of applying next-generation sequencing approaches to gene discovery in fetal malformation phenotypes and review recent successful discovery approaches. We discuss the implication and significance of recessive inheritance and cross-species phenotyping in fetal lethal conditions. Whole exome sequencing can be used in individual families with undiagnosed lethal congenital anomaly syndromes to discover causal mutations, provided that prior to data analysis, the fetal phenotype can be correlated to a particular developmental pathway in embryogenesis. Cross-species phenotyping allows providing further evidence for causality of discovered variants in genes involved in those extremely rare phenotypes and will increase our knowledge about normal and abnormal human developmental processes. Ultimately, families will benefit from the option of early prenatal diagnosis. PMID:25046514

  20. Alterations in peptidoglycan chemical composition associated with rod-to-sphere transition in a conditional mutant of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, R; Canepari, P; Satta, G

    1979-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae Mir M7 is a spontaneous parentless morphology mutant which grows as cocci at pH 7 and as rods at pH 5.8. This strain has been characterized as defective in lateral wall formation (at pH7). Data suggest that the cell wall is mainly made up of poles of the rods (G. Satta, R. Fontana, P. Canepari, and G. Botta, J. Bacteriol. 137:727--734, 1979). In this work the isolation and the biochemical properties of the peptidoglycan of both Mir M7 rods and cocci and a nonconditional rod-shaped Mir M7 revertant (strain Mir A12) are described. The peptidoglycan of Mir M7 (both rods and cocci) and Mir A12 strains carried covalently bound proteins which could be easily removed by pronase treatment in Mir M7 rods and Mir A12 cells, but not in Mir M7 round cells. However, when the sodium dodecyl sulfate-insoluble residues of Mir M7 cocci were pretreated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), pronase digestion removed the covalently bound proteins, and pure peptidoglycan was obtained. EDTA treatment of the rigid layer of Mir M7 cocci removed amounts of Mg2+ and Ca2+, which were 10- and 50-fold higher, respectively, than the amount liberated from the rigid layer of Mir M7 rods and Mir A12 cells. Amino acid composition was qualitatively similar in both strains, but Mir M7 cocci contained a higher amount of alanine and glucosamine. Mir M7 cocci contained approximately 50% less peptidoglycan than rods. Under electron microscopy, the rigid layer of the Mir M7 rods and Mir A12 cells appeared to be rod-shaped and their shape remained unchanged after EDTA and pronase treatment. On the contrary, the Mir M7 cocci rigid layer appeared to be round, and after EDTA treatment it collapsed and lost any definite morphology. In spite of these alterations, the peptidoglycan of Mir M7 cocci still appeared able to determine the shape of the cell and protect it from osmotic shock and mechanical damages. The accumluation of divalent cations appeared necessary for the peptidoglycan to acquire sufficient rigidity for shape determination and cell protection. We concluded that the coccal shape in Mir M7 cells is not due to loss of cell wall rigidity but is a consequence of the formation of a round peptidoglycan molecule. The possibility that the alterations found in the Mir M7 cocci rigid layer may reflect natural differences in the biochemical composition of the septa and lateral wall of normally shaped bacteria is discussed. Images PMID:113382

  1. Lethality test system

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, W.M.; Sims, J.R.; Parker, J.V.

    1986-01-01

    The Lethality Test System (LTS), presently under construction at Los Alamos, is an electromagnetic launcher facility designed to perform impact experiments at velocities up to 15 km/s. The launcher is a 25 mm round bore, plasma armature railgun extending 22 m in length. Preinjection is accomplished with a two-stage gas gun capable of 7 km/s. The railgun power supply utilizes traction motors, vacuum interrupters, and pulse transformers. An assembly of 28 traction motors, equipped with flywheels, stores approximately 80 MJ at 92% of full speed and energizes the primary windings of three pulse transformers at a current of 50 kA. At peak current an array of vacuum interrupters disconnects the transformer primary windings and forces the current to flow in the secondary windings. The secondary windings are connected to the railgun, and by staging the vacuum interrupter openings, a 1 MA to 1.3 MA ramped current waveform will be delivered to the railgun.

  2. Elemental concentrations in the seed of mutants and natural variants of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under varying soil conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentrations of mineral nutrients in seeds are critical to both the life cycle of plants as well as human nutrition. These concentrations are strongly influenced by soil conditions, as shown here by quantifying the concentration of 14 elements in seeds from Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown un...

  3. Severity of mutant phenotype in a series of chlorophyll-deficient wheat mutants depends on light intensity and the severity of the block in chlorophyll synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Falbel, T G; Meehl, J B; Staehelin, L A

    1996-01-01

    Analyses of a series of allelic chlorina mutants of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which have partial blocks in chlorophyll (Chl) synthesis and, therefore, a limited Chl supply, reinforce the principle that Chl is required for the stable accumulation of Chl-binding proteins and that only reaction centers accumulate when the supply of Chl is severely limited. Depending on the rate of Chl accumulation (determined by the severity of the mutation) and on the rate of turnover of Chl and its precursors (determined by the environment in which the plant is grown), the mutants each reach an equilibrium of Chl synthesis and degradation. Together these mutants generate a spectrum of phenotypes. Under the harshest conditions (high illumination), plants with moderate blocks in Chl synthesis have membranes with very little Chl and Chl-proteins and membrane stacks resembling the thylakoids of the lethal xantha mutants of barely grown at low to medium light intensities (which have more severe blocks). In contrast, when grown under low-light conditions the same plants with moderate blocks have thylakoids resembling those of the wild type. The wide range of phenotypes of Chl b-deficient mutants has historically produced more confusion than enlightenment, but incomparable growth conditions can now explain the discrepancies reported in the literature. PMID:8883392

  4. Gene Expressing and sRNA Sequencing Show That Gene Differentiation Associates with a Yellow Acer palmatum Mutant Leaf in Different Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu-Shun; Li, Qian-Zhong; Rong, Li-Ping; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Acer palmatum Thunb., like other maples, is a widely ornamental-use small woody tree for leaf shapes and colors. Interestingly, we found a yellow-leaves mutant “Jingling Huangfeng” turned to green when grown in shade or low-density light condition. In order to study the potential mechanism, we performed high-throughput sequencing and obtained 1,082 DEGs in leaves grown in different light conditions that result in A. palmatum significant morphological and physiological changes. A total of 989 DEGs were annotated and clustered, of which many DEGs were found associating with the photosynthesis activity and pigment synthesis. The expression of CHS and FDR gene was higher while the expression of FLS gene was lower in full-sunlight condition; this may cause more colorful substance like chalcone and anthocyanin that were produced in full-light condition, thus turning the foliage to yellow. Moreover, this is the first available miRNA collection which contains 67 miRNAs of A. palmatum, including 46 conserved miRNAs and 21 novel miRNAs. To get better understanding of which pathways these miRNAs involved, 102 Unigenes were found to be potential targets of them. These results will provide valuable genetic resources for further study on the molecular mechanisms of Acer palmatum leaf coloration. PMID:26788511

  5. Analysis of vaccinia virus temperature-sensitive I7L mutants reveals two potential functional domains

    PubMed Central

    Moerdyk, Megan J; Byrd, Chelsea M; Hruby, Dennis E

    2006-01-01

    As an approach to initiating a structure-function analysis of the vaccinia virus I7L core protein proteinase, a collection of conditional-lethal mutants in which the mutation had been mapped to the I7L locus were subjected to genomic sequencing and phenotypic analyses. Mutations in six vaccinia virus I7L temperature sensitive mutants fall into two groups: changes at three positions at the N-terminal end between amino acids 29 and 37 and two different substitutions at amino acid 344, near the catalytic domain. Regardless of the position of the mutation, mutants at the non-permissive temperature failed to cleave core protein precursors and had their development arrested prior to core condensation. Thus it appears that the two clusters of mutations may affect two different functional domains required for proteinase activity. PMID:16945137

  6. Mice Lacking Ras-GRF1 Show Contextual Fear Conditioning but not Spatial Memory Impairments: Convergent Evidence from Two Independently Generated Mouse Mutant Lines

    PubMed Central

    d’Isa, Raffaele; Clapcote, Steven J.; Voikar, Vootele; Wolfer, David P.; Giese, Karl Peter; Brambilla, Riccardo; Fasano, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    Ras-GRF1 is a neuronal specific guanine exchange factor that, once activated by both ionotropic and metabotropic neurotransmitter receptors, can stimulate Ras proteins, leading to long-term phosphorylation of downstream signaling. The two available reports on the behavior of two independently generated Ras-GRF1 deficient mouse lines provide contrasting evidence on the role of Ras-GRF1 in spatial memory and contextual fear conditioning. These discrepancies may be due to the distinct alterations introduced in the mouse genome by gene targeting in the two lines that could differentially affect expression of nearby genes located in the imprinted region containing the Ras-grf1 locus. In order to determine the real contribution of Ras-GRF1 to spatial memory we compared in Morris Water Maze learning Brambilla’s mice with a third mouse line (GENA53) in which a non-sense mutation was introduced in the Ras-GRF1 coding region without additional changes in the genome and we found that memory in this task is normal. Also, we measured both contextual and cued fear conditioning, which were previously reported to be affected in Brambilla’s mice, and we confirmed that contextual learning but not cued conditioning is impaired in both mouse lines. In addition, we also tested both lines for the first time in conditioned place aversion in the Intellicage, an ecological and remotely controlled behavioral test, and we observed normal learning. Finally, based on previous reports of other mutant lines suggesting that Ras-GRF1 may control body weight, we also measured this non-cognitive phenotype and we confirmed that both Ras-GRF1 deficient mutants are smaller than their control littermates. In conclusion, we demonstrate that Ras-GRF1 has no unique role in spatial memory while its function in contextual fear conditioning is likely to be due not only to its involvement in amygdala functions but possibly to some distinct hippocampal connections specific to contextual learning. PMID:22164138

  7. Cortical efferents lacking mutant huntingtin improve striatal neuronal activity and behavior in a conditional mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Sánchez, Ana María; Burroughs, Courtney L; Cavaliere, Stephen; Barton, Scott J; Chen, Shirley; Yang, X William; Rebec, George V

    2015-03-11

    Abnormal electrophysiological activity in the striatum, which receives dense innervation from the cerebral cortex, is believed to set the stage for the behavioral phenotype observed in Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative condition caused by mutation of the huntingtin (mhtt) protein. However, cortical involvement is far from clear. To determine whether abnormal striatal processing can be explained by mhtt alone (cell-autonomous model) or by mhtt in the corticostriatal projection cell-cell interaction model, we used BACHD/Emx1-Cre (BE) mice, a conditional HD model in which full-length mhtt is genetically reduced in cortical output neurons, including those that project to the striatum. Animals were assessed beginning at 20 weeks of age for at least the next 40 weeks, a range over which presymptomatic BACHD mice become symptomatic. Both open-field and nest-building behavior deteriorated progressively in BACHD mice relative to both BE and wild-type (WT) mice. Neuronal activity patterns in the dorsal striatum, which receives input from the primary motor cortex (M1), followed a similar age progression because BACHD activity changed more rapidly than either BE or WT mice. However, in the M1, BE neuronal activity differed significantly from both WT and BACHD. Although abnormal cortical activity in BE mice likely reflects input from mhtt-expressing afferents, including cortical interneurons, improvements in BE striatal activity and behavior suggest a critical role for mhtt in cortical output neurons in shaping the onset and progression of striatal dysfunction. PMID:25762686

  8. A Conditional Mouse Mutant in the Tumor Suppressor SdhD Gene Unveils a Link between p21WAF1/Cip1 Induction and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Millán-Uclés, África; Díaz-Castro, Blanca; García-Flores, Paula; Báez, Alicia; Pérez-Simón, José Antonio; López-Barneo, José; Piruat, José I.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in mitochondrial complex II (MCII; succinate dehydrogenase, Sdh) genes cause familiar pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma tumors. Several mechanisms have been proposed to account for Sdh-mutation-induced tumorigenesis, the most accepted of which is based on the constitutive expression of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (Hif1α) at normal oxygen tension, a theory referred to as “pseudo-hypoxic drive”. Other molecular processes, such as oxidative stress, apoptosis, or chromatin remodeling have been also proposed to play a causative role. Nevertheless, the actual contribution of each of these mechanisms has not been definitively established. Moreover, the biological factors that determine the tissue-specificity of these tumors have not been identified. In this work, we made use of the inducible SDHD-ESR mouse, a conditional mutant in the SdhD gene, which encodes the small subunit of MCII, and that acts as a tumor suppressor gene in humans. The analysis of the Hif1α pathway in SDHD-ESR tissues and in two newly derived cell lines after complete SdhD loss -a requirement for hereditary paraganglioma type-1 tumor formation in humans- partially recapitulated the “pseudo-hypoxic” response and rendered inconsistent results. Therefore, we performed microarray analysis of adrenal medulla and kidney in order to identify other early gene expression changes elicited by SdhD deletion. Our results revealed that each mutant tissue displayed different variations in their gene expression profiles affecting to different biological processes. However, we found that the Cdkn1a gene was up-regulated in both tissues. This gene encodes the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/Cip1, a factor implicated in cell cycle, senescence, and cancer. The two SDHD-ESR cell lines also showed accumulation of this protein. This new and unprecedented evidence for a link between SdhD dysfunction and p21WAF1/Cip1 will open new avenues for the study of the mechanisms that cause tumors in Sdh mutants. Finally, we discuss the actual role of Hif1α in tumorigenesis. PMID:24465590

  9. Dominant lethal mutations in the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Harris, S L; Na, S; Zhu, X; Seto-Young, D; Perlin, D S; Teem, J H; Haber, J E

    1994-10-25

    The plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an essential protein that is required to establish cellular membrane potential and maintain a normal internal pH. An Asp-378 to Asn substitution at the residue phosphorylated during catalysis is dominant lethal when the pma1-D378N mutation is expressed along with a wild-type plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (PMA1) gene. Several mutations in the first two putative transmembrane domains are also dominant lethal. However, these dominant lethal mutants often appear to be innocuous, because they are frequently lost by gene conversion to the wild-type sequence during the process of introducing the mutant sequence and subsequently removing the wild-type gene. Loss of the mutation by gene conversion does not occur while introducing recessive lethal mutations. Cells carrying the wild-type PMA1 gene on the chromosome and a dominant lethal mutation under the control of a GAL1 promoter on a centromere-containing plasmid exhibit a galactose-dependent lethality. Indirect immunofluorescence staining using anti-Pma1 antibodies shows that induction of dominant lethal PMA1 mutations leads to the accumulation of a number of intensely staining cytoplasmic structures that are not coincident with the nucleus and its immediately surrounding endoplasmic reticulum. These structures also accumulate the endoplasmic reticulum protein Kar2. Expression of the dominant lethal protein also prevents transport of the wild-type ATPase to the plasma membrane. PMID:7937988

  10. Flavodoxin Mutants of Escherichia coli K-12

    PubMed Central

    Gaudu, Philippe; Weiss, Bernard

    2000-01-01

    The flavodoxins are flavin mononucleotide-containing electron transferases. Flavodoxin I has been presumed to be the only flavodoxin of Escherichia coli, and its gene, fldA, is known to belong to the soxRS (superoxide response) oxidative stress regulon. An insertion mutation of fldA was constructed and was lethal under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions; only cells that also had an intact (fldA+) allele could carry it. A second flavodoxin, flavodoxin II, was postulated, based on the sequence of its gene, fldB. Unlike the fldA mutant, an fldB insertion mutant is a viable prototroph in the presence or absence of oxygen. A high-copy-number fldB+ plasmid did not complement the fldA mutation. Therefore, there must be a vital function for which FldB cannot substitute for flavodoxin I. An fldB-lacZ fusion was not induced by H2O2 and is therefore not a member of the oxyR regulon. However, it displayed a soxS-dependent induction by paraquat (methyl viologen), and the fldB gene is preceded by two overlapping regions that resemble known soxS binding sites. The fldB insertion mutant did not have an increased sensitivity to the effects of paraquat on either cellular viability or the expression of a soxS-lacZ fusion. Therefore, fldB is a new member of the soxRS (superoxide response) regulon, a group of genes that is induced primarily by univalent oxidants and redox cycling compounds. However, the reactions in which flavodoxin II participates and its role during oxidative stress are unknown. PMID:10714981

  11. A yeast Ubc9 mutant protein with temperature-sensitive in vivo function is subject to conditional proteolysis by a ubiquitin- and proteasome-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Betting, J; Seufert, W

    1996-10-18

    The UBC9 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essential for cell viability and encodes a soluble protein of the nucleus that is metabolically stable. Products of mutant alleles selected to confer temperature-sensitive in vivo function were found to be extremely short-lived at the restrictive but long-lived at the permissive condition. An extragenic suppressor mutation was isolated which increased thermoresistance of a ubc9-1 strain. This suppressor turned out to stabilize the mutated gene product, indicating that the physiological activity of ubc9-1 protein is primarily controlled by conditional proteolysis. The labile ubc9-1 protein appears to be a substrate for ubiquitination, and its turnover was substantially reduced by expression of a ubiquitin derivative that interferes with formation of multi-ubiquitin chains. Stabilization resulted also from competitive inhibition of Ubc4-related ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes. Activity of the proteasome complex was crucial to rapid breakdown, whereas vacuolar proteases were dispensable. Thus, the heat-denatured ubc9-1 protein is targeted for proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and may serve as a useful tool to further define the process by which a misfolded polypeptide is recognized. PMID:8824207

  12. Generalized lethality criteria for beam weapon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, J.

    The lethality criteria which define the interaciton between the directed energy systems and the targets have been derived. For high energy laser systems, the lethality criteria are defined in terms of a lethal fluence. For neutral particle beam systems, the lathality criteria can be specified either as lethal charge fluence or as lethal dose. Derivations are all based on an assumed circular profile in the intensity distribution along the radial direction. Three different methods to calculate the lethality criteria are introduced. Lethality criteria and dwell time requirements have been deduced. A relationship between the different lethality concepts has been formulated.

  13. Metabolic regulation of Escherichia coli and its phoB and phoR genes knockout mutants under phosphate and nitrogen limitations as well as at acidic condition

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The phosphorus compounds serve as major building blocks of many biomolecules, and have important roles in signal transduction. The phosphate is involved in many biochemical reactions by the transfer of phosphoryl groups. All living cells sophisticatedly regulate the phosphate uptake, and survive even under phosphate-limiting condition, and thus phosphate metabolism is closely related to the diverse metabolism including energy and central carbon metabolism. In particular, phosphorylation may play important roles in the metabolic regulation at acidic condition and nitrogen limiting condition, which typically appears at the late growth phase in the batch culture. Moreover, phosphate starvation is a relatively inexpensive means of gene induction in practice, and the phoA promoter has been used for overexpression of heterologous genes. A better understanding of phosphate regulation would allow for optimization of such processes. Results The effect of phosphate (P) concentration on the metabolism in Escherichia coli was investigated in terms of fermentation characteristics and gene transcript levels for the aerobic continuous culture at the dilution rate of 0.2 h-1. The result indicates that the specific glucose consumption rate and the specific acetate production rate significantly increased, while the cell concentration decreased at low P concentration (10% of the M9 medium). The increase in the specific glucose uptake rate may be due to ATP demand caused by limited ATP production under P-limitation. The lower cell concentration was also caused by less ATP production. The less ATP production by H+-ATPase may have caused less cytochrome reaction affecting in quinone pool, and caused up-regulation of ArcA/B, which repressed TCA cycle genes and caused more acetate production. In the case of phoB mutant (and also phoR mutant), the fermentation characteristics were less affected by P-limitation as compared to the wild type where the PhoB regulated genes were down-regulated, while phoR and phoU changed little. The phoR gene knockout caused phoB gene to be down-regulated as well as PhoB regulated genes, while phoU and phoM changed little. The effect of pH together with lower P concentration on the metabolic regulation was also investigated. In accordance with up-regulation of arcA gene expression, the expressions of the TCA cycle genes such as sdhC and mdh were down-regulated at acidic condition. The gene expression of rpoS was up-regulated, and the expression of gadA was up-regulated at pH 6.0. In accordance with this, PhoB regulated genes were up-regulated in the wild type under P-rich and P-limited conditions at pH 6.0 as compared to those at pH 7.0. Moreover, the effect of nitrogen limitation on the metabolic regulation was investigated, where the result indicates that phoB gene was up-regulated, and PhoB regulated genes were also up-regulated under N-limitation, as well as nitrogen-regulated genes. Conclusion The present result shows the complicated nature of the metabolic regulation for the fermentation characteristics upon phosphate limitation, acidic condition, and nitrogen limitation based on the transcript levels of selected genes. The result implies that the regulations under phosphate limitation, acidic condition, and nitrogen limitation, which occur typically at the late growth phase of the batch culture, are interconnected through RpoS and RpoD together with Pho genes. PMID:21599905

  14. Potential lethal and non-lethal effects of predators on dispersal of spider mites.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Hatsune; Yano, Shuichi

    2014-11-01

    Predators can affect prey dispersal lethally by direct consumption or non-lethally by making prey hesitate to disperse. These lethal and non-lethal effects are detectable only in systems where prey can disperse between multiple patches. However, most studies have drawn their conclusions concerning the ability of predatory mites to suppress spider mites based on observations of their interactions on a single patch or on heavily infested host plants where spider mites could hardly disperse toward intact patches. In these systems, specialist predatory mites that penetrate protective webs produced by spider mites quickly suppress the spider mites, whereas generalist predators that cannot penetrate the webs were ineffective. By using a connected patch system, we revealed that a generalist ant, Pristomyrmex punctatus Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), effectively prevented dispersal of spider mites, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), by directly consuming dispersing individuals. We also revealed that a generalist predatory mite, Euseius sojaensis Ehara (Acari: Phytoseiidae), prevented between-patch dispersal of T. kanzawai by making them hesitate to disperse. In contrast, a specialist phytoseiid predatory mite, Neoseiulus womersleyi Schicha, allowed spider mites to escape an initial patch, increasing the number of colonized patches within the system. Our results suggest that ants and generalist predatory mites can effectively suppress Tetranychus species under some conditions, and should receive more attention as agents for conservation biological control in agroecosystems. PMID:24867061

  15. Structural basis for a lethal mutation in U6 RNA.

    PubMed

    Sashital, Dipali G; Allmann, Anne M; Van Doren, Steven R; Butcher, Samuel E

    2003-02-18

    U6 RNA is essential for nuclear pre-mRNA splicing and has been implicated directly in catalysis of intron removal. The U80G mutation at the essential magnesium binding site of the U6 3' intramolecular stem-loop region (ISL) is lethal in yeast. To further understand the structure and function of the U6 ISL, we have investigated the structural basis for the lethal U80G mutation by NMR and optical spectroscopy. The NMR structure reveals that the U80G mutation causes a structural rearrangement within the ISL resulting in the formation of a new Watson-Crick base pair (C67 x G80), and disrupts a protonated C67 x A79 wobble pair that forms in the wild-type structure. Despite the structural change, the accessibility of the metal binding site is unperturbed, and cadmium titration produces similar phosphorus chemical shift changes for both the U80G mutant and wild-type RNAs. The thermodynamic stability of the U80G mutant is significantly increased (Delta Delta G(fold) = -3.6 +/- 1.9 kcal/mol), consistent with formation of the Watson-Crick pair. Our structural and thermodynamic data, in combination with previous genetic data, suggest that the lethal basis for the U80G mutation is stem-loop hyperstabilization. This hyperstabilization may prevent the U6 ISL melting and rearrangement necessary for association with U4. PMID:12578359

  16. Arabidopsis genes essential for seedling viability: isolation of insertional mutants and molecular cloning.

    PubMed Central

    Budziszewski, G J; Lewis, S P; Glover, L W; Reineke, J; Jones, G; Ziemnik, L S; Lonowski, J; Nyfeler, B; Aux, G; Zhou, Q; McElver, J; Patton, D A; Martienssen, R; Grossniklaus, U; Ma, H; Law, M; Levin, J Z

    2001-01-01

    We have undertaken a large-scale genetic screen to identify genes with a seedling-lethal mutant phenotype. From screening approximately 38,000 insertional mutant lines, we identified >500 seedling-lethal mutants, completed cosegregation analysis of the insertion and the lethal phenotype for >200 mutants, molecularly characterized 54 mutants, and provided a detailed description for 22 of them. Most of the seedling-lethal mutants seem to affect chloroplast function because they display altered pigmentation and affect genes encoding proteins predicted to have chloroplast localization. Although a high level of functional redundancy in Arabidopsis might be expected because 65% of genes are members of gene families, we found that 41% of the essential genes found in this study are members of Arabidopsis gene families. In addition, we isolated several interesting classes of mutants and genes. We found three mutants in the recently discovered nonmevalonate isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway and mutants disrupting genes similar to Tic40 and tatC, which are likely to be involved in chloroplast protein translocation. Finally, we directly compared T-DNA and Ac/Ds transposon mutagenesis methods in Arabidopsis on a genome scale. In each population, we found only about one-third of the insertion mutations cosegregated with a mutant phenotype. PMID:11779813

  17. Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase 2−/− Mutant Mice are Protected against Fatty Liver under High-fat, High-carbohydrate Dietary and de Novo Lipogenic Conditions*

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Elheiga, Lutfi; Wu, Hongmei; Gu, Ziwei; Bressler, Rubin; Wakil, Salih J.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic fat accumulation resulting from increased de novo fatty acid synthesis leads to hepatic steatosis and hepatic insulin resistance. We have shown previously that acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (Acc2−/−) mutant mice, when fed a high-fat (HF) or high-fat, high-carbohydrate (HFHC) diet, are protected against diet-induced obesity and maintained whole body and hepatic insulin sensitivity. To determine the effect of an ACC2 deletion on hepatic fat metabolism, we studied the regulation of the enzymes involved in the lipogenic pathway under Western HFHC dietary and de novo lipogenic conditions. After completing the HFHC regimen, Acc2−/− mutant mice were found to have lower body weight, smaller epididymal fat pads, lower blood levels of nonesterified fatty acids and triglycerides, and higher hepatic cholesterol than wild-type mice. Significant up-regulation of lipogenic enzymes and an elevation in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) protein were found in Acc2−/− mutant mice under de novo lipogenic conditions. The increase in lipogenic enzyme levels was accompanied by up-regulation of the transcription factors, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1 and 2, and carbohydrate response element-binding protein. In contrast, hepatic levels of the PPAR-γ and PPAR-α proteins were significantly lower in the Acc2−/− mutant mice fed an HFHC diet. When compared with wild-type mice fed the same diet, Acc2−/− mutant mice exhibited a similar level of AKT but with a significant increase in pAKT. Hence, deleting ACC2 ameliorates the metabolic syndrome and protects against fatty liver despite increased de novo lipogenesis and dietary conditions known to induce obesity and diabetes. PMID:22362781

  18. Lethal synergy involving bicyclomycin: an approach for reviving old antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Muhammad; Li, Liping; Zhao, Xilin; Kerns, Robert J.; Berger, James M.; Drlica, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Background One way to address the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance is to revive old compounds that may have intrinsic lethal activity that is obscured by protective factors. Bicyclomycin is an old inhibitor of the Rho transcription terminator that by itself shows little rapid lethal activity. However, bicyclomycin participates in bacteriostatic synergy, which raises the possibility that conditions for lethal synergy may exist, perhaps through a suppression of protective factors. Methods Bicyclomycin was combined with bacteriostatic inhibitors of gene expression, and bactericidal activity was measured with several cultured Gram-negative pathogens. Results When used alone, bicyclomycin failed to rapidly kill growing cultures of Escherichia coli; however, the additional presence of bacteriostatic concentrations of tetracycline, chloramphenicol or rifampicin led to rapid killing. Four other pathogen species, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and Shigella dysenteriae, also exhibited enhanced killing when bicyclomycin was combined with tetracycline or rifampicin. This lethal synergy was achieved at low concentrations (slightly above the MIC) for all agents tested in combinations. Follow-up work with E. coli indicated that lethal synergy arose from a blockage of transcription elongation. Moreover, lethal synergy was reduced when bicyclomycin was added 60 min before tetracycline, suggesting that bicyclomycin induces a protective factor. Conclusions The action of bicyclomycin illustrates the potential present in a largely abandoned antibacterial agent; it exhibits lethal synergy when coadministered with known, bacteriostatic inhibitors of gene expression. The identification of protective factors, which are currently uncharacterized, may reveal new ways to promote the lethal action of some old antibiotics. PMID:25085655

  19. Analysis of mRNA decay and rRNA processing in Escherichia coli multiple mutants carrying a deletion in RNase III.

    PubMed Central

    Babitzke, P; Granger, L; Olszewski, J; Kushner, S R

    1993-01-01

    RNase III is an endonuclease involved in processing both rRNA and certain mRNAs. To help determine whether RNase III (rnc) is required for general mRNA turnover in Escherichia coli, we have created a deletion-insertion mutation (delta rnc-38) in the structural gene. In addition, a series of multiple mutant strains containing deficiencies in RNase II (rnb-500), polynucleotide phosphorylase (pnp-7 or pnp-200), RNase E (rne-1 or rne-3071), and RNase III (delta rnc-38) were constructed. The delta rnc-38 single mutant was viable and led to the accumulation of 30S rRNA precursors, as has been previously observed with the rnc-105 allele (P. Gegenheimer, N. Watson, and D. Apirion, J. Biol. Chem. 252:3064-3073, 1977). In the multiple mutant strains, the presence of the delta rnc-38 allele resulted in the more rapid decay of pulse-labeled RNA but did not suppress conditional lethality, suggesting that the lethality associated with altered mRNA turnover may be due to the stabilization of specific mRNAs. In addition, these results indicate that RNase III is probably not required for general mRNA decay. Of particular interest was the observation that the delta rnc-38 rne-1 double mutant did not accumulate 30S rRNA precursors at 30 degrees C, while the delta rnc-38 rne-3071 double mutant did. Possible explanations of these results are discussed. Images PMID:8416898

  20. Characterization of cottonseed nutrients composition in near isogenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) mutant lines for fuzzless seed trait under well-watered and water stress conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton mutant near isogenic lines (NILs) for fuzzless seed trait has been used to investigate cell biology, genetic, and molecular processes of fiber initiation, development, fiber yield and quality. However, there is no information available on the effect of fuzzless seed trait on cottonseed nutrie...

  1. A synthetic lethal screen identifies SLK1, a novel protein kinase homolog implicated in yeast cell morphogenesis and cell growth.

    PubMed Central

    Costigan, C; Gehrung, S; Snyder, M

    1992-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPA2 protein localizes at sites involved in polarized cell growth in budding cells and mating cells. spa2 mutants have defects in projection formation during mating but are healthy during vegetative growth. A synthetic lethal screen was devised to identify mutants that require the SPA2 gene for vegetative growth. One mutant, called slk-1 (for synthetic lethal kinase), has been characterized extensively. The SLK1 gene has been cloned, and sequence analysis predicts that the SLK1 protein is 1,478 amino acid residues in length. Approximately 300 amino acids at the carboxy terminus exhibit sequence similarity with the catalytic domains of protein kinases. Disruption mutations have been constructed in the SLK1 gene. slk1 null mutants cannot grow at 37 degrees C, but many cells can grow at 30, 24, and 17 degrees C. Dead slk1 mutant cells usually have aberrant cell morphologies, and many cells are very small, approximately one-half the diameter of wild-type cells. Surviving slk1 cells also exhibit morphogenic defects; these cells are impaired in their ability to form projections upon exposure to mating pheromones. During vegetative growth, a higher fraction of slk1 cells are unbudded compared with wild-type cells, and under nutrient limiting conditions, slk1 cells exhibit defects in cell cycle arrest. The different slk1 mutant defects are partially rescued by an extra copy of the SSD1/SRK1 gene. SSD1/SRK1 has been independently isolated as a suppressor of mutations in genes involved in growth control, sit4, pde2, bcy1, and ins1 (A. Sutton, D. Immanuel, and K.T. Arnat, Mol. Cell. Biol. 11:2133-2148, 1991; R.B. Wilson, A.A. Brenner, T.B. White, M.J. Engler, J.P. Gaughran, and K. Tatchell, Mol. Cell. Biol. 11:3369-3373, 1991). These data suggest that SLK1 plays a role in both cell morphogenesis and the control of cell growth. We speculate that SLK1 may be a regulatory link for these two cellular processes. Images PMID:1545797

  2. Starch mutants of Chlamydomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Berry-Lowe, S.L.; Schmidt, G.W. )

    1990-05-01

    Wild type Chlamydomonas accumulates starch and triglycerides when grown under nitrogen limiting conditions. Toward elucidation of the mechanisms for control of starch biosynthesis, we isolated mutants impaired int he accumulation of storage carbohydrates. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (strain ya-12) was mutagenized by UV irradiation and colonies were screened by iodine staining after growth in darkness. Mutants, denoted ais for altered in iodine staining, have been characterized by electron microscopy and assays for starch synthease, ADPG-pyrophosphorylase, phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), phosphoglucomutase and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and amylase activities. Transcript analysis of wild type and mutant RNAs with PGI, ADPG-pyrophosphorylase, and waxy probes have also been carried out. No deficiencies of any of these components have been detected. Furthermore, long-term cultures of ya-12 and ais-1d in nitrogen-limited chemostats have been studied; starch also does not accumulate in ais-1d under these conditions. Thus, the lesion affects an essential factor of unknown identity that is required for starch synthesis.

  3. Targeting Oncogenic Mutant p53 for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Parrales, Alejandro; Iwakuma, Tomoo

    2015-01-01

    Among genetic alterations in human cancers, mutations in the tumor suppressor p53 gene are the most common, occurring in over 50% of human cancers. The majority of p53 mutations are missense mutations and result in the accumulation of dysfunctional p53 protein in tumors. These mutants frequently have oncogenic gain-of-function activities and exacerbate malignant properties of cancer cells, such as metastasis and drug resistance. Increasing evidence reveals that stabilization of mutant p53 in tumors is crucial for its oncogenic activities, while depletion of mutant p53 attenuates malignant properties of cancer cells. Thus, mutant p53 is an attractive druggable target for cancer therapy. Different approaches have been taken to develop small-molecule compounds that specifically target mutant p53. These include compounds that restore wild-type conformation and transcriptional activity of mutant p53, induce depletion of mutant p53, inhibit downstream pathways of oncogenic mutant p53, and induce synthetic lethality to mutant p53. In this review article, we comprehensively discuss the current strategies targeting oncogenic mutant p53 in cancers, with special focus on compounds that restore wild-type p53 transcriptional activity of mutant p53 and those reducing mutant p53 levels. PMID:26732534

  4. Targeting Oncogenic Mutant p53 for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Parrales, Alejandro; Iwakuma, Tomoo

    2015-01-01

    Among genetic alterations in human cancers, mutations in the tumor suppressor p53 gene are the most common, occurring in over 50% of human cancers. The majority of p53 mutations are missense mutations and result in the accumulation of dysfunctional p53 protein in tumors. These mutants frequently have oncogenic gain-of-function activities and exacerbate malignant properties of cancer cells, such as metastasis and drug resistance. Increasing evidence reveals that stabilization of mutant p53 in tumors is crucial for its oncogenic activities, while depletion of mutant p53 attenuates malignant properties of cancer cells. Thus, mutant p53 is an attractive druggable target for cancer therapy. Different approaches have been taken to develop small-molecule compounds that specifically target mutant p53. These include compounds that restore wild-type conformation and transcriptional activity of mutant p53, induce depletion of mutant p53, inhibit downstream pathways of oncogenic mutant p53, and induce synthetic lethality to mutant p53. In this review article, we comprehensively discuss the current strategies targeting oncogenic mutant p53 in cancers, with special focus on compounds that restore wild-type p53 transcriptional activity of mutant p53 and those reducing mutant p53 levels. PMID:26732534

  5. Phosphate Homeostasis in Conditions of Phosphate Proficiency and Limitation in the Wild Type and the phoP Mutant of Streptomyces lividans

    PubMed Central

    Prigent, Magali; Holland, Ian Barry; Virolle, Marie-Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate, as a constituent of the high energy molecules, ATP/GTP and polyphosphate, plays a crucial role in most of the metabolic processes of living organisms. Therefore, the adaptation to low Pi availability is a major challenge for bacteria. In Streptomyces, this adaptation is tightly controlled by the two component PhoR/PhoP system. In this study, the free intracellular Pi, ATP, ADP and polyP content of the wild type and the phoP mutant strain of S. lividans TK24 were analyzed at discrete time points throughout growth in Pi replete and limited media. PolyP length and content was shown to be directly related to the Pi content of the growth medium. In Pi repletion, ATP and high molecular weight (HMW) polyP contents were higher in the phoP mutant than in the WT strain. This supports the recently proposed repressive effect of PhoP on oxidative phosphorylation. High oxidative phosphorylation activity might also have a direct or indirect positive impact on HMW polyP synthesis. In Pi sufficiency as in Pi limitation, the degradation of these polymers was shown to be clearly delayed in the phoP mutant, indicating PhoP dependent expression of the enzymes involved in this degradation. The efficient storage of Pi as polyphosphate and/or its inefficient degradation in Pi in the phoP mutant resulted in low levels of free Pi and ATP that are likely to be, at least in part, responsible for the very poor growth of this mutant in Pi limitation. Furthermore, short polyP was shown to be present outside the cell, tightly bound to the mycelium via electrostatic interactions involving divalent cations. Less short polyP was found to be associated with the mycelium of the phoP mutant than with that of the WT strain, indicating that generation and externalization of these short polyP molecules was directly or indirectly dependent on PhoP. PMID:25978423

  6. Escherichia coli mutants with defects in the biosynthesis of 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thio-uridine or 1-methylguanosine in their tRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Bjrk, G R; Kjellin-Strby, K

    1978-01-01

    Two tRNA methyltransferase mutants, isolated as described in the accompanying paper (G.R. Bjrk and K. Kjellin-Strby, J. Bacteriol. 133:499-207, 1978), are biochemicaaly and genetically characterized. tRNA from mutant IB13 lacks 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thio-uridine in vivo due to a permanently nonfunctional methyltransferase. Thus tRNA from this mutant is a specific substrate for the corresponding tRNA methyltransferase in vitro. In spite of this defect in tRNA, such a mutant is viable. Mutant IB11 is conditionally defective in the biosynthesis of 1-methylguanosine in tRNA due to a temperature-sensitive tRNA (1-methyl-guanosine) methyltransferase. In mutant cells grown at a high temperature, the level of 1-methylguanosine in bulk tRNA is 20% of that of the wild type, demonstrating that in this mutant an 80% deficiency of 1-methylguanosine in tRNA is not lethal. Genetically these two distinct lesions, trmC2, causing 5=methylaminomethyl-2-thio-uridine deficiency, and trmD1, giving a temperature-sensitive tRNA (1-methylguanosine)methyltransferase, are both located between 50 and 61 min on the Escherichia coli chromosome. Images PMID:342495

  7. Lethal Effects of Low and "Null" Activity Alleles of 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Bewley, Glenn C.; Lucchesi, John C.

    1975-01-01

    EMS-induced "null" and low activity alleles for 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were characterized with respect to enzymatic activity, relative viability, fertility, and the effective lethal phase. It was determined that flies hemizygous and homozygous for the low activity allele, Pgd-, possessed a depressed developmental rate, diminished viability, and loss of female fertility. Heterozygotes for Pgd- and a deficiency for Pgd+ were lethal. The "null" activity allele demonstrated a lethal phenotype in both the hemizygous and homozygous condition. The effective lethal phase for the "null" allele occurs during late embryonic development (20–22 hr). PMID:805081

  8. Tityus serrulatus venom--A lethal cocktail.

    PubMed

    Pucca, Manuela Berto; Cerni, Felipe Augusto; Pinheiro Junior, Ernesto Lopes; Bordon, Karla de Castro Figueiredo; Amorim, Fernanda Gobbi; Cordeiro, Francielle Almeida; Longhim, Heloisa Tavoni; Cremonez, Caroline Marroni; Oliveira, Guilherme Honda; Arantes, Eliane Candiani

    2015-12-15

    Tityus serrulatus (Ts) is the main scorpion species of medical importance in Brazil. Ts venom is composed of several compounds such as mucus, inorganic salts, lipids, amines, nucleotides, enzymes, kallikrein inhibitor, natriuretic peptide, proteins with high molecular mass, peptides, free amino acids and neurotoxins. Neurotoxins are considered the most responsible for the envenoming syndrome due to their pharmacological action on ion channels such as voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and potassium (Kv) channels. The major goal of this review is to present important advances in Ts envenoming research, correlating both the crude Ts venom and isolated toxins with alterations observed in all human systems. The most remarkable event lies in the Ts induced massive releasing of neurotransmitters influencing, directly or indirectly, the entire body. Ts venom proved to extremely affect nervous and muscular systems, to modulate the immune system, to induce cardiac disorders, to cause pulmonary edema, to decrease urinary flow and to alter endocrine, exocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal and digestive functions. Therefore, Ts venom possesses toxins affecting all anatomic systems, making it a lethal cocktail. However, its low lethality may be due to the low venom mass injected, to the different venom compositions, the body characteristics and health conditions of the victim and the local of Ts sting. Furthermore, we also described the different treatments employed during envenoming cases. In particular, throughout the review, an effort will be made to provide information from an extensive documented studies concerning Ts venom in vitro, in animals and in humans (a total of 151 references). PMID:26522893

  9. The Genetic Analysis of Snf: A Drosophila Sex Determination Gene Required for Activation of Sex-Lethal in Both the Germline and the Soma

    PubMed Central

    Salz, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    Our analysis demonstrates that snf is a positive regulator of Sex-lethal in both the germline and the soma. In the germline, unregulated expression of Sex-lethal can bypass the requirement for snf(+) gene function, implying that snf is required for Sex-lethal activity in the germline. This conclusion is supported by the finding that the Sex-lethal transcription pattern is abnormal in a snf mutant background. In the soma, activation of Sex-lethal appears to be sensitive to snf gene dosage only when the probability of Sex-lethal activation has been otherwise reduced. We also show that the activity of one of the constitutive Sex-lethal alleles (Sxl(M1)) is sensitive to snf gene dosage, demonstrating that, in spite of its constitutive behavior in some assays, Sxl(M1) is still subject to some regulation. In spite of snf's role in the somatic activation of Sex-lethal, no lethal alleles of snf were isolated in a screen of ~25,000 chromosomes. The observation that the existing snf mutations present a lethal phenotype only in certain genetic backgrounds suggests that snf is required, but is not essential, for the activation of Sex-lethal in the soma. In contrast, snf does appear to be essential for activation of Sex-lethal in the germline, as evidenced by its female-sterile phenotype. PMID:1551576

  10. A Specific Structural Requirement for Ergosterol in Long-chain Fatty Acid Synthesis Mutants Important for Maintaining Raft Domains in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Eisenkolb, Marlis; Zenzmaier, Christoph; Leitner, Erich; Schneiter, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Fungal sphingolipids contain ceramide with a very-long-chain fatty acid (C26). To investigate the physiological significance of the C26-substitution on this lipid, we performed a screen for mutants that are synthetically lethal with ELO3. Elo3p is a component of the ER-associated fatty acid elongase and is required for the final elongation cycle to produce C26 from C22/C24 fatty acids. elo3Δ mutant cells thus contain C22/C24- instead of the natural C26-substituted ceramide. We now report that under these conditions, an otherwise nonessential, but also fungal-specific, structural modification of the major sterol of yeast, ergosterol, becomes essential, because mutations in ELO3 are synthetically lethal with mutations in ERG6. Erg6p catalyzes the methylation of carbon atom 24 in the aliphatic side chain of sterol. The lethality of an elo3Δ erg6Δ double mutant is rescued by supplementation with ergosterol but not with cholesterol, indicating a vital structural requirement for the ergosterol-specific methyl group. To characterize this structural requirement in more detail, we generated a strain that is temperature sensitive for the function of Erg6p in an elo3Δ mutant background. Examination of raft association of the GPI-anchored Gas1p and plasma membrane ATPase, Pma1p, in the conditional elo3Δ erg6ts double mutant, revealed a specific defect of the mutant to maintain raft association of preexisting Pma1p. Interestingly, in an elo3Δ mutant at 37°C, newly synthesized Pma1p failed to enter raft domains early in the biosynthetic pathway, and upon arrival at the plasma membrane was rerouted to the vacuole for degradation. These observations indicate that the C26 fatty acid substitution on lipids is important for establishing raft association of Pma1p and stabilizing the protein at the cell surface. Analysis of raft lipids in the conditional mutant strain revealed a selective enrichment of ergosterol in detergent-resistant membrane domains, indicating that specific structural determinants on both sterols and sphingolipids are required for their association into raft domains. PMID:12475962

  11. The "Lethal Chamber": Further Evidence of the Euthanasia Option.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elks, Martin A.

    1993-01-01

    Historical discussions of the euthanasia or "lethal chamber" option in relation to people with mental retardation are presented. The paper concludes that eugenic beliefs in the primacy of heredity over environment and the positive role of natural selection may have condoned the poor conditions characteristic of large, segregated institutions and…

  12. Some galE mutants of Salmonella choleraesuis retain virulence.

    PubMed Central

    Nnalue, N A; Stocker, B A

    1986-01-01

    galE mutants were isolated from three mouse-virulent strains of Salmonella choleraesuis (of group C1, O antigen 6,7) by selection for resistance to 2-deoxygalactose. The galE derivative of strain 381 comprised two components: galactose sensitive, thought to be the original mutant; and galactose resistant, presumably by a second mutation reducing galK or galT function or both. The galactose-sensitive component had an intraperitoneal 50% lethal dose for BALB/c mice of ca. 4 X 10(6) CFU, whereas the galactose-resistant component was about as virulent as its gal+ parent, with a 50% lethal dose of ca. 100 CFU. The galE mutant of strain 110 was somewhat sensitive to galactose, as shown by retardation of growth; its 50% lethal dose, ca. 500 CFU, was not much greater than the ca. 200 CFU value for its parent. The galE mutant of strain 117 showed the same partial sensitivity to galactose as strain 110 galE, but was nonvirulent (50% lethal dose of ca. 10(6) CFU versus ca. 400 CFU for its parent). Growth on galactose-supplemented medium restored the smooth phenotype, as indicated by phage sensitivity to three of the four galE strains, but only partially so for the strain 117 galE mutant. The retention of parental virulence by galE mutants of S. choleraesuis which are galactose resistant or somewhat galactose sensitive contrasts with the greatly reduced virulence of galactose-resistant galE mutants of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella typhi; this difference may result from the absence of galactose from the O repeat unit in the lipopolysaccharide of group C1 salmonellae. PMID:3781619

  13. Mitotic chromosome transmission fidelity mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Spencer, F; Gerring, S L; Connelly, C; Hieter, P

    1990-02-01

    We have isolated 136 independent mutations in haploid yeast strains that exhibit decreased chromosome transmission fidelity in mitosis. Eighty-five percent of the mutations are recessive and 15% are partially dominant. Complementation analysis between MATa and MAT alpha isolates identifies 11 chromosome transmission fidelity (CTF) complementation groups, the largest of which is identical to CHL1. For 49 independent mutations, no corresponding allele has been recovered in the opposite mating type. The initial screen monitored the stability of a centromere-linked color marker on a nonessential yeast chromosome fragment; the mitotic inheritance of natural yeast chromosome III is also affected by the ctf mutations. Of the 136 isolates identified, seven were inviable at 37 degrees and five were inviable at 11 degrees. In all cases tested, these temperature conditional lethalities cosegregated with the chromosome instability phenotype. Five additional complementation groups (ctf12 through ctf16) have been defined by complementation analysis of the mutations causing inviability at 37 degrees. Twenty-three of the 136 isolates exhibited growth defects at concentrations of benomyl permissive for the parent strain, and nine appeared to be tolerant of inhibitory levels of benomyl. All of the mutant strains showed normal sensitivity to ultraviolet and gamma-irradiation. Further characterization of these mutant strains will describe the functions of gene products crucial to the successful execution of processes required for aspects of the chromosome cycle that are important for chromosome transmission fidelity in mitosis. PMID:2407610

  14. D-2-hydroxyglutarate produced by mutant IDH1 perturbs collagen maturation and basement membrane function

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Masato; Knobbe, Christiane B.; Itsumi, Momoe; Elia, Andrew J.; Harris, Isaac S.; Chio, Iok In Christine; Cairns, Rob A.; McCracken, Susan; Wakeham, Andrew; Haight, Jillian; Ten, Annick You; Snow, Bryan; Ueda, Takeshi; Inoue, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Ko, Myunggon; Rao, Anjana; Yen, Katharine E.; Su, Shinsan M.; Mak, Tak Wah

    2012-01-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) R132 mutations occur in glioma, but their physiological significance is unknown. Here we describe the generation and characterization of brain-specific Idh1 R132H conditional knock-in (KI) mice. Idh1 mutation results in hemorrhage and perinatal lethality. Surprisingly, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are attenuated in Idh1-KI brain cells despite an apparent increase in the NADP+/NADPH ratio. Idh1-KI cells also show high levels of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG) that are associated with inhibited prolyl-hydroxylation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α (Hif1α) and up-regulated Hif1α target gene transcription. Intriguingly, D2HG also blocks prolyl-hydroxylation of collagen, causing a defect in collagen protein maturation. An endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response induced by the accumulation of immature collagens may account for the embryonic lethality of these mutants. Importantly, D2HG-mediated impairment of collagen maturation also led to basement membrane (BM) aberrations that could play a part in glioma progression. Our study presents strong in vivo evidence that the D2HG produced by the mutant Idh1 enzyme is responsible for the above effects. PMID:22925884

  15. Structure-function analysis of yeast mRNA cap methyltransferase and high-copy suppression of conditional mutants by AdoMet synthase and the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme Cdc34p.

    PubMed Central

    Schwer, B; Saha, N; Mao, X; Chen, H W; Shuman, S

    2000-01-01

    Here we present a genetic analysis of the yeast cap-methylating enzyme Abd1p. To identify individual amino acids required for Abd1p function, we introduced alanine mutations at 35 positions of the 436-amino acid yeast protein. Two new recessive lethal mutations, F256A and Y330A, were identified. Alleles F256L and Y256L were viable, suggesting that hydrophobic residues at these positions sufficed for Abd1p function. Conservative mutations of Asp-178 established that an acidic moiety is essential at this position (i.e. , D178E was viable whereas D178N was not). Phe-256, Tyr-330, and Asp-178 are conserved in all known cellular cap methyltransferases. We isolated temperature-sensitive abd1 alleles and found that abd1-ts cells display a rapid shut-off of protein synthesis upon shift to the restrictive temperature, without wholesale reduction in steady-state mRNA levels. These in vivo results are consistent with classical biochemical studies showing a requirement for the cap methyl group in cap-dependent translation. We explored the issue of how cap methylation might be regulated in vivo by conducting a genetic screen for high-copy suppressors of the ts growth defect of abd1 mutants. The identification of the yeast genes SAM2 and SAM1, which encode AdoMet synthase, as abd1 suppressors suggests that Abd1p function can be modulated by changes in the concentration of its substrate AdoMet. We also identified the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme Cdc34p as a high-copy abd1 suppressor. We show that mutations of Cdc34p that affect its ubiquitin conjugation activity or its capacity to interact with the E3-SCF complex abrogate its abd1 suppressor function. Moreover, the growth defect of abd1 mutants is exacerbated by cdc34-2. These findings suggest a novel role for Cdc34p in gene expression and engender a model whereby cap methylation or cap utilization is negatively regulated by a factor that is degraded when Cdc34p is overexpressed. PMID:10924457

  16. The Identification of Zebrafish Mutants Showing Alterations in Senescence-Associated Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Junzo; Koshimizu, Eriko; Qi, Jie; Nanjappa, Purushothama; Imamura, Shintaro; Islam, Asiful; Neuberg, Donna; Amsterdam, Adam; Roberts, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    There is an interesting overlap of function in a wide range of organisms between genes that modulate the stress responses and those that regulate aging phenotypes and, in some cases, lifespan. We have therefore screened mutagenized zebrafish embryos for the altered expression of a stress biomarker, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) in our current study. We validated the use of embryonic SA-β-gal production as a screening tool by analyzing a collection of retrovirus-insertional mutants. From a pool of 306 such mutants, we identified 11 candidates that showed higher embryonic SA-β-gal activity, two of which were selected for further study. One of these mutants is null for a homologue of Drosophila spinster, a gene known to regulate lifespan in flies, whereas the other harbors a mutation in a homologue of the human telomeric repeat binding factor 2 (terf2) gene, which plays roles in telomere protection and telomere-length regulation. Although the homozygous spinster and terf2 mutants are embryonic lethal, heterozygous adult fish are viable and show an accelerated appearance of aging symptoms including lipofuscin accumulation, which is another biomarker, and shorter lifespan. We next used the same SA-β-gal assay to screen chemically mutagenized zebrafish, each of which was heterozygous for lesions in multiple genes, under the sensitizing conditions of oxidative stress. We obtained eight additional mutants from this screen that, when bred to homozygosity, showed enhanced SA-β-gal activity even in the absence of stress, and further displayed embryonic neural and muscular degenerative phenotypes. Adult fish that are heterozygous for these mutations also showed the premature expression of aging biomarkers and the accelerated onset of aging phenotypes. Our current strategy of mutant screening for a senescence-associated biomarker in zebrafish embryos may thus prove to be a useful new tool for the genetic dissection of vertebrate stress response and senescence mechanisms. PMID:18704191

  17. Urate-null rosy mutants of Drosophila melanogaster are hypersensitive to oxygen stress.

    PubMed Central

    Hilliker, A J; Duyf, B; Evans, D; Phillips, J P

    1992-01-01

    It has been proposed that uric acid is an important scavenger of deleterious oxygen radicals in biological systems [Ames, B. N., Cathcart, R., Schwiers, E. & Hochstein, P. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 6858-6852]. We report here an in vivo investigation of the oxygen defense role of uric acid through an analysis of mutants of the rosy (ry) gene of Drosophila melanogaster. The ry gene is the structural gene for the molybdoenzyme, xanthine dehydrogenase; xanthine dehydrogenase-null ry mutants are therefore unable to synthesize urate. The rationale of our approach was to measure the response of urate-null ry mutants to extraordinary oxygen stress as imposed by exposure to radical-generating agents and as conferred by a genetic defect in superoxide dismutase, an established oxygen defense function. We show that urate-null mutants of the ry locus are hypersensitive to paraquat, ionizing radiation, and hyperoxia. Furthermore, compound mutants doubly deficient for uric acid and Cu/Zn-containing superoxide dismutase are synthetic lethals, which are unable to complete metamorphosis under normal growth conditions. These experiments demonstrate unambiguously the importance of urate in oxygen defense in vivo and support our earlier proposal that the molybdoenzyme genetic system plays a critical role in oxygen defense in Drosophila. They also form the basis for our proposal that metamorphosis in Drosophila imposes a crisis of oxygen stress on the developing imago against which uric acid plays an important organ-specific defense. Finally, the results provide a basis for understanding the syndrome of phenotypes, including the hallmark dull brown eye color, which characterizes mutants of this classic genetic system of Drosophila. Images PMID:1316606

  18. Ethical language and decision-making for prenatally diagnosed lethal malformations.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Dominic; de Crespigny, Lachlan; Xafis, Vicki

    2014-10-01

    In clinical practice, and in the medical literature, severe congenital malformations such as trisomy 18, anencephaly, and renal agenesis are frequently referred to as 'lethal' or as 'incompatible with life'. However, there is no agreement about a definition of lethal malformations, nor which conditions should be included in this category. Review of outcomes for malformations commonly designated 'lethal' reveals that prolonged survival is possible, even if rare. This article analyses the concept of lethal malformations and compares it to the problematic concept of 'futility'. We recommend avoiding the term 'lethal' and suggest that counseling should focus on salient prognostic features instead. For conditions with a high chance of early death or profound impairment in survivors despite treatment, perinatal and neonatal palliative care would be ethical. However, active obstetric and neonatal management, if desired, may also sometimes be appropriate. PMID:25200733

  19. Extinction of Hepatitis C Virus by Ribavirin in Hepatoma Cells Involves Lethal Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Prieto, Ana M.; Sheldon, Julie; Grande-Pérez, Ana; Tejero, Héctor; Gregori, Josep; Quer, Josep; Esteban, Juan I.; Domingo, Esteban; Perales, Celia

    2013-01-01

    Lethal mutagenesis, or virus extinction produced by enhanced mutation rates, is under investigation as an antiviral strategy that aims at counteracting the adaptive capacity of viral quasispecies, and avoiding selection of antiviral-escape mutants. To explore lethal mutagenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV), it is important to establish whether ribavirin, the purine nucleoside analogue used in anti-HCV therapy, acts as a mutagenic agent during virus replication in cell culture. Here we report the effect of ribavirin during serial passages of HCV in human hepatoma Huh-7.5 cells, regarding viral progeny production and complexity of mutant spectra. Ribavirin produced an increase of mutant spectrum complexity and of the transition types associated with ribavirin mutagenesis, resulting in HCV extinction. Ribavirin-mediated depletion of intracellular GTP was not the major contributory factor to mutagenesis since mycophenolic acid evoked a similar decrease in GTP without an increase in mutant spectrum complexity. The intracellular concentration of the other nucleoside-triphosphates was elevated as a result of ribavirin treatment. Mycophenolic acid extinguished HCV without an intervening mutagenic activity. Ribavirin-mediated, but not mycophenolic acid-mediated, extinction of HCV occurred via a decrease of specific infectivity, a feature typical of lethal mutagenesis. We discuss some possibilities to explain disparate results on ribavirin mutagenesis of HCV. PMID:23976977

  20. RAS Synthetic Lethal Screens Revisited: Still Seeking the Elusive Prize?

    PubMed

    Downward, Julian

    2015-04-15

    The RAS genes are critical oncogenic drivers activated by point mutation in some 20% of human malignancies. However, no pharmacologic approaches to targeting RAS proteins directly have yet succeeded, leading to suggestions that these proteins may be "undruggable." This has led to two alternative indirect approaches to targeting RAS function in cancer. One has been to target RAS signaling pathways downstream at tractable enzymes such as kinases, particularly in combination. The other, which is the focus of this review, has been to seek targets that are essential in cells bearing an activated RAS oncogene, but not those without. This synthetic lethal approach, while rooted in ideas from invertebrate genetics, has been inspired most strongly by the successful use of PARP inhibitors, such as olaparib, in the clinic to treat BRCA defective cancers. Several large-scale screens have been carried out using RNA interference-mediated expression silencing to find genes that are uniquely essential to RAS-mutant but not wild-type cells. These screens have been notable for the low degree of overlap between their results, with the possible exception of proteasome components, and have yet to lead to successful new clinical approaches to the treatment of RAS-mutant cancers. Possible reasons for these disappointing results are discussed here, along with a reevaluation of the approaches taken. On the basis of experience to date, RAS synthetic lethality has so far fallen some way short of its original promise and remains unproven as an approach to finding effective new ways of tackling RAS-mutant cancers. Clin Cancer Res; 21(8); 1802-9. 2015 AACR. See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Targeting RAS-Driven Cancers." PMID:25878361

  1. RAS Synthetic Lethal Screens Revisited: Still Seeking the Elusive Prize?

    PubMed Central

    Downward, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The RAS genes are critical oncogenic drivers activated by point mutation in some 20% of human malignancies. However, no pharmacological approaches to targeting RAS proteins directly have yet succeeded, leading to suggestions that these proteins may be “undruggable.” This has led to two alternative indirect approaches to targeting RAS function in cancer. One has been to target RAS signaling pathways downstream at tractable enzymes such as kinases, particularly in combination. The other, which is the focus of this review, has been to seek targets that are essential in cells bearing an activated RAS oncogene, but not those without. This synthetic lethal approach, while rooted in ideas from invertebrate genetics, has been inspired most strongly by the successful use of PARP inhibitors, such as olaparib, in the clinic to treat BRCA defective cancers. Several large-scale screens have been carried out using RNA interference-mediated expression silencing to find genes that are uniquely essential to RAS mutant but not wild type cells. These screens have been notable for the low degree of overlap between their results, with the possible exception of proteasome components, and have yet to lead to successful new clinical approaches to the treatment of RAS mutant cancers. Possible reasons for these disappointing results are discussed here, along with a re-evaluation of the approaches taken. Based on experience to date, RAS synthetic lethality has so far fallen some way short of its original promise and remains unproven as an approach to finding effective new ways of tackling RAS mutant cancers. PMID:25878361

  2. Conditional Expression of Parkinson disease-related Mutant α-synuclein in the Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons causes Progressive Neurodegeneration and Degradation of Transcription Factor Nuclear Receptor Related 1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xian; Parisiadou, Loukia; Sgobio, Carmelo; Liu, Guoxiang; Yu, Jia; Sun, Lixin; Shim, Hoon; Gu, Xing-Long; Luo, Jing; Long, Cai-Xia; Ding, Jinhui; Mateo, Yolanda; Sullivan, Patricia H.; Wu, Ling-Gang; Goldstein, David S.; Lovinger, David; Cai, Huaibin

    2012-01-01

    α-synuclein(α-syn) plays a prominent role in the degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons in Parkinson disease (PD). However, only a few studies on α-syn have been carried out in the mDA neurons in vivo, which may be attributed to a lack of α-syn transgenic mice that develop PD-like severe degeneration of mDA neurons. To gain mechanistic insights into the α-syn-induced mDA neurodegeneration, we generated a new line of tetracycline-regulated inducible transgenic mice that overexpressed the PD-related α-syn A53T missense mutation in the mDA neurons. Here we show that the mutant mice developed profound motor disabilities and robust mDA neurodegeneration, resembling some key motor and pathological phenotypes of PD. We further systematically examined the subcellular abnormalities appeared in the mDA neurons of mutant mice, and observed a profound decrease of dopamine release, the fragmentation of Golgi apparatus, and impairments of autophagy/lysosome degradation pathways in these neurons. To further understand the specific molecular events leading to the α-syn-dependent degeneration of mDA neurons, we found that over-expression of α-syn promoted a proteasome-dependent degradation of nuclear receptor related 1 protein (Nurr1); while inhibition of Nurr1 degradation ameliorated the α-syn-induced loss of mDA neurons. Given that Nurr1 plays an essential role in maintaining the normal function and survival of mDA neurons, our studies suggest that the α-syn-mediated suppression of Nurr1 protein expression may contribute to the preferential vulnerability of mDA neurons in the pathogenesis of PD. PMID:22764233

  3. Early events of lethal action by tobramycin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Raulston, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The immediate activities of the aminoglycoside antibiotic, tobramycin, were investigated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The influence of carbon growth substate and the antibiotic exposure environment in the magnitude of activity were examined. Lethality by 8 {mu}g/ml tobramycin occurred rapidly (1 to 3 minutes). The release of specific cellular components into the supernatant was associated with lethality. This material was initially detected as an increase in UV-absorbance. Magnesium in the reaction mixture provided protection against lethality and leakage, but did not reverse lethal damage after a 3 minute tobramycin treatment. Also, uptake of {sup 3}H-tobramycin was reduced in the presence of magnesium. Cells grown with glucose as a carbon source were more susceptible than organic acid grown cells as was the rapidity and amount of cell damage. Analyses of the leakage material revealed a 2-fold increase of protein in the supernatant after a 1-3 minute treatment which paralleled lethality. A prominent 29 kDa protein was observed by SDS-PAGE in the released material, which has been identified as the periplasmic enzyme, {beta}-lactamase. The immediate activities of tobramycin did not involve (i) release of overall cell protein, (ii) massive loss of total pool amino acids, (iii) cell lysis, (iv) inhibition of proline uptake, (v) release of lipopolysaccharide, or (vi) leakage of ATP. Electron microscopy showed no apparent damage after a 3 minute exposure. 40% inhibition of protein synthesis had occurred by 3 minutes of exposure, while release of UV-absorbing material and lethality were detectable after only 1 minute. Resistant cystic fibrosis isolates of P. aeruginosa did not leak under the same experimental conditions, but one of two susceptible strains examined did show increased UV-absorbance following treatment.

  4. The Maternally Expressed WRKY Transcription Factor TTG2 Controls Lethality in Interploidy Crosses of Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Dilkes, Brian P; Spielman, Melissa; Weizbauer, Renate; Watson, Brian; Burkart-Waco, Diana; Scott, Rod J; Comai, Luca

    2008-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying lethality of F1 hybrids between diverged parents are one target of speciation research. Crosses between diploid and tetraploid individuals of the same genotype can result in F1 lethality, and this dosage-sensitive incompatibility plays a role in polyploid speciation. We have identified variation in F1 lethality in interploidy crosses of Arabidopsis thaliana and determined the genetic architecture of the maternally expressed variation via QTL mapping. A single large-effect QTL, DR. STRANGELOVE 1 (DSL1), was identified as well as two QTL with epistatic relationships to DSL1. DSL1 affects the rate of postzygotic lethality via expression in the maternal sporophyte. Fine mapping placed DSL1 in an interval encoding the maternal effect transcription factor TTG2. Maternal parents carrying loss-of-function mutations in TTG2 suppressed the F1 lethality caused by paternal excess interploidy crosses. The frequency of cellularization in the endosperm was similarly affected by both natural variation and ttg2 loss-of-function mutants. The simple genetic basis of the natural variation and effects of single-gene mutations suggests that F1 lethality in polyploids could evolve rapidly. Furthermore, the role of the sporophytically active TTG2 gene in interploidy crosses indicates that the developmental programming of the mother regulates the viability of interploidy hybrid offspring. PMID:19071961

  5. Extended longevity and survivorship during amino-acid starvation in a Drosophila Sir2 mutant heterozygote.

    PubMed

    Slade, Jennifer D; Staveley, Brian E

    2016-05-01

    The regulation of energy homeostasis is pivotal to survive periods of inadequate nutrition. A combination of intricate pathways and proteins are responsible for maximizing longevity during such conditions. The sirtuin deacetylase Sir2 is well conserved from single-celled yeast to mammals, and it controls a number of downstream targets that are active during periods of extreme stress. Overexpression of Sir2 has been established to enhance survival of a number of model organisms undergoing calorie restriction, during which insulin receptor signalling (IRS) is reduced, a condition that itself can enhance survivorship during starvation. Increased Sir2 expression and reduced IRS result in an increase in the activity of the transcription factor foxo, an advantageous activation during stress but lethal when overly active. We have found that a lowered gene dosage of Sir2, in mutant heterozygotes, can extend normal longevity and greatly augment survivorship during amino-acid starvation in Drosophila. Additionally, these mutants, in either heterozygous or homozygous form, do not appear to have any disadvantageous effects upon development or cell growth of the organism unlike IRS mutants. These results may advance the understanding of the biological response to starvation and allow for the development of a model organism to mimic the ability of individuals to tolerate nutrient deprivation. PMID:27074822

  6. Intronic T-DNA Insertion Renders Arabidopsis opr3 a Conditional Jasmonic Acid-Producing Mutant1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Chehab, E. Wassim; Kim, Se; Savchenko, Tatyana; Kliebenstein, Daniel; Dehesh, Katayoon; Braam, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonic acid and its derived metabolites (JAs) orchestrate plant defense against insects and fungi. 12-Oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), a JA precursor, has also been implicated in plant defense. We sought to define JAs and OPDA functions through comparative defense susceptibility characteristics of three Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genotypes: aos, lacking JAs and OPDA; opda reductase3 (opr3), deficient in JA production but can accumulate OPDA; and transgenics that overexpress OPR3. opr3, like aos, is susceptible to cabbage loopers (Trichoplusia ni) but, relative to aos, opr3 has enhanced resistance to a necrotrophic fungus. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry reveals that opr3 produces OPDA but no detectable JAs following wounding and looper infestation; unexpectedly, substantial levels of JAs accumulate in opr3 upon fungal infection. Full-length OPR3 transcripts accumulate in fungal-infected opr3, potentially through splicing of the T-DNA containing intron. Fungal resistance correlates with levels of JAs not OPDA; therefore, opr3 resistance to some pests is likely due to JA accumulation, and signaling activities ascribed to OPDA should be reassessed because opr3 can produce JAs. Together these data (1) reinforce the primary role JAs play in plant defense against insects and necrotrophic fungi, (2) argue for a reassessment of signaling activities ascribed to OPDA, and (3) provide evidence that mutants with intron insertions can retain gene function. PMID:21487047

  7. Alcohol Consumption and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Kenneth E.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Swann, Alan C.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Lee, Roberta K.; Bayer, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a case-control study of the association between nearly lethal suicide attempts and facets of alcohol consumption; namely, drinking frequency, drinking quantity, binge drinking, alcoholism, drinking within 3 hours of suicide attempt, and age began drinking. In bivariate analyses, all measures were associated with nearly lethal suicide…

  8. Alcohol Consumption and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Kenneth E.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Swann, Alan C.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Lee, Roberta K.; Bayer, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a case-control study of the association between nearly lethal suicide attempts and facets of alcohol consumption; namely, drinking frequency, drinking quantity, binge drinking, alcoholism, drinking within 3 hours of suicide attempt, and age began drinking. In bivariate analyses, all measures were associated with nearly lethal suicide

  9. Lethality of Suicide Attempt Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, K.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents an 11-point scale for measuring the degree of lethality of suicide attempts. The scale has nine example "anchors" and uses the relative lethality of an extensive table of drugs. The scale can be used reliably by nonmedical personnel with no prior training. (Author/BL)

  10. Crisis Intervention with Highly Lethal Suicidal People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenaars, Antoon A.

    1994-01-01

    Outlines model for crisis intervention with highly lethal suicidal people. Explores idea that crisis is a perception, including issues of lethality and perturbation, object relations, responsibility, weapon availability, and active versus passive response. Highlights specific problems with transference and countertransference. Suggests that there…

  11. Construction of Listeria monocytogenes mutants with in-frame deletions in putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and analysis of their growth under stress conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that is difficult to eliminate since it can survive under multiple stress conditions such as low pH and low temperature. Understanding its survival under stress conditions is important to control this pathogen in food. ABC transporters have been shown...

  12. Construction of Listeria monocytogenes mutants with in-frame deletions in the Phosphotransferase Transport System (PTS) and analysis of their growth under stress conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that is difficult to eliminate due to its ability to survive under different stress conditions such as low pH and high salt. To better control this pathogen in food, it is important to understand its survival mechanisms under these stress conditions. ...

  13. Viability of Female Germ-Line Cells Homozygous for Zygotic Lethals in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Bellido, Antonio; Robbins, Leonard G.

    1983-01-01

    We have analyzed the viability of different types of X chromosomes in homozygous clones of female germ cells. The chromosomes carried viable mutations, single-cistron zygotic-lethal and semi-lethal mutations, or small (about six chromosome band) deletions. Homozygous germ-line clones were produced by recombination in females heterozygous for an X-linked, dominant, agametic female sterile. All the zygotic-viable mutants are also viable in germ cells. Of 16 deletions tested (uncovering a total of 93 bands) only 2 (of 4 and 5 bands) are germ-cell viable. Mutations in 15 lethal complementation groups in the zeste-white region were tested. When known, the most extreme alleles at each locus were tested. Only in five loci (33%) were the mutants viable in the germ line. Similar studies of the same deletions and point-mutant lethals in epidermal cells show that 42% of the bands and 77% of the lethal alleles are viable. Thus, germ-line cells have more stringent cell-autonomous genetic requirements than do epidermal cells. The eggs recovered from clones of three of the germ-cell viable zw mutations gave embryos arrested early in embryogenesis, although genotypically identical embryos derived from heterozygous oogonia die as larvae or even hatch as adult escapers. For two genes, homozygosis of the mutations tested also caused embryonic arrest of heterozygous female embryos, and in one case, the eggs did not develop at all. Germ-line clones of one quite leaky mutation gave eggs that were indistinguishable from normal. The abundance of genes whose products are required for oogenesis, whose products are required in the oocyte, and whose activity is required during zygotic development is discussed. PMID:17246109

  14. Hypopigmentation and Maternal-Zygotic Embryonic Lethality Caused by a Hypomorphic Mbtps1 Mutation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rutschmann, Sophie; Crozat, Karine; Li, Xiaohong; Du, Xin; Hanselman, Jeffrey C.; Shigeoka, Alana A.; Brandl, Katharina; Popkin, Daniel L.; McKay, Dianne B.; Xia, Yu; Moresco, Eva Marie Y.; Beutler, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The site 1 protease, encoded by Mbtps1, mediates the initial cleavage of site 2 protease substrates, including sterol regulatory element binding proteins and CREB/ATF transcription factors. We demonstrate that a hypomorphic mutation of Mbtps1 called woodrat (wrt) caused hypocholesterolemia, as well as progressive hypopigmentation of the coat, that appears to be mechanistically unrelated. Hypopigmentation was rescued by transgenic expression of wild-type Mbtps1, and reciprocal grafting studies showed that normal pigmentation depended upon both cell-intrinsic or paracrine factors, as well as factors that act systemically, both of which are lacking in wrt homozygotes. Mbtps1 exhibited a maternal-zygotic effect characterized by fully penetrant embryonic lethality of maternal-zygotic wrt mutant offspring and partial embryonic lethality (~40%) of zygotic wrt mutant offspring. Mbtps1 is one of two maternal-zygotic effect genes identified in mammals to date. It functions nonredundantly in pigmentation and embryogenesis. PMID:22540041

  15. Hypopigmentation and maternal-zygotic embryonic lethality caused by a hypomorphic mbtps1 mutation in mice.

    PubMed

    Rutschmann, Sophie; Crozat, Karine; Li, Xiaohong; Du, Xin; Hanselman, Jeffrey C; Shigeoka, Alana A; Brandl, Katharina; Popkin, Daniel L; McKay, Dianne B; Xia, Yu; Moresco, Eva Marie Y; Beutler, Bruce

    2012-04-01

    The site 1 protease, encoded by Mbtps1, mediates the initial cleavage of site 2 protease substrates, including sterol regulatory element binding proteins and CREB/ATF transcription factors. We demonstrate that a hypomorphic mutation of Mbtps1 called woodrat (wrt) caused hypocholesterolemia, as well as progressive hypopigmentation of the coat, that appears to be mechanistically unrelated. Hypopigmentation was rescued by transgenic expression of wild-type Mbtps1, and reciprocal grafting studies showed that normal pigmentation depended upon both cell-intrinsic or paracrine factors, as well as factors that act systemically, both of which are lacking in wrt homozygotes. Mbtps1 exhibited a maternal-zygotic effect characterized by fully penetrant embryonic lethality of maternal-zygotic wrt mutant offspring and partial embryonic lethality (~40%) of zygotic wrt mutant offspring. Mbtps1 is one of two maternal-zygotic effect genes identified in mammals to date. It functions nonredundantly in pigmentation and embryogenesis. PMID:22540041

  16. Lethal photosensitization of Helicobacter species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millson, Charles E.; Wilson, Michael; MacRobert, Alexander J.; Thurrell, Wendy; Mlkvy, Peter; Davies, Claire; Bown, Stephen G.

    1995-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is associated with a large number of gastroduodenal disorders. Clearance of the bacteria has been shown to benefit patients with duodenal ulcers, gastric ulcers, and certain rare types of gastric tumors. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are the mainstay of current treatment strategies but side-effects, poor compliance, and drug resistance limit their usefulness. We sensitized H. pylori with toluidine blue, haematoporphyrin derivative, aluminum disulphonated phthalocyanine, methylene blue or protoporphyrin IX prior to exposure to low-power laser light from either a gallium aluminum arsenide laser or a helium neon gas laser. All 5 sensitizers caused reductions of greater than 1000-fold in the number of viable bacteria. Light alone had no effect and only HpD caused a significant decrease in bacterial numbers without laser light. Next, we sensitized H. mustelae on explanted ferret gastric mucosa (ex vivo) with the same sensitizers and exposed them to light from a copper vapor pumped dye laser tuned appropriately. MB caused significant reductions in bacterial counts. Successful lethal photosensitization of Helicobacter pylori both in vitro and ex vivo raises the possibility of a local method for eradicating the bacteria, especially as the bacteria are only found in those parts of the upper gastrointestinal tract that are accessible to the endoscope.

  17. Characterization of the proteasome ß2 subunit gene and its mutant allele in the tephritid fruit fly pest, Anastrepha suspensa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conditional lethal release (CLR) is a proposed variation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the biological control of pest insects that would result from the release of transgenic insects carrying dominant conditional lethal genes. After mating with pest insects in the field, lethal gene exp...

  18. New embryo lethals in Arabidopsis thaliana: basic genetic and morphological study.

    PubMed

    Kyjovská, Zdenka; Repková, Jana; Relichová, Jirina

    2003-11-01

    Six different mutations with defects in immature seed development have been identified during screening of a T-DNA collection of Arabidopsis thaliana. The mutations were confirmed to be monogenic and recessive-lethal by genetic analysis. Mutant embryos were blocked in certain steps in the process necessary for embryo viability and development, and therefore they belong to the embryo-lethal class of mutants. The genetic and morphological studies of T-DNA mutations affecting embryo development are presented. The youngest embryos with a defect were observed at the globular stage in the VIII-64 mutation. Externally located cells, precursor of the protoderm, were characterised by abnormal cell division. VIII-41 mutation with a defect at the late globular stage was arrested at the globular-heart stage transition. VIII-111 mutation showed defect at heart stage of embryogenesis with atypical development of cotyledon primordia. The defect was associated with abnormal pattern of cell division constituting the precursor of the shoot apical meristem. In VIII-82 mutation defect in torpedo stage with asymmetric cotyledons was observed. Cotyledon stage of embryos and chlorophyll defect were observed in VIII-75 mutant. Abnormal suspensor consisting of two columns of cells was observed in 280-4-4 mutation. Newly identified embryo-lethals can serve as starting material for more detailed genetic and molecular studies. PMID:14686610

  19. Construction of Listeria monocytogenes mutants with in-frame Deletions in the phosphotransferase transport system (PTS) and analysis of their growth under stress conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that is difficult to eliminate due to its ability to survive under different stress conditions such as low pH and high salt. To better control this pathogen in food, it is important to understand its survival mechanisms under these stress ...

  20. Isolation and characterization of a low phytic acid rice mutant reveals a mutation in the rice orthologue of maize mik.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a forward genetics approach, we isolated two independent low phytic acid (lpa) rice mutants, N15-186 and N15-375. Both mutants are caused by single gene, recessive non-lethal mutations which result in approximately 75% (N15-186) and 43% (N15-375) reductions in seed phytic acid (inositol hexaki...

  1. Platyspondylic lethal skeletal dysplasia, San Diego type, is caused by FGFR3 mutations.

    PubMed

    Brodie, S G; Kitoh, H; Lachman, R S; Nolasco, L M; Mekikian, P B; Wilcox, W R

    1999-06-11

    The platyspondylic lethal skeletal dysplasias (PLSDs) are a heterogeneous group of short-limb dwarfing conditions. The most common form of PLSD is thanatophoric dysplasia (TD), which has been divided into two types (TD1 and TD2). Three other types of PLSD, or TD variants (San Diego, Torrance, and Luton), have been distinguished from TD. The most notable difference between TD and the variants is the presence of large rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) inclusion bodies within chondrocytes of the variants. We examined 22 cases of TD variants for the presence of missense mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene. All 17 cases of the San Diego type (PLSD-SD) were heterozygous for the same FGFR3 mutations found in TD1. No mutations were identified in the Torrance and Luton types. Large inclusion bodies were found in all 14 cases of PLSD-SD. Similar inclusion bodies were present in two of 72 TD1 cases, but not in 39 controls. The material retained within the rER stained only with antibody to the FGFR3 protein. The radiographic and morphologic differences between TD and PLSD-SD may be a consequence of other genetic factors, perhaps in the processing of mutant FGFR3 molecules within the rER. The presence of rER inclusion bodies cannot reliably discriminate between closely related skeletal dysplasias. PMID:10360402

  2. Cardiac-Specific Activation of IKK2 Leads to Defects in Heart Development and Embryonic Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Katja; Boettger, Thomas; Illing, Annett; Kostin, Sawa; Walther, Paul; Braun, Thomas; Wirth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor NF-κB has been associated with a range of pathological conditions of the heart, mainly based on its function as a master regulator of inflammation and pro-survival factor. Here, we addressed the question what effects activation of NF-κB can have during murine heart development. We expressed a constitutively active (CA) mutant of IKK2, the kinase activating canonical NF-κB signaling, specifically in cardiomyocytes under the control of the α-myosin heavy chain promoter. Expression of IKK2-CA resulted in embryonic lethality around E13. Embryos showed defects in compact zone formation and the contractile apparatus, and overall were characterized by widespread inflammation with infiltration of myeloid cells. Gene expression analysis suggested an interferon type I signature, with increased expression of interferon regulatory factors. While apoptosis of cardiomyocytes was only increased at later stages, their proliferation was decreased early on, providing an explanation for the disturbed compact zone formation. Mechanistically, this could be explained by activation of the JAK/STAT axis and increased expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21. A rescue experiment with an IκBα superrepressor demonstrated that the phenotype was dependent on NF-κB. We conclude that activation of NF-κB is detrimental during normal heart development due to excessive activation of pro-inflammatory pathways. PMID:26539991

  3. Lethal Factor, but Not Edema Factor, Is Required to Cause Fatal Anthrax in Cynomolgus Macaques after Pulmonary Spore Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Hutt, Julie A.; Lovchik, Julie A.; Drysdale, Melissa; Sherwood, Robert L.; Brasel, Trevor; Lipscomb, Mary F.; Lyons, C. Rick

    2015-01-01

    Inhalational anthrax is caused by inhalation of Bacillus anthracis spores. The ability of B. anthracis to cause anthrax is attributed to the plasmid-encoded A/B-type toxins, edema toxin (edema factor and protective antigen) and lethal toxin (lethal factor and protective antigen), and a poly-d-glutamic acid capsule. To better understand the contribution of these toxins to the disease pathophysiology in vivo, we used B. anthracis Ames strain and isogenic toxin deletion mutants derived from the Ames strain to examine the role of lethal toxin and edema toxin after pulmonary spore challenge of cynomolgus macaques. Lethal toxin, but not edema toxin, was required to induce sustained bacteremia and death after pulmonary challenge with spores delivered via bronchoscopy. After intravenous challenge with bacilli to model the systemic phase of infection, lethal toxin contributed to bacterial proliferation and subsequent host death to a greater extent than edema toxin. Deletion of protective antigen resulted in greater loss of virulence after intravenous challenge with bacilli than deletion of lethal toxin or edema toxin alone. These findings are consistent with the ability of anti–protective antigen antibodies to prevent anthrax and suggest that lethal factor is the dominant toxin that contributes to the escape of significant numbers of bacilli from the thoracic cavity to cause anthrax after inhalation challenge with spores. PMID:25285720

  4. Isolation and Characterization of β-Ketoacyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (fabG) Mutants of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chiou-Yan; Cronan, John E.

    2004-01-01

    FabG, β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase, performs the NADPH-dependent reduction of β-ketoacyl-ACP substrates to β-hydroxyacyl-ACP products, the first reductive step in the elongation cycle of fatty acid biosynthesis. We report the first documented fabG mutants and their characterization. By chemical mutagenesis followed by a tritium suicide procedure, we obtained three conditionally lethal temperature-sensitive fabG mutants. The Escherichia coli [fabG (Ts)] mutant contains two point mutations: A154T and E233K. The β-ketoacyl-ACP reductase activity of this mutant was extremely thermolabile, and the rate of fatty acid synthesis measured in vivo was inhibited upon shift to the nonpermissive temperature. Moreover, synthesis of the acyl-ACP intermediates of the pathway was inhibited upon shift of mutant cultures to the nonpermissive temperature, indicating blockage of the synthetic cycle. Similar results were observed for in vitro fatty acid synthesis. Complementation analysis revealed that only the E233K mutation was required to give the temperature-sensitive growth phenotype. In the two Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium fabG(Ts) mutants one strain had a single point mutation, S224F, whereas the second strain contained two mutations (M125I and A223T). All of the altered residues of the FabG mutant proteins are located on or near the twofold axes of symmetry at the dimer interfaces in this homotetrameric protein, suggesting that the quaternary structures of the mutant FabG proteins may be disrupted at the nonpermissive temperature. PMID:14996818

  5. On lethal injections and the death penalty.

    PubMed

    1982-10-01

    A brief account is given of the recent adoption by several states of capital punishment by lethal injection and the objections that this move has aroused. Critics argue that, because of difficulties in administering the drugs and in determining the proper dosage, this method may actually be less humane than other means of execution. Articles in medical journals have forcefully expressed the profession's opposition to lethal injections and to physician involvement in their administration. PMID:11643855

  6. Recessive Lethal Amber Suppressors in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Brandriss, Marjorie C.; Soll, Larry; Botstein, David

    1975-01-01

    Recessive lethal amber suppressor mutations have been isolated in a diploid strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Diploids carrying these suppressors upon sporulation yield asci with only two live spores, both lacking the suppressor. At least two classes of recessive lethal suppressors exist. Aneuploid strains carrying one wild type and one suppressor locus have been isolated and used in mapping studies; one suppressor maps on chromosome III, the other does not. PMID:1093932

  7. Gene essentiality and synthetic lethality in haploid human cells.

    PubMed

    Blomen, Vincent A; Májek, Peter; Jae, Lucas T; Bigenzahn, Johannes W; Nieuwenhuis, Joppe; Staring, Jacqueline; Sacco, Roberto; van Diemen, Ferdy R; Olk, Nadine; Stukalov, Alexey; Marceau, Caleb; Janssen, Hans; Carette, Jan E; Bennett, Keiryn L; Colinge, Jacques; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Brummelkamp, Thijn R

    2015-11-27

    Although the genes essential for life have been identified in less complex model organisms, their elucidation in human cells has been hindered by technical barriers. We used extensive mutagenesis in haploid human cells to identify approximately 2000 genes required for optimal fitness under culture conditions. To study the principles of genetic interactions in human cells, we created a synthetic lethality network focused on the secretory pathway based exclusively on mutations. This revealed a genetic cross-talk governing Golgi homeostasis, an additional subunit of the human oligosaccharyltransferase complex, and a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase β adaptor hijacked by viruses. The synthetic lethality map parallels observations made in yeast and projects a route forward to reveal genetic networks in diverse aspects of human cell biology. PMID:26472760

  8. Isolation and characterization of rat skeletal myoblast mutants resistant to lectins.

    PubMed Central

    Gilfix, B; Rogers, J; Sanwal, B D

    1983-01-01

    Mutants resistant to the lethal action of the lectins phytohemagglutinin A (PHA) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) have been made in a line of differentiating rat skeletal myoblasts. The WGA mutants are of two types, WGArII, resistant to low concentrations of the lectin, and WGArI, resistant to high concentrations of the lectin. WGArII and PHAr mutants are unable to differentiate, whereas WGArI mutants differentiate normally. WGArII mutants are not impaired in the binding of wheat germ agglutinin, but WGArI mutants bind the lectin only to the extent of about 50% of the wild-type values. All of the mutants are cross-resistant to lectins other than those used in their selection. PMID:6689198

  9. Regulation of Mutant p53 Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumaran, Reshma; Tan, Kah Hin; Miranda, Panimaya Jeffreena; Haupt, Sue; Haupt, Ygal

    2015-01-01

    For several decades, p53 has been detected in cancer biopsies by virtue of its high protein expression level which is considered indicative of mutation. Surprisingly, however, mouse genetic studies revealed that mutant p53 is inherently labile, similar to its wild type (wt) counterpart. Consistently, in response to stress conditions, both wt and mutant p53 accumulate in cells. While wt p53 returns to basal level following recovery from stress, mutant p53 remains stable. In part, this can be explained in mutant p53-expressing cells by the lack of an auto-regulatory loop with Mdm2 and other negative regulators, which are pivotal for wt p53 regulation. Further, additional protective mechanisms are acquired by mutant p53, largely mediated by the co-chaperones and their paralogs, the stress-induced heat shock proteins. Consequently, mutant p53 is accumulated in cancer cells in response to chronic stress and this accumulation is critical for its oncogenic gain of functions (GOF). Building on the extensive knowledge regarding wt p53, the regulation of mutant p53 is unraveling. In this review, we describe the current understanding on the major levels at which mutant p53 is regulated. These include the regulation of p53 protein levels by microRNA and by enzymes controlling p53 proteasomal degradation. PMID:26734569

  10. Mutant of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides Unable to Grow Aerobically1

    PubMed Central

    Wittenberg, T.; Sistrom, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    We isolated a mutant of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides that grows normally under photosynthetic conditions but is unable to grow exponentially under aerobic conditions. Photosynthetically grown cultures of the mutant increase in mass and cell number for about 10 hr after transfer to aerobic conditions. During this time, no heme pigments are synthesized and the Q(O2) declines. In the mutant, synthesis of heme pigments is obligatorily coupled to synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll. PMID:5557591

  11. Effects of fuzzless cottonseed phenotype on cottonseed nutrient composition in near isogenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) mutant lines under well-watered and water stress conditions1

    PubMed Central

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Turley, Rickie B.

    2013-01-01

    There is no information available on the effect of fuzzless seed trait on cottonseed nutrient composition (minerals, N, S, protein, and oil) under drought stress. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of the fuzzless seed trait on cottonseed nutrients using five sets of near-isogenic lines (NILs). Each set consists of two lines that share the same genetic background, but differ in seed fuzziness (fuzzy, F; fuzzless, N). The near isogenic lines will enable us to compare the effect of the trait without confounding the genotypic background effects. We hypothesized that since the fuzzless trait involved in fiber initiation development, and was reported to be involved in biochemical, molecular, and genetic processes, this trait may also alter cottonseed nutrient composition. Results showed that NIL sets accumulated different levels of minerals in seeds and leaves, and the fuzzless trait (N) in most of the lines altered seed and leaf mineral accumulations when compared with fuzzy lines (F) or the control line. For example, K, P, Mg, Cu, and Na concentrations in seeds were higher in MD N and STV N than in their equivalent MD F and STV F lines. Leaf concentrations of Ca, K, Mg, S, B, Cu, and Fe in MD N lines were higher than MD F line. Lower levels of nutrients in seeds and leaves were observed under water stress conditions, especially Ca, Mg, N, and B in seeds.Generally and with few exceptions, seed protein was higher in fuzzy lines than in fuzzless lines; however, seed oil was higher in fuzzless lines than in fuzzy lines. Our research demonstrated that fuzzless trait altered the composition and level of nutrients in seed and leaves in well watered and water stressed plants. Differences in protein and oil between fuzzy and fuzzless seeds may indicate alteration in nitrogen and carbon fixation and metabolism. The differential accumulation of seed nutrients in this germplasm could be used by cotton breeders to select for higher cottonseed quality. PMID:24416037

  12. Adaptive acid tolerance response in Listeria monocytogenes: isolation of an acid-tolerant mutant which demonstrates increased virulence.

    PubMed Central

    O'Driscoll, B; Gahan, C G; Hill, C

    1996-01-01

    The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to tolerate low-pH environments is of particular importance because the pathogen encounters such environments in vivo, both during passage through the stomach and within the macrophage phagosome. In our study, L. monocytogenes was shown to exhibit a significant adaptive acid tolerance response following a 1-h exposure to mild acid (pH 5.5), which is capable of protecting cells from severe acid stress (pH 3.5). Susceptibility to pH 3.5 acid is growth phase dependent. Stationary-phase Listeria cultures are naturally resistant to the challenge pH (pH 3.5), while exponential-phase cultures require adaptation at pH 5.5 to induce acid tolerance. Adaptation requires protein synthesis, since treatment with chloramphenicol prevents the development of acid tolerance. Induction of the acid tolerance response also protects L. monocytogenes against the effect of other environmental stresses. Acid-adapted cells demonstrate increased tolerance toward thermal stress, osmotic stress, crystal violet, and ethanol. Following prolonged exposure of L. monocytogenes to pH 3.5, we isolated mutants which constitutively demonstrate increased acid tolerance at all stages of the growth cycle. These mutants do not display full acid tolerance, but their resistance to low pH can be further increased following adaptation to mild-acid conditions. The mutants demonstrated increased lethality for mice relative to that of the wild type when inoculated by the intraperitoneal route. When administered as lower inocula, the mutants reached higher levels in the spleens of infected mice than did the wild type. The data suggest that low-pH conditions may have the potential to select for L. monocytogenes mutants with increased natural acid tolerance and increased virulence. PMID:8633868

  13. Phanerochaete mutants with enhanced ligninolytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kakar, S.N.; Perez, A.; Gonzales, J.

    1993-06-01

    In addition to lignin, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organopollutants in soils and aqueous media. Although some of the organic compounds are degraded under nonligninolytic conditions, most are degraded under ligninolytic conditions with the involvement of the extracellular enzymes, lignin peroxidases, and manganese-dependent peroxidases, which are produced as secondary metabolites triggered by conditions of nutrient starvation (e.g., nitrogen limitation). The fungus and its enzymes can thus provide alternative technologies for bioremediation, biopulping, biobleaching, and other industrial applications. The efficiency and effectiveness of the fungus can be enhanced by increasing production and secretion of the important enzymes in large quantities and as primary metabolites under enriched conditions. One way this can be achieved is through isolation of mutants that are deregulated or are hyperproducers or supersecretors of key enzymes under enriched conditions. Through ultraviolet-light and gamma-rays mutagenesis we have isolated a variety of mutants, some of which produce key enzymes of the ligninolytic system under high-nitrogen growth conditions. One of the mutants produced 272 units (U) of lignin peroxidases enzyme activity per liter after nine days under high nitrogen. The mutant and the parent strains produced up to 54 U/L and 62 U/L, respectively, of the enzyme activity under low-nitrogen growth conditions during this period. In some experiments the mutant showed 281 U/L of enzyme activity under high nitrogen after 17 days.

  14. Crystallographic studies of the Anthrax lethal toxin. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, C.A.

    1996-07-01

    The lethal form of Anthrax results from the inhalation of anthrax spores. Death is primarily due to the effects of the lethal toxin (Protective Antigen (PA) + Lethal Factor) from the causative agent, Bacillus anthracis. All the Anthrax vaccines currently in use or under development contain or produce PA, the major antigenic component of anthrax toxin, and there is a clear need for an improved vaccine for human use. In the previous report we described the first atomic resolution structure of PA, revealing that the molecule is composed largely of beta-sheets organized into four domains. This information can be used in the design. of recombinant PA vaccines. In this report we describe additional features of the full-length PA molecule derived from further crystallographic refinement and careful examination of the structure. We compare two crystal forms of PA grown at different pH values and discuss the functional implications. A complete definition of the function of each domain must await the crystal structure of the PA63 heptamer. We have grown crystals of the heptamer under both detergent and detergent-free conditions, and made substantial progress towards the crystal structure. The mechanism of anthrax intoxication in the light of our results is reviewed.

  15. Activation loop phosphorylation regulates B-Raf in vivo and transformation by B-Raf mutants.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Martin; Röring, Michael; Schorch, Björn; Heilmann, Katharina; Stickel, Natalie; Fiala, Gina J; Schmitt, Lisa C; Braun, Sandra; Ehrenfeld, Sophia; Uhl, Franziska M; Kaltenbacher, Thorsten; Weinberg, Florian; Herzog, Sebastian; Zeiser, Robert; Schamel, Wolfgang W; Jumaa, Hassan; Brummer, Tilman

    2016-01-18

    Despite being mutated in cancer and RASopathies, the role of the activation segment (AS) has not been addressed for B-Raf signaling in vivo. Here, we generated a conditional knock-in mouse allowing the expression of the B-Raf(AVKA) mutant in which the AS phosphoacceptor sites T599 and S602 are replaced by alanine residues. Surprisingly, despite producing a kinase-impaired protein, the Braf(AVKA) allele does not phenocopy the lethality of Braf-knockout or paradoxically acting knock-in alleles. However, Braf(AVKA) mice display abnormalities in the hematopoietic system, a distinct facial morphology, reduced ERK pathway activity in the brain, and an abnormal gait. This phenotype suggests that maximum B-Raf activity is required for the proper development, function, and maintenance of certain cell populations. By establishing conditional murine embryonic fibroblast cultures, we further show that MEK/ERK phosphorylation and the immediate early gene response toward growth factors are impaired in the presence of B-Raf(AVKA). Importantly, alanine substitution of T599/S602 impairs the transformation potential of oncogenic non-V600E B-Raf mutants and a fusion protein, suggesting that blocking their phosphorylation could represent an alternative strategy to ATP-competitive inhibitors. PMID:26657898

  16. Activator-independent transcription of Snf1-dependent genes in mutants lacking histone tails

    PubMed Central

    Infante, Juan J.; Law, G. Lynn; Wang, I-Ting; Chang, Hsin-Wen Ella; Young, Elton T.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Transcriptional regulation of Snf1-dependent genes occurs in part by histone-acetylation-dependent binding of the transcription factor Adr1. Analysis of previously published microarray data indicated unscheduled transcription of a large number of Snf1- and Adr1-dependent genes when either the histone H3 or H4 tail was deleted. Quantitative real time PCR confirmed that the tails were important to preserve stringent transcriptional repression of Snf1-dependent genes when glucose was present. The absence of the tails allowed Adr1 and RNA Polymerase II to bind promoters in normally inhibitory conditions. The promoters escaped glucose repression to a limited extent and the weak constitutive ADH2 transcription induced by deletion of the histone tails was transcription factor- and Snf1-independent. These effects were apparently due to a permissive chromatin structure that allowed transcription in the absence of repression mediated by the histone tails. Deleting REG1, and thus activating Snf1 in the H3 tail mutant enhanced transcription in repressing conditions, indicating that Snf1 and the H3 tail influence transcription independently. Deleting REG1 in the histone H4 tail mutant appeared to be lethal, even in the absence of Snf1, suggesting that Reg1 and the H4 tail have redundant functions that are important for cell viability. PMID:21338416

  17. Lethal intimate partner violence: an interactional perspective on women's perceptions of lethal incidents.

    PubMed

    Vatnar, Solveig Karin Bø; Bjørkly, Stål

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner homicide (IPH) is the only lethal violence in which women are the principal victims. This research reports on an investigation of possible differences between dynamics of lethal and nonlethal intimate partner violence (IPV). A representative sample of 157 help-seeking female victims of IPV in Norway was interviewed. Results from multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that women who perceived they had been subjected to lethal IPV were different from those who had not perceived the IPV as lethal concerning interactional dimensions of IPV and in their help-seeking responses. There was no difference related to sociodemographic factors. Because some IPV help-seeking women may be at a heightened risk for lethal violence, it is imperative that their efforts to seek assistance are responded to with care and structured risk assessment. PMID:24364122

  18. Lethality of Sortase Depletion in Actinomyces oris Caused by Excessive Membrane Accumulation of a Surface Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chenggang; Huang, I-Hsiu; Chang, Chungyu; Reardon-Robinson, Melissa Elizabeth; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2014-01-01

    Sortase, a cysteine-transpeptidase conserved in Gram-positive bacteria, anchors on the cell wall many surface proteins that facilitate bacterial pathogenesis and fitness. Genetic disruption of the housekeeping sortase in several Gram-positive pathogens reported thus far attenuates virulence, but not bacterial growth. Paradoxically, we discovered that depletion of the housekeeping sortase SrtA was lethal for Actinomyces oris; yet, all of its predicted cell wall-anchored protein substrates (AcaA-N) were individually dispensable for cell viability. Using Tn5-transposon mutagenesis to identify factors that upend lethality of srtA deletion, we uncovered a set of genetic suppressors harboring transposon insertions within genes of a locus encoding AcaC and a LytR-CpsA-Psr (LCP)-like protein. AcaC was shown to be highly glycosylated and dependent on LCP for its glycosylation. Upon SrtA depletion, the glycosylated form of AcaC, hereby renamed GspA, was accumulated in the membrane. Overexpression of GspA in a mutant lacking gspA and srtA was lethal; conversely, cells overexpressing a GspA mutant missing a membrane-localization domain were viable. The results reveal a unique glycosylation pathway in A. oris that is coupled to cell wall anchoring catalyzed by sortase SrtA. Significantly, this novel phenomenon of glyco-stress provides convenient cell-based assays for developing a new class of inhibitors against Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:25230351

  19. Development of ELISA based detection system for lethal toxin of Clostridium sordellii

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Preetika; Ponmariappan, S.; Singh, Lokendra; Kumar, Om

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Clostridium sordellii and its toxins are associated with diseases in animals as well as human. C. sordellii produces two protein toxins (lethal toxin and haemorrhagic toxin). Lethal toxin has gained more importance due its high toxicity. The present study was carried out to develop a sandwich ELISA for detection of lethal toxin of C. sordellii. Methods: The catalytic domain (1.6kb) of lethal toxin of C. sordellii was PCR amplified, cloned into pQE30 UA vector and transformed into Escherichia coli SG 13009. Expression conditions were optimized and the recombinant protein was purified under native condition using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography, confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Antibody was generated against the purified recombinant protein using Freund's complete and incomplete adjuvants (FCA and FIA) in BALB/c mice and rabbit. A sandwich ELISA was optimized for the detection of lethal toxin. Results: The maximum recombinant protein expression was achieved at 0.5 mM IPTG (isopropylthiogalactoside) induction 4.0 h of post-induction. The polyclonal antibody raised in mice and rabbit showed a titre up to 1:512000. The produced antibody was highly sensitive with the detection limit of 0.3 ng/ml of lethal toxin at 1:4000 dilutions of mice (capturing) and rabbit (revealing) antibody. Interpretation & conclusions: An ELISA based detection system was developed for the detection of lethal toxin of C. sordellii. The developed detection system was found to be specific as there was no cross-reactivity with any other clostridial toxins. It will be useful for the detection of lethal toxin of C. sordellii in clinical and environmental samples. PMID:23852299

  20. Lethal Injection for Execution: Chemical Asphyxiation?

    PubMed Central

    Zimmers, Teresa A; Sheldon, Jonathan; Lubarsky, David A; López-Muñoz, Francisco; Waterman, Linda; Weisman, Richard; Koniaris, Leonidas G

    2007-01-01

    Background Lethal injection for execution was conceived as a comparatively humane alternative to electrocution or cyanide gas. The current protocols are based on one improvised by a medical examiner and an anesthesiologist in Oklahoma and are practiced on an ad hoc basis at the discretion of prison personnel. Each drug used, the ultrashort-acting barbiturate thiopental, the neuromuscular blocker pancuronium bromide, and the electrolyte potassium chloride, was expected to be lethal alone, while the combination was intended to produce anesthesia then death due to respiratory and cardiac arrest. We sought to determine whether the current drug regimen results in death in the manner intended. Methods and Findings We analyzed data from two US states that release information on executions, North Carolina and California, as well as the published clinical, laboratory, and veterinary animal experience. Execution outcomes from North Carolina and California together with interspecies dosage scaling of thiopental effects suggest that in the current practice of lethal injection, thiopental might not be fatal and might be insufficient to induce surgical anesthesia for the duration of the execution. Furthermore, evidence from North Carolina, California, and Virginia indicates that potassium chloride in lethal injection does not reliably induce cardiac arrest. Conclusions We were able to analyze only a limited number of executions. However, our findings suggest that current lethal injection protocols may not reliably effect death through the mechanisms intended, indicating a failure of design and implementation. If thiopental and potassium chloride fail to cause anesthesia and cardiac arrest, potentially aware inmates could die through pancuronium-induced asphyxiation. Thus the conventional view of lethal injection leading to an invariably peaceful and painless death is questionable. PMID:17455994

  1. Appearance of recessive lethal mutations in derivatives of an unstable X{sup Z} chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Yurchenko, N.N.; Koryakov, D.E.; Zakharov, I.K.

    1995-09-01

    An X{sup Z} chromosome isolated from a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster is characterized by spontaneous mutability of the genes yellow, white, and singed and the appearance of chromosomal rearrangements. In mutant lines derived from the line carrying the X{sup Z} chromosome that had one, two, or three unstable vision mutations (markers), the rate of appearance of sex-linked lethal mutations was analyzed. This rate was shown to increase with an increase in the number of markers in a line. This phenomenon, termed {open_quotes}marker induction,{close_quotes} might explain the phenotypic homogeneity of natural Drosophila populations. Spontaneous lethal mutations were mapped, and their nonrandom distribution along the X{sup Z} chromosome was shown. Along with common {open_quotes}hot spot{close_quotes} sites of lethal mutations, the derivatives of the X{sup Z} chromosomes had their own specific sites for lethal mutations. In some cases, the appearance of lethal mutations was accompanied by the formation of inversions in the X{sup Z} chromosome. The lethal destabilization of the X{sup Z} derivatives, caused by selection for accumulation of visible mutations, is associated with an increase in the number of hot spots for nuclear mutations. Presumably, these hot spots are hot sites for the transposition of mobile genetic elements. 18 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Live deaths online: internet suicide and lethality.

    PubMed

    Klein, Carolina A

    2012-01-01

    The Internet provides an infinite platform for the portrayal of lethal events. Beyond mere display, however, it dispenses information, allows for participation and sharing of content, and constitutes a virtual interactive forum. The Internet may ultimately shape society's approach to perceiving and dealing with death. Thus, psychiatrists may wish to be aware of these matters so that they may be considered in assessments and clinical care. In this article, the author attempts to identify key online locations where lethality is portrayed and how it may affect the individual patient and practitioner and the population at large. PMID:23233475

  3. Lethality In Mice Following Localized Photodynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrario, Angela; Gomer, Charles J.; Murphree, A. L.

    1989-06-01

    Porphyrin photodynamic therapy directed specifically to the hind leg of various strains of mice was found to induce a high percentage of lethality at dosages which would be required to achieve cures in tumor bearing mice. Toxicity was observed in both pigmented and albino mouse strains. An inverse relationship between light dose rate and lethality was documented. Anti-coagulant drugs and anti-inflammatory agents which inhibit cyclo-oxygenase had protective effects. The response induced by localized PDT appears to mimic that of a classical traumatic shock syndrome and may be limited to PDT in small animals such as mice.

  4. Candida albicans Isolates from the Gut of Critically Ill Patients Respond to Phosphate Limitation by Expressing Filaments and a Lethal Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Valuckaite, Vesta; Rolfes, Ronda J.; Babrowski, Trissa; Bethel, Cindy; Olivas, Andrea; Zaborina, Olga; Alverdy, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen that proliferates in the intestinal tract of critically ill patients where it continues to be a major cause of infectious-related mortality. The precise cues that shift intestinal C. albicans from its ubiquitous indolent colonizing yeast form to an invasive and lethal filamentous form remain unknown. We have previously shown that severe phosphate depletion develops in the intestinal tract during extreme physiologic stress and plays a major role in shifting intestinal Pseudomonas aeruginosa to express a lethal phenotype via conserved phosphosensory-phosphoregulatory systems. Here we studied whether phosphate dependent virulence expression could be similarly demonstrated for C. albicans. C. albicans isolates from the stool of critically ill patients and laboratory prototype strains (SC5314, BWP17, SN152) were evaluated for morphotype transformation and lethality against C. elegans and mice during exposure to phosphate limitation. Isolates ICU1 and ICU12 were able to filament and kill C. elegans in a phosphate dependent manner. In a mouse model of intestinal phosphate depletion (30% hepatectomy), direct intestinal inoculation of C. albicans caused mortality that was prevented by oral phosphate supplementation. Prototype strains displayed limited responses to phosphate limitation; however, the pho4Δ mutant displayed extensive filamentation during low phosphate conditions compared to its isogenic parent strain SN152, suggesting that mutation in the transcriptional factor Pho4p may sensitize C. albicans to phosphate limitation. Extensive filamentation was also observed in strain ICU12 suggesting that this strain is also sensitized to phosphate limitation. Analysis of the sequence of PHO4 in strain ICU12, its transcriptional response to phosphate limitation, and phosphatase assays confirmed that ICU12 demonstrates a profound response to phosphate limitation. The emergence of strains of C. albicans with marked responsiveness to phosphate limitation may represent a fitness adaptation to the complex and nutrient scarce environment typical of the gut of a critically ill patient. PMID:22253901

  5. Infantile pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis: a lethal form of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Eiméar; McNally, Paul; O'Sullivan, Maureen; Phelan, Ethna; Sumner, Kelli; Best, D Hunter; McMahon, Colin J

    2016-04-01

    We describe the cases of two children who both presented in infancy with recurrent severe pulmonary hypertensive crises. Exhaustive clinical work-up failed to identify an underlying aetiology. The patients had no clinical response to steroids, immunoglobulins, or pulmonary vasodilators. Post-mortem examination revealed extensive invasive pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis. There was no evidence of pulmonary venous occlusive disease. Given the lethal nature of this condition, early consideration of referral to a lung transplant centre should be considered in selected patients. PMID:26175015

  6. [Isadora Duncan syndrome : Lethal strangulation injuries caused by filling equipment].

    PubMed

    Jansen, G; Mertzlufft, F

    2016-05-01

    Aside from suicide attempts or autoerotic accidents, serious injuries from strangulation are rare. In 1929, the accidental death of the famous dancer Isadora Duncan gained high profile. However, even today there are reports of accidental strangulations. These are referred to as Isadora Duncan or long-scarf syndrome and are oftentimes lethal. In the pre-hospital setting, airway management has been challenging, as even a correctly placed airway device may initiate a rapid and marked deterioration of the patient's condition. The case history at hand outlines the death of a 47-year-old female, following entanglement of her scarf in bottling equipment. PMID:27142365

  7. Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mark H., Ed.; Petrie, Carol V., Ed.; Braga, Anthony A., Ed.; McLaughlin, Brenda L., Ed.

    This collection of papers is the outcome of the National Academies' effort to glean information from six different case studies of student-perpetrated school shootings. Part 1, "Case Studies of Lethal School Violence," includes: "The Copycat Factor: Mental Illness, Guns, and the Shooting Incident at Heritage High School, Rockdale County, Georgia"…

  8. The evolution of lethal intergroup violence

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Raymond C.

    2005-01-01

    Recent findings and analyses in evolutionary biology, archaeology, and ethnology provide a favorable conjuncture for examining the evolution of lethal intergroup violence among hominids during the 2.9-million-year Paleolithic time span. Here, I seek to identify and investigate the main turning points in this evolutionary trajectory and to delineate the periodization that follows from this inquiry. PMID:16129826

  9. Differential expression of the lethal gene Luteus-Pa in cacao of the Parinari series.

    PubMed

    Rehem, B C; Almeida, A-A F; Figueiredo, G S F; Gesteira, A S; Santos, S C; Corrêa, R X; Yamada, M M; Valle, R R

    2016-01-01

    The recessive lethal character Luteus-Pa is found in cacao (Theobroma cacao) genotypes of the Parinari series (Pa) and is characterized by expression of leaf chlorosis and seedling death. Several genotypes of the Pa series are bearers of the gene responsible for the expression of the Luteus-Pa character, which can be used as a tool for determining relationships between genotypes of this group. To evaluate this phenomenon, we analyzed the differential expression of genes between mutant seedlings and wild-type hybrid Pa 30 x 169 seedlings, with the aim of elucidating the possible lethal mechanisms of the homozygous recessive character Luteus-Pa. Plant material was harvested from leaves of wild and mutant seedlings at different periods to construct a subtractive library and perform quantitative analysis using real-time PCR. The 649 sequences obtained from the subtractive library had an average length of 500 bp, forming 409 contigs. The probable proteins encoded were grouped into 10 functional categories. Data from ESTs identified genes associated with Rubisco, peroxidases, and other proteins and enzymes related to carbon assimilation, respiration, and photosystem 2. Mutant seedlings were characterized by synthesizing defective PsbO and PsbA proteins, which were overexpressed from 15 to 20 days after seedling emergence. PMID:26910005

  10. Contribution of Lethal Toxin and Edema Toxin to the Pathogenesis of Anthrax Meningitis ?

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Celia M.; Sheen, Tamsin R.; Renken, Christian W.; Gottlieb, Roberta A.; Doran, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that causes anthrax disease in humans and animals. Systemic infection is characterized by septicemia, toxemia, and meningitis, the main neurological complication associated with high mortality. We have shown previously that B. anthracis Sterne is capable of blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration, establishing the classic signs of meningitis, and that infection is dependent on the expression of both major anthrax toxins, lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET). Here we further investigate the contribution of the individual toxins to BBB disruption using isogenic toxin mutants deficient in lethal factor, ?LF, and edema factor, ?EF. Acute infection with B. anthracis Sterne and the ?LF mutant resulted in disruption of human brain microvascular endothelial cell (hBMEC) monolayer integrity and tight junction protein zona occludens-1, while the result for cells infected with the ?EF mutant was similar to that for the noninfected control. A significant decrease in bacterial invasion of BBB endothelium in vitro was observed during infection with the ?LF strain, suggesting a prominent role for LT in promoting BBB interaction. Further, treatment of hBMECs with purified LT or chemicals that mimic LT action on host signaling pathways rescued the hypoinvasive phenotype of the ?LF mutant and resulted in increased bacterial uptake. We also observed that toxin expression reduced bacterial intracellular survival by inducing the bulk degradative autophagy pathway in host cells. Finally, in a murine model of anthrax meningitis, mice infected with the ?LF mutant exhibited no mortality, brain bacterial load, or evidence of meningitis compared to mice infected with the parental or ?EF strains. PMID:21518787

  11. Thermoconditional modulation of the pleiotropic sensitivity phenotype by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PRP19 mutant allele pso4-1

    PubMed Central

    Revers, L. F.; Cardone, J. M.; Bonatto, D.; Saffi, J.; Grey, M.; Feldmann, H.; Brendel, M.; Henriques, J. A. P.

    2002-01-01

    The conditionally-lethal pso4-1 mutant allele of the spliceosomal-associated PRP19 gene allowed us to study this gene’s influence on pre-mRNA processing, DNA repair and sporulation. Phenotypes related to intron-containing genes were correlated to temperature. Splicing reporter systems and RT–PCR showed splicing efficiency in pso4-1 to be inversely correlated to growth temperature. A single amino acid substitution, replacing leucine with serine, was identified within the N-terminal region of the pso4-1 allele and was shown to affect the interacting properties of Pso4-1p. Amongst 24 interacting clones isolated in a two-hybrid screening, seven could be identified as parts of the RAD2, RLF2 and DBR1 genes. RAD2 encodes an endonuclease indispensable for nucleotide excision repair (NER), RLF2 encodes the major subunit of the chromatin assembly factor I, whose deletion results in sensitivity to UVC radiation, while DBR1 encodes the lariat RNA splicing debranching enzyme, which degrades intron lariat structures during splicing. Characterization of mutagen-sensitive phenotypes of rad2Δ, rlf2Δ and pso4-1 single and double mutant strains showed enhanced sensitivity for the rad2Δ pso4-1 and rlf2Δ pso4-1 double mutants, suggesting a functional interference of these proteins in DNA repair processes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:12434004

  12. Novel features of the ISC machinery revealed by characterization of Escherichia coli mutants that survive without iron-sulfur clusters.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naoyuki; Kanazawa, Miaki; Tonosaki, Keitaro; Yokoyama, Nao; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Takahashi, Yasuhiro

    2016-03-01

    Biological assembly of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters is mediated by complex systems consisting of multiple proteins. Escherichia coli possesses two distinct systems called the ISC and SUF machineries encoded by iscSUA-hscBA-fdx-iscX and sufABCDSE respectively. Deletion of both pathways results in absence of the biosynthetic apparatus for Fe-S clusters, and consequent lethality, which has hampered detailed genetic studies. Here we report that modification of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway can offset the indispensability of the Fe-S cluster biosynthetic systems and show that the resulting Δisc Δsuf double mutants can grow without detectable Fe-S cluster-containing proteins. We also constructed a series of mutants in which each isc gene was disrupted in the deletion background of sufABCDSE. Phenotypic analysis of the mutants revealed that Fdx, an essential electron-transfer Fe-S protein in the ISC machinery, is dispensable under anaerobic conditions, which is similar to the situation with IscA. Furthermore, we found that several suppressor mutations in IscU, an Fe-S scaffold protein responsible for the de novo Fe-S cluster assembly, could bypass the essential role of the chaperone system HscA and HscB. These findings pave the way toward a detailed molecular analysis to understand the mechanisms involved in Fe-S cluster biosynthesis. PMID:26560204

  13. Deletion of peptide amidation enzymatic activity leads to edema and embryonic lethality in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Czyzyk, Traci A; Ning, Yun; Hsu, Ming-Sing; Peng, Bonnie; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A; Pintar, John E

    2005-11-15

    Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) catalyzes the COOH-terminal amidation of peptide hormones. We previously had found high expression of PAM in several regions of the developing rodent. To determine the function of PAM during mouse embryogenesis, we produced a null mutant of the PAM gene. Homozygous mutants die in utero between e14.5 and e15.5 with severe edema that is likely due to cardiovascular deficits. These defects include thinning of the aorta and carotid arteries and are very similar to those of the recently characterized adrenomedullin (AM) gene KO despite the presence of elevated immunoreactive AM in PAM KO embryos. No peptide amidation activity was detected in PAM mutant embryos, and there was no moderation of the AM-like phenotype that could be expected if any alternative peptide amidation mechanism exists in the mouse. Despite the proposed contribution of amidated peptides to neuronal cell proliferation, no alteration in neuroblast proliferation was observed in homozygous mutant embryos prior to lethality. Mice heterozygous for the mutant PAM allele develop normally and express wildtype levels of several amidated peptides despite having one half the wildtype levels of PAM activity and PAM protein. Nonetheless, both an increase in adiposity and a mild glucose intolerance developed in aged (>10 months) heterozygous mice compared to littermate controls. Ablation of PAM thus demonstrates an essential function for this gene during mouse development, while alterations in PAM activity in the adult may underlie more subtle physiologic effects. PMID:16225857

  14. Carbon monoxide and lethal arrhythmias

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, J.P.; Schwartz, P.J.; Vanoli, E.; Stramba-Badiale, M.; De Ferrari, G.M. )

    1990-12-01

    The effect of acute exposure to carbon monoxide on ventricular arrhythmias was studied in a previously described chronically maintained animal model of sudden cardiac death. In 60 percent of dogs with a healed anterior myocardial infarction, the combination of mild exercise and acute myocardial ischemia induces ventricular fibrillation. The events in this model are highly reproducible, thus allowing study by internal control analysis. Dogs that develop ventricular fibrillation during the test of exercise and acute myocardial ischemia are considered at high risk for sudden death and are defined as 'susceptible'; dogs that survive the test without a fatal arrhythmia are considered at low risk for sudden death and are defined as 'resistant.' In the current study, the effects of carboxyhemoglobin levels ranging from 5 to 15 percent were tested in resistant and susceptible dogs. A trend toward higher heart rates was observed at all levels of carboxyhemoglobin, although significant differences were observed only with 15 percent carboxyhemoglobin. This trend was observed at rest and during exercise in both resistant and susceptible dogs. In resistant animals, in which acute myocardial ischemia is typically associated with bradycardia even under the control condition, this reflex response occurred earlier and was augmented after exposure to carbon monoxide. This effect may depend on the increased hypoxic challenge caused by carbon monoxide, and thus on an augmentation of the neural reflex activation or a sensitization of the sinus node to acetylcholine induced by hypoxia. In both resistant and susceptible dogs, carbon monoxide exposure induced a worsening of ventricular arrhythmias in a minority of cases. This worsening was not reproducible in subsequent trials. These data indicate that acute exposure to carbon monoxide is seldom arrhythmogenic in dogs that have survived myocardial infarction. (Abstract Truncated)

  15. Lesion mimic mutants

    PubMed Central

    Moeder, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade a substantial number of lesion mimic mutants (LMM) have been isolated and a growing number of the genes have been cloned. It is now becoming clear that these mutants are valuable tools to dissect various aspects of programmed cell death (PCD) and pathogen resistance pathways in plants. Together with other forward genetics approaches LMMs shed light on the PCD machinery in plant cells and revealed important roles for sphingolipids, Ca2+ and chloroplast-derived porphyrin-metabolites during cell death development. PMID:19513227

  16. Defective cranial skeletal development, larval lethality and haploinsufficiency in Myod mutant zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Hinits, Yaniv; Williams, Victoria C; Sweetman, Dylan; Donn, Thomas M; Ma, Taylur P; Moens, Cecilia B; Hughes, Simon M

    2011-10-01

    Myogenic regulatory factors of the myod family (MRFs) are transcription factors essential for mammalian skeletal myogenesis. Here we show that a mutation in the zebrafish myod gene delays and reduces early somitic and pectoral fin myogenesis, reduces miR-206 expression, and leads to a persistent reduction in somite size until at least the independent feeding stage. A mutation in myog, encoding a second MRF, has little obvious phenotype at early stages, but exacerbates the loss of somitic muscle caused by lack of Myod. Mutation of both myod and myf5 ablates all skeletal muscle. Haploinsufficiency of myod leads to reduced embryonic somite muscle bulk. Lack of Myod causes a severe reduction in cranial musculature, ablating most muscles including the protractor pectoralis, a putative cucullaris homologue. This phenotype is accompanied by a severe dysmorphology of the cartilaginous skeleton and failure of maturation of several cranial bones, including the opercle. As myod expression is restricted to myogenic cells, the data show that myogenesis is essential for proper skeletogenesis in the head. PMID:21798255

  17. Lethality mechanisms in Escherichia coli induced by intense sub-microsecond electrical pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalise, P. R.; Perni, S.; Shama, G.; Novac, B. M.; Smith, I. R.; Kong, M. G.

    2006-10-01

    In this letter, the authors present the inactivation kinetics of cells of Escherichia coli and its mutants following treatment with high-intensity electrical pulses of 700 and 32ns durations. Their experimental results suggest that bacterial inactivation by 700ns pulses is consistent with a mechanism of reversible electroporation, whereas inactivation by 32ns pulses may occur as a result of damage to intracellular components. They believe that their results represent a first step towards elucidating the mechanism of lethality of submicrosecond pulses of different durations in prokaryotes.

  18. De novo inbred heterozygous Zeb2/Sip1 mutant mice uniquely generated by germ-line conditional knockout exhibit craniofacial, callosal and behavioral defects associated with Mowat-Wilson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Nishizaki, Yuriko; Matsui, Fumiko; Wakamatsu, Nobuaki; Higashi, Yujiro

    2015-11-15

    Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MOWS) is caused by de novo heterozygous mutation at ZEB2 (SIP1, ZFHX1B) gene, and exhibit moderate to severe intellectual disability (ID), a characteristic facial appearance, epilepsy and other congenital anomalies. Establishing a murine MOWS model is important, not only for investigating the pathogenesis of this disease, but also for identifying compounds that may improve the symptoms. However, because the heterozygous Zeb2 knockout mouse could not be maintained as a mouse line with the inbred C57BL/6 background, it was difficult to use those mice for the study of MOWS. Here, we systematically generated de novo Zeb2 Δex7/+ mice by inducing the Zeb2 mutation in the germ cells using conditional recombination system. The de novo Zeb2 Δex7/+ mice with C57BL/6 background developed multiple defects relevant to MOWS, including craniofacial abnormalities, defective corpus callosum formation and the decreased number of parvalbumin interneurons in the cortex. In behavioral analyses, these mice showed reduced motor activity, increased anxiety and impaired sociability. Notably, during the Barnes maze test, immobile Zeb2 mutant mice were observed over repeated trials. In contrast, neither the mouse line nor the de novo Zeb2 Δex7/+ mice with the closed colony ICR background showed cranial abnormalities or reduced motor activities. These results demonstrate the advantages of using de novo Zeb2 Δex7/+ mice with the C57BL/6 background as the MOWS model. To our knowledge, this is the first time an inducible de novo mutation system has been applied to murine germline cells to produce an animal model of a human congenital disease. PMID:26319231

  19. A forgotten lethal psychosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo Mazzei, Diego; Martín Rodriguez, Sergio; Pérez Moltó, Hipólito; Ruíz Izquierdo, Jessica; Baeza, Inmaculada

    2014-04-01

    Homocystinuria due to cystathionine β-synthase deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism first described almost 50 years ago, which involves the accumulation of plasma homocysteine and other metabolites. Without early detection and appropriate treatment, common and sometimes lethal consequences include ocular abnormalities, osteoporosis, developmental delays, marfanoid phenotype, vascular disease, and mental retardation. Almost 50 % of subjects develop a psychiatric disorder during their life, but only 2.8 % present a psychiatric symptom as the initial manifestation. Among this group, psychotic disorders are infrequent. We describe the case of a 17-year-old boy presenting with a first episode psychosis and an unknown homocystinuria due to cystathionine β-synthase deficiency, which led to a lethal outcome. PMID:23812867

  20. Unraveling the physiological complexities of antibiotic lethality.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Daniel J; Collins, James J; Walker, Graham C

    2015-01-01

    We face an impending crisis in our ability to treat infectious disease brought about by the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens and a decline in the development of new antibiotics. Urgent action is needed. This review focuses on a less well-understood aspect of antibiotic action: the complex metabolic events that occur subsequent to the interaction of antibiotics with their molecular targets and play roles in antibiotic lethality. Independent lines of evidence from studies of the action of bactericidal antibiotics on diverse bacteria collectively suggest that the initial interactions of drugs with their targets cannot fully account for the antibiotic lethality and that these interactions elicit the production of reactive oxidants including reactive oxygen species that contribute to bacterial cell death. Recent challenges to this concept are considered in the context of the broader literature of this emerging area of research. Possible ways that this new knowledge might be exploited to improve antibiotic therapy are also considered. PMID:25251995

  1. Lethal airbag injury in an infant.

    PubMed

    Hollands, C M; Winston, F K; Stafford, P W; Lau, H T

    1996-06-01

    Airbag injuries to automobile passengers are increasing in frequency, but the majority of reported injuries have been relatively minor and have occurred in adults. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has identified a potentially lethal injury mechanism that occurs when safety seats are placed rear-facing on the passenger side of a vehicle equipped with a passenger side airbag. We report the first case of infant fatality resulting from passenger side airbag deployment that validates this mechanism. PMID:8806144

  2. Rehabilitating mutant GCase.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Jennifer N; Gestwicki, Jason E

    2014-08-14

    Gaucher's disease is a hereditary deficiency of the enzyme β-glucocerebrosidase (GCase) that is most commonly treated by enzyme replacement therapy. In this issue of Chemistry & Biology, Tan and colleagues search for alternative ways to rehabilitate mutant GCase by understanding how it interacts with the proteostasis network. PMID:25126987

  3. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  4. Lethal Interpersonal Violence in the Middle Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Pantoja-Pérez, Ana; Pablos, Adrián; Martínez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf M.; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force trauma. The type of injuries, their location, the strong similarity of the fractures in shape and size, and the different orientations and implied trajectories of the two fractures suggest they were produced with the same object in face-to-face interpersonal conflict. Given that either of the two traumatic events was likely lethal, the presence of multiple blows implies an intention to kill. This finding shows that the lethal interpersonal violence is an ancient human behavior and has important implications for the accumulation of bodies at the site, supporting an anthropic origin. PMID:26018668

  5. Lethal interpersonal violence in the Middle Pleistocene.

    PubMed

    Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Pantoja-Pérez, Ana; Pablos, Adrián; Martínez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf M; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force trauma. The type of injuries, their location, the strong similarity of the fractures in shape and size, and the different orientations and implied trajectories of the two fractures suggest they were produced with the same object in face-to-face interpersonal conflict. Given that either of the two traumatic events was likely lethal, the presence of multiple blows implies an intention to kill. This finding shows that the lethal interpersonal violence is an ancient human behavior and has important implications for the accumulation of bodies at the site, supporting an anthropic origin. PMID:26018668

  6. Phenotypic disruption to orofacial movement topography in conditional mutants with generalized CamKIIa/Cre D1Tox versus striatal-specific DARPP-32/Cre D1Tox ablation of D1 dopamine receptor-expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, Katsunori; Kim, Hyun Ah; Kinsella, Anthony; Ehrlich, Michelle E; Schtz, Gnter; Koshikawa, Noriaki; Lawrence, Andrew J; Waddington, John L; Drago, John

    2011-09-01

    Orofacial movements were quantified in (a) DARPP-32/Cre D1Tox mutants, having progressive loss of D1 dopamine receptor expressing striatal medium spiny neurons and (b) CamKIIa/Cre D1Tox mutants, having progressive, generalized loss of forebrain D1 receptor expressing cells. Horizontal jaw movements and tongue protrusions were reduced in DARPP-32/Cre but not in CamKIIa/Cre mutants; head and vibrissae movements were increased in DARPP-32/Cre but decreased in CamKIIa/Cre mutants. In drug challenge studies, tongue protrusions were increased in CamKIIa/Cre mutants following vehicle, suggesting a stress-related phenotype. These findings indicate that mice with progressive loss of striatal-specific D1 receptor expressing cells have an orofacial phenotype that may be modulated by the loss of extrastriatal D1 receptor expressing cells. As progressive loss of D1 dopamine receptor-expressing cells is a hallmark feature of Huntington's disease (HD), these findings may inform the functional role of loss of this cell population in the overall pathobiology of HD. PMID:21308794

  7. Chemically Induced Conditional Rescue of the Reduced Epidermal Fluorescence8 Mutant of Arabidopsis Reveals Rapid Restoration of Growth and Selective Turnover of Secondary Metabolite Pools1[C][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Im; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Chapple, Clint; Li, Xu

    2014-01-01

    The phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse and important secondary metabolites including lignin and flavonoids. The reduced epidermal fluorescence8 (ref8) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which is defective in a lignin biosynthetic enzyme p-coumaroyl shikimate 3′-hydroxylase (C3′H), exhibits severe dwarfism and sterility. To better understand the impact of perturbation of phenylpropanoid metabolism on plant growth, we generated a chemically inducible C3′H expression construct and transformed it into the ref8 mutant. Application of dexamethasone to these plants greatly alleviates the dwarfism and sterility and substantially reverses the biochemical phenotypes of ref8 plants, including the reduction of lignin content and hyperaccumulation of flavonoids and p-coumarate esters. Induction of C3′H expression at different developmental stages has distinct impacts on plant growth. Although early induction effectively restored the elongation of primary inflorescence stem, application to 7-week-old plants enabled them to produce new rosette inflorescence stems. Examination of hypocotyls of these plants revealed normal vasculature in the newly formed secondary xylem, presumably restoring water transport in the mutant. The ref8 mutant accumulates higher levels of salicylic acid than the wild type, but depletion of this compound in ref8 did not relieve the mutant’s growth defects, suggesting that the hyperaccumulation of salicylic acid is unlikely to be responsible for dwarfism in this mutant. PMID:24381065

  8. Properties of a deep Proteus R mutant isolated from clinical material.

    PubMed

    Krajewska-Pietrasik, D; Rózalski, A; Bartodziejska, B; Radziejewska-Lebrecht, J; Mayer, H; Kotełko, K

    1991-06-01

    Some biological features of a deep P. mirabilis 17301 R mutant isolated from the urine of a patient with chronic UTI were studied and compared with similar features of P. mirabilis S forms and five induced Proteus R mutants of different chemotypes. There were no differences in lethal toxicity and adhesion to human uroepithelial cells. Of all the R mutants tested, two of them, 17301 and R4, exhibited strong cell-bound hemolytic activity. The P. mirabilis R 17301 was characterized as the most invasive (tested in L929 mouse fibroblasts) compared to the other Proteus S and R forms. The structure of PS from a clinical R mutant investigated and the results of serological studies prove that this mutant belongs to the Rc chemotype. PMID:2054167

  9. Lethal and Sub-lethal Effects of UVB on Juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Pulmonata)

    PubMed Central

    Ruelas, Debbie S.; Karentz, Deneb; Sullivan, John T.

    2007-01-01

    Although Schistosoma mansoni occurs mainly in the tropics, where intense levels of solar radiation are present, the impact of ultraviolet (UV) light on schistosome transmission is not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential effects of UVB (290–320 nm) on juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of S. mansoni. Albino and wild type snails were exposed to doses of UVB from UV-fluorescent lamps, and the following were measured: survival, photoreactivation (light-mediated DNA repair), effects on feeding behavior, and morphological tissue abnormalities. Irradiation with UVB is lethal to B. glabrata in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to white light subsequent to UVB irradiation enhances survival, probably by photoreactivation. The shell offers some, but not complete, protection. Experiments in which UVB transmittance through the shell was blocked with black nail polish suggest that injury to both exposed (headfoot) and shell-enclosed (mantle and visceral mass) tissues contributes to mortality in lethally-irradiated snails. Wild-type (pigmented) snails are less susceptible to lethal effects of UVB than albino snails, and they may be more capable of photoreactivation. UVB exposure inhibits snail feeding behavior, and causes tentacle forks and growths on the headfoot. Thus, UVB may influence the life cycle of S. mansoni by both lethal and sub-lethal damage to the snail intermediate host. However, the ability of snails to photoreactivate may mitigate these effects. PMID:16996081

  10. Engineered female-specific lethality for control of pest Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li; Walker, Adam S; Fu, Guoliang; Harvey-Samuel, Timothy; Dafa'alla, Tarig; Miles, Andrea; Marubbi, Thea; Granville, Deborah; Humphrey-Jones, Nerys; O'Connell, Sinead; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke

    2013-03-15

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a pest control strategy involving the mass release of radiation-sterilized insects, which reduce the target population through nonviable matings. In Lepidoptera, SIT could be more broadly applicable if the deleterious effects of sterilization by irradiation could be avoided. Moreover, male-only release can improve the efficacy of SIT. Adequate methods of male-only production in Lepidoptera are currently lacking, in contrast to some Diptera. We describe a synthetic genetic system that allows male-only moth production for SIT and also replaces radiation sterilization with inherited female-specific lethality. We sequenced and characterized the doublesex (dsx) gene from the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella). Sex-alternate splicing from dsx was used to develop a conditional lethal genetic sexing system in two pest moths: the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and pink bollworm. This system shows promise for enhancing existing pink bollworm SIT, as well as broadening SIT-type control to diamondback moth and other Lepidoptera. PMID:23802263

  11. Superior triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in starchless mutants of Scenedesmus obliquus: (I) mutant generation and characterization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Microalgae are a promising platform for producing neutral lipids, to be used in the application for biofuels or commodities in the feed and food industry. A very promising candidate is the oleaginous green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus, because it accumulates up to 45% w/w triacylglycerol (TAG) under nitrogen starvation. Under these conditions, starch is accumulated as well. Starch can amount up to 38% w/w under nitrogen starvation, which is a substantial part of the total carbon captured. When aiming for optimized TAG production, blocking the formation of starch could potentially increase carbon allocation towards TAG. In an attempt to increase TAG content, productivity and yield, starchless mutants of this high potential strain were generated using UV mutagenesis. Previous studies in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have shown that blocking the starch synthesis yields higher TAG contents, although these TAG contents do not surpass those of oleaginous microalgae yet. So far no starchless mutants in oleaginous green microalgae have been isolated that result in higher TAG productivities. Results Five starchless mutants have been isolated successfully from over 3,500 mutants. The effect of the mutation on biomass and total fatty acid (TFA) and TAG productivity under nitrogen-replete and nitrogen-depleted conditions was studied. All five starchless mutants showed a decreased or completely absent starch content. In parallel, an increased TAG accumulation rate was observed for the starchless mutants and no substantial decrease in biomass productivity was perceived. The most promising mutant showed an increase in TFA productivity of 41% at 4 days after nitrogen depletion, reached a TAG content of 49.4% (% of dry weight) and had no substantial change in biomass productivity compared to the wild type. Conclusions The improved S. obliquus TAG production strains are the first starchless mutants in an oleaginous green microalga that show enhanced TAG content under photoautotrophic conditions. These results can pave the way towards a more feasible microalgae-driven TAG production platform. PMID:24920957

  12. Importance of repair of potentially lethal damage in assays of cytotoxic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Richie, J.P.; Weichselbaum, R.R.; Little, J.B.

    1982-08-01

    Most in vitro assays expose growing cells to cytotoxic agents for a fixed period of time. However, these assays fail to account for repair of potentially lethal damage, the enhancement in survival that occurs when cells are maintained under nongrowth conditions after treatment with cytotoxic agents. This study extends previous observations of the repair of potentially lethal damage in human melanoma cells to parallel in vitro and in vivo experiments with the F10 subline of B16 melanoma. An in vivo (in C57BL/6 mice) and in vitro (in plastic plates) radiation dose-response relationship for the F10 subline of B16 melanoma was determined (200 to 1100 rads). Time delay until explant, allowing repair of potentially lethal damage, resulted in a significant and progressive enhancement of survival, five- to sixfold, both in vivo and in vitro. Survival with 700 rads and 24-hour delay was equivalent to that after treatment with 300 rads and no delay. Repair of potentially lethal damage, demonstrated in human cells in vitro and in animal preparations in vitro and in vivo, may account for the lack of clinical efficacy of some cytotoxic agents. Our results suggest that repair of potentially lethal damage should be taken into consideration in the design of in vitro chemotherapy and radiation therapy assays.

  13. Activation of Toxin-Antitoxin System Toxins Suppresses Lethality Caused by the Loss of σE in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Daimon, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT σE, an alternative σ factor that governs a major signaling pathway in envelope stress responses in Gram-negative bacteria, is essential for growth of Escherichia coli not only under stressful conditions, such as elevated temperature, but also under normal laboratory conditions. A mutational inactivation of the hicB gene has been reported to suppress the lethality caused by the loss of σE. hicB encodes the antitoxin of the HicA-HicB toxin-antitoxin (TA) system; overexpression of the HicA toxin, which exhibits mRNA interferase activity, causes cleavage of mRNAs and an arrest of cell growth, while simultaneous expression of HicB neutralizes the toxic effects of overproduced HicA. To date, however, how the loss of HicB rescues the cell lethality in the absence of σE and, more specifically, whether HicA is involved in this process remain unknown. Here we showed that simultaneous disruption of hicA abolished suppression of the σE essentiality in the absence of hicB, while ectopic expression of wild-type HicA, but not that of its mutant forms without mRNA interferase activity, restored the suppression. Furthermore, HicA and two other mRNA interferase toxins, HigB and YafQ, suppressed the σE essentiality even in the presence of chromosomally encoded cognate antitoxins when these toxins were overexpressed individually. Interestingly, when the growth media were supplemented with low levels of antibiotics that are known to activate toxins, E. coli cells with no suppressor mutations grew independently of σE. Taken together, our results indicate that the activation of TA system toxins can suppress the σE essentiality and affect the extracytoplasmic stress responses. IMPORTANCE σE is an alternative σ factor involved in extracytoplasmic stress responses. Unlike other alternative σ factors, σE is indispensable for the survival of E. coli even under unstressed conditions, although the exact reason for its essentiality remains unknown. Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are widely distributed in prokaryotes and are composed of two adjacent genes, encoding a toxin that exerts harmful effects on the toxin-producing bacterium itself and an antitoxin that neutralizes the cognate toxin. Curiously, it is known that inactivation of an antitoxin rescues the σE essentiality, suggesting a connection between TA systems and σE function. We demonstrate here that toxin activation is necessary for this rescue and suggest the possible involvement of TA systems in extracytoplasmic stress responses. PMID:25917909

  14. Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders (DMDD): a new programme for phenotyping embryonic lethal mice.

    PubMed

    Mohun, Timothy; Adams, David J; Baldock, Richard; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Copp, Andrew J; Hemberger, Myriam; Houart, Corinne; Hurles, Matt E; Robertson, Elizabeth; Smith, James C; Weaver, Tom; Weninger, Wolfgang

    2013-05-01

    International efforts to test gene function in the mouse by the systematic knockout of each gene are creating many lines in which embryonic development is compromised. These homozygous lethal mutants represent a potential treasure trove for the biomedical community. Developmental biologists could exploit them in their studies of tissue differentiation and organogenesis; for clinical researchers they offer a powerful resource for investigating the origins of developmental diseases that affect newborns. Here, we outline a new programme of research in the UK aiming to kick-start research with embryonic lethal mouse lines. The 'Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders' (DMDD) programme has the ambitious goal of identifying all embryonic lethal knockout lines made in the UK over the next 5 years, and will use a combination of comprehensive imaging and transcriptomics to identify abnormalities in embryo structure and development. All data will be made freely available, enabling individual researchers to identify lines relevant to their research. The DMDD programme will coordinate its work with similar international efforts through the umbrella of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium [see accompanying Special Article (Adams et al., 2013)] and, together, these programmes will provide a novel database for embryonic development, linking gene identity with molecular profiles and morphology phenotypes. PMID:23519034

  15. Enhancement of Overgrowth by Gene Interactions in Lethal(2)giant Discs Imaginal Discs from Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Buratovich, M. A.; Bryant, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    Recessive lethal mutations of the lethal(2)giant discs (l(2)gd) and lethal(2)fat (l(2)ft) loci of Drosophila melanogaster cause imaginal disc hyperplasia during a prolonged larval stage. Imaginal discs from l(2)ft l(2)gd or Gl(2)gd double homozygotes show more extensive overgrowth than in either single homozygote, and double homozygous l(2)ft l(2)gd mitotic clones in adult flies show much more overgrowth than is seen in clones homozygous for either l(2)gd or l(2)ft alone. dachsous (ds) also acts as an enhancer of l(2)gd, producing dramatically overgrown discs and causing failure to pupariate in double homozygotes. The comb gap (cg) mutation, which also interacts with ds, greatly enhances the tendency of imaginal discs from l(2)gd larvae to duplicate as they overgrow. If l(2)gd homozygotes are made heterozygous for l(2)ft, then several discs duplicate, indicating that l(2)ft acts as a dominant enhancer of l(2)gd. l(2)ft also acts as a dominant enhancer of l(2)gd, and conversely l(2)gd acts as a dominant modifier of l(2)ft. The enhancement of overgrowth caused by various mutant combinations is accompanied by changes in expression of Decapentaplegic and Wingless. These results show that tumor suppressor genes act in combination to control cell proliferation, and that tissue hyperplasia can be associated with ectopic expression of genes involved in pattern formation. PMID:9335602

  16. Connexin Mutants and Cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Eric C.; Ebihara, Lisa; Berthoud, Viviana M.

    2013-01-01

    The lens is a multicellular, but avascular tissue that must stay transparent to allow normal transmission of light and focusing of it on the retina. Damage to lens cells and/or proteins can cause cataracts, opacities that disrupt these processes. The normal survival of the lens is facilitated by an extensive network of gap junctions formed predominantly of connexin46 and connexin50. Mutations of the genes that encode these connexins (GJA3 and GJA8) have been identified and linked to inheritance of cataracts in human families and mouse lines. In vitro expression studies of several of these mutants have shown that they exhibit abnormalities that may lead to disease. Many of the mutants reduce or modify intercellular communication due to channel alterations (including loss of function or altered gating) or due to impaired cellular trafficking which reduces the number of gap junction channels within the plasma membrane. However, the abnormalities detected in studies of other mutants suggest that they cause cataracts through other mechanisms including gain of hemichannel function (leading to cell injury and death) and formation of cytoplasmic accumulations (that may act as light scattering particles). These observations and the anticipated results of ongoing studies should elucidate the mechanisms of cataract development due to mutations of lens connexins and abnormalities of other lens proteins. They may also contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of disease due to connexin mutations in other tissues. PMID:23596416

  17. Growth and development of maize that contains mutant tubulin genes

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Wick

    2004-07-23

    Mutant maize plants containing a Mu transposon disrupting one of the five beta tubulin genes of interest were followed for several generations and hybridized with each other to produce plants containing disruptions in both copies of a single gene or disruption of more than one tubulin gene. Seedlings of some of these plants were grown under chilling conditions for a few weeks. After DOE funding ended, plants have been assessed to see whether mutant are more or less tolerant to chilling. Other mutant plants will be assessed for their male and female fertility relative to non-mutant siblings or other close relatives.

  18. Neurobehavioral Mutants Identified in an ENU Mutagenesis Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Melloni N.; Dunning, Jonathan P; Wiley, Ronald G; Chesler, Elissa J; Johnson, Dabney K; Goldowitz, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    We report on a behavioral screening test battery that successfully identified several neurobehavioral mutants among a large-scale ENU-mutagenized mouse population. Large numbers of ENU mutagenized mice were screened for abnormalities in central nervous system function based on abnormal performance in a series of behavior tasks. We developed and employed a high-throughput screen of behavioral tasks to detect behavioral outliers. Twelve mutant pedigrees, representing a broad range of behavioral phenotypes, have been identified. Specifically, we have identified two open field mutants (one displaying hyper-locomotion, the other hypo-locomotion), four tail suspension mutants (all displaying increased immobility), one nociception mutant (displaying abnormal responsiveness to thermal pain), two prepulse inhibition mutants (displaying poor inhibition of the startle response), one anxiety-related mutant (displaying decreased anxiety in the light/dark test), and one learning and memory mutant (displaying reduced response to the conditioned stimulus) These findings highlight the utility of a set of behavioral tasks used in a high throughput screen to identify neurobehavioral mutants. Further analysis (i.e., behavioral and genetic mapping studies) of mutants is in progress with the ultimate goal of identification of novel genes and mouse models relevant to human disorders as well as the identification of novel therapeutic targets.

  19. Novel Two-Step Hierarchical Screening of Mutant Pools Reveals Mutants under Selection in Chicks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hee-Jeong; Bogomolnaya, Lydia M; Elfenbein, Johanna R; Endicott-Yazdani, Tiana; Reynolds, M Megan; Porwollik, Steffen; Cheng, Pui; Xia, Xiao-Qin; McClelland, Michael; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene

    2016-04-01

    Contaminated chicken/egg products are major sources of human salmonellosis, yet the strategies used bySalmonellato colonize chickens are poorly understood. We applied a novel two-step hierarchical procedure to identify new genes important for colonization and persistence ofSalmonella entericaserotype Typhimurium in chickens. A library of 182S.Typhimurium mutants each containing a targeted deletion of a group of contiguous genes (for a total of 2,069 genes deleted) was used to identify regions under selection at 1, 3, and 9 days postinfection in chicks. Mutants in 11 regions were under selection at all assayed times (colonization mutants), and mutants in 15 regions were under selection only at day 9 (persistence mutants). We assembled a pool of 92 mutants, each deleted for a single gene, representing nearly all genes in nine regions under selection. Twelve single gene deletion mutants were under selection in this assay, and we confirmed 6 of 9 of these candidate mutants via competitive infections and complementation analysis in chicks.STM0580,STM1295,STM1297,STM3612,STM3615, andSTM3734are needed forSalmonellato colonize and persist in chicks and were not previously associated with this ability. One of these key genes,STM1297(selD), is required for anaerobic growth and supports the ability to utilize formate under these conditions, suggesting that metabolism of formate is important during infection. We report a hierarchical screening strategy to interrogate large portions of the genome during infection of animals using pools of mutants of low complexity. Using this strategy, we identified six genes not previously known to be needed during infection in chicks, and one of these (STM1297) suggests an important role for formate metabolism during infection. PMID:26857572

  20. Proton Gradient Regulation 5-Mediated Cyclic Electron Flow under ATP- or Redox-Limited Conditions: A Study of ΔATPase pgr5 and ΔrbcL pgr5 Mutants in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Xenie; Steinbeck, Janina; Dent, Rachel M.; Takahashi, Hiroko; Richaud, Pierre; Ozawa, Shin-Ichiro; Houille-Vernes, Laura; Petroutsos, Dimitris; Rappaport, Fabrice; Grossman, Arthur R.; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Hippler, Michael; Alric, Jean

    2014-01-01

    The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii proton gradient regulation5 (Crpgr5) mutant shows phenotypic and functional traits similar to mutants in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ortholog, Atpgr5, providing strong evidence for conservation of PGR5-mediated cyclic electron flow (CEF). Comparing the Crpgr5 mutant with the wild type, we discriminate two pathways for CEF and determine their maximum electron flow rates. The PGR5/proton gradient regulation-like1 (PGRL1) ferredoxin (Fd) pathway, involved in recycling excess reductant to increase ATP synthesis, may be controlled by extreme photosystem I acceptor side limitation or ATP depletion. Here, we show that PGR5/PGRL1-Fd CEF functions in accordance with an ATP/redox control model. In the absence of Rubisco and PGR5, a sustained electron flow is maintained with molecular oxygen instead of carbon dioxide serving as the terminal electron acceptor. When photosynthetic control is decreased, compensatory alternative pathways can take the full load of linear electron flow. In the case of the ATP synthase pgr5 double mutant, a decrease in photosensitivity is observed compared with the single ATPase-less mutant that we assign to a decreased proton motive force. Altogether, our results suggest that PGR5/PGRL1-Fd CEF is most required under conditions when Fd becomes overreduced and photosystem I is subjected to photoinhibition. CEF is not a valve; it only recycles electrons, but in doing so, it generates a proton motive force that controls the rate of photosynthesis. The conditions where the PGR5 pathway is most required may vary in photosynthetic organisms like C. reinhardtii from anoxia to high light to limitations imposed at the level of carbon dioxide fixation. PMID:24623849

  1. Mutant maize variety containing the glt1-1 allele

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Oliver E.; Pan, David

    1994-01-01

    A maize plant has in its genome a non-mutable form of a mutant allele designated vitX-8132. The allele is located at a locus designated as glt which conditions kernels having an altered starch characteristic. Maize plants including such a mutant allele produce a starch that does not increase in viscosity on cooling, after heating.

  2. Mutant maize variety containing the glt1-1 allele

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, O.E.; Pan, D.

    1994-07-19

    A maize plant has in its genome a non-mutable form of a mutant allele designated vitX-8132. The allele is located at a locus designated as glt which conditions kernels having an altered starch characteristic. Maize plants including such a mutant allele produce a starch that does not increase in viscosity on cooling, after heating. 2 figs.

  3. Lethal predators: psychopathic, sadistic, and sane.

    PubMed

    Ochberg, Frank M; Brantley, Alan C; Hare, R D; Houk, Peter D; Ianni, Robert; James, Earl; O'Toole, Mary Ellen; Saathoff, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    The violent criminals defined in this article are a small, exceptionally dangerous group of offenders designated by the authors as "lethal predators." They have a history of sexual predation, have killed at least once, and are mentally abnormal but legally sane. They are highly likely to keep killing as long as they are free. Laws permitting civil commitment of dangerous and mentally abnormal sexual predators after they have completed criminal prison sentences have been upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court. Such laws can provide a legal means of keeping these highly dangerous killers confined so they cannot kill again. PMID:14608825

  4. DA virus mutant H101 has altered CNS pathogenesis and causes immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Cusick, Matthew F; Libbey, Jane E; Doty, Daniel J; Fujinami, Robert S

    2014-12-15

    Viruses use various mechanisms to evade clearance by the host. Investigating how a few changes in the genome of a non-lethal virus can lead to altered disease, from survivable to immunosuppression/death, would provide valuable information into viral pathogenesis. The Daniels strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus causes an asymptomatic infection or acute encephalitis followed by viral clearance. A mutant, H101, carries several alterations in the viral genome. H101 infection causes profound immunosuppression and death. Thus, a virus that is normally cleared by its natural host can become lethal due to just a few changes in the viral genome. PMID:25468274

  5. DA virus mutant H101 has altered CNS pathogenesis and causes immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Cusick, Matthew F.; Libbey, Jane E.; Doty, Daniel J.; Fujinami, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Viruses use various mechanisms to evade clearance by the host. Investigating how a few changes in the genome of a non-lethal virus can lead to altered disease, from survivable to immunosuppression/death, would provide valuable information into viral pathogenesis. The Daniels strain of Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus causes an asymptomatic infection or acute encephalitis followed by viral clearance. A mutant, H101, carries several alterations in the viral genome. H101 infection causes profound immunosuppression and death. Thus, a virus that is normally cleared by its natural host can become lethal due to just a few changes in the viral genome. PMID:25468274

  6. [Molecular analysis of space mutant line of kidney bean].

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Li, J G; Wang, P S; Wang, X Q; Jiang, X C

    2000-12-01

    Objective. To identify the occurrence of gene mutant in mutant lines in the offspring of Kidney bean seeds under space flight condition. Method. Kidney bean seeds were carried onboard a recoverable satellite for 15 days in space and were planted on the ground after recovery. Five mutant lines showing variation in the form of leaf blade and their parents were analyzed with RAPD technique. Result. 50 random 10-mer primers were used in this study, among which 20 primers generated 180 polymorphic DNA bands, their size ranged from 200 bp to 2000 bp. 3 primers amplified obviously different bands in the DNA of mutant lines in comparison with that of the control. Conclusion. This is the first molecular analysis of the mutant lines of Kidney bean generated by space mutagenesis at DNA level. The result of RAPD analysis indicated that distinct variations were demonstrated in the DNA of mutant lines as compared with that of the original control. PMID:11767783

  7. Rapid Mapping of Conditional and Auxotrophic Mutations in Escherichia coli K-12

    PubMed Central

    Low, Brooks

    1973-01-01

    The approximate genetic map locations of auxotrophic and conditional lethal mutations of Escherichia coli can be rapidly determined with replica plating techniques. A set of patches of 15 streptomycin-sensitive (StrS) Hfr strains with points of origin distributed around the map is replica plated onto a recombinant-selective plate with a lawn of StrR cells which carry an unmapped mutation. The map interval defined by the Hfr points of origin which are closest to the mutant locus is seen by the presence or absence of heavy patches of recombinants produced by transfer of early wild-type genes from the Hfrs. An alternative method is to replicate patches of different mutant strains (100 per plate) onto Hfr lawns; in this case more than 1,000 different mutants can be mapped in a single experiment in a few days. In this way, many types of mutations with similar phenotypes can be grouped as to approximate location on the genetic map. For ordering mutations within groups, the same replica plating methods can be used to cross F-prime derivatives of mutants with other mutants of the same group. Relative merits of these and other mapping methods of E. coli are discussed. Images PMID:4570607

  8. Mutations in recombinational repair and in checkpoint control genes suppress the lethal combination of srs2Delta with other DNA repair genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, H L

    2001-01-01

    The SRS2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a DNA helicase that is active in the postreplication repair pathway and homologous recombination. srs2 mutations are lethal in a rad54Delta background and cause poor growth or lethality in rdh54Delta, rad50Delta, mre11Delta, xrs2Delta, rad27Delta, sgs1Delta, and top3Delta backgrounds. Some of these genotypes are known to be defective in double-strand break repair. Many of these lethalities or poor growth can be suppressed by mutations in other genes in the DSB repair pathway, namely rad51, rad52, rad55, and rad57, suggesting that inhibition of recombination at a prior step prevents formation of a lethal intermediate. Lethality of the srs2Delta rad54Delta and srs2Delta rdh54Delta double mutants can also be rescued by mutations in the DNA damage checkpoint functions RAD9, RAD17, RAD24, and MEC3, indicating that the srs2 rad54 and srs2 rdh54 mutant combinations lead to an intermediate that is sensed by these checkpoint functions. When the checkpoints are intact the cells never reverse from the arrest, but loss of the checkpoints releases the arrest. However, cells do not achieve wild-type growth rates, suggesting that unrepaired damage is still present and may lead to chromosome loss. PMID:11156978

  9. Suicide Intent and Accurate Expectations of Lethality: Predictors of Medical Lethality of Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gregory K.; Henriques, Gregg R.; Sosdjan, Daniella; Beck, Aaron T.

    2004-01-01

    The degree of intent to commit suicide and the severity of self-injury were examined in individuals (N = 180) who had recently attempted suicide. Although a minimal association was found between the degree of suicide intent and the degree of lethality of the attempt, the accuracy of expectations about the likelihood of dying was found to moderate…

  10. Enhancing CHK1 inhibitor lethality in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yong; Dai, Yun; Grant, Steven; Dent, Paul

    2012-04-01

    The present studies were initiated to determine whether inhibitors of MEK1/2 or SRC signaling, respectively, enhance CHK1 inhibitor lethality in primary human glioblastoma cells. Multiple MEK1/2 inhibitors (CI-1040 (PD184352); AZD6244 (ARRY-142886)) interacted with multiple CHK1 inhibitors (UCN-01, AZD7762) to kill multiple primary human glioma cell isolates that have a diverse set of genetic alterations typically found in the disease. Inhibition of SRC family proteins also enhanced CHK1 inhibitor lethality. Combined treatment of glioma cells with (MEK1/2 + CHK1) inhibitors enhanced radiosensitivity. Combined (MEK1/2 + CHK1) inhibitor treatment led to dephosphorylation of ERK1/2 and S6 ribosomal protein, whereas the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 was increased. MEK1/2 + CHK1 inhibitor-stimulated cell death was associated with the cleavage of pro-caspases 3 and 7 as well as the caspase substrate (PARP). We also observed activation of pro-apoptotic BCL-2 effector proteins BAK and BAX and reduced levels of pro-survival BCL-2 family protein BCL-XL. Overexpression of BCL-XL alleviated but did not completely abolish MEK1/2 + CHK1 inhibitor cytotoxicity in GBM cells. These findings argue that multiple inhibitors of the SRC-MEK pathway have the potential to interact with multiple CHK1 inhibitors to kill glioma cells. PMID:22313687

  11. A synthetic lethal screen identifies a role for the cortical actin patch/endocytosis complex in the response to nutrient deprivation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Care, Alison; Vousden, Katherine A; Binley, Katie M; Radcliffe, Pippa; Trevethick, Janet; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Sudbery, Peter E

    2004-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae whi2Delta cells are unable to halt cell division in response to nutrient limitation and are sensitive to a wide variety of stresses. A synthetic lethal screen resulted in the isolation of siw mutants that had a phenotype similar to that of whi2Delta. Among these were mutations affecting SIW14, FEN2, SLT2, and THR4. Fluid-phase endocytosis is severely reduced or abolished in whi2Delta, siw14Delta, fen2Delta, and thr4Delta mutants. Furthermore, whi2Delta and siw14Delta mutants produce large actin clumps in stationary phase similar to those seen in prk1Delta ark1Delta mutants defective in protein kinases that regulate the actin cytoskeleton. Overexpression of SIW14 in a prk1Delta strain resulted in a loss of cortical actin patches and cables and was lethal. Overexpression of SIW14 also rescued the caffeine sensitivity of the slt2 mutant isolated in the screen, but this was not due to alteration of the phosphorylation state of Slt2. These observations suggest that endocytosis and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton are required for the proper response to nutrient limitation. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that rvs161Delta, sla1Delta, sla2Delta, vrp1Delta, ypt51Delta, ypt52Delta, and end3Delta mutations, which disrupt the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and/or reduce endocytosis, have a phenotype similar to that of whi2Delta mutants. PMID:15020461

  12. Altered cytoskeletal organization characterized lethal but not surviving Brtl+/- mice: insight on phenotypic variability in osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Laura; Gagliardi, Assunta; Maruelli, Silvia; Besio, Roberta; Landi, Claudia; Gioia, Roberta; Kozloff, Kenneth M; Khoury, Basma M; Coucke, Paul J; Symoens, Sofie; Marini, Joan C; Rossi, Antonio; Bini, Luca; Forlino, Antonella

    2015-11-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable bone disease with dominant and recessive transmission. It is characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical outcomes ranging from very mild to lethal in the perinatal period. The intra- and inter-familiar OI phenotypic variability in the presence of an identical molecular defect is still puzzling to the research field. We used the OI murine model Brtl(+/-) to investigate the molecular basis of OI phenotypic variability. Brtl(+/-) resembles classical dominant OI and shows either a moderately severe or a lethal outcome associated with the same Gly349Cys substitution in the ?1 chain of type I collagen. A systems biology approach was used. We took advantage of proteomic pathway analysis to functionally link proteins differentially expressed in bone and skin of Brtl(+/-) mice with different outcomes to define possible phenotype modulators. The skin/bone and bone/skin hybrid networks highlighted three focal proteins: vimentin, stathmin and cofilin-1, belonging to or involved in cytoskeletal organization. Abnormal cytoskeleton was indeed demonstrated by immunohistochemistry to occur only in tissues from Brtl(+/-) lethal mice. The aberrant cytoskeleton affected osteoblast proliferation, collagen deposition, integrin and TGF-? signaling with impairment of bone structural properties. Finally, aberrant cytoskeletal assembly was detected in fibroblasts obtained from lethal, but not from non-lethal, OI patients carrying an identical glycine substitution. Our data demonstrated that compromised cytoskeletal assembly impaired both cell signaling and cellular trafficking in mutant lethal mice, altering bone properties. These results point to the cytoskeleton as a phenotypic modulator and potential novel target for OI treatment. PMID:26264579

  13. Provirus integration into a gene encoding a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme results in a placental defect and embryonic lethality.

    PubMed Central

    Harbers, K; Müller, U; Grams, A; Li, E; Jaenisch, R; Franz, T

    1996-01-01

    Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2 or Ubc) constitute a family of conserved proteins that play a key role in ubiquitin-dependent degradation of proteins in eukaryotes. We describe here a transgenic mouse strain where retrovirus integration into an Ubc gene, designated UbcM4, results in a recessive-lethal mutation. UbcM4 is the mouse homologue of the previously described human UbcH7 that is involved in the in vitro ubiquitination of several proteins including the tumor suppressor protein p53. The provirus is located in the first intron of the gene. When both alleles are mutated the level of steady-state mRNA is reduced by about 70%. About a third of homozygous mutant embryos die around day 11.5 of gestation. Embryos that survive that stage are growth retarded and die perinatally. The lethal phenotype is most likely caused by impairment of placenta development as this is the only organ that consistently showed pathological defects. The placental labyrinth is drastically reduced in size and vascularization is disturbed. The UbcM4 mouse mutant represents the first example in mammals of a mutation in a gene involved in ubiquitin conjugation. Its recessive-lethal phenotype demonstrates that the ubiquitin system plays an essential role during mouse development. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8901595

  14. The Wiggle Index: An Open Source Bioassay to Assess Sub-Lethal Insecticide Response in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Denecke, Shane; Nowell, Cameron J.; Fournier-Level, Alexandre; Perry, Trent; Batterham, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Toxicological assays measuring mortality are routinely used to describe insecticide response, but sub-lethal exposures to insecticides can select for resistance and yield additional biological information describing the ways in which an insecticide impacts the insect. Here we present the Wiggle Index (WI), a high-throughput method to quantify insecticide response by measuring the reduction in motility during sub-lethal exposures in larvae of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster. A susceptible wild type strain was exposed to the insecticides chlorantraniliprole, imidacloprid, spinosad, and ivermectin. Each insecticide reduced larval motility, but response times and profiles differed among insecticides. Two sets of target site mutants previously identified in mortality studies on the basis of imidacloprid or spinosad resistance phenotypes were tested. In each case the resistant mutant responded significantly less than the control. The WI was also able to detect a spinosad response in the absence of the primary spinosad target site. This response was not detected in mortality assays suggesting that spinosad, like many other insecticides, may have secondary targets affecting behaviour. The ability of the WI to detect changes in insecticide metabolism was confirmed by overexpressing the imidacloprid metabolizing Cyp6g1 gene in digestive tissues or the central nervous system. The data presented here validate the WI as an inexpensive, generic, sub-lethal assay that can complement information gained from mortality assays, extending our understanding of the genetic basis of insecticide response in D. melanogaster. PMID:26684454

  15. Isolation of antibiotic-resistant and antimetabolite-resistant mutants of Frankia strains EuI1c and Cc1.17.

    PubMed

    Myers, Anna K; Tisa, Louis S

    2004-04-01

    Antibiotic-resistant and antimetabolite-resistant mutants of the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacterium Frankia were isolated to provide strains with genetic backgrounds amenable to genetic analysis. The lethal and mutagenic effects of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and UV light on four Frankia strains were investigated. UV irradiation or EMS treatment of strain EuI1c cells resulted in the formation of two different colony types: rough and smooth. The smooth colonies were conditional sporulation mutants. In the case of EMS-induced cells of strain Cc1.17, resistance to lincomycin, ampicillin, and 5-fluorouracil occurred at a frequency of 1 x 10(-5), 1 x 10(-5), and 4 x 10(-5), respectively. The lincomycin-resistant mutants produced a yellow-tan pigment that was released into the growth medium. Resistance to tetracycline and lincomycin with EMS-induced cells of strain EuI1c occurred at a frequency of 3.2 x 10(-3) and 4.7 x 10(-4), respectively. These strains will be useful for the development of genetic methods for Frankia. PMID:15213750

  16. Photorepair mutants of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, C Z; Yee, J; Mitchell, D L; Britt, A B

    1997-07-01

    UV radiation induces two major DNA damage products, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and, at a lower frequency, the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidinone dimer (6-4 product). Although Escherichia coli and Saccharomyes cerevisiae produce a CPD-specific photolyase that eliminates only this class of dimer, Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosphila melanogaster, Crotalus atrox, and Xenopus laevis have recently been shown to photoreactivate both CPDs and 6-4 products. We describe the isolation and characterization of two new classes of mutants of Arabidopsis, termed uvr2 and uvr3, that are defective in the photoreactivation of CPDs and 6-4 products, respectively. We demonstrate that the CPD photolyase mutation is genetically linked to a DNA sequence encoding a type II (metazoan) CPD photolyase. In addition, we are able to generate plants in which only CPDs or 6-4 products are photoreactivated in the nuclear genome by exposing these mutants to UV light and then allowing them to repair one or the other class of dimers. This provides us with a unique opportunity to study the biological consequences of each of these two major UV-induced photoproducts in an intact living system. PMID:9750104

  17. Rest Mutant zebrafish swim erratically and display atypical spatial preferences

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, Cara E.; Li, Edward; Maaswinkel, Hans; Kritzer, Mary F.; Weng, Wei; Sirotkin, Howard I.

    2015-01-01

    The Rest/Nrsf transcriptional repressor modulates expression of a large set of neural specific genes. Many of these target genes have well characterized roles in nervous system processes including development, plasticity and synaptogenesis. However, the impact of Rest-mediated transcriptional regulation on behavior has been understudied due in part to the embryonic lethality of the mouse knockout. To investigate the requirement for Rest in behavior, we employed the zebrafish rest mutant to explore a range of behaviors in adults and larva. Adult rest mutants of both sexes showed abnormal behaviors in a novel environment including increased vertical swimming, erratic swimming patterns and a proclivity for the tank walls. Adult males also had diminished reproductive success. At 6 days post fertilization (dpf), rest mutant larva were hypoactive, but displayed normal evoked responses to light and sound stimuli. Overall, these results provide evidence that rest dysfunction produces atypical swimming patterns and preferences in adults, and reduced locomotor activity in larvae. This study provides the first behavioral analysis of rest mutants and reveals specific behaviors that are modulated by Rest. PMID:25712696

  18. Rest mutant zebrafish swim erratically and display atypical spatial preferences.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Cara E; Li, Edward; Maaswinkel, Hans; Kritzer, Mary F; Weng, Wei; Sirotkin, Howard I

    2015-05-01

    The Rest/Nrsf transcriptional repressor modulates expression of a large set of neural specific genes. Many of these target genes have well characterized roles in nervous system processes including development, plasticity and synaptogenesis. However, the impact of Rest-mediated transcriptional regulation on behavior has been understudied due in part to the embryonic lethality of the mouse knockout. To investigate the requirement for Rest in behavior, we employed the zebrafish rest mutant to explore a range of behaviors in adults and larva. Adult rest mutants of both sexes showed abnormal behaviors in a novel environment including increased vertical swimming, erratic swimming patterns and a proclivity for the tank walls. Adult males also had diminished reproductive success. At 6 days post fertilization (dpf), rest mutant larva were hypoactive, but displayed normal evoked responses to light and sound stimuli. Overall, these results provide evidence that rest dysfunction produces atypical swimming patterns and preferences in adults, and reduced locomotor activity in larvae. This study provides the first behavioral analysis of rest mutants and reveals specific behaviors that are modulated by Rest. PMID:25712696

  19. Gene Annotation and Drug Target Discovery in Candida albicans with a Tagged Transposon Mutant Collection

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Julia; Fung, Eula; Schlecht, Ulrich; Davis, Ronald W.; Giaever, Guri; St. Onge, Robert P.; Deutschbauer, Adam; Nislow, Corey

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen, causing infections that can be lethal in immunocompromised patients. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used as a model for C. albicans, it lacks C. albicans' diverse morphogenic forms and is primarily non-pathogenic. Comprehensive genetic analyses that have been instrumental for determining gene function in S. cerevisiae are hampered in C. albicans, due in part to limited resources to systematically assay phenotypes of loss-of-function alleles. Here, we constructed and screened a library of 3633 tagged heterozygous transposon disruption mutants, using them in a competitive growth assay to examine nutrient- and drug-dependent haploinsufficiency. We identified 269 genes that were haploinsufficient in four growth conditions, the majority of which were condition-specific. These screens identified two new genes necessary for filamentous growth as well as ten genes that function in essential processes. We also screened 57 chemically diverse compounds that more potently inhibited growth of C. albicans versus S. cerevisiae. For four of these compounds, we examined the genetic basis of this differential inhibition. Notably, Sec7p was identified as the target of brefeldin A in C. albicans screens, while S. cerevisiae screens with this compound failed to identify this target. We also uncovered a new C. albicans-specific target, Tfp1p, for the synthetic compound 0136-0228. These results highlight the value of haploinsufficiency screens directly in this pathogen for gene annotation and drug target identification. PMID:20949076

  20. Identification of the Abundant Hydroxyproline-Rich Glycoproteins in the Root Walls of Wild-Type Arabidopsis, an ext3 Mutant Line, and Its Phenotypic Revertant

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuning; Ye, Dening; Held, Michael A.; Cannon, Maura C.; Ray, Tui; Saha, Prasenjit; Frye, Alexandra N.; Mort, Andrew J.; Kieliszewski, Marcia J.

    2015-01-01

    Extensins are members of the cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (HRGP) superfamily that form covalently cross-linked networks in primary cell walls. A knockout mutation in EXT3 (AT1G21310), the gene coding EXTENSIN 3 (EXT3) in Arabidopsis Landsberg erecta resulted in a lethal phenotype, although about 20% of the knockout plants have an apparently normal phenotype (ANP). In this study the root cell wall HRGP components of wild-type, ANP and the ext3 mutant seedlings were characterized by peptide fractionation of trypsin digested anhydrous hydrogen fluoride deglycosylated wall residues and by sequencing using LC-MS/MS. Several HRGPs, including EXT3, were identified in the wild-type root walls but not in walls of the ANP and lethal mutant. Indeed the ANP walls and walls of mutants displaying the lethal phenotype possessed HRGPs, but the profiles suggest that changes in the amount and perhaps type may account for the corresponding phenotypes. PMID:27135319

  1. Ants defend aphids against lethal disease.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Charlotte; Agrawal, Anurag A; Hajek, Ann E

    2010-04-23

    Social insects defend their own colonies and some species also protect their mutualist partners. In mutualisms with aphids, ants typically feed on honeydew produced by aphids and, in turn guard and shelter aphid colonies from insect natural enemies. Here we report that Formica podzolica ants tending milkweed aphids, Aphis asclepiadis, protect aphid colonies from lethal fungal infections caused by an obligate aphid pathogen, Pandora neoaphidis. In field experiments, bodies of fungal-killed aphids were quickly removed from ant-tended aphid colonies. Ant workers were also able to detect infective conidia on the cuticle of living aphids and responded by either removing or grooming these aphids. Our results extend the long-standing view of ants as mutualists and protectors of aphids by demonstrating focused sanitizing and quarantining behaviour that may lead to reduced disease transmission in aphid colonies. PMID:19923138

  2. Lethal photosensitization of biofilm-grown bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Michael

    1997-12-01

    Antibacterial agents are increasingly being used for the prophylaxis and treatment of oral diseases. As these agents can be rendered ineffective by resistance development in the target organisms there is a need to develop alternative antimicrobial approaches. Light-activated antimicrobial agents release singlet oxygen and free radicals which can kill adjacent bacteria and a wide range of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic bacteria has been shown to be susceptible to such agents. In the oral cavity these organisms are present as biofilms (dental plaques) which are less susceptible to traditional antimicrobial agents than bacterial suspensions. The results of these studies have shown that biofilm-grown oral bacteria are also susceptible to lethal photosensitization although the light energy doses required are grater than those needed to kill the organisms when they are grown as aqueous suspensions.

  3. Comparative lethality of coca and cocaine.

    PubMed

    Bedford, J A; Turner, C E; Elsohly, H N

    1982-11-01

    The 24 hour lethal effects of cocaine were compared to those of a crude ethanol extract of the coca leaf (Erthroxylon coca) in male, Swiss mice. Various doses of cocaine HCl and coca leaf extracts suspended in a Tween 60, Arlacel 83, and distilled water vehicle were injected IP into groups of 10 mice. The LD50 for cocaine was 95.1 mg/kg. The LD50 for the coca extract was 3450 mg/kg. The LD50 of the extract based on its cocaine content was 31.4 mg/kg. The results clearly indicate that the coca leaf contains constituents other than cocaine that can contribute to a toxic effect of the plant. PMID:7178201

  4. Alleged lethal sorcery in East Timor.

    PubMed

    Pollanen, Michael S

    2004-01-01

    A wide range of cultural and social perspectives exists on the concept of sudden and unexpected death. In countries, without a formal system of death investigation, sudden death is shrouded in mysticism often based on traditional belief systems. This cultural perspective on sudden death is often at variance with medical and forensic concepts and may include explanations such as sorcery, magic, and voodoo. In this case report, the postmortem findings in an alleged victim of lethal 'black magic', known as ema halo by the indigenous people of East Timor, is described. The alleged victim died suddenly in front of witnesses. At autopsy, marked dilation of a bicuspid aortic valve with annuloaortic ectasia and a sinus of Valsalva aneurysm was found after exhumation of the body. The findings mitigated the local belief in witchcraft and established a natural manner of death. PMID:14687768

  5. Fitness of Escherichia coli mutants with reduced susceptibility to tigecycline

    PubMed Central

    Linkevicius, Marius; Anderssen, Jytte Mark; Sandegren, Linus; Andersson, Dan I.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the fitness of Escherichia coli mutants with reduced susceptibility to tigecycline after exposure to adverse conditions in vitro and in vivo. Methods Survival in response to low pH, bile salts, oxidative stress and human serum was examined for E. coli mutants with reduced susceptibility to tigecycline due to single mutations that caused increased efflux (marR, lon) or impaired LPS (rfaC, rfaE, lpcA). An in vitro competition assay was used to determine growth fitness defects. Competitive fitness was assessed using mouse infection models. MICs, exponential growth rates and expression levels of efflux-related genes were measured for genetically reconstructed double and triple mutants. Results The LPS mutants were 48–85-fold more susceptible to bile salts compared with the ERN mutants and the WT. As shown by in vitro competitions, the fitness reduction was 0.3%–13% for ERN mutants and ∼24% for LPS mutants. During in vivo survival experiments, LPS mutants were outcompeted by the WT strain in the thigh infection model. Constructed double ERN and LPS mutants showed additive and synergistic increases in tigecycline MICs. Conclusions Generally, reduced susceptibility to tigecycline caused a decrease in fitness under stressful in vitro and in vivo conditions with ERN mutants being fitter than LPS mutants. When combined, ERN mutations caused a synergistic increase in the MIC of tigecycline. These findings could explain why clinical resistance to tigecycline in E. coli is mainly associated with up-regulation of the AcrAB efflux system. PMID:26851608

  6. A screen for dynein synthetic lethals in Aspergillus nidulans identifies spindle assembly checkpoint genes and other genes involved in mitosis.

    PubMed Central

    Efimov, V P; Morris, N R

    1998-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a ubiquitously expressed microtubule motor involved in vesicle transport, mitosis, nuclear migration, and spindle orientation. In the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, inactivation of cytoplasmic dynein, although not lethal, severely impairs nuclear migration. The role of dynein in mitosis and vesicle transport in this organism is unclear. To investigate the complete range of dynein function in A. nidulans, we searched for synthetic lethal mutations that significantly reduced growth in the absence of dynein but had little effect on their own. We isolated 19 sld (synthetic lethality without dynein) mutations in nine different genes. Mutations in two genes exacerbate the nuclear migration defect seen in the absence of dynein. Mutations in six other genes, including sldA and sldB, show a strong synthetic lethal interaction with a mutation in the mitotic kinesin bimC and, thus, are likely to play a role in mitosis. Mutations in sldA and sldB also confer hypersensitivity to the microtubule-destabilizing drug benomyl. sldA and sldB were cloned by complementation of their mutant phenotypes using an A. nidulans autonomously replicating vector. Sequencing revealed homology to the spindle assembly checkpoint genes BUB1 and BUB3 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetic interaction between dynein and spindle assembly checkpoint genes, as well as other mitotic genes, indicates that A. nidulans dynein plays a role in mitosis. We suggest a model for dynein motor action in A. nidulans that can explain dynein involvement in both mitosis and nuclear distribution. PMID:9584089

  7. Saturation germ line mutagenesis of the murine t region including a lethal allele at the quaking locus.

    PubMed Central

    Shedlovsky, A; King, T R; Dove, W F

    1988-01-01

    The proximal region of mouse chromosome 17 contains many genes affecting embryonic development, germ cell differentiation, and the immune system. Although the study of natural variation, including t haplotypes, has yielded some information about the function of these genes, spontaneous variants often exhibit manifold genetic effects and are generally not carried on inbred backgrounds. To clearly connect phenotypes with the actions of individual genes, mutants in which genes are altered singly are needed. Therefore, we used a highly efficient point mutagen, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, in combination with classical breeding schemes to induce and identify recessive lethal mutations in the t region. Of 350 mutagenized gametes examined, at least 10 independent recessive embryonic lethal mutations have been identified; an additional two are perinatal lethals. A spontaneous brachyury mutation, TWis, arose on a genetic background that permits high-resolution mapping of the induced recessive mutations against cloned DNA sequences from the t region. One lethal mutation is an allele at the quaking locus. The multiple alleles of quaking and the feasibility of high-resolution mapping permit investigation of the pleiotropic action of this locus in mammalian development. Images PMID:3422415

  8. Deletion of the last five C-terminal amino acid residues of connexin43 leads to lethal ventricular arrhythmias in mice without affecting coupling via gap junction channels

    PubMed Central

    Lübkemeier, Indra; Requardt, Robert Pascal; Lin, Xianming; Sasse, Philipp; Andrié, René; Schrickel, Jan Wilko; Chkourko, Halina; Bukauskas, Feliksas F.; Kim, Jung-Sun; Frank, Marina; Malan, Daniela; Zhang, Jiong; Wirth, Angela; Dobrowolski, Radoslaw; Mohler, Peter J.; Offermanns, Stefan; Fleischmann, Bernd K.; Delmar, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The cardiac intercalated disc harbors mechanical and electrical junctions as well as ion channel complexes mediating propagation of electrical impulses. Cardiac connexin43 (Cx43) co-localizes and interacts with several of the proteins located at intercalated discs in the ventricular myocardium. We have generated conditional Cx43D378stop mice lacking the last five C-terminal amino acid residues, representing a binding motif for zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1), and investigated the functional consequences of this mutation on cardiac physiology and morphology. Newborn and adult homozygous Cx43D378stop mice displayed markedly impaired and heterogeneous cardiac electrical activation properties and died from severe ventricular arrhythmias. Cx43 and ZO-1 were co-localized at intercalated discs in Cx43D378stop hearts, and the Cx43D378stop gap junction channels showed normal coupling properties. Patch clamp analyses of isolated adult Cx43D378stop cardiomyocytes revealed a significant decrease in sodium and potassium current densities. Furthermore, we also observed a significant loss of Nav1.5 protein from intercalated discs in Cx43D378stop hearts. The phenotypic lethality of the Cx43D378stop mutation was very similar to the one previously reported for adult Cx43 deficient (Cx43KO) mice. Yet, in contrast to Cx43KO mice, the Cx43 gap junction channel was still functional in the Cx43D378stop mutant. We conclude that the lethality of Cx43D378stop mice is independent of the loss of gap junctional intercellular communication, but most likely results from impaired cardiac sodium and potassium currents. The Cx43D378stop mice reveal for the first time that Cx43 dependent arrhythmias can develop by mechanisms other than impairment of gap junction channel function. PMID:23558439

  9. Approximate lethal dose versus median lethal dose in acute toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Vit, P J

    1989-01-01

    The relation between approximate lethal doses (ALD, i.e. the lowest dose at which mortality occurs) and the corresponding median lethal doses (LD50) was investigated in 231 acute toxicity studies in mice and rats. The ALD values were divided into four classes (less than 5 mg/kg, 5-50 mg/kg, 50-500 mg/kg, 500-2000 mg/kg) and the LD50/ALD factors were calculated. In intravenous studies the LD50 values were higher than the ALD values by mean factors of 1.27-1.61 in mice and 1.25-2.84 in rats. In oral studies the LD50 values were higher by mean factors of 1.46-2.5 in mice and 1.59-2.1 in rats. Only in 20 cases (8.7%) did the LD50 values differ by factors higher than 2. PMID:2764724

  10. ECB deacylase mutants

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Shao, Zhixin; Zhao, Huimin; Giver, Lorraine J.

    2002-01-01

    A method for in vitro mutagenesis and recombination of polynucleotide sequences based on polymerase-catalyzed extension of primer oligonucleotides is disclosed. The method involves priming template polynucleotide(s) with random-sequences or defined-sequence primers to generate a pool of short DNA fragments with a low level of point mutations. The DNA fragments are subjected to denaturization followed by annealing and further enzyme-catalyzed DNA polymerization. This procedure is repeated a sufficient number of times to produce full-length genes which comprise mutants of the original template polynucleotides. These genes can be further amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a vector for expression of the encoded proteins.

  11. Characterization of Francisella tularensis Schu S4 defined mutants as live-attenuated vaccine candidates

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Araceli E.; Mann, Barbara J.; Qin, Aiping; Cunningham, Aimee L.; Cole, Leah E.; Grassel, Christen; Vogel, Stefanie N.; Levine, Myron M.; Barry, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    Francisella tularensis (Ft), the etiological agent of tularemia and a Tier 1 select agent, has been previously weaponized and remains a high priority for vaccine development. Ft tularensis (type A) and Ft holarctica (type B) cause most human disease. We selected six attenuating genes from the live vaccine strain (LVS; type B), F. novicida and other intracellular bacteria: FTT0507, FTT0584, FTT0742, FTT1019c (guaA), FTT1043 (mip) and FTT1317c (guaB) and created unmarked deletion mutants of each in the highly human virulent Ft strain Schu S4 (Type A) background. FTT0507, FTT0584, FTT0742 and FTT1043 Schu S4 mutants were not attenuated for virulence in vitro or in vivo. In contrast, Schu S4 gua mutants were unable to replicate in murine macrophages and were attenuated in vivo, with an i.n. LD50 > 105 CFU in C57BL/6 mice. However, the gua mutants failed to protect mice against lethal challenge with WT Schu S4, despite demonstrating partial protection in rabbits in a previous study. These results contrast with the highly protective capacity of LVS gua mutants against a lethal LVS challenge in mice, and underscore differences between these strains and the animal models in which they are evaluated, and therefore have important implications for vaccine development.

  12. Characterization of Francisella tularensis Schu S4 defined mutants as live-attenuated vaccine candidates

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Araceli E.; Mann, Barbara J.; Qin, Aiping; Cunningham, Aimee L.; Cole, Leah E.; Grassel, Christen; Vogel, Stefanie N.; Levine, Myron M.; Barry, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    Francisella tularensis (Ft), the etiological agent of tularemia and a Tier 1 select agent, has been previously weaponized and remains a high priority for vaccine development. Ft tularensis (type A) and Ft holarctica (type B) cause most human disease. We selected six attenuating genes from the live vaccine strain (LVS; type B), F. novicida and other intracellular bacteria: FTT0507, FTT0584, FTT0742, FTT1019c (guaA), FTT1043 (mip) and FTT1317c (guaB) and created unmarked deletion mutants of each in the highly human virulent Ft strain Schu S4 (Type A) background. FTT0507, FTT0584, FTT0742 and FTT1043 Schu S4 mutants were not attenuated for virulence in vitro or in vivo. In contrast, Schu S4 gua mutants were unable to replicate in murine macrophages and were attenuated in vivo, with an i.n. LD50 > 105 CFU in C57BL/6 mice. However, the gua mutants failed to protect mice against lethal challenge with WT Schu S4, despite demonstrating partial protection in rabbits in a previous study. These results contrast with the highly protective capacity of LVS gua mutants against a lethal LVS challenge in mice, and underscore differences between these strains and the animal models in which they are evaluated, and therefore have important implications for vaccine development. PMID:25986219

  13. Characterization of Francisella tularensis Schu S4 defined mutants as live-attenuated vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Araceli E; Mann, Barbara J; Qin, Aiping; Cunningham, Aimee L; Cole, Leah E; Grassel, Christen; Vogel, Stefanie N; Levine, Myron M; Barry, Eileen M

    2015-08-01

    Francisella tularensis (Ft), the etiological agent of tularemia and a Tier 1 select agent, has been previously weaponized and remains a high priority for vaccine development. Ft tularensis (type A) and Ft holarctica (type B) cause most human disease. We selected six attenuating genes from the live vaccine strain (LVS; type B), F. novicida and other intracellular bacteria: FTT0507, FTT0584, FTT0742, FTT1019c (guaA), FTT1043 (mip) and FTT1317c (guaB) and created unmarked deletion mutants of each in the highly human virulent Ft strain Schu S4 (Type A) background. FTT0507, FTT0584, FTT0742 and FTT1043 Schu S4 mutants were not attenuated for virulence in vitro or in vivo. In contrast, Schu S4 gua mutants were unable to replicate in murine macrophages and were attenuated in vivo, with an i.n. LD50 > 10(5) CFU in C57BL/6 mice. However, the gua mutants failed to protect mice against lethal challenge with WT Schu S4, despite demonstrating partial protection in rabbits in a previous study. These results contrast with the highly protective capacity of LVS gua mutants against a lethal LVS challenge in mice, and underscore differences between these strains and the animal models in which they are evaluated, and therefore have important implications for vaccine development. PMID:25986219

  14. A genetic screen for zygotic embryonic lethal mutations affecting cuticular morphology in the wasp Nasonia vitripennis.

    PubMed Central

    Pultz, M A; Zimmerman, K K; Alto, N M; Kaeberlein, M; Lange, S K; Pitt, J N; Reeves, N L; Zehrung, D L

    2000-01-01

    We have screened for zygotic embryonic lethal mutations affecting cuticular morphology in Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera; Chalcidoidea). Our broad goal was to investigate the use of Nasonia for genetically surveying conservation and change in regulatory gene systems, as a means to understand the diversity of developmental strategies that have arisen during the course of evolution. Specifically, we aim to compare anteroposterior patterning gene functions in two long germ band insects, Nasonia and Drosophila. In Nasonia, unfertilized eggs develop as haploid males while fertilized eggs develop as diploid females, so the entire genome can be screened for recessive zygotic mutations by examining the progeny of F1 females. We describe 74 of >100 lines with embryonic cuticular mutant phenotypes, including representatives of coordinate, gap, pair-rule, segment polarity, homeotic, and Polycomb group functions, as well as mutants with novel phenotypes not directly comparable to those of known Drosophila genes. We conclude that Nasonia is a tractable experimental organism for comparative developmental genetic study. The mutants isolated here have begun to outline the extent of conservation and change in the genetic programs controlling embryonic patterning in Nasonia and Drosophila. PMID:10866651

  15. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of spinosad on bumble bees (Bombus impatiens Cresson).

    PubMed

    Morandin, Lora A; Winston, Mark L; Franklin, Michelle T; Abbott, Virginia A

    2005-07-01

    Recent developments of new families of pesticides and growing awareness of the importance of wild pollinators for crop pollination have stimulated interest in potential effects of novel pesticides on wild bees. Yet pesticide toxicity studies on wild bees remain rare, and few studies have included long-term monitoring of bumble bee colonies or testing of foraging ability after pesticide exposure. Larval bees feeding on exogenous pollen and exposed to pesticides during development may result in lethal or sub-lethal effects during the adult stage. We tested the effects of a naturally derived biopesticide, spinosad, on bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson) colony health, including adult mortality, brood development, weights of emerging bees and foraging efficiency of adults that underwent larval development during exposure to spinosad. We monitored colonies from an early stage, over a 10-week period, and fed spinosad to colonies in pollen at four levels: control, 0.2, 0.8 and 8.0 mg kg(-1), during weeks 2 through 5 of the experiment. At concentrations that bees would likely encounter in pollen in the wild (0.2-0.8 mg kg(-1)) we detected minimal negative effects to bumble bee colonies. Brood and adult mortality was high at 8.0 mg kg(-1) spinosad, about twice the level that bees would be exposed to in a 'worst case' field scenario, resulting in colony death two to four weeks after initial pesticide exposure. At more realistic concentrations there were potentially important sub-lethal effects. Adult worker bees exposed to spinosad during larval development at 0.8 mg kg(-1) were slower foragers on artificial complex flower arrays than bees from low or no spinosad treated colonies. Inclusion of similar sub-lethal assays to detect effects of pesticides on pollinators would aid in development of environmentally responsible pest management strategies. PMID:15880684

  16. Conditional Deletion of Indian Hedgehog in Limb Mesenchyme Results in Complete Loss of Growth Plate Formation but Allows Mature Osteoblast Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Amano, Katsuhiko; Densmore, Michael J; Lanske, Beate

    2015-12-01

    Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is widely recognized as an essential factor for proper skeletal development. Previous in vivo studies using mutant Ihh mouse models were limited by perinatal lethality or carried out after a growth plate formed. Thus the important role of Ihh in mesenchymal cell differentiation has not been investigated. In this study, we established Prx1-Cre;Ihh(fl/fl) mice to ablate Ihh specifically in limb mesenchyme to allow us to observe the phenotype continuously from prenatal development to 3 weeks of age. Mutant mice displayed severe limb abnormalities characterized by complete lack of secondary ossification center and growth plate, indicating an essential role for Ihh in the development of these structures. Interestingly, we discovered that osteoblast differentiation and bone formation could occur in conditions of deficient Ihh. This is a novel finding that has not been observed because of the early lethality of previous Ihh mutants. Mature osteoblasts expressing osteocalcin could be detected in the center of mutant bones at postnatal day 10 (P10). Osteoclasts and blood vessel formation were also present, suggesting active bone remodeling. Histomorphometric analyses show a significant increase in osteoclast number with no major changes in bone formation rate at 3 weeks of age. Mutant long bones in the limbs were deformed, with cortices comprised of irregular woven bone. Also, there was a marked decrease in gene expression of osteoblastic and osteocytic markers. Moreover, mutant long bones displayed bone dysplasia in which we observed increased osteoclast activity and partially reduced osteoblastic and osteocytic differentiation that lead ultimately to loss of bone structures at 3 weeks of age. In summary, our data show for the first time, the presence of mature osteoblasts in long bones of the limbs despite the complete loss of growth plate formation due to Ihh deficiency. These data indicate an important function for Ihh in regulating limb mesenchymal cell differentiation. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26094741

  17. Synthetic lethal screening in the mammalian central nervous system identifies Gpx6 as a modulator of Huntingtons disease

    PubMed Central

    Shema, Reut; Kulicke, Ruth; Cowley, Glenn S.; Stein, Rachael; Root, David E.; Heiman, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Huntingtons disease, the most common inherited neurodegenerative disease, is characterized by a dramatic loss of deep-layer cortical and striatal neurons, as well as morbidity in midlife. Human genetic studies led to the identification of the causative gene, huntingtin. Recent genomic advances have also led to the identification of hundreds of potential interacting partners for huntingtin protein and many hypotheses as to the molecular mechanisms whereby mutant huntingtin leads to cellular dysfunction and death. However, the multitude of possible interacting partners and cellular pathways affected by mutant huntingtin has complicated efforts to understand the etiology of this disease, and to date no curative therapeutic exists. To address the general problem of identifying the disease-phenotype contributing genes from a large number of correlative studies, here we develop a synthetic lethal screening methodology for the mammalian central nervous system, called SLIC, for synthetic lethal in the central nervous system. Applying SLIC to the study of Huntingtons disease, we identify the age-regulated glutathione peroxidase 6 (Gpx6) gene as a modulator of mutant huntingtin toxicity and show that overexpression of Gpx6 can dramatically alleviate both behavioral and molecular phenotypes associated with a mouse model of Huntingtons disease. SLIC can, in principle, be used in the study of any neurodegenerative disease for which a mouse model exists, promising to reveal modulators of neurodegenerative disease in an unbiased fashion, akin to screens in simpler model organisms. PMID:25535386

  18. Chronic Exposure of Corals to Fine Sediments: Lethal and Sub-Lethal Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Florita; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Smith, Luke D.; Cooper, Timothy F.; Abrego, David; Negri, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sedimentation and turbidity thresholds for corals is critical in assessing the potential impacts of dredging projects in tropical marine systems. In this study, we exposed two species of coral sampled from offshore locations to six levels of total suspended solids (TSS) for 16 weeks in the laboratory, including a 4 week recovery period. Dose-response relationships were developed to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal thresholds of sedimentation and turbidity for the corals. The sediment treatments affected the horizontal foliaceous species (Montipora aequituberculata) more than the upright branching species (Acropora millepora). The lowest sediment treatments that caused full colony mortality were 30 mg l−1 TSS (25 mg cm−2 day−1) for M. aequituberculata and 100 mg l−1 TSS (83 mg cm−2 day−1) for A. millepora after 12 weeks. Coral mortality generally took longer than 4 weeks and was closely related to sediment accumulation on the surface of the corals. While measurements of damage to photosystem II in the symbionts and reductions in lipid content and growth indicated sub-lethal responses in surviving corals, the most reliable predictor of coral mortality in this experiment was long-term sediment accumulation on coral tissue. PMID:22662225

  19. Prediction of lethal and synthetically lethal knock-outs in regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Boldhaus, Gunnar; Greil, Florian; Klemm, Konstantin

    2013-03-01

    The complex interactions involved in regulation of a cell's function are captured by its interaction graph. More often than not, detailed knowledge about enhancing or suppressive regulatory influences and cooperative effects is lacking and merely the presence or absence of directed interactions is known. Here, we investigate to which extent such reduced information allows to forecast the effect of a knock-out or a combination of knock-outs. Specifically, we ask in how far the lethality of eliminating nodes may be predicted by their network centrality, such as degree and betweenness, without knowing the function of the system. The function is taken as the ability to reproduce a fixed point under a discrete Boolean dynamics. We investigate two types of stochastically generated networks: fully random networks and structures grown with a mechanism of node duplication and subsequent divergence of interactions. On all networks we find that the out-degree is a good predictor of the lethality of a single node knock-out. For knock-outs of node pairs, the fraction of successors shared between the two knocked-out nodes (out-overlap) is a good predictor of synthetic lethality. Out-degree and out-overlap are locally defined and computationally simple centrality measures that provide a predictive power close to the optimal predictor. PMID:22918565

  20. Chronic exposure of corals to fine sediments: lethal and sub-lethal impacts.

    PubMed

    Flores, Florita; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Smith, Luke D; Cooper, Timothy F; Abrego, David; Negri, Andrew P

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sedimentation and turbidity thresholds for corals is critical in assessing the potential impacts of dredging projects in tropical marine systems. In this study, we exposed two species of coral sampled from offshore locations to six levels of total suspended solids (TSS) for 16 weeks in the laboratory, including a 4 week recovery period. Dose-response relationships were developed to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal thresholds of sedimentation and turbidity for the corals. The sediment treatments affected the horizontal foliaceous species (Montipora aequituberculata) more than the upright branching species (Acropora millepora). The lowest sediment treatments that caused full colony mortality were 30 mg l(-1) TSS (25 mg cm(-2) day(-1)) for M. aequituberculata and 100 mg l(-1) TSS (83 mg cm(-2) day(-1)) for A. millepora after 12 weeks. Coral mortality generally took longer than 4 weeks and was closely related to sediment accumulation on the surface of the corals. While measurements of damage to photosystem II in the symbionts and reductions in lipid content and growth indicated sub-lethal responses in surviving corals, the most reliable predictor of coral mortality in this experiment was long-term sediment accumulation on coral tissue. PMID:22662225

  1. Mutations in KIAA0586 Cause Lethal Ciliopathies Ranging from a Hydrolethalus Phenotype to Short-Rib Polydactyly Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alby, Caroline; Piquand, Kevin; Huber, Cline; Megarban, Andr; Ichkou, Amale; Legendre, Marine; Pelluard, Fanny; Encha-Ravazi, Ferecht; Abi-Tayeh, Georges; Bessires, Bettina; El Chehadeh-Djebbar, Salima; Laurent, Nicole; Faivre, Laurence; Sztriha, Lszl; Zombor, Melinda; Szab, Hajnalka; Failler, Marion; Garfa-Traore, Meriem; Bole, Christine; Nitschk, Patrick; Nizon, Mathilde; Elkhartoufi, Nadia; Clerget-Darpoux, Franoise; Munnich, Arnold; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Vekemans, Michel; Saunier, Sophie; Cormier-Daire, Valrie; Atti-Bitach, Tania; Thomas, Sophie

    2015-08-01

    KIAA0586, the human ortholog of chicken TALPID3, is a centrosomal protein that is essential for primary ciliogenesis. Its disruption in animal models causes defects attributed to abnormal hedgehog signaling; these defects include polydactyly and abnormal dorsoventral patterning of the neural tube. Here, we report homozygous mutations of KIAA0586 in four families affected by lethal ciliopathies ranging from a hydrolethalus phenotype to short-rib polydactyly. We show defective ciliogenesis, as well as abnormal response to SHH-signaling activation in cells derived from affected individuals, consistent with a role of KIAA0586 in primary cilia biogenesis. Whereas centriolar maturation seemed unaffected in mutant cells, we observed an abnormal extended pattern of CEP290, a centriolar satellite protein previously associated with ciliopathies. Our data show the crucial role of KIAA0586 in human primary ciliogenesis and subsequent abnormal hedgehog signaling through abnormal GLI3 processing. Our results thus establish that KIAA0586 mutations cause lethal ciliopathies. PMID:26166481

  2. Mutations in KIAA0586 Cause Lethal Ciliopathies Ranging from a Hydrolethalus Phenotype to Short-Rib Polydactyly Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alby, Caroline; Piquand, Kevin; Huber, Céline; Megarbané, André; Ichkou, Amale; Legendre, Marine; Pelluard, Fanny; Encha-Ravazi, Ferechté; Abi-Tayeh, Georges; Bessières, Bettina; El Chehadeh-Djebbar, Salima; Laurent, Nicole; Faivre, Laurence; Sztriha, László; Zombor, Melinda; Szabó, Hajnalka; Failler, Marion; Garfa-Traore, Meriem; Bole, Christine; Nitschké, Patrick; Nizon, Mathilde; Elkhartoufi, Nadia; Clerget-Darpoux, Françoise; Munnich, Arnold; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Vekemans, Michel; Saunier, Sophie; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Attié-Bitach, Tania; Thomas, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    KIAA0586, the human ortholog of chicken TALPID3, is a centrosomal protein that is essential for primary ciliogenesis. Its disruption in animal models causes defects attributed to abnormal hedgehog signaling; these defects include polydactyly and abnormal dorsoventral patterning of the neural tube. Here, we report homozygous mutations of KIAA0586 in four families affected by lethal ciliopathies ranging from a hydrolethalus phenotype to short-rib polydactyly. We show defective ciliogenesis, as well as abnormal response to SHH-signaling activation in cells derived from affected individuals, consistent with a role of KIAA0586 in primary cilia biogenesis. Whereas centriolar maturation seemed unaffected in mutant cells, we observed an abnormal extended pattern of CEP290, a centriolar satellite protein previously associated with ciliopathies. Our data show the crucial role of KIAA0586 in human primary ciliogenesis and subsequent abnormal hedgehog signaling through abnormal GLI3 processing. Our results thus establish that KIAA0586 mutations cause lethal ciliopathies. PMID:26166481

  3. Sub-lethal glyphosate exposure alters flowering phenology and causes transient male-sterility in Brassica spp

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Herbicide resistance in weedy plant populations can develop through different mechanisms such as gene flow of herbicide resistance transgenes from crop species into compatible weedy species or by natural evolution of herbicide resistance or tolerance following selection pressure. Results from our previous studies suggest that sub-lethal levels of the herbicide glyphosate can alter the pattern of gene flow between glyphosate resistant Canola®, Brassica napus, and glyphosate sensitive varieties of B. napus and B. rapa. The objectives of this study were to examine the phenological and developmental changes that occur in Brassica crop and weed species following sub-lethal doses of the herbicides glyphosate and glufosinate. We examined several vegetative and reproductive traits of potted plants under greenhouse conditions, treated with sub-lethal herbicide sprays. Results Our results indicate that exposure of Brassica spp. to a sub-lethal dose of glyphosate results in altering flowering phenology and reproductive function. Flowering of all sensitive species was significantly delayed and reproductive function, specifically male fertility, was suppressed. Higher dosage levels typically contributed to an increase in the magnitude of phenotypic changes. Conclusions These results demonstrate that Brassica spp. plants that are exposed to sub-lethal doses of glyphosate could be subject to very different pollination patterns and an altered pattern of gene flow that would result from changes in the overlap of flowering phenology between species. Implications include the potential for increased glyphosate resistance evolution and spread in weedy communities exposed to sub-lethal glyphosate. PMID:24655547

  4. Molybdenum cofactor deficiency causes translucent integument, male-biased lethality, and flaccid paralysis in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tsuguru; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Banno, Yutaka

    2016-06-01

    Uric acid accumulates in the epidermis of Bombyx mori larvae and renders the larval integument opaque and white. Yamamoto translucent (oya) is a novel spontaneous mutant with a translucent larval integument and unique phenotypic characteristics, such as male-biased lethality and flaccid larval paralysis. Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) that requires a molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) for its activity is a key enzyme for uric acid synthesis. It has been observed that injection of a bovine xanthine oxidase, which corresponds functionally to XDH and contains its own MoCo activity, changes the integuments of oya mutants from translucent to opaque and white. This finding suggests that XDH/MoCo activity might be defective in oya mutants. Our linkage analysis identified an association between the oya locus and chromosome 23. Because XDH is not linked to chromosome 23 in B. mori, MoCo appears to be defective in oya mutants. In eukaryotes, MoCo is synthesized by a conserved biosynthesis pathway governed by four loci (MOCS1, MOCS2, MOCS3, and GEPH). Through a candidate gene approach followed by sequence analysis, a 6-bp deletion was detected in an exon of the B. mori molybdenum cofactor synthesis-step 1 gene (BmMOCS1) in the oya strain. Moreover, recombination was not observed between the oya and BmMOCS1 loci. These results indicate that the BmMOCS1 locus is responsible for the oya locus. Finally, we discuss the potential cause of male-biased lethality and flaccid paralysis observed in the oya mutants. PMID:27041280

  5. The Influence of Geographic Mobility on Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lloyd B.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Powell, Kenneth E.; Simon, Thomas R.; Mercy, James A.; Lee, Roberta K.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Swann, Alan C.; Bayer, Timothy; O'Carroll, Patrick W.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a population-based, case-control study of nearly lethal suicide attempts with 153 cases and 513 controls. Results indicate that moving in the past year is positively associated with a nearly lethal suicide attempt, as are specific characteristics of the move. Findings confirm and extend prior research by demonstrating a relationship…

  6. A requirement for recombinational repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is caused by DNA replication defects of mec1 mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, B J; Holm, C

    1999-01-01

    To examine the role of the RAD52 recombinational repair pathway in compensating for DNA replication defects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we performed a genetic screen to identify mutants that require Rad52p for viability. We isolated 10 mec1 mutations that display synthetic lethality with rad52. These mutations (designated mec1-srf for synthetic lethality with rad-fifty-two) simultaneously cause two types of phenotypes: defects in the checkpoint function of Mec1p and defects in the essential function of Mec1p. Velocity sedimentation in alkaline sucrose gradients revealed that mec1-srf mutants accumulate small single-stranded DNA synthesis intermediates, suggesting that Mec1p is required for the normal progression of DNA synthesis. sml1 suppressor mutations suppress both the accumulation of DNA synthesis intermediates and the requirement for Rad52p in mec1-srf mutants, but they do not suppress the checkpoint defect in mec1-srf mutants. Thus, it appears to be the DNA replication defects in mec1-srf mutants that cause the requirement for Rad52p. By using hydroxyurea to introduce similar DNA replication defects, we found that single-stranded DNA breaks frequently lead to double-stranded DNA breaks that are not rapidly repaired in rad52 mutants. Taken together, these data suggest that the RAD52 recombinational repair pathway is required to prevent or repair double-stranded DNA breaks caused by defective DNA replication in mec1-srf mutants. PMID:10511542

  7. Reanalysis of parabiosis of obesity mutants in the age of leptin

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wenwen; Lu, Yi-Hsueh; Lee, Jonah; Friedman, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we set out to explain the differing effects of parabiosis with genetically diabetic (db) mice versus administration of recombinant leptin. Parabiosis of db mutant, which overexpress leptin, to wildtype (WT) or genetically obese (ob) mice has been reported to cause death by starvation, whereas leptin infusions do not produce lethality at any dose or mode of delivery tested. Leptin is not posttranslationally modified other than a single disulphide bond, raising the possibility that it might require additional factor(s) to exert the maximal appetite-suppressing effect. We reconfirmed the lethal effect of parabiosis of db mutant on WT mice and further showed that this lethality could not be rescued by administration of ghrelin or growth hormone. We then initiated a biochemical fractionation of a high-molecular-weight leptin complex from human plasma and identified clusterin as a major component of this leptin-containing complex. However, in contrast to previous reports, we failed to observe a leptin-potentiating effect of either exogenous or endogenous clusterin, and parabiosis of db clusterin−/− double-mutant to WT mice still caused lethality. Intriguingly, in parabiotic pairs of two WT mice, leptin infusion into one of the mice led to an enhanced starvation response during calorie restriction as evidenced by increased plasma ghrelin and growth-hormone levels. Moreover, leptin treatment resulted in death of the parabiotic pairs. These data suggest that the appetite suppression in WT mice after parabiosis to db mutants is the result of induced hyperleptinemia combined with the stress or other aspect(s) of the parabiosis procedure. PMID:26150485

  8. Reanalysis of parabiosis of obesity mutants in the age of leptin.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wenwen; Lu, Yi-Hsueh; Lee, Jonah; Friedman, Jeffrey M

    2015-07-21

    In this study we set out to explain the differing effects of parabiosis with genetically diabetic (db) mice versus administration of recombinant leptin. Parabiosis of db mutant, which overexpress leptin, to wildtype (WT) or genetically obese (ob) mice has been reported to cause death by starvation, whereas leptin infusions do not produce lethality at any dose or mode of delivery tested. Leptin is not posttranslationally modified other than a single disulphide bond, raising the possibility that it might require additional factor(s) to exert the maximal appetite-suppressing effect. We reconfirmed the lethal effect of parabiosis of db mutant on WT mice and further showed that this lethality could not be rescued by administration of ghrelin or growth hormone. We then initiated a biochemical fractionation of a high-molecular-weight leptin complex from human plasma and identified clusterin as a major component of this leptin-containing complex. However, in contrast to previous reports, we failed to observe a leptin-potentiating effect of either exogenous or endogenous clusterin, and parabiosis of db clusterin(-/-) double-mutant to WT mice still caused lethality. Intriguingly, in parabiotic pairs of two WT mice, leptin infusion into one of the mice led to an enhanced starvation response during calorie restriction as evidenced by increased plasma ghrelin and growth-hormone levels. Moreover, leptin treatment resulted in death of the parabiotic pairs. These data suggest that the appetite suppression in WT mice after parabiosis to db mutants is the result of induced hyperleptinemia combined with the stress or other aspect(s) of the parabiosis procedure. PMID:26150485

  9. Examining lethality risk for rodent studies of primary blast lung injury.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, William Brad; Hall, Christina; Siva Sai Suijith Sajja, Venkata; Lavik, Erink; VandeVord, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    While protective measures have been taken to mitigate injury to the thorax during a blast exposure, primary blast lung injury (PBLI) is still evident in mounted/in vehicle cases during military conflicts. Moreover, civilians, who are unprotected from blast exposure, can be severely harmed by terrorist attacks that use improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Since the lungs are the most susceptible organ due to their air-filled nature, PBLI is one of the most serious injuries seen in civilian blast cases. Determining lethality threshold for rodent studies is crucial to guide experimental designs centered on therapies for survival after PBLI or mechanistic understanding of the injury itself. Using an Advanced Blast Simulator, unprotected rats were exposed to a whole body blast to induce PBLI. The one-hour survival rate was assessed to determine operating conditions for a 50% lethality rate. Macroscopic and histological analysis of lung was conducted using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results demonstrated lethality risk trends based on static blast overpressure (BOP) for rodent models, which may help standardized animal studies and contribute to scaling to the human level. The need for a standardized method of producing PBLI is pressing and establishing standard curves, such as a lethality risk curve for lung blasts, is crucial for this condensing of BOP methods. PMID:25405409

  10. EXAMINING LETHALITY RISK FOR RODENT STUDIES OF PRIMARY BLAST LUNG INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, William Brad; Hall, Christina; Sajja, Venkata Siva Sai Sujith; Lavik, Erin; VandeVord, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    While protective measures have been taken to mitigate injury to the thorax during a blast exposure, primary blast lung injury (PBLI) is still evident in mounted/in vehicle cases during military conflicts. Moreover, civilians, who are unprotected from blast exposure, can be severely harmed by terrorist attacks that use improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Since the lungs are the most susceptible organ due to their air-filled nature, PBLI is one of the most serious injuries seen in civilian blast cases. Determining lethality threshold for rodent studies is crucial to guide experimental designs centered on therapies for survival after PBLI or mechanistic understanding of the injury itself. Using an Advanced Blast Simulator, unprotected rats were exposed to a whole body blast to induce PBLI. The one-hour survival rate was assessed to determine operating conditions for a 50% lethality rate. Macroscopic and histological analysis of lung was conducted using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results demonstrated lethality risk trends based on static blast overpressure (BOP) for rodent models, which may help standardized animal studies and contribute to scaling to the human level. The need for a standardized method of producing PBLI is pressing and establishing standard curves, such as a lethality risk curve for lung blasts, is crucial for this condensing of BOP methods. PMID:25405409

  11. 76 FR 6054 - Use of Less-Than-Lethal Force: Delegation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... its proposed regulation on the use of chemical agents and other non-lethal (less-than-lethal) force to... proposed on June 25, 2008 (73 FR 39584), regarding the use of ] chemical agents and other less-than-lethal... Lieutenant. We replace the term ``non-lethal'' with the term ``less-than-lethal'' for reasons described...

  12. Differential regulation and synthetic lethality of exclusive RB1 and CDKN2A mutations in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nayoung; Song, Mee; Kim, Somin; Seo, Yujeong; Kim, Yonghwan; Yoon, Sukjoon

    2016-01-01

    Genetic alterations in lung cancer are distinctly represented in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Mutation of the RB1 and CDKN2A genes, which are tightly associated with cell cycle regulation, is exclusive to SCLC and NSCLC cells, respectively. Through the systematic analysis of transcriptome and proteome datasets for 318 cancer cell lines, we characterized differential gene expression and protein regulation in RB1-mutant SCLC and CDKN2A-mutant NSCLC. Many of the genes and proteins associated with RB1-mutant SCLC cell lines belong to functional categories of gene expression and transcription, whereas those associated with CDKN2A-mutant NSCLC cell lines were enriched in gene sets of the extracellular matrix and focal adhesion. These results indicate that the loss of RB1 and CDKN2A function induces distinctively different signaling cascades in SCLC and NSCLC cells. In addition, knockdown of the RB1 gene in CKDN2A-mutant cell lines (and vice versa) synergistically inhibits cancer cell proliferation. The present study on the exclusive role of RB1 and CDKN2A mutations in lung cancer subtypes demonstrates a synthetic lethal strategy for cancer regulation. PMID:26647789

  13. Characterization of dominant-negative mutants of the DEAH-box splicing factors Prp22 and Prp16.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Susanne; Hotz, Hans-Rudolf; Schwer, Beate

    2002-05-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Prp22 and Prp16 are RNA-dependent ATPases required for pre-mRNA splicing. Both proteins are members of the DEXH-box family of nucleic acid-dependent NTPases. Prior mutational analysis of Prp22 and Prp16 identified residues within conserved motifs I (GXGKT), II (DEAH), and VI (QRXGRXGR) that are required for their biological activity. Nonfunctional Prp22 and Prp16 mutants exerted a dominant negative effect on cell growth. Here we show that overexpression of lethal Prp22 mutants leads to accumulation of unspliced pre-mRNAs and excised introns in vivo. The biochemical basis for the lethality and inhibition of splicing in vivo was determined by purifying and characterizing recombinant mutant proteins. The lethal Prp22 mutants D603A and E604A in motif II and Q804A and R808A in motif VI were defective for ATP hydrolysis and mRNA release from the spliceosome, but were active in promoting step 2 transesterification. Lethal Prp16 mutants G378A and K379A in motif I; D473A and E474A in motif II; and Q685A, G688A, R689A, and R692A in motif VI were defective for ATP hydrolysis and step 2 transesterification chemistry. The ATPase-defective mutants of Prp16 and Prp22 bound to spliceosomes in vitro and blocked the function of the respective wild-type proteins in trans. Comparing the mutational effects in Prp16 and Prp22 highlights common as well as distinct structural requirements for the ATP-dependent steps in pre-mRNA splicing. PMID:11856747

  14. Distinct regions of NLRP1B are required to respond to anthrax lethal toxin and metabolic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Neiman-Zenevich, Jana; Liao, Kuo-Chieh; Mogridge, Jeremy

    2014-09-01

    Pattern recognition receptors monitor for signs of infection or cellular dysfunction and respond to these events by initiating an immune response. NLRP1B is a receptor that upon activation recruits multiple copies of procaspase-1, which promotes cytokine processing and a proinflammatory form of cell death termed pyroptosis. NLRP1B detects anthrax lethal toxin when the toxin cleaves an amino-terminal fragment from the protein. In addition, NLRP1B is activated when cells are deprived of glucose or treated with metabolic inhibitors, but the mechanism by which the resulting reduction in cytosolic ATP is sensed by NLRP1B is unknown. Here, we addressed whether these two activating signals of NLRP1B converge on a common sensing system. We show that an NLRP1B mutant lacking the amino-terminal region exhibits some spontaneous activity and fails to be further activated by lethal toxin. This mutant was still activated in cells depleted of ATP, however, indicating that the amino-terminal region is not the sole sensing domain of NLRP1B. Mutagenesis of the leucine-rich repeat domain of NLRP1B provided evidence that this domain is involved in autoinhibition of the receptor, but none of the mutants tested was specifically defective at sensing activating signals. Comparison of two alleles of NLRP1B that differed in their response to metabolic inhibitors, but not to lethal toxin, led to the finding that a repeated sequence in the function to find domain (FIIND) that arose from exon duplication facilitated detection of ATP depletion. These results suggest that distinct regions of NLRP1B detect activating signals. PMID:24935976

  15. The Aspartate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase of Edwardsiella ictaluri and Its Use as Balanced-Lethal System in Fish Vaccinology

    PubMed Central

    Santander, Javier; Xin, Wei; Yang, Zhao; Curtiss, Roy

    2010-01-01

    asdA mutants of Gram-negative bacteria have an obligate requirement for diaminopimelic acid (DAP), which is an essential constituent of the peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall of these organisms. In environments deprived of DAP, i.e., animal tissues, they will undergo lysis. Deletion of the asdA gene has previously been exploited to develop antibiotic-sensitive strains of live attenuated recombinant bacterial vaccines. Introduction of an Asd+ plasmid into a ΔasdA mutant makes the bacterial strain plasmid-dependent. This dependence on the Asd+ plasmid vector creates a balanced-lethal complementation between the bacterial strain and the recombinant plasmid. E. ictaluri is an enteric Gram-negative fish pathogen that causes enteric septicemia in catfish. Because E. ictaluri is a nasal/oral invasive intracellular pathogen, this bacterium is a candidate to develop a bath/oral live recombinant attenuated Edwardsiella vaccine (RAEV) for the catfish aquaculture industry. As a first step to develop an antibiotic-sensitive RAEV strain, we characterized and deleted the E. ictaluri asdA gene. E. ictaluri ΔasdA01 mutants exhibit an absolute requirement for DAP to grow. The asdA gene of E. ictaluri was complemented by the asdA gene from Salmonella. Several Asd+ expression vectors with different origins of replication were transformed into E. ictaluri ΔasdA01. Asd+ vectors were compatible with the pEI1 and pEI2 E. ictaluri native plasmids. The balanced-lethal system was satisfactorily evaluated in vivo. Recombinant GFP, PspA, and LcrV proteins were synthesized by E. ictaluri ΔasdA01 harboring Asd+ plasmids. Here we constructed a balanced-lethal system, which is the first step to develop an antibiotic-sensitive RAEV for the aquaculture industry. PMID:21209920

  16. Zebrafish Mutants calamity and catastrophe Define Critical Pathways of Gene–Nutrient Interactions in Developmental Copper Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Erik C.; Gitlin, Jonathan D.

    2008-01-01

    Nutrient availability is an important environmental variable during development that has significant effects on the metabolism, health, and viability of an organism. To understand these interactions for the nutrient copper, we used a chemical genetic screen for zebrafish mutants sensitive to developmental copper deficiency. In this screen, we isolated two mutants that define subtleties of copper metabolism. The first contains a viable hypomorphic allele of atp7a and results in a loss of pigmentation when exposed to mild nutritional copper deficiency. This mutant displays incompletely penetrant skeletal defects affected by developmental copper availability. The second carries an inactivating mutation in the vacuolar ATPase that causes punctate melanocytes and embryonic lethality. This mutant, catastrophe, is sensitive to copper deprivation revealing overlap between ion metabolic pathways. Together, the two mutants illustrate the utility of chemical genetic screens in zebrafish to elucidate the interaction of nutrient availability and genetic polymorphisms in cellular metabolism. PMID:19008952

  17. Ethical language and decision-making for prenatally diagnosed lethal malformations

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Dominic; de Crespigny, Lachlan; Xafis, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Summary In clinical practice, and in the medical literature, severe congenital malformations such as trisomy 18, anencephaly, and renal agenesis are frequently referred to as ‘lethal’ or as ‘incompatible with life’. However, there is no agreement about a definition of lethal malformations, nor which conditions should be included in this category. Review of outcomes for malformations commonly designated ‘lethal’ reveals that prolonged survival is possible, even if rare. This article analyses the concept of lethal malformations and compares it to the problematic concept of ‘futility’. We recommend avoiding the term ‘lethal’ and suggest that counseling should focus on salient prognostic features instead. For conditions with a high chance of early death or profound impairment in survivors despite treatment, perinatal and neonatal palliative care would be ethical. However, active obstetric and neonatal management, if desired, may also sometimes be appropriate. PMID:25200733

  18. Tumor clone dynamics in lethal prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Suzanne; Romanel, Alessandro; Goodall, Jane; Grist, Emily; Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Miranda, Susana; Prandi, Davide; Lorente, David; Frenel, Jean-Sebastien; Pezaro, Carmel; Omlin, Aurelius; Rodrigues, Daniel Nava; Flohr, Penelope; Tunariu, Nina; de Bono, Johann S.; Demichelis, Francesca; Attard, Gerhardt

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether a single clone metastasizes and remains dominant over the course of lethal prostate cancer. We describe the clonal architectural heterogeneity at different stages of disease progression by sequencing serial plasma and tumor samples from 16 ERG-positive patients. By characterizing the clonality of commonly occurring deletions at 21q22, 8p21, and 10q23, we identified multiple independent clones in metastatic disease that are differentially represented in tissue and circulation. To exemplify the clinical utility of our studies, we then showed a temporal association between clinical progression and emergence of androgen receptor (AR) mutations activated by glucocorticoids in about 20% of patients progressing on abiraterone and prednisolone or dexamethasone. Resistant clones showed a complex dynamic with temporal and spatial heterogeneity, suggesting distinct mechanisms of resistance at different sites that emerged and regressed depending on treatment selection pressure. This introduces a management paradigm requiring sequential monitoring of advanced prostate cancer patients with plasma and tumor biopsies to ensure early discontinuation of agents when they become potential disease drivers. PMID:25232177

  19. Lethal methemoglobinemia and automobile exhaust inhalation.

    PubMed

    Vevelstad, Merete; Morild, Inge

    2009-05-30

    Inhalation of automobile exhaust gas often leads to death by CO intoxication. In some cases the measured carbon monoxide hemoglobin saturation level (COHb) is considerably below what is considered to be lethal. The death in such cases has been attributed to a combination of a high CO2 and a low O2 tension. In a recent case the deceased was found dead in a car equipped with a catalytic converter, with a hose leading exhaust from the engine to the interior of the car. Analysis revealed a moderately elevated COHb and a high methemoglobin saturation level (MetHb) in peripheral blood. No ethanol, narcotics or drugs were detected. Reports mentioning MetHb or methemoglobinemia in post-mortem cases are surprisingly scarce, and very few have related exhaust gas deaths to methemoglobinemia. High-degree methemoglobinemia causes serious tissue hypoxia leading to unconsciousness, arrhythmia and death. The existing literature in this field and the knowledge that exhaust fumes contain nitrogen oxide gases (NOx) that by inhalation and absorption can result in severe methemoglobinemia, led us to postulate that this death could possibly be attributed to a combination of methemoglobinemia and a moderately high COHb concentration. PMID:19261402

  20. Human cooperation by lethal group competition.

    PubMed

    Egas, Martijn; Kats, Ralph; van der Sar, Xander; Reuben, Ernesto; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2013-01-01

    Why humans are prone to cooperate puzzles biologists, psychologists and economists alike. Between-group conflict has been hypothesized to drive within-group cooperation. However, such conflicts did not have lasting effects in laboratory experiments, because they were about luxury goods, not needed for survival ("looting"). Here, we find within-group cooperation to last when between-group conflict is implemented as "all-out war" (eliminating the weakest groups). Human subjects invested in helping group members to avoid having the lowest collective pay-off, whereas they failed to cooperate in control treatments with random group elimination or with no subdivision in groups. When the game was repeated, experience was found to promote helping. Thus, not within-group interactions alone, not random group elimination, but pay-off-dependent group elimination was found to drive within-group cooperation in our experiment. We suggest that some forms of human cooperation are maintained by multi-level selection: reciprocity within groups and lethal competition among groups acting together. PMID:23459158

  1. Lethal body burdens of polar narcotics: Chlorophenols

    SciTech Connect

    Wezel, A.P. van; Punte, S.S.; Opperhuizen, A.

    1995-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to measure in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) the lethal body burden (LBB) of three chlorophenols that are known as polar narcotic chemicals. The LBBs of the chlorophenols were compared to LBBs of nonpolar narcotic chemicals to consider if the two classes of narcotic chemicals differ on a body burden level. The LBB of the most acidic chlorophenol was measured at two different levels of pH exposure to determine the influence of the degree of ionization on the magnitude of the LBB. Both n-octanol/water partition coefficients and n-hexane/water partition coefficients of the chlorophenols were determined at different pH levels to consider the influence of ionization on the partition coefficient and to determine the importance of a polar group in the organic phase on the partitioning behavior. Partitioning to n-octanol and n-hexane was used as input in a model to simulate the equilibrium partitioning between hydrophobic and nonhydrophobic and target and nontarget compartments in the fish.

  2. [Lethal manifestations of meteorological and cosmic factors].

    PubMed

    Guliaeva, T L

    1998-01-01

    Data on mortality in Moscow region during 1977 to 1996 reveal that total mortality per 1000 citizens is 3 to 4 times less than it occurred at the beginning of XX century. Catalogue of intense geomagnetic storms is compiled for 1867 to 1996. Separation of data for geomagnetic-quiet and stormy years has shown that mortality during stormy years is increased by 30% as compared with quiet years. Seasonal variations of geomagnetic storms and mortality during quiet years reaches maxima near equinoxes but the peaks of mortality during stormy years are shifted towards the summer and winter. Lethal manifestations of the weather anomalies are less pronounced than the space storms: impact of precipitation anomalies on death-rate is negligible at the given area, the air temperature decrease is followed by enhancement of the death-rate by 10% during autumn while warming led to enhancement of the death-rate by 10% for winter, spring and summer and average for a year. PMID:9914845

  3. Structure of the lethal phage pinhole

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Ting; Savva, Christos G.; Fleming, Karen G.; Struck, Douglas K.; Young, Ry

    2009-01-01

    Perhaps the simplest of biological timing systems, bacteriophage holins accumulate during the phage morphogenesis period and then trigger to permeabilize the cytoplasmic membrane with lethal holes; thus, terminating the infection cycle. Canonical holins form very large holes that allow nonspecific release of fully-folded proteins, but a recently discovered class of holins, the pinholins, make much smaller holes, or pinholes, that serve only to depolarize the membrane. Here, we interrogate the structure of the prototype pinholin by negative-stain transmission electron-microscopy, cysteine-accessibility, and chemical cross-linking, as well as by computational approaches. Together, the results suggest that the pinholin forms symmetric heptameric structures with the hydrophilic surface of one transmembrane domain lining the surface of a central channel ≈15 Å in diameter. The structural model also suggests a rationale for the prehole state of the pinholin, the persistence of which defines the duration of the viral latent period, and for the sensitivity of the holin timing system to the energized state of the membrane. PMID:19861547

  4. Selective targeting of KRAS-Mutant cells by miR-126 through repression of multiple genes essential for the survival of KRAS-Mutant cells

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Toshifumi; Jones, Matthew F.; Subramanian, Murugan; Li, Xiao Ling; Ou, Oliver; Zhu, Yuelin; Yang, Yuan; Wakefield, Lalage M.; Hussain, S. Perwez; Gaedcke, Jochen; Ried, Thomas; Luo, Ji; Caplen, Natasha J.; Lal, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of hundreds of genes. However, identifying the critical targets within a miRNA-regulated gene network is challenging. One approach is to identify miRNAs that exert a context-dependent effect, followed by expression profiling to determine how specific targets contribute to this selective effect. In this study, we performed miRNA mimic screens in isogenic KRAS-Wild-type (WT) and KRAS-Mutant colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines to identify miRNAs selectively targeting KRAS-Mutant cells. One of the miRNAs we identified as a selective inhibitor of the survival of multiple KRAS-Mutant CRC lines was miR-126. In KRAS-Mutant cells, miR-126 over-expression increased the G1 compartment, inhibited clonogenicity and tumorigenicity, while exerting no effect on KRAS-WT cells. Unexpectedly, the miR-126-regulated transcriptome of KRAS-WT and KRAS-Mutant cells showed no significant differences. However, by analyzing the overlap between miR-126 targets with the synthetic lethal genes identified by RNAi in KRAS-Mutant cells, we identified and validated a subset of miR-126-regulated genes selectively required for the survival and clonogenicity of KRAS-Mutant cells. Our strategy therefore identified critical target genes within the miR-126-regulated gene network. We propose that the selective effect of miR-126 on KRAS-Mutant cells could be utilized for the development of targeted therapy for KRAS mutant tumors. PMID:25245095

  5. Selective killing of K-ras mutant cancer cells by small molecule inducers of oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Alice T.; Winslow, Monte M.; Magendantz, Margaret; Ouyang, Chensi; Dowdle, James; Subramanian, Aravind; Lewis, Timothy A.; Maglathin, Rebecca L.; Tolliday, Nicola; Jacks, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    Activating K-RAS mutations are the most frequent oncogenic mutations in human cancer. Numerous downstream signaling pathways have been shown to be deregulated by oncogenic K-ras. However, to date there are still no effective targeted therapies for this genetically defined subset of patients. Here we report the results of a small molecule, synthetic lethal screen using mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from a mouse model harboring a conditional oncogenic K-rasG12D allele. Among the >50,000 compounds screened, we identified a class of drugs with selective activity against oncogenic K-ras–expressing cells. The most potent member of this class, lanperisone, acts by inducing nonapoptotic cell death in a cell cycle- and translation-independent manner. The mechanism of cell killing involves the induction of reactive oxygen species that are inefficiently scavenged in K-ras mutant cells, leading to oxidative stress and cell death. In mice, treatment with lanperisone suppresses the growth of K-ras–driven tumors without overt toxicity. Our findings establish the specific antitumor activity of lanperisone and reveal oxidative stress pathways as potential targets in Ras-mediated malignancies. PMID:21555567

  6. Increased Viral Dissemination in the Brain and Lethality in MCMV-Infected, Dicer-Deficient Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Eleonore; Macquin, Cécile; Krezel, Wojciech; Bahram, Seiamak; Georgel, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Among Herpesviruses, Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV or HHV-5) represents a major threat during congenital or neonatal infections, which may lead to encephalitis with serious neurological consequences. However, as opposed to other less prevalent pathogens, the mechanisms and genetic susceptibility factors for CMV encephalitis are poorly understood. This lack of information considerably reduces the prognostic and/or therapeutic possibilities. To easily monitor the effects of genetic defects on brain dissemination following CMV infection we used a recently developed in vivo mouse model based on the neonatal inoculation of a MCMV genetically engineered to express Luciferase. Here, we further validate this protocol for live imaging, and demonstrate increased lethality associated with viral infection and encephalitis in mutant mice lacking Dicer activity. Our data indicate that miRNAs are important players in the control of MCMV pathogenesis and suggest that miRNA-based endothelial functions and integrity are crucial for CMV encephalitis. PMID:25955106

  7. Key tissue targets responsible for anthrax toxin-induced-lethality

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shihui; Zhang, Yi; Moayeri, Mahtab; Liu, Jie; Crown, Devorah; Fattah, Rasem; Wein, Alexander N.; Yu, Zu-Xi; Finkel, Toren; Leppla, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, is lethal due to the actions of two exotoxins, anthrax lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET). The key tissue targets responsible for the lethal effects of these toxins are unknown. Here we generated cell-type specific anthrax toxin receptor capillary morphogenesis protein-2 (CMG2)-null mice and cell-type specific CMG2-expressing mice and challenged them with the toxins. Our results show that lethality induced by LT and ET occur through damage to distinct cell-types; while targeting cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells is required for LT-induced mortality, ET-induced lethality occurs mainly through its action in hepatocytes. Surprisingly, and in contradiction to what has been previously postulated, targeting of endothelial cells by either toxin does not appear to contribute significantly to lethality. Our findings demonstrate that B. anthracis has evolved to use LT and ET to induce host lethality by coordinately damaging two distinct vital systems. PMID:23995686

  8. Dominant-lethal mutation and heritable translocation tests in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Generoso, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    The spontaneous occurrence of chromosome breakage-related genetic anomalies in humans is estimated to be 0.24%, not including spontaneous abortions. More balanced reciprocal translocations are being discovered among mentally handicapped individuals. Chromosome breakage can result in chromosome loss, which often leads to embryonic lethality and occassionally to viable aneuploids, or to viable reciprocal translocations and inversions. In mice, transmitted chromosome breakage effects may be measured by using dominant-lethal mutations, heritable translocations, heritable inversions, sex-chromosome loss, and chromosome breakage and rearrangement scored cytologically in early embryos. The dominant-lethal mutation and the heritable translocation tests are the most widely used tests. The heritable translocation procedure described here applies only to the induction of translocations in male germ cells. The use of treated females in the dominant-lethal test has its drawback too. When the fertility of treated female is reduced or when embryonic lethality is observed, it is difficult to ascertain whether these effects are attributable to true genetic damage or to physiological imbalances in the treated females. Therefore the dominant-lethal test as it is used in practical testing has almost exclusively employed the treatment of males. This is not to say that treatment of females has no advantages whatsoever. On the contrary, there is a good example of a case whereby dominant-lethal effects of the test compound was unequivocably demonstrated in treated females but not in treated males.

  9. A strong loss-of-function mutation in RAN1 results in constitutive activation of the ethylene response pathway as well as a rosette-lethal phenotype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeste, K. E.; Kieber, J. J.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    A recessive mutation was identified that constitutively activated the ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis and resulted in a rosette-lethal phenotype. Positional cloning of the gene corresponding to this mutation revealed that it was allelic to responsive to antagonist1 (ran1), a mutation that causes seedlings to respond in a positive manner to what is normally a competitive inhibitor of ethylene binding. In contrast to the previously identified ran1-1 and ran1-2 alleles that are morphologically indistinguishable from wild-type plants, this ran1-3 allele results in a rosette-lethal phenotype. The predicted protein encoded by the RAN1 gene is similar to the Wilson and Menkes disease proteins and yeast Ccc2 protein, which are integral membrane cation-transporting P-type ATPases involved in copper trafficking. Genetic epistasis analysis indicated that RAN1 acts upstream of mutations in the ethylene receptor gene family. However, the rosette-lethal phenotype of ran1-3 was not suppressed by ethylene-insensitive mutants, suggesting that this mutation also affects a non-ethylene-dependent pathway regulating cell expansion. The phenotype of ran1-3 mutants is similar to loss-of-function ethylene receptor mutants, suggesting that RAN1 may be required to form functional ethylene receptors. Furthermore, these results suggest that copper is required not only for ethylene binding but also for the signaling function of the ethylene receptors.

  10. Germline Transformation Using a Prune Cdna Rescues Prune/Killer of Prune Lethality and the Prune Eye Color Phenotype in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Timmons, L.; Shearn, A.

    1996-01-01

    Null mutations in the prune gene of Drosophila melanogaster result in prune eye color due to reductions in red pigment accumulation. When one copy of the awd(Killer of prune) mutant gene is present in a prune background, the animals die. The cause of prune/Killer of prune lethality remains unknown. The genomic region characterized for the prune locus is transcriptionally active and complex, with multiple and overlapping transcripts. Despite the transcriptional complexity of the genomic region of prune, accumulated evidence suggests that the prune locus is small and consists of a single transcription unit, since every prune allele to date exhibits both prune eye color and prune/Killer of prune lethality. A functional prune product from a single, full-length cDNA was identified in this study that can rescue both the eye phenotype and prune/Killer of prune lethality. The DNA sequences of several mutant prune alleles along with Western blot analysis of mutant proteins provide convincing evidence that prune mutations are nulls, and that the cDNA identified in this study encodes the only product of the prune locus. PMID:8978047

  11. Bloomsbury report on mouse embryo phenotyping: recommendations from the IMPC workshop on embryonic lethal screening

    PubMed Central

    Adams, David; Baldock, Richard; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Copp, Andrew J.; Dickinson, Mary; Greene, Nicholas D. E.; Henkelman, Mark; Justice, Monica; Mohun, Timothy; Murray, Stephen A.; Pauws, Erwin; Raess, Michael; Rossant, Janet; Weaver, Tom; West, David

    2013-01-01

    Identifying genes that are important for embryo development is a crucial first step towards understanding their many functions in driving the ordered growth, differentiation and organogenesis of embryos. It can also shed light on the origins of developmental disease and congenital abnormalities. Current international efforts to examine gene function in the mouse provide a unique opportunity to pinpoint genes that are involved in embryogenesis, owing to the emergence of embryonic lethal knockout mutants. Through internationally coordinated efforts, the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) has generated a public resource of mouse knockout strains and, in April 2012, the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC), supported by the EU InfraCoMP programme, convened a workshop to discuss developing a phenotyping pipeline for the investigation of embryonic lethal knockout lines. This workshop brought together over 100 scientists, from 13 countries, who are working in the academic and commercial research sectors, including experts and opinion leaders in the fields of embryology, animal imaging, data capture, quality control and annotation, high-throughput mouse production, phenotyping, and reporter gene analysis. This article summarises the outcome of the workshop, including (1) the vital scientific importance of phenotyping embryonic lethal mouse strains for basic and translational research; (2) a common framework to harmonise international efforts within this context; (3) the types of phenotyping that are likely to be most appropriate for systematic use, with a focus on 3D embryo imaging; (4) the importance of centralising data in a standardised form to facilitate data mining; and (5) the development of online tools to allow open access to and dissemination of the phenotyping data. PMID:23519032

  12. Human cathepsin L rescues the neurodegeneration and lethality incathepsin B/L double deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Sevenich, Lisa; Pennacchio, Len A.; Peters, Christoph; Reinheckel, Thomas

    2006-01-09

    Cathepsin B (CTSB) and cathepsin L (CTSL) are two widelyexpressed cysteine proteases thought to predominantly reside withinlysosomes. Functional analysis of CTSL in humans is complicated by theexistence of two CTSL-like homologues (CTSL and CTSL2), in contrast tomice which contain only one CTSL enzyme. Thus transgenic expression ofhuman CTSL in CTSL deficient mice provides an opportunity to study the invivo functions of this human protease without interference by its highlyrelated homologue. While mice with single gene deficiencies for murineCTSB or CTSL survive without apparent neuromuscular impairment, murineCTSB/CTSL double deficient mice display degeneration of cerebellarPurkinje cells and neurons of the cerebral cortex, resulting in severehypotrophy, motility defects, and lethality during their third to fourthweek of life. Here we show that expression of human CTSL through agenomic transgene results in widespread expression of human CTSL in themouse which is capable of rescuing the lethality found in CTSB/CTSLdouble-deficient animals. Human CTSL is expressed in the brain of thesecompound mutants predominantly in neurons of the cerebral cortex and inPurkinje cells of the cerebellum, where it appears to prevent neuronalcell death.

  13. Characterization of X-Linked Recessive Lethal Mutations Affecting Embryonic Morphogenesis in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Eberl, D. F.; Hilliker, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    This study attempted to assay the zygotic contribution of X chromosome genes to the genetic control of embryonic morphogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. A systematic screen for X-linked genes which affect the morphology of the embryo was undertaken, employing the phenotype of whole mount embryos as the major screening criterion. Of 800 EMS-induced lethal mutations analyzed, only 14% were embryonic lethal, and of these only a minority affected embryonic morphogenesis. By recombination and complementation analyses, the mutations that affected embryonic morphogenesis were sequestered into 26 complementation groups. Fourteen of the loci correspond to genes previously identified in a large-scale screen in which fixed cuticles were examined, and 12 new loci have been identified. Most of the mutations which disrupt embryonic morphology had specific and uniform mutant phenotypes. Mutations were recovered which disrupt major morphogenetic events such as gastrulation, germ band retraction and head involution. No mutations were found which arrest the embryos prior to blastoderm formation. However, a novel class was found, one comprised of mutations which interfere with the development of internal structures but not cuticular structures. Nevertheless, saturation of the X chromosome for genes important for embryonic morphogenesis is probably incomplete. PMID:8608920

  14. ZBTB42 mutation defines a novel lethal congenital contracture syndrome (LCCS6).

    PubMed

    Patel, Nisha; Smith, Laura L; Faqeih, Eissa; Mohamed, Jawahir; Gupta, Vandana A; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2014-12-15

    Lethal congenital contracture syndrome (LCCS) is a lethal autosomal recessive form of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC). LCCS is genetically heterogeneous with mutations in five genes identified to date, all with a role in the innervation or contractile apparatus of skeletal muscles. In a consanguineous Saudi family with multiple stillbirths presenting with LCCS, we excluded linkage to all known LCCS loci and combined autozygome analysis and whole-exome sequencing to identify a novel homozygous variant in ZBTB42, which had been shown to be enriched in skeletal muscles, especially at the neuromuscular junction. Knockdown experiments of zbtb42 in zebrafish consistently resulted in grossly abnormal skeletal muscle development and myofibrillar disorganization at the microscopic level. This severe muscular phenotype is successfully rescued with overexpression of the human wild-type ZBTB42 gene, but not with the mutant form of ZBTB42 that models the human missense change. Our data assign a novel muscular developmental phenotype to ZBTB42 in vertebrates and establish a new LCCS6 type caused by ZBTB42 mutation. PMID:25055871

  15. Phenotypic Characterization of Paranoiac and Related Mutants in Paramecium Tetraurelia

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, B. J.; Tanner, A. P.; Dietz, P. M.

    1988-01-01

    Paranoiac and related mutants of Paramecium tetraurelia display altered membrane excitability. We describe an extension of behavioral characterizations of the paranoiac, fast-2, and tetraethylam-monium-insen sitive mutants, comparing in detail their reactions to sodium stimulation under standard culture conditions, when grown at various temperatures and when starved. We also use freeze-fracture electron microscopic techniques to analyze in these stocks the morphology of organized arrays of membrane particles, the ciliary plaques. This group of mutants is diverse, showing differences in behavior under standard culture conditions and different reactions to temperature and starvation stresses. Ciliary plaque morphology is altered in some, but not all, of the mutants. The possibility is discussed that these plaques may be sites of potassium or sodium transport. PMID:2452766

  16. Creation of chimeric mutant axolotls: a model to study early embryonic heart development in Mexican axolotls.

    PubMed

    Lemanski, L F; Meng, F; Lemanski, S L; Dawson, N; Zhang, C; Foster, D; Li, Q; Nakatsugawa, M; Zajdel, R W; Dube, D K; Huang, X

    2001-05-01

    The Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) provides an excellent model for studying heart development since it carries a cardiac lethal mutation in gene c that results in failure of contraction of mutant embryonic myocardium. In cardiac mutant axolotls (c/c) the hearts do not beat, apparently because of an absence of organized myofibrils. To date, there has been no way to analyze the genotypes of embryos from heterozygous spawnings (+/c x +/c) until stage 35 when the normal (+/c or +/+) embryos first begin to have beating hearts; mutant (c/c) embryos fail to develop normal heartbeats. In the present study, we created chimeric axolotls by using microsurgical techniques. The general approach was to transect tailbud embryos and join the anterior and posterior halves of two different individuals. The chimeric axolotl is composed of a normal head and heart region (+/+), permitting survival and a mutant body containing mutant gonads (c/c) that permits the production of c/c mutant offspring: 100% c/c offspring were obtained by mating c/c chimeras (c/c x c/c). The mutant phenotypes were confirmed by the absence of beating hearts and death at stage 41 in 100% of the embryos. Examination of the mutant hearts with electron microscopy and comfocal microscopy after immunofluorescent staining for tropomyosin showed identical images to those described previously in naturally-occurring c/c mutant axolotls (i.e., lacking organized sarcomeric myofibrils). These "c/c chimeric" axolotls provide a useful and unique way to investigate early embryonic heart development in cardiac mutant Mexican axolotls. PMID:11411308

  17. Morphological characterization and molecular mapping of an irradiation-induced Speckled mutant in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Tan, D; Tong, X-L; Hu, H; Wu, S-Y; Li, C-L; Xiong, G; Xiang, Z-H; Dai, F-Y; Lu, C

    2016-04-01

    Speckled (Spc), an X-ray-induced lethal mutant of Bombyx mori, exhibits a mosaic dark-brown-spotted larval epidermis in both sexes and egg-laying problems only in females. Here, we report the morphological characterization and molecular mapping of the Spc mutant. Morphological investigations revealed that the epidermal ultrastructure of the small, dark-brown spots was more dense than that of the white regions in both Spc/+ mutants and wild type, and that the lethality of the Spc/Spc mutants occurred during early embryogenesis. Furthermore, the ovarioles and ovipositor were disconnected in approximately 85.5% of Spc/+ females, a further 2.5% had a connection between the ovarioles and ovipositor that was too narrow to lay eggs. The remaining females showed a normal connection similar to that of the wild type. We successfully narrowed down the location of the Spc mutation to a region on chromosome 4 that was ∼1041 kb long. Gene-prediction analysis identified 25 candidate genes in this region. Chromosome structure analysis indicated that a ∼305 kb deletion was included in the mapping region. Temporal and spatial reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis showed that several genes in the mapped region are associated with the Spc mutant. Although the genes responsible for the Spc mutation were not definitively identified, our results further the current understanding of the complex mechanism underlying the multiple morphological defects in Spc mutants. PMID:26661290

  18. Tumor-specific signaling to p53 is mimicked by Mdm2 inactivation in zebrafish: insights from mdm2 and mdm4 mutant zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chua, J S; Liew, H P; Guo, L; Lane, D P

    2015-01-01

    In mice, the deletion of either Mdm2 or Mdm4 results in a p53-dependent embryonic lethality. We used zinc-finger nucleases to construct mutations in the mdm2 and mdm4 genes of zebrafish. Although the loss of mdm2 results in a p53-dependent early embryonic lethality, mdm4 mutant fish are viable and grow to adulthood. We also found that an in-frame five-amino acid deletion in mdm2 creates a novel hypomorphic allele. The lethal phenotype observed in the mdm2 mutant fish could be partially rescued by injecting mRNA encoding functional Mdm2, and this required the E3 ligase activity of the protein. Complete rescue was obtained by crossing the mdm2 mutant fish onto a p53M214K mutant background. Although p53 mutant fish on a wild-type mdm2 background were shown to accumulate high levels of p53 protein specifically in tumor tissues, we detected extensive staining of p53 in many normal tissues of the mdm2–p53M214K double-mutant fish. Our results are suggestive of the hypothesis that p53 protein accumulates during tumor formation as a result of tumor-specific inactivation of the Mdm2 pathway. PMID:25746004

  19. Late-acting dominant lethal genetic systems and mosquito control

    PubMed Central

    Phuc, Hoang Kim; Andreasen, Morten H; Burton, Rosemary S; Vass, Céline; Epton, Matthew J; Pape, Gavin; Fu, Guoliang; Condon, Kirsty C; Scaife, Sarah; Donnelly, Christl A; Coleman, Paul G; White-Cooper, Helen; Alphey, Luke

    2007-01-01

    Background Reduction or elimination of vector populations will tend to reduce or eliminate transmission of vector-borne diseases. One potential method for environmentally-friendly, species-specific population control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). SIT has not been widely used against insect disease vectors such as mosquitoes, in part because of various practical difficulties in rearing, sterilization and distribution. Additionally, vector populations with strong density-dependent effects will tend to be resistant to SIT-based control as the population-reducing effect of induced sterility will tend to be offset by reduced density-dependent mortality. Results We investigated by mathematical modeling the effect of manipulating the stage of development at which death occurs (lethal phase) in an SIT program against a density-dependence-limited insect population. We found late-acting lethality to be considerably more effective than early-acting lethality. No such strains of a vector insect have been described, so as a proof-of-principle we constructed a strain of the principal vector of the dengue and yellow fever viruses, Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti, with the necessary properties of dominant, repressible, highly penetrant, late-acting lethality. Conclusion Conventional SIT induces early-acting (embryonic) lethality, but genetic methods potentially allow the lethal phase to be tailored to the program. For insects with strong density-dependence, we show that lethality after the density-dependent phase would be a considerable improvement over conventional methods. For density-dependent parameters estimated from field data for Aedes aegypti, the critical release ratio for population elimination is modeled to be 27% to 540% greater for early-acting rather than late-acting lethality. Our success in developing a mosquito strain with the key features that the modeling indicated were desirable demonstrates the feasibility of this approach for improved SIT for disease control. PMID:17374148

  20. In vitro breast cancer cell lethality of Brazilian plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Suffredini, I B; Paciencia, M L B; Frana, S A; Varella, A D; Younes, R N

    2007-10-01

    In this study we screened the cytotoxicity of 1220 plant extracts obtained from 351 plants belonging to 74 families occurring in the Amazon and Atlantic rain forests against MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines. All extracts were tested at a dose of 100 microg/mL. Only 11 aqueous or organic extracts belonging to the Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Araceae, Clusiaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Leguminosae, Olacaceae and Violaceae showed marked lethal activity. Vismia guianensis and Annona hypoglauca extracts showed the greatest lethal activity. PMID:18236788

  1. Engineered repressible lethality for controlling the pink bollworm, a lepidopteran pest of cotton.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Neil I; Simmons, Gregory S; Fu, Guoliang; O'Connell, Sinead; Walker, Adam S; Dafa'alla, Tarig; Walters, Michelle; Claus, John; Tang, Guolei; Jin, Li; Marubbi, Thea; Epton, Matthew J; Harris, Claire L; Staten, Robert T; Miller, Ernest; Miller, Thomas A; Alphey, Luke

    2012-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environmentally friendly method of pest control in which insects are mass-produced, irradiated and released to mate with wild counterparts. SIT has been used to control major pest insects including the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders), a global pest of cotton. Transgenic technology has the potential to overcome disadvantages associated with the SIT, such as the damaging effects of radiation on released insects. A method called RIDL (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) is designed to circumvent the need to irradiate insects before release. Premature death of insects' progeny can be engineered to provide an equivalent to sterilisation. Moreover, this trait can be suppressed by the provision of a dietary antidote. In the pink bollworm, we generated transformed strains using different DNA constructs, which showed moderate-to-100% engineered mortality. In permissive conditions, this effect was largely suppressed. Survival data on cotton in field cages indicated that field conditions increase the lethal effect. One strain, called OX3402C, showed highly penetrant and highly repressible lethality, and was tested on host plants where its larvae caused minimal damage before death. These results highlight a potentially valuable insecticide-free tool against pink bollworm, and indicate its potential for development in other lepidopteran pests. PMID:23226548

  2. Engineered Repressible Lethality for Controlling the Pink Bollworm, a Lepidopteran Pest of Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Neil I.; Simmons, Gregory S.; Fu, Guoliang; O’Connell, Sinead; Walker, Adam S.; Dafa’alla, Tarig; Walters, Michelle; Claus, John; Tang, Guolei; Jin, Li; Marubbi, Thea; Epton, Matthew J.; Harris, Claire L.; Staten, Robert T.; Miller, Ernest; Miller, Thomas A.; Alphey, Luke

    2012-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environmentally friendly method of pest control in which insects are mass-produced, irradiated and released to mate with wild counterparts. SIT has been used to control major pest insects including the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders), a global pest of cotton. Transgenic technology has the potential to overcome disadvantages associated with the SIT, such as the damaging effects of radiation on released insects. A method called RIDL (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) is designed to circumvent the need to irradiate insects before release. Premature death of insects’ progeny can be engineered to provide an equivalent to sterilisation. Moreover, this trait can be suppressed by the provision of a dietary antidote. In the pink bollworm, we generated transformed strains using different DNA constructs, which showed moderate-to-100% engineered mortality. In permissive conditions, this effect was largely suppressed. Survival data on cotton in field cages indicated that field conditions increase the lethal effect. One strain, called OX3402C, showed highly penetrant and highly repressible lethality, and was tested on host plants where its larvae caused minimal damage before death. These results highlight a potentially valuable insecticide-free tool against pink bollworm, and indicate its potential for development in other lepidopteran pests. PMID:23226548

  3. Developmental cell interactions of Myxococcus xanthus: analysis of mutants.

    PubMed Central

    LaRossa, R; Kuner, J; Hagen, D; Manoil, C; Kaiser, D

    1983-01-01

    A set of developmental mutants have been examined that behave as if defective in cellular interactions necessary for the formation of myxospores during fruiting body development. Sporulation is rescued in these mutants if they are mixed with wild-type cells. Complementation experiments with whole cells divide the mutants into four groups (A, B, C, and D). Mutants of group A appear to be less responsive to starvation, a condition that normally initiates development. Mutants of group D respond to starvation but fail to synthesize myxobacterial hemagglutinin, a protein normally synthesized midway in development. Mutants of groups B and C respond to starvation and synthesize hemagglutinin, but they can be distinguished genetically. Group C mutations all map in a single cluster near insertion omega 1519 of transposon Tn5, which is distant from group B mutations. Thus, each group represents a different defect in development. All of the mutants are induced to sporulate by glycerol. Therefore, we argue that sporulation during fruiting body development depends on several prior interactions between cells. Images PMID:6402495

  4. Methods of producing protoporphyrin IX and bacterial mutants therefor

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Jizhong; Qiu, Dongru; He, Zhili; Xie, Ming

    2016-03-01

    The presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed in certain embodiments to a method of producing protoporphyrin IX by (1) cultivating a strain of Shewanella bacteria in a culture medium under conditions suitable for growth thereof, and (2) recovering the protoporphyrin IX from the culture medium. The strain of Shewanella bacteria comprises at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX. In certain embodiments of the method, the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or of shew_1140. In other embodiments, the presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed to mutant strains of Shewanella bacteria having at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX during cultivation of the bacteria. In certain embodiments the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or shew_1140.

  5. Mice With an Anterior Cleft of the Palate Survive Neonatal Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Shuping; Wei, Na; Yu, Xueyan; Jiang, Yiping; Fei, Jian; Chen, YiPing

    2009-01-01

    Many genes are known to function in a region-specific manner in the developing secondary palate. We have previously shown that Shox2-deficient embryos die at mid-gestation stage and develop an anterior clefting phenotype. Here, we show that mice carrying a conditional inactivation of Shox2 in the palatal mesenchyme survive the embryonic and neonatal lethality, but develop a wasting syndrome. Phenotypic analyses indicate a delayed closure of the secondary palate at the anterior end, leading to a failed fusion of the primary and secondary palates. Consistent with a role proposed for Shox2 in skeletogenesis, Shox2 inactivation causes a significantly reduced bone formation in the hard palate, probably due to a down-regulation of Runx2 and Osterix. We conclude that the secondary palatal shelves are capable of fusion with each other, but fail to fuse with the primary palate in a developmentally delayed manner. Mice carrying an anterior cleft can survive neonatal lethality. PMID:18393307

  6. Virulence and vaccine potential of phoP mutants of Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Galán, J E; Curtiss, R

    1989-06-01

    We have constructed Salmonella typhimurium phoP mutants and found them to be avirulent and able to induce a protective immune response. BALB/c mice survived challenge with phoP derivatives of the highly virulent S. typhimurium strains SR-11 and SL1344 when inoculated intraperitoneally and per oral with doses equivalent to 10(4) 50% lethal doses (LD50) of the parent virulent strains. The avirulent mutants were able to establish an infection of the Peyer's patches of orally infected animals for up to 10 days after inoculation but were very inefficient at reaching the spleens. Despite the low level of infectivity of these mutants, immunized animals developed a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to Salmonella antigens and resisted challenge with up to 10(4) LD50 of the virulent parent strain 30 days after immunization. PMID:2671582

  7. Synthetic lethal analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans posterior embryonic patterning genes identifies conserved genetic interactions.

    PubMed

    Baugh, L Ryan; Wen, Joanne C; Hill, Andrew A; Slonim, Donna K; Brown, Eugene L; Hunter, Craig P

    2005-01-01

    Phenotypic robustness is evidenced when single-gene mutations do not result in an obvious phenotype. It has been suggested that such phenotypic stability results from 'buffering' activities of homologous genes as well as non-homologous genes acting in parallel pathways. One approach to characterizing mechanisms of phenotypic robustness is to identify genetic interactions, specifically, double mutants where buffering is compromised. To identify interactions among genes implicated in posterior patterning of the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo, we measured synthetic lethality following RNA interference of 22 genes in 15 mutant strains. A pair of homologous T-box transcription factors (tbx-8 and tbx-9) is found to interact in both C. elegans and C. briggsae, indicating that their compensatory function is conserved. Furthermore, a muscle module is defined by transitive interactions between the MyoD homolog hlh-1, another basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, hnd-1, and the MADS-box transcription factor unc-120. Genetic interactions within a homologous set of genes involved in vertebrate myogenesis indicate broad conservation of the muscle module and suggest that other genetic modules identified in C. elegans will be conserved. PMID:15892873

  8. Embryonic Lethality of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 1 Deficient Mouse Can Be Rescued by a Ketogenic Diet

    PubMed Central

    Krznar, Petra; Hörl, Manuel; Ammar, Zeinab; Montessuit, Sylvie; Pierredon, Sandra; Zamboni, Nicola; Martinou, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial import of pyruvate by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) is a central step which links cytosolic and mitochondrial intermediary metabolism. To investigate the role of the MPC in mammalian physiology and development, we generated a mouse strain with complete loss of MPC1 expression. This resulted in embryonic lethality at around E13.5. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from mutant mice displayed defective pyruvate-driven respiration as well as perturbed metabolic profiles, and both defects could be restored by reexpression of MPC1. Labeling experiments using 13C-labeled glucose and glutamine demonstrated that MPC deficiency causes increased glutaminolysis and reduced contribution of glucose-derived pyruvate to the TCA cycle. Morphological defects were observed in mutant embryonic brains, together with major alterations of their metabolome including lactic acidosis, diminished TCA cycle intermediates, energy deficit and a perturbed balance of neurotransmitters. Strikingly, these changes were reversed when the pregnant dams were fed a ketogenic diet, which provides acetyl-CoA directly to the TCA cycle and bypasses the need for a functional MPC. This allowed the normal gestation and development of MPC deficient pups, even though they all died within a few minutes post-delivery. This study establishes the MPC as a key player in regulating the metabolic state necessary for embryonic development, neurotransmitter balance and post-natal survival. PMID:27176894

  9. Biophysical analysis of a lethal laminin alpha-1 mutation reveals altered self-interaction.

    PubMed

    Patel, Trushar R; Nikodemus, Denise; Besong, Tabot M D; Reuten, Raphael; Meier, Markus; Harding, Stephen E; Winzor, Donald J; Koch, Manuel; Stetefeld, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Laminins are key basement membrane molecules that influence several biological activities and are linked to a number of diseases. They are secreted as heterotrimeric proteins consisting of one α, one β, and one γ chain, followed by their assembly into a polymer-like sheet at the basement membrane. Using sedimentation velocity, dynamic light scattering, and surface plasmon resonance experiments, we studied self-association of three laminin (LM) N-terminal fragments α-1 (hLM α-1N), α-5 (hLM α-5N) and β-3 (hLM β-3N) originating from the short arms of the human laminin αβγ heterotrimer. Corresponding studies of the hLM α-1N C49S mutant, equivalent to the larval lethal C56S mutant in zebrafish, have shown that this mutation causes enhanced self-association behavior, an observation that provides a plausible explanation for the inability of laminin bearing this mutation to fulfill functional roles in vivo, and hence for the deleterious pathological consequences of the mutation on lens function. PMID:26215696

  10. Embryonic Lethality of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 1 Deficient Mouse Can Be Rescued by a Ketogenic Diet.

    PubMed

    Vanderperre, Benoît; Herzig, Sébastien; Krznar, Petra; Hörl, Manuel; Ammar, Zeinab; Montessuit, Sylvie; Pierredon, Sandra; Zamboni, Nicola; Martinou, Jean-Claude

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondrial import of pyruvate by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) is a central step which links cytosolic and mitochondrial intermediary metabolism. To investigate the role of the MPC in mammalian physiology and development, we generated a mouse strain with complete loss of MPC1 expression. This resulted in embryonic lethality at around E13.5. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from mutant mice displayed defective pyruvate-driven respiration as well as perturbed metabolic profiles, and both defects could be restored by reexpression of MPC1. Labeling experiments using 13C-labeled glucose and glutamine demonstrated that MPC deficiency causes increased glutaminolysis and reduced contribution of glucose-derived pyruvate to the TCA cycle. Morphological defects were observed in mutant embryonic brains, together with major alterations of their metabolome including lactic acidosis, diminished TCA cycle intermediates, energy deficit and a perturbed balance of neurotransmitters. Strikingly, these changes were reversed when the pregnant dams were fed a ketogenic diet, which provides acetyl-CoA directly to the TCA cycle and bypasses the need for a functional MPC. This allowed the normal gestation and development of MPC deficient pups, even though they all died within a few minutes post-delivery. This study establishes the MPC as a key player in regulating the metabolic state necessary for embryonic development, neurotransmitter balance and post-natal survival. PMID:27176894

  11. Synthetic lethal analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans posterior embryonic patterning genes identifies conserved genetic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Baugh, L Ryan; Wen, Joanne C; Hill, Andrew A; Slonim, Donna K; Brown, Eugene L; Hunter, Craig P

    2005-01-01

    Phenotypic robustness is evidenced when single-gene mutations do not result in an obvious phenotype. It has been suggested that such phenotypic stability results from 'buffering' activities of homologous genes as well as non-homologous genes acting in parallel pathways. One approach to characterizing mechanisms of phenotypic robustness is to identify genetic interactions, specifically, double mutants where buffering is compromised. To identify interactions among genes implicated in posterior patterning of the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo, we measured synthetic lethality following RNA interference of 22 genes in 15 mutant strains. A pair of homologous T-box transcription factors (tbx-8 and tbx-9) is found to interact in both C. elegans and C. briggsae, indicating that their compensatory function is conserved. Furthermore, a muscle module is defined by transitive interactions between the MyoD homolog hlh-1, another basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, hnd-1, and the MADS-box transcription factor unc-120. Genetic interactions within a homologous set of genes involved in vertebrate myogenesis indicate broad conservation of the muscle module and suggest that other genetic modules identified in C. elegans will be conserved. PMID:15892873

  12. Ectopic Noggin in a Population of Nfatc1 Lineage Endocardial Progenitors Induces Embryonic Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Paige; Simmons, Olga; Wang, Jian; Hoang, Chinh Q.; Conway, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    The initial heart is composed of a myocardial tube lined by endocardial cells. The TGFβ superfamily is known to play an important role, as BMPs from the myocardium signal to the overlying endocardium to create an environment for EMT. Subsequently, BMP and TGFβ signaling pathways synergize to form primitive valves and regulate myocardial growth. In this study, we investigated the requirement of BMP activity by transgenic over-expression of extracellular BMP antagonist Noggin. Using Nfatc1Cre to drive lineage-restricted Noggin within the endocardium, we show that ectopic Noggin arrests cardiac development in E10.5-11 embryos, resulting in small hearts which beat poorly and die by E12.5. This is coupled with hypoplastic endocardial cushions, reduced trabeculation and fewer mature contractile fibrils in mutant hearts. Moreover, Nfatc1Cre-mediated diphtheria toxin fragment-A expression in the endocardium resulted in genetic ablation and a more severe phenotype with lethality at E11 and abnormal linear hearts. Molecular analysis demonstrated that endocardial Noggin resulted in a specific alteration of TGFβ/BMP-mediated signal transduction, in that, both Endoglin and ALK1 were downregulated in mutant endocardium. Combined, these results demonstrate the cell-autonomous requirement of the endocardial lineage and function of unaltered BMP levels in facilitating endothelium-cardiomyocyte cross-talk and promoting endocardial cushion formation. PMID:26090377

  13. Statins synergistically potentiate 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01) lethality in human leukemia and myeloma cells by disrupting Ras farnesylation and activation

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yun; Khanna, Payal; Chen, Shuang; Pei, Xin-Yan; Dent, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Interactions between UCN-01 and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (ie, statins) have been examined in human leukemia and myeloma cells. Exposure of U937 and U266 cells to minimally toxic concentrations of UCN-01 and various statins (eg, lovastatin, simvastatin, or fluvastatin) dramatically increased mitochondrial dysfunction, caspase activation, and apoptosis. Comparable effects were observed in other leukemia and myeloma cell lines as well as in primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts but not in normal hematopoietic cells. Potentiation of UCN-01 lethality by lovastatin was associated with disruption of Ras prenylation and activation. These events were significantly attenuated by farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) but not by geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), implicating perturbations in farnesylation rather than geranylgeranylation in synergistic interactions. Coexposure to statins and UCN-01 resulted in inactivation of ERK1/2 and Akt, accompanied by JNK activation. U266 cells ectopically expressing JNK1-APF, a dominant negative JNK1 mutant, displayed significantly reduced susceptibility to lovastatin/UCN-01–mediated lethality. Moreover, transfection of U266 cells with constitutively activated H-Ras (Q61L) attenuated ERK1/2 inactivation and dramatically diminished the lethality of this regimen. Collectively, these findings indicate that HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors act through a Ras farnesylation-associated mechanism to induce signaling perturbations, particularly prevention of Ras and ERK1/2 activation, in UCN-01–treated cells, resulting in the synergistic induction of cell death. PMID:17264303

  14. A molecular model for the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the mouse lethal yellow (A{sup y}) mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud, E.J.; Klebig, M.L.; Stubbs, L.J.; Russell, L.B.; Woychik, R.P.; Bultman, S.J. |; Vugt, M.J. van |

    1994-03-29

    Lethal yellow (A{sup y}) is a mutation at the mouse agouti locus in chromosome 2 that causes a number of dominant pleiotropic effects, including a completely yellow coat color, obesity, an insulin-resistant type II diabetic condition, and an increased propensity to develop a variety of spontaneous and induced tumors. Additionally, homozygosity for A{sup y} results in preimplantation lethality, which terminates development by the blastocyst stage. The A{sup y} mutation is the result of a 170-kb deletion that removes all but the promoter and noncoding first exon of another gene called Raly, which lies in the same transcriptional orientation as agouti and maps 280 kb proximal to the 3{prime} end of the agouti gene. The authors present a model for the structure of the A{sub y} allele that can explain the dominant pleiotropic effects associated with this mutation, as well as the recessive lethality, which is unrelated to the agouti gene.

  15. A possible human homologue for the mouse mutant disorganisation.

    PubMed Central

    Winter, R M; Donnai, D

    1989-01-01

    The mouse mutant disorganisation (Ds) is a semidominant gene with variable penetrance in heterozygotes and lethality in homozygotes; 67% of heterozygotes have multiple defects and the rest have single defects. Fifty-three percent have cranioschisis and execephaly, 40% have hamartomas represented by papillae of variable size and shape protruding from the body, sometimes containing cartilage, and 33% have limb abnormalities. A child is presented with defects similar to those seen in mice heterozygous for Ds. He had shortening of the upper and lower segments of the right leg with a popliteal web and nine toes on the same side. A finger-like structure arose from the abdomen and one kidney was absent. The homology between this infant and Ds mice is discussed and published reports of human cases with similar abnormalities are reviewed. Images PMID:2664177

  16. Connexin mutant embryonic stem cells and human diseases.

    PubMed

    Nishii, Kiyomasa; Shibata, Yosaburo; Kobayashi, Yasushi

    2014-11-26

    Intercellular communication via gap junctions allows cells within multicellular organisms to share small molecules. The effect of such interactions has been elucidated using mouse gene knockout strategies. Although several mutations in human gap junction-encoding connexin (Cx) have been described, Cx mutants in mice do not always recapitulate the human disease. Among the 20 mouse Cxs, Cx26, Cx43, and Cx45 play roles in early cardiac or placental development, and disruption of the genes results in lethality that hampers further analyses. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that lack Cx43 or Cx45 have made analysis feasible in both in vitro differentiated cell cultures and in vivo chimeric tissues. The success of mouse ESCs studies is leading to the use of induced pluripotent stem cells to learn more about the pathogenesis of human Cx diseases. This review summarizes the current status of mouse Cx disruption models and ESC differentiation studies, and discusses their implication for understanding human Cx diseases. PMID:25426253

  17. tp53 mutant zebrafish develop malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors

    PubMed Central

    Berghmans, Stéphane; Murphey, Ryan D.; Wienholds, Erno; Neuberg, Donna; Kutok, Jeffery L.; Fletcher, Christopher D. M.; Morris, John P.; Liu, Ting Xi; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Kanki, John P.; Plasterk, Ronald; Zon, Leonard I.; Look, A. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    TP53 is the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor gene in human cancer, with nearly 50% of all tumors exhibiting a loss-of-function mutation. To further elucidate the genetic pathways involving TP53 and cancer, we have exploited the zebrafish, a powerful vertebrate model system that is amenable to whole-genome forward-genetic analysis and synthetic-lethal screens. Zebrafish lines harboring missense mutations in the tp53 DNA-binding domain were identified by using a target-selected mutagenesis strategy. Homozygous mutant fish from two of these lines were viable and exhibited mutations similar to those found in human cancers (tp53N168K and tp53M214K). Although homozygous tp53N168K mutants were temperature-sensitive and suppressed radiation-induced apoptosis only at 37°C, cells in the tp53M214K embryos failed to undergo apoptosis in response to γ radiation at both 28 and 37°C. Unlike wild-type control embryos, irradiated tp53M214K embryos also failed to up-regulate p21 and did not arrest at the G1/S checkpoint. Beginning at 8.5 months of age, 28% of tp53M214K mutant fish developed malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. In addition to providing a model for studying the molecular pathogenic pathways of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, these mutant zebrafish lines provide a unique platform for modifier screens to identify genetic mutations or small molecules that affect tp53-related pathways, including apoptosis, cell-cycle delay, and tumor suppression. PMID:15630097

  18. Calreticulin mutants in mice induce an MPL-dependent thrombocytosis with frequent progression to myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Marty, Caroline; Pecquet, Christian; Nivarthi, Harini; El-Khoury, Mira; Chachoua, Ilyas; Tulliez, Micheline; Villeval, Jean-Luc; Raslova, Hana; Kralovics, Robert; Constantinescu, Stefan N; Plo, Isabelle; Vainchenker, William

    2016-03-10

    Frameshift mutations in the calreticulin (CALR) gene are seen in about 30% of essential thrombocythemia and myelofibrosis patients. To address the contribution of the CALR mutants to the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms, we engrafted lethally irradiated recipient mice with bone marrow cells transduced with retroviruses expressing these mutants. In contrast to wild-type CALR, CALRdel52 (type I) and, to a lesser extent, CALRins5 (type II) induced thrombocytosis due to a megakaryocyte (MK) hyperplasia. Disease was transplantable into secondary recipients. After 6 months, CALRdel52-, in contrast to rare CALRins5-, transduced mice developed a myelofibrosis associated with a splenomegaly and a marked osteosclerosis. Monitoring of virus-transduced populations indicated that CALRdel52 leads to expansion at earlier stages of hematopoiesis than CALRins5. However, both mutants still specifically amplified the MK lineage and platelet production. Moreover, a mutant deleted of the entire exon 9 (CALRdelex9) did not induce a disease, suggesting that the oncogenic property of CALR mutants was related to the new C-terminus peptide. To understand how the CALR mutants target the MK lineage, we used a cell-line model and demonstrated that the CALR mutants, but not CALRdelex9, specifically activate the thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor (MPL) to induce constitutive activation of Janus kinase 2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5/3/1. We confirmed in c-mpl- and tpo-deficient mice that expression of Mpl, but not of Tpo, was essential for the CALR mutants to induce thrombocytosis in vivo, although Tpo contributes to disease penetrance. Thus, CALR mutants are sufficient to induce thrombocytosis through MPL activation. PMID:26608331

  19. Perinatal lethal phenotype with generalized ichthyosis in a type 2 Gaucher disease patient with the [L444P;E326K]/P182L genotype: effect of the E326K change in neonatal and classic forms of the disease.

    PubMed

    Chabás, Amparo; Gort, Laura; Díaz-Font, Anna; Montfort, Magdalena; Santamaría, Raül; Cidrás, Manuel; Grinberg, Daniel; Vilageliu, Lluïsa

    2005-01-01

    Gaucher disease, the most common lysosomal storage disorder, encompasses a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms. The perinatal lethal form is very rare and is considered a distinct form of classic type 2 Gaucher disease. Prominent features of the severe perinatal form are hepatosplenomegaly variable, associated with hydrops fetalis and ichthyosis. Here, we describe a child who presented generalized ichthyosis and died at 25 days of age. Genotype analysis revealed compound heterozygosity for the complex allele [L444P;E326K] and mutation P182L, described for the first time in this patient. Mutations E326K and L444P were on the same chromosome. Expression studies of mutant glucocerebrosidases showed that the double mutant allele had lower activity, 8.5% of wild type, in contrast to the activity of individual E326K and L444P mutant enzymes, 42.7% and 14.1%, respectively. The P182L mutant enzyme showed no glucocerebrosidase activity. A revision of the genotypes identified in a series of Spanish patients with type 2 Gaucher disease showed that the complex allele [L444P;E326K] accounted for 19.2% of patient alleles and that homozygosity for this allele or its heterozygosity with mutation L444P, or another severe mutation such as P182L, was associated with the perinatal lethal presentation of the disease. In contrast, the [L444P;E326K] allele was not detected in patients with classic type 2 diagnosed when several months old. The high frequency of the E326K substitution observed in patients with type 2 as compared to the general population (0.5%) suggests that this change may have a modulating negative effect on the clinical condition of these Gaucher disease patients when present in combination with mutation L444P. The relatively high prevalence of the double mutant allele in Spanish patients prompted us to perform a haplotype analysis, using four polymorphic markers, which suggest a common origin for this allele. During the mutational analysis of the series of type 2 patients, a novel mutation, I260T (c.896T>C), was identified. PMID:15967693

  20. Targeting the mTOR Complex by Everolimus in NRAS Mutant Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Kiessling, Michael K.; Curioni-Fontecedro, Alessandra; Samaras, Panagiotis; Lang, Silvia; Scharl, Michael; Aguzzi, Adriano; Oldrige, Derek A.; Maris, John M.; Rogler, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    High-risk neuroblastoma remains lethal in about 50% of patients despite multimodal treatment. Recent attempts to identify molecular targets for specific therapies have shown that Neuroblastoma RAS (NRAS) is significantly mutated in a small number of patients. However, few inhibitors for the potential treatment for NRAS mutant neuroblastoma have been investigated so far. In this in-vitro study, we show that MEK inhibitors AZD6244, MEK162 and PD0325901 block cell growth in NRAS mutant neuroblastoma cell lines but not in NRAS wild-type cell lines. Several studies show that mutant NRAS leads to PI3K pathway activation and combined inhibitors of PI3K/mTOR effectively block cell growth. However, we observed the combination of MEK inhibitors with PI3K or AKT inhibitors did not show synergestic effects on cell growth. Thus, we tested single mTOR inhibitors Everolimus and AZD8055. Interestingly, Everolimus and AZD8055 alone were sufficient to block cell growth in NRAS mutant cell lines but not in wild-type cell lines. We found that Everolimus alone induced apoptosis in NRAS mutant neuroblastoma. Furthermore, the combination of mTOR and MEK inhibitors resulted in synergistic growth inhibition. Taken together, our results show that NRAS mutant neuroblastoma can be targeted by clinically available Everolimus alone or in combination with MEK inhibitors which could impact future clinical studies. PMID:26821351

  1. Engineering a functional blue-wavelength-shifted rhodopsin mutant.

    PubMed

    Janz, J M; Farrens, D L

    2001-06-19

    We report an effort to engineer a functional, maximally blue-wavelength-shifted version of rhodopsin. Toward this goal, we first constructed and assayed a number of previously described mutations in the retinal binding pocket of rhodopsin, G90S, E122D, A292S, and A295S. Of these mutants, we found that only mutants E122D and A292S were like the wild type (WT). In contrast, mutant G90S exhibited a perturbed photobleaching spectrum, and mutant A295S exhibited decreased ability to activate transducin. We also identified and characterized a new blue-wavelength-shifting mutation (at site T118), a residue conserved in most opsin proteins. Interestingly, although residue T118 contacts the critically important C9-methyl group of the retinal chromophore, the T118A mutant exhibited no significant perturbation other than the blue-wavelength shift. In analyzing these mutants, we found that although several mutants exhibited different rates of retinal release, the activation energies of the retinal release were all approximately 20 kcal/mol, almost identical to the value found for WT rhodopsin. These latter results support the theory that chemical hydrolysis of the Schiff base is the rate-limiting step of the retinal release pathway. A combination of the functional blue-wavelength-shifting mutations was then used to generate a triple mutant (T118A/E122D/A292S) which exhibited a large blue-wavelength shift (absorption lambda(max) = 453 nm) while exhibiting minimal functional perturbation. Mutant T118A/E122D/A292S thus offers the possibility of a rhodopsin protein that can be worked with and studied using more ambient lighting conditions, and facilitates further study by fluorescence spectroscopy. PMID:11401569

  2. Selection and properties of Escherichia coli mutants defective in the synthesis of cyclopropane fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, F; Cronan, J E

    1976-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 defective in the synthesis of cyclopropane fatty acids (CFA) have been selected and isolated by a L-[methyl-3H]methionine suicide procedure. Two mutants were isolated. Stationary-phase cultures of both mutants contain less than 0.7% of the CFA content found in the parental strain. The CFA deficiency is attributed to a deficiency of CFA synthetase activity. Extracts of both mutants contain less than 10% of the CFA synthetase activity found in extracts of the parental strain. Experiments in which parental and mutant extracts were mixed indicate that the lack of activity in the mutant strains is not due to an inhibitor of CFA synthetase present in the mutant extracts. We have not yet detected a physiological phenotype for these mutants. These strains grow normally at various temperatures in a variety of media. We have tested survival (colony-forming ability) in response to (i) prolonged incubation in stationary phase, (ii) exposure to drying, and (iii) exposure to detergents, heavy metals, low pH, high salt concentration, and a variety of other environmental conditions. The survival of both mutants is identical to that of the parental strain under all conditions tested. The compositions (excepting the CFA deficiency) and metabolic turnover rates of the phospholipids of both mutant strains are indistinguishable from those of the wild-type strain. The transport of several amino acids also seems normal in these mutants. PMID:1107324

  3. Transposon insertions causing constitutive sex-lethal activity in Drosophila melanogaster affect Sxl sex-specific transcript splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Berstein, M.; Cline, T.W. |; Lersch, R.A.; Subrahmanyan, L.

    1995-02-01

    Sex-lethal (Sxl) gene products induce female development in Drosophila melanogaster and suppress the transcriptional hyperactivation of X-linked genes responsible for male X-chromosome dosage compensation. Control of Sxl functioning by the dose of X-chromosomes normally ensures that the female-specific functions of this developmental switch gene are only expressed in diplo-X individuals. Although the immediate effect of X-chromosome dose is on Sxl transcription, during most of the life cycle {open_quotes}on{close_quotes} vs. {open_quotes}off{close_quotes} reflects alternative Sxl RNA splicing, with the female (productive) splicing mode maintained by a positive feedback activity of SXL protein on Sxl pre-mRNA splicing. {open_quotes}Male-lethal{close_quotes} (Sxl{sup M}) gain-of-function alleles subvert Sxl control by X-chromosome dose, allowing female Sxl functions to be expressed independent of the positive regulators upstream of Sxl. As a consequence, Sxl{sup M} haplo-X animals (chromosomal males) die because of improper dosage compensation, and Sxl{sup m} chromosomal females survive the otherwise lethal effects of mutations in upstream positive regulators. Transcript analysis of double-mutant male-viable Sxl{sup M} derivatives in which the Sxl{sup M} insertion is cis to loss-of-function mutations, combined with other results reported here, indicates that the constitutive character of these Sxl{sup M} alleles is a consequence of an alteration of the structure of the pre-mRNA that allow some level of female splicing to occur even in the absence of functional SXL protein. Surprisingly, however, most of the constitutive character of Sxl{sup M} alleles appears to depend on the mutant alleles` responsiveness, perhaps greater than wild-type, to the autoregulatory splicing activity of the wild-type SXL proteins they produce. 47 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Investigation of New Dominant-Negative Inhibitors of Anthrax Protective Antigen Mutants for Use in Therapy and Vaccination ▿

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Sha; Guo, Aizhen; Liu, Ziduo; Tan, Yadi; Wu, Gaobing; Zhang, Chengcai; Zhao, Yaxing; Chen, Huanchun

    2009-01-01

    The lethal toxin (LeTx) of Bacillus anthracis plays a key role in the pathogenesis of anthrax. The protective antigen (PA) is a primary part of the anthrax toxin and forms LeTx by combination with lethal factor (LF). Phenylalanine-427 (F427) is crucial for PA function. This study was designed to discover potential novel therapeutic agents and vaccines for anthrax. This was done by screening PA mutants that were mutated at the F427 residue for a dominant-negative inhibitory (DNI) phenotype which was nontoxic but inhibited the toxicity of the wild-type LeTx. For this, PA residue F427 was first mutated to each of the other 19 naturally occurring amino acids. The cytotoxicity and DNI phenotypes of the mutated PA proteins were tested in the presence of 1 μg/ml LF in RAW264.7 cells and were shown to be dependent on the individual amino acid replacements. A total of 16 nontoxic mutants with various levels of DNI activity were identified in vitro. Among them, F427D and F427N mutants had the highest DNI activities in RAW264.7 cells. Both mutants inhibited LeTx intoxication in mice in a dose-dependent way. Furthermore, they induced a Th2-predominant immune response and protected mice against a challenge with five 50% lethal doses of LeTx. The protection was correlated mainly with a low level of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and with high levels of PA-specific immunoglobulin G1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Thus, PA DNI mutants, such as F427D and F427N mutants, may serve in the development of novel therapeutic agents and vaccines to fight B. anthracis infections. PMID:19620345

  5. Inhibition of citric acid accumulation by manganese ions in Aspergillus niger mutants with reduced citrate control of phosphofructokinase

    SciTech Connect

    Schreferl, G.; Kubicek, C.P.; Roehr, M.

    1986-03-01

    Mutant strains of Aspergillus niger with reduced citrate control of carbohydrate catabolism (cic mutants) grow faster than the parent strain on media containing 5% (wt/vol) citrate. The mutants tolerated a higher intracellular citrate concentration than the parent strain. One mutant (cic-7/3) contained phosphofructokinase activity significantly less sensitive towards citrate than the enzyme from the parent strain. When this mutant was grown under citrate accumulating conditions, acidogenesis was far less sensitive to inhibition by Mn/sup 2 +/ than in the parent strain. Some of the cic mutants also showed altered citrate inhibition of NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase.

  6. Fitness of Transgenic Mosquito Aedes aegypti Males Carrying a Dominant Lethal Genetic System

    PubMed Central

    Massonnet-Bruneel, Blandine; Corre-Catelin, Nicole; Lacroix, Renaud; Lees, Rosemary S.; Hoang, Kim Phuc; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; Reiter, Paul

    2013-01-01

    OX513A is a transgenic strain of Aedes aegypti engineered to carry a dominant, non-sex-specific, late-acting lethal genetic system that is repressed in the presence of tetracycline. It was designed for use in a sterile-insect (SIT) pest control system called RIDL® (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal gene) by which transgenic males are released in the field to mate with wild females; in the absence of tetracycline, the progeny from such matings will not survive. We investigated the mating fitness of OX513A in the laboratory. Male OX513A were as effective as Rockefeller (ROCK) males at inducing refractoriness to further mating in wild type females and there was no reduction in their ability to inseminate multiple females. They had a lower mating success but yielded more progeny than the wild-type comparator strain (ROCK) when one male of each strain was caged with a ROCK female. Mating success and fertility of groups of 10 males—with different ratios of RIDL to ROCK—competing for five ROCK females was similar, but the median longevity of RIDL males was somewhat (18%) lower. We conclude that the fitness under laboratory conditions of OX513A males carrying a tetracycline repressible lethal gene is comparable to that of males of the wild-type comparator strain. PMID:23690948

  7. Fitness of transgenic mosquito Aedes aegypti males carrying a dominant lethal genetic system.

    PubMed

    Massonnet-Bruneel, Blandine; Corre-Catelin, Nicole; Lacroix, Renaud; Lees, Rosemary S; Hoang, Kim Phuc; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; Reiter, Paul

    2013-01-01

    OX513A is a transgenic strain of Aedes aegypti engineered to carry a dominant, non-sex-specific, late-acting lethal genetic system that is repressed in the presence of tetracycline. It was designed for use in a sterile-insect (SIT) pest control system called RIDL® (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal gene) by which transgenic males are released in the field to mate with wild females; in the absence of tetracycline, the progeny from such matings will not survive. We investigated the mating fitness of OX513A in the laboratory. Male OX513A were as effective as Rockefeller (ROCK) males at inducing refractoriness to further mating in wild type females and there was no reduction in their ability to inseminate multiple females. They had a lower mating success but yielded more progeny than the wild-type comparator strain (ROCK) when one male of each strain was caged with a ROCK female. Mating success and fertility of groups of 10 males-with different ratios of RIDL to ROCK-competing for five ROCK females was similar, but the median longevity of RIDL males was somewhat (18%) lower. We conclude that the fitness under laboratory conditions of OX513A males carrying a tetracycline repressible lethal gene is comparable to that of males of the wild-type comparator strain. PMID:23690948

  8. Lethal and sublethal effects of fenpropathrin on the biological performance of Scolothrips longicornis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Pakyari, Hajar; Enkegaard, Annie

    2013-12-01

    Determination of negative nontarget effects of pesticides on beneficial organisms by measuring only lethal effects is likely to underestimate effects of sublethal doses. In this study, the sublethal effects of fenpropathrin on the predatory thrips Scolothrips longicornis Priesner (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) fed on Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The estimated values of LC50 for female and male predators were 6.53 and 5.47 microg a.i./ml, respectively. Exposure to low-lethal concentrations (LC10, LC20, and LC30) of fenpropathrin significantly affected the biological characteristics of treated females of S. longicornis, the most noticeable effects being a shortening of female life span by > 70% accompanied by large reductions in oviposition period and fecundity. The offspring of females treated with low-lethal concentrations of fenpropathrin likewise had significantly reduced longevity, oviposition period, and fecundity, although not to the same extent as experienced by their mothers. Their juvenile development time was, however, not affected. These effects on the offspring were reflected in reduced rates of population increase and increased doubling times. PMID:24498736

  9. CONSTRUCTION OF IN-FRAME, NON-POLAR, LKTA MUTANTS OF MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA USING A NEW TEMPERATURE CONDITIONAL PLASMID AND EFFICACY AS MODIFIED-LIVE MUCOSAL VACCINE CANDIDATES (ORAL PRESENT., INTL. PASTEURELLACEAE CONF.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 1.2 kb temperature-conditional plasmid origin of replication based on that of the 4.2 kb ampicillin-resistance plasmid of Mannheimia haemolytica was produced using a hydroxylamine mutagenesis technique. The origin was coupled to a kanamycin-resistance cassette based on that of Tn903 and a 1.0 kb ...

  10. Impact of the Timing of Morphine Administration on Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Lethal Endotoxic Shock in Mice.

    PubMed

    Fukada, Tomoko; Kato, Hidehito; Ozaki, Makoto; Yagi, Junji

    2016-05-01

    Sepsis is a serious condition related to systemic inflammation, organ dysfunction, and organ failure. It is a subset of the cytokine storm caused by dysregulation of cytokine production. Morphine influences the severity of infection in vivo and in vitro because it regulates cytokine production. We investigated the immunological function of morphine using a mouse model of septic shock. We treated mice with α-galactosylceramide (2 μg/mouse) to induce lethal endotoxic shock following a challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1.5 μg/mouse). This model represents acute lung injury and respiratory failure, and reflects the clinical features of severe septic shock. We evaluated the effect of the timing of morphine (0.8 mg/mouse) administration on the survival rate, cytokine production in vivo, and histological changes of mice with LPS-mediated lethal endotoxic shock. Morphine treatment before LPS challenge suppressed lethal endotoxic shock. In contrast, when we administered after LPS, morphine exacerbated lethal endotoxic shock; hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed a marked increase in the accumulation of infiltrates comprising polymorphonuclear leukocytes and mononuclear cells in the lung; and Elastica van Gieson staining revealed the destruction of alveoli. The plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, monocyte-chemotactic protein-1, and interleukin-12 in the group treated with morphine after LPS challenge were higher than those treated with morphine before LPS challenge. In conclusion, one of the factors that determine whether morphine exacerbates or inhibits infection is the timing of its administration. Morphine treatment before shock improved the survival rate, and morphine treatment after shock decreased the rate of survival. PMID:26682949

  11. Towards an Informative Mutant Phenotype for Every Bacterial Gene

    PubMed Central

    Deutschbauer, Adam; Price, Morgan N.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Tarjan, Daniel R.; Xu, Zhuchen; Shao, Wenjun; Leon, Dacia

    2014-01-01

    Mutant phenotypes provide strong clues to the functions of the underlying genes and could allow annotation of the millions of sequenced yet uncharacterized bacterial genes. However, it is not known how many genes have a phenotype under laboratory conditions, how many phenotypes are biologically interpretable for predicting gene function, and what experimental conditions are optimal to maximize the number of genes with a phenotype. To address these issues, we measured the mutant fitness of 1,586 genes of the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 across 492 diverse experiments and found statistically significant phenotypes for 89% of all assayed genes. Thus, in Z. mobilis, most genes have a functional consequence under laboratory conditions. We demonstrate that 41% of Z. mobilis genes have both a strong phenotype and a similar fitness pattern (cofitness) to another gene, and are therefore good candidates for functional annotation using mutant fitness. Among 502 poorly characterized Z. mobilis genes, we identified a significant cofitness relationship for 174. For 57 of these genes without a specific functional annotation, we found additional evidence to support the biological significance of these gene-gene associations, and in 33 instances, we were able to predict specific physiological or biochemical roles for the poorly characterized genes. Last, we identified a set of 79 diverse mutant fitness experiments in Z. mobilis that are nearly as biologically informative as the entire set of 492 experiments. Therefore, our work provides a blueprint for the functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness. PMID:25112473

  12. Mutants of Escherichia coli deficient in the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Mat-Jan, F.; Alam, K.Y.; Clark, D.P. )

    1989-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli deficient in the fermentative NAD-linked lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) have been isolated. These mutants showed no growth defects under anaerobic conditions unless present together with a defect in pyruvate formate lyase (pfl). Double mutants (pfl ldh) were unable to grow anaerobically on glucose or other sugars even when supplemented with acetate, whereas pfl mutants can do so. The ldh mutation was found to map at 30.5 min on the E. coli chromosome. The ldh mutant FMJ39 showed no detectable lactate dehydrogenase activity and produced no lactic acid from glucose under anaerobic conditions as estimated by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. We also found that in wild-type strains the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase was conjointly induced by anaerobic conditions and an acidic pH. Despite previous findings that phosphate concentrations affect the proportion of lactic acid produced during fermentation, we were unable to find any intrinsic effect of phosphate on lactate dehydrogenase activity, apart from the buffering effect of this ion.

  13. Towards an informative mutant phenotype for every bacterial gene.

    PubMed

    Deutschbauer, Adam; Price, Morgan N; Wetmore, Kelly M; Tarjan, Daniel R; Xu, Zhuchen; Shao, Wenjun; Leon, Dacia; Arkin, Adam P; Skerker, Jeffrey M

    2014-10-01

    Mutant phenotypes provide strong clues to the functions of the underlying genes and could allow annotation of the millions of sequenced yet uncharacterized bacterial genes. However, it is not known how many genes have a phenotype under laboratory conditions, how many phenotypes are biologically interpretable for predicting gene function, and what experimental conditions are optimal to maximize the number of genes with a phenotype. To address these issues, we measured the mutant fitness of 1,586 genes of the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 across 492 diverse experiments and found statistically significant phenotypes for 89% of all assayed genes. Thus, in Z. mobilis, most genes have a functional consequence under laboratory conditions. We demonstrate that 41% of Z. mobilis genes have both a strong phenotype and a similar fitness pattern (cofitness) to another gene, and are therefore good candidates for functional annotation using mutant fitness. Among 502 poorly characterized Z. mobilis genes, we identified a significant cofitness relationship for 174. For 57 of these genes without a specific functional annotation, we found additional evidence to support the biological significance of these gene-gene associations, and in 33 instances, we were able to predict specific physiological or biochemical roles for the poorly characterized genes. Last, we identified a set of 79 diverse mutant fitness experiments in Z. mobilis that are nearly as biologically informative as the entire set of 492 experiments. Therefore, our work provides a blueprint for the functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness. PMID:25112473

  14. Lethal effects of short-wavelength visible light on insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Masatoshi; Shibuya, Kazuki; Sato, Mitsunari; Saito, Yoshino

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the lethal effects of visible light on insects by using light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The toxic effects of ultraviolet (UV) light, particularly shortwave (i.e., UVB and UVC) light, on organisms are well known. However, the effects of irradiation with visible light remain unclear, although shorter wavelengths are known to be more lethal. Irradiation with visible light is not thought to cause mortality in complex animals including insects. Here, however, we found that irradiation with short-wavelength visible (blue) light killed eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of Drosophila melanogaster. Blue light was also lethal to mosquitoes and flour beetles, but the effective wavelength at which mortality occurred differed among the insect species. Our findings suggest that highly toxic wavelengths of visible light are species-specific in insects, and that shorter wavelengths are not always more toxic. For some animals, such as insects, blue light is more harmful than UV light.

  15. The Effects of Anthrax Lethal Toxin on Host Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Tao; Auth, Roger D.; Frucht, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The pathological actions of anthrax toxin require the activities of its edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF) enzyme components, which gain intracellular access via its receptor-binding component, protective antigen (PA). LF is a metalloproteinase with specificity for selected mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs), but its activity is not directly lethal to many types of primary and transformed cells in vitro. Nevertheless, in vivo treatment of several animal species with the combination of LF and PA (termed lethal toxin or LT) leads to morbidity and mortality, suggesting that LT-dependent toxicity is mediated by cellular interactions between host cells. Decades of research have revealed that a central hallmark of this toxicity is the disruption of key cellular barriers required to maintain homeostasis. This review will focus on the current understanding of the effects of LT on barrier function, highlighting recent progress in establishing the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. PMID:22069727

  16. Reactive oxygen species and the bacterial response to lethal stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xilin; Drlica, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria are killed by a variety of lethal stressors, some of which promote a cascade of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Perturbations expected to alter ROS accumulation affect the lethal action of diverse antibacterials, leading to the hypothesis that killing by these agents can involve ROS-mediated self-destruction. Recent challenges to the hypothesis are considered, particularly with respect to complexities in assays that distinguish primary damage from the cellular response to that damage. Also considered are bifunctional factors that are protective at low stress levels but destructive at high levels. These considerations, plus new data, support an involvement of ROS in the lethal action of some antimicrobials and raise important questions concerning consumption of antioxidant dietary supplements during antimicrobial chemotherapy. PMID:25078317

  17. Lethal effects of short-wavelength visible light on insects

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Masatoshi; Shibuya, Kazuki; Sato, Mitsunari; Saito, Yoshino

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the lethal effects of visible light on insects by using light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The toxic effects of ultraviolet (UV) light, particularly shortwave (i.e., UVB and UVC) light, on organisms are well known. However, the effects of irradiation with visible light remain unclear, although shorter wavelengths are known to be more lethal. Irradiation with visible light is not thought to cause mortality in complex animals including insects. Here, however, we found that irradiation with short-wavelength visible (blue) light killed eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of Drosophila melanogaster. Blue light was also lethal to mosquitoes and flour beetles, but the effective wavelength at which mortality occurred differed among the insect species. Our findings suggest that highly toxic wavelengths of visible light are species-specific in insects, and that shorter wavelengths are not always more toxic. For some animals, such as insects, blue light is more harmful than UV light. PMID:25488603

  18. [Mapping of the lethal genes in the sex-linkaged balanced lethal silkworm Bombyx mori using SSR markers].

    PubMed

    Xuan, Nan; Niu, Bao-Long; Wang, Hai-Long; Zhuang, Li; Meng, Zhi-Qi

    2010-12-01

    The males of sex-linkaged balanced lethal silkworm strain (S-14) has two non-allelic recessive genes (lethal gene 1, l1 and lethal gene 2, l2). The two genes are located on two different Z chromosomes and cause death of embryos at body pigmentation stage and end reversal embryo stage, respectively. We firstly hybridized the males of S-14 strain with the females having wild-type genes of P50 strain and then backcrossed the males of F1 with females of P50 strain. A total of 1660 female moths of BC1 generation were divided into two groups, 1100 in BC1-l1 and 560 in BC1-l2 according to the lethal gene carried by these female moths' fathers-fame moths of F1, respectively. Based on the nucleotide sequence information from the published physical map of Bombyx mori, we developed 16 polymorphic SSR markers in l1 gene region and 18 polymorphic SSR makers in l2 gene region compared to the allelic region of P50 strain and used these SSR markers and groups of BC1-l1 and BC1-12 to map the two lethal genes, respectively. Gene l1 was mapped on the region of Z chromosome, covering a physical distance of 2.60 Mb. Gene l2 was fine mapped on the region of Z chromosome, covering a physical distance of 0.69 Mb. PMID:21513153

  19. Flowering of Arabidopsis cop1 mutants in darkness.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Mayu; Komeda, Yoshibumi

    2004-04-01

    To elucidate the role of the COP1 gene in flowering, we analyzed flowering of cop1 mutant lines in darkness. When grown in the presence of 1% (w/v) sucrose, the cop1-6 mutant flowered in darkness, but cop1-1 and cop1-4 did not. However, cop1-1 and cop1-4 flowered in darkness when grown in the presence of 5% (w/v) sucrose. Therefore, the COP1 gene represses not only photomorphogenesis in seedlings but also flowering in darkness. Comparison of mRNAs levels of floral identity genes in cop1-6 and wild-type plants grown in darkness revealed increased mRNA levels of genes that act downstream of CO and reduced FLC mRNA level in cop1-6. Double mutants of cop1-6 and each of the late-flowering mutations cry2-1, gi-2, co-1, and ld-1 flowered in darkness. All of the double mutants except cry2-1 cop1-6 flowered later than cop1-6, demonstrating that cop1-6 is epistatic to cry2-1 for early flowering. The ld-1 cop1-6 double mutant flowered much earlier than the ld-1 mutant. The delay in flowering in the double mutants was not strongly influenced by the light conditions, whereas that of the gi-2 cop1-6 double mutant was reduced in darkness. PMID:15111714

  20. Dominant mutants identify new roles for p34cdc2 in mitosis.

    PubMed

    Labib, K; Craven, R A; Crawford, K; Nurse, P

    1995-05-15

    A large number of dominant mutants have been generated in the fission yeast cdc2 gene, causing lethality when expressed in wild-type cells. The mutants interfere with distinct aspects of p34cdc2 function, producing one of four different phenotypes: mitotic arrest, multiple rounds of S phase in the absence of mitosis, premature mitosis or G2 arrest. The mitotic mutants DL41, DL45 and DL50 are characterized in this paper. Over-expression of DL41 or DL45 causes mitotic arrest, specifically interfering with sister chromatid separation, without preventing spindle elongation. This suggests a role for p34cdc2 in triggering sister chromatid separation at anaphase. DL41 and DL45 also cause abnormal septum formation, suggesting that p34cdc2 may also be involved in regulating this process in fission yeast. These mitotic aspects of p34cdc2 function may involve interaction with p13suc1, since increased expression of suc1 partially suppresses DL41 and DL45. Over-expression of DL50 causes premature mitotic entry in cells that have not completed S phase, resulting in lethality. DL41, DL45 and DL50 correspond to mutation of p34cdc2 residues predicted to be on the surface of the protein, identifying potential sites of interaction with mitotic regulators of p3cdc2, and these residues are conserved amongst cdc2 proteins found in other eukaryotes. PMID:7774573

  1. Dominant mutants identify new roles for p34cdc2 in mitosis.

    PubMed Central

    Labib, K; Craven, R A; Crawford, K; Nurse, P

    1995-01-01

    A large number of dominant mutants have been generated in the fission yeast cdc2 gene, causing lethality when expressed in wild-type cells. The mutants interfere with distinct aspects of p34cdc2 function, producing one of four different phenotypes: mitotic arrest, multiple rounds of S phase in the absence of mitosis, premature mitosis or G2 arrest. The mitotic mutants DL41, DL45 and DL50 are characterized in this paper. Over-expression of DL41 or DL45 causes mitotic arrest, specifically interfering with sister chromatid separation, without preventing spindle elongation. This suggests a role for p34cdc2 in triggering sister chromatid separation at anaphase. DL41 and DL45 also cause abnormal septum formation, suggesting that p34cdc2 may also be involved in regulating this process in fission yeast. These mitotic aspects of p34cdc2 function may involve interaction with p13suc1, since increased expression of suc1 partially suppresses DL41 and DL45. Over-expression of DL50 causes premature mitotic entry in cells that have not completed S phase, resulting in lethality. DL41, DL45 and DL50 correspond to mutation of p34cdc2 residues predicted to be on the surface of the protein, identifying potential sites of interaction with mitotic regulators of p3cdc2, and these residues are conserved amongst cdc2 proteins found in other eukaryotes. Images PMID:7774573

  2. Using the CRISPR-Cas System to Positively Select Mutants in Genes Essential for Its Function.

    PubMed

    Yosef, Ido; Goren, Moran G; Edgar, Rotem; Qimron, Udi

    2015-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR associated proteins (Cas) comprise a prokaryotic adaptive defense system against foreign nucleic acids. This defense is mediated by Cas proteins, which are guided by sequences flanked by the repeats, called spacers, to target nucleic acids. Spacers designed against the prokaryotic self chromosome are lethal to the prokaryotic cell. This self-killing of the bacterium by its own CRISPR-Cas system can be used to positively select genes that participate in this killing, as their absence will result in viable cells. Here we describe a positive selection assay that uses this feature to identify E. coli mutants encoding an inactive CRISPR-Cas system. The procedure includes establishment of an assay that detects this self-killing, generation of transposon insertion mutants in random genes, and selection of viable mutants, suspected as required for this lethal activity. This procedure enabled us to identify a novel gene, htpG, that is required for the activity of the CRISPR-Cas system. The procedures described here can be adjusted to various organisms to identify genes required for their CRISPR-Cas activity. PMID:25981477

  3. Approaches to Identifying Synthetic Lethal Interactions in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Jordan M.; Nguyen, Quy H.; Singh, Manpreet; Razorenova, Olga V.

    2015-01-01

    Targeting synthetic lethal interactions is a promising new therapeutic approach to exploit specific changes that occur within cancer cells. Multiple approaches to investigate these interactions have been developed and successfully implemented, including chemical, siRNA, shRNA, and CRISPR library screens. Genome-wide computational approaches, such as DAISY, also have been successful in predicting synthetic lethal interactions from both cancer cell lines and patient samples. Each approach has its advantages and disadvantages that need to be considered depending on the cancer type and its molecular alterations. This review discusses these approaches and examines case studies that highlight their use. PMID:26029013

  4. Lethal toxicity of cadmium to Cyprinus carpio and Tilapia aurea

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    There have been several studies of the lethal toxicity of cadmium to freshwater fishes, but further information is required on a number of points. For example, the shallow slope which is characteristic of the cadmium toxicity curve makes interspecific comparisons difficult. There also is a paucity of information on cadmium toxicity to non-Salmonid European species. As part of a study of the water quality requirements of cultured fish species in the Mediterranean, the authors report on the lethal toxicity of cadmium to two such species, the common carp Cyprinus carpio, and Tilapia aurea, for which little information has previously been reported.

  5. Approaches to identifying synthetic lethal interactions in cancer.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jordan M; Nguyen, Quy H; Singh, Manpreet; Razorenova, Olga V

    2015-06-01

    Targeting synthetic lethal interactions is a promising new therapeutic approach to exploit specific changes that occur within cancer cells. Multiple approaches to investigate these interactions have been developed and successfully implemented, including chemical, siRNA, shRNA, and CRISPR library screens. Genome-wide computational approaches, such as DAISY, also have been successful in predicting synthetic lethal interactions from both cancer cell lines and patient samples. Each approach has its advantages and disadvantages that need to be considered depending on the cancer type and its molecular alterations. This review discusses these approaches and examines case studies that highlight their use. PMID:26029013

  6. Deciphering the mechanisms of developmental disorders: phenotype analysis of embryos from mutant mouse lines.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert; McGuire, Christina; Mohun, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders (DMDD) consortium is a research programme set up to identify genes in the mouse, which if mutated (or knocked-out) result in embryonic lethality when homozygous, and initiate the study of why disruption of their function has such profound effects on embryo development and survival. The project uses a combination of comprehensive high resolution 3D imaging and tissue histology to identify abnormalities in embryo and placental structures of embryonic lethal lines. The image data we have collected and the phenotypes scored are freely available through the project website (http://dmdd.org.uk). In this article we describe the web interface to the images that allows the embryo data to be viewed at full resolution in different planes, discuss how to search the database for a phenotype, and our approach to organising the data for an embryo and a mutant line so it is easy to comprehend and intuitive to navigate. PMID:26519470

  7. Deciphering the mechanisms of developmental disorders: phenotype analysis of embryos from mutant mouse lines

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robert; McGuire, Christina; Mohun, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders (DMDD) consortium is a research programme set up to identify genes in the mouse, which if mutated (or knocked-out) result in embryonic lethality when homozygous, and initiate the study of why disruption of their function has such profound effects on embryo development and survival. The project uses a combination of comprehensive high resolution 3D imaging and tissue histology to identify abnormalities in embryo and placental structures of embryonic lethal lines. The image data we have collected and the phenotypes scored are freely available through the project website (http://dmdd.org.uk). In this article we describe the web interface to the images that allows the embryo data to be viewed at full resolution in different planes, discuss how to search the database for a phenotype, and our approach to organising the data for an embryo and a mutant line so it is easy to comprehend and intuitive to navigate. PMID:26519470

  8. Vitellogenin Receptor Mutation Leads to the Oogenesis Mutant Phenotype “scanty vitellin” of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying; Meng, Yan; Wang, Yan-Xia; Luo, Juan; Katsuma, Susumu; Yang, Cong-Wen; Banno, Yutaka; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Shimada, Toru; Xia, Qing-You

    2013-01-01

    In insects, the vitellogenin receptor (VgR) mediates the uptake of vitellogenin (Vg) from the hemolymph by developing oocytes. The oogenesis mutant scanty vitellin (vit) of Bombyx mori (Bm) lacks vitellin and 30-kDa proteins, but B. mori egg-specific protein and BmVg are normal. The vit eggs are white and smaller compared with the pale yellow eggs of the wild type and are embryonic lethal. This study found that a mutation in the B. mori VgR gene (BmVgR) is responsible for the vit phenotype. We cloned the cDNA sequences encoding WT and vit BmVgR. The functional domains of BmVgR are similar to those of other low-density lipoprotein receptors. When compared with the wild type, a 235-bp genomic sequence in vit BmVgR is substituted for a 7-bp sequence. This mutation has resulted in a 50-amino acid deletion in the third Class B region of the first epidermal growth factor (EGF1) domain. BmVgR is expressed specifically in oocytes, and the transcriptional level is changed dramatically and consistently with maturation of oocytes during the previtellogenic periods. Linkage analysis confirmed that BmVgR is mutated in the vit mutant. The coimmunoprecipitation assay confirmed that mutated BmVgR is able to bind BmVg but that BmVg cannot be dissociated under acidic conditions. The WT phenotype determined by RNA interference was similar to that of the vit phenotype for nutritional deficiency, such as BmVg and 30-kDa proteins. These results showed that BmVgR has an important role in transporting proteins for egg formation and embryonic development in B. mori. PMID:23515308

  9. Germination-defective mutant of Neurospora crassa that responds to siderophores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlang, G.; Williams, N. P.

    1977-01-01

    A conditionally germination-defective mutant of Neurospora crassa has been found to be partially curable by ferricrocin and other siderophores. The mutant conidia rapidly lose their membrane-bound siderophores when suspended in buffer or growth media. Germination is consequently delayed unless large numbers of conidia are present (positive population effect). This indicates that the mutant has a membrane defect involving the siderophore attachment site.

  10. Benomyl-resistant mutant strain of Trichoderma sp. with increased mycoparasitic activity.

    PubMed

    Olejníková, P; Ondrusová, Z; Krystofová, S; Hudecová, D

    2010-01-01

    Application of UV radiation to the strain Trichoderma sp. T-bt (isolated from lignite) resulted in the T-brm mutant which was resistant to the systemic fungicide benomyl. The tub2 gene sequence in the T-brm mutant differed from the parent as well as the collection strain (replacing tyrosine with histidine in the TUB2 protein). Under in vitro conditions this mutant exhibited a higher mycoparasitic activity toward phytopathogenic fungi. PMID:20336512

  11. Directed Synthesis of a Segmental Chromosomal Transposition: An Approach to the Study of Chromosomes Lethal to the Gametophyte Generation of Maize

    PubMed Central

    Birchler, J. A.; Levin, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    Because of the haploid nature of the gametophyte generation of plants, most mutations that are lethal or detrimental to the gametophytes cannot be recovered. Our laboratory is currently developing several techniques to overcome this situation. In this paper, a procedure is described to generate directed segmental chromosomal transpositions. The method involves recovery of recombinants between reciprocal translocation overlaps such that one region of the genome is inserted into a nonhomologous chromosome in a predetermined and directed manner. This duplicated segment then could serve to cover deficiencies or mutations, lethal to the gametophytes, in the region from whence it originated. The manipulation of segmental chromosomal transpositions for analyzing mutants lethal or detrimental to the gametophyte generation is discussed. The procedure to generate transpositions, the translocations between normal A and supernumerary B chromosomes that generate deficiencies in the male gametes, the r-X1 chromosome that generates deficiencies in the female gametes and other techniques available in maize form a system to analyze gametophyte lethal mutations. PMID:2016056

  12. Lethal poisoning with ethiofencarb and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Al-Samarraie, Muhammad S J; Karinen, Ritva; Rognum, Torleiv; Hasvold, Inger; Opdal Stokke, Mimi; Christophersen, Asbjørg S

    2009-09-01

    Ethiofencarb is one of the carbamate compounds, which are, in general, less toxic than organophosphorus insecticides. This is due to their reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibition and relative inability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Generally, ethiofencarb is regarded to be of low toxicity (LD(50) > 200 mg/kg); however, severe poisoning and death are not uncommon. To our knowledge, no measurements of ethiofencarb and its metabolites in human postmortem whole blood have been published. We present here a case report of fatal ethiofencarb intoxication with quantitative analysis of ethiofencarb and its metabolites in ante- and postmortem blood. In addition, postmortem urine was collected and analyzed. A 56-year-old man, who worked as a gardener, was found in poor condition, sitting in his car seat. He had been vomiting. The man was admitted to the local hospital about 1 h later. At admission, he was conscious, but unable to speak clearly. His condition deteriorated, and he developed severe pulmonary edema. Resuscitation with atropine and adrenaline were attempted, but he died approximately 3 h after admission. The analysis of postmortem peripheral blood revealed 0.12 g/100 mL ethanol, 26.4 mg/L ethiofencarb, 37.9 mg/L ethiofencarbsulfoxide, and 0.9 mg/L ethiofencarbsulfone. Ethanol (0.26 g/100 mL), ethiofencarb, ethiofencarbsulfoxide, and ethiofencarbsulfone were also detected in urine. PMID:19796510

  13. Proteinase yscD mutants of yeast. Isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    García-Alvarez, N; Teichert, U; Wolf, D H

    1987-03-01

    Mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, devoid of proteinase yscD activity, were isolated by screening for the inability of mutagenized cells to hydrolyze Ac-Ala-Ala-Pro-Ala-beta-naphthylamide in situ. One of the selected mutants bears a thermolabile activity pointing to the gene called PRD1 as being the structural gene for proteinase yscD. All mutants isolated fell into one complementation group. The defect segregates 2:2 in meiotic tetrads indicating a single gene mutation, which was shown to be recessive. Diploids heterozygous for PRD1 display gene dosage. The absence of proteinase yscD did not affect mitotic growth under rich or poor growth conditions, neither mating nor ascopore formation. Also growth of mutant cells after a nutritional shift-down was not altered. Inactivation of enzymes tested which are subject to carbon-catabolite inactivation, a process proposed to be of proteolytic nature, is not affected by the absence of proteinase yscD. Protein degradation rates in growing cells, in cells under conditions of differentiation or heat shock, showed no obvious alteration in the absence of proteinase yscD activity. Also inactivation of alpha-factor pheromone was not affected by proteinase yscD absence. Normal growth of mutant cells on glycerol indicates that the enzyme is not involved in any vital event in mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:3545833

  14. Mutant KRAS as a critical determinant of the therapeutic response of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Knickelbein, Kyle; Zhang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the KRAS oncogene represent one of the most prevalent genetic alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC), the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the US. In addition to their well-characterized function in driving tumor progression, KRAS mutations have been recognized as a critical determinant of the therapeutic response of CRC. Recent studies demonstrate that KRAS-mutant tumors are intrinsically insensitive to clinically-used epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting antibodies, including cetuximab and panitumumab. Acquired resistance to the anti-EGFR therapy was found to be associated with enrichment of KRAS-mutant tumor cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of mutant-KRAS-mediated therapeutic resistance has remained unclear. Despite intensive efforts, directly targeting mutant KRAS has been largely unsuccessful. This review summarizes the recent advances in understanding the biological function of KRAS mutations in determining the therapeutic response of CRC, highlighting several recently developed agents and strategies for targeting mutant KRAS, such as synthetic lethal interactions. PMID:25815366

  15. Conserved role of unc-79 in ethanol responses in lightweight mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Speca, David J; Chihara, Daisuke; Ashique, Amir M; Bowers, M Scott; Pierce-Shimomura, Jonathan T; Lee, Jungsoo; Rabbee, Nusrat; Speed, Terence P; Gularte, Rodrigo J; Chitwood, James; Medrano, Juan F; Liao, Mark; Sonner, James M; Eger, Edmond I; Peterson, Andrew S; McIntire, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    The mechanisms by which ethanol and inhaled anesthetics influence the nervous system are poorly understood. Here we describe the positional cloning and characterization of a new mouse mutation isolated in an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) forward mutagenesis screen for animals with enhanced locomotor activity. This allele, Lightweight (Lwt), disrupts the homolog of the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) unc-79 gene. While Lwt/Lwt homozygotes are perinatal lethal, Lightweight heterozygotes are dramatically hypersensitive to acute ethanol exposure. Experiments in C. elegans demonstrate a conserved hypersensitivity to ethanol in unc-79 mutants and extend this observation to the related unc-80 mutant and nca-1;nca-2 double mutants. Lightweight heterozygotes also exhibit an altered response to the anesthetic isoflurane, reminiscent of unc-79 invertebrate mutant phenotypes. Consistent with our initial mapping results, Lightweight heterozygotes are mildly hyperactive when exposed to a novel environment and are smaller than wild-type animals. In addition, Lightweight heterozygotes exhibit increased food consumption yet have a leaner body composition. Interestingly, Lightweight heterozygotes voluntarily consume more ethanol than wild-type littermates. The acute hypersensitivity to and increased voluntary consumption of ethanol observed in Lightweight heterozygous mice in combination with the observed hypersensitivity to ethanol in C. elegans unc-79, unc-80, and nca-1;nca-2 double mutants suggests a novel conserved pathway that might influence alcohol-related behaviors in humans. PMID:20714347

  16. Fission yeast mutants that alleviate transcriptional silencing in centromeric flanking repeats and disrupt chromosome segregation.

    PubMed Central

    Ekwall, K; Cranston, G; Allshire, R C

    1999-01-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes are transcriptionally silenced when placed within centromeres, within or close to the silent mating-type loci or adjacent to telomeres. Factors required to maintain mating-type silencing also affect centromeric silencing and chromosome segregation. We isolated mutations that alleviate repression of marker genes in the inverted repeats flanking the central core of centromere I. Mutations csp1 to 13 (centromere: suppressor of position effect) defined 12 loci. Ten of the csp mutants have no effect on mat2/3 or telomere silencing. All csp mutants allow some expression of genes in the centromeric flanking repeat, but expression in the central core is undetectable. Consistent with defective centromere structure and function, chromosome loss rates are elevated in all csp mutants. Mutants csp1 to 6 are temperature-sensitive lethal and csp3 and csp6 cells are defective in mitosis at 36 degrees. csp7 to 13 display a high incidence of lagging chromosomes on late anaphase spindles. Thus, by screening for mutations that disrupt silencing in the flanking region of a fission yeast centromere a novel collection of mutants affecting centromere architecture and chromosome segregation has been isolated. PMID:10545449

  17. MutMap+: genetic mapping and mutant identification without crossing in rice.

    PubMed

    Fekih, Rym; Takagi, Hiroki; Tamiru, Muluneh; Abe, Akira; Natsume, Satoshi; Yaegashi, Hiroki; Sharma, Shailendra; Sharma, Shiveta; Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Hideo; Saitoh, Hiromasa; Mitsuoka, Chikako; Utsushi, Hiroe; Uemura, Aiko; Kanzaki, Eiko; Kosugi, Shunichi; Yoshida, Kentaro; Cano, Liliana; Kamoun, Sophien; Terauchi, Ryohei

    2013-01-01

    Advances in genome sequencing technologies have enabled researchers and breeders to rapidly associate phenotypic variation to genome sequence differences. We recently took advantage of next-generation sequencing technology to develop MutMap, a method that allows rapid identification of causal nucleotide changes of rice mutants by whole genome resequencing of pooled DNA of mutant F2 progeny derived from crosses made between candidate mutants and the parental line. Here we describe MutMap+, a versatile extension of MutMap, that identifies causal mutations by comparing SNP frequencies of bulked DNA of mutant and wild-type progeny of M3 generation derived from selfing of an M2 heterozygous individual. Notably, MutMap+ does not necessitate artificial crossing between mutants and the wild-type parental line. This method is therefore suitable for identifying mutations that cause early development lethality, sterility, or generally hamper crossing. Furthermore, MutMap+ is potentially useful for gene isolation in crops that are recalcitrant to artificial crosses. PMID:23874658

  18. Out-crossing between 'Bacon' pollinizers and adjacent 'Hass' avocado and the identification of two new avocado lethal mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill) has an unusual flowering mechanism, diurnally synchronous protogynous dichogamy, which promotes cross pollination among avocado genotypes. In commercial groves, which usually contain pollinizer rows adjacent to the more desirable commercial cultivars, the rate of out-...

  19. Mutation in Wilted Dwarf and Lethal 1 (WDL1) causes abnormal cuticle formation and rapid water loss in rice.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Jin; Jin, Ping; Yoon, Jinmi; Yang, Jung-Il; Jeong, Hee Joong; Ranathunge, Kosala; Schreiber, Lukas; Franke, Rochus; Lee, In-Jung; An, Gynheung

    2010-09-01

    Epidermal cell layers play important roles in plant defenses against various environmental stresses. Here we report the identification of a cuticle membrane mutant, wilted dwarf and lethal 1 (wdl1), from a rice T-DNA insertional population. The mutant is dwarf and die at seedling stage due to increased rates of water loss. Stomatal cells and pavement cells are smaller in the mutant, suggesting that WDL1 affects epidermal cell differentiation. T-DNA was inserted into a gene that encodes a protein belonging to the SGNH subfamily, within the GDSL lipase superfamily. The WDL1-sGFP signal coincided with the RFP signal driven by AtBIP-mRFP, indicating that WDL1 is an ER protein. SEM analyses showed that their leaves have a disorganized crystal wax layer. Cross-sectioning reveals loose packing of the cuticle and irregular thickness of cell wall. Detailed analyses of the epicuticular wax showed no significant changes either in the total amount and amounts of each monomer or in the levels of lipid polymers, including cutin and other covalently bound lipids, attached to the cell wall. We propose that WDL1 is involved in cutin organization, affecting depolymerizable components. PMID:20593223

  20. Lethal neuroleptic malignant syndrome due to amisulpride.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, Frank; Doberentz, Elke; Madea, Burkhard

    2013-06-01

    A 42-year old-man was found lying in his bed having seizures. Later he became unconscious and hypotonic developing mydriasis as well as rigidity. The body core temperature (rectal temperature) was above 42 °C. Blood pH was decreased during treatment, and his general condition deteriorated. The patient developed gasping respiration, ventricular fibrillation, and died. During autopsy and histological investigation cerebral and pulmonary edema were noted together with general congestion of the internal organs. Further observations included contraction bands of myocytes, a contracted spleen, fibrosis of the liver, and gall stones. Toxicological analyses of peripheral blood revealed the following results: amisulpride 4.65 mg/l, biperiden 0.12 mg/l, imipramine 0.33 mg/l, and desipramine 0.68 mg/l. An amisulpride-induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome was therefore diagnosed as the patho-physiological mechanism leading to death. PMID:23504701

  1. Lethal head entrapment--a problem characteristic of early childhood.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Charlwood, Cheryl

    2009-08-01

    Accidental deaths in infancy and early childhood often result from young childrens' lack of understanding of the dangers of certain situations and their physical inability to extricate themselves from potentially lethal circumstances. Two cases are reported to demonstrate an age-related susceptibility in the young to lethal head entrapment. Case 1: a 5-month-old girl smothered when she slipped down in her stroller, trapping her head beneath the frame and forcing her face into the soft material of the base. Case 2: a 14-month-old boy was hanged while exploring a filing cabinet when his head became caught between two lower drawers. Additional mental and physical characteristics that predispose young children and infants to lethal head entrapment include an inability to effectively problem solve once confronted with a hazardous situation, and relatively large heads and weak neck musculature. Because of these features lethal head entrapment represents a particular circumstance that may predispose to accidental asphyxial deaths in the very young. A combination of careful death scene and autopsy evaluations will be required to confirm the alleged circumstances of death in these cases, including mortuary re-enactments and assessment of the deceased infant's level of physical maturity and mobility. PMID:19573845

  2. The Lethal "Femme Fatale" in the Noir Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boozer, Jack

    2000-01-01

    Traces the lethal seductress through Hollywood's "noir" history from "Double Indemnity" (1944) to "The Last Seduction" (1996). Examines how this figure largely abjures traditional romance and passive domesticity, choosing instead to apply her sexuality to homicidal plots toward greed. Argues that her narrative positioning serves as a barometer of…

  3. The Prevalence, Lethality and Intent of Suicide Attempts among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Judy A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    Although suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents in the United States, little is known about the prevalence or characteristics of suicide attempts among adolescents. Data from 1,710 adolescents attending 9 high schools in 5 communities were examined to determine the prevalence of suicide attempts and the lethality and intent…

  4. 40 CFR 798.5450 - Rodent dominant lethal assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information... dysfunction of the gamete, but which is lethal to the fertilized egg or developing embryo. (c) Reference... of the uteri are examined to determine the numbers of implants and live and dead embryos....

  5. 40 CFR 798.5450 - Rodent dominant lethal assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information... dysfunction of the gamete, but which is lethal to the fertilized egg or developing embryo. (c) Reference... of the uteri are examined to determine the numbers of implants and live and dead embryos....

  6. 40 CFR 798.5450 - Rodent dominant lethal assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information... dysfunction of the gamete, but which is lethal to the fertilized egg or developing embryo. (c) Reference... of the uteri are examined to determine the numbers of implants and live and dead embryos....

  7. 40 CFR 798.5450 - Rodent dominant lethal assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information... dysfunction of the gamete, but which is lethal to the fertilized egg or developing embryo. (c) Reference... of the uteri are examined to determine the numbers of implants and live and dead embryos....

  8. 40 CFR 798.5450 - Rodent dominant lethal assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting recommendations as specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J the following specific information... dysfunction of the gamete, but which is lethal to the fertilized egg or developing embryo. (c) Reference... of the uteri are examined to determine the numbers of implants and live and dead embryos....

  9. An overview of the future of non-lethal weapons.

    PubMed

    Alexander, J B

    2001-01-01

    During the past decade, vast changes have occurred in the geopolitical landscape and the nature of the types of conflicts in which technologically developed countries have been involved. While the threat of conventional war remains, forces have been more frequently deployed in situations that require great restraint. Adversaries are often likely to be elusive and commingled with noncombatants. There has been some shift in public opinion away from tolerance of collateral casualties. Therefore there is a need to be able to apply force while limiting casualties. Non-lethal weapons provide part of the solution. Among the changes that will influence the future have been studies by the US and NATO concerning the use of non-lethal weapons, coincidental with increased funding for their development and testing. New concepts and policies have recently been formalized. Surprisingly, the most strident objections to the implementation of non-lethal weapons have come from organizations that are ostensibly designed to protect non-combatants. These arguments are specious and, while technically and academically challenging, actually serve to foster an environment that will result in the deaths of many more innocent civilians. They misconstrue technology with human intent. The reasons for use of force will not abate. Alternatives to bombs, missiles, tanks and artillery must therefore be found. Non-lethal weapons are not a panacea but do offer the best hope of minimizing casualties while allowing nations or alliances the means to use force in protection of national or regional interests. PMID:11578037

  10. Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Generoso, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed.

  11. High-throughput simultaneous screen and counterscreen identifies homoharringtonine as synthetic lethal with von Hippel-Lindau loss in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Nicholas C.; Pavía-Jiménez, Andrea; Tcheuyap, Vanina T.; Alexander, Shane; Vishwanath, Mridula; Christie, Alana; Xie, Xian-Jin; Williams, Noelle S.; Kapur, Payal; Posner, Bruce; McKay, Renée M.; Brugarolas, James

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 85% of primary renal neoplasms, and is rarely curable when metastatic. Approximately 70% of RCCs are clear-cell type (ccRCC), and in >80% the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene is mutated or silenced. We developed a novel, high-content, screening strategy for the identification of small molecules that are synthetic lethal with genes mutated in cancer. In this strategy, the screen and counterscreen are conducted simultaneously by differentially labeling mutant and reconstituted isogenic tumor cell line pairs with different fluorochromes and using a highly sensitive high-throughput imaging-based platform. This approach minimizes confounding factors from sequential screening, and more accurately replicates the in vivo cancer setting where cancer cells are adjacent to normal cells. A screen of ~12,800 small molecules identified homoharringtonine (HHT), an FDA-approved drug for treating chronic myeloid leukemia, as a VHL-synthetic lethal agent in ccRCC. HHT induced apoptosis in VHL-mutant, but not VHL-reconstituted, ccRCC cells, and inhibited tumor growth in 30% of VHL-mutant patient-derived ccRCC tumorgraft lines tested. Building on a novel screening strategy and utilizing a validated RCC tumorgraft model recapitulating the genetics and drug responsiveness of human RCC, these studies identify HHT as a potential therapeutic agent for a subset of VHL-deficient ccRCCs. PMID:26219258

  12. Evaluation of aroA deletion mutant of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Abortusequi for its vaccine candidate potential.

    PubMed

    Alam, Javad; Singh, B R; Hansda, D; Singh, V P; Verma, J C

    2009-11-01

    The present study on a defined deletion aroA mutant (B-26) of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Abortusequi (S. Abortusequi) for residual virulence and safety in experimental model revealed that the virulence of the strain was at no difference in any of the cell assays (caprine alveolar macrophages, bovine alveolar macrophages, guinea pig blood mononuclear cells and horse blood mononuclear cells) than that of its parent virulence plasmid cured (S-787) and wild type (E-156) strains. The mutant did not cause any apparent illness in baby guinea pigs (15 days old), adult male and female guinea pigs and also not in pregnant (54-55 days of gestation) guinea pigs through oral (4.2 x 10(9) cfu/ animal) and intramuscular (im) routes (4.2 x 10(7) cfu/ animal). In pregnant females the mutant also induced abortion as its parent (E-156) though to lesser extent (33%) than the parent strain (100%) on inoculation through intravaginal (4.2 x 10(9) cfu/ animal) and intraperitoneal (4.2 x 10(7) cfu/ animal) routes. The babies born from mutant inoculated mothers survived better and were also resistant to intraperitoneal lethal challenge (7.82 x 10(9) cfu/ animal) with 100% protection. Female guinea pigs challenged after 135-165 days of inoculation with the mutant afforded 100% protection from abortion and mortality caused by lethal infection (7.82 x 10(9) cfu/ animal) of wild type S. enterica Abortusequi (E-156). The study revealed that aroA mutant (B-26) was safe through oral and im routes for immunization and afforded 100% protection against salmonellosis for more than 5.5 months in guinea pigs. Although immunization with aroA mutant in experimental model afforded good protection against abortion and mortality induced by S. Abortusequi, further studies are needed in horses to exploit the strain's vaccine potential in the natural host. PMID:20099460

  13. A Multivariate Model of Stakeholder Preference for Lethal Cat Management

    PubMed Central

    Wald, Dara M.; Jacobson, Susan K.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying stakeholder beliefs and attitudes is critical for resolving management conflicts. Debate over outdoor cat management is often described as a conflict between two groups, environmental advocates and animal welfare advocates, but little is known about the variables predicting differences among these critical stakeholder groups. We administered a mail survey to randomly selected stakeholders representing both of these groups (n = 1,596) in Florida, where contention over the management of outdoor cats has been widespread. We used a structural equation model to evaluate stakeholder intention to support non-lethal management. The cognitive hierarchy model predicted that values influenced beliefs, which predicted general and specific attitudes, which in turn, influenced behavioral intentions. We posited that specific attitudes would mediate the effect of general attitudes, beliefs, and values on management support. Model fit statistics suggested that the final model fit the data well (CFI = 0.94, RMSEA = 0.062). The final model explained 74% of the variance in management support, and positive attitudes toward lethal management (humaneness) had the largest direct effect on management support. Specific attitudes toward lethal management and general attitudes toward outdoor cats mediated the relationship between positive (p<0.05) and negative cat-related impact beliefs (p<0.05) and support for management. These results supported the specificity hypothesis and the use of the cognitive hierarchy to assess stakeholder intention to support non-lethal cat management. Our findings suggest that stakeholders can simultaneously perceive both positive and negative beliefs about outdoor cats, which influence attitudes toward and support for non-lethal management. PMID:24736744

  14. Tomato mutants as tools for functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, Eyal; Levy, Avraham A

    2002-04-01

    Tomato mutants have been used in genetic studies and breeding for decades, yet only a few tomato mutants have been characterized at the molecular level. Similarly, a wealth of sequence information for tomato is now available but the functions of only a few genes are known. New developments - such as the use of saturated mutant populations, new methods for the detection of mutants and new sequence data - are bridging the gap between tomato genes and their functions. PMID:11856605

  15. Proton suicide: general method for direct selection of sugar transport- and fermentation-defective mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelman, J.W.; Clark, D.P.

    1984-11-01

    A positive selection procedure was devised for bacterial mutants incapable of producing acid from sugars by fermentation. The method relied on the production of elemental bromine from a mixture of bromide and bromate under acidic conditions. When wild-type Escherichia coli cells were plated on media containing a fermentable sugar and an equimolar mixture of bromide and bromate, most of the cells were killed but a variety of mutants unable to produce acid from the sugar survived. Among these mutants were those defective in (i) sugar uptake, (ii) the glycolytic pathway, and (iii) the excretion. There were also novel mutants with some presumed regulatory defects affecting fermentation.

  16. Nitrate and nitrite reductase negative mutants of N2-fixing Azospirillum spp.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, L M; Neyra, C A; Döbereiner, J

    1978-06-26

    Chlorate resistant spontaneous mutants of Azospirillum spp. (syn. Spirillum lipoferum) were selected in oxygen limited, deep agar tubes with chlorate. Among 20 mutants from A. brasilense and 13 from A. lipoferum all retained their functional nitrogenase and 11 from each species were nitrate reductase negative (nr-). Most of the mutants were also nitrite reductase negative (nir-), only 3 remaining nir+. Two mutants from nr+ nir+ parent strains lost only nir and became like the nr+ nir- parent strain of A. brasilense. No parent strain or nr+ mutant showed any nitrogenase activity with 10 mM NO3-. In all nr- mutants, nitrogenase was unaffected by 10 mM NO3-. Nitrite inhibited nitrogenase activity of all parent strains and mutants including those which were nir-. It seems therefore, that inhibition of nitrogenase by nitrate is dependent on nitrate reduction. Under aerobic conditions, where nitrogenase activity is inhibited by oxygen, nitrate could be used as sole nitrogen source for growth of the parent strains and one mutant (nr- nir-) and nitritite of the parent strains and 10 mutants (all types). This indicates the loss of both assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction but only dissimilatory nitrite reduction in the mutants selected with chlorate. PMID:697499

  17. The genetic characteristics Saccharomyces cerevisiae aci(+) mutants.

    PubMed

    Grochowalska, Renata; Machnicka, Beata; Wysocki, Robert; Lachowicz, Tadeusz M

    2003-01-01

    A series of 30 Saccharomyces cerevisiae aci(+) mutants (characterized as acidifying Ogur's glucose medium containing bromocresol purple) were isolated after EMS mutagenesis. All the mutants excreted acid metabolites to the medium after 24 or 48 hours of incubation. The character of the aci(+) mutations was defined using classical genetic techniques. Three of the aci(+) mutants were studied by molecular genetics techniques. PMID:12813559

  18. STUDIES ON A NONDORMANT SUNFLOWER MUTANT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An unexpected sunflower mutant resulting from an interspecific cross of the wild perennial Helianthus divaricatus with cultivated HA 89 was identified. In this mutant, dormancy is not induced in the developing embryo. Instead, developing seeds of the mutant sunflower begin to germinate in the head a...

  19. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind

  20. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  1. Hydrocarbon assimilation and biosurfactant production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, A.K.; Fiechter, A.; Reiser, J. ); Kaeppeli, O. )

    1991-07-01

    The authors isolated transposon Tn5-GM-induced mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG201 that were unable to grow in minimal media containing hexadecane as a carbon source. Some of these mutants lacked extracellular rhamnolipids, as shown by measuring the surface and interfacial tensions of the cell culture supernatants. Furthermore, the concentrated culture media of the mutant strains were tested for the presence of rhamnolipids by thin-layer chromatography and for rhamnolipid activities, including hemolysis and growth inhibition of Bacillus subtilis. Mutant 65E12 was unable to produce extracellular rhamnolipids under any of the inhibition of Bacillus subtilis. Mutant 65E12 was unable to produce extracellular rhamnolipids under any of the conditions tested, lacked the capacity to take up {sup 14}C-labeled hexadecane, and did not grow in media containing individual alkanes with chain lengths ranging from C{sub 12} to C{sub 19}. However, growth on these alkanes and uptake of ({sup 14}C)hexadecane were restored when small amounts of purified rhamnolipids were added to the cultures. Mutant 59C7 was unable to grow in media containing hexadecane, nor was it able to take up ({sup 14}C)hexadecane uptake. The addition of small amounts of rhamnolipids restored on alkanes and ({sup 14}C)hexadecane uptake. In glucose-containing media, however, mutant 59C7 produced rhamnolipids at levels about twice as high as those of the wild-type strain. These results show that rhamnolipids play a major role in hexadecane uptake and utilization by P.aeruginosa.

  2. Isolation and characterization of enhanced fluorescence mutants of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata.

    PubMed Central

    Youvan, D C; Hearst, J E; Marrs, B L

    1983-01-01

    After enrichment by a tetracycline suicide under conditions nonpermissive for the growth of mutants defective in photosynthesis, colonies were screened for enhanced fluorescence in near-infrared light by using high-speed infrared photography. Twenty mutants were isolated, and the chromatophore membranes were analyzed by a new, rapid microprocedure that revealed many different phenotypes among the mutants. The enhanced fluorescence mutants typically possessed a functional light-harvesting II antenna, but showed reduced or absent light-harvesting I. Twelve isolates were also defective in reaction center polypeptides. An R-prime plasmid that bears 50 kilobases of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata DNA coding for components of the photosynthetic apparatus (B. L. Marrs, J. Bacteriol. 146:1003-1012, 1981), pRPS404, complemented all 20 enhanced fluorescence mutants as demonstrated by the quenching of fluorescence in mutants that had received the R-prime plasmid by conjugation. Fluorescence was regained upon loss of the 50-kilobase insert. Complementation of the fluorescent lesions implies that most or all of the genes necessary for the expression of the reaction center and the light-harvesting antennae are carried by the R-prime plasmid and that these genes are actively transcribed in the homologous organism. All 20 mutants are complemented by one of two pBR322 subclones of the R-prime plasmid, pRPSEB2 or pRPSE2. pRPSEB2 bears a 4.5-kilobase fragment of R. capsulata DNA including the rxcA locus, and pRPSE2 is a pBR322 derivative bearing a 7.5-kilobase R. capsulata DNA fragment bearing the rxcB locus. These fragments therefore carry sequences necessary for the normal synthesis of the light-harvesting and reaction center polypeptide complexes. Images PMID:6341361

  3. Influence of sub-lethal stresses on the survival of lactic acid bacteria after spray-drying in orange juice.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, J; Borges, S; Teixeira, P

    2015-12-01

    The demand for new functional non-dairy based products makes the production of a probiotic orange juice powder an encouraging challenge. However, during drying process and storage, loss of viability of the dried probiotic cultures can occur, since the cells are exposed to various stresses. The influence of sub-lethal conditions of temperature, acidic pH and hydrogen peroxide on the viability of Pediococcus acidilactici HA-6111-2 and Lactobacillus plantarum 299v during spray drying in orange juice and subsequent storage under different conditions was investigated. At the end of storage, the survival of both microorganisms through simulated gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) conditions was also determined. The viability of cells previously exposed to each stress was not affected by the drying process. However, during 180 days of storage at room temperature, unlike P. acidilactici HA-6111-2, survival of L. plantarum 299v was enhanced by prior exposure to sub-lethal conditions. Previous exposure to sub-lethal stresses of each microorganism did not improve their viability after passage through simulated GIT. Nevertheless, as cellular inactivation during 180 days of storage was low, both microorganisms were present in numbers of ca. 10(7) cfu/mL at the end of GIT. This is an indication that both bacteria are good candidates for use in the development of an orange juice powder with functional characteristics. PMID:26338119

  4. Properties of Mutants of Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 Lacking Inorganic Carbon Sequestration Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Min; Bernat, Gabor; Singh, Abhay K.; Mi, Hualing; Rogner, Matthias; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Ogawa, Teruo

    2008-09-10

    A mutant ( 5) of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 constructed by inactivating five inorganic carbon sequestration systems did not take up CO2 or HCO3 and was unable to grow in air with or without glucose. The 4 mutant in which BicA is the only active inorganic carbon sequestration system showed low activity of HCO3 uptake and grew under these conditions but more slowly than the wild-type strain. The 5 mutant required 1.7% CO2 to attain half the maximal growth rate. Electron transport activity of the mutants was strongly inhibited under high light intensities, with the 5 mutant more susceptible to high light than the 4 mutant. The results implicated the significance of carbon sequestration in dissipating excess light energy.

  5. Prostacyclin Reversal of Lethal Endotoxemia in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Krausz, Michael M.; Utsunomiya, Takayoshi; Feuerstein, Giora; Wolfe, John H. N.; Shepro, David; Hechtman, Herbert B.

    1981-01-01

    Severe endotoxemia, a condition where microembolization and intravascular coagulation are thought to play important roles, was treated experimentally with prostacyclin (PGI2). In a study of 24 dogs, 8 control animals injected with 1.75 mg·kg−1 of endotoxin died within 24 h. Six animals given intravenous aspirin 100 mg/kg, 30 min after endotoxin died. 9 of 10 dogs infused with 100 ng PGI2·kg−1·min−1 for 3 h, given 30 min after the injection of endotoxin survived 24 h (P < 0.025). Injection of endotoxin resulted in a: (a) maximal 62% fall in mean arterial pressure (P < 0.001); (b) transient doubling of mean pulmonary arterial pressure (P < 0.001); (c) initial 70% drop in cardiac index (P < 0.001); (d) decline in blood platelets from 213,700 to 13,700/mm3 (P < 0.001), and leukocytes from 7,719 to < 750/mm3 (P < 0.001); (e) depressed urine output (P < 0.001); (f) 34% decrease in blood fibrinogen (P < 0.01) and an increase in fibrin degradation products > 50 μg/ml (P < 0.001); (g) fivefold increase in circulating cathepsin D titer (P < 0.005) and (h) increase in blood norepinephrine (P < 0.005), dopamine (P < 0.005), and epinephrine (P < 0.001). Aspirin treatment led to an increase in mean arterial pressure (P < 0.001) and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (P < 0.005), but cardiac index, urine flow, platelets, leukocytes, fibrin degradation products, and cathepsin D levels remained similar to untreated controls. After infusion of PGI2 there was a: (a) prompt increase of cardiac index to base-line levels; (b) late increase in mean arterial pressure (P < 0.005) after the discontinuation of PGI2 treatment (c) restoration of urine output; (d) increase in circulating platelets to levels still below base line but above untreated control animals (P < 0.05); (e) no effect on circulating leukocyte levels; (f) fall in fibrin degradation products to 11.2 μg/ml (P < 0.05); (g) decline in cathepsin D levels to values 60% lower than the untreated controls (P < 0.025); and (h) reduction in plasma norepinephrine levels to base line at 4 h (P < 0.005). Although the mode of PGI2 action is not clear, it is effective in the treatment of experimental endotoxemia. PMID:7009654

  6. Isolation and biochemical analysis of Mucor bacilliformis monomorphic mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Herrera, J; Ruiz, A; Lopez-Romero, E

    1983-01-01

    Fourteen stable mutants of Mucor bacilliformis which grew yeastlike under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions were isolated after treatment of growing mycelium with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Biochemical characterization of the mutants included determination of growth in different carbon and nitrogen sources, determination of sensitivity of respiration to cyanide and salicylhydroxamate, analysis of cytochrome spectra, determination of glutamate dehydrogenases, glutamine synthase, and ornithine decarboxylase activities, and measurement of cyclic AMP levels. Data showed that all mutants were defective in some aspect of oxidative metabolism and had low levels of ornithine decarboxylase, whereas other characters were variable. It was concluded that morphological transition in M. bacilliformis is probably associated with mitochondrial functions and expression of ornithine decarboxylase, but may be independent of cyclic AMP and glutamate dehydrogenase levels. The importance of genetic studies in the analysis of dimorphism is stressed. PMID:6137477

  7. Development of a non-lethal method for evaluating transcriptomic endpoints in Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus).

    PubMed

    Veldhoen, Nik; Beckerton, Jean E; Mackenzie-Grieve, Jody; Stevenson, Mitchel R; Truelson, Robert L; Helbing, Caren C

    2014-07-01

    With increases in active mining and continued discharge associated with former mine operations, evaluating the health of watersheds in the Canadian Yukon Territory is warranted. Current environmental assessment approaches often employ guidelines established using sentinel species not relevant to Arctic monitoring programs. The present study focused on the successful development of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay directed towards the indigenous Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and examines the feasibility of using non-lethal sampling from the caudal fin as a means for evaluation of mRNA abundance profiles reflective of environmental conditions. In a proof of concept study performed blind, qPCR results from animals in an area with elevated water concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) and higher body burdens of Cd, Zn, and lead (Pb) were compared to a reference location in the Yukon Territory. Lower condition factor and a higher abundance of hepatic and caudal fin gene transcripts encoding the metallothionein isoforms (mta/mtb), in addition to elevated heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and catalase (cat) mRNAs in liver, were observed in fish from the test site. The strong positive correlation between metal body burden and caudal fin mta/mtb mRNA abundance demonstrates a high potential for use of the Arctic grayling assay in non-lethal environmental monitoring programs. PMID:24780232

  8. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis of the white and Sex lethal loci in the invasive pest, Drosophila suzukii.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Scott, Maxwell J

    2016-01-22

    Drosophila suzukii (commonly called spotted wing Drosophila) is an invasive pest of soft-skinned fruit (e.g. blueberries, strawberries). A high quality reference genome sequence is available but functional genomic tools, such as used in Drosophila melanogaster, remain to be developed. In this study we have used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to introduce site-specific mutations in the D. suzukii white (w) and Sex lethal (Sxl) genes. Hemizygous males with w mutations develop white eyes and the mutant genes are transmissible to the next generation. Somatic mosaic females that carry mutations in the Sxl gene develop abnormal genitalia and reproductive tissue. The D. suzukii Sxl gene could be an excellent target for a Cas9-mediated gene drive to suppress populations of this highly destructive pest. PMID:26721433

  9. TTSS2-deficient hha mutant of Salmonella Typhimurium exhibits significant systemic attenuation in immunocompromised hosts

    PubMed Central

    Vishwakarma, Vikalp; Pati, Niladri Bhusan; Ray, Shilpa; Das, Susmita; Suar, Mrutyunjay

    2014-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections are emerging as leading problem worldwide and the variations in host immune status append to the concern of NTS. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is one of the causative agents of NTS infections and has been extensively studied. The inactivation of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2) encoded type-III secretion system 2 (TTSS2) has been reported rendering the strain incapable for systemic dissemination to host sites and has also been proposed as live-attenuated vaccine. However, infections from TTSS2-deficient Salmonella have also been reported. In this study, mutant strain MT15 was developed by inactivation of the hemolysin expression modulating protein (hha) in TTSS2-deficient S. Typhimurium background. The MT15 strain showed significant level of attenuation in immune-deprived murine colitis model when tested in iNos−/−, IL10−/−, and CD40L−/− mice groups in C57BL/6 background. Further, the mutation in hha does not implicate any defect in bacterial colonization to the host gut. The long-term infection of developed mutant strain conferred protective immune responses to suitably immunized streptomycin pre-treated C57BL/6 mice. The immunization enhanced the CD4+ and CD8+ cell types involved in bacterial clearance. The serum IgG and luminal secretory IgA (sIgA) was also found to be elevated after the due course of infection. Additionally, the immunized C57BL/6 mice were protected from the subsequent lethal infection of Salmonella Typhimurium. Collectively, these findings implicate the involvement of hemolysin expression modulating protein (Hha) in establishment of bacterial infection. In light of the observed attenuation of the developed mutant strain, this study proposes the possible significance of SPI2-deficient hha mutant as an alternative live-attenuated vaccine strain for use against lethal Salmonella infections. PMID:24401482

  10. Cis-by-Trans Regulatory Divergence Causes the Asymmetric Lethal Effects of an Ancestral Hybrid Incompatibility Gene

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Shamoni; Barbash, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    The Dobzhansky and Muller (D-M) model explains the evolution of hybrid incompatibility (HI) through the interaction between lineage-specific derived alleles at two or more loci. In agreement with the expectation that HI results from functional divergence, many protein-coding genes that contribute to incompatibilities between species show signatures of adaptive evolution, including Lhr, which encodes a heterochromatin protein whose amino acid sequence has diverged extensively between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans by natural selection. The lethality of D. melanogaster/D. simulans F1 hybrid sons is rescued by removing D. simulans Lhr, but not D. melanogaster Lhr, suggesting that the lethal effect results from adaptive evolution in the D. simulans lineage. It has been proposed that adaptive protein divergence in Lhr reflects antagonistic coevolution with species-specific heterochromatin sequences and that defects in LHR protein localization cause hybrid lethality. Here we present surprising results that are inconsistent with this coding-sequence-based model. Using Lhr transgenes expressed under native conditions, we find no evidence that LHR localization differs between D. melanogaster and D. simulans, nor do we find evidence that it mislocalizes in their interspecific hybrids. Rather, we demonstrate that Lhr orthologs are differentially expressed in the hybrid background, with the levels of D. simulans Lhr double that of D. melanogaster Lhr. We further show that this asymmetric expression is caused by cis-by-trans regulatory divergence of Lhr. Therefore, the non-equivalent hybrid lethal effects of Lhr orthologs can be explained by asymmetric expression of a molecular function that is shared by both orthologs and thus was presumably inherited from the ancestral allele of Lhr. We present a model whereby hybrid lethality occurs by the interaction between evolutionarily ancestral and derived alleles. PMID:22457639

  11. Evidence That Mutant PfCRT Facilitates the Transmission to Mosquitoes of Chloroquine-Treated Plasmodium Gametocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ecker, Andrea; Lakshmanan, Viswanathan; Sinnis, Photini; Coppens, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Resistance of the human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum to the antimalarial drug chloroquine has rapidly spread from several independent origins and is now widely prevalent throughout the majority of malaria-endemic areas. Field studies have suggested that chloroquine-resistant strains might be more infective to mosquito vectors. To test the hypothesis that the primary chloroquine resistance determinant, mutations in PfCRT, facilitates parasite transmission under drug pressure, we have introduced a mutant or wild-type pfcrt allele into the rodent model malarial parasite Plasmodium berghei. Our results show that mutant PfCRT from the chloroquine-resistant 7G8 strain has no effect on asexual blood stage chloroquine susceptibility in vivo or ex vivo but confers a significant selective advantage in competitive mosquito infections in the presence of this drug, by protecting immature gametocytes from its lethal action. Enhanced infectivity to mosquitoes may have been a key factor driving the worldwide spread of mutant pfcrt. PMID:21288823

  12. Interaction of the sex-lethal RNA binding domains with RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Kanaar, R; Lee, A L; Rudner, D Z; Wemmer, D E; Rio, D C

    1995-01-01

    Sex determination and X chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster are directed by the Sex-lethal (Sxl) protein. In part, Sxl functions by regulating the splicing of the transformer pre-mRNA by binding to a 3' splice site polypyrimidine tract. Polypyrimidine tracts are essential for splicing of metazoan pre-mRNAs. To unravel the mechanism of splicing regulation at polypyrimidine tracts we analyzed the interaction of Sxl with RNA. The RNA binding activity of Sxl was mapped to the two ribonucleoprotein consensus sequence domains of the protein. Quantitation of binding showed that both RNA binding domains (RBDs) were required in cis for site-specific RNA binding. Individual RBDs interacted with RNA more weakly and had lost the ability to discriminate between wild-type and mutant transformer polypyrimidine tracts. Structural elements in one of the RBDs that are likely to interact with a polypyrimidine tract were identified using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. In addition, our data suggest that multiple imino protons of the transformer polypyrimidine tract were involved in hydrogen bonding. Interestingly, in vitro Sxl bound with equal affinity to polypyrimidine tracts of pre-mRNAs that it does not regulate in vivo. We discuss the implications of this finding for the mechanism through which Sxl may gain selectivity for particular polypyrimidine tracts in vivo. Images PMID:7556096

  13. Involvement of a joker mutation in a polymerase-independent lethal mutagenesis escape mechanism.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Rubén; de la Higuera, Ignacio; Arias, Armando; Grande-Pérez, Ana; Domingo, Esteban

    2016-07-01

    We previously characterized a foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) with three amino acid replacements in its polymerase (3D) that conferred resistance to the mutagenic nucleoside analogue ribavirin. Here we show that passage of this mutant in the presence of high ribavirin concentrations resulted in selection of viruses with the additional replacement I248T in 2C. This 2C substitution alone (even in the absence of replacements in 3D) increased FMDV fitness mainly in the presence of ribavirin, prevented an incorporation bias in favor of A and U associated with ribavirin mutagenesis, and conferred the ATPase activity of 2C decreased sensitivity to ribavirin-triphosphate. Since in previous studies we described that 2C with I248T was selected under different selective pressures, this replacement qualifies as a joker substitution in FMDV evolution. The results have identified a role of 2C in nucleotide incorporation, and have unveiled a new polymerase-independent mechanism of virus escape to lethal mutagenesis. PMID:27136067

  14. Identification of An Arsenic Tolerant Double Mutant With a Thiol-Mediated Component And Increased Arsenic Tolerance in PhyA Mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, D.Y.; Lee, D.; Harris, H.; Raab, A.; Feldmann, J.; Meharg, A.; Kumabe, B.; Komives, E.A.; Schroeder, J.I.; /SLAC, SSRL /Sydney U. /Aberdeen U. /UC, San Diego

    2007-04-06

    A genetic screen was performed to isolate mutants showing increased arsenic tolerance using an Arabidopsis thaliana population of activation tagged lines. The most arsenic-resistant mutant shows increased arsenate and arsenite tolerance. Genetic analyses of the mutant indicate that the mutant contains two loci that contribute to arsenic tolerance, designated ars4 and ars5. The ars4ars5 double mutant contains a single T-DNA insertion, ars4, which co-segregates with arsenic tolerance and is inserted in the Phytochrome A (PHYA) gene, strongly reducing the expression of PHYA. When grown under far-red light conditions ars4ars5 shows the same elongated hypocotyl phenotype as the previously described strong phyA-211 allele. Three independent phyA alleles, ars4, phyA-211 and a new T-DNA insertion allele (phyA-t) show increased tolerance to arsenate, although to a lesser degree than the ars4ars5 double mutant. Analyses of the ars5 single mutant show that ars5 exhibits stronger arsenic tolerance than ars4, and that ars5 is not linked to ars4. Arsenic tolerance assays with phyB-9 and phot1/phot2 mutants show that these photoreceptor mutants do not exhibit phyA-like arsenic tolerance. Fluorescence HPLC analyses show that elevated levels of phytochelatins were not detected in ars4, ars5 or ars4ars5, however increases in the thiols cysteine, gamma-glutamylcysteine and glutathione were observed. Compared with wild type, the total thiol levels in ars4, ars5 and ars4ars5 mutants were increased up to 80% with combined buthionine sulfoximine and arsenic treatments, suggesting the enhancement of mechanisms that mediate thiol synthesis in the mutants. The presented findings show that PHYA negatively regulates a pathway conferring arsenic tolerance, and that an enhanced thiol synthesis mechanism contributes to the arsenic tolerance of ars4ars5.

  15. A framework for the assessment of non-lethal weapons.

    PubMed

    Rappert, Brian

    2004-01-01

    In many government, police and military circles, attention is being given to so-called 'non-lethal' weapons as means of reducing many of the negative effects directly or indirectly associated with the use of force. Despite the purported ability of the adoption of such weaponry to lessen grounds for contention and concern, past experience suggests the need for scepticism regarding the purported benefits. Rather than relying on poorly substantiated claims, comprehensive procedures are needed to ensure the appropriateness of force options. This article outlines some of the institutional structures required for 'carefully evaluating' and 'carefully controlling' non-lethal weapons, with a discussion of the perennial tensions associated with ensuring the relative 'acceptability' of the use of force. PMID:15015546

  16. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of less-than-lethal weapons... Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. (a) The Warden may authorize the use of less-than-lethal weapons, including those containing chemical agents, only when the situation is...

  17. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons. 552.25 Section 552.25 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... agents or non-lethal weapons. The Warden may authorize the use of chemical agents or non-lethal...

  18. Inactivating Mutations in MFSD2A, Required for Omega-3 Fatty Acid Transport in Brain, Cause a Lethal Microcephaly Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Guemez-Gamboa, Alicia; Nguyen, Long N.; Yang, Hongbo; Zaki, Maha S.; Kara, Majdi; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Akizu, Naiara; Rosti, Rasim Ozgur; Rosti, Basak; Scott, Eric; Schroth, Jana; Copeland, Brett; Vaux, Keith K.; Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury; Quek, Debra Q.Y.; Wong, Bernice H.; Tan, Bryan C.; Wenk, Markus R.; Gunel, Murat; Gabriel, Stacey; Chi, Neil C.; Silver, David L.; Gleeson, Joseph G.

    2015-01-01

    Docosahexanoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant omega-3 fatty acid in brain, and although considered essential, deficiency has not been linked to disease1,2. Despite the large mass of DHA in phospholipids, the brain does not synthesize it. DHA is imported across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) through the Major Facilitator Superfamily Domain 2a (Mfsd2a)3. Mfsd2a transports DHA as well as other fatty acids in the form of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). We identify two families displaying MFSD2A mutations in conserved residues. Patients exhibited a lethal microcephaly syndrome linked to inadequate uptake of LPC lipids. The MFSD2A mutations impaired transport activity in a cell-based assay. Moreover, when expressed in mfsd2aa zebrafish morphants, mutants failed to rescue microcephaly, BBB breakdown and lethality. Our results establish a link between transport of DHA and LPCs by MFSD2A and human brain growth and function, presenting the first evidence of monogenic disease related to transport of DHA in humans. PMID:26005868

  19. Lethal and Demographic Impact of Chlorpyrifos and Spinosad on the Ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, V; Saber, M; Rafiee-Dastjerdi, H; Kamita, S G

    2015-12-01

    The appropriate use of biological agents and chemical compounds is necessary to establish successful integrated pest management (IPM) programs. Thus, the off-target effects of pesticides on biological control agents are essential considerations of IPM. In this study, the effects of lethal and sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos and spinosad on the demographic parameters of Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were assessed. Bioassays were carried out on immature and adult stages by using dipping and contact exposure of dry pesticide residue on an inert material, respectively. The lethal concentration (LC)50 values of chlorpyrifos and spinosad were 3.69 and 151.37 ppm, respectively, on the larval stage and 1.75 and 117.37 ppm, respectively, on adults. Hazard quotient (HQ) values for chlorpyrifos and spinosad were 400 and 2.2, respectively, on the larval stage and 857.14 and 2.84, respectively, on adults. A low lethal concentration (LC30) was used to assess the sublethal effects of both pesticides on the surviving females. In each treatment, 25 survivors were randomly selected and transferred into 6-cm Petri dishes. Adults were provided daily with last instars of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) as a host until all of the females died. The number of eggs laid, percent of larvae hatched, longevity, and sex ratio were recorded. Stable population growth parameters were estimated by the Jackknife method. In control, chlorpyrifos, and spinosad treatments, the intrinsic rates of increase (r m) values were 0.23, 0.10, and 0.21, respectively. The results of this study suggest a relative compatibility between spinosad use and H. hebetor. Finally, further studies should be conducted under natural conditions to verify the compatibility of spinosad with H. hebetor in IPM programs. PMID:26280986

  20. Prevention of physostigmine-induced lethality by the opioid analgesic meptazinol in the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Bottoncetti, A.; Galli, A.

    1987-01-01

    The prophylactic action of meptazinol against physostigmine- and neostigmine-induced lethality was evaluated in mice. Meptazinol proved to be effective against physostigmine (1 mg kg-1 i.p.), but not against neostigmine (0.5 mg kg-1 i.p.). The antagonism by meptazinol of physostigmine-induced poisoning was maximal when the drug was administered 15 min before physostigmine. Under these conditions the ED50 (95% confidence limits) of meptazinol was 24 (22.0-26.1) mg kg-1 s.c. A 30 mg kg-1 dose of the drug prevented lethality in 89% of the animals. The action of meptazinol was not antagonized by naloxone hydrochloride (2 mg kg-1 i.p.), injected 10 min before meptazinol. Pretreatment of mice with 30 mg kg-1 meptazinol 15 min before physostigmine (1 mg kg-1) poisoning increased brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity on average, from 8 to 31% of control values. The protection of cholinesterases against physostigmine- and neostigmine-induced inactivation was demonstrated in vitro directly on purified preparations of the enzymes using a dilution method. The ED50 values (95% confidence limits) for the protective effect of meptazinol of electric eel AChE against 1 and 3 microM physostigmine and 1 microM neostigmine were 2.6 (1.4-4.9), 9.5 (5-18) and 3 (1.6-5.7) microM, respectively, while for protection of horse serum butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) against the same inhibitors, the ED50 values were 12 (5.4-26.4), 42 (27-65.1) and 8 (3.6-17.6) microM, respectively. It is suggested that prevention of physostigmine-induced lethality by meptazinol is a consequence of its protective action on AChE in the central nervous system. PMID:3607358

  1. Mutant strains of Tetrahymena thermophila defective in thymidine kinase activity: Biochemical and genetic characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cornish, K.V.; Pearlman, R.E.

    1982-08-01

    Three mutant strains, one conditional, of Tetrahymena thermophila were defective in thymidine phosphorylating activity in vivo and in thymidine kinase activity in vitro. Nucleoside phosphotransferase activity in mutant cell extracts approached wild-type levels, suggesting that thymidine kinase is responsible for most, if not all, thymidine phosphorylation in vivo. Thymidine kinase activity in extracts of the conditional mutant strain was deficient when the cells were grown or assayed or both at the permissive temperature, implying a structural enzyme defect. Analysis of the reaction products from in vitro assays with partially purified enzymes showed that phosphorylation by thymidine kinase and nucleoside phosphotransferase occurred at the 5' position. Genetic analyses showed that the mutant phenotype was recessive and that mutations in each of the three mutant strains did not complement, suggesting allelism.

  2. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome-wide mutant screen for altered sensitivity to K1 killer toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Pagé, Nicolas; Gérard-Vincent, Manon; Ménard, Patrice; Beaulieu, Maude; Azuma, Masayuki; Dijkgraaf, Gerrit J P; Li, Huijuan; Marcoux, José; Nguyen, Thuy; Dowse, Tim; Sdicu, Anne-Marie; Bussey, Howard

    2003-01-01

    Using the set of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants individually deleted for 5718 yeast genes, we screened for altered sensitivity to the antifungal protein, K1 killer toxin, that binds to a cell wall beta-glucan receptor and subsequently forms lethal pores in the plasma membrane. Mutations in 268 genes, including 42 in genes of unknown function, had a phenotype, often mild, with 186 showing resistance and 82 hypersensitivity compared to wild type. Only 15 of these genes were previously known to cause a toxin phenotype when mutated. Mutants for 144 genes were analyzed for alkali-soluble beta-glucan levels; 63 showed alterations. Further, mutants for 118 genes with altered toxin sensitivity were screened for SDS, hygromycin B, and calcofluor white sensitivity as indicators of cell surface defects; 88 showed some additional defect. There is a markedly nonrandom functional distribution of the mutants. Many genes affect specific areas of cellular activity, including cell wall glucan and mannoprotein synthesis, secretory pathway trafficking, lipid and sterol biosynthesis, and cell surface signal transduction, and offer new insights into these processes and their integration. PMID:12663529

  3. Systematic Triple Mutant Analysis Uncovers Functional Connectivity Between Pathways Involved in Chromosome Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Haber, James E.; Braberg, Hannes; Wu, Qiuqin; Alexander, Richard; Haase, Julian; Ryan, Colm; Lipkin-Moore, Zach; Franks-Skiba, Kathleen E.; Johnson, Tasha; Shales, Michael; Lenstra, Tineke L.; Holstege, Frank C. P.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Bloom, Kerry; Krogan, Nevan J.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic interactions reveal the functional relationships between pairs of genes. In this study, we describe a method for the systematic generation and quantitation of triple mutants, termed Triple Mutant Analysis (TMA). We have used this approach to interrogate partially redundant pairs of genes in S. cerevisiae, including ASF1 and CAC1, two histone chaperones. After subjecting asf1Δ cac1Δ to TMA, we found that the Swi/Snf Rdh54 protein, compensates for the absence of Asf1 and Cac1. Rdh54 more strongly associates with the chromatin apparatus and the pericentromeric region in the double mutant. Moreover, Asf1 is responsible for the synthetic lethality observed in cac1Δ strains lacking the HIRA-like proteins. A similar TMA was carried out after deleting both CLB5 and CLB6, cyclins that regulate DNA replication, revealing a strong functional connection to chromosome segregation. This approach can reveal functional redundancies that cannot be uncovered using traditional double mutant analyses. PMID:23746449

  4. Towards an informative mutant phenotype for every bacterial gene

    SciTech Connect

    Deutschbauer, Adam; Price, Morgan N.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Tarjan, Daniel R.; Xu, Zhuchen; Shao, Wenjen; Leon, Dacia; Arkin, Adam P.; Skerker, Jeffrey M.

    2014-08-11

    Mutant phenotypes provide strong clues to the functions of the underlying genes and could allow annotation of the millions of sequenced yet uncharacterized bacterial genes. However, it is not known how many genes have a phenotype under laboratory conditions, how many phenotypes are biologically interpretable for predicting gene function, and what experimental conditions are optimal to maximize the number of genes with a phenotype. To address these issues, we measured the mutant fitness of 1,586 genes of the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 across 492 diverse experiments and found statistically significant phenotypes for 89% of all assayed genes. Thus, in Z. mobilis, most genes have a functional consequence under laboratory conditions. We demonstrate that 41% of Z. mobilis genes have both a strong phenotype and a similar fitness pattern (cofitness) to another gene, and are therefore good candidates for functional annotation using mutant fitness. Among 502 poorly characterized Z. mobilis genes, we identified a significant cofitness relationship for 174. For 57 of these genes without a specific functional annotation, we found additional evidence to support the biological significance of these gene-gene associations, and in 33 instances, we were able to predict specific physiological or biochemical roles for the poorly characterized genes. Last, we identified a set of 79 diverse mutant fitness experiments in Z. mobilis that are nearly as biologically informative as the entire set of 492 experiments. Therefore, our work provides a blueprint for the functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness.

  5. Towards an informative mutant phenotype for every bacterial gene

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Deutschbauer, Adam; Price, Morgan N.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Tarjan, Daniel R.; Xu, Zhuchen; Shao, Wenjen; Leon, Dacia; Arkin, Adam P.; Skerker, Jeffrey M.

    2014-08-11

    Mutant phenotypes provide strong clues to the functions of the underlying genes and could allow annotation of the millions of sequenced yet uncharacterized bacterial genes. However, it is not known how many genes have a phenotype under laboratory conditions, how many phenotypes are biologically interpretable for predicting gene function, and what experimental conditions are optimal to maximize the number of genes with a phenotype. To address these issues, we measured the mutant fitness of 1,586 genes of the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 across 492 diverse experiments and found statistically significant phenotypes for 89% of all assayed genes. Thus, inmore » Z. mobilis, most genes have a functional consequence under laboratory conditions. We demonstrate that 41% of Z. mobilis genes have both a strong phenotype and a similar fitness pattern (cofitness) to another gene, and are therefore good candidates for functional annotation using mutant fitness. Among 502 poorly characterized Z. mobilis genes, we identified a significant cofitness relationship for 174. For 57 of these genes without a specific functional annotation, we found additional evidence to support the biological significance of these gene-gene associations, and in 33 instances, we were able to predict specific physiological or biochemical roles for the poorly characterized genes. Last, we identified a set of 79 diverse mutant fitness experiments in Z. mobilis that are nearly as biologically informative as the entire set of 492 experiments. Therefore, our work provides a blueprint for the functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness.« less

  6. A residue substitution in the plastid ribosomal protein L12/AL1 produces defective plastid ribosome and causes early seedling lethality in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Chang-Quan; Li, Qian-Feng; Yang, Qing-Qing; Gu, Ming-Hong; Liu, Qiao-Quan

    2016-05-01

    The plastid ribosome is essential for chloroplast biogenesis as well as seedling formation. As the plastid ribosome closely resembles the prokaryotic 70S ribosome, many plastid ribosomal proteins (PRPs) have been identified in higher plants. However, their assembly in the chloroplast ribosome in rice remains unclear. In the present study, we identified a novel rice mutant, albino lethal 1 (al1), from a chromosome segment substitution line population. The al1 mutant displayed an albino phenotype at the seedling stage and did not survive past the three-leaf stage. No other apparent differences in plant morphology were observed in the al1 mutant. The albino phenotype of the al1 mutant was associated with decreased chlorophyll content and abnormal chloroplast morphology. Using fine mapping, AL1 was shown to encode the PRPL12, a protein localized in the chloroplasts of rice, and a spontaneous single-nucleotide mutation (C/T), resulting in a residue substitution from leucine in AL1 to phenylalanine in al1, was found to be responsible for the early seedling lethality. This point mutation is located at the L10 interface feature of the L12/AL1 protein. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that there was no physical interaction between al1 and PRPL10. In addition, the mutation had little effect on the transcript abundance of al1, but had a remarkable effect on the protein abundance of al1 and transcript abundance of chloroplast biogenesis-related and photosynthesis-related genes. These results provide a first glimpse into the molecular details of L12's function in rice. PMID:26873698

  7. Intraguild relationships between sympatric predators exposed to lethal control: predator manipulation experiments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Terrestrial top-predators are expected to regulate and stabilise food webs through their consumptive and non-consumptive effects on sympatric mesopredators and prey. The lethal control of top-predators has therefore been predicted to inhibit top-predator function, generate the release of mesopredators and indirectly harm native fauna through trophic cascade effects. Understanding the outcomes of lethal control on interactions within terrestrial predator guilds is important for zoologists, conservation biologists and wildlife managers. However, few studies have the capacity to test these predictions experimentally, and no such studies have previously been conducted on the eclectic suite of native and exotic, mammalian and reptilian taxa we simultaneously assess. We conducted a series of landscape-scale, multi-year, manipulative experiments at nine sites spanning five ecosystem types across the Australian continental rangelands to investigate the responses of mesopredators (red foxes, feral cats and goannas) to contemporary poison-baiting programs intended to control top-predators (dingoes) for livestock protection. Result Short-term behavioural releases of mesopredators were not apparent, and in almost all cases, the three mesopredators we assessed were in similar or greater abundance in unbaited areas relative to baited areas, with mesopredator abundance trends typically either uncorrelated or positively correlated with top-predator abundance trends over time. The exotic mammals and native reptile we assessed responded similarly (poorly) to top-predator population manipulation. This is because poison baits were taken by multiple target and non-target predators and top-predator populations quickly recovered to pre-control levels, thus reducing the overall impact of baiting on top-predators and averting a trophic cascade. Conclusions These results are in accord with other predator manipulation experiments conducted worldwide, and suggest that Australian populations of native prey fauna at lower trophic levels are unlikely to be negatively affected by contemporary dingo control practices through the release of mesopredators. We conclude that contemporary lethal control practices used on some top-predator populations do not produce the conditions required to generate positive responses from mesopredators. Functional relationships between sympatric terrestrial predators may not be altered by exposure to spatially and temporally sporadic application of non-selective lethal control. PMID:23842144

  8. Intraguild relationships between sympatric predators exposed to lethal control: predator manipulation experiments.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Allen BL; Allen LR; Engeman RM; Leung LK

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Terrestrial top-predators are expected to regulate and stabilise food webs through their consumptive and non-consumptive effects on sympatric mesopredators and prey. The lethal control of top-predators has therefore been predicted to inhibit top-predator function, generate the release of mesopredators and indirectly harm native fauna through trophic cascade effects. Understanding the outcomes of lethal control on interactions within terrestrial predator guilds is important for zoologists, conservation biologists and wildlife managers. However, few studies have the capacity to test these predictions experimentally, and no such studies have previously been conducted on the eclectic suite of native and exotic, mammalian and reptilian taxa we simultaneously assess. We conducted a series of landscape-scale, multi-year, manipulative experiments at nine sites spanning five ecosystem types across the Australian continental rangelands to investigate the responses of mesopredators (red foxes, feral cats and goannas) to contemporary poison-baiting programs intended to control top-predators (dingoes) for livestock protection.RESULT: Short-term behavioural releases of mesopredators were not apparent, and in almost all cases, the three mesopredators we assessed were in similar or greater abundance in unbaited areas relative to baited areas, with mesopredator abundance trends typically either uncorrelated or positively correlated with top-predator abundance trends over time. The exotic mammals and native reptile we assessed responded similarly (poorly) to top-predator population manipulation. This is because poison baits were taken by multiple target and non-target predators and top-predator populations quickly recovered to pre-control levels, thus reducing the overall impact of baiting on top-predators and averting a trophic cascade.CONCLUSIONS: These results are in accord with other predator manipulation experiments conducted worldwide, and suggest that Australian populations of native prey fauna at lower trophic levels are unlikely to be negatively affected by contemporary dingo control practices through the release of mesopredators. We conclude that contemporary lethal control practices used on some top-predator populations do not produce the conditions required to generate positive responses from mesopredators. Functional relationships between sympatric terrestrial predators may not be altered by exposure to spatially and temporally sporadic application of non-selective lethal control.

  9. Characterization of the secA gene of Streptomyces lividans encoding a protein translocase which complements and Escherichia coli mutant defective in the ATPase activity of SecA.

    PubMed

    Blanco, J; Coque, J J; Martín, J F

    1996-10-17

    The secA gene of Streptomyces lividans was cloned using as probe a 57-mer oligonucleotide based on conserved sequences of the Escherichia coli secA and the Bacillus subtilis div genes. It encodes a protein of 946 amino acids (aa) with a deduced M(r) of 106,079, with high similarity to all known SecA proteins. All the previously described conserved motifs of SecA proteins were conserved in the S. lividans protein. The secA gene of S. lividans restored sensitivity to sodium azide in E. coli SecA4 (AzR) a mutant with an azide-resistant (ATPase defective) SecA protein. However, it did not complement the temperature-sensitive mutation in E. coli MM52 (SecAts) (a conditional lethal mutant defective in protein translocation) allowing only poor growth at the nonpermissive temperature. secA homologous sequences were present in 11 different species of Streptomyces and Nocardia. PMID:8918233

  10. New Infestin-4 Mutants with Increased Selectivity against Factor XIIa

    PubMed Central

    Vuimo, Tatiana A.; Surov, Stepan S.; Ovsepyan, Ruzanna A.; Korneeva, Vera A.; Vorobiev, Ivan I.; Orlova, Nadezhda A.; Minakhin, Leonid; Kuznedelov, Konstantin; Severinov, Konstantin V.; Ataullakhanov, Fazoil I.; Panteleev, Mikhail A.

    2015-01-01

    Factor XIIa (fXIIa) is a serine protease that triggers the coagulation contact pathway and plays a role in thrombosis. Because it interferes with coagulation testing, the need to inhibit fXIIa exists in many cases. Infestin-4 (Inf4) is a Kazal-type inhibitor of fXIIa. Its specificity for fXIIa can be enhanced by point mutations in the protease-binding loop. We attempted to adapt Inf4 for the selective repression of the contact pathway under various in vitro conditions, e.g., during blood collection and in ‘global’ assays of tissue factor (TF)-dependent coagulation. First, we designed a set of new Inf4 mutants that, in contrast to wt-Inf4, had stabilized canonical conformations during molecular dynamics simulation. Off-target activities against factor Xa (fXa), plasmin, and other coagulation proteases were either reduced or eliminated in these recombinant mutants, as demonstrated by chromogenic assays. Interactions with fXIIa and fXa were also analyzed using protein-protein docking. Next, Mutant B, one of the most potent mutants (its Ki for fXIIa is 0.7 nM) was tested in plasma. At concentrations 5–20 μM, this mutant delayed the contact-activated generation of thrombin, as well as clotting in thromboelastography and thrombodynamics assays. In these assays, Mutant B did not affect coagulation initiated by TF, thus demonstrating sufficient selectivity and its potential practical significance as a reagent for coagulation diagnostics. PMID:26670620

  11. Analysis of mutant quantity and quality in human-hamster hybrid AL and AL-179 cells exposed to 137Cs-gamma or HZE-Fe ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldren, C.; Vannais, D.; Drabek, R.; Gustafson, D.; Kraemer, S.; Lenarczyk, M.; Kronenberg, A.; Hei, T.; Ueno, A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    We measured the number of mutants and the kinds of mutations induced by 137Cs-gamma and by HZE-Fe (56Fe [600 MeV/amu, LET = 190 KeV/micrometer) in standard AL human hamster hybrid cells and in a new variant hybrid, AL-179. We found that HZE-Fe was more mutagenic than 137Cs-gamma per unit dose (about 1.6 fold), but was slightly less mutagenic per mean lethal dose, DO, at both the S1 and hprt- loci of AL cells. On the other hand, HZE-Fe induced about nine fold more complex S1- mutants than 137Cs-gamma rays, 28% vs 3%. 137Cs-gamma rays induced about twice as many S1- mutants and hprt-mutants in AL-179 as in AL cells, and about nine times more of the former were complex, and potentially unstable kinds of mutations.

  12. Analyzing the control of mosquito-borne diseases by a dominant lethal genetic system

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Michael P.; Su, Zheng; Alphey, Nina; Alphey, Luke S.; Coleman, Paul G.; Wein, Lawrence M.

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the failure of current methods to control dengue fever, we formulate a mathematical model to assess the impact on the spread of a mosquito-borne viral disease of a strategy that releases adult male insects homozygous for a dominant, repressible, lethal genetic trait. A dynamic model for the female adult mosquito population, which incorporates the competition for female mating between released mosquitoes and wild mosquitoes, density-dependent competition during the larval stage, and realization of the lethal trait either before or after the larval stage, is embedded into a susceptible–exposed–infectious–susceptible human-vector epidemic model for the spread of the disease. For the special case in which the number of released mosquitoes is maintained in a fixed proportion to the number of adult female mosquitoes at each point in time, we derive mathematical formulas for the disease eradication condition and the approximate number of released mosquitoes necessary for eradication. Numerical results using data for dengue fever suggest that the proportional policy outperforms a release policy in which the released mosquito population is held constant, and that eradication in ≈1 year is feasible for affected human populations on the order of 105 to 106, although the logistical considerations are daunting. We also construct a policy that achieves an exponential decay in the female mosquito population; this policy releases approximately the same number of mosquitoes as the proportional policy but achieves eradication nearly twice as fast. PMID:17519336

  13. Survival of Escherichia coli under lethal heat stress by L-form conversion

    PubMed Central

    Markova, Nadya; Slavchev, Georgi; Michailova, Lilia; Jourdanova, Mimi

    2010-01-01

    Transition of bacteria to cell wall deficient L-forms in response to stress factors has been assumed as a potential mechanism for survival of microbes under unfavorable conditions. In this article, we provide evidence of paradoxal survival through L-form conversion of E. coli high cell density population after lethal treatments (boiling or autoclaving). Light and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated conversion from classical rod to polymorphic L-form shape morphology and atypical growths of E. coli. Microcrystal formations observed at this stage were interpreted as being closely linked to the processes of L-form conversion and probably involved in the general phenomenon of protection against lethal environment. Identity of the morphologically modified L-forms as E. coli was verified by species specific DNA-based test. Our study might contribute to a better understanding of the L-form phenomenon and its importance for bacterial survival, as well as provoke reexamination of the traditional view of killing strategies against bacteria. PMID:20582223

  14. [Bladder tumor lethality. Results in the autonomous community of Rioja between 1975-1991].

    PubMed

    Fernández Fernández, A; Gil Fabra, J; Fernández Ruíz, M; Angulo Castellanos, M G; Blanco Martín, E; Otero Mauricio, G

    1998-01-01

    Between 1975-1991, a total of 557 cases of bladder carcinoma were identified in the Autonomous Community of La Rioja (CAR) which were followed up to December 1994. The overall lethality was 21.9%. 492 cases with 22.35% lethality were identified in males. In females, however, there was 65 cases with 18.46% lethality. The comparison of males and females lethality resulted in p = 0.525. Lethality between cases diagnosed within each 5-year period analyzed is: 1975-1981: 177 cases, lethality 23.72%. 1982-1986: 168 cases, lethality 30.95%. 1987-1991: 212 cases, lethality 13.20%. Between the first and the second 5-year periods, p = 0.132; between the first and third 5-year periods p = 0.007 and between the second and third 5-year periods p < 0.000. Bladder tumours accounts in CAR for a 22.35% lethality. Lethality is higher in males that in females but the difference is not statistically significant. In the last 5-year period assessed, 1987-1991, a reduction of lethality from bladder neoplasms has been documented. PMID:9807870

  15. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) coupling codes for use with the vulnerability/lethality (VIL) taxonomy. Final report, June-October 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Mar, M.H.

    1995-07-01

    Based on the vulnerability Lethality (V/L) taxonomy developed by the Ballistic Vulnerability Lethality Division (BVLD) of the Survivability Lethality Analysis Directorate (SLAD), a nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) coupling V/L analysis taxonomy has been developed. A nuclear EMP threat to a military system can be divided into two levels: (1) coupling to a system level through a cable, antenna, or aperture; and (2) the component level. This report will focus on the initial condition, which includes threat definition and target description, as well as the mapping process from the initial condition to damaged components state. EMP coupling analysis at a system level is used to accomplish this. This report introduces the nature of EMP threat, interaction between the threat and target, and how the output of EMP coupling analysis at a system level becomes the input to the component level analysis. Many different tools (EMP coupling codes) will be discussed for the mapping process, which correponds to the physics of phenomenology. This EMP coupling V/L taxonomy and the models identified in this report will provide the tools necessary to conduct basic V/L analysis of EMP coupling.

  16. Identifying representative drug resistant mutants of HIV

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Drug resistance is one of the most important causes for failure of anti-AIDS treatment. During therapy, multiple mutations accumulate in the HIV genome, eventually rendering the drugs ineffective in blocking replication of the mutant virus. The huge number of possible mutants precludes experimental analysis to explore the molecular mechanisms of resistance and develop improved antiviral drugs. Results In order to solve this problem, we have developed a new algorithm to reveal the most representative mutants from the whole drug resistant mutant database based on our newly proposed unified protein sequence and 3D structure encoding method. Mean shift clustering and multiple regression analysis were applied on genotype-resistance data for mutants of HIV protease and reverse transcriptase. This approach successfully chooses less than 100 mutants with the highest resistance to each drug out of about 10K in the whole database. When considering high level resistance to multiple drugs, the numbers reduce to one or two representative mutants. Conclusion This approach for predicting the most representative mutants for each drug has major importance for experimental verification since the results provide a small number of representative sequences, which will be amenable for in vitro testing and characterization of the expressed mutant proteins. PMID:26678327

  17. rfaP mutants of Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Helander, I M; Vaara, M; Sukupolvi, S; Rhen, M; Saarela, S; Zhringer, U; Mkel, P H

    1989-11-20

    Salmonella typhimurium rfaP mutants were isolated and characterised with respect to their sensitivity towards hydrophobic antibiotics and detergents, and their lipopolysaccharides were chemically analysed. The rfaP mutants were selected after diethylsulfate mutagenesis or as spontaneous mutants. The mutation in two independent mutants SH7770 (line LT2) and SH8551 (line TML) was mapped by cotransduction with cysE to the rfa locus. The mutants were sensitive to hydrophobic antibiotics (clindamycin, erythromycin and novobiocin) and detergents (benzalkoniumchloride and sodium dodecyl sulfate). Analysis of their lipopolysaccharides by chemical methods and by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that their saccharide portion was, to a large extent, of chemotype Rc with small proportions of material containing a more complete core oligosaccharide and O-specific chains. Only 2.5 mol phosphate/mol lipopolysaccharide was found whereas the phosphate content of the lipopolysaccharide of a galE mutant strain was 4.8 mol. Thus the rfaP mutant lipopolysaccharides lacked more than two phosphate residues. Assessment of the location of phosphate groups in rfaP lipopolysaccharides revealed the presence of at least 2 mol phosphate in lipid A, indicating that the core oligosaccharide was almost devoid of phosphate. The chemical, physiological and genetic data obtained for these mutants are in full agreement with those reported earlier for rfaP mutants of Salmonella minnesota. PMID:2686988

  18. Yeast mutant defective in phosphatidylcholine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M L; Klig, L S; Letts, V A; Loewy, B S; Henry, S A

    1983-02-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae opi3-3 mutant was shown to be defective in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine via methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine. The opi3-3 mutant was isolated on the basis of an inositol excretion phenotype and was not auxotrophic for choline. Inositol, but not choline, stimulated growth of the mutant. The opi3-3 mutation was recessive and was genetically linked to the ino4 locus. When grown in the absence of exogenous choline, the opi3-3 mutant had a phospholipid composition consisting of 2 to 3% phosphatidylcholine compared with 40 to 50% in wild-type strains. In addition, the mutant accumulated elevated amounts of two intermediates, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine and phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine. The incorporation of label from [methyl-14C]methionine into phosphatidylcholine was reduced 80 to 90% in the mutant compared with wild-type strains. However, label was recovered in the intermediates phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine and phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine. The mutant is believed to be defective in the third and possibly the second methylation reaction in the formation of phosphatidylcholine from phosphatidylethanolamine. The first methylation reaction appeared to be occurring at normal or even elevated levels. Based upon incorporation of choline into phosphatidylcholine, it is concluded that the opi3-3 mutant has no defect in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine from exogenous choline. Furthermore, phosphatidylcholine represents over 25% of the phospholipid composition of the mutant when it is grown in the presence of exogenous choline. PMID:6337128

  19. Abnormal lignin in a loblolly pine mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph, J.; MacKay, J.J.; Hatfield, R.D.

    1997-07-11

    Novel lignin is formed in a mutant loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) severely depleted in cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.195), which converts coniferaldehyde to coniferyl alcohol, the primary lignin precursor in pines. Dihydroconiferyl alcohol, a monomer not normally associated with the lignin biosynthetic pathway, is the major component of the mutant`s lignin, accounting for {approximately}30 percent (versus {approximately}3 percent in normal pine) of the units. The level of aldehydes, including new 2-methoxybenzaldehydes, is also increased. The mutant pines grew normally indicating that, even within a species, extensive variations in lignin composition need not disrupt the essential functions of lignin.

  20. The lethality test used for estimating the potency of antivenoms against Bothrops asper snake venom: pathophysiological mechanisms, prophylactic analgesia, and a surrogate in vitro assay.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Francisco; Oviedo, Andrea; Escalante, Teresa; Solano, Gabriela; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José María

    2015-01-01

    The potency of antivenoms is assessed by analyzing the neutralization of venom-induced lethality, and is expressed as the Median Effective Dose (ED50). The present study was designed to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for lethality induced by the venom of Bothrops asper, in the experimental conditions used for the evaluation of the neutralizing potency of antivenoms. Mice injected with 4 LD50s of venom by the intraperitoneal route died within ∼25 min with drastic alterations in the abdominal organs, characterized by hemorrhage, increment in plasma extravasation, and hemoconcentration, thus leading to hypovolemia and cardiovascular collapse. Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) play a predominat role in lethality, as judged by partial inhibition by the chelating agent CaNa2EDTA. When venom was mixed with antivenom, there was a venom/antivenom ratio at which hemorrhage was significantly reduced, but mice died at later time intervals with evident hemoconcentration, indicating that other components in addition to SVMPs also contribute to plasma extravasation and lethality. Pretreatment with the analgesic tramadol did not affect the outcome of the neutralization test, thus suggesting that prophylactic (precautionary) analgesia can be introduced in this assay. Neutralization of lethality in mice correlated with neutralization of in vitro coagulant activity in human plasma. PMID:25447772

  1. High male: Female ratio of germ-line mutations: An alternative explanation for postulated gestational lethality in males in X-linked dominant disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.H.

    1996-06-01

    In this paper I suggest that a vastly higher rate of de novo mutations in males than in females would explain some, if not most, X-linked dominant disorders associated with a low incidence of affected males. It is the inclusion of the impact of a high ratio of male:female de novo germ-line mutations that makes this model new and unique. Specifically, it is concluded that, if an X-linked disorder results in a dominant phenotype with a significant reproductive disadvantage (genetic lethality), affected females will, in virtually all cases, arise from de novo germ-line mutations inherited from their fathers rather than from their mothers. Under this hypothesis, the absence of affected males is explained by the simple fact that sons do not inherit their X chromosome (normal or abnormal) from their fathers. Because females who are heterozygous for a dominant disorder will be clinically affected and will, in most cases, either be infertile or lack reproductive opportunities, the mutant gene will not be transmitted by them to the next generation (i.e., it will be a genetic lethal). This, not gestational lethality in males, may explain the absence of affected males in most, if not all, of the 13 known X-linked dominant diseases characterized by high ratios of affected female to male individuals. Evidence suggesting that this mechanism could explain the findings in the Rett syndrome is reviewed in detail. 34 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Salt stress-induced production of reactive oxygen- and nitrogen species and cell death in the ethylene receptor mutant Never ripe and wild type tomato roots.

    PubMed

    Poór, Péter; Kovács, Judit; Borbély, Péter; Takács, Zoltán; Szepesi, Ágnes; Tari, Irma

    2015-12-01

    The salt stress triggered by sublethal, 100 mM and lethal, 250 mM NaCl induced ethylene production as well as rapid accumulation of superoxide radical and H2O2 in the root tips of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Ailsa Craig) wild type and ethylene receptor mutant, Never ripe (Nr/Nr) plants. In the wild type plants superoxide accumulation confined to lethal salt concentration while H2O2 accumulated more efficiently under sublethal salt stress. However, in Nr roots the superoxide production was higher and unexpectedly, H2O2 level was lower than in the wild type under sublethal salt stress. Nitric oxide production increased significantly under sublethal and lethal salt stress in both genotypes especially in mutant plants, while peroxynitrite accumulated significantly under lethal salt stress. Thus, the nitro-oxidative stress may be stronger in Nr roots, which leads to the programmed death of tissues, characterized by the DNA and protein degradation and loss of cell viability under moderate salt stress. In Nr mutants the cell death was induced in the absence of ethylene perception. Although wild type roots could maintain their potassium content under moderate salt stress, K(+) level significantly declined leading to small K(+)/Na(+) ratio in Nr roots. Thus Nr mutants were more sensitive to salt stress than the wild type and the viability of root cells decreased significantly under moderate salt stress. These changes can be attributed to a stronger ionic stress due to the K(+) loss from the root tissues. PMID:26512971

  3. The mutational landscape of lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Catherine S; Wu, Yi-Mi; Robinson, Dan R; Cao, Xuhong; Dhanasekaran, Saravana M; Khan, Amjad P; Quist, Michael J; Jing, Xiaojun; Lonigro, Robert J; Brenner, J Chad; Asangani, Irfan A; Ateeq, Bushra; Chun, Sang Y; Siddiqui, Javed; Sam, Lee; Anstett, Matt; Mehra, Rohit; Prensner, John R; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Ryslik, Gregory A; Vandin, Fabio; Raphael, Benjamin J; Kunju, Lakshmi P; Rhodes, Daniel R; Pienta, Kenneth J; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Tomlins, Scott A

    2012-07-12

    Characterization of the prostate cancer transcriptome and genome has identified chromosomal rearrangements and copy number gains and losses, including ETS gene family fusions, PTEN loss and androgen receptor (AR) amplification, which drive prostate cancer development and progression to lethal, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, less is known about the role of mutations. Here we sequenced the exomes of 50 lethal, heavily pre-treated metastatic CRPCs obtained at rapid autopsy (including three different foci from the same patient) and 11 treatment-naive, high-grade localized prostate cancers. We identified low overall mutation rates even in heavily treated CRPCs (2.00 per megabase) and confirmed the monoclonal origin of lethal CRPC. Integrating exome copy number analysis identified disruptions of CHD1 that define a subtype of ETS gene family fusion-negative prostate cancer. Similarly, we demonstrate that ETS2, which is deleted in approximately one-third of CRPCs (commonly through TMPRSS2:ERG fusions), is also deregulated through mutation. Furthermore, we identified recurrent mutations in multiple chromatin- and histone-modifying genes, including MLL2 (mutated in 8.6% of prostate cancers), and demonstrate interaction of the MLL complex with the AR, which is required for AR-mediated signalling. We also identified novel recurrent mutations in the AR collaborating factor FOXA1, which is mutated in 5 of 147 (3.4%) prostate cancers (both untreated localized prostate cancer and CRPC), and showed that mutated FOXA1 represses androgen signalling and increases tumour growth. Proteins that physically interact with the AR, such as the ERG gene fusion product, FOXA1, MLL2, UTX (also known as KDM6A) and ASXL1 were found to be mutated in CRPC. In summary, we describe the mutational landscape of a heavily treated metastatic cancer, identify novel mechanisms of AR signalling deregulated in prostate cancer, and prioritize candidates for future study. PMID:22722839

  4. 5-Lipoxygenase Deficiency Reduces Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Hohmann, Miriam S. N.; Cardoso, Renato D. R.; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A.; Crespigio, Jefferson; Cunha, Thiago M.; Alves-Filho, José C.; da Silva, Rosiane V.; Pinge-Filho, Phileno; Ferreira, Sergio H.; Cunha, Fernando Q.; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A.

    2013-01-01

    5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) converts arachidonic acid into leukotrienes (LTs) and is involved in inflammation. At present, the participation of 5-LO in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity and liver damage has not been addressed. 5-LO deficient (5-LO−/−) mice and background wild type mice were challenged with APAP (0.3–6 g/kg) or saline. The lethality, liver damage, neutrophil and macrophage recruitment, LTB4, cytokine production, and oxidative stress were assessed. APAP induced a dose-dependent mortality, and the dose of 3 g/kg was selected for next experiments. APAP induced LTB4 production in the liver, the primary target organ in APAP toxicity. Histopathological analysis revealed that 5-LO−/− mice presented reduced APAP-induced liver necrosis and inflammation compared with WT mice. APAP-induced lethality, increase of plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, liver cytokine (IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-10), superoxide anion, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production, myeloperoxidase and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity, Nrf2 and gp91phox mRNA expression, and decrease of reduced glutathione and antioxidant capacity measured by 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonate) assay were prevented in 5-LO−/− mice compared to WT mice. Therefore, 5-LO deficiency resulted in reduced mortality due to reduced liver inflammatory and oxidative damage, suggesting 5-LO is a promising target to reduce APAP-induced lethality and liver inflammatory/oxidative damage. PMID:24288682

  5. Preparation and characterization of cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor

    SciTech Connect

    Saebel, Crystal E.; Carbone, Ryan; Dabous, John R.; Lo, Suet Y.; Siemann, Stefan

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor (CoLF) is highly active. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CoLF can be prepared by bio-assimilation and direct exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lethal factor binds cobalt tightly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electronic spectrum of CoLF reveals penta-coordination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction of CoLF with thioglycolic acid follows a 2-step mechanism. -- Abstract: Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase involved in the cleavage of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases near their N-termini. The current report concerns the preparation of cobalt-substituted LF (CoLF) and its characterization by electronic spectroscopy. Two strategies to produce CoLF were explored, including (i) a bio-assimilation approach involving the cultivation of LF-expressing Bacillus megaterium cells in the presence of CoCl{sub 2}, and (ii) direct exchange by treatment of zinc-LF with CoCl{sub 2}. Independent of the method employed, the protein was found to contain one Co{sup 2+} per LF molecule, and was shown to be twice as active as its native zinc counterpart. The electronic spectrum of CoLF suggests the Co{sup 2+} ion to be five-coordinate, an observation similar to that reported for other Co{sup 2+}-substituted gluzincins, but distinct from that documented for the crystal structure of native LF. Furthermore, spectroscopic studies following the exposure of CoLF to thioglycolic acid (TGA) revealed a sequential mechanism of metal removal from LF, which likely involves the formation of an enzyme: Co{sup 2+}:TGA ternary complex prior to demetallation of the active site. CoLF reported herein constitutes the first spectroscopic probe of LF's active site, which may be utilized in future studies to gain further insight into the enzyme's mechanism and inhibitor interactions.

  6. Role of kit-ligand in proliferation and suppression of apoptosis in mast cells: basis for radiosensitivity of white spotting and steel mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Yee, N S; Paek, I; Besmer, P

    1994-06-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase Kit and its cognate ligand KL/steel factor are encoded at the white spotting (W) and Steel (Sl) loci of the mouse, respectively. Mutations at both the W and the Sl loci affect hematopoiesis including the stem cell hierarchy, erythropoiesis, and mast cells, as well as gametogenesis and melanogenesis. In addition, mutant mice display an increased sensitivity to lethal doses of irradiation. The role of KL/c-kit in cell proliferation and survival under conditions of growth factor-deprivation and gamma-irradiation was studied by using bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) as a model. Whereas apoptosis induced by growth factor deprivation in BMMC is a stochastic process and follows zero order kinetics, gamma-irradiation-induced apoptosis is an inductive process and follows higher order kinetics. In agreement with these results, gamma-irradiation-induced apoptosis in BMMC was shown to be dependent on p53 whereas apoptosis induced by deprivation is partly dependent on p53, implying that there are other mechanisms mediating apoptosis in KL-deprived BMMC. In the presence and in the absence of serum, KL stimulated proliferation by promoting cell cycle progression. The presence of KL was required only during the early part of the G1 phase for entry into the S phase. At concentrations lower than those required for proliferation, KL suppressed apoptosis induced by both growth factor-deprivation and gamma-irradiation, and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation characteristic of apoptosis. The ability of KL to suppress apoptosis was independent of the phase of the cell cycle in which the cells were irradiated and suppression of apoptosis was a prerequisite for subsequent cell cycle progression. Moreover, addition of KL to gamma-irradiated and growth factor-deprived cells could be delayed for up to 1 h after irradiation or removal of growth factors when cells became irreversibly committed to apoptosis. KL and IL-3 induce suppression of apoptosis in mast cells by different mechanisms based on the observations of induction of bcl-2 gene expression by IL-3 but not by KL. It is proposed that the increased sensitivity of W and Sl mutant mice to lethal irradiation results from paucity of the apoptosis suppressing and proliferative effects of KL. PMID:7515099

  7. Potent inhibitors of anthrax lethal factor from green tea

    PubMed Central

    Dell'Aica, Isabella; Donà, Massimo; Tonello, Fiorella; Piris, Alejandro; Mock, Michèle; Montecucco, Cesare; Garbisa, Spiridione

    2004-01-01

    The anthrax lethal factor (LF) has a major role in the development of anthrax. LF is delivered by the protective antigen (PA) inside the cell, where it exerts its metalloprotease activity on the N-terminus of MAPK-kinases. PA+LF are cytotoxic to macrophages in culture and kill the Fischer 344 rat when injected intravenously. We describe here the properties of some polyphenols contained in green tea as powerful inhibitors of LF metalloproteolytic activity, and how the main catechin of green tea, (−)epigallocatechin-3-gallate, prevents the LF-induced death of macrophages and Fischer 344 rats. PMID:15031715

  8. Neonatal Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase II Deficiency: A Lethal Entity

    PubMed Central

    Paldiwal, Ashutosh Abhimanyu; Korday, Charusheela Sujit; Jadhav, Shruti Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPTII) deficiency is a rare disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation with autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Three classic forms of CPT II deficiency have been described namely the lethal neonatal form, severe infantile hepatocardiomuscular form and the myopathic form. We present a three-day-old female child, admitted to us for lethargy, icterus, low sugars and convulsions. Persistent non ketotic hypoglycaemia, hyperammonemia, raised liver enzymes with hepatomegaly and cardiomyopathy led to the suspicion of fatty acid oxidation defect. Tandem mass spectrometry helped to clinch the diagnosis of CPT II Deficiency in the present case. PMID:26557586

  9. ELF fields and photooxidation yielding lethal effects on cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Traitcheva, Nelly; Angelova, Plamena; Radeva, Maria; Berg, Hermann

    2003-02-01

    The lethal effect on human cancer cells was studied under three types of treatment: A) an ELF pulsed sinusoidal of 50 Hz electromagnetic field (PEMF) with amplitudes between 10 and 55 mT; B) the field and a cytostatic agent (actinomycin-C); and C) the field, the cytostatic agent, which has a photodynamic effect, and exposure to a halogen lamp. The results show a decreasing vitality of human K-562 and U-937 cancer cells in suspension with each additional treatment. Combination with other parameters as hyperthermia and/or hyperacidity could yield high killing rates by this noninvasive method. PMID:12524682

  10. EXCALIBIR - A space experiment in orbital debris lethality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culp, Robert D.; Dickey, Michael R.

    1991-01-01

    The study proposes a space experiment using extended Space Shuttle external tanks to test the impact of orbital debris. The External Tank Calibrated Impact Response test, EXCALIBIR, is a low-cost low-risk, high-payoff approach to investigating the threat to resident space objects posed by untrackable orbital debris, to provide lethality data to the kinetic energy weapons community, and to aid in the testing of space and missile interceptor technology. This experiment is a feasible use of existing assets - the external tank, observation and data collection facilities, launch facilities, and interceptor technology and tests planned for other programs.

  11. Xenopus mutant reveals necessity of rax for specifying the eye field which otherwise forms tissue with telencephalic and diencephalic character

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Marilyn; Hirsch, Nicolas; Cox, Amanda; Reeder, Rollin; Carruthers, Samantha; Hall, Amanda; Stemple, Derek L.; Grainger, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The retinal anterior homeobox (rax) gene encodes a transcription factor necessary for vertebrate eye development. rax transcription is initiated at the end of gastrulation in Xenopus, and is a key part of the regulatory network specifying anterior neural plate and retina. We describe here a Xenopus tropicalis rax mutant, the first mutant analyzed in detail from a reverse genetic screen. As in other vertebrates, this nonsense mutation results in eyeless animals, and is lethal peri-metamorphosis. Tissue normally fated to form retina in these mutants instead forms tissue with characteristics of diencephalon and telencephalon. This implies that a key role of rax, in addition to defining the eye field, is in preventing alternative forebrain identities. Our data highlight that brain and retina regions are not determined by the mid-gastrula stage but are by the neural plate stage. An RNA-Seq analysis and in situ hybridization assays for early gene expression in the mutant revealed that several key eye field transcription factors (e.g. pax6, lhx2 and six6) are not dependent on rax activity through neurulation. However, these analyses identified other genes either up- or down-regulated in mutant presumptive retinal tissue. Two neural patterning genes of particular interest that appear up-regulated in the rax mutant RNA-seq analysis are hesx1 and fezf2. These genes were not previously known to be regulated by rax. The normal function of rax is to partially repress their expression by an indirect mechanism in the presumptive retina region in wildtype embryos, thus accounting for the apparent up-regulation in the rax mutant. Knock-down experiments using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides directed against hesx1 and fezf2 show that failure to repress these two genes contributes to transformation of presumptive retinal tissue into non-retinal forebrain identities in the rax mutant. PMID:25224223

  12. Mutant IDH is sufficient to initiate enchondromatosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Makoto; Sasaki, Masato; Cairns, Rob A; Inoue, Satoshi; Puviindran, Vijitha; Li, Wanda Y; Snow, Bryan E; Jones, Lisa D; Wei, Qingxia; Sato, Shingo; Tang, Yuning J; Nadesan, Puviindran; Rockel, Jason; Whetstone, Heather; Poon, Raymond; Weng, Angela; Gross, Stefan; Straley, Kimberly; Gliser, Camelia; Xu, Yingxia; Wunder, Jay; Mak, Tak W; Alman, Benjamin A

    2015-03-01

    Enchondromas are benign cartilage tumors and precursors to malignant chondrosarcomas. Somatic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase genes (IDH1 and IDH2) are present in the majority of these tumor types. How these mutations cause enchondromas is unclear. Here, we identified the spectrum of IDH mutations in human enchondromas and chondrosarcomas and studied their effects in mice. A broad range of mutations was identified, including the previously unreported IDH1-R132Q mutation. These mutations harbored enzymatic activity to catalyze α-ketoglutarate to d-2-hydroxyglutarate (d-2HG). Mice expressing Idh1-R132Q in one allele in cells expressing type 2 collagen showed a disordered growth plate, with persistence of type X-expressing chondrocytes. Chondrocyte cell cultures from these animals or controls showed that there was an increase in proliferation and expression of genes characteristic of hypertrophic chondrocytes with expression of Idh1-R132Q or 2HG treatment. Col2a1-Cre;Idh1-R132Q mutant knock-in mice (mutant allele expressed in chondrocytes) did not survive after the neonatal stage. Col2a1-Cre/ERT2;Idh1-R132 mutant conditional knock-in mice, in which Cre was induced by tamoxifen after weaning, developed multiple enchondroma-like lesions. Taken together, these data show that mutant IDH or d-2HG causes persistence of chondrocytes, giving rise to rests of growth-plate cells that persist in the bone as enchondromas. PMID:25730874

  13. Mutant IDH is sufficient to initiate enchondromatosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Makoto; Sasaki, Masato; Cairns, Rob A.; Inoue, Satoshi; Puviindran, Vijitha; Li, Wanda Y.; Snow, Bryan E.; Jones, Lisa D.; Wei, Qingxia; Sato, Shingo; Tang, Yuning J.; Nadesan, Puviindran; Rockel, Jason; Whetstone, Heather; Poon, Raymond; Weng, Angela; Gross, Stefan; Straley, Kimberly; Gliser, Camelia; Xu, Yingxia; Wunder, Jay; Mak, Tak W.; Alman, Benjamin A.

    2015-01-01

    Enchondromas are benign cartilage tumors and precursors to malignant chondrosarcomas. Somatic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase genes (IDH1 and IDH2) are present in the majority of these tumor types. How these mutations cause enchondromas is unclear. Here, we identified the spectrum of IDH mutations in human enchondromas and chondrosarcomas and studied their effects in mice. A broad range of mutations was identified, including the previously unreported IDH1-R132Q mutation. These mutations harbored enzymatic activity to catalyze α-ketoglutarate to d-2-hydroxyglutarate (d-2HG). Mice expressing Idh1-R132Q in one allele in cells expressing type 2 collagen showed a disordered growth plate, with persistence of type X-expressing chondrocytes. Chondrocyte cell cultures from these animals or controls showed that there was an increase in proliferation and expression of genes characteristic of hypertrophic chondrocytes with expression of Idh1-R132Q or 2HG treatment. Col2a1-Cre;Idh1-R132Q mutant knock-in mice (mutant allele expressed in chondrocytes) did not survive after the neonatal stage. Col2a1-Cre/ERT2;Idh1-R132 mutant conditional knock-in mice, in which Cre was induced by tamoxifen after weaning, developed multiple enchondroma-like lesions. Taken together, these data show that mutant IDH or d-2HG causes persistence of chondrocytes, giving rise to rests of growth-plate cells that persist in the bone as enchondromas. PMID:25730874

  14. Francisella tularensis tmRNA System Mutants are Vulnerable to Stress, Avirulent in Mice, and Provide Effective Immune Protections

    PubMed Central

    Svetlanov, Anton; Puri, Neha; Mena, Patricio; Koller, Antonius; Karzai, A. Wali

    2012-01-01

    Through targeted inactivation of the ssrA and smpB genes, we establish that the trans-translation process is necessary for normal growth, adaptation to cellular stress, and virulence by the bacterial pathogen Francisella tularensis. The mutant bacteria grow slower, have reduced resistance to heat and cold shocks, and are more sensitive to oxidative stress and sub-lethal concentrations of antibiotics. Modifications of the tmRNA tag and use of higher resolution mass spectrometry approaches enabled the identification of a large number of native tmRNA substrates. Of particular significance to understanding the mechanism of trans-translation, we report the discovery of an extended tmRNA tag and extensive ladder-like pattern of endogenous protein tagging events in F. tularensis that are likely to be a universal feature of tmRNA activity in eubacteria. Furthermore, the structural integrity and the proteolytic function of the tmRNA tag are both crucial for normal growth and virulence of F. tularensis. Significantly, trans-translation mutants of F. tularensis are impaired in replication within macrophages and are avirulent in mouse models of tularemia. By exploiting these attenuated phenotypes, we find that the mutant strains provide effective immune protection in mice against lethal intradermal, peritoneal, and intranasal challenges with the fully virulent parental strain. PMID:22571636

  15. Transposon Insertions Causing Constitutive Sex-Lethal Activity in Drosophila Melanogaster Affect Sxl Sex-Specific Transcript Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, M.; Lersch, R. A.; Subrahmanyan, L.; Cline, T. W.

    1995-01-01

    Sex-lethal (Sxl) gene products induce female development in Drosophila melanogaster and suppress the transcriptional hyperactivation of X-linked genes responsible for male X-chromosome dosage compensation. Control of Sxl functioning by the dose of X-chromosomes normally ensures that the female-specific functions of this developmental switch gene are only expressed in diplo-X individuals. Although the immediate effect of X-chromosome dose is on Sxl transcription, during most of the life cycle ``on'' vs. ``off'' reflects alternative Sxl RNA splicing, with the female (productive) splicing mode maintained by a positive feedback activity of SXL protein on Sxl pre-mRNA splicing. ``Male-lethal'' (Sxl(M)) gain-of-function alleles subvert Sxl control by X-chromosome dose, allowing female Sxl functions to be expressed independent of the positive regulators upstream of Sxl. As a consequence, Sxl(M) haplo-X animals (chromosomal males) die because of improper dosage compensation, and Sxl(M) chromosomal females survive the otherwise lethal effects of mutations in upstream positive regulators. Five independent spontaneous Sxl(M) alleles were shown previously to be transposon insertions into what was subsequently found to be the region of regulated sex-specific Sxl RNA splicing. We show that these five alleles represent three different mutant types: Sxl(M1), Sxl(M3), and Sxl(M4). Sxl(M1) is an insertion of a roo element 674 bp downstream of the translation-terminating male-specific exon. Sxl(M3) is an insertion of a hobo transposon (not 297 as previously reported) into the 3' splice site of the male exon, and Sxl(M4) is an insertion of a novel transposon into the male-specific exon itself. We show that these three gain-of-function mutants differ considerably in their ability to bypass the sex determination signal, with Sxl(M4) being the strongest and Sxl(M1) the weakest. This difference is also reflected in effects of these mutations on sex-specific RNA splicing and on the rate of appearance of SXL protein in male embryos. Transcript analysis of double-mutant male-viable Sxl(M) derivatives in which the Sxl(M) insertion is cis to loss-of-function mutations, combined with other results reported here, indicates that the constitutive character of these Sxl(M) alleles is a consequence of an alteration of the structure of the pre-mRNA that allows some level of female splicing to occur even in the absence of functional SXL protein. Surprisingly, however, most of the constitutive character of Sxl(M) alleles appears to depend on the mutant alleles' responsiveness, perhaps greater than wild-type, to the autoregulatory splicing activity of the wild-type SXL proteins they produce. PMID:7713421

  16. Transposon insertions causing constitutive Sex-lethal activity in Drosophila melanogaster affect Sxl sex-specific transcript splicing.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, M; Lersch, R A; Subrahmanyan, L; Cline, T W

    1995-02-01

    Sex-lethal (Sxl) gene products induce female development in Drosophila melanogaster and suppress the transcriptional hyperactivation of X-linked genes responsible for male X-chromosome dosage compensation. Control of Sxl functioning by the dose of X-chromosomes normally ensures that the female-specific functions of this developmental switch gene are only expressed in diplo-X individuals. Although the immediate effect of X-chromosome dose is on Sxl transcription, during most of the life cycle "on" vs. "off" reflects alternative Sxl RNA splicing, with the female (productive) splicing mode maintained by a positive feedback activity of SXL protein on Sxl pre-mRNA splicing. "Male-lethal" (SxlM) gain-of-function alleles subvert Sxl control by X-chromosome dose, allowing female Sxl functions to be expressed independent of the positive regulators upstream of Sxl. As a consequence, SxlM haplo-X animals (chromosomal males) die because of improper dosage compensation, and SxlM chromosomal females survive the otherwise lethal effects of mutations in upstream positive regulators. Five independent spontaneous SxlM alleles were shown previously to be transposon insertions into what was subsequently found to be the region of regulated sex-specific Sxl RNA splicing. We show that these five alleles represent three different mutant types: SxlM1, SxlM3, and SxlM4. SxlM1 is an insertion of a roo element 674 bp downstream of the translation-terminating male-specific exon. SxlM3 is an insertion of a hobo transposon (not 297 as previously reported) into the 3' splice site of the male exon, and SxlM4 is an insertion of a novel transposon into the male-specific exon itself. We show that these three gain-of-function mutants differ considerably in their ability to bypass the sex determination signal, with SxlM4 being the strongest and SxlM1 the weakest. This difference is also reflected in effects of these mutations on sex-specific RNA splicing and on the rate of appearance of SXL protein in male embryos. Transcript analysis of double-mutant male-viable SxlM derivatives in which the SxlM insertion is cis to loss-of-function mutations, combined with other results reported here, indicates that the constitutive character of these SxlM alleles is a consequence of an alteration of the structure of the pre-mRNA that allows some level of female splicing to occur even in the absence of functional SXL protein. Surprisingly, however, most of the constitutive character of SxlM alleles appears to depend on the mutant alleles' responsiveness, perhaps greater than wild-type, to the autoregulatory splicing activity of the wild-type SXL proteins they produce. PMID:7713421

  17. NH(4)-Excreting Azospirillum brasilense Mutants Enhance the Nitrogen Supply of a Wheat Host.

    PubMed

    Christiansen-Weniger, C; Van Veen, J A

    1991-10-01

    Spontaneous ethylenediamine-resistant mutants of Azospirillum brasilense were selected on the basis of their excretion of NH(4). Two mutants exhibited no repression of their nitrogenase enzyme systems in the presence of high (20 mM) concentrations of NH(4). The nitrogenase activities of these mutants on nitrogen-free minimal medium were two to three times higher than the nitrogenase activity of the wild type. The mutants excreted substantial amounts of ammonia when they were grown either under oxygen-limiting conditions (1 kPa of O(2)) or aerobically on nitrate or glutamate. The mutants grew well on glutamate as a sole nitrogen source but only poorly on NH(4)Cl. Both mutants failed to incorporate [C]methylamine. We demonstrated that nitrite ammonification occurs in the mutants. Wild-type A. brasilense, as well as the mutants, became established in the rhizospheres of axenically grown wheat plants at levels of > 10 cells per g of root. The rhizosphere acetylene reduction activity was highest in the preparations containing the mutants. When plants were grown on a nitrogen-free nutritional medium, both mutants were responsible for significant increases in root and shoot dry matter compared with wild-type-treated plants or with noninoculated controls. Total plant nitrogen accumulation increased as well. When they were exposed to a N(2)-enriched atmosphere, both A. brasilense mutants incorporated significantly higher amounts of N inside root and shoot material than the wild type did. The results of our nitrogen balance and N enrichment studies indicated that NH(4)-excreting A. brasilense strains potentially support the nitrogen supply of the host plants. PMID:16348569

  18. NH4+-Excreting Azospirillum brasilense Mutants Enhance the Nitrogen Supply of a Wheat Host

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen-Weniger, C.; Van Veen, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    Spontaneous ethylenediamine-resistant mutants of Azospirillum brasilense were selected on the basis of their excretion of NH4+. Two mutants exhibited no repression of their nitrogenase enzyme systems in the presence of high (20 mM) concentrations of NH4+. The nitrogenase activities of these mutants on nitrogen-free minimal medium were two to three times higher than the nitrogenase activity of the wild type. The mutants excreted substantial amounts of ammonia when they were grown either under oxygen-limiting conditions (1 kPa of O2) or aerobically on nitrate or glutamate. The mutants grew well on glutamate as a sole nitrogen source but only poorly on NH4Cl. Both mutants failed to incorporate [14C]methylamine. We demonstrated that nitrite ammonification occurs in the mutants. Wild-type A. brasilense, as well as the mutants, became established in the rhizospheres of axenically grown wheat plants at levels of > 107 cells per g of root. The rhizosphere acetylene reduction activity was highest in the preparations containing the mutants. When plants were grown on a nitrogen-free nutritional medium, both mutants were responsible for significant increases in root and shoot dry matter compared with wild-type-treated plants or with noninoculated controls. Total plant nitrogen accumulation increased as well. When they were exposed to a 15N2-enriched atmosphere, both A. brasilense mutants incorporated significantly higher amounts of 15N inside root and shoot material than the wild type did. The results of our nitrogen balance and 15N enrichment studies indicated that NH4+-excreting A. brasilense strains potentially support the nitrogen supply of the host plants. PMID:16348569

  19. The Alternative Oxidase AOX Does Not Rescue the Phenotype of tko25t Mutant Flies

    PubMed Central

    Kemppainen, Kia K.; Kemppainen, Esko; Jacobs, Howard T.

    2014-01-01

    A point mutation [technical knockout25t (tko25t)] in the Drosophila gene coding for mitoribosomal protein S12 generates a phenotype of developmental delay and bang sensitivity. tko25t has been intensively studied as an animal model for human mitochondrial diseases associated with deficiency of mitochondrial protein synthesis and consequent multiple respiratory chain defects. Transgenic expression in Drosophila of the alternative oxidase (AOX) derived from Ciona intestinalis has previously been shown to mitigate the toxicity of respiratory chain inhibitors and to rescue mutant and knockdown phenotypes associated with cytochrome oxidase deficiency. We therefore tested whether AOX expression could compensate the mutant phenotype of tko25t using the GeneSwitch system to activate expression at different times in development. The developmental delay of tko25t was not mitigated by expression of AOX throughout development. AOX expression for 1 d after eclosion, or continuously throughout development, had no effect on the bang sensitivity of tko25t adults, and continued expression in adults older than 30 d also produced no amelioration of the phenotype. In contrast, transgenic expression of the yeast alternative NADH dehydrogenase Ndi1 was synthetically semi-lethal with tko25t and was lethal when combined with both AOX and tko25t. We conclude that AOX does not rescue tko25t and that the mutant phenotype is not solely due to limitations on electron flow in the respiratory chain, but rather to a more complex metabolic defect. The future therapeutic use of AOX in disorders of mitochondrial translation may thus be of limited value. PMID:25147191

  20. The alternative oxidase AOX does not rescue the phenotype of tko25t mutant flies.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Kia K; Kemppainen, Esko; Jacobs, Howard T

    2014-10-01

    A point mutation [technical knockout(25t) (tko(25t))] in the Drosophila gene coding for mitoribosomal protein S12 generates a phenotype of developmental delay and bang sensitivity. tko(25t) has been intensively studied as an animal model for human mitochondrial diseases associated with deficiency of mitochondrial protein synthesis and consequent multiple respiratory chain defects. Transgenic expression in Drosophila of the alternative oxidase (AOX) derived from Ciona intestinalis has previously been shown to mitigate the toxicity of respiratory chain inhibitors and to rescue mutant and knockdown phenotypes associated with cytochrome oxidase deficiency. We therefore tested whether AOX expression could compensate the mutant phenotype of tko(25t) using the GeneSwitch system to activate expression at different times in development. The developmental delay of tko(25t) was not mitigated by expression of AOX throughout development. AOX expression for 1 d after eclosion, or continuously throughout development, had no effect on the bang sensitivity of tko(25t) adults, and continued expression in adults older than 30 d also produced no amelioration of the phenotype. In contrast, transgenic expression of the yeast alternative NADH dehydrogenase Ndi1 was synthetically semi-lethal with tko(25t) and was lethal when combined with both AOX and tko(25t). We conclude that AOX does not rescue tko(25t) and that the mutant phenotype is not solely due to limitations on electron flow in the respiratory chain, but rather to a more complex metabolic defect. The future therapeutic use of AOX in disorders of mitochondrial translation may thus be of limited value. PMID:25147191

  1. In Trans Complementation of Lethal Factor Reveal Roles in Colonization and Dissemination in a Murine Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, David E.; Ya, Jason; Glomski, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    Lethal factor (LF) is a component of the B. anthracis exotoxin and critical for pathogenesis. The roles of LF in early anthrax pathogenesis, such as colonization and dissemination from the initial site of infection, are poorly understood. In mice models of infection, LF-deficient strains either have altered dissemination patterns or do not colonize, precluding analysis of the role of LF in colonization and dissemination from the portal of entry. Previous reports indicate rabbit and guinea pig models infected with LF-deficient strains have decreased virulence, yet the inability to use bioluminescent imaging techniques to track B. anthracis growth and dissemination in these hosts makes analysis of early pathogenesis challenging. In this study, the roles of LF early in infection were analyzed using bioluminescent signature tagged libraries of B. anthracis with varying ratios of LF-producing and LF-deficient clones. Populations where all clones produced LF and populations where only 40% of clones produce LF were equally virulent. The 40% LF-producing clones trans complimented the LF mutants and permitted them to colonize and disseminate. Decreases of the LF producing strains to 10% or 0.3% of the population led to increased host survival and decreased trans complementation of the LF mutants. A library with 10% LF producing clones could replicate and disseminate, but fewer clones disseminated and the mutant clones were less competitive than wild type. The inoculum with 0.3% LF producing clones could not colonize the host. This strongly suggests that between 10% and 0.3% of the population must produce LF in order to colonize. In total, these findings suggest that a threshold of LF must be produced in order for colonization and dissemination to occur in vivo. These observations suggest that LF has a major role in the early stages of colonization and dissemination. PMID:24763227

  2. Radiation-induced cell lethality of samonella typhimurium ATCC 14028: Cooperative effect of hydroxyl radical and oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.A.; Thayer, D.W.

    1995-10-01

    The lethality of {gamma}-radiation doses of 0.2 to 1.0 kGy for Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 was measured in the presence of air, N{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O and with the hydroxyl radical scavengers formate and polyethylene glycol (PEG), M{sub r} 8,000. Saturation of cell suspensions with either N{sub 2}O or N{sub 2}/N{sub 2}/N{sub 2}O (1:1, v/v) gas was expected to double the number of hydroxyl radicals (OH{center_dot}) and to produce an equivalent increase in lethality, but this did not occur. Adding 10% (v/v) O{sub 2} to either N{sub 2}/N{sub 2}O gas produced approximately the same {gamma}-irradiation lethality for S. typhimurium as did air. Addition of hydroxyl radical scavengers, 40 mM formate and 1.5% (w/v) PEG, significantly reduced the lethality of {gamma} radiation for S. typhimurium in the presence of air but not in the presence of N{sub 2} or N{sub 2}O gases. Membrane-permeable formate provided slightly better protection than nonpermeable PEG. Cells of S. typhimurium grown under anaerobic conditions were more sensitive to radiation, and were less protected by hydroxyl radical scavengers, especially formate, than when cells grown under aerobic conditions were irradiated in the presence of oxygen. Hydroxyl radical scavengers provided no further protection during irradiation in the absence of oxygen. These results indicated that the increased radiation sensitivity of cells grown under anaerobic conditions may be related to superoxide radicals which could increase intercellular damage during irradiation in the presence of oxygen. However, endogenous superoxide dismutase and catalase activities did not protect cells from the radiation-induced lethality of S. typhimurium. Cytoplasmic extracts protected bacterial DNA in vitro in either the presence of absence of oxygen, and no radiation-induced lipid peroxidation of the cellular components was identified by measuring the levels of 2-thiobarbituric acid. 38 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Nebulin binding impedes mutant desmin filament assembly

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Laura K.; Gillis, David C.; Sharma, Sarika; Ambrus, Andy; Herrmann, Harald; Conover, Gloria M.

    2013-01-01

    Desmin intermediate filaments (DIFs) form an intricate meshwork that organizes myofibers within striated muscle cells. The mechanisms that regulate the association of desmin to sarcomeres and their role in desminopathy are incompletely understood. Here we compare the effect nebulin binding has on the assembly kinetics of desmin and three desminopathy-causing mutant desmin variants carrying mutations in the head, rod, or tail domains of desmin (S46F, E245D, and T453I). These mutants were chosen because the mutated residues are located within the nebulin-binding regions of desmin. We discovered that, although nebulin M160–164 bound to both desmin tetrameric complexes and mature filaments, all three mutants exhibited significantly delayed filament assembly kinetics when bound to nebulin. Correspondingly, all three mutants displayed enhanced binding affinities and capacities for nebulin relative to wild-type desmin. Electron micrographs showed that nebulin associates with elongated normal and mutant DIFs assembled in vitro. Moreover, we measured significantly delayed dynamics for the mutant desmin E245D relative to wild-type desmin in fluorescence recovery after photobleaching in live-cell imaging experiments. We propose a mechanism by which mutant desmin slows desmin remodeling in myocytes by retaining nebulin near the Z-discs. On the basis of these data, we suggest that for some filament-forming desmin mutants, the molecular etiology of desminopathy results from subtle deficiencies in their association with nebulin, a major actin-binding filament protein of striated muscle. PMID:23615443

  4. Uncaging Mutants: Moving From Menageries to Menages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The thousands of mutants of maize are a remarkable resource for study of plant physiology, phylogeny, cell biology, biochemistry, development, and molecular biology. Mutants are most often applied in research studies as "members of collections" rather than as select families of members relevant to ...

  5. Stationary-phase mutants of Sinorhizobium meliloti are impaired in stationary-phase survival or in recovery to logarithmic growth.

    PubMed

    Uhde, C; Schmidt, R; Jording, D; Selbitschka, W; Pühler, A

    1997-10-01

    A screening method was used to identify Sinorhizobium meliloti mutants which are affected in stationary-phase survival. Of 20,000 individual colonies mutagenized with transposon Tn5-B20, 10 mutant strains which showed poor or no survival in the stationary phase were identified. Analyses of expression patterns of the promoterless lacZ genes in the mutant strains revealed individual induction patterns. Most strains were induced in stationary phase as well as under carbon limitation and in pure H2O, but none of the mutants was induced under heat, alkali stress conditions, or low oxygen tension. Plant inoculation tests revealed that the symbiotic proficiency of the mutants was not affected. Two mutants, however, showed gene induction not only in the stationary phase under free-living conditions but also in the bacteroid state. A long-term starvation test was carried out to examine the ability of the 10 mutants to survive prolonged stationary-phase conditions. All mutants showed a clear decrease in the colony-forming ability under the chosen experimental conditions. Staining with green and red fluorescent nucleic acid stain showed that the mutants fell into two different classes. Seven mutants died during stationary phase; the three other mutants remained viable but did not resume growth after prolonged starvation. Five of the ten Tn5-B20 insertions were cloned from the genomes of the mutant strains. Nucleotide sequence analyses established that the transposon had inserted in five distinctive genes. Database searches revealed that four of the tagged loci corresponded to already characterized genes whose gene products are involved in important cellular processes such as amino acid metabolism or aerobic respiration. PMID:9335293

  6. Sheep heart RNA stimulates myofibril formation and beating in cardiac mutant axolotl hearts in organ culture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; LaFrance, Sherrie M; Lemanski, Sharon L; Huang, Xupei; Dube, Dipak K; Lemanski, Larry F

    2003-05-01

    In the Mexican axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, recessive mutant gene c, when homozygous, results in a failure of the heart to form sarcomeric myofibrils and contract normally. Previous studies have shown that purified RNA from normal anterior endoderm or from medium conditioned with anterior endoderm/pre-cardiac mesoderm has the capacity to rescue mutant hearts in organ culture. In the present study, RNA extracted from adult sheep heart was tested for its capacity to promote differentiation in the mutant axolotl hearts. Mutant hearts cultured in the presence of the sheep heart RNA in Steinberg's solution for 48 h displayed rhythmic contractions. Ultrastructural studies showed that the rescued mutant axolotl ventricular myocardial cells contained myofibrils of normal morphology. Mutant hearts cultured in Steinberg's solution alone did not beat throughout their lengths and myofibrils were not observable in the ventricles. Confocal microscopy confirmed the increase of Tropomyosin expression and formation of myofibrils in mutant hearts treated by sheep heart RNA. Thus, sheep heart RNA promotes myofibrillogenesis and the development of contractile function in embryonic cardiac mutant axolotl hearts. PMID:12684761

  7. Phenotypic comparison of samdc and spe mutants reveals complex relationships of polyamine metabolism in Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Santiago, Laura; Cervantes-Chávez, José Antonio; Winkler, Robert; León-Ramírez, Claudia G; Ruiz-Herrera, José

    2012-03-01

    Synthesis of spermidine involves the action of two enzymes, spermidine synthase (Spe) and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (Samdc). Previously we cloned and disrupted the gene encoding Spe as a first approach to unravel the biological function of spermidine in Ustilago maydis. With this background, the present study was designed to provide a better understanding of the role played by Samdc in the regulation of the synthesis of this polyamine. With this aim we proceeded to isolate and delete the gene encoding Samdc from U. maydis, and made a comparative analysis of the phenotypes of samdc and spe mutants. Both spe and samdc mutants behaved as spermidine auxotrophs, and were more sensitive than the wild-type strain to different stress conditions. However, the two mutants displayed significant differences: in contrast to spe mutants, samdc mutants were more sensitive to LiCl stress, high spermidine concentrations counteracted their dimorphic deficiency, and they were completely avirulent. It is suggested that these differences are possibly related to differences in exogenous spermidine uptake or the differential location of the respective enzymes in the cell. Alternatively, since samdc mutants accumulate higher levels of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), whereas spe mutants accumulate decarboxylated SAM, the known opposite roles of these metabolites in the processes of methylation and differentiation offer an additional attractive hypothesis to explain the phenotypic differences of the two mutants, and provide insights into the additional roles of polyamine metabolism in the physiology of the cell. PMID:22222500

  8. Non-lethal sampling for mercury evaluation in crocodilians.

    PubMed

    Lázaro, Wilkinson L; de Oliveira, Robson F; dos Santos-Filho, Manoel; da Silva, Carolina J; Malm, Olaf; Ignácio, Áurea R A; Díez, Sergi

    2015-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that poses potential threats to ecosystems due to its toxicity to humans and wildlife. The development of non-lethal sampling techniques is a critical step for evaluation of Hg in threatened species in tropical floodplain environments, where most of Hg found is the result of land use and gold mining activities, and more methylation sites are available. We evaluated the spatial and seasonal effectiveness of caudal scutes and claws to estimate Hg bioaccumulation in crocodilians (Caiman yacare), in the scarcely documented Pantanal. Hence, we investigated the potential for Hg bioaccumulation in top predators according to its proximity to mining sites, and in water bodies with different hydrological characteristics and connectivity with the main river during two phases of the flood pulse (dry and flood). The highest Hg concentrations were detected in caimans captured close to mining activities, in claws (2176 ng g(-1) ww) and caudal scutes (388 ng g(-1) ww). THg concentration in claws was related to the flood season and its mean concentration was thirteen fold higher than Hg concentration in scutes during whole year. Both tissues were found to be effective as non-lethal sampling techniques for measuring Hg bioaccumulation in reptiles over time. Nevertheless, claw tissue seems to have a more consistent result, since its constitutional chemical characteristics makes it a better indicator of spatial patterns that influence on Hg exposure. PMID:26026900

  9. Lethal osteosclerotic skeletal dysplasia with intracellular inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Brodie, S G; Lachman, R S; McGovern, M M; Mekikian, P B; Wilcox, W R

    1999-04-23

    We report an apparently previously undescribed form of lethal osteosclerotic skeletal dysplasia in a 30-week male fetus with micromelic shortness of the limbs. Radiographic findings at necropsy included increased density in all bones, most marked in the skull, mandible, and pubis. The ribs were very short, abnormally modeled, and wide anteriorly. The vertebrae were posteriorly hypoplastic and wedged, particularly in the cervical and lumbar regions. The femora and tibiae were short with wide distal metaphyses, undermodeled diaphyses, and coxa vara. The humeri, radii, and ulnae were also short and undermodeled with proximal and distal flare. Chondro-osseous morphology showed short chondrocyte columns, extension of hypertrophic cells into the metaphysis, and overgrowth of perichondral bone. In the resting cartilage there were large chondrocytes containing a homogeneous material staining pink with von Kossa trichrome, gray with toluidine blue, and black with silver methenamine. The cortical bone was lacking and the trabecular bone was hypercellular, thick, and coarse. Ultrastructurally, the resting zone chondrocytes were large and round with condensed chromatin and dilated loops of rough endoplasmic reticulum. The radiographic and histopathologic findings in this case are unique and differ from those seen in other reported lethal osteosclerotic skeletal dysplasias. PMID:10232746

  10. An outbreak of lethal adenovirus infection among different otariid species.

    PubMed

    Inoshima, Yasuo; Murakami, Tomoaki; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Kasamatsu, Masahiko

    2013-08-30

    An outbreak of fatal fulminant hepatitis at a Japanese aquarium involved 3 otariids: a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), a South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) and a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). In a span of about a week in February 2012, 3 otariids showed diarrhea and were acutely low-spirited; subsequently, all three animals died within a period of 3 days. Markedly increased aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase activities were observed. Necrotic hepatitis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in liver hepatocytes and intestinal epithelial cells were observed in the South American sea lion on histological examination. Otarine adenovirus DNA was detected from the livers of all three animals by polymerase chain reaction and determination of the sequences showed that all were identical. These results suggest that a single otarine adenovirus strain may have been the etiological agent of this outbreak of fatal fulminant hepatitis among the different otariid species, and it may be a lethal threat to wild and captive otariids. This is the first evidence of an outbreak of lethal adenovirus infection among different otariid species. PMID:23643878

  11. Proteomics study of anthrax lethal toxin-treated murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Jeffrey F; Hoerth, Patric; Hoehn, Silvia T; Preckel, Tobias; Tomer, Kenneth B

    2006-04-01

    The anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) is composed of two proteins, protective antigen and lethal factor, which bind and enter the cell through a host receptor termed the anthrax toxin receptor (ATR). In the cell, LeTx targets p38, part of the MAP kinase signaling pathway. The toxin appears to initiate an apoptotic pathway in infected cells, indicating additional downstream targets of the toxin. We have applied a proteomics approach to investigate these downstream targets and the affected processes. In this study we have used an improved strategy for fractionation based on protein pI, off-gel electrophoresis, employed in conjunction with relative quantitation using the mass labeling approach. In our survey, 67 proteins were observed and quantified from the cytosol of RAW 264.7 cells with respect to control versus toxin-treated cells. Many of these proteins are involved in the oxidative stress response, as well as apoptosis, and thus likely to be relevant to the effects of anthrax in infected cells. Our results indicate that the tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated pathway is compromised in intoxicated cells. The knowledge of such changes and the pathways leading to the changes should be of great value in understanding and combating this disease. PMID:16609935

  12. A chicken embryo lethality assay for pathogenic Enterococcus cecorum.

    PubMed

    Borst, Luke B; Suyemoto, M Mitsu; Keelara, Shivaramu; Dunningan, Sarah E; Guy, James S; Barnes, H John

    2014-06-01

    Pathogenic strains of Enterococcus cecorum cause outbreaks of arthritis and osteomyelitis in chickens worldwide. Enterococcal spondylitis (ES) is a specific manifestation of E. cecorum-associated disease of broilers and broiler breeders characterized by increased flock mortality, resulting from unresolved infection of the free thoracic vertebra by pathogenic E. cecorum. A study of 22 ES outbreaks in the southeast United States revealed that pathogenic E. cecorum strains isolated from spinal lesions were genetically clonal. Here, we compare the virulence of previously genotyped pathogenic strains (n = 8) isolated from spinal lesions and nonpathogenic strains (n = 9) isolated from ceca of unaffected birds in a chicken embryo lethality model. Strains were inoculated into the allantoic cavity of 12-day-old broiler and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) layer embryos; embryo survival was determined by candling eggs daily for 4 days. Significantly decreased survival occurred in both broiler and SPF embryos inoculated with pathogenic genotype strains compared with embryos inoculated with nonpathogenic genotype strains (broiler embryos, 23% vs. 60%; SPF embryos, 9% vs. 61%). Embryos infected with pathogenic strains were unable to control infection and consistently showed gross changes typical of sepsis, including hemorrhage and edema. After 48 hr, similar changes were not observed in embryos infected with nonpathogenic strains. This embryo lethality assay provides a useful tool for understanding the genetic basis of E. cecorum virulence. PMID:25055628

  13. Injury Risk Assessment of Non-Lethal Projectile Head Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Oukara, Amar; Nsiampa, Nestor; Robbe, Cyril; Papy, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real cases indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head impacts. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such impacts, the assessment approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports may not be appropriate. Therefore, there is a need of a specific approach to assess the lethality of these projectiles. In this framework, some recent research data referred in this article as “force wall approach” suggest the use of three lesional thresholds (unconsciousness, meningeal damages and bone damages) that depend on the intracranial pressure. Three corresponding critical impact forces are determined for a reference projectile. Based on the principle that equal rigid wall maximal impact forces will produce equal damage on the head, these limits can be determined for any other projectile. In order to validate the consistence of this innovative method, it is necessary to compare the results with other existing assessment methods. This paper proposes a comparison between the “force wall approach” and two different head models. The first one is a numerical model (Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model-SUFEHM) from Strasbourg University; the second one is a mechanical surrogate (Ballistics Load Sensing Headform-BLSH) from Biokinetics. PMID:25400712

  14. Less-lethal munitions as extended-range impact weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbs, Ken

    1997-01-01

    With the proliferation of 'suicide by cop' incidents, the concept of less lethal (LL) impact munitions has definitely caught on. There is much to be said for sterile laboratory testing and wound ballistic studies, but having 'real world' operational data is invaluable. Two years ago, a data base was set up to collect this information. The data base continues to grow with incidents from a cross the country and others pursued internationally. Indications are that LL munitions deliver a similar amount of force as conventional police impact weapons i.e., police batons, PR-24's, nunchakus, etc. One advantage over conventional impact weapons, is that LL munitions can be used at much greater distances from a suspect or crown of rioters. This gave rise to the term: extended range impact weapons. Having the ability to examine numerous cases in which these LL munitions have been successfully used for the resolution of critical incidents, is beneficial in evaluating the application and defending the usage of these force options. This paper examines 187 less lethal shootings and discusses such things as: the distance the munitions were fired, the types of injuries sustained by the targeted suspect, the body area of impact, what, if any weapons the suspect was armed with, and the type of incident requiring police response.

  15. Dominant lethal study of alpha-asarone in male mice.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, G; Garduño, L; Martínez, E; Madrigal, E; Tamariz, J; Salazar, M

    1998-10-15

    Alpha-asarone is a hypolipidaemic agent obtained from Guatteria gaumeri, a medical plant used in Mexico to treat hypercholesteraemia and cholelithiasis. alpha-Asarone has been shown to be hepatocarcinogenic and mutagenic in a human lymphocyte assay, a murine bone marrow cell assay and in an unscheduled DNA synthesis assay. In this study, alpha-asarone was tested for dominant lethal effects in male CF1 mice. The drug was given orally at doses of 0, 10 and 30 mg/kg per day for 5 days. Males were mated weekly with eight consecutive batches of naive, nulliparous female mice. Repeated matings revealed no perceptible effect of alpha-asarone on the incidence of pregnancy. Examination of surgically exposed uteri and ovaries of pregnant females on day 13-15 of gestation revealed an increased incidence of post-implantation loss. Semen examination of a separate group of mice showed a decreased concentration and motility of spermatozoa. These results suggest a dominant lethal mutation as well as direct alpha-asarone toxicity to spermatozoa by in treated mice. PMID:9817077

  16. Equation of state and fragmentation issues in computational lethality analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Trucano, T.G.

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the status of computational analysis of hypervelocity impact lethality in relatively nontechnical terms from the perspective of the author. It is not intended to be a review of the technical literature on the problems of concern. The discussion is focused by concentrating on two phenomenology areas which are of particular concern in computational impact studies. First, the material`s equation of state, specifically the treatment of expanded states of metals undergoing shock vaporization, is discussed. Second, the process of dynamic fragmentation is addressed. In both cases, the context of the discussion deals with inaccuracies and difficulties associated with numerical hypervelocity impact simulations. Laboratory experimental capabilities in hypervelocity impact for impact velocities greater than 10.0 km/s are becoming increasingly viable. This paper also gives recommendations for experimental thrusts which utilize these capabilities that will help to resolve the uncertainties in the numerical lethality studies that are pointed out in the present report.

  17. A virulent parasite can provide protection against a lethal parasitoid.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; Lefèvre, Thierry; Rawstern, Amanda H; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2011-03-01

    Hosts often become infected with multiple parasite strains or species. Previous work has shown that the outcome of infections with multiple parasite strains or species often differs significantly from that of single infections, making them a potentially important factor in determining the prevalence and spread of disease. Here we show that infection with a virulent parasite increases host survival during later exposure to a lethal parasitoid. Specifically, when monarch butterfly larvae (Danaus plexippus) are inoculated with the virulent protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha and then attacked by the lethal parasitoid fly Lespesia archippivora, survival is higher than when the larvae are exposed to the parasitoid only. This is potentially a result of the protozoan's requirement for host survival to obtain between-host transmission. Our findings suggest that a virulent parasite can play a protective role for its host and indicate that parasites can act as mutualists depending on the presence of other parasites. We emphasize the importance of considering infection in an ecological context, including the presence of competing parasites. PMID:21145987

  18. Lethal body burdens of polar narcotic chemicals: Chlorophenols

    SciTech Connect

    Wezel, A. van; Punte, S.; Opperhuizen, A.

    1994-12-31

    Lethal body burdens (LBBs) were measured of low chlorinated phenols to obtain insight in the intrinsic toxicity of these compounds and in the origins of differences in toxicity between polar and nonpolar narcotic chemicals. Fathead minnows were exposed until death to 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol or 2,4-chlorophenol at fixed pH. LBBs of chlorophenols were shown to be significantly lower than LBBs of the nonpolar chlorobenzenes. The pH of the exposure doesn`t influence the LBB of chlorophenols, whereas it does influence chemical speciation and thus the uptake and the LC50 of the chlorophenols. Octanol-water partition coefficients were measured at different pH, to gain insight in the distribution of the chlorophenols between aqueous and fatty compartments inside the organism. It is shown that at a physiological pH only a fraction of the total amount of chlorophenols inside the organism is accumulated in the fatty parts of the organism. These fatty parts, including the membranes, are usually considered as the target site for narcotic chemicals. It is concluded that the concentration at the membrane needed for lethality is lower for polar narcotic chemicals than for nonpolar narcotic chemicals, implying either a different mode of action at the same target site or another target site.

  19. Injury risk assessment of non-lethal projectile head impacts.

    PubMed

    Oukara, Amar; Nsiampa, Nestor; Robbe, Cyril; Papy, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real cases indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head impacts. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such impacts, the assessment approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports may not be appropriate. Therefore, there is a need of a specific approach to assess the lethality of these projectiles. In this framework, some recent research data referred in this article as "force wall approach" suggest the use of three lesional thresholds (unconsciousness, meningeal damages and bone damages) that depend on the intracranial pressure. Three corresponding critical impact forces are determined for a reference projectile. Based on the principle that equal rigid wall maximal impact forces will produce equal damage on the head, these limits can be determined for any other projectile. In order to validate the consistence of this innovative method, it is necessary to compare the results with other existing assessment methods. This paper proposes a comparison between the "force wall approach" and two different head models. The first one is a numerical model (Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model-SUFEHM) from Strasbourg University; the second one is a mechanical surrogate (Ballistics Load Sensing Headform-BLSH) from Biokinetics. PMID:25400712

  20. Lethal Nipah Virus Infection Induces Rapid Overexpression of CXCL10

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Cyrille; Guillaume, Vanessa; Sabine, Amélie; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong; Legras-Lachuer, Catherine; Horvat, Branka

    2012-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a recently emerged zoonotic Paramyxovirus that causes regular outbreaks in East Asia with mortality rate exceeding 75%. Major cellular targets of NiV infection are endothelial cells and neurons. To better understand virus-host interaction, we analyzed the transcriptome profile of NiV infection in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We further assessed some of the obtained results by in vitro and in vivo methods in a hamster model and in brain samples from NiV-infected patients. We found that NiV infection strongly induces genes involved in interferon response in endothelial cells. Among the top ten upregulated genes, we identified the chemokine CXCL10 (interferon-induced protein 10, IP-10), an important chemoattractant involved in the generation of inflammatory immune response and neurotoxicity. In NiV-infected hamsters, which develop pathology similar to what is seen in humans, expression of CXCL10 mRNA was induced in different organs with kinetics that followed NiV replication. Finally, we showed intense staining for CXCL10 in the brain of patients who succumbed to lethal NiV infection during the outbreak in Malaysia, confirming induction of this chemokine in fatal human infections. This study sheds new light on NiV pathogenesis, indicating the role of CXCL10 during the course of infection and suggests that this chemokine may serve as a potential new marker for lethal NiV encephalitis. PMID:22393386

  1. Molecular markers in prostate cancer. Part I: predicting lethality

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sachin; Dunsmuir, William D.

    2009-01-01

    Assessing the lethality of 'early,' potentially organ-confined prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the central controversies in modern-day urological clinical practice. Such cases are often considered for radical 'curative' treatment, although active surveillance may be equally appropriate for many men. Moreover, the balance between judicious intervention and overtreatment can be difficult to judge. The patient's age, comorbidities, family history and philosophy of self-health care can be weighed against clinical features such as the palpability of disease, the number and percentage of biopsy cores involved with the disease, histological grade, presenting prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and possible previous PSA kinetics. For many years, scientists and physicians have sought additional molecular factors that may be predictive for disease stage, progression and lethality. Usually, claims for a 'new' unique marker fall short of true clinical value. More often than not, such molecular markers are useful only in multivariate models. This review summarizes relevant molecular markers and models reported up to and including 2008. PMID:19050690

  2. Effectiveness of lethal, directed wolf-depredation control in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, E.K.; Paul, W.J.; Mech, L.D.; Weisberg, S.

    2008-01-01

    Wolf (Canis lupus) depredations on livestock in Minnesota, USA, are an economic problem for many livestock producers, and depredating wolves are lethally controlled. We sought to determine the effectiveness of lethal control through the analysis of data from 923 government-verified wolf depredations from 1979 to 1998. We analyzed the data by 1) assessing the correlations between the number of wolves killed in response to depredations with number of depredations the following year at state and local levels, and 2) the time to the next depredation. No analysis indicated that trapping wolves substantially reduced the following year's depredations at state or local levels. However, more specific analyses indicated that in certain situations, killing wolves was more effective than no action (i.e., not trapping). For example, trapping and killing adult males decreased the re-depredation risk. At sheep farms, killing wolves was generally effective. Attempting to trap, regardless of the results, seemed more effective at reducing depredations than not trapping, suggesting that mere human activity near depredation sites might deter future depredations.

  3. Mutants of thermotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.J.; Fontana, D.R.; Poff, K.L.

    1982-08-01

    Amoebae of Dictyostelium discoideum, strain HL50 were mutagenized with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, cloned, allowed to form pseudoplasmodia and screened for aberrant positive and negative thermotaxis. Three types of mutants were found. Mutant HO428 exhibits only positive thermotaxis over the entire temperature range (no negative thermotaxis). HO596 and HO813 exhibit weakened positive thermotaxis and normal negative thermotaxis. The weakened positive thermotactic response results in a shift toward warmer temperatures in the transition temperature from negative to positive thermotaxis. Mutant HO209 exhibits weakened positive and negative thermotactic responses and has a transition temperature similar to the 'wild type' (HL50).The two types of mutants represented by HO428, HO596 and HO813 support the model that positive and negative thermotaxis have separate pathways for temperature sensing. The type of mutants which contains HO209 suggests that those two pathways converge at some point before the response.

  4. Structures of the DfsB Protein Family Suggest a Cationic, Helical Sibling Lethal Factor Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jonathan D.; Taylor, Gabrielle; Hare, Stephen A.; Matthews, Steve J.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria have developed a variety of mechanisms for surviving harsh environmental conditions, nutrient stress and overpopulation. Paenibacillus dendritiformis produces a lethal protein (Slf) that is able to induce cell death in neighbouring colonies and a phenotypic switch in more distant ones. Slf is derived from the secreted precursor protein, DfsB, after proteolytic processing. Here, we present new crystal structures of DfsB homologues from a variety of bacterial species and a surprising version present in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Adopting a four-helix bundle decorated with a further three short helices within intervening loops, DfsB belongs to a non-enzymatic class of the DinB fold. The structure suggests that the biologically active Slf fragment may possess a C-terminal helix rich in basic and aromatic residues that suggest a functional mechanism akin to that for cationic antimicrobial peptides. PMID:26804569

  5. Structures of the DfsB Protein Family Suggest a Cationic, Helical Sibling Lethal Factor Peptide.