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1

Defective Kernel Mutants of Maize. I. Genetic and Lethality Studies  

PubMed Central

A planting of 3,919 M1 kernels from normal ears crossed by EMS-treated pollen produced 3,461 M1 plants and 3,172 selfed ears. These plants yielded 2,477 (72%) total heritable changes; the selfed ears yielded 2,457 (78%) recessive mutants, including 855 (27%) recessive kernel mutants and 8 (0.23%) viable dominant mutants. The ratio of recessive to dominant mutants was 201:1. The average mutation frequency for four known loci was three per 3,172 genomes analyzed. The estimated total number of loci mutated was 535 and the estimated number of kernel mutant loci mutated was 285. Among the 855 kernel mutants, 432 had a nonviable embryo, and 59 germinated but had a lethal seedling. A sample of 194 of the latter two types was tested for heritability, lethality, chromosome arm location and endosperm-embryo interaction between mutant and nonmutant tissues in special hyper-hypoploid combinations produced by manipulation of B-A translocations. The selected 194 mutants were characterized and catalogued according to endosperm phenotype and investigated to determine their effects on the morphology and development of the associated embryo. The possibility of rescuing some of the lethal mutants by covering the mutant embryo with a normal endosperm was investigated. Ninety of these 194 mutants were located on 17 of the 18 chromosome arms tested. Nineteen of the located mutants were examined to determine the effect of having a normal embryo in the same kernel with a mutant endosperm, and vice versa, as compared to the expression observed in kernels with both embryo and endosperm in a mutant condition. In the first situation, for three of the 19 mutants, the mutant endosperm was less extreme (the embryo helped); for seven cases, the mutant endosperm was more extreme (the embryo hindered); and for nine cases, there was no change. In the reverse situation, for four cases the normal endosperm helped the mutant embryo; for 14 cases there was no change and one case was inconclusive. PMID:17249053

Neuffer, M. G.; Sheridan, William F.

1980-01-01

2

Isolation and characterization of a temperature-sensitive lethal mutant of Salmonella typhimurium that is conditionally defective in 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate-8-phosphate synthesis.  

PubMed Central

A new mutant of Salmonella typhimurium was isolated which possesses a temperature-sensitive defect in the synthesis of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid. The defect in 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid synthesis is due to a temperature-sensitive 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate-8-phosphate synthetase, and the mutant accumulates an incomplete lipid A under nonpermissive conditions. Evidence is presented which indicates that the incomplete lipid A molecule is most likely identical in structure to the lipid A precursor synthesized by previously characterized mutants conditionally defective in 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid synthesis. However, unlike related mutants which undergo growth stasis under nonpermissive conditions, the accumulation of lipid A precursor in the new mutant results in cell death at elevated temperatures. PMID:7040335

Rick, P D; Young, D A

1982-01-01

3

Medical Conditions and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This population-based, case-control study examined physical illness as a risk factor for suicidal behavior. Case patients were more likely than controls to report having any serious medical conditions. Results suggest that young men with medical conditions are at increased risk for nearly lethal suicide attempts. (Contains 33 references and 3…

Ikeda, Robin M.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Powell, Kenneth E.; Simon, Thomas R.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Durant, Tonji M.; Swahn, Monica H.

2002-01-01

4

Characterization of Lethal Drosophila melanogaster alpha-Actinin Mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have partially characterized four Drosophilamelanogaster alpha-actinin gene mutants,I(1)2Cb1, I(1)2Cb2,I(1)2Cb4, and I(1)2Cb5. Wedemonstrate that in each case the mutation is caused bya chromosomal rearrangement that precludes normal proteinsynthesis. In the absence of alpha-actinin, fliescomplete embryogenesis and develop into flaccid larvaethat die within approximately 24 hr. These larvae have noticeable muscle dysfunction at hatching,although they, nevertheless, are capable of escapingfrom the

Christine Fyrberg; Andrew Ketchum; Elizabeth Ball; Eric Fyrberg

1998-01-01

5

Conditional lethality strains for the biological control of Anastrepha species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pro-apoptotic cell death genes are promising candidates for biologically-based autocidal control of pest insects as demonstrated by tetracycline (tet)-suppressible systems for conditional embryonic lethality in Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and the medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Cc). However, for medfly...

6

Perinatal lethal osteogenesis imperfecta in transgenic mice bearing an engineered mutant pro-alpha1(I) collagen gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substitutions of single glycine residues of alpha1(I) collagen have previously been associated with the inherited disease osteogenesis imperfecta type II. Transgenic mice bearing a mutant alpha1(I) collagen gene into which specific glycine substitutions have been engineered show a dominant lethal phenotype characteristic of the human disease, and demonstrate that as little as 10% mutant gene expression can disrupt normal collagen

Alex Stacey; John Bateman; Ted Choi; Tom Mascara; William Cole; Rudolf Jaenisch

1988-01-01

7

Correlation between In Vitro Cytotoxicity and In Vivo Lethal Activity in Mice of Epsilon Toxin Mutants from Clostridium perfringens  

PubMed Central

Epsilon toxin (Etx) from Clostridium perfringens is a pore-forming protein with a lethal effect on livestock, producing severe enterotoxemia characterized by general edema and neurological alterations. Site-specific mutations of the toxin are valuable tools to study the cellular and molecular mechanism of the toxin activity. In particular, mutants with paired cysteine substitutions that affect the membrane insertion domain behaved as dominant-negative inhibitors of toxin activity in MDCK cells. We produced similar mutants, together with a well-known non-toxic mutant (Etx-H106P), as green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins to perform in vivo studies in an acutely intoxicated mouse model. The mutant (GFP-Etx-I51C/A114C) had a lethal effect with generalized edema, and accumulated in the brain parenchyma due to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In the renal system, this mutant had a cytotoxic effect on distal tubule epithelial cells. The other mutants studied (GFP-Etx-V56C/F118C and GFP-Etx-H106P) did not have a lethal effect or cross the BBB, and failed to induce a cytotoxic effect on renal epithelial cells. These data suggest a direct correlation between the lethal effect of the toxin, with its cytotoxic effect on the kidney distal tubule cells, and the ability to cross the BBB. PMID:25013927

Dorca-Arévalo, Jonatan; Pauillac, Serge; Díaz-Hidalgo, Laura; Martín-Satué, Mireia; Popoff, Michel R.; Blasi, Juan

2014-01-01

8

Lethal Mutants and Truncated Selection Together Solve a Paradox of the Origin of Life  

PubMed Central

Background Many attempts have been made to describe the origin of life, one of which is Eigen's cycle of autocatalytic reactions [Eigen M (1971) Naturwissenschaften 58, 465–523], in which primordial life molecules are replicated with limited accuracy through autocatalytic reactions. For successful evolution, the information carrier (either RNA or DNA or their precursor) must be transmitted to the next generation with a minimal number of misprints. In Eigen's theory, the maximum chain length that could be maintained is restricted to nucleotides, while for the most primitive genome the length is around . This is the famous error catastrophe paradox. How to solve this puzzle is an interesting and important problem in the theory of the origin of life. Methodology/Principal Findings We use methods of statistical physics to solve this paradox by carefully analyzing the implications of neutral and lethal mutants, and truncated selection (i.e., when fitness is zero after a certain Hamming distance from the master sequence) for the critical chain length. While neutral mutants play an important role in evolution, they do not provide a solution to the paradox. We have found that lethal mutants and truncated selection together can solve the error catastrophe paradox. There is a principal difference between prebiotic molecule self-replication and proto-cell self-replication stages in the origin of life. Conclusions/Significance We have applied methods of statistical physics to make an important breakthrough in the molecular theory of the origin of life. Our results will inspire further studies on the molecular theory of the origin of life and biological evolution. PMID:21814563

Saakian, David B.; Biebricher, Christof K.; Hu, Chin-Kun

2011-01-01

9

Two-dimensional gel analysis of proteins in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc mutants fat and lethal (2) giant discs.  

PubMed

High-resolution two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis coupled with computer analysis has been used to construct a quantitative protein database of Drosophila mature wing imaginal discs. The level of expression for all of the detected proteins has been quantitatively determined. This database has been used to evaluate changes in the patterns of protein synthesis in wing imaginal discs from two Drosophila melanogaster mutants with abnormal wing disc development: fat (ft) and two different alleles of lethal (2) giant disc (l(2)gd). Patterns of pulse-labeled proteins of the different mutants show variations in both qualitative and quantitative parameters of synthesis. In this comparison we have detected specific sets of protein changes characteristic of both alleles of the same locus and a set of protein changes common to both loci. How the abnormal expression of these proteins relates to the abnormal process of mutant hyperplasia is discussed. PMID:9716463

Santarén, J F; Milán, M; García-Bellido, A

1998-08-25

10

Differentially expressed genes in the ovary of the sixth day of pupal "Ming" lethal egg mutant of silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The "Ming" lethal egg mutant (l-em) is a vitelline membrane mutant in silkworm, Bombyx mori. The eggs laid by the l-em mutant lose water, ultimately causing death within an hour. Previous studies have shown that the deletion of BmEP80 is responsible for the l-em mutation in silkworm, B. mori. In the current study, digital gene expression (DGE) was performed to investigate the difference of gene expression in ovaries between wild type and l-em mutant on the sixth day of the pupal stage to obtain a global view of gene expression profiles using the ovaries of three l-em mutants and three wild types. The results showed a total of 3,463,495 and 3,607,936 clean tags in the wild type and the l-em mutant libraries, respectively. Compared with those of wild type, 239 differentially expressed genes were detected in the l-em mutant, wherein 181 genes are up-regulated and 58 genes are down-regulated in the mutant strain. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis results showed that no pathway was significantly enriched and three pathways are tightly related to protein synthesis among the five leading pathways. Moreover, the expression profiles of eight important differentially expressed genes related to oogenesis changed. These results provide a comprehensive gene expression analysis of oogenesis and vitellogenesis in B. mori which facilitates understanding of both the specific molecular mechanism of the 1-em mutant and Lepidopteran oogenesis in general. PMID:23769927

Gao, Peng; Chen, An-Li; Zhao, Qiao-Ling; Shen, Xing-Jia; Qiu, Zhi-Yong; Xia, Ding-Guo; Tang, Shun-Ming; Zhang, Guo-Zheng

2013-09-15

11

Conditional lethal amber mutations in essential Escherichia coli genes.  

PubMed

The essential genes of microorganisms encode biological functions important for survival and thus tend to be of high scientific interest. Drugs that interfere with essential functions are likely to be interesting candidates for antimicrobials. However, these genes are hard to study genetically because knockout mutations in them are by definition inviable. We recently described a conditional mutation system in Escherichia coli that uses a plasmid to produce an amber suppressor tRNA regulated by the arabinose promoter. This suppressor was used here in the construction of amber mutations in seven essential E. coli genes. Amber stop codons were introduced as "tagalong" mutations in the flanking DNA of a downstream antibiotic resistance marker by lambda red recombination. The drug marker was removed by expression of I-SceI meganuclease, leaving a markerless mutation. We demonstrate the method with the genes frr, gcpE, lpxC, map, murA, ppa, and rpsA. We were unable to isolate an amber mutation in ftsZ. Kinetics of cell death and morphological changes were measured following removal of arabinose. As expected given the wide range of cellular mechanisms represented, different mutants showed widely different death curves. All of the mutations were bactericidal except the mutation in gcpE, which was bacteriostatic. The strain carrying an amber mutation in murA was by far the most sensitive, showing rapid killing in nonpermissive medium. The MurA protein is critical for peptidoglycan synthesis and is the target for the antibiotic fosfomycin. Such experiments may inexpensively provide valuable information for the identification and prioritization of targets for antibiotic development. PMID:15090508

Herring, Christopher D; Blattner, Frederick R

2004-05-01

12

Dictyostelium discoideum mutants with conditional defects in phagocytosis.  

PubMed

We have isolated and characterized Dictyostelium discoideum mutants with conditional defects in phagocytosis. Under suspension conditions, the mutants exhibited dramatic reductions in the uptake of bacteria and polystyrene latex beads. The initial binding of these ligands was unaffected, however, indicating that the defect was not in a plasma membrane receptor: Because of the phagocytosis defect, the mutants were unable to grow when cultured in suspensions of heat-killed bacteria. The mutants exhibited normal capacities for fluid phase endocytosis and grew as rapidly as parental (AX4) cells in axenic medium. Both the defects in phagocytosis and growth on bacteria were corrected when the mutant Dictyostelium cells were cultured on solid substrates. Reversion and genetic complementation analysis suggested that the mutant phenotypes were caused by single gene defects. While the precise site of action of the mutations was not established, the mutations are likely to affect an early signaling event because the binding of bacteria to mutant cells in suspension was unable to trigger the localized polymerization of actin filaments required for ingestion; other aspects of actin function appeared normal. This class of conditional phagocytosis mutant should prove to be useful for the expression cloning of the affected gene(s). PMID:7519624

Cohen, C J; Bacon, R; Clarke, M; Joiner, K; Mellman, I

1994-08-01

13

Natural and glucosyl flavonoids inhibit poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity and induce synthetic lethality in BRCA mutant cells.  

PubMed

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have been proven to represent superior clinical agents targeting DNA repair mechanisms in cancer therapy. We investigated PARP inhibitory effects of the natural and synthetic flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, monoglucosyl rutin and maltooligosyl rutin) and tested the synthetic lethality in BRCA2 mutated cells. In vitro ELISA assay suggested that the flavonoids have inhibitory effects on PARP activity, but glucosyl modifications reduced the inhibitory effect. Cytotoxicity tests of Chinese hamster cells defective in BRCA2 gene (V-C8) and its parental V79 cells showed BRCA2-dependent synthetic lethality when treated with the flavonoids. BRCA2 mutated cells were three times more sensitive to the flavonoids than the wild-type and gene complemented cells. Reduced toxicity was observed in a glucosyl modification-dependent manner. The present study provides support for the clinical use of new treatment drugs, and is the beginning of the potential application of flavonoids in cancer prevention and the periodic consumption of appropriate flavonoids to reduce cancer risk in individuals carrying a mutant allele of the BRCA2 gene. PMID:24317580

Maeda, Junko; Roybal, Erica J; Brents, Colleen A; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Aizawa, Yasushi; Kato, Takamitsu A

2014-02-01

14

Fission yeast minichromosome loss mutants mis cause lethal aneuploidy and replication abnormality.  

PubMed

Precise chromosome transmission in cell division cycle is maintained by a number of genes. The attempt made in the present study was to isolate temperature-sensitive (ts) fission yeast mutants that display high loss rates of minichromosomes at permissive or semipermissive temperature (designated mis). By colony color assay of 539 ts strains that contain a minichromosome, we have identified 12 genetic loci (mis1-mis12) and determined their phenotypes at restrictive temperature. Seven of them are related to cell cycle block phenotype at restrictive temperature, three of them in mitosis. Unequal distribution of regular chromosomes in the daughters is extensive in mis6 and mis12. Cells become inviable after rounds of cell division due to missegregation. The phenotype of mis5 is DNA replication defect and hypersensitivity to UV ray and hydroxyurea. mis5+ encodes a novel member of the ubiquitous MCM family required for the onset of replication. The mis5+ gene is essential for viability and functionally distinct from other previously identified members in fission yeast, cdc21+, nda1+, and nda4+. The mis11 mutant phenotype was the cell division block with reduced cell size. Progression of the G1 and G2 phases is blocked in mis11. The cloned mis11+ gene is identical to prp2+, which is essential for RNA splicing and similar to a mammalian splicing factor U2AF65. PMID:7865880

Takahashi, K; Yamada, H; Yanagida, M

1994-10-01

15

Lethality in PARP-1/Ku80 double mutant mice reveals physiologicalsynergy during early embryogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Ku is an abundant heterodimeric nuclear protein, consisting of 70-kDa and 86-kDa tightly associated subunits that comprise the DNA binding component of DNA-dependent protein kinase. Poly(ADP)ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a 113-kDa protein that catalyzes the synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) on target proteins. Both Ku and PARP-1 recognize and bind to DNA ends. Ku functions in the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathway whereas PARP-1 functions in the single strand break repair and base excision repair (BER) pathways. Recent studies have revealed that PARP-1 and Ku80 interact in vitro. To determine whether the association of PARP-1 and Ku80 has any physiological significance or synergistic function in vivo, mice lacking both PARP-1 and Ku80 were generated. The resulting offspring died during embryonic development displaying abnormalities around the gastrulation stage. In addition, PARP-1-/-Ku80-/- cultured blastocysts had an increased level of apoptosis. These data suggest that the functions of both Ku80 and PARP-1 are essential for normal embryogenesis and that a loss of genomic integrity leading to cell death through apoptosis is likely the cause of the embryonic lethality observed in these mice.

Henrie, Melinda S.; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Burma, Sandeep; Menissier-de Murcia, Josiane; de Murcia, Gilbert; Li, Gloria C.; Chen,David J.

2002-09-24

16

Effects of metallothionein on zinc metabolism in lethal-milk mutant mice  

SciTech Connect

The lethal-milk mice (C57BL/6J-Im) exhibit various pleiotropic effects, including a congenital otolith defect, production of zinc-deficient milk, and clinical signs of a systemic Zn deficiency by one year of age. The clinical signs include alopecia, dermatitis, and skin lesions. The systemic zinc deficiency may be due to increased levels of metallothionein (MT) in the intestine and/or liver of Im mice. The untreated Im mice contain twice as much intestinal MT as do C57BL/6J-(+/sup im//+ /sup Im/) (B6) controls. This was determined by a sulfhydryl assay, by the /sup 109/Cd-saturation/hemolysate method, and by the /sup 65/Zn-binding assay. Various concentrations of Cd or Zn were added to the drinking water three days before assaying for MT. Compared to B6 mice, the Im mice exhibited more MT in their liver by the /sup 65/Zn-MT binding assay (3-fold) and by the /sup 109/Cd-saturation/hemolysate method (18-fold). The effects of the two zinc treatments did not differ significantly between Im and B6 mice. The retention and excretion of /sup 65/Zn (administered intraperitoneally) were determined over a 14-day period, but the results did not different between the Im and B6 mice. The increased concentrations of MT within the Im mice was not significantly different for the intestine and liver. Based on these data and other studies, the Im mice may exhibit alterations in zinc homeostasis due to some deregulation of MT metabolism, including the inner ear of the fetus, the lactating mammary gland, and the intestine and liver of adults by one year of age.

Grider, A. Jr.

1986-01-01

17

Embryonic Lethality of Fortilin-null mutant mice by BMP-pathway overactivation  

PubMed Central

Background Fortilin negatively regulates apoptosis and is overexpressed in cancer. However, the role of fortilin in mammalian development is not clear. Methods & Results In order to evaluate the physiological role of fortilin in vivo, we performed a targeted disruption of the fortilin gene in mice. Fortilin+/? mice have the ability to survive and exhibit normal growth, while fortilin?/? mice are embryonically lethal around the 3.5 days post-coitum (dpc). Cultured blastocysts from fortilin+/? embryos undergo normal outgrowth to produce inner cell mass (ICM) and trophoblasts (TB), while ICM of fortilin?/? embryos either fails to outgrow or prematurely disintegrates. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) derived from fortilin+/? embryos are more susceptible to noxious stimuli than are wild type embryos. It has been consistently shown in Xenopus embryos that the depletion of fortilin’s message severely compromises the formation of neural tissue, including the brain, while overexpression of fortilin induces the partial double body axis in embryos and is capable of blocking BMP4-induced transcription of Vent1, Vent2, and Msx1 genes. This suggests that fortilin is an inhibitor of the BMP pathway. Strikingly, when fortilin levels are reduced by siRNA, BMP4 causes MEF to undergo extensive DNA-fragmentation, while DNA fragmentation is minimal in the presence of fortilin. In addition, BMP4 induces more Msx2 in the absence of fortilin than in its presence. Furthermore, Msx2 overexpression causes MEF to undergo apoptotic cell death. Conclusion We conclude that in early phase of development, fortilin functions as an inhibitor of the BMP pathway. The presence of fortilin in the very early stages of development is required for the survival of embryos. General Significance Abnormalities in the fortilin gene may be associated with early pregnancy loss. PMID:19364479

Koide, Yuichi; Kiyota, Tomomi; Tonganunt, Moltira; Pinkaew, Decha; Liu, Zhihe; Kato, Yoichi; Hutadilok-Towantana, Nongporn; Phongdara, Amornrat; Fujise, Ken

2009-01-01

18

When a Fly Has to Fly to Reproduce: Selection against Conditional Recessive Lethals in "Drosophila"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We propose an experimental model suitable for demonstrating allele frequency change in Drosophila melanogaster populations caused by selection against an easily scorable conditional lethal, namely recessive flightless alleles such as apterous and vestigial. Homozygotes for these alleles are excluded from reproduction because the food source used…

Plunkett, Andrea D.; Yampolsky, Lev Y.

2010-01-01

19

Mutant loxP vectors for selectable marker recycle and conditional knock-outs  

PubMed Central

Background Gene disruption by targeted integration of transfected constructs becomes increasingly popular for studies of gene function. The chicken B cell line DT40 has been widely used as a model for gene knock-outs due to its high targeted integration activity. Disruption of multiple genes and complementation of the phenotypes is, however, restricted by the number of available selectable marker genes. It is therefore highly desirable to recycle the selectable markers using a site-specific recombination system like Cre/loxP. Results We constructed three plasmid vectors (neoR, puroR and bsr), which carry selectable marker genes flanked by two different mutant loxP sites. After stable transfection, the marker genes can be excised from the genome by transient induction of Cre recombinase expression. This excision converts the two mutant loxP sites to an inactive double-mutant loxP. Furthermore we constructed a versatile expression vector to clone cDNA expression cassettes between mutant loxP sites. This vector can also be used to design knock-out constructs in which the floxed marker gene is combined with a cDNA expression cassette. This construct enables gene knock-out and complementation in a single step. Gene expression can subsequently be terminated by the Cre mediated deletion of the cDNA expression cassette. This strategy is powerful for analyzing essential genes, whose disruption brings lethality to the mutant cell. Conclusions Mutant loxP vectors have been developed for the recycle of selectable markers and conditional gene knock-out approaches. As the marker and the cDNA expression cassettes are driven by the universally active and evolutionary conserved ?-actin promoter, they can be used for the selection of stable transfectants in a wide range of cell lines. PMID:11591226

Arakawa, Hiroshi; Lodygin, Dimitry; Buerstedde, Jean-Marie

2001-01-01

20

Cancer susceptibility and embryonic lethality in Mob1a/1b double-mutant mice  

PubMed Central

Mps one binder 1a (MOB1A) and MOB1B are key components of the Hippo signaling pathway and are mutated or inactivated in many human cancers. Here we show that intact Mob1a or Mob1b is essential for murine embryogenesis and that loss of the remaining WT Mob1 allele in Mob1a?/?1btr/+ or Mob1a?/+1btr/tr mice results in tumor development. Because most of these cancers resembled trichilemmal carcinomas, we generated double-mutant mice bearing tamoxifen-inducible, keratinocyte-specific homozygous-null mutations of Mob1a and Mob1b (kDKO mice). kDKO mice showed hyperplastic keratinocyte progenitors and defective keratinocyte terminal differentiation and soon died of malnutrition. kDKO keratinocytes exhibited hyperproliferation, apoptotic resistance, impaired contact inhibition, enhanced progenitor self renewal, and increased centrosomes. Examination of Hippo pathway signaling in kDKO keratinocytes revealed that loss of Mob1a/b altered the activities of the downstream Hippo mediators LATS and YAP1. Similarly, YAP1 was activated in some human trichilemmal carcinomas, and some of these also exhibited MOB1A/1B inactivation. Our results clearly demonstrate that MOB1A and MOB1B have overlapping functions in skin homeostasis, and exert their roles as tumor suppressors by regulating downstream elements of the Hippo pathway. PMID:23143302

Nishio, Miki; Hamada, Koichi; Kawahara, Kohichi; Sasaki, Masato; Noguchi, Fumihito; Chiba, Shuhei; Mizuno, Kensaku; Suzuki, Satoshi O.; Dong, Youyi; Tokuda, Masaaki; Morikawa, Takumi; Hikasa, Hiroki; Eggenschwiler, Jonathan; Yabuta, Norikazu; Nojima, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Kentaro; Hata, Yutaka; Nishina, Hiroshi; Mimori, Koshi; Mori, Masaki; Sasaki, Takehiko; Mak, Tak W.; Nakano, Toru; Itami, Satoshi; Suzuki, Akira

2012-01-01

21

Respiratory-competent conditional developmental mutant of Mucor racemosus.  

PubMed

A conditional developmental mutant of Mucor racemosus which is capable of oxidative energy metabolism is described. Unlike the wild-type strain the mutant was highly fermentative and exhibited the yeast morphology when grown aerobically in glucose-containing media. The high fermentative activity and yeast morphology under these conditions correlated well with maximal expression of glycolytic enzymes and with expression of some polypeptides characteristic of anaerobic growth. Aerobic growth of the mutant on amino acids as the sole carbon source resulted in growth in the mycelial morphology. The mutant was fully capable of oxidative metabolism as judged by its ability to grow on amino acids, respiratory capacity, and complement of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. The results support the hypothesis that oxygen controls both the expression of glycolytic enzymes and the expression of proteins involved in morphogenesis. Moreover, they suggest that there are common regulatory elements in the control of these two classes of gene products. Abnormally high levels of aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase in the mutant are consistent with the proposal that pool sizes of citrate may act as a regulator of genes responsive to environmental oxygen concentration. PMID:4066610

Borgia, P T; Gokul, N K; Phillips, G J

1985-12-01

22

Mutual correction of faulty PCNA subunits in temperature-sensitive lethal mus209 mutants of Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed Central

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) functions in DNA replication as a processivity factor for polymerases delta and epsilon, and in multiple DNA repair processes. We describe two temperature-sensitive lethal alleles (mus209(B1) and mus209(2735)) of the Drosophila PCNA gene that, at temperatures permissive for growth, result in hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, suppression of position-effect variegation, and female sterility in which ovaries are underdeveloped and do not produce eggs. We show by mosaic analysis that the sterility of mus209(B1) is partly due to a failure of germ-line cells to proliferate. Strikingly, mus209(B1) and mus209(2735) interact to restore partial fertility to heteroallelic females, revealing additional roles for PCNA in ovarian development, meiotic recombination, and embryogenesis. We further show that, although mus209(B1) and mus209(2735) homozygotes are each defective in repair of transposase-induced DNA double-strand breaks in somatic cells, this defect is substantially reversed in the heteroallelic mutant genotype. These novel mutations map to adjacent sites on the three-dimensional structure of PCNA, which was unexpected in the context of this observed interallelic complementation. These mutations, as well as four others we describe, reveal new relationships between the structure and function of PCNA. PMID:10747065

Henderson, D S; Wiegand, U K; Norman, D G; Glover, D M

2000-01-01

23

sigE facilitates the adaptation of Bordetella bronchiseptica to stress conditions and lethal infection in immunocompromised mice  

PubMed Central

Background The cell envelope of a bacterial pathogen can be damaged by harsh conditions in the environment outside a host and by immune factors during infection. Cell envelope stress responses preserve the integrity of this essential compartment and are often required for virulence. Bordetella species are important respiratory pathogens that possess a large number of putative transcription factors. However, no cell envelope stress responses have been described in these species. Among the putative Bordetella transcription factors are a number of genes belonging to the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) group of alternative sigma factors, some of which are known to mediate cell envelope stress responses in other bacteria. Here we investigate the role of one such gene, sigE, in stress survival and pathogenesis of Bordetella bronchiseptica. Results We demonstrate that sigE encodes a functional sigma factor that mediates a cell envelope stress response. Mutants of B. bronchiseptica strain RB50 lacking sigE are more sensitive to high temperature, ethanol, and perturbation of the envelope by SDS-EDTA and certain ?-lactam antibiotics. Using a series of immunocompromised mice deficient in different components of the innate and adaptive immune responses, we show that SigE plays an important role in evading the innate immune response during lethal infections of mice lacking B cells and T cells. SigE is not required, however, for colonization of the respiratory tract of immunocompetent mice. The sigE mutant is more efficiently phagocytosed and killed by peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) than RB50, and exhibits decreased cytotoxicity toward macrophages. These altered interactions with phagocytes could contribute to the defects observed during lethal infection. Conclusions Much of the work on transcriptional regulation during infection in B. bronchiseptica has focused on the BvgAS two-component system. This study reveals that the SigE regulon also mediates a discrete subset of functions associated with virulence. SigE is the first cell envelope stress-sensing system to be described in the bordetellae. In addition to its role during lethal infection of mice deficient in adaptive immunity, our results indicate that SigE is likely to be important for survival in the face of stresses encountered in the environment between hosts. PMID:22897969

2012-01-01

24

Expression of mutant human cystathionine beta-synthase rescues neonatal lethality but not homocystinuria in a mouse model  

PubMed Central

Cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) deficiency is a recessive genetic disorder in humans characterized by elevated levels in total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) and frequent thrombosis in humans. The I278T mutation is the most common mutation found in human CBS deficient patients. The T424N mutation was identified as a mutation in human CBS that could restore function to I278T in S. cerevisiae. In this report, we have engineered mice that express human I278T and I278T/T424N proteins from a metallotheinein driven transgene. These transgene-containing mice were then bred to CBS knockout animals (Cbs-) to generate mice that express only human I278T or I278T/T424N protein. Both the I278T and the I278T/T424N transgenes are able to entirely rescue the previously described neonatal mortality phenotype despite the animals having a mean tHcy of 250 ?M. The transgenic Cbs-/- animals exhibit facial alopecia, have moderate liver steatosis and are slightly smaller than heterozygous littermates. In contrast to human CBS deficiency, these mice do not exhibit extreme methioninemia. The mutant proteins are stable in the liver, kidney and colon, and liver extracts have only 2-3% of the CBS enzyme activity found in wild type mice. Surprisingly, the I278T/T424N enzyme had exactly the same activity as the I278T enzyme indicating that T424N is unable to suppress I278T in mice. Our results show that elevated tHcy per se is not responsible for the neonatal lethality observed in Cbs-/- animals and suggests that CBS protein may have a function in addition to its role in homocysteine catabolism. These transgenic animals should be useful in the study of homocysteine related human disease. PMID:15972722

Wang, Liqun; Chen, Xulin; Tang, Baiqing; Hua, Xiang; Klein-Szanto, Andres

2005-01-01

25

Lethal effect of K-shell absorption of intracellular phosphorus on wild-type and radiation sensitive mutants of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to clarify the lethality of Auger cascades induced by the K-shell photoabsorption of phosphorus in Escherichia coli. Killing of wild-type and radiation-sensitive mutants of E. coli was examined. Three x-ray energies were chosen for irradiation; at 2.153 keV: the resonance peak of K-shell photoabsorption of phosphorus; at 2.146 and 2.160 keV: off-peak. Enhancement ratio, which was defined as the ratio of the killing sensitivity of 2.153 keV to that at 2.146 keV, were 1.32 to 1.54 for examined strains. Increment of absorbed energy calculated in entire cells for 2.153 keV radiation could not explain the degree of observed enhancement of killing. Lethality of Auger cascades depended on the killing sensitivity with x-rays which did not induce Auger cascades. The lethality for wild-type was lower than that for recombination repair-deficient mutants. It was concluded that one part of damages produced by Auger cascades was repaired in wild-type strains. PMID:9004768

Maezawa, H; Furusawa, Y; Kobayashi, K; Hieda, K; Suzuki, M; Usami, N; Yokoya, A; Mori, T

1996-01-01

26

Production of viable seeds from the seedling lethal mutant ppi2-2 lacking the atToc159 chloroplast protein import receptor using plastic containers, and characterization of the homozygous mutant progeny  

PubMed Central

Biogenesis of chloroplasts is essential for plant growth and development. A number of homozygous mutants lacking a chloroplast protein exhibit an albino phenotype. In general, it is challenging to grow albino Arabidopsis plants on soil until they set seeds. Homozygous albino mutants are usually obtained as progenies of heterozygous parents. Here, we describe a method of recovering seeds from the seedling lethal Arabidopsis mutant ppi2-2, which lacks the atToc159 protein import receptor at the outer envelope membrane of chloroplast. Using plastic containers, we were able to grow homozygous ppi2-2 plants until these set seed. Although the germination rate of the harvested seeds was relatively low, it was still sufficient to allow us to further analyze the ppi2-2 progeny. Using ppi2-2 homozygous seeds, we were able to analyze the role of plastid protein import in the light-regulated induction of nuclear genes. We propose that this method be applied to other seedling lethal Arabidopsis mutants to obtain homozygous seeds, helping us further investigate the roles of plastid proteins in plant growth and development. PMID:24926298

Tada, Akari; Adachi, Fumi; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Inaba, Takehito

2014-01-01

27

Zebrafish mutants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two developing Danio mutants with slow beating two-chambered hearts. A no tail mutant shows problems with both the heart and the tail. They cannot swim to catch food making the no tail mutation lethal.

Mildred Hoover (Salem State College; Biology Department)

2008-07-19

28

Cationic lipid-assisted polymeric nanoparticle mediated GATA2 siRNA delivery for synthetic lethal therapy of KRAS mutant non-small-cell lung carcinoma.  

PubMed

Synthetic lethal interaction provides a conceptual framework for the development of wiser cancer therapeutics. In this study, we exploited a therapeutic strategy based on the interaction between GATA binding protein 2 (GATA2) downregulation and the KRAS mutation status by delivering small interfering RNA targeting GATA2 (siGATA2) with cationic lipid-assisted polymeric nanoparticles for treatment of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) harboring oncogenic KRAS mutations. Nanoparticles carrying siGATA2 (NPsiGATA2) were effectively taken up by NSCLC cells and resulted in targeted gene suppression. NPsiGATA2 selectively inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in KRAS mutant NSCLC cells. However, this intervention was harmless to normal KRAS wild-type NSCLC cells and HL7702 hepatocytes, confirming the advantage of synthetic lethality-based therapy. Moreover, systemic delivery of NPsiGATA2 significantly inhibited tumor growth in the KRAS mutant A549 NSCLC xenograft murine model, suggesting the therapeutic promise of NPsiGATA2 delivery in KRAS mutant NSCLC therapy. PMID:24521262

Shen, Song; Mao, Chong-Qiong; Yang, Xian-Zhu; Du, Xiao-Jiao; Liu, Yang; Zhu, Yan-Hua; Wang, Jun

2014-08-01

29

Lethal, potentially lethal lesion model  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical framework to describe the formation of lethal mutations by radiation is presented. Lesions that are repaired (and misrepaired) in each type of experiment described (delayed plating and split dose) are assumed to be the same. In this model the same (potentially lethal) lesions cause both sublethal and potentially lethal damage. Potentially lethal damage is defined as damage which may be modified by alterations in postirradiation conditions. Sublethal damage is cellular damage whose accumulation may lead to lethality. A crucial consideration in the expression of the damage is the kind of medium in which the cells are placed during the repair period. Fresh or growth medium (F-medium) is assumed to cause fixation of damage after about 3 hours, while no fixation (only misrepair) occurs in conditioned medium (C-medium).

Curtis, S.B.

1983-07-01

30

Study of radiosensitive Drosophila lines. XI. Induction of recessive sex-linked lethal mutations in females of the mutant line rad(2)201/sup G1/  

SciTech Connect

The authors have studied the frequency of occurrence of recessive sex-linked lethal mutations (RSLLM) after treatment of the females with ..gamma..-rays as a function of the dose (from 5 to 20 Gy) and oogenesis stage. They have shown that within the dose range used the oocytes of the 14th and 7th development stage are more sensitive in females of the mutant line than in those of the control. They detected significant differences in the frequency of occurrence of RSLLM between the 14th and 7th stages of development of oocytes for both Drosophila lines investigated.

Varentsova, E.R.

1986-05-01

31

Deletion of Glycine Decarboxylase in Arabidopsis Is Lethal under Nonphotorespiratory Conditions1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The mitochondrial multienzyme glycine decarboxylase (GDC) catalyzes the tetrahydrofolate-dependent catabolism of glycine to 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate and the side products NADH, CO2, and NH3. This reaction forms part of the photorespiratory cycle and contributes to one-carbon metabolism. While the important role of GDC for these two metabolic pathways is well established, the existence of bypassing reactions has also been suggested. Therefore, it is not clear to what extent GDC is obligatory for these processes. Here, we report on features of individual and combined T-DNA insertion mutants for one of the GDC subunits, P protein, which is encoded by two genes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The individual knockout of either of these two genes does not significantly alter metabolism and photosynthetic performance indicating functional redundancy. In contrast, the double mutant does not develop beyond the cotyledon stage in air enriched with 0.9% CO2. Rosette leaves do not appear and the seedlings do not survive for longer than about 3 to 4 weeks under these nonphotorespiratory conditions. This feature distinguishes the GDC-lacking double mutant from all other known photorespiratory mutants and provides evidence for the nonreplaceable function of GDC in vital metabolic processes other than photorespiration. PMID:17496108

Engel, Nadja; van den Daele, Kirsten; Kolukisaoglu, Üner; Morgenthal, Katja; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Pärnik, Tiit; Keerberg, Olav; Bauwe, Hermann

2007-01-01

32

Conditional activation defect of a human Gs??mutant  

PubMed Central

Hormonal signals activate trimeric G proteins by promoting exchange of GTP for GDP bound to the G protein’s ? subunit (G?). Here we describe a point mutation that impairs this activation mechanism in the ? subunit of Gs, producing an inherited disorder of hormone responsiveness. Biochemical analysis reveals an activation defect that is paradoxically intensified by hormonal and other stimuli. By substituting histidine for a conserved arginine residue, the mutation removes an internal salt bridge (to a conserved glutamate) that normally acts as an intramolecular hasp to maintain tight binding of the ?-phosphate of GTP. In its basal, unperturbed state, the mutant ?s binds guanosine 5?-[?-thio]triphosphate (GTP[?S]), a GTP analog, slightly less tightly than does normal ?s, but (in the GTP[?S]-bound form) can stimulate adenylyl cyclase. The activation defect becomes prominent only under conditions that destabilize binding of guanine nucleotide (receptor stimulation) or impair the ability of ?s to bind the ?-phosphate of GTP (cholera toxin, AlF4? ion). Although GDP release is usually the rate-limiting step in nucleotide exchange, the biochemical phenotype of this mutant ?s indicates that efficient G protein activation by receptors and other stimuli depends on the ability of G? to clasp tightly the GTP molecule that enters the binding site. PMID:9159128

Iiri, Taroh; Farfel, Zvi; Bourne, Henry R.

1997-01-01

33

Synthetic lethality with conditional dbp6 alleles identifies rsa1p, a nucleoplasmic protein involved in the assembly of 60S ribosomal subunits.  

PubMed

Dbp6p is an essential putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase that is required for 60S-ribosomal-subunit assembly in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (D. Kressler, J. de la Cruz, M. Rojo, and P. Linder, Mol. Cell. Biol. 18:1855-1865, 1998). To identify factors that are functionally interacting with Dbp6p, we have performed a synthetic lethal screen with conditional dbp6 mutants. Here, we describe the cloning and the phenotypic analysis of the previously uncharacterized open reading frame YPL193W, which we renamed RSA1 (ribosome assembly 1). Rsa1p is not essential for cell viability; however, rsa1 null mutant strains display a slow-growth phenotype, which is exacerbated at elevated temperatures. The rsa1 null allele synthetically enhances the mild growth defect of weak dbp6 alleles and confers synthetic lethality when combined with stronger dbp6 alleles. Polysome profile analysis shows that the absence of Rsa1p results in the accumulation of half-mer polysomes. However, the pool of free 60S ribosomal subunits is only moderately decreased; this is reminiscent of polysome profiles from mutants defective in 60S-to-40S subunit joining. Pulse-chase labeling of pre-rRNA in the rsa1 null mutant strain indicates that formation of the mature 25S rRNA is decreased at the nonpermissive temperature. Interestingly, free 60S ribosomal subunits of a rsa1 null mutant strain that was grown for two generations at 37 degrees C are practically devoid of the 60S-ribosomal-subunit protein Qsr1p/Rpl10p, which is required for joining of 60S and 40S subunits (D. P. Eisinger, F. A. Dick, and B. L. Trumpower, Mol. Cell. Biol. 17:5136-5145, 1997). Moreover, the combination of the Deltarsa1 and qsr1-1 mutations leads to a strong synthetic growth inhibition. Finally, a hemagglutinin epitope-tagged Rsa1p localizes predominantly to the nucleoplasm. Together, these results point towards a function for Rsa1p in a late nucleoplasmic step of 60S-ribosomal-subunit assembly. PMID:10567587

Kressler, D; Doère, M; Rojo, M; Linder, P

1999-12-01

34

Immediate protection of mice from lethal wild-type Sendai virus (HVJ) infections by a temperature-sensitive mutant, HVJpi, possessing homologous interfering capacity.  

PubMed

Protection of mice from lethal Sendai virus (HVJ) infections by a temperature-sensitive mutant, HVJpi, which was isolated from a carrier culture, was studied. HVJpi had a strong interfering capacity with the replication of virulent wild-type virus in LLCMK2 cells. When a high dose of HVJpi (3.0 x 10(7) CIU) was inoculated intranasally into mice, the mice showed neither illness nor lung lesions but gained significant resistance against the challenge of virulent wild-type virus (18 LD50) immediately after inoculation. In contrast, the mice inoculated with a lower dose of HVJpi (8.2 x 10(5) CIU) did not show the immediate resistance but became immune several days after inoculation. Time courses of the virus replication in the lung revealed that the replication of wild-type virus was strongly suppressed to about 1/1000 by the simultaneous infection with a high dose of HVJpi, thus resulting in minimizing the lung lesions and survival of all the mice infected. Neither interferon nor natural killer cells appeared to play a major role in the immediate immune status by HVJpi, since no difference was observed in protection of mice simultaneously infected with wild-type virus and HVJpi in spite of pretreatment of the mice with anti-interferon and anti-asialo GM1 antibodies as compared with that of the untreated doubly infected mice. On the other hand, it was suggested by analysis of viral polypeptides synthesized in the lung of infected mice by Western blotting that the early stage of replication of wild-type virus in the lung was inhibited mainly by the interfering capacity of HVJpi. These results indicate that HVJpi is an unique virus mutant which is capable of protecting mice from lethal Sendai virus infections by its interfering capacity immediately after inoculation and then by the induction of virus-specific immune responses. PMID:2162116

Kiyotani, K; Takao, S; Sakaguchi, T; Yoshida, T

1990-07-01

35

Use of a conditionally lethal gene in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 to select for double recombinants and to entrap insertion sequences  

SciTech Connect

Use of the sacB gene provides a simple, effective, positive selection for double recombinants in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, a filamentous cyanobacterium. This gene, which encodes the secretory levansucrase of Bacillus subtilis, was inserted into the vector portion of a suicide plasmid bearing a mutant version of a chromosomal gene. Cells of colonies in which such a plasmid had integrated into the Anabaena chromosome through single recombination were plated on solid medium containing 5% sucrose. Under this condition, the presence of the sacB gene is lethal. A small fraction of the cells from initially sucrose-sensitive colonies became sucrose resistant; the majority of these sucrose-resistant derivatives had undergone a second recombinational event in which the sacB-containing vector had been lost and the wild-type form of the chromosomal gene had been replaced by the mutant form. By the use of this technique, they mutated two selected genes in the chromosome of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. The conditionally lethal nature of the sacB gene was also used to detect insertion sequences from this Anabaena strain. Sucrose-resistant colonies derived from cells bearing a sacB-containing autonomously replicating plasmid were analyzed. Five different, presumed insertion sequences were found to have inserted into the sacB gene of the plasmids in these colonies. One of them, denoted IS892, was characterized by physical mapping. It is 1.7 kilobases in size and is present in at least five copies in the genome of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

Cai, Yuping; Wolk, C.P. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1990-06-01

36

Enhanced non-homologous end joining contributes toward synthetic lethality of pathological RAD51C mutants with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase.  

PubMed

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitors are actively under clinical trials for the treatment of breast and ovarian cancers that arise due to mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. The RAD51 paralog RAD51C has been identified as a breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene. The pathological RAD51C mutants that were identified in cancer patients are hypomorphic with partial repair function. However, targeting cancer cells that express hypomorphic mutants of RAD51C is highly challenging. Here, we report that RAD51C-deficient cells can be targeted by a 'synthetic lethal' approach using PARP inhibitor and this sensitivity was attributed to accumulation of cells in the G2/M and chromosomal aberrations. In addition, spontaneous hyperactivation of PARP1 was evident in RAD51C-deficient cells. Interestingly, RAD51C-negative cells exhibited enhanced recruitment of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) proteins onto chromatin and this accumulation correlated with increased activity of error-prone NHEJ as well as genome instability leading to cell death. Notably, inhibition of DNA-PKcs or depletion of KU70 or Ligase IV rescued this phenotype. Strikingly, stimulation of NHEJ by low dose of ionizing radiation (IR) in the PARP inhibitor-treated RAD51C-deficient cells and cells expressing pathological RAD51C mutants induced enhanced toxicity 'synergistically'. These results demonstrate that cancer cells arising due to hypomorphic mutations in RAD51C can be specifically targeted by a 'synergistic approach' and imply that this strategy can be potentially applied to cancers with hypomorphic mutations in other homologous recombination pathway genes. PMID:25292178

Somyajit, Kumar; Mishra, Anup; Jameei, Aida; Nagaraju, Ganesh

2015-01-01

37

The zebrafish early arrest mutants.  

PubMed

This report describes mutants of the zebrafish having phenotypes causing a general arrest in early morphogenesis. These mutants identify a group of loci making up about 20% of the loci identified by mutants with visible morphological phenotypes within the first day of development. There are 12 Class I mutants, which fall into 5 complementation groups and have cells that lyse before morphological defects are observed. Mutants at three loci, speed bump, ogre and zombie, display abnormal nuclei. The 8 Class II mutants, which fall into 6 complementation groups, arrest development before cell lysis is observed. These mutants seemingly stop development in the late segmentation stages, and maintain a body shape similar to a 20 hour embryo. Mutations in speed bump, ogre, zombie, specter, poltergeist and troll were tested for cell lethality by transplanting mutant cells into wild-type hosts. With poltergeist, transplanted mutant cells all survive. The remainder of the mutants tested were autonomously but conditionally lethal: mutant cells, most of which lyse, sometimes survive to become notochord, muscles, or, in rare cases, large neurons, all cell types which become postmitotic in the gastrula. Some of the genes of the early arrest group may be necessary for progression though the cell cycle; if so, the survival of early differentiating cells may be based on having their terminal mitosis before the zygotic requirement for these genes. PMID:9007229

Kane, D A; Maischein, H M; Brand, M; van Eeden, F J; Furutani-Seiki, M; Granato, M; Haffter, P; Hammerschmidt, M; Heisenberg, C P; Jiang, Y J; Kelsh, R N; Mullins, M C; Odenthal, J; Warga, R M; Nüsslein-Volhard, C

1996-12-01

38

Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

PubMed Central

Background The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae). Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dependent on newly isolated medfly promoter/enhancer elements of cellularization-specifically-expressed genes. These elements act differently in expression strength and their ability to drive lethal effector gene activation. Moreover, position effects strongly influence the efficiency of the system. Out of 60 combinations of driver and effector construct integrations, several lines resulted in larval and pupal lethality with one line showing complete embryonic lethality. This line was highly competitive to wildtype medfly in laboratory and field cage tests. Conclusion The high competitiveness of the transgenic lines and the achieved 100% embryonic lethality causing reproductive sterility without the need of irradiation can improve the efficacy of operational medfly SIT programs. PMID:19173707

Schetelig, Marc F; Caceres, Carlos; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Franz, Gerald; Wimmer, Ernst A

2009-01-01

39

Comparison of the Behavior of Epiphytic Fitness Mutants of Pseudomonas syringae under Controlled and Field Conditions  

PubMed Central

The epiphytic fitness of four Tn5 mutants of Pseudomonas syringae that exhibited reduced epiphytic fitness in the laboratory was evaluated under field conditions. The mutants differed more from the parental strain under field conditions than under laboratory conditions in their survival immediately following inoculation onto bean leaves and in the size of the epiphytic populations that they established, demonstrating that their fitness was reduced more under field conditions than in the laboratory. Under both conditions, the four mutants exhibited distinctive behaviors. One mutant exhibited particularly large population decreases and short half-lives following inoculation but grew epiphytically at near-wild-type rates, while the others exhibited reduced survival only in the warmest, driest conditions tested and grew epiphytically at reduced rates or, in the case of one mutant, not at all. The presence of the parental strain, B728a, did not influence the survival or growth of three of the mutants under field conditions; however, one mutant, an auxotroph, established larger populations in the presence of B728a than in its absence, possibly because of cross-feeding by B728a in planta. Experiments with B728a demonstrated that established epiphytic populations survived exposure of leaves to dry conditions better than newly inoculated cells did and that epiphytic survival was not dependent on the cell density in the inoculum. Three of the mutants behaved similarly to two nonpathogenic strains of P. syringae, suggesting that the mutants may be altered in traits that are missing or poorly expressed in naturally occurring nonpathogenic epiphytes. PMID:16349418

Beattie, Gwyn A.; Lindow, Steven E.

1994-01-01

40

Lethality of high linear energy transfer cosmic radiation to Escherichia coli DNA repair-deficient mutants during the 'SL-J/FMPT' space experiment.  

PubMed

We investigated the lethal and mutagenic effects of high linear energy transfer cosmic radiation on 11 strains of Escherichia coli, including DNA repair-deficient mutants, using the Radiation Monitoring Container and Dosimeter in the space shuttle 'Endeavour' as part of the 'SL-J/FMPT' space experiment, the 'Fuwatto '92' project. After the return to earth of the shuttle, we evaluated survival and mutations of samples in space and matched controls. The surviving fractions were determined by means of colony count on broth agar plates, and the mutation frequencies were estimated by appearance of arg' revertants on minimal agar plates. The average of the total equivalent dose rate during this space flight was 0.202 mSv/day as measured by the plastic radiation detectors and the thermoluminescent dosimeters in the Radiation Monitoring Container and Dosimeter. The combined action of DNA polymerase and 3'-->5' exonuclease activities was found to make the greatest contribution to the repair of cosmic radiation-induced DNA damage, 5'-->3' exonuclease and recombination repair enzyme activities made a moderate contribution, whereas UV endonuclease activity was not involved in this DNA repair process. PMID:9675849

Harada, K; Nagaoka, S; Mohri, M; Ohnishi, T; Sugahara, T

1998-07-01

41

Conditional DNA repair mutants enable highly precise genome engineering  

PubMed Central

Oligonucleotide-mediated multiplex genome engineering is an important tool for bacterial genome editing. The efficient application of this technique requires the inactivation of the endogenous methyl-directed mismatch repair system that in turn leads to a drastically elevated genomic mutation rate and the consequent accumulation of undesired off-target mutations. Here, we present a novel strategy for mismatch repair evasion using temperature-sensitive DNA repair mutants and temporal inactivation of the mismatch repair protein complex in Escherichia coli. Our method relies on the transient suppression of DNA repair during mismatch carrying oligonucleotide integration. Using temperature-sensitive control of methyl-directed mismatch repair protein activity during multiplex genome engineering, we reduced the number of off-target mutations by 85%, concurrently maintaining highly efficient and unbiased allelic replacement. PMID:24500200

Nyerges, Ákos; Csörg?, Bálint; Nagy, István; Latinovics, Dóra; Szamecz, Béla; Pósfai, György; Pál, Csaba

2014-01-01

42

Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae). Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. RESULTS: Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality.

Marc F Schetelig; Carlos Caceres; Antigone Zacharopoulou; Gerald Franz; Ernst A Wimmer

2009-01-01

43

Eucaryotic RNA polymerase conditional mutant that rapidly ceases mRNA synthesis.  

PubMed Central

We have isolated a yeast conditional mutant which rapidly ceases synthesis of mRNA when subjected to the nonpermissive temperature. This mutant (rpb1-1) was constructed by replacing the wild-type chromosomal copy of the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II with one mutagenized in vitro. The rapid cessation of mRNA synthesis in vivo and the lack of RNA polymerase II activity in crude extracts indicate that the mutant possesses a functionally defective, rather than an assembly-defective, RNA polymerase II. The shutdown in mRNA synthesis in the rpb1-1 mutant has pleiotropic effects on the synthesis of other RNAs and on the heat shock response. This mutant provides direct evidence that the RPB1 protein has a functional role in mRNA synthesis. Images PMID:3299050

Nonet, M; Scafe, C; Sexton, J; Young, R

1987-01-01

44

Burkholderia cenocepacia conditional growth mutant library created by random promoter replacement of essential genes  

PubMed Central

Identification of essential genes by construction of conditional knockouts with inducible promoters allows the identification of essential genes and creation of conditional growth (CG) mutants that are then available as genetic tools for further studies. We used large-scale transposon delivery of the rhamnose-inducible promoter, PrhaB followed by robotic screening of rhamnose-dependent growth to construct a genomic library of 106 Burkholderia cenocepacia CG mutants. Transposon insertions were found where PrhaB was in the same orientation of widely conserved, well-characterized essential genes as well as genes with no previous records of essentiality in other microorganisms. Using previously reported global gene-expression analyses, we demonstrate that PrhaB can achieve the wide dynamic range of expression levels required for essential genes when the promoter is delivered randomly and mutants with rhamnose-dependent growth are selected. We also show specific detection of the target of an antibiotic, novobiocin, by enhanced sensitivity of the corresponding CG mutant (PrhaB controlling gyrB expression) within the library. Modulation of gene expression to achieve 30–60% of wild-type growth created conditions for specific hypersensitivity demonstrating the value of the CG mutant library for chemogenomic experiments. In summary, CG mutants can be obtained on a large scale by random delivery of a tightly regulated inducible promoter into the bacterial chromosome followed by a simple screening for the CG phenotype, without previous information on gene essentiality. PMID:23389959

Bloodworth, Ruhi A M; Gislason, April S; Cardona, Silvia T

2013-01-01

45

Streptomycin-Suppressible Lethal Mutations in Escherichia coli1  

PubMed Central

Forty-one mutants have been isolated which require streptomycin for growth on complete medium. These streptomycin-suppressible lethal mutations are located randomly around the Escherichia coli genetic map; during growth in liquid culture, they exhibit a variety of responses to the removal of streptomycin as judged by turbidity, cell morphology, and macromolecular synthesis. In particular, some mutants are primarily affected in protein or ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis (or both), one in deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis, and two in lipid synthesis. Ten mutants affected in protein synthesis were examined for the activities of all twenty aminoacyl-transfer RNA synthetases, and three were found to have altered glutamyl-transfer RNA synthetase activities. The advantages of this method for isolating a wide variety of conditional lethal mutants are discussed. PMID:4912524

Murgola, E. J.; Adelberg, E. A.

1970-01-01

46

Conditional Rescue of Olfactory Learning and Memory Defects in Mutants of the 14-3-3 Gene leonardo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the ubiquitous 14-3-3 family of proteins are abun- dantly expressed in metazoan neurons. The Drosophila 14-3-3 gene leonardo is preferentially expressed in adult mushroom bodies, centers of insect learning and memory. Mutants exhibit defects in olfactory learning and memory and physiological neuroplasticity at the neuromuscular junction. Because strong mutations in this gene are lethal, we investigated the nature

Nisha Philip; Summer F. Acevedo; Efthimios M. C. Skoulakis

2001-01-01

47

Drosophila Embryonic Cell-Cycle Mutants  

E-print Network

Nearly all cell division mutants in Drosophila were recovered in late larval/pupal lethal screens, with less than 10 embryonic lethal mutants identified, because larval development occurs without a requirement for cell ...

Unhavaithaya, Yingdee

48

Conditional tradeoffs between aging and organismal performance of Indy long-lived mutant flies  

E-print Network

Conditional tradeoffs between aging and organismal performance of Indy long-lived mutant flies of Genetics and Developmental Biology, School of Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington-life fitness and lon- gevity are central to theories of the evolution of aging, which suggests

Marden, James

49

Studies on radiosensitive lines of Drosophila. IX. Analysis of fertility and frequency of dominant lethal mutations in the gamma-irradiated females of the mutant line rad(2)201/sup G1/  

SciTech Connect

Fertility and frequency of dominant lethal mutations (DLM) induced by gamma rays in females at the age of 0-5 h and 5-7 days were studied in the radiosensitive mutant rad(2)201/sup G1/ of Drosophila. It has been found that the oocytes of mutant lines are more radiosensitive as compared to those of the wild type flies when compared on the basis of DLM frequency obtained through the entire maturation period. The early oocytes of stages 2-7, i.e., at the stages corresponding to the recombination-defective properties of mutation rad(2)201/sup g1/ are the most sensitive. It has also been demonstrated that the gamma-ray doses exceeding 10 Gy cause a strong sterilizing effect in the mutant females as a result of destruction and resorption of the egg chamber, irradiated at the stages of previtellogenic growth of oocytes. In the radiosensitive mutant females, the sensitivity of the oocytes for DLM induction does not correlate with the sensitivity of the ovarian follicles toward the resorbing effect of gamma rays. The possible involvement of the mutant locus in the genetic processes in different specialized cells of the sexual pathway in Drosophila is discussed.

Varentsova, E.R.; Sharygin, V.I.; Khromykh, Yu.M.

1986-03-01

50

Swimming Behaviour and Otolith Characteristics of wildtype and mutant Zebrafish (AIE) under diminished Gravity Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During microgravity humans often suffer from sensorimotor disorders e g motion sickness a kinetosis Using fish as vertebrate model systems we could previously provide ample evidence that the individually different susceptibility to such disorders is based on an individually differently pronounced asymmetric mineralisation calcification of inner ear stones otoliths In the course of a preliminary study we subjected mutant zebrafish Danio rerio due to malformation of the inner ear - see below - this mutant was termed Asymmetric Inner Ear AIE to diminished gravity conditions during parabolic aircraft flight PF As compared to wildtype WT animals the mutants showed a pronounced kinetotic behaviour The gross-morphology of the inner ears of AIE and WT animals strikingly differed In WT specimens the saccular otoliths were located at the periphery of the inner ear whereas the utricular stones were positioned mediad as it is usually the case in teleosts in most AIE animals dissected however the respective otoliths were positioned in an opposite arrangement Moreover the mutants sported transparent otoliths whereas the otoliths of WT specimens had an opaque appearance This finding clearly indicates that mutant otoliths differed from wildtype ones in their lattice structure i e the calcium carbonate polymorph and thus the compostion of the proteinacious matrix which is a template for calcium carbonate deposition In the course of the present study the PF experiment is scheduled to be carried out in March 2006 we intend to statistically verify

Weigele, J.; Anken, R.; Hilbig, R.

51

Physiological and genetic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanin biosynthesis mutants under chronic adverse environmental conditions  

PubMed Central

Anthocyanin production is a characteristic response of flowering plants to unfavourable environmental conditions. The potential roles of flavonoids and anthocyanins in plant growth were investigated by growing Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanin production mutants (transparent testa) under limiting nitrogen and high light conditions. Inability to produce kaempferol or subsequent intermediate compounds by some transparent testa lines was correlated with less biomass accumulation in mature plants compared with wild-type control plants under all growth conditions tested. However, under both limiting nitrogen and high light chronic stress conditions, mutant lines defective in later steps of the anthocyanin production pathway produced the same or more biomass than wild-type plants. No difference in senescence between transparent testa and wild-type plants was found using chlorophyll catabolism and SAG12 expression measurements, and no mutants were impaired in the ability to remobilize nutrients from the vegetative to reproductive tissues. Moreover, the absence of anthocyanin and/or upstream flavonoids does not affect the ability of plants to respond to limiting nitrogen by reducing photosynthetic capacity. These results support a role for kaempferol and quercetin accumulation in normal plant growth and development. Further, the absence of anthocyanins has no effect on plant growth under the chronic stress conditions tested. PMID:23162120

Rothstein, Steven J.

2013-01-01

52

Studies on radiosensitive lines of Drosophila. X. Effect of 0. 8 MeV neutrons from reactor on the survival and frequency of dominant lethals in mutant line rad(2)201/sup G1/  

SciTech Connect

The frequency of dominant lethal mutations (DLM) was studied in the females of the radiosensitive mutant line rad(2)201/sup G1/ following exposure to different doses of neutrons at various stages of oogenesis. Survival of pupae after irradiation of larvae was also studied. It has been demonstrated that in respect of DLM induction, the differential sensitivity of oocytes to the action of neutrons in the control (nonmutated) line is similar to that of gamma-ray treatment. The sensitivity of oocytes at the 7th and earlier stages is higher in the mutant females than in control line. The analysis of relative biological efficiency (RBE) of the neutrons showed that they are more effective in the control line as compared to the mutant line, in respect of survival as well as frequency of DLM induction. The RBE of neutrons depended on the stage of oocyte development: the highest RBE was observed in immature sex cells of females. The possible mechanisms of higher sensitivity of mutant line rad(2)201/sup G1/ to the action of ionizing radiation are discussed.

Varentsova, E.R.; Sharygin, V.I.; Postnikov, L.N.; Efremov, O.A.

1986-04-01

53

Thiamine Deficiency in Self-Induced Refeeding Syndrome, an Undetected and Potentially Lethal Condition  

PubMed Central

Rapid restoration of nutrients and electrolytes after prolonged starvation could result in a life threatening condition characterized by sensory and neurological dysfunction and severe metabolic imbalance that has been designated as refeeding syndrome. Its diagnosis is frequently missed resulting in severe complications and even death. We describe a 25-years-old female patient with mental disorders and severe malnutrition who developed severe clinical manifestations and biochemical abnormalities characteristic of the refeeding syndrome, after restarting oral feeding on her own. Schizophrenia was later diagnosed. Increased awareness of this condition and its complications is necessary to prevent its detrimental complications.

Hershkowitz, Einat; Reshef, Alon; Munich, Olga; Yosefi, Bracha; Markel, Arie

2014-01-01

54

The Live Attenuated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Triple-Deletion Mutant ?apxIC ?apxIIC ?apxIV-ORF1 Strain, SLW05, Immunizes Pigs against Lethal Challenge with Haemophilus parasuis  

PubMed Central

Haemophilus parasuis and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae both belong to the family Pasteurellaceae and are major respiratory pathogens that cause large economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. We previously constructed an attenuated A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 1 live vaccine prototype, SLW05 (?apxIC ?apxIIC ?apxIV-ORF1), which is able to produce nontoxic but immunogenic ApxIA, ApxIIA, and ApxIVA. This triple-deletion mutant strain was shown to elicit protective immunity against virulent A. pleuropneumoniae. In the present study, we investigated whether immunization with SLW05 could also protect against lethal challenge with virulent H. parasuis SH0165 (serovar 5) or MD0322 (serovar 4). The SLW05 strain was found to elicit a strong humoral antibody response in pigs and to confer significant protection against challenge with a lethal dose of H. parasuis SH0165 or MD0322. IgG subtype analysis revealed that SLW05 induces a bias toward a Th1-type immune response and stimulates interleukin 2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-?) production. Moreover, antisera from SLW05-vaccinated pigs efficiently inhibited both A. pleuropneumoniae and H. parasuis growth in a whole-blood assay. This is the first report that a live attenuated A. pleuropneumoniae vaccine with SLW05 can protect against lethal H. parasuis infection, which provides a novel approach for developing an attenuated H. parasuis vaccine. PMID:23220998

Fu, Shulin; Ou, Jiwen; Zhang, Minmin; Xu, Juan; Liu, Huazhen; Liu, Jinlin; Yuan, Fangyan; Chen, Huanchun

2013-01-01

55

A defective conditioned behavior and a defective adenylate cyclase in the Drosophila mutant rutabaga  

Microsoft Academic Search

TheDrosophila X-linked mutantrutabaga (Duerr and Quinn 1982) fails to perform normally in olfactory conditioning paradigms, in spite of being able to sense odorants and shock (Figs. 1–3).rut is capable of forming an association between shock and odorant, but memory decays rapidly; the memory of the mutant following intensive training resembles that of normal flies following very brief training (Fig. 4).rut

Yadin Dudai; Shoshana Zvi; Susie Segel

1984-01-01

56

Optimized Condition for Enhanced Soluble-Expression of Recombinant Mutant Anabaena Variabilis Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Recently discovered Anabaena variabilis phenylalanine ammonia lyase (AvPAL) proved to be a good candidate for enzyme replacement therapy of phenylketonuria. Outstanding stability properties of a mutant version of this enzyme, produced already in our laboratory, have led us to the idea of culture conditions optimization for soluble expression of this therapeutically valuable enzyme in E. coli. Methods: In the present study, the gene encoding mutant version of AvPAL was cloned into the pET28a expression vector. Different concentrations of IPTG, induction period, growth temperature, shaking speed, as well as different types of culture media were examined with respect to the amount of recombinant protein produced and specific activity of the enzyme. Results: Based upon our findings, maximum amount of active mutant enzyme was attained by addition of 0.5 mM IPTG at 150 rpm to the TB culture media. The yield of active enzyme at cluture tempreature of 25 °C and induction period of 18 hour was the highest. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the yield of mutant AvPAL production in E. coli can be affected mainly by culture temperature and inducer concentration. PMID:24754010

Zarei Jaliani, Hossein; Farajnia, Safar; Safdari, Yaghoub; Mohammadi, Seyyed Abolghasem; Barzegar, Abolfazl; Talebi, Saeed

2014-01-01

57

Chromosome condensation may enhance X-ray-related cell lethality in a temperature-sensitive mutant (tsBN2) of baby hamster kidney cells (BHK21).  

PubMed

In the tsBN2 cell line, which has a temperature-sensitive defect in the regulatory mechanism for chromosome condensation, the lethal effect of X rays was enhanced by incubating the cells at a nonpermissive temperature (40 degrees C) following X irradiation. This enhancement was suppressed in the presence of cycloheximide, which inhibits induction of premature chromosome condensation. The findings obtained in the case of delayed incubation at 40 degrees C and in synchronized cells indicate that X-ray-related potentially lethal damage, which can be expressed by chromosome condensation, is produced in the cells at any stage of the cell cycle, but it is repairable for all cells except those at around the late G2-M phase, where chromosome condensation occurs at a permissive temperature (33.5 degrees C). These observations suggest that the high sensitivity of late G2-M cells to X rays is caused by the events associated with chromosome condensation. PMID:3562784

Sasaki, H; Nishimoto, T

1987-03-01

58

Growth stimulation in inflorescences of an Arabidopsis tubulin mutant under microgravity conditions in space.  

PubMed

Cortical microtubules are involved in plant resistance to hypergravity, but their roles in resistance to 1 g gravity are still uncertain. To clarify this point, we cultivated an Arabidopsis ?-tubulin 6 mutant (tua6) in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility on the Kibo Module of the International Space Station, and analyzed growth and cell wall mechanical properties of inflorescences. Growth of inflorescence stems was stimulated under microgravity conditions, as compared with ground and on-orbit 1 g conditions. The stems were 10-45% longer and their growth rate 15-55% higher under microgravity conditions than those under both 1 g conditions. The degree of growth stimulation tended to be higher in the tua6 mutant than the wild-type Columbia. Under microgravity conditions, the cell wall extensibility in elongating regions of inflorescences was significantly higher than the controls, suggesting that growth stimulation was caused by cell wall modifications. No clear differences were detected in any growth or cell wall property between ground and on-orbit 1 g controls. These results support the hypothesis that cortical microtubules generally play an important role in plant resistance to the gravitational force. PMID:24148142

Hoson, T; Soga, K; Wakabayashi, K; Hashimoto, T; Karahara, I; Yano, S; Tanigaki, F; Shimazu, T; Kasahara, H; Masuda, D; Kamisaka, S

2014-01-01

59

40 CFR 798.5275 - Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hemizygous condition. (3) Sex-Linked genes are present on the sex (X or Y) chromosomes. Sex-linked genes in the context of this guideline refer...expressed in males carrying the mutant gene. When the mutation is lethal in...

2010-07-01

60

40 CFR 798.5275 - Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hemizygous condition. (3) Sex-Linked genes are present on the sex (X or Y) chromosomes. Sex-linked genes in the context of this guideline refer...expressed in males carrying the mutant gene. When the mutation is lethal in...

2013-07-01

61

40 CFR 798.5275 - Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster.  

...hemizygous condition. (3) Sex-Linked genes are present on the sex (X or Y) chromosomes. Sex-linked genes in the context of this guideline refer...expressed in males carrying the mutant gene. When the mutation is lethal in...

2014-07-01

62

40 CFR 798.5275 - Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hemizygous condition. (3) Sex-Linked genes are present on the sex (X or Y) chromosomes. Sex-linked genes in the context of this guideline refer...expressed in males carrying the mutant gene. When the mutation is lethal in...

2012-07-01

63

40 CFR 798.5275 - Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hemizygous condition. (3) Sex-Linked genes are present on the sex (X or Y) chromosomes. Sex-linked genes in the context of this guideline refer...expressed in males carrying the mutant gene. When the mutation is lethal in...

2011-07-01

64

Improved trehalose production from biodiesel waste using parent and osmotically sensitive mutant of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii under aerobic conditions.  

PubMed

Trehalose is an important nutraceutical of wide commercial interest in the food processing industry. Recently, crude glycerol was reported to be suitable for the production of trehalose using a food microbe, Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii, under static flask conditions. Similarly, enhanced trehalose yield was reported in an osmotically sensitive mutant of the same strain under anaerobic conditions. In the present study, an effort was made to achieve higher production of trehalose, propionic acid, and lactic acid using the parent and an osmotically sensitive mutant of P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii under aeration conditions. Under aeration conditions (200 rpm in shake flasks and 30 % air saturation in a batch reactor), biomass was increased and approximately 98 % of crude glycerol was consumed. In the parent strain, a trehalose titre of 361 mg/l was achieved, whereas in the mutant strain a trehalose titre of 1.3 g/l was produced in shake flask conditions (200 rpm). In the mutant strain, propionic and lactic acid yields of 0.53 and 0.21 g/g of substrate were also achieved with crude glycerol. Similarly, in controlled batch reactor culturing conditions a final trehalose titre of approximately 1.56 g/l was achieved with the mutant strain using crude glycerol as the substrate. Enhanced production of trehalose using P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii from waste under aeration conditions is reported here. Higher production of trehalose was not due to a higher yield of trehalose but to a higher final biomass concentration. PMID:22526328

Ruhal, Rohit; Choudhury, Bijan

2012-08-01

65

Analysis of a mutant exhibiting conditional sorting to dense core secretory granules in Tetrahymena thermophila.  

PubMed Central

The formation of dense core granules (DCGs) requires both the sorting of granule contents from other secretory proteins and a postsorting maturation process. The Tetrahymena thermophila strain SB281 fails to synthesize DCGs, and previous analysis suggested that the defect lay at or near the sorting step. Because this strain represents one of the very few mutants in this pathway, we have undertaken a more complete study of the phenotype. Genetic epistasis analysis places the defect upstream of those in two other characterized Tetrahymena mutants. Using immunofluorescent detection of granule content proteins, as well as GFP tagging, we describe a novel cytoplasmic compartment to which granule contents can be sorted in growing SB281 cells. Cell fusion experiments indicate that this compartment is not a biosynthetic intermediate in DCG synthesis. Sorting in SB281 is strongly conditional with respect to growth. When cells are starved, the storage compartment is degraded and de novo synthesized granule proteins are rapidly secreted. The mutation in SB281 therefore appears to affect DCG synthesis at the level of both sorting and maturation. PMID:11779800

Bowman, G R; Turkewitz, A P

2001-01-01

66

Tn5-induced mutants of Azotobacter vinelandii affected in nitrogen fixation under Mo-deficient and Mo-sufficient conditions  

SciTech Connect

Mutants of Azotobacter vinelandii affected in N/sub 2/ fixation in the presence of 1 ..mu..M Na/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/ (conventional system), 50 nM V/sub 2/O/sub 5/, or under Mo deficiency (alternative system) have been isolated after Tn5 mutagenesis with the suicide plasmid pSUP1011. These mutants are grouped into four broad phenotypic classes. Mutants in the first class are Nif/sup -/ under Mo sufficiency but Nif/sup +/ under Mo deficiency or in the presence of V/sub 2/O/sub 5/. Mutants in the second class are Nif/sup -/ under all conditions. An FeMo-cofactor-negative mutant (NifB/sup -/) belongs to this class. The third mutant class consists of mutants incapable of N/sub 2/-dependent growth under Mo deficiency. Most of the mutants of this class are also affected in N/sub 2/ fixation in the presence of 1 ..mu..M Na/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/, with acetylene reduction rates ranging from 28 to 51% of the rates of the wild type. Strains constructed by genetic transfer of the Kan/sup r/ marker of mutants from this class into nifHDK or nifK deletion mutants showed N/sub 2/-dependent growth only in the presence of V/sup 2/O/sub 5/. The only mutant in the fourth class shows wild-type nitrogenase activity under Mo sufficiency, but only 10% of the acetylene reduction activity of the wild type in the presence of 50 nM V/sub 2/O/sub 5/. The acetylene reduction rates of whole cells of this mutant are identical in Mo-deficient medium and in medium containing V/sub 2/O/sub 5/. The conventional nitrogenase subunits are expressed in this mutant even under Mo deficiency or in the presence of V/sub 2/O/sub 5/; however, the NH/sub 4//sup +/-and Mo-repressible proteins normally seen under these conditions could not be detected on two-dimensional gels.

Joerger, R.D.; Premakumar, R.; Bishop, P.E.

1986-11-01

67

Expansion of the piriform cortex contributes to corticothalamic pathfinding defects in gli3 conditional mutants.  

PubMed

The corticothalamic and thalamocortical tracts play essential roles in the communication between the cortex and thalamus. During development, axons forming these tracts have to follow a complex path to reach their target areas. While much attention has been paid to the mechanisms regulating their passage through the ventral telencephalon, very little is known about how the developing cortex contributes to corticothalamic/thalamocortical tract formation. Gli3 encodes a zinc finger transcription factor widely expressed in telencephalic progenitors which has important roles in corticothalamic and thalamocortical pathfinding. Here, we conditionally inactivated Gli3 in dorsal telencephalic progenitors to determine its role in corticothalamic tract formation. In Emx1Cre;Gli3(fl/fl) mutants, only a few corticothalamic axons enter the striatum in a restricted dorsal domain. This restricted entry correlates with a medial expansion of the piriform cortex. Transplantation experiments showed that the expanded piriform cortex repels corticofugal axons. Moreover, expression of Sema5B, a chemorepellent for corticofugal axons produced by the piriform cortex, is similarly expanded. Finally, time course analysis revealed an expansion of the ventral pallial progenitor domain which gives rise to the piriform cortex. Hence, control of lateral cortical development by Gli3 at the progenitor level is crucial for corticothalamic pathfinding. PMID:24014668

Amaniti, Eleni-Maria; Fu, Chaoying; Lewis, Sean; Saisana, Marina; Magnani, Dario; Mason, John O; Theil, Thomas

2015-02-01

68

Double knockout mutants of Arabidopsis grown under normal conditions reveal that the plastidial phosphorylase isozyme participates in transitory starch metabolism.  

PubMed

In leaves of two starch-related single-knockout lines lacking either the cytosolic transglucosidase (also designated as disproportionating enzyme 2, DPE2) or the maltose transporter (MEX1), the activity of the plastidial phosphorylase isozyme (PHS1) is increased. In both mutants, metabolism of starch-derived maltose is impaired but inhibition is effective at different subcellular sites. Two constitutive double knockout mutants were generated (designated as dpe2-1×phs1a and mex1×phs1b) both lacking functional PHS1. They reveal that in normally grown plants, the plastidial phosphorylase isozyme participates in transitory starch degradation and that the central carbon metabolism is closely integrated into the entire cell biology. All plants were grown either under continuous illumination or in a light-dark regime. Both double mutants were compromised in growth and, compared with the single knockout plants, possess less average leaf starch when grown in a light-dark regime. Starch and chlorophyll contents decline with leaf age. As revealed by transmission electron microscopy, mesophyll cells degrade chloroplasts, but degradation is not observed in plants grown under continuous illumination. The two double mutants possess similar but not identical phenotypes. When grown in a light-dark regime, mesophyll chloroplasts of dpe2-1×phs1a contain a single starch granule but under continuous illumination more granules per chloroplast are formed. The other double mutant synthesizes more granules under either growth condition. In continuous light, growth of both double mutants is similar to that of the parental single knockout lines. Metabolite profiles and oligoglucan patterns differ largely in the two double mutants. PMID:24302650

Malinova, Irina; Mahlow, Sebastian; Alseekh, Saleh; Orawetz, Tom; Fernie, Alisdair R; Baumann, Otto; Steup, Martin; Fettke, Joerg

2014-02-01

69

Analyses of conditions for KMSSS loop in tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase by building a mutant library.  

PubMed

The KMSKS motif is the ATP binding motif for aminoacylation process of class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Although researches based on natural proteins inform us about the contribution of natural amino acid sequences for the catalysis, they have difficulties in discussing the other alternative sequences and prohibited sequences for the motif to maintain the catalytic ability. In order to reveal such the conditions for the alternative and prohibited sequences, it is important to investigate a library of various mutants for the motif. For that purpose, we build a library of more than 200 mutants substituting the KMSSS loop, Lys204-Met205-Ser206-Ser207-Ser208, in tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase of Methanococcus jannaschii, and their catalytic abilities were examined by the Amber suppression method. Mutants of K204R and K204N still maintained catalytic abilities to a certain extent. On the other hand, a variety of alternative sequences for Ser206-Ser207-Ser208 were obtained, and some of those did not include either Ser or Thr, which were regarded as necessary residues in the KMSKS motif in previous works. In this article, catalytic activity of all the mutants are represented in detail and some suggestions for the condition of the motif are discussed. PMID:19386777

Kamijo, Shunsuke; Fujii, Akihiko; Onodera, Kenji; Wakabayashi, Kenichi

2009-08-01

70

The Activity of Nodules of the Supernodulating Mutant Mtsunn Is not Limited by Photosynthesis under Optimal Growth Conditions  

PubMed Central

Legumes match the nodule number to the N demand of the plant. When a mutation in the regulatory mechanism deprives the plant of that ability, an excessive number of nodules are formed. These mutants show low productivity in the fields, mainly due to the high carbon burden caused through the necessity to supply numerous nodules. The objective of this study was to clarify whether through optimal conditions for growth and CO2 assimilation a higher nodule activity of a supernodulating mutant of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) can be induced. Several experimental approaches reveal that under the conditions of our experiments, the nitrogen fixation of the supernodulating mutant, designated as sunn (super numeric nodules), was not limited by photosynthesis. Higher specific nitrogen fixation activity could not be induced through short- or long-term increases in CO2 assimilation around shoots. Furthermore, a whole plant P depletion induced a decline in nitrogen fixation, however this decline did not occur significantly earlier in sunn plants, nor was it more intense compared to the wild-type. However, a distinctly different pattern of nitrogen fixation during the day/night cycles of the experiment indicates that the control of N2 fixing activity of the large number of nodules is an additional problem for the productivity of supernodulating mutants. PMID:24727372

Cabeza, Ricardo A.; Lingner, Annika; Liese, Rebecca; Sulieman, Saad; Senbayram, Mehmet; Tränkner, Merle; Dittert, Klaus; Schulze, Joachim

2014-01-01

71

Phenotypes of Campylobacter jejuni luxS Mutants Are Depending on Strain Background, Kind of Mutation and Experimental Conditions  

PubMed Central

Since the discovery that Campylobacter (C.) jejuni produces Autoinducer 2 (AI-2), various studies have been conducted to explore the function and role of AI-2 in C. jejuni. However, the interpretation of these analyses has been complicated by differences in strain backgrounds, kind of mutation and culture conditions used. Furthermore, all research on AI-2 dependent phenotypes has been conducted with AI-2 synthase (luxS) mutants. This mutation also leads to a disruption of the activated-methyl-cycle. Most studies lack sufficient complementation resulting in not knowing whether phenotypes of luxS mutants depend on disrupted metabolism or lack of AI-2. Additionally, no AI-2 receptor has been found yet. All this contributes to an intensive discussion about the exact role of AI-2 in C. jejuni. Therefore, we examined the impact of different experiment settings on three different C. jejuni luxS mutants on growth and motility (37°C and 42°C). Our study showed that differing phenotypes of C. jejuni luxS mutants depend on strain background, mutation strategy and culture conditions. Furthermore, we complemented experiments with synthetic AI-2 or homocysteine as well as the combination of both. Complementation with AI-2 and AI-2+homocysteine significantly increased the cell number of C. jejuni NCTC 11168?luxS in stationary phase compared to the non-complemented C. jejuni NCTC 11168?luxS mutant. Genetic complementation of both C. jejuni 81-176 luxS mutants resulted in wild type comparable growth curves. Also swarming ability could be partially complemented. While genetic complementation restored swarming abilities of C. jejuni 81-176?luxS, it did not fully restore the phenotype of C. jejuni 81-176::luxS, which indicates that compensatory mutations in other parts of the chromosome and/or potential polar effects may appear in this mutant strain. Also with neither synthetic complementation, the phenotype of the wild type-strains was achieved, suggesting yet another reason for differing phenotypes other than communication and methionine metabolism for C. jejuni luxS mutants. PMID:25093839

Adler, Linda; Alter, Thomas; Sharbati, Soroush; Gölz, Greta

2014-01-01

72

Production of cellulases and xylanases under catabolic repression conditions from mutant PR22 of Cellulomonas flavigena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Derepressed mutant PR-22 was obtained by N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) mutagenic treatment of Cellulomonas flavigena PN-120. This mutant improved its xylanolytic activity from 26.9 to 40 U mg?1 and cellulolytic activity from 1.9 to 4 U mg?1; this represented rates almost 2 and 1.5 times higher, respectively, compared to its parent strain growing in sugarcane bagasse.\\u000a Either glucose or cellobiose was added to cultures of C. flavigena

Oscar A. Rojas-Rejón; Héctor M. Poggi-Varaldo; Ana C. Ramos-Valdivia; Alfredo Martínez-Jiménez; Eliseo Cristiani-Urbina; Mayra de la Torre Martínez; Teresa Ponce-Noyola

2011-01-01

73

Development of synthetic lethality anticancer therapeutics.  

PubMed

The concept of synthetic lethality (the creation of a lethal phenotype from the combined effects of mutations in two or more genes) has recently been exploited in various efforts to develop new genotype-selective anticancer therapeutics. These efforts include screening for novel anticancer agents, identifying novel therapeutic targets, characterizing mechanisms of resistance to targeted therapy, and improving efficacies through the rational design of combination therapy. This review discusses recent developments in synthetic lethality anticancer therapeutics, including poly ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors for BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutant cancers, checkpoint inhibitors for p53 mutant cancers, and small molecule agents targeting RAS gene mutant cancers. Because cancers are caused by mutations in multiple genes and abnormalities in multiple signaling pathways, synthetic lethality for a specific tumor suppressor gene or oncogene is likely cell context-dependent. Delineation of the mechanisms underlying synthetic lethality and identification of treatment response biomarkers will be critical for the success of synthetic lethality anticancer therapy. PMID:24893124

Fang, Bingliang

2014-10-01

74

Hypomorphic Lethal Mutations and Their Implications for the Interpretation of Lethal Complementation Studies in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

In a small region of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, we have found that a third of the mutations that appear to act as lethals in segmental haploids are viable in homozygous mutant individuals. These viable mutations fall into four complementation groups. The most reasonable explanation of these mutations is that they are a subset of functionally hypomorphic alleles of essential genes: hypomorphic mutations with activity levels above a threshold required for survival, but below twice that level, should behave in this manner. We refer to these mutations as "haplo-specific lethal mutations." In studies of autosomal lethals, haplo-specific lethal mutations can be included in lethal complementation tests without being identified as such. Accidental inclusion of disguised haplo-specific lethals in autosomal complementation tests will generate spurious examples of interallelic complementation. PMID:17246184

Nash, David; Janca, Frank C.

1983-01-01

75

Characteristics of Wines Made by Saccharomyces Mutants Which Produce a Polygalacturonase under Wine-Making Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wines by yeast mutants producing polygalacturonase in high glucose concentration, from Saccharomyces wine-making strains, had higher filterability and more concentrated anthocyanin contents than that of their parent strains. These results suggest that the clarifica- tion process was improved at a lower cost by the low viscosity and that high-quality wines result from the increase in the anthocyanin contents.

Florentina RADOI; Masao KISHIDA; Haruhiko KAWASAKI

2005-01-01

76

Combining Inhibitor Resistance-conferring Mutations in Cytochrome b Creates Conditional Synthetic Lethality in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*S?  

PubMed Central

The mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex is an essential respiratory enzyme in oxygen-utilizing eukaryotic cells. Its core subunit, cytochrome b, contains two sites, center P and center N, that participate in the electron transfer activity of the bc1 complex and that can be blocked by specific inhibitors. In yeast, there are various point mutations that confer inhibitor resistance at center P or center N. However, there are no yeast strains in which the bc1 complex is resistant to both center P and center N inhibitors. We attempted to create such strains by crossing yeast strains with inhibitor-resistant mutations at center P with yeast strains with inhibitor-resistant mutations at center N. Characterization of yeast colonies emerging from the cross revealed that there were multiple colonies resistant against either inhibitor alone but that the mutational changes were ineffective when combined and when the yeast were grown in the presence of both inhibitors. Inhibitor titrations of bc1 complex activities in mitochondrial membranes from the various yeast mutants showed that a mutation that confers resistance to an inhibitor at center P, when combined with a mutation that confers resistance to an inhibitor at center N, eliminates or markedly decreases the resistance conferred by the center N mutation. These results indicate that there is a pathway for structural communication between the two active sites of cytochrome b and open new possibilities for the utilization of center N as a potential drug target. PMID:19179332

Ding, Martina G.; di Rago, Jean-Paul; Trumpower, Bernard L.

2009-01-01

77

Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 and ?ctsR Mutant Strains Under Physiological and Heat Stress Conditions  

PubMed Central

Among Gram-positive bacteria, CtsR (Class Three Stress gene Repressor) mainly regulates the expression of genes encoding the Clp ATPases and the ClpP protease. To gain a better understanding of the biological significance of the CtsR regulon in response to heat-shock conditions, we performed a global proteomic analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 and ?ctsR mutant strains under optimal or heat stress temperatures. Total protein extracts from bacterial cells were analyzed by two-dimensional gel fractionation. By comparing maps from different culture conditions and different L. plantarum strains, image analysis revealed 23 spots with altered levels of expression. The proteomic analysis of L. plantarum WCFS1 and ctsR mutant strains confirms at the translational level the CtsR-mediated regulation of some members of the Clp family, as well as the heat induction of typical stress response genes. Heat activation of the putative CtsR regulon genes at transcriptional and translational levels, in the ?ctsR mutant, suggests additional regulative mechanisms, as is the case of hsp1. Furthermore, isoforms of ClpE with different molecular mass were found, which might contribute to CtsR quality control. Our results could add new outlooks in order to determine the complex biological role of CtsR-mediated stress response in lactic acid bacteria. PMID:23109816

Russo, Pasquale; de la Luz Mohedano, María; Capozzi, Vittorio; de Palencia, Pilar Fernández; López, Paloma; Spano, Giuseppe; Fiocco, Daniela

2012-01-01

78

Conditions supporting repair of potentially lethal damage cause a significant reduction of ultraviolet light-induced division delay in synchronized and plateau-phase Ehrlich ascites tumor cells  

SciTech Connect

Repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) induced by uv light in synchronized and in plateau-phase cultures of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells was studied by measuring cell survival. In particlar the influence of conditions supporting repair of PLD on growth kinetics was investigated. In synchronized G/sub 1/, S, or G/sub 2/ + M cells as well as in plateau-phase cells, uv light induced, almost exclusively, delay in the next S phase. A significant decrease of this delay was observed when the cells were incubated for 24 hr in balanced salt solution. Repair of PLD after uv irradiation was found to occur in plateau-phase cells and in cells in different phases of the cell cycle provided that after irradiation these were kept under conditions inhibiting cell multiplication (incubation in balanced salt solution or in conditioned medium). The repair time constant t/sub 50/ was significantly higher than those found for X irradiation (5-10 hr compared to 2 hr), and repair was not significantly inhibited by either 20 ..mu..g/ml cycloheximide or 2 mM caffeine in 24 hr.

Iliakis, G.; Nusse, M.

1982-09-01

79

Lethal Body Residues for Pentachlorophenol in Zebra Mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha) under Varying Conditions of Temperature and pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) toxicity was measured in the zebra mussel under varying conditions of pH (6.5, 7.5, or 8.5) and temperature (10, 17, or 25°C). Toxicity decreased significantly with increasing pH at all temperatures. At a given pH level, toxicity increased significantly with increasing temperature. PCP was most toxic at pH 6.5, 25°C and least toxic at pH 8.5, 10°C. Toxicokinetic

Susan W. Fisher; Haejo Hwang; Mark Atanasoff; Peter F. Landrum

1999-01-01

80

Elemental Concentrations in the Seed of Mutants and Natural Variants of Arabidopsis thaliana Grown under Varying Soil Conditions  

PubMed Central

The concentrations of mineral nutrients in seeds are critical to both the life cycle of plants as well as human nutrition. These concentrations are strongly influenced by soil conditions, as shown here by quantifying the concentration of 14 elements in seeds from Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown under four different soil conditions: standard, or modified with NaCl, heavy metals, or alkali. Each of the modified soils resulted in a unique change to the seed ionome (the mineral nutrient content of the seeds). To help identify the genetic networks regulating the seed ionome, changes in elemental concentrations were evaluated using mutants corresponding to 760 genes as well as 10 naturally occurring accessions. The frequency of ionomic phenotypes supports an estimate that as much as 11% of the A. thaliana genome encodes proteins of functional relevance to ion homeostasis in seeds. A subset of mutants were analyzed with two independent alleles, providing five examples of genes important for regulation of the seed ionome: SOS2, ABH1, CCC, At3g14280 and CNGC2. In a comparison of nine different accessions to a Col-0 reference, eight accessions were observed to have reproducible differences in elemental concentrations, seven of which were dependent on specific soil conditions. These results indicate that the A. thaliana seed ionome is distinct from the vegetative ionome, and that elemental analysis is a sensitive approach to identify genes controlling ion homeostasis, including those that regulate gene expression, phospho-regulation, and ion transport. PMID:23671651

McDowell, Stephen C.; Akmakjian, Garo; Sladek, Chris; Mendoza-Cozatl, David; Morrissey, Joe B.; Saini, Nick; Mittler, Ron; Baxter, Ivan; Salt, David E.; Ward, John M.; Schroeder, Julian I.; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Harper, Jeffrey F.

2013-01-01

81

High-salt preadaptation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus enhances survival in response to lethal environmental stresses.  

PubMed

Adaptation to changing environmental conditions is an important strategy for survival of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a gram-negative seafoodborne enteric pathogen found in the marine environment both free living and associated with oysters. This pathogen is a moderate halophile, with optimal growth at 3% NaCl. Among the several stresses imposed upon enteric bacteria, acid stress is perhaps one of the most important. V. parahaemolyticus has a lysine decarboxylase system responsible for decarboxylation of lysine to the basic product cadaverine, an important acid stress response system in bacteria. Preadaptation to mild acid conditions, i.e., the acid tolerance response, enhances survival under lethal acid conditions. Because of the variety of conditions encountered by V. parahaemolyticus in the marine environment and in oyster postharvest facilities, we examined the nature of the V. parahaemolyticus acid tolerance response under high-salinity conditions. Short preadaptation to a 6% salt concentration increased survival of the wild-type strain but not that of a cadA mutant under lethal acid conditions. However, prolonged exposure to high salinity (16 h) increased survival of both the wild-type and the cadA mutant strains. This phenotype was not dependent on the stress response sigma factor RpoS. Although this preadaptation response is much more pronounced in V. parahaemolyticus, this characteristic is not limited to this species. Both Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio vulnificus also survive better under lethal acid stress conditions when preadapted to high-salinity conditions. High salt both protected the organism against acid stress and increased survival under -20°C cold stress conditions. High-salt adaptation of V. parahaemolyticus strains significantly increases survival under environmental stresses that would otherwise be lethal to these bacteria. PMID:24490918

Kalburge, Sai Siddarth; Whitaker, W Brian; Boyd, E Fidelma

2014-02-01

82

Establishing Genetic Interactions by a Synthetic Dosage Lethality Phenotype  

PubMed Central

We have devised a genetic screen, termed synthetic dosage lethality, in which a cloned ``reference'' gene is inducibly overexpressed in a set of mutant strains carrying potential ``target'' mutations. To test the specificity of the method, two reference genes, CTF13, encoding a centromere binding protein, and ORC6, encoding a subunit of the origin of replication binding complex, were overexpressed in a large collection of mutants defective in either chromosome segregation or replication. CTF13 overexpression caused synthetic dosage lethality in combination with ctf14-42 (cbf2, ndc10), ctf17-61 (chl4), ctf19-58 and ctf19-26. ORC6 overexpression caused synthetic dosage lethality in combination with cdc2-1, cdc6-1, cdc14-1, cdc16-1 and cdc46-1. These relationships reflect specific interactions, as overexpression of CTF13 caused lethality in kinetochore mutants and overexpression of ORC6 caused lethality in replication mutants. In contrast, only one case of dosage suppression was observed. We suggest that synthetic dosage lethality identifies a broad spectrum of interacting mutations and is of general utility in detecting specific genetic interactions using a cloned wild-type gene as a starting point. Furthermore, synthetic dosage lethality is easily adapted to the study of cloned genes in other organisms. PMID:8722765

Kroll, E. S.; Hyland, K. M.; Hieter, P.; Li, J. J.

1996-01-01

83

Establishment of permanent chimerism in a lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mouse mutant with hemolytic anemia  

SciTech Connect

Pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell function was investigated in the homozygous muscle type lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-A) mutant mouse using bone marrow transplantation experiments. Hemopoietic tissues of LDH-A mutants showed a marked decreased in enzyme activity that was associated with severe hemolytic anemia. This condition proved to be transplantable into wild type mice (+/+) through total body irradiation (TBI) at a lethal dose of 8.0 Gy followed by engraftment of mutant bone marrow cells. Since the mutants are extremely radiosensitive (lethal dose50/30 4.4 Gy vs 7.3 Gy in +/+ mice), 8.0-Gy TBI followed by injection of even high numbers of normal bone marrow cells did not prevent death within 5-6 days. After a nonlethal dose of 4.0 Gy and grafting of normal bone marrow cells, a transient chimerism showing peripheral blood characteristics of the wild type was produced that returned to the mutant condition within 12 weeks. The transfusion of wild type red blood cells prior to and following 8.0-Gy TBI and reconstitution with wild type bone marrow cells prevented the early death of the mutants and permanent chimerism was achieved. The chimeras showed all hematological parameters of wild type mice, and radiosensitivity returned to normal. It is concluded that the mutant pluripotent stem cells are functionally comparable to normal stem cells, emphasizing the significance of this mouse model for studies of stem cell regulation.

Datta, T.; Doermer, P.

1987-12-01

84

Assessing the essentiality of the decaprenyl-phospho-d-arabinofuranose pathway in Mycobacterium tuberculosis using conditional mutants.  

PubMed

In Mycobacterium tuberculosis the decaprenyl-phospho-d-arabinofuranose (DPA) pathway is a validated target for the drugs ethambutol and benzothiazinones. To identify other potential drug targets in the pathway, we generated conditional knock-down mutants of each gene involved using the TET-PIP OFF system. dprE1, dprE2, ubiA, prsA, rv2361c, tkt and rpiB were confirmed to be essential under non-permissive conditions, whereas rv3807c was not required for survival. In the most vulnerable group, DprE1-depleted cells died faster in vitro and intracellularly than those lacking UbiA and PrsA. Downregulation of DprE1 and UbiA resulted in similar phenotypes, namely swelling of the bacteria, cell wall damage and lysis as observed at the single cell level, by real time microscopy and electron microscopy. By contrast, depletion of PrsA led to cell elongation and implosion, which was suggestive of a more pleiotropic effect. Drug sensitivity assays with known DPA-inhibitors supported the use of conditional knock-down strains for target-based whole-cell screens. Together, our work provides strong evidence for the vulnerability of all but one of the enzymes in the DPA pathway and generates valuable tools for the identification of lead compounds targeting the different biosynthetic steps. PrsA, phosphoribosyl-pyrophosphate synthetase, appears to be a particularly attractive new target for drug discovery. PMID:24517327

Kolly, Gaëlle S; Boldrin, Francesca; Sala, Claudia; Dhar, Neeraj; Hartkoorn, Ruben C; Ventura, Marcello; Serafini, Agnese; McKinney, John D; Manganelli, Riccardo; Cole, Stewart T

2014-04-01

85

Construction of Listeria monocytogenes mutants with in-frame deletions in the phosphotransferase transport system (PTS) and analysis of their growth under stress conditions.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that is difficult to eliminate due to its ability to survive under different stress conditions such as low pH and high salt. To better control this pathogen in food, it is important to understand its survival mechanisms under these stress conditions. LMOf2365_0442, 0443, and 0444 encode for phosphotransferase transport system (PTS) permease (fructose-specific IIABC components) that is responsible for sugar transport. LMOf2365_0445 encodes for glycosyl hydrolase. These genes were induced by high pressure and inhibited under salt treatments; therefore, we hypothesized that genes encoding these PTS proteins may be involved in general stress responses. To study the function of these genes, deletion mutants of the PTS genes (LMOf2365_0442, LMOf2365_0443, and LMOf2365_0444) and the downstream gene LMOf2365_0445 were created in L. monocytogenes strain F2365. These deletion mutants were tested under different stress conditions. The growth of ?LMOf2365_0445 was increased under nisin (125 ?g/mL) treatments compared to the wild-type (P < 0.01). The growth of ?LMOf2365_0442 in salt (brain-heart infusion medium with 5% NaCl) was significantly increased (P < 0.01), and ?LMOf2365_0442 showed increased growth under acidic conditions (pH 5.0) compared to the wild-type (P < 0.01). The results from phenotypic arrays demonstrated that some of these mutants showed slightly slower growth under different carbon sources and basic conditions. The results indicate that deletion mutants ?LMOf2365_0442 and ?LMOf2365_0445 were more resistant to multiple stress conditions compared to the wild-type, suggesting that they may contribute to the general stress response in L. monocytogenes. An understanding of the growth of these mutants under multiple stress conditions may assist in the development of intervention strategies to control L. monocytogenes in food. PMID:23909479

Liu, Yanhong; Ceruso, Marina; Jiang, Yuji; Datta, Atin R; Carter, Laurenda; Strain, Errol; Pepe, Tiziana; Anastasi, Aniello; Fratamico, Pina

2013-09-01

86

Increased dopaminergic innervation in the brain of conditional mutant mice overexpressing Otx2: effects on locomotor behavior and seizure susceptibility.  

PubMed

The homeobox-containing transcription factor Otx2 controls the identity, fate and proliferation of mesencephalic dopaminergic (mesDA) neurons. Transgenic mice, in which Otx2 was conditionally overexpressed by a Cre recombinase expressed under the transcriptional control of the Engrailed1 gene (En1(Cre/+); tOtx2(ov/+)), show an increased number of mesDA neurons during development. In adult mice, Otx2 is expressed in a subset of neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and its overexpression renders mesDA more resistant to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-HCl (MPTP) neurotoxin. Here we further investigated the neurological consequences of the increased number of mesDA neurons in En1(Cre/+); tOtx2(ov/+) adult mice. Immunohistochemistry for the active, glycosylated form of the dopamine transporter (glyco-Dat) showed that En1(Cre/+); tOtx2(ov/+) adult mice display an increased density of mesocortical DAergic fibers, as compared to control animals. Increased glyco-Dat staining was accompanied by a marked hypolocomotion in En1(Cre/+); tOtx2(ov/+) mice, as detected in the open field test. Since conditional knockout mice lacking Otx2 in mesDA precursors (En1(Cre/+); Otx2(floxv/flox) mice) show a marked resistance to kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures, we investigated the behavioral response to KA in En1(Cre/+); tOtx2(ov/+) and control mice. No difference was observed between mutant and control mice, but En1(Cre/+); tOtx2(ov/+) mice showed a markedly different c-fos mRNA induction profile in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus after KA seizures, as compared to controls. Accordingly, an increased density of parvalbumin (PV)-positive inhibitory interneurons was detected in the deep layers of the frontal cortex of naïve En1(Cre/+); tOtx2(ov/+) mice, as compared to controls. These data indicate that Otx2 overexpression results in increased DAergic innervation and PV cell density in the fronto-parietal cortex, with important consequences on spontaneous locomotor activity and seizure-induced gene expression. Our results strengthen the notion that Otx2 mutant mouse models are a powerful genetic tool to unravel the molecular and behavioral consequences of altered development of the DAergic system. PMID:24384227

Tripathi, P P; Di Giovannantonio, L G; Sanguinetti, E; Acampora, D; Allegra, M; Caleo, M; Wurst, W; Simeone, A; Bozzi, Y

2014-03-01

87

Isolation and characterization of temperature-sensitive mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells after treatment with UV and X-irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isolation of ten conditionally lethal temperature-sensitive mutants of the Chinese hamster ovary cell (CHO-Kl, pro-) by the BUdR-visible light selection procedure is described. Treatment with radiation at doses known to cause single gene mutation in mammalian cells increases the mutation frequency by a factor of at least 14. These mutants will grow with normal plating efficiency at 34.5° but

David Patterson; Charles Waldren; Carolyn Walker

1976-01-01

88

The effect of Wag31 phosphorylation on the cells and the cell envelope fraction of wild-type and conditional mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis  

E-print Network

-type and conditional mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis studied by visible-wavelength Raman spectroscopy Khozima Keywords: Raman spectroscopy Mycobacterium smegmatis Phosphorylation Peptidoglycan biosynthesis Cell envelope fraction a b s t r a c t Non-surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using a 514.5 nm wavelength laser

Rehse, Steven J.

89

Complementation of the embryo-lethal T-DNA insertion mutant of AUXIN-BINDING-PROTEIN 1 (ABP1) with abp1 point mutated versions reveals crosstalk of ABP1 and phytochromes.  

PubMed

The function of the extracytoplasmic AUXIN-BINDING-PROTEIN1 (ABP1) is largely enigmatic. We complemented a homozygous T-DNA insertion null mutant of ABP1 in Arabidopsis thaliana Wassilewskia with three mutated and one wild-type (wt) ABP1 cDNA, all tagged C-terminally with a strepII-FLAG tag upstream the KDEL signal. Based on in silico modelling, the abp1 mutants were predicted to have altered geometries of the auxin binding pocket and calculated auxin binding energies lower than the wt. Phenotypes linked to auxin transport were compromised in these three complemented abp1 mutants. Red light effects, such as elongation of hypocotyls in constant red (R) and far-red (FR) light, in white light supplemented by FR light simulating shade, and inhibition of gravitropism by R or FR, were all compromised in the complemented lines. Using auxin- or light-induced expression of marker genes, we showed that auxin-induced expression was delayed already after 10min, and light-induced expression within 60min, even though TIR1/AFB or phyB are thought to act as receptors relevant for gene expression regulation. The expression of marker genes in seedlings responding to both auxin and shade showed that for both stimuli regulation of marker gene expression was altered after 10-20min in the wild type and phyB mutant. The rapidity of expression responses provides a framework for the mechanics of functional interaction of ABP1 and phyB to trigger interwoven signalling pathways. PMID:25392478

Effendi, Yunus; Ferro, Noel; Labusch, Corinna; Geisler, Markus; Scherer, Günther F E

2015-01-01

90

Reducing the effects of intracellular accumulation of thermolabile collagen II mutants by increasing their thermostability in cell culture conditions.  

PubMed

Mutations in collagen II are associated with spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, a group of heritable diseases whose common features include aberrations of skeletal growth. The mechanisms through which mutations in collagen II affect the cartilaginous tissues are complex and include both intracellular and extracellular processes. One of those mechanisms involves cellular stress caused by excessive accumulation of misfolded collagen II mutants. We investigated whether stabilizing the structure of thermolabile R789C and R992C collagen II mutants would improve their secretion from cells, thereby reducing cellular stress and apoptosis. Employing glycerol and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), chemicals that increase the thermostability of collagen triple helices, we demonstrated that those compounds function as chaperones and stabilize the R789C and R992C mutants, accelerate their secretion, and improve cell survival. Our study provides a scientific basis for considering misfolded triple helices of collagen mutants a target for reducing the deleterious effects caused by their excessive intracellular accumulation. PMID:20394730

Gawron, Katarzyna; Jensen, Deborah A; Steplewski, Andrzej; Fertala, Andrzej

2010-05-28

91

pH-Conditional, Ammonia Assimilation-Deficient Mutants of Hydrogenomonas eutropha: Evidence for the Nature of the Mutation1  

PubMed Central

Two amination-deficient mutants of Hydrogenomonas eutropha, characterized by pH-dependent linear growth on non-amino acid substrates, were investigated to determine the exact nature of the mutation. Glutamate dehydrogenase, the only aminating enzyme found in wild-type cells, was present at similar levels in mutant cells. Phenylalanine and aspartate, which allowed normal growth of the mutants, could transaminate 2-oxoglutarate to glutamate, whereas alanine, which does not support normal growth, could not transfer its amino nitrogen to form glutamate. In H. eutropha, l-alanine is apparently synthesized by ?-decarboxylation of aspartate. Studies with NH4+ ions as the sole nitrogen source demonstrated that growth rates of the mutant strains were dependent on both extracellular pH and NH4+ ion concentration. Comparison of these results revealed that the growth rate of mutant cultures was proportional to the concentration of extracellular NH3. Wild-type cultures were not dependent on extracellular NH3 since exponential growth rates did not vary with pH or NH4+ ion concentration. The results suggest that the mutant strains lack an NH4+ ion transport system and consequently are dependent on NH3 diffusion which does not support optimal amination rates. The significance of the findings for the amino acid metabolism of H. eutropha is discussed. PMID:5541016

Strenkoski, Leon F.; DeCicco, B. T.

1971-01-01

92

Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase 2?/? Mutant Mice are Protected against Fatty Liver under High-fat, High-carbohydrate Dietary and de Novo Lipogenic Conditions*  

PubMed Central

Hepatic fat accumulation resulting from increased de novo fatty acid synthesis leads to hepatic steatosis and hepatic insulin resistance. We have shown previously that acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (Acc2?/?) mutant mice, when fed a high-fat (HF) or high-fat, high-carbohydrate (HFHC) diet, are protected against diet-induced obesity and maintained whole body and hepatic insulin sensitivity. To determine the effect of an ACC2 deletion on hepatic fat metabolism, we studied the regulation of the enzymes involved in the lipogenic pathway under Western HFHC dietary and de novo lipogenic conditions. After completing the HFHC regimen, Acc2?/? mutant mice were found to have lower body weight, smaller epididymal fat pads, lower blood levels of nonesterified fatty acids and triglycerides, and higher hepatic cholesterol than wild-type mice. Significant up-regulation of lipogenic enzymes and an elevation in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) protein were found in Acc2?/? mutant mice under de novo lipogenic conditions. The increase in lipogenic enzyme levels was accompanied by up-regulation of the transcription factors, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1 and 2, and carbohydrate response element-binding protein. In contrast, hepatic levels of the PPAR-? and PPAR-? proteins were significantly lower in the Acc2?/? mutant mice fed an HFHC diet. When compared with wild-type mice fed the same diet, Acc2?/? mutant mice exhibited a similar level of AKT but with a significant increase in pAKT. Hence, deleting ACC2 ameliorates the metabolic syndrome and protects against fatty liver despite increased de novo lipogenesis and dietary conditions known to induce obesity and diabetes. PMID:22362781

Abu-Elheiga, Lutfi; Wu, Hongmei; Gu, Ziwei; Bressler, Rubin; Wakil, Salih J.

2012-01-01

93

P-lacW Insertional Mutagenesis on the Second Chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster: Isolation of Lethals With Different Overgrowth Phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single P-element insertional mutagenesis experiment was carried out for the second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster using the P-lacW transposon. Out of 15,475 insertions on the second chromosome, 2,308 lethal and 403 semilethal mutants (altogether 2,711) were recovered. After eliminating clusters, 72% of the mutants represent independent insertions. Some of the mutants with larval, prepupal or pupal lethal phases have

Tibor Torok; Gabriella Tick; Martha Alvarado; Istvan Kiss

1993-01-01

94

Synthetic Lethality Reveals Mechanisms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Resistance to ?-Lactams  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Most ?-lactam antibiotics are ineffective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis due to the microbe’s innate resistance. The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains has prompted interest to repurpose this class of drugs. To identify the genetic determinants of innate ?-lactam resistance, we carried out a synthetic lethality screen on a transposon mutant library for susceptibility to imipenem, a carbapenem ?-lactam antibiotic. Mutations in 74 unique genes demonstrated synthetic lethality. The majority of mutations were in genes associated with cell wall biosynthesis. A second quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR)-based synthetic lethality screen of randomly selected mutants confirmed the role of cell wall biosynthesis in ?-lactam resistance. The global transcriptional response of the bacterium to ?-lactams was investigated, and changes in levels of expression of cell wall biosynthetic genes were identified. Finally, we validated these screens in vivo using the MT1616 transposon mutant, which lacks a functional acyl-transferase gene. Mice infected with the mutant responded to ?-lactam treatment with a 100-fold decrease in bacillary lung burden over 4 weeks, while the numbers of organisms in the lungs of mice infected with wild-type bacilli proliferated. These findings reveal a road map of genes required for ?-lactam resistance and validate synthetic lethality screening as a promising tool for repurposing existing classes of licensed, safe, well-characterized antimicrobials against tuberculosis. PMID:25227469

Lun, Shichun; Miranda, David; Kubler, Andre; Guo, Haidan; Maiga, Mariama C.; Winglee, Kathryn; Pelly, Shaaretha

2014-01-01

95

Lethality of suicide methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To (a) quantify the lethality of suicide methods used in Australia in the period 1 July 1993 to 30 June 2003, (b) examine method-specific case fatality by age and sex, and (c) identify changes in case fatality during the study period. Methods: Two sources of data on episodes of self-harm in Australia were used, mortality and hospital separation data.

A A Elnour; J Harrison

2008-01-01

96

Suppressors of nmtl-181, a conditional lethal allele of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase gene, reveal proteins involved in regulating protein N-myristoylation.  

PubMed Central

Several essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins require myristate to be covalently bound to their amino-terminal glycine for biological activity. Protein N-myristoylation is catalyzed by myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyl-transferase, Nmt1p. nmt1-181 encodes a mutant enzyme with a Gly451-->Asp substitution. nmt181p has a reduced affinity for myristoyl-CoA and produces global defects in protein N-myristoylation at > or = 30 degrees C. nmt1-181 results in growth arrest at various stages of the cell cycle within 1 hr after cells are shifted to > or = 30 degrees C and lethality within 8 hr. The growth-arrest phenotype and loss of viability do not require components of the mating pathway and are associated with lysis sensitivity that may be related to undermyristoylation of two protein phosphatases, Ppz1p and Ppz2p. Growth can be rescued at 30 degrees C by adding myristate or sorbitol to the medium or by removing inosine. Cells can be rescued at 37 degrees C by overexpressing nmt1-181p or Nmt1p or by adding myristate to the medium. Selection of high-copy suppressors of the myristate auxotrophy and lethality observed at 37 degrees C yielded only NMT1, whereas six unlinked suppressors of the myristoylation defect (SMD1-6) were obtained when the screen was conducted at 30 degrees C. The protein products of three SMD loci were identified: (i) cdc39-delta 1.7p, which transactivates NMT1; (ii) Fas1p, the beta subunit of the fatty acid synthetase complex, activates FAS2's promoter and increases myristoylation of Gpa1p; and (iii) Pho5p, the major secreted acid phosphatase produced by this yeast. PHO5 is normally induced when yeast are grown in phosphate-depleted medium. Removal of inorganic phosphate from the medium also rescues nmt1-181 cells at 30 degrees C. PHO5's mechanism of suppression of nmt1-181 appears to involve, at least in part, activation of FAS2 transcription and a resulting effect on FAS1 expression. There is an inverse relationship between cellular N-myristoyltransferase and secreted acid phosphatase activities. These observations provide a potential mechanism for coupling phosphate metabolism with the regulation of myristoyl-CoA synthesis and protein N-myristoylation. Images PMID:7937855

Johnson, D R; Cok, S J; Feldmann, H; Gordon, J I

1994-01-01

97

Higher order Arabidopsis 14-3-3 mutants show 14-3-3 involvement in primary root growth both under control and abiotic stress conditions  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis 14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved proteins that interact with numerous partner proteins in a phospho-specific manner, and can affect the target proteins in a number of ways; e.g. modification of enzymatic activity. We isolated T-DNA insertion lines in six 14-3-3 genes within the non-epsilon group that phylogenetically group in three closely related gene pairs. In total, 6 single, 3 double, 12 triple, and 3 quadruple mutants were generated. The mutants were phenotyped for primary root growth on control plates: single and double mutants were indistinguishable from WT, whereas six triples and all quadruples showed a shorter primary root. In addition, length of the first epidermal cell with a visible root hair bulge (LEH) was used to determine primary root elongation on medium containing mannitol and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). This analysis showed clear differences depending on the stress and 14-3-3 gene combinations. Next to the phenotypic growth analyses, a 14-3-3 pull-down assay on roots treated with and without mannitol showed that mannitol stress strongly affects the 14-3-3 interactome. In conclusion, we show gene specificity and functional redundancy among 14-3-3 proteins in primary root elongation under control and under abiotic stress conditions and changes in the 14-3-3 interactome during the onset of stress adaptation. PMID:25189593

van Kleeff, P. J. M.; Jaspert, N.; Li, K. W.; Rauch, S.; Oecking, C.; de Boer, A. H.

2014-01-01

98

Higher order Arabidopsis 14-3-3 mutants show 14-3-3 involvement in primary root growth both under control and abiotic stress conditions.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis 14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved proteins that interact with numerous partner proteins in a phospho-specific manner, and can affect the target proteins in a number of ways; e.g. modification of enzymatic activity. We isolated T-DNA insertion lines in six 14-3-3 genes within the non-epsilon group that phylogenetically group in three closely related gene pairs. In total, 6 single, 3 double, 12 triple, and 3 quadruple mutants were generated. The mutants were phenotyped for primary root growth on control plates: single and double mutants were indistinguishable from WT, whereas six triples and all quadruples showed a shorter primary root. In addition, length of the first epidermal cell with a visible root hair bulge (LEH) was used to determine primary root elongation on medium containing mannitol and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). This analysis showed clear differences depending on the stress and 14-3-3 gene combinations. Next to the phenotypic growth analyses, a 14-3-3 pull-down assay on roots treated with and without mannitol showed that mannitol stress strongly affects the 14-3-3 interactome. In conclusion, we show gene specificity and functional redundancy among 14-3-3 proteins in primary root elongation under control and under abiotic stress conditions and changes in the 14-3-3 interactome during the onset of stress adaptation. PMID:25189593

van Kleeff, P J M; Jaspert, N; Li, K W; Rauch, S; Oecking, C; de Boer, A H

2014-11-01

99

Non-Lethal Midline Granuloma of the Nose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five cases of non-lethal midline granuloma of the nose are reported. Although the histopathological picture in all cases was identical, showing pleomorphic cellular infiltration, scattered areas of necrosis and vasculitis, the clinical picture and course of the disease were completely different from lethal midline granuloma. All the patients were in good general condition and had lived for quite long periods

A. M. Talaat; A. M. Bassiouny; M. K. Kutty

1982-01-01

100

Lethal midline granuloma.  

PubMed

Lethal midline granuloma is a relatively rare disease characterized by destruction and mutilation of the nose and other structures of respiratory passages. The nonspecificity of symptoms obscures the correct diagnosis and is responsible for the delay in treatment which can be detrimental as this grave disease calls for urgent intervention. We present a case report of this disease in a 35 year old male who gave a short two month history of the clinical symptoms. PMID:23440011

Mallya, Varuna; Singh, Avninder; Pahwa, Manish

2013-01-01

101

Deficits in adult neurogenesis, contextual fear conditioning, and spatial learning in a Gfap mutant mouse model of Alexander disease.  

PubMed

Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the major intermediate filament of mature astrocytes in the mammalian CNS. Dominant gain of function mutations in GFAP lead to the fatal neurodegenerative disorder, Alexander disease (AxD), which is characterized by cytoplasmic protein aggregates known as Rosenthal fibers along with variable degrees of leukodystrophy and intellectual disability. The mechanisms by which mutant GFAP leads to these pleiotropic effects are unknown. In addition to astrocytes, GFAP is also expressed in other cell types, particularly neural stem cells that form the reservoir supporting adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. Here, we show that mouse models of AxD exhibit significant pathology in GFAP-positive radial glia-like cells in the dentate gyrus, and suffer from deficits in adult neurogenesis. In addition, they display impairments in contextual learning and spatial memory. This is the first demonstration of cognitive phenotypes in a model of primary astrocyte disease. PMID:24259590

Hagemann, Tracy L; Paylor, Richard; Messing, Albee

2013-11-20

102

Deficits in Adult Neurogenesis, Contextual Fear Conditioning, and Spatial Learning in a Gfap Mutant Mouse Model of Alexander Disease  

PubMed Central

Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the major intermediate filament of mature astrocytes in the mammalian CNS. Dominant gain of function mutations in GFAP lead to the fatal neurodegenerative disorder, Alexander disease (AxD), which is characterized by cytoplasmic protein aggregates known as Rosenthal fibers along with variable degrees of leukodystrophy and intellectual disability. The mechanisms by which mutant GFAP leads to these pleiotropic effects are unknown. In addition to astrocytes, GFAP is also expressed in other cell types, particularly neural stem cells that form the reservoir supporting adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. Here, we show that mouse models of AxD exhibit significant pathology in GFAP-positive radial glia-like cells in the dentate gyrus, and suffer from deficits in adult neurogenesis. In addition, they display impairments in contextual learning and spatial memory. This is the first demonstration of cognitive phenotypes in a model of primary astrocyte disease. PMID:24259590

Paylor, Richard; Messing, Albee

2013-01-01

103

Conditional loss of ErbB3 delays mammary gland hyperplasia induced by mutant PIK3CA without affecting mammary tumor latency, gene expression or signaling  

PubMed Central

Mutations in PIK3CA, the gene encoding the p110? catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), have been shown to transform mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Studies suggest this transforming activity requires binding of mutant p110? via p85 to phosphorylated YXXM motifs in activated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) or adaptors. Using transgenic mice, we examined if ErbB3, a potent activator of PI3K, is required for mutant PIK3CA-mediated transformation of MECs. Conditional loss of ErbB3 in mammary epithelium resulted in a delay of PIK3CAH1047R-dependent mammary gland hyperplasia, but tumor latency, gene expression and PI3K signaling were unaffected. In ErbB3-deficient tumors, mutant PI3K remained associated with several tyrosyl phosphoproteins, potentially explaining the dispensability of ErbB3 for tumorigenicity and PI3K activity. Similarly, inhibition of ErbB RTKs with lapatinib did not affect PI3K signaling in PIK3CAH1047R-expressing tumors. However, the p110?-specific inhibitor BYL719, in combination with lapatinib impaired mammary tumor growth and PI3K signaling more potently than BYL719 alone. Further, co-inhibition of p110? and ErbB3 potently suppressed proliferation and PI3K signaling in human breast cancer cells harboring PIK3CAH1047R. These data suggest that PIK3CAH1047R-driven tumor growth and PI3K signaling can occur independently of ErbB RTKs. However, simultaneous blockade of p110? and ErbB RTKs results in superior inhibition of PI3K and mammary tumor growth, suggesting a rational therapeutic combination against breast cancers harboring PIK3CA activating mutations. PMID:23633485

Young, Christian D.; Pfefferle, Adam D.; Owens, Philip; Kuba, María G.; Rexer, Brent N.; Balko, Justin M.; Sánchez, Violeta; Cheng, Hailing; Perou, Charles M.; Zhao, Jean J.; Cook, Rebecca S.; Arteaga, Carlos L.

2013-01-01

104

Biogenesis of thylakoid membranes is controlled by light intensity in the conditional chlorophyll b-deficient CD3 mutant of wheat  

PubMed Central

Biogenesis of thylakoid membranes in the conditional chlorophyll b- deficient CD3 mutant of wheat is dramatically altered by relatively small differences in the light intensity under which seedlings are grown. When the CD3 mutant is grown at 400 microE/m2 S (high light, about one-fifth full sunlight) plants are deficient in chlorophyll b (chlorophyll a/b ratio greater than 6.0) and lack or contain greatly reduced amounts of the chlorophyll a/b-binding complexes CPII/CPII (mobile or peripheral LHCII), CP29, CP24 and LHCI, as shown by mildly denaturing 'green gel' electrophoresis, by fully denaturing SDS-PAGE, and by Western blot analysis. High light CD3 chloroplasts display an unusual morphology characterized by large, sheet-like stromal thylakoids formed into parallel unstacked arrays and a limited number of small grana stacks displaced toward the edges of the arrays. Changes in the supramolecular organization of CD3 thylakoids, seen with freeze- fracture electron microscopy, include a reduction in the size of EFs particles, which correspond to photosystem II centers with variable amounts of attached LHCII, and a redistribution of EF particles from the stacked to the unstacked regions. When CD3 seedlings are grown at 150 microE/m2 S (low light) there is a substantial reversal of all of these effects. Thus, chlorophyll b and the chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins accumulate to near wild-type levels (chlorophyll a/b ratio = 3.5-4.5) and thylakoid morphology is more nearly wild type in appearance. Growth of the CD3 mutant in the presence of chloramphenicol stimulates the accumulation of chlorophyll b and its binding proteins (Duysen, M. E., T. P. Freeman, N. D. Williams, and L. L. Huckle. 1985. Plant Physiol. 78:531-536). We show that this partial rescue of the CD3 high light phenotype is accompanied by large changes in thylakoid structure. The CD3 mutant, which defines a new class of chlorophyll b- deficient phenotype, is discussed in the more general context of chlorophyll b deficiency. PMID:3047153

1988-01-01

105

Mutant Cockroaches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Images of mutant cockroaches, provided by the Genetic Stock Center for the German Cockroach at Virginia Tech. Useful as a visual aid for explaining the effects of mutation. A linkage map is also available.

0002-11-30

106

Alterations in peptidoglycan chemical composition associated with rod-to-sphere transition in a conditional mutant of Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella pneumoniae Mir M7 is a spontaneous parentless morphology mutant which grows as cocci at pH 7 and as rods at pH 5.8. This strain has been characterized as defective in lateral wall formation (at pH7). Data suggest that the cell wall is mainly made up of poles of the rods (G. Satta, R. Fontana, P. Canepari, and G. Botta, J. Bacteriol. 137:727--734, 1979). In this work the isolation and the biochemical properties of the peptidoglycan of both Mir M7 rods and cocci and a nonconditional rod-shaped Mir M7 revertant (strain Mir A12) are described. The peptidoglycan of Mir M7 (both rods and cocci) and Mir A12 strains carried covalently bound proteins which could be easily removed by pronase treatment in Mir M7 rods and Mir A12 cells, but not in Mir M7 round cells. However, when the sodium dodecyl sulfate-insoluble residues of Mir M7 cocci were pretreated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), pronase digestion removed the covalently bound proteins, and pure peptidoglycan was obtained. EDTA treatment of the rigid layer of Mir M7 cocci removed amounts of Mg2+ and Ca2+, which were 10- and 50-fold higher, respectively, than the amount liberated from the rigid layer of Mir M7 rods and Mir A12 cells. Amino acid composition was qualitatively similar in both strains, but Mir M7 cocci contained a higher amount of alanine and glucosamine. Mir M7 cocci contained approximately 50% less peptidoglycan than rods. Under electron microscopy, the rigid layer of the Mir M7 rods and Mir A12 cells appeared to be rod-shaped and their shape remained unchanged after EDTA and pronase treatment. On the contrary, the Mir M7 cocci rigid layer appeared to be round, and after EDTA treatment it collapsed and lost any definite morphology. In spite of these alterations, the peptidoglycan of Mir M7 cocci still appeared able to determine the shape of the cell and protect it from osmotic shock and mechanical damages. The accumluation of divalent cations appeared necessary for the peptidoglycan to acquire sufficient rigidity for shape determination and cell protection. We concluded that the coccal shape in Mir M7 cells is not due to loss of cell wall rigidity but is a consequence of the formation of a round peptidoglycan molecule. The possibility that the alterations found in the Mir M7 cocci rigid layer may reflect natural differences in the biochemical composition of the septa and lateral wall of normally shaped bacteria is discussed. Images PMID:113382

Fontana, R; Canepari, P; Satta, G

1979-01-01

107

[Lethal midline granuloma].  

PubMed

Lethal midline granuloma is a rare clinical syndrome. In clinical practice the destructive process of the facial midline may appear as a symptom of various infective, malignant or autoimmune diseases. A physician must have a good knowledge of the problem in order to make a rational approach to diagnosis. The present paper discusses the case of a 34-year old patient with destructive changes of midline, nose, perforating of palatal cleft and destruction of bone structure of nose, maxillary and ethmoid sinus. For histopathologic diagnosis of T-lymphoma it was necessary to make immunohistological study of the biopsy specimen. Irradiation therapy with total dose of 5600 cGy showed an extremely good therapeutic result. Three years after irradiation therapy the patient is still in a remission. PMID:15628680

Skitareli?, Neven; Dominis, Mara; Matuli?, Zlatko; Dujella, Josip; Dzelalija, Boris

2004-01-01

108

Mesophyll conductance decreases in the wild type but not in an ABA-deficient mutant (aba1) of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia under drought conditions.  

PubMed

Under drought conditions, leaf photosynthesis is limited by the supply of CO2 . Drought induces production of abscisic acid (ABA), and ABA decreases stomatal conductance (gs ). Previous papers reported that the drought stress also causes the decrease in mesophyll conductance (gm ). However, the relationships between ABA content and gm are unclear. We investigated the responses of gm to the leaf ABA content [(ABA)L ] using an ABA-deficient mutant, aba1, and the wild type (WT) of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. We also measured leaf water potential (?L ) because leaf hydraulics may be related to gm . Under drought conditions, gm decreased with the increase in (ABA)L in WT, whereas both (ABA)L and gm were unchanged by the drought treatment in aba1. Exogenously applied ABA decreased gm in both WT and aba1 in a dose-dependent manner. ?L in WT was decreased by the drought treatment to -0.7?MPa, whereas ?L in aba1 was around -0.8?MPa even under the well-watered conditions and unchanged by the drought treatment. From these results, we conclude that the increase in (ABA)L is crucial for the decrease in gm under drought conditions. We discuss possible relationships between the decrease in gm and changes in the leaf hydraulics. PMID:24995523

Mizokami, Yusuke; Noguchi, Ko; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Terashima, Ichiro

2015-03-01

109

Deletion of integrin-linked kinase from neural crest cells in mice results in aortic aneurysms and embryonic lethality  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Neural crest cells (NCCs) participate in the remodeling of the cardiac outflow tract and pharyngeal arch arteries during cardiovascular development. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a serine/threonine kinase and a major regulator of integrin signaling. It links integrins to the actin cytoskeleton and recruits other adaptor molecules into a large complex to regulate actin dynamics and integrin function. Using the Cre-lox system, we deleted Ilk from NCCs of mice to investigate its role in NCC morphogenesis. The resulting mutants developed a severe aneurysmal arterial trunk that resulted in embryonic lethality during late gestation. Ilk mutants showed normal cardiac NCC migration but reduced differentiation into smooth muscle within the aortic arch arteries and the outflow tract. Within the conotruncal cushions, Ilk-deficient NCCs exhibited disorganization of F-actin stress fibers and a significantly rounder morphology, with shorter cellular projections. Additionally, absence of ILK resulted in reduced in vivo phosphorylation of Smad3 in NCCs, which correlated with reduced ?SMA levels. Our findings resemble those seen in Pinch1 and ?1 integrin conditional mutant mice, and therefore support that, in neural crest-derived cells, ILK and Pinch1 act as cytoplasmic effectors of ?1 integrin in a pathway that protects against aneurysms. In addition, our conditional Ilk mutant mice might prove useful as a model to study aortic aneurysms caused by reduced Smad3 signaling, as occurs in the newly described aneurysms-osteoarthritis syndrome, for example. PMID:23744273

Arnold, Thomas D.; Zang, Keling; Vallejo-Illarramendi, Ainara

2013-01-01

110

Chloroplast Reactions of Photosynthetic Mutants in Zea mays1  

PubMed Central

Three seedling lethal mutants of Zea mays with impaired photosynthesis are described. These recessive mutants were selected on the basis of high chlorophyll fluorescence. They have normal chlorophyll pigmentation but are unable to fix CO2 fully. Evidence is presented from fluorescence characteristics of isolated chloroplasts that both photosystem I and II mutants were isolated. Using conventional measures of photosynthetic electron transport, we suggest that the photosystem I mutant has limited ability to reduce NADP. The other two mutants are clearly blocked in photosystem II, one possibly lacking the primary electron acceptor. Images PMID:16658748

Miles, C. D.; Daniel, D. J.

1974-01-01

111

Midline lethal granuloma complicating pregnancy: case report.  

PubMed

A case of midline lethal granuloma in a 28-year- old female Nigerian patient is reported. Oral, ocular and nasal lesions were present and these preceded a spontaneous abortion of a three month old pregnancy. The clinical course of the disease and its similarity to other granulomatous diseases, which are generally classified as midline granuloma syndrome, are highlighted. The prognosis is poor but early diagnosis and treatment appears to improve a patient's condition PMID:16167758

Saheeb, B D O; Ojo, M A

2003-07-01

112

A genetic screen for temperature-sensitive cell-division mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed Central

A novel screen to isolate conditional cell-division mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans has been developed. The screen is based on the phenotypes associated with existing cell-division mutations: some disrupt postembryonic divisions and affect formation of the gonad and ventral nerve cord-resulting in sterile, uncoordinated animals-while others affect embryonic divisions and result in lethality. We obtained 19 conditional mutants that displayed these phenotypes when shifted to the restrictive temperature at the appropriate developmental stage. Eighteen of these mutations have been mapped; 17 proved to be single alleles of newly identified genes, while 1 proved to be an allele of a previously identified gene. Genetic tests on the embryonic lethal phenotypes indicated that for 13 genes, embryogenesis required maternal expression, while for 6, zygotic expression could suffice. In all cases, maternal expression of wild-type activity was found to be largely sufficient for embryogenesis. Cytological analysis revealed that 10 mutants possessed embryonic cell-division defects, including failure to properly segregate DNA, failure to assemble a mitotic spindle, late cytokinesis defects, prolonged cell cycles, and improperly oriented mitotic spindles. We conclude that this approach can be used to identify mutations that affect various aspects of the cell-division cycle. PMID:9649522

O'Connell, K F; Leys, C M; White, J G

1998-01-01

113

Characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae dna2 Mutants Suggests a Role for the Helicase Late in S Phase  

PubMed Central

The TOR proteins, originally identified as targets of the immunosuppressant rapamycin, contain an ATM-like “lipid kinase” domain and are required for early G1 progression in eukaryotes. Using a screen to identify Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants requiring overexpression of Tor1p for viability, we have isolated mutations in a gene we call ROT1 (requires overexpression of Tor1p). This gene is identical to DNA2, encoding a helicase required for DNA replication. As with its role in cell cycle progression, both the N-terminal and C-terminal regions, as well as the kinase domain of Tor1p, are required for rescue of dna2 mutants. Dna2 mutants are also rescued by Tor2p and show synthetic lethality with tor1 deletion mutants under specific conditions. Temperature-sensitive (Ts) dna2 mutants arrest irreversibly at G2/M in a RAD9- and MEC1-dependent manner, suggesting that Dna2p has a role in S phase. Frequencies of mitotic recombination and chromosome loss are elevated in dna2 mutants, also supporting a role for the protein in DNA synthesis. Temperature-shift experiments indicate that Dna2p functions during late S phase, although dna2 mutants are not deficient in bulk DNA synthesis. These data suggest that Dna2p is not required for replication fork progression but may be needed for a later event such as Okazaki fragment maturation. PMID:9398673

Fiorentino, David F.; Crabtree, Gerald R.

1997-01-01

114

Complement Depletion Facilitates the Infection of Multiple Brain Tumors by an Intravascular, Replication-Conditional Herpes Simplex Virus Mutant  

PubMed Central

Intravascular routes of administration can provide a means to target gene- and virus-based therapies to multiple tumor foci located within an organ, such as the brain. However, we demonstrate here that rodent plasma inhibits cell transduction by replication-conditional (oncolytic) herpes simplex viruses (HSV), replication-defective HSV, and adenovirus vectors. In vitro depletion of complement with mild heat treatment or in vivo depletion by treatment of athymic rats with cobra venom factor (CVF) partially reverses this effect. Without CVF, inhibition of cell infection by HSV is observed at plasma dilution as high as 1:32, while plasma from CVF-treated animals displays anti-HSV activity at lower dilutions (1:8). When applied to the therapy of intracerebral brain tumors, in vivo complement depletion facilitates the initial infection (assayed at the 2-day time point) by an intra-arterial replication-conditional HSV of tumor cells, located within three separate and distinct human glioma masses. However, at the 4-day time point, no propagation of HSV from initially infected tumor cells could be observed. Previously, we have shown that the immunosuppressive agent, cyclophosphamide (CPA), facilitates the in vivo propagation of an oncolytic HSV, delivered intravascularly, within infected multiple intracerebral masses, by inhibition of both innate and elicited anti-HSV neutralizing antibody response (K. Ikeda et al., Nat. Med. 5:881–889, 1999). In this study, we thus show that the addition of CPA to the CVF treatment results in a significant increase in viral propagation within infected tumors, measured at the 4-day time period. The concerted action of CVF and CPA significantly increases the life span of athymic rodents harboring three separate and large glioma xenografts after treatment with intravascular, oncolytic HSV. Southern analysis of viral genomes analyzed by PCR reveals the presence of the oncolytic virus in the brains, livers, spleens, kidneys, and intestine of treated animals, although none of these tissues displays evidence of HSV-mediated gene expression. In light of clinical trials of oncolytic HSV for malignant brain tumors, these findings suggest that antitumor efficacy may be limited by the host innate and elicited humoral responses. PMID:10775615

Ikeda, Keiro; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Ichikawa, Tomotsugu; Jhung, Sarah; Hochberg, Fred H.; Louis, David N.; Chiocca, E. Antonio

2000-01-01

115

DNA repair and synthetic lethality  

PubMed Central

Tumors often have DNA repair defects, suggesting additional inhibition of other DNA repair pathways in tumors may lead to synthetic lethality. Accumulating data demonstrate that DNA repair-defective tumors, in particular homologous recombination (HR), are highly sensitive to DNA-damaging agents. Thus, HR-defective tumors exhibit potential vulnerability to the synthetic lethality approach, which may lead to new therapeutic strategies. It is well known that poly (adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors show the synthetically lethal effect in tumors defective in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes encoded proteins that are required for efficient HR. In this review, we summarize the strategies of targeting DNA repair pathways and other DNA metabolic functions to cause synthetic lethality in HR-defective tumor cells. PMID:22010575

Guo, Gong-she; Zhang, Feng-mei; Gao, Rui-jie; Delsite, Robert; Feng, Zhi-hui; Powell, Simon N

2011-01-01

116

Potential lethal and non-lethal effects of predators on dispersal of spider mites.  

PubMed

Predators can affect prey dispersal lethally by direct consumption or non-lethally by making prey hesitate to disperse. These lethal and non-lethal effects are detectable only in systems where prey can disperse between multiple patches. However, most studies have drawn their conclusions concerning the ability of predatory mites to suppress spider mites based on observations of their interactions on a single patch or on heavily infested host plants where spider mites could hardly disperse toward intact patches. In these systems, specialist predatory mites that penetrate protective webs produced by spider mites quickly suppress the spider mites, whereas generalist predators that cannot penetrate the webs were ineffective. By using a connected patch system, we revealed that a generalist ant, Pristomyrmex punctatus Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), effectively prevented dispersal of spider mites, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), by directly consuming dispersing individuals. We also revealed that a generalist predatory mite, Euseius sojaensis Ehara (Acari: Phytoseiidae), prevented between-patch dispersal of T. kanzawai by making them hesitate to disperse. In contrast, a specialist phytoseiid predatory mite, Neoseiulus womersleyi Schicha, allowed spider mites to escape an initial patch, increasing the number of colonized patches within the system. Our results suggest that ants and generalist predatory mites can effectively suppress Tetranychus species under some conditions, and should receive more attention as agents for conservation biological control in agroecosystems. PMID:24867061

Otsuki, Hatsune; Yano, Shuichi

2014-11-01

117

Synthetic Lethality of Cohesins with PARPs and Replication Fork Mediators  

PubMed Central

Synthetic lethality has been proposed as a way to leverage the genetic differences found in tumor cells to affect their selective killing. Cohesins, which tether sister chromatids together until anaphase onset, are mutated in a variety of tumor types. The elucidation of synthetic lethal interactions with cohesin mutants therefore identifies potential therapeutic targets. We used a cross-species approach to identify robust negative genetic interactions with cohesin mutants. Utilizing essential and non-essential mutant synthetic genetic arrays in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we screened genome-wide for genetic interactions with hypomorphic mutations in cohesin genes. A somatic cell proliferation assay in Caenorhabditis elegans demonstrated that the majority of interactions were conserved. Analysis of the interactions found that cohesin mutants require the function of genes that mediate replication fork progression. Conservation of these interactions between replication fork mediators and cohesin in both yeast and C. elegans prompted us to test whether other replication fork mediators not found in the yeast were required for viability in cohesin mutants. PARP1 has roles in the DNA damage response but also in the restart of stalled replication forks. We found that a hypomorphic allele of the C. elegans SMC1 orthologue, him-1(e879), genetically interacted with mutations in the orthologues of PAR metabolism genes resulting in a reduced brood size and somatic cell defects. We then demonstrated that this interaction is conserved in human cells by showing that PARP inhibitors reduce the viability of cultured human cells depleted for cohesin components. This work demonstrates that large-scale genetic interaction screening in yeast can identify clinically relevant genetic interactions and suggests that PARP inhibitors, which are currently undergoing clinical trials as a treatment of homologous recombination-deficient cancers, may be effective in treating cancers that harbor cohesin mutations. PMID:22412391

Barrett, Irene; Ferree, Elizabeth; van Pel, Derek M.; Ushey, Kevin; Sipahimalani, Payal; Bryan, Jennifer; Rose, Ann M.; Hieter, Philip

2012-01-01

118

Lethal electric currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial-frequency currents of a few milliamperes flowing through the body will cause muscular contractions, resulting in the inability of the victim to release his grasp on a live conductor. Values of ``let-go'' current are very important criteria in the establishment of safe-current requirements. Since ventricular fibrillation, a condition in which circulation is arrested, is probably the most common cause of

Charles F. Dalziel; W. R. Lee

1969-01-01

119

A Specific Structural Requirement for Ergosterol in Long-chain Fatty Acid Synthesis Mutants Important for Maintaining Raft Domains in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Fungal sphingolipids contain ceramide with a very-long-chain fatty acid (C26). To investigate the physiological significance of the C26-substitution on this lipid, we performed a screen for mutants that are synthetically lethal with ELO3. Elo3p is a component of the ER-associated fatty acid elongase and is required for the final elongation cycle to produce C26 from C22/C24 fatty acids. elo3? mutant cells thus contain C22/C24- instead of the natural C26-substituted ceramide. We now report that under these conditions, an otherwise nonessential, but also fungal-specific, structural modification of the major sterol of yeast, ergosterol, becomes essential, because mutations in ELO3 are synthetically lethal with mutations in ERG6. Erg6p catalyzes the methylation of carbon atom 24 in the aliphatic side chain of sterol. The lethality of an elo3? erg6? double mutant is rescued by supplementation with ergosterol but not with cholesterol, indicating a vital structural requirement for the ergosterol-specific methyl group. To characterize this structural requirement in more detail, we generated a strain that is temperature sensitive for the function of Erg6p in an elo3? mutant background. Examination of raft association of the GPI-anchored Gas1p and plasma membrane ATPase, Pma1p, in the conditional elo3? erg6ts double mutant, revealed a specific defect of the mutant to maintain raft association of preexisting Pma1p. Interestingly, in an elo3? mutant at 37°C, newly synthesized Pma1p failed to enter raft domains early in the biosynthetic pathway, and upon arrival at the plasma membrane was rerouted to the vacuole for degradation. These observations indicate that the C26 fatty acid substitution on lipids is important for establishing raft association of Pma1p and stabilizing the protein at the cell surface. Analysis of raft lipids in the conditional mutant strain revealed a selective enrichment of ergosterol in detergent-resistant membrane domains, indicating that specific structural determinants on both sterols and sphingolipids are required for their association into raft domains. PMID:12475962

Eisenkolb, Marlis; Zenzmaier, Christoph; Leitner, Erich; Schneiter, Roger

2002-01-01

120

Starch mutants of Chlamydomonas  

SciTech Connect

Wild type Chlamydomonas accumulates starch and triglycerides when grown under nitrogen limiting conditions. Toward elucidation of the mechanisms for control of starch biosynthesis, we isolated mutants impaired int he accumulation of storage carbohydrates. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (strain ya-12) was mutagenized by UV irradiation and colonies were screened by iodine staining after growth in darkness. Mutants, denoted ais for altered in iodine staining, have been characterized by electron microscopy and assays for starch synthease, ADPG-pyrophosphorylase, phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), phosphoglucomutase and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and amylase activities. Transcript analysis of wild type and mutant RNAs with PGI, ADPG-pyrophosphorylase, and waxy probes have also been carried out. No deficiencies of any of these components have been detected. Furthermore, long-term cultures of ya-12 and ais-1d in nitrogen-limited chemostats have been studied; starch also does not accumulate in ais-1d under these conditions. Thus, the lesion affects an essential factor of unknown identity that is required for starch synthesis.

Berry-Lowe, S.L.; Schmidt, G.W. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA))

1990-05-01

121

Characterization of cottonseed nutrients composition in near isogenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) mutant lines for fuzzless seed trait under well-watered and water stress conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton mutant near isogenic lines (NILs) for fuzzless seed trait has been used to investigate cell biology, genetic, and molecular processes of fiber initiation, development, fiber yield and quality. However, there is no information available on the effect of fuzzless seed trait on cottonseed nutrie...

122

Characterisation of an acapsular mutant of Burkholderia pseudomallei identified by signature tagged mutagenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Burkholderia pseudomallei mutant which was attenuated in a mouse model of melioidosis was identified by a signature tagged mutagenesis approach. The transposon was shown to be inserted into a gene within the capsular biosynthetic operon. Compared with the wild-type bacteria this mutant demonstrated a 105-fold increase in the median lethal dose in a mouse model and it did not

TIMOTHY ATKINS; RICHARD PRIOR; KERRI MACK; PAUL RUSSELL; MICHELLE NELSON; JILL ELLIS; PETRA C. F. OYSTON; GORDON DOUGAN; RICHARD W. TITBALL

2002-01-01

123

Dominant lethal mutations in Tilapia mossambica (Peters) elicited by myleran.  

PubMed

Tilapia mossambica (Peters) Teleostei, Cichlidae, is of commercial importance being farmed for human consumption. An effective means of sterilization would be of value since prolific breeding under farming conditions reduces growth rate. The possibility of using the antileukaemic drug myleran as a chemosterilant has been investigated previously, however the present study indicated that it can induce dominant lethal mutations in this species. PMID:7219436

Wardhaugh, A A

1981-02-01

124

The "Lethal Chamber": Further Evidence of the Euthanasia Option.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historical discussions of the euthanasia or "lethal chamber" option in relation to people with mental retardation are presented. The paper concludes that eugenic beliefs in the primacy of heredity over environment and the positive role of natural selection may have condoned the poor conditions characteristic of large, segregated institutions and…

Elks, Martin A.

1993-01-01

125

Introduction to Lethal School Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, we offer an introduction to the topic of the book, lethal school violence (LSV). We begin with an introduction\\u000a to and definition of LSV, and then highlight five different situations that often result in fatalities (i.e., suicide, rampage\\u000a shootings, gang-related deaths, domestic murder\\/suicide that occurs on campus, and barricaded captive events). We then turn\\u000a our attention to

Jeffrey A. Daniels; Mary C. Bradley

126

D-2-hydroxyglutarate produced by mutant IDH1 perturbs collagen maturation and basement membrane function  

PubMed Central

Isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) R132 mutations occur in glioma, but their physiological significance is unknown. Here we describe the generation and characterization of brain-specific Idh1 R132H conditional knock-in (KI) mice. Idh1 mutation results in hemorrhage and perinatal lethality. Surprisingly, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are attenuated in Idh1-KI brain cells despite an apparent increase in the NADP+/NADPH ratio. Idh1-KI cells also show high levels of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG) that are associated with inhibited prolyl-hydroxylation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1? (Hif1?) and up-regulated Hif1? target gene transcription. Intriguingly, D2HG also blocks prolyl-hydroxylation of collagen, causing a defect in collagen protein maturation. An endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response induced by the accumulation of immature collagens may account for the embryonic lethality of these mutants. Importantly, D2HG-mediated impairment of collagen maturation also led to basement membrane (BM) aberrations that could play a part in glioma progression. Our study presents strong in vivo evidence that the D2HG produced by the mutant Idh1 enzyme is responsible for the above effects. PMID:22925884

Sasaki, Masato; Knobbe, Christiane B.; Itsumi, Momoe; Elia, Andrew J.; Harris, Isaac S.; Chio, Iok In Christine; Cairns, Rob A.; McCracken, Susan; Wakeham, Andrew; Haight, Jillian; Ten, Annick You; Snow, Bryan; Ueda, Takeshi; Inoue, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Ko, Myunggon; Rao, Anjana; Yen, Katharine E.; Su, Shinsan M.; Mak, Tak Wah

2012-01-01

127

Mutations Synthetically Lethal with Tpm1? Lie in Genes Involved in Morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

Yeast contains two genes, TPM1 and TPM2, encoding tropomyosins, either of which can provide an essential function in the yeast cytoskeleton. To elucidate more clearly the function of the major tropomyosin, encoded by TPM1, we have isolated mutations that confer synthetic lethality with the null mutant of TPM1. Here we describe a phenotypic and genetic analysis of mutations in TSL1/BEM2, TSL2, TSL3, TSL5, and TSL6 (tropomyosin synthetic lethal). All the mutants exhibit clear morphological and some actin cytoskeletal defects, but are not noticeably defective in secretion, endocytosis, or organelle segregation. The lethality conferred by tsl tpm1? mutations could be specifically suppressed by either TPM1 or an additional copy of TPM2. This implies that the essential function compromised in the tsl tpm1? constructs is the same essential function for which Tpm1p or Tpm2p is necessary. Synthetic interactions and unlinked noncomplementation were observed between the tsl mutants, suggesting that they participate in related functions involving morphogenesis. In support of this, tsl6-1 was identified as an allele of the nonessential gene SLT2 or MPK1 whose product is a MAP kinase regulating cell wall synthesis. These results indicate that this synthetic lethality approach provides a sensitive screen for the isolation of mutations affecting morphogenesis, many of which are likely to be in nonessential genes, like BEM2 and SLT2. PMID:9409824

Wang, T.; Bretscher, A.

1997-01-01

128

Lethal and mutagenic action of hydrogen peroxide on Haemophilus influenzae.  

PubMed Central

The lethal and mutagenic effects of H2O2 on wild-type Haemophilus influenzae Rd and on uvr1, uvr2, rec1, and rec2 mutant strains were studied. The first two mutants are sensitive to UV, and the second two are defective in recombination. Rd, urv1, and rec1 strains were more sensitive to the killing effect of H2O2 treatment than were uvr2 and rec2 strains. There were peaks of mutagenesis at two H2O2 concentrations over a range of 30 to 275 mM. Our results suggest a specific repair of H2O2 damage that is independent of the Uvr2 and Rec2 gene products. Sensitivity to the killing effect of H2O2 and to the lethal action of near-UV light were similar for Rd and uvr1 strains. This finding suggests that the mechanisms of killing by and repair of H2O2 damage may have some overlap with those of near-UV radiation. PMID:1917884

Sánchez-Rincón, D A; Cabrera-Juárez, E

1991-01-01

129

Lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine cascade and lethality in LT alpha/TNF alpha-deficient mice.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is often considered the main proinflammatory cytokine induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and consequently the critical mediator of the lethality associated with septic shock. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used mice carrying a deletion of both the lymphotoxin alpha (LT-alpha) and TNF-alpha genes to assess the role of TNF in the cytokine cascade and lethality induced by LPS. RESULTS: Initial production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and IL-10 is comparable in wild-type and mutant mice. However, at later times, expression of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-10 is prolonged, whereas that of IL-6 decreases in mutant mice. Expression of IFN-gamma is almost completely abrogated in mutants, which is in agreement with a more significant alteration of the late phase of the cytokine cascade. We measured similar LD50 (600 micrograms) for the intravenous injection of LPS in mice of the three genotypes (+/+, +/-, -/-), demonstrating that the absence of TNF does not confer long-term protection from lethality. However, death occurred much more slowly in mutant mice, who were protected more efficiently from death by CNI 1493, an inhibitor of proinflammatory cytokine production, than were wild-type mice. DISCUSSION: Thus, while TNF-alpha is not required for the induction of these cytokines by LPS, it modulates the kinetics of their expression. The lethality studies simultaneously confirm a role for TNF as a mediator of early lethality and establish that, in the absence of these cytokines, other mediators take over, resulting in the absence of long-term protection from LPS toxicity. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:9440119

Amiot, F.; Fitting, C.; Tracey, K. J.; Cavaillon, J. M.; Dautry, F.

1997-01-01

130

Ethical language and decision-making for prenatally diagnosed lethal malformations.  

PubMed

In clinical practice, and in the medical literature, severe congenital malformations such as trisomy 18, anencephaly, and renal agenesis are frequently referred to as 'lethal' or as 'incompatible with life'. However, there is no agreement about a definition of lethal malformations, nor which conditions should be included in this category. Review of outcomes for malformations commonly designated 'lethal' reveals that prolonged survival is possible, even if rare. This article analyses the concept of lethal malformations and compares it to the problematic concept of 'futility'. We recommend avoiding the term 'lethal' and suggest that counseling should focus on salient prognostic features instead. For conditions with a high chance of early death or profound impairment in survivors despite treatment, perinatal and neonatal palliative care would be ethical. However, active obstetric and neonatal management, if desired, may also sometimes be appropriate. PMID:25200733

Wilkinson, Dominic; de Crespigny, Lachlan; Xafis, Vicki

2014-10-01

131

Extinction of Hepatitis C Virus by Ribavirin in Hepatoma Cells Involves Lethal Mutagenesis  

PubMed Central

Lethal mutagenesis, or virus extinction produced by enhanced mutation rates, is under investigation as an antiviral strategy that aims at counteracting the adaptive capacity of viral quasispecies, and avoiding selection of antiviral-escape mutants. To explore lethal mutagenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV), it is important to establish whether ribavirin, the purine nucleoside analogue used in anti-HCV therapy, acts as a mutagenic agent during virus replication in cell culture. Here we report the effect of ribavirin during serial passages of HCV in human hepatoma Huh-7.5 cells, regarding viral progeny production and complexity of mutant spectra. Ribavirin produced an increase of mutant spectrum complexity and of the transition types associated with ribavirin mutagenesis, resulting in HCV extinction. Ribavirin-mediated depletion of intracellular GTP was not the major contributory factor to mutagenesis since mycophenolic acid evoked a similar decrease in GTP without an increase in mutant spectrum complexity. The intracellular concentration of the other nucleoside-triphosphates was elevated as a result of ribavirin treatment. Mycophenolic acid extinguished HCV without an intervening mutagenic activity. Ribavirin-mediated, but not mycophenolic acid-mediated, extinction of HCV occurred via a decrease of specific infectivity, a feature typical of lethal mutagenesis. We discuss some possibilities to explain disparate results on ribavirin mutagenesis of HCV. PMID:23976977

Ortega-Prieto, Ana M.; Sheldon, Julie; Grande-Pérez, Ana; Tejero, Héctor; Gregori, Josep; Quer, Josep; Esteban, Juan I.; Domingo, Esteban; Perales, Celia

2013-01-01

132

Acute and sub-lethal response to mercury in Arctic and boreal calanoid copepods.  

PubMed

Acute lethal toxicity, expressed as LC50 values, is a widely used parameter in risk assessment of chemicals, and has been proposed as a tool to assess differences in species sensitivities to chemicals between climatic regions. Arctic Calanus glacialis and boreal Calanus finmarchicus were exposed to mercury (Hg(2+)) under natural environmental conditions including sea temperatures of 2° and 10°C, respectively. Acute lethal toxicity (96 h LC50) and sub-lethal molecular response (GST expression; in this article gene expression is used as a synonym of gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression is also regulated, e.g., at translation and protein stability level) were studied. The acute lethal toxicity was monitored for 96 h using seven different Hg concentrations. The sub-lethal experiment was set up on the basis of nominal LC50 values for each species using concentrations equivalent to 50, 5 and 0.5% of their 96 h LC50 value. No significant differences were found in acute lethal toxicity between the two species. The sub-lethal molecular response revealed large differences both in response time and the fold induction of GST, where the Arctic species responded both faster and with higher mRNA levels of GST after 48 h exposure. Under the natural exposure conditions applied in the present study, the Arctic species C. glacialis may potentially be more susceptible to mercury exposure on the sub-lethal level. PMID:25036619

Overjordet, Ida Beathe; Altin, Dag; Berg, Torunn; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

2014-10-01

133

Structure-function analysis of yeast mRNA cap methyltransferase and high-copy suppression of conditional mutants by AdoMet synthase and the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme Cdc34p.  

PubMed Central

Here we present a genetic analysis of the yeast cap-methylating enzyme Abd1p. To identify individual amino acids required for Abd1p function, we introduced alanine mutations at 35 positions of the 436-amino acid yeast protein. Two new recessive lethal mutations, F256A and Y330A, were identified. Alleles F256L and Y256L were viable, suggesting that hydrophobic residues at these positions sufficed for Abd1p function. Conservative mutations of Asp-178 established that an acidic moiety is essential at this position (i.e. , D178E was viable whereas D178N was not). Phe-256, Tyr-330, and Asp-178 are conserved in all known cellular cap methyltransferases. We isolated temperature-sensitive abd1 alleles and found that abd1-ts cells display a rapid shut-off of protein synthesis upon shift to the restrictive temperature, without wholesale reduction in steady-state mRNA levels. These in vivo results are consistent with classical biochemical studies showing a requirement for the cap methyl group in cap-dependent translation. We explored the issue of how cap methylation might be regulated in vivo by conducting a genetic screen for high-copy suppressors of the ts growth defect of abd1 mutants. The identification of the yeast genes SAM2 and SAM1, which encode AdoMet synthase, as abd1 suppressors suggests that Abd1p function can be modulated by changes in the concentration of its substrate AdoMet. We also identified the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme Cdc34p as a high-copy abd1 suppressor. We show that mutations of Cdc34p that affect its ubiquitin conjugation activity or its capacity to interact with the E3-SCF complex abrogate its abd1 suppressor function. Moreover, the growth defect of abd1 mutants is exacerbated by cdc34-2. These findings suggest a novel role for Cdc34p in gene expression and engender a model whereby cap methylation or cap utilization is negatively regulated by a factor that is degraded when Cdc34p is overexpressed. PMID:10924457

Schwer, B; Saha, N; Mao, X; Chen, H W; Shuman, S

2000-01-01

134

Early events of lethal action by tobramycin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

SciTech Connect

The immediate activities of the aminoglycoside antibiotic, tobramycin, were investigated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The influence of carbon growth substate and the antibiotic exposure environment in the magnitude of activity were examined. Lethality by 8 {mu}g/ml tobramycin occurred rapidly (1 to 3 minutes). The release of specific cellular components into the supernatant was associated with lethality. This material was initially detected as an increase in UV-absorbance. Magnesium in the reaction mixture provided protection against lethality and leakage, but did not reverse lethal damage after a 3 minute tobramycin treatment. Also, uptake of {sup 3}H-tobramycin was reduced in the presence of magnesium. Cells grown with glucose as a carbon source were more susceptible than organic acid grown cells as was the rapidity and amount of cell damage. Analyses of the leakage material revealed a 2-fold increase of protein in the supernatant after a 1-3 minute treatment which paralleled lethality. A prominent 29 kDa protein was observed by SDS-PAGE in the released material, which has been identified as the periplasmic enzyme, {beta}-lactamase. The immediate activities of tobramycin did not involve (i) release of overall cell protein, (ii) massive loss of total pool amino acids, (iii) cell lysis, (iv) inhibition of proline uptake, (v) release of lipopolysaccharide, or (vi) leakage of ATP. Electron microscopy showed no apparent damage after a 3 minute exposure. 40% inhibition of protein synthesis had occurred by 3 minutes of exposure, while release of UV-absorbing material and lethality were detectable after only 1 minute. Resistant cystic fibrosis isolates of P. aeruginosa did not leak under the same experimental conditions, but one of two susceptible strains examined did show increased UV-absorbance following treatment.

Raulston, J.E.

1988-01-01

135

Aerobic isolation of an ERG24 null mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

The ERG24 gene, encoding the C-14 sterol reductase, has been reported to be essential to the aerobic growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We report here, however, that strains with null mutations in the ERG24 gene can grow on defined synthetic media in aerobic conditions. These sterol mutants produce ignosterol (ergosta-8,14-dienol) as the principal sterol, with no traces of ergosterol. In addition, we mapped the ERG24 gene to chromosome XIV between the MET2 and SEC2 genes. Our results indicate that ignosterol can be a suitable sterol for aerobic growth of S. cerevisiae on synthetic media and that inactivation of ERG24 is only conditionally lethal. PMID:8631695

Crowley, J H; Smith, S J; Leak, F W; Parks, L W

1996-01-01

136

Compartmentalized self-replication under fast PCR cycling conditions yields Taq DNA polymerase mutants with increased DNA-binding affinity and blood resistance  

PubMed Central

Faster-cycling PCR formulations, protocols, and instruments have been developed to address the need for increased throughput and shorter turn-around times for PCR-based assays. Although run times can be cut by up to 50%, shorter cycle times have been correlated with lower detection sensitivity and increased variability. To address these concerns, we applied Compartmentalized Self Replication (CSR) to evolve faster-cycling mutants of Taq DNA polymerase. After five rounds of selection using progressively shorter PCR extension times, individual mutations identified in the fastest-cycling clones were randomly combined using ligation-based multi-site mutagenesis. The best-performing combinatorial mutants exhibit 35- to 90-fold higher affinity (lower Kd) for primed template and a moderate (2-fold) increase in extension rate compared to wild-type Taq. Further characterization revealed that CSR-selected mutations provide increased resistance to inhibitors, and most notably, enable direct amplification from up to 65% whole blood. We discuss the contribution of individual mutations to fast-cycling and blood-resistant phenotypes. PMID:25177317

Arezi, Bahram; McKinney, Nancy; Hansen, Connie; Cayouette, Michelle; Fox, Jeffrey; Chen, Keith; Lapira, Jennifer; Hamilton, Sarah; Hogrefe, Holly

2014-01-01

137

Temperature-Sensitive Mutants of Bioluminescent Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutants of a marine luminous bacterium, in which the ability to emit light is conditional upon temperature, have been isolated. The mutants obtained fall into three classes, which are readily distinguishable by both in vivo and in vitro criteria. In one class an altered, more temperature-sensitive luciferase is produced; in a second, the luciferase is actually not produced at the

Thomas Cline; J. W. Hastings

1971-01-01

138

Hypopigmentation and Maternal-Zygotic Embryonic Lethality Caused by a Hypomorphic Mbtps1 Mutation in Mice  

PubMed Central

The site 1 protease, encoded by Mbtps1, mediates the initial cleavage of site 2 protease substrates, including sterol regulatory element binding proteins and CREB/ATF transcription factors. We demonstrate that a hypomorphic mutation of Mbtps1 called woodrat (wrt) caused hypocholesterolemia, as well as progressive hypopigmentation of the coat, that appears to be mechanistically unrelated. Hypopigmentation was rescued by transgenic expression of wild-type Mbtps1, and reciprocal grafting studies showed that normal pigmentation depended upon both cell-intrinsic or paracrine factors, as well as factors that act systemically, both of which are lacking in wrt homozygotes. Mbtps1 exhibited a maternal-zygotic effect characterized by fully penetrant embryonic lethality of maternal-zygotic wrt mutant offspring and partial embryonic lethality (~40%) of zygotic wrt mutant offspring. Mbtps1 is one of two maternal-zygotic effect genes identified in mammals to date. It functions nonredundantly in pigmentation and embryogenesis. PMID:22540041

Rutschmann, Sophie; Crozat, Karine; Li, Xiaohong; Du, Xin; Hanselman, Jeffrey C.; Shigeoka, Alana A.; Brandl, Katharina; Popkin, Daniel L.; McKay, Dianne B.; Xia, Yu; Moresco, Eva Marie Y.; Beutler, Bruce

2012-01-01

139

Alcohol Consumption and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a case-control study of the association between nearly lethal suicide attempts and facets of alcohol consumption; namely, drinking frequency, drinking quantity, binge drinking, alcoholism, drinking within 3 hours of suicide attempt, and age began drinking. In bivariate analyses, all measures were associated with nearly lethal suicide…

Powell, Kenneth E.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Swann, Alan C.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Lee, Roberta K.; Bayer, Timothy L.

2002-01-01

140

Recovery of plants from “Near-Lethal” stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the dieback and recovery of red-osier dogwood, Cornus sericea L. plants from “near-lethal” (NL, sublethal) stress after varying lengths of post-stress environment (PSE). Intact dormant stems were subjected to 47° C for one hour during either October, November or December, and then placed into either constant 0° C or 23° C (dark condition) or kept under

A. M. Shirazi; L. H. Fuchigami

1993-01-01

141

Intronic T-DNA Insertion Renders Arabidopsis opr3 a Conditional Jasmonic Acid-Producing Mutant1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Jasmonic acid and its derived metabolites (JAs) orchestrate plant defense against insects and fungi. 12-Oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), a JA precursor, has also been implicated in plant defense. We sought to define JAs and OPDA functions through comparative defense susceptibility characteristics of three Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genotypes: aos, lacking JAs and OPDA; opda reductase3 (opr3), deficient in JA production but can accumulate OPDA; and transgenics that overexpress OPR3. opr3, like aos, is susceptible to cabbage loopers (Trichoplusia ni) but, relative to aos, opr3 has enhanced resistance to a necrotrophic fungus. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry reveals that opr3 produces OPDA but no detectable JAs following wounding and looper infestation; unexpectedly, substantial levels of JAs accumulate in opr3 upon fungal infection. Full-length OPR3 transcripts accumulate in fungal-infected opr3, potentially through splicing of the T-DNA containing intron. Fungal resistance correlates with levels of JAs not OPDA; therefore, opr3 resistance to some pests is likely due to JA accumulation, and signaling activities ascribed to OPDA should be reassessed because opr3 can produce JAs. Together these data (1) reinforce the primary role JAs play in plant defense against insects and necrotrophic fungi, (2) argue for a reassessment of signaling activities ascribed to OPDA, and (3) provide evidence that mutants with intron insertions can retain gene function. PMID:21487047

Chehab, E. Wassim; Kim, Se; Savchenko, Tatyana; Kliebenstein, Daniel; Dehesh, Katayoon; Braam, Janet

2011-01-01

142

The MAP Kinase Slt2 Is Involved in Vacuolar Function and Actin Remodeling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mutants Affected by Endogenous Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress causes transient actin cytoskeleton depolarization and also provokes vacuole fragmentation in wild-type cells. Under conditions of oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide, the Slt2 protein is required to repolarize the actin cytoskeleton and to promote vacuole fusion. In this study, we show that grx3 grx4 and grx5 mutants are cellular models of endogenous oxidative stress. This stress is the result of alterations in iron homeostasis that lead to impairment of vacuolar function and also to disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Slt2 overexpression suppresses defects in vacuolar function and actin cytoskeleton organization in the grx3 grx4 mutant. Slt2 exerts this effect independently of the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of iron homeostasis. The deletion of SLT2 in the grx3 grx4 mutant results in synthetic lethality related to vacuolar function with substantial vacuole fragmentation. The observation that both Vps4 and Vps73 (two proteins related to vacuole sorting) suppress vacuole fragmentation and actin depolarization in the grx3 grx4 slt2 triple mutant strengthens the hypothesis that Slt2 plays a role in vacuole homeostasis related to actin dynamics. Here we show that in sod1, grx5, and grx3 grx4 slt2 mutants, all of which are affected by chronic oxidative stress, the overexpression of Slt2 favors vacuole fusion through a mechanism dependent on an active actin cytoskeleton. PMID:23956390

Pujol-Carrion, Nuria; Petkova, Mima I.; Serrano, Luis

2013-01-01

143

Genetic analysis of a temperature-sensitive Salmonella typhimurium rho mutant with an altered rho-associated polycytidylate-dependent adenosine triphosphatase activity.  

PubMed Central

A conditional-lethal rho mutant of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 has been isolated. The mutation was selected as a suppressor of the polarity of an insertion sequence (IS)2-induced mutation (gal3) carried on an F' plasmid. In addition to suppression of IS2-induced polarity, the rho-111 mutation suppressed nonsense and frameshift polarity. The rho-associated polycytidylic acid-dependent adenosine triphosphatase activity in the mutant strain was elevated 15-fold above that in the parental strain, and the mutant rho protein was thermally unstable. A temperature-resistant revertant of the mutant strain did not suppress polarity and contained normal levels of polycytidylic acid-dependent adenosine triphosphatase, suggesting that the phenotype of the rho-111-bearing strain is the consequence of a single mutation. The rho-111 mutation was located on the S. typhimurium linkage map midway between the ilv and cya loci by phage P22 cotransduction studies. F' plasmid maintenance was not impaired in the mutant strain, and the mutation was recessive to the wild-type allele. The rho-111 mutation did not alter in vivo expression of either the tryptophan or histidine operons. PMID:6453864

Housley, P R; Leavitt, A D; Whitfield, H J

1981-01-01

144

Lethal factor, but not edema factor, is required to cause fatal anthrax in cynomolgus macaques after pulmonary spore challenge.  

PubMed

Inhalational anthrax is caused by inhalation of Bacillus anthracis spores. The ability of B. anthracis to cause anthrax is attributed to the plasmid-encoded A/B-type toxins, edema toxin (edema factor and protective antigen) and lethal toxin (lethal factor and protective antigen), and a poly-d-glutamic acid capsule. To better understand the contribution of these toxins to the disease pathophysiology in vivo, we used B. anthracis Ames strain and isogenic toxin deletion mutants derived from the Ames strain to examine the role of lethal toxin and edema toxin after pulmonary spore challenge of cynomolgus macaques. Lethal toxin, but not edema toxin, was required to induce sustained bacteremia and death after pulmonary challenge with spores delivered via bronchoscopy. After intravenous challenge with bacilli to model the systemic phase of infection, lethal toxin contributed to bacterial proliferation and subsequent host death to a greater extent than edema toxin. Deletion of protective antigen resulted in greater loss of virulence after intravenous challenge with bacilli than deletion of lethal toxin or edema toxin alone. These findings are consistent with the ability of anti-protective antigen antibodies to prevent anthrax and suggest that lethal factor is the dominant toxin that contributes to the escape of significant numbers of bacilli from the thoracic cavity to cause anthrax after inhalation challenge with spores. PMID:25285720

Hutt, Julie A; Lovchik, Julie A; Drysdale, Melissa; Sherwood, Robert L; Brasel, Trevor; Lipscomb, Mary F; Lyons, C Rick

2014-12-01

145

Lethal photosensitization of Helicobacter species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is associated with a large number of gastroduodenal disorders. Clearance of the bacteria has been shown to benefit patients with duodenal ulcers, gastric ulcers, and certain rare types of gastric tumors. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are the mainstay of current treatment strategies but side-effects, poor compliance, and drug resistance limit their usefulness. We sensitized H. pylori with toluidine blue, haematoporphyrin derivative, aluminum disulphonated phthalocyanine, methylene blue or protoporphyrin IX prior to exposure to low-power laser light from either a gallium aluminum arsenide laser or a helium neon gas laser. All 5 sensitizers caused reductions of greater than 1000-fold in the number of viable bacteria. Light alone had no effect and only HpD caused a significant decrease in bacterial numbers without laser light. Next, we sensitized H. mustelae on explanted ferret gastric mucosa (ex vivo) with the same sensitizers and exposed them to light from a copper vapor pumped dye laser tuned appropriately. MB caused significant reductions in bacterial counts. Successful lethal photosensitization of Helicobacter pylori both in vitro and ex vivo raises the possibility of a local method for eradicating the bacteria, especially as the bacteria are only found in those parts of the upper gastrointestinal tract that are accessible to the endoscope.

Millson, Charles E.; Wilson, Michael; MacRobert, Alexander J.; Thurrell, Wendy; Mlkvy, Peter; Davies, Claire; Bown, Stephen G.

1995-01-01

146

Drosophila switch gene Sex-lethal can bypass its switch-gene target transformer to regulate aspects of female behavior.  

PubMed

The switch gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) was thought to elicit all aspects of Drosophila female somatic differentiation other than size dimorphism by controlling only the switch gene transformer (tra). Here we show instead that Sxl controls an aspect of female sexual behavior by acting on a target other than or in addition to tra. We inferred the existence of this unknown Sxl target from the observation that a constitutively feminizing tra transgene that restores fertility to tra(-) females failed to restore fertility to Sxl-mutant females that were adult viable but functionally tra(-). The sterility of these mutant females was caused by an ovulation failure. Because tra expression is not sufficient to render these Sxl-mutant females fertile, we refer to this pathway as the tra-insufficient feminization (TIF) branch of the sex-determination regulatory pathway. Using a transgene that conditionally expresses two Sxl feminizing isoforms, we find that the TIF branch is required developmentally for neurons that also sex-specifically express fruitless, a tra gene target controlling sexual behavior. Thus, in a subset of fruitless neurons, targets of the TIF and tra pathways appear to collaborate to control ovulation. In most insects, Sxl has no sex-specific functions, and tra, rather than Sxl, is both the target of the primary sex signal and the gene that maintains the female developmental commitment via positive autoregulation. The TIF pathway may represent an ancestral female-specific function acquired by Sxl in an early evolutionary step toward its becoming the regulator of tra in Drosophila. PMID:24191002

Evans, Daniel S; Cline, Thomas W

2013-11-19

147

latheo Encodes a Subunit of the Origin Recognition Complex and Disrupts Neuronal Proliferation and Adult Olfactory Memory When Mutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Drosophila latheo (lat) gene was identified in a behavioral screen for olfactory memory mutants. The original hypomorphic latP1 mutant (Boynton and Tully 1992) shows a structural defect in adult brain. Homozygous lethal lat mutants lack imaginal discs, show little cell proliferation in the CNS of third instar larvae, and die as early pupae. latP1 was cloned, and all of

Shirly Pinto; David G Quintana; Patrick Smith; Robert M Mihalek; Zhi-Hui Hou; Susan Boynton; Christopher J Jones; Marvin Hendricks; Klara Velinzon; James A Wohlschlegel; Richard J Austin; Tim Tully; Anindya Dutta

1999-01-01

148

Reaming experiments for the lethality test system  

SciTech Connect

Various reaming techniques were tried for use on the barrel of the Lethality Test System railgun. This report covers the successes and failures of the reamers and the techniques that were tried. 5 figs.

Hooten, D.; Stanley, P.

1988-01-01

149

Characteristics of 26 S proteases from fission yeast mutants, which arrest in mitosis.  

PubMed

We have isolated the 26 S protease from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The affinity-purified enzyme contains the two regulatory ATPases mts2+, a homolog of human S4, and CIM5, a homolog of human MSS1 = S7. We show that mts3+, a homolog of the budding yeast NIN1 protein and human S14, is a true component of the 19 S regulatory complex from the fission yeast. The 26 S proteases purified from two thermosensitive mutants, mts2-1 and mts3-1, which arrest in cell cycle at the restrictive temperature (37 degrees C), have been compared with the wild-type enzyme after growing cells at permissive (25 degrees C) and non-permissive temperatures. We demonstrate that mutated mts2 protein is integrated into the protease complex prepared from mts2 cells, whereas mutated mts3 is not present in the 19 S regulatory complex from mts3 cells. The two mutant 26 S proteases isolated after growing cells at 37 degrees C remain stable for two hours at 37 degrees C as measured by ATP-dependent cleavage of the fluorogenic peptide sucLLVY-MCA. At the restrictive temperature, the mutant 26 S proteases do not degrade ubiquitin-[125I]lysozyme conjugates in an ATP-dependent manner, indicating that mts2+ and mts3+ are essential for ubiquitin conjugate degradation. This explains the conditional lethality of the mutants and the cell-cycle arrest in metaphase to anaphase transition. In addition, our data demonstrate that the ATPases of the 26 S enzyme are not redundant. PMID:8918598

Seeger, M; Gordon, C; Ferrell, K; Dubiel, W

1996-11-01

150

Impaired neonatal survival of pro-opiomelanocortin null mutants.  

PubMed

Intercrosses of heterozygous pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mice result in homozygous null progeny at lower frequencies than expected. Genotyping offspring at pre-, peri-, and postnatal stages revealed that over half of homozygous null mutants die in the early postnatal stages. To investigate the reasons for this early postnatal lethality, we analyzed in detail different parameters in the initial hours after birth. POMC null mutants born to heterozygous dams presented at birth with corticosterone levels no different from wildtype littermates, were euglycemic, and had normal liver glycogen stores. However, already 30 min after birth corticosterone levels dropped by 80% and were undetectable thereafter, while corticosterone levels in wildtype animals increased during postnatal hours. Circulating adrenaline was almost below detection 1h after birth. Blood glucose levels fell sharply in all genotypes within 30 min after birth; however, wildtype and heterozygous pups overcame hypoglycemia within an hour, while mutant pups stayed hypoglycemic. The depletion of liver glycogen stores in mutant pups was significantly less efficient compared to their littermates in the hours after birth. POMC null mutant mice born to POMC null mutant dams completely lack corticosterone and die of the expected respiratory dysfunction. In contrast, POMC null mutant mice born to heterozygous dams do not die of respiratory problems, but rather due to hypoglycemia. Our studies confirm an essential involvement of POMC peptides and of adrenal glucocorticoids and catecholamines on glucose homeostasis critical for early postnatal survival. PMID:21184805

Saedler, Katarzyna; Hochgeschwender, Ute

2011-04-10

151

Synthetic Lethal Interactions Involving Loss of the Yeast ERG24- the Sterol C-14 Reductase Gene.  

PubMed Central

ERG2 and ERG24 are yeast sterol biosynthetic genes and are targets of the morpholine antifungals. ERG2 and ERG24 encode the C-8 sterol isomerase and the C-14 reductase, respectively. ERG2 is considered a non-essential gene but the viability of ERG24 is dependent upon genetic background, type of medium, and CaCl2 concentration. We demonstrate that erg2 and erg24 mutants are viable in the deletion consortium background but are lethal when combined into the same haploid strain. The erg2erg24 double mutant can be suppressed by mutations in the sphingolipid gene ELO3 but not ELO2. However, suppression occurs on rich but not on synthetic complete medium. We also demonstrate that the suppressed elo3erg2erg24 does not show a sterol composition markedly different from erg24. Further genetic analysis indicates that erg24 when combined with mutations in erg6 or erg28 are synthetically lethal but when combined with mutations in erg3 are weakly viable. These results suggest that novel sterol intermediates likely contribute to the synthetic lethality observed in this investigation. PMID:17393212

Shah Alam Bhuiyan, M.; Eckstein, James; Barbuch, Robert; Bard, Martin

2006-01-01

152

?-Lactalbumin unfolding is not sufficient to cause apoptosis, but is required for the conversion to HAMLET (human ?-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells)  

PubMed Central

HAMLET (human ?-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a complex of human ?-lactalbumin and oleic acid (C18:1:9 cis) that kills tumor cells by an apoptosis-like mechanism. Previous studies have shown that a conformational change is required to form HAMLET from ?-lactalbumin, and that a partially unfolded conformation is maintained in the HAMLET complex. This study examined if unfolding of ?-lactalbumin is sufficient to induce cell death. We used the bovine ?-lactalbumin Ca2+ site mutant D87A, which is unable to bind Ca2+, and thus remains partially unfolded regardless of solvent conditions. The D87A mutant protein was found to be inactive in the apoptosis assay, but could readily be converted to a HAMLET-like complex in the presence of oleic acid. BAMLET (bovine ?-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) and D87A-BAMLET complexes were both able to kill tumor cells. This activity was independent of the Ca2+site, as HAMLET maintained a high affinity for Ca2+ but D87A-BAMLET was active with no Ca2+ bound. We conclude that partial unfolding of ?-lactalbumin is necessary but not sufficient to trigger cell death, and that the activity of HAMLET is defined both by the protein and the lipid cofactor. Furthermore, a functional Ca2+-binding site is not required for conversion of ?-lactalbumin to the active complex or to cause cell death. This suggests that the lipid cofactor stabilizes the altered fold without interfering with the Ca2+site. PMID:14627739

Svensson, Malin; Fast, Jonas; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Düringer, Caroline; Gustafsson, Lotta; Hallgren, Oskar; Brooks, Charles L.; Berliner, Lawrence; Linse, Sara; Svanborg, Catharina

2003-01-01

153

Effects of fuzzless cottonseed phenotype on cottonseed nutrient composition in near isogenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) mutant lines under well-watered and water stress conditions1  

PubMed Central

There is no information available on the effect of fuzzless seed trait on cottonseed nutrient composition (minerals, N, S, protein, and oil) under drought stress. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of the fuzzless seed trait on cottonseed nutrients using five sets of near-isogenic lines (NILs). Each set consists of two lines that share the same genetic background, but differ in seed fuzziness (fuzzy, F; fuzzless, N). The near isogenic lines will enable us to compare the effect of the trait without confounding the genotypic background effects. We hypothesized that since the fuzzless trait involved in fiber initiation development, and was reported to be involved in biochemical, molecular, and genetic processes, this trait may also alter cottonseed nutrient composition. Results showed that NIL sets accumulated different levels of minerals in seeds and leaves, and the fuzzless trait (N) in most of the lines altered seed and leaf mineral accumulations when compared with fuzzy lines (F) or the control line. For example, K, P, Mg, Cu, and Na concentrations in seeds were higher in MD N and STV N than in their equivalent MD F and STV F lines. Leaf concentrations of Ca, K, Mg, S, B, Cu, and Fe in MD N lines were higher than MD F line. Lower levels of nutrients in seeds and leaves were observed under water stress conditions, especially Ca, Mg, N, and B in seeds.Generally and with few exceptions, seed protein was higher in fuzzy lines than in fuzzless lines; however, seed oil was higher in fuzzless lines than in fuzzy lines. Our research demonstrated that fuzzless trait altered the composition and level of nutrients in seed and leaves in well watered and water stressed plants. Differences in protein and oil between fuzzy and fuzzless seeds may indicate alteration in nitrogen and carbon fixation and metabolism. The differential accumulation of seed nutrients in this germplasm could be used by cotton breeders to select for higher cottonseed quality. PMID:24416037

Bellaloui, Nacer; Turley, Rickie B.

2013-01-01

154

Conditions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research interests in feral hogs typically involve their negative impacts on ecosystems or their potential as a disease reservoir, especially with disease transmission to domestic swine. Authors within scientific literature state that feral hogs were captured as part of their research, but usually fail to mention specific conditions in which hogs were captured. Novice researchers of feral hogs must rely

A. Christy Wyckoff; Scott E. Henke; Kurt C. VerCauteren

155

Thermoconditional modulation of the pleiotropic sensitivity phenotype by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PRP19 mutant allele pso4-1  

PubMed Central

The conditionally-lethal pso4-1 mutant allele of the spliceosomal-associated PRP19 gene allowed us to study this gene’s influence on pre-mRNA processing, DNA repair and sporulation. Phenotypes related to intron-containing genes were correlated to temperature. Splicing reporter systems and RT–PCR showed splicing efficiency in pso4-1 to be inversely correlated to growth temperature. A single amino acid substitution, replacing leucine with serine, was identified within the N-terminal region of the pso4-1 allele and was shown to affect the interacting properties of Pso4-1p. Amongst 24 interacting clones isolated in a two-hybrid screening, seven could be identified as parts of the RAD2, RLF2 and DBR1 genes. RAD2 encodes an endonuclease indispensable for nucleotide excision repair (NER), RLF2 encodes the major subunit of the chromatin assembly factor I, whose deletion results in sensitivity to UVC radiation, while DBR1 encodes the lariat RNA splicing debranching enzyme, which degrades intron lariat structures during splicing. Characterization of mutagen-sensitive phenotypes of rad2?, rlf2? and pso4-1 single and double mutant strains showed enhanced sensitivity for the rad2? pso4-1 and rlf2? pso4-1 double mutants, suggesting a functional interference of these proteins in DNA repair processes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:12434004

Revers, L. F.; Cardone, J. M.; Bonatto, D.; Saffi, J.; Grey, M.; Feldmann, H.; Brendel, M.; Henriques, J. A. P.

2002-01-01

156

Thermoconditional modulation of the pleiotropic sensitivity phenotype by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PRP19 mutant allele pso4-1.  

PubMed

The conditionally-lethal pso4-1 mutant allele of the spliceosomal-associated PRP19 gene allowed us to study this gene's influence on pre-mRNA processing, DNA repair and sporulation. Phenotypes related to intron-containing genes were correlated to temperature. Splicing reporter systems and RT-PCR showed splicing efficiency in pso4-1 to be inversely correlated to growth temperature. A single amino acid substitution, replacing leucine with serine, was identified within the N-terminal region of the pso4-1 allele and was shown to affect the interacting properties of Pso4-1p. Amongst 24 interacting clones isolated in a two-hybrid screening, seven could be identified as parts of the RAD2, RLF2 and DBR1 genes. RAD2 encodes an endonuclease indispensable for nucleotide excision repair (NER), RLF2 encodes the major subunit of the chromatin assembly factor I, whose deletion results in sensitivity to UVC radiation, while DBR1 encodes the lariat RNA splicing debranching enzyme, which degrades intron lariat structures during splicing. Characterization of mutagen-sensitive phenotypes of rad2Delta, rlf2Delta and pso4-1 single and double mutant strains showed enhanced sensitivity for the rad2Delta pso4-1 and rlf2Delta pso4-1 double mutants, suggesting a functional interference of these proteins in DNA repair processes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:12434004

Revers, L F; Cardone, J M; Bonatto, D; Saffi, J; Grey, M; Feldmann, H; Brendel, M; Henriques, J A P

2002-11-15

157

Positron emission tomography-based imaging of transgene expression mediated by replication-conditional, oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 mutant vectors in vivo.  

PubMed

To evaluate the efficiency of gene delivery in gene therapy strategies for malignant brain tumors, it is important to determine the distribution and magnitude of transgene expression in target tumor cells over time. Here, we assess the time- and vector dose-dependent kinetics of recombinant herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 vector-mediated gene expression and vector replication in culture and in vivo by a recently developed radiotracer method for noninvasive imaging of gene expression (J. G. Tjuvajev et al., Cancer Res., 55: 6126-6132, 1995). The kinetics of viral infection of rat 9L gliosarcoma cells by the replication-conditional HSV-1 vector, hrR3, was studied by measuring the accumulation rate of 2-[14C]-fluoro-5-iodo-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-uracil (FIAU), a selective substrate for viral thymidine kinase (TK). The level of viral TK activity in 9L cells was monitored by the radiotracer assay to assess various vector doses and infection times, allowing vector replication and spread. In parallel, viral yields and levels of Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase activity were assessed quantitatively. To study vector replication, spread and HSV-1-tk and lacZ gene coexpression in vivo, first- or second-generation recombinant HSV-1 vectors (hrR3 or MGH-1) were injected into s.c. growing rat 9L or human U87 deltaEGFR gliomas in nude rats at various times (8 h to 8 days) and at various vector doses [1 x 10(6) to 2 x 10(9) plaque-forming units (PFUs)] prior to imaging. For noninvasive assessment of HSV-1-tk gene expression (124I-labeled FIAU % dose/g), 0.15 mCi of 124I-labeled FIAU was injected i.v. 8 h after the last vector administration, and FIAU positron emission tomography (PET) was performed 48 h later. For the assessment of HSV-1-tk and lacZ gene coexpression, 0.2 mCi of 131I-labeled FIAU was injected i.v. 24 h after the last vector administration. Forty-eight h later, animals were killed, and tumors were dissected for quantitative autoradiographical and histochemical assessment of regional distribution of radioactivity (TK expression measured as 131I-labeled FIAU % dose/g) and coexpressed lacZ gene activity. The rates of FIAU accumulation (Ki) in hrR3-infected 9L cells in culture, which reflect the levels of HSV-1-tk gene expression, ranged between 0.12 and 3.4 ml/g/min. They increased in a vector dose- and infection time-dependent manner and correlated with the virus yield (PFUs/ml), where the PFUs:Ki ratios remained relatively constant over time. Moreover, a linear relationship was observed between lacZ gene expression and FIAU accumulation 5-40 h after infection of 9L cells with a multiplicity of infection of 1.5. At later times (> 52 h postinjection), high vector doses (multiplicity of infection, 1.5) led to a decrease of FIAU accumulation rates, viral yield, and cell pellet weights, indicating vector-mediated cell toxicity. Various levels of HSV-1-tk gene expression could be assessed by FIAU-PET after in vivo infection of s.c. tumors. The levels of FIAU accumulation were comparatively low (approximately ranging from 0.00013 to 0.003% injected dose/g) and were spatially localized; this may reflect viral-induced cytolysis of infected tumor cells and limited lateral spread of the virus. Image coregistration of tumor histology, HSV-1-tk related radioactivity (assessed by autoradiography), and lacZ gene expression (assessed by beta-galactosidase staining) demonstrated a characteristic pattern of gene expression around the injection sites. A rim of lacZ gene expression immediately adjacent to necrotic tumor areas was observed, and this zone was surrounded by a narrow band of HSV-1-tk-related radioactivity, primarily in viable-appearing tumor tissue. These results demonstrate that recombinant HSV-1 vector-mediated HSV-1-tk gene expression can be monitored noninvasively by PET, where the areas of FIAU-derived radioactivity identify the viable portion of infected tumor tissue that retains FIAU accumulation ability, and that the accumulation rate of FIAU in culture, Ki, reflects the number of HSV-1 viral particles in the infec

Jacobs, A; Tjuvajev, J G; Dubrovin, M; Akhurst, T; Balatoni, J; Beattie, B; Joshi, R; Finn, R; Larson, S M; Herrlinger, U; Pechan, P A; Chiocca, E A; Breakefield, X O; Blasberg, R G

2001-04-01

158

Midline lethal granuloma--a clinical enigma.  

PubMed

Midline Lethal granuloma is characterized by progressive destruction of nose, paranasal sinuses and palate. Till date, the diagnosis of this mutilating process remains as enigma due to the non specific histological and systemic findings. However, over the years the clinicians have been able to divide the "Lethal midline granuoloma syndrome" into clinical entities: Idiopathic midline destructive disease, Wegener's granulomatosis, polymorphic retiaculosis and Non-Hodgkins lymphoma. This article attempts to distinguish between these disease entities in the light of 2 case reports of Idiopathic midline destructive disease. PMID:15164661

Batra, P; Shah, N; Mathur, S

2003-01-01

159

Effect of vanillic acid on COQ6 mutants identified in patients with coenzyme Q10 deficiency?  

PubMed Central

Human COQ6 encodes a monooxygenase which is responsible for the C5-hydroxylation of the quinone ring of coenzyme Q (CoQ). Mutations in COQ6 cause primary CoQ deficiency, a condition responsive to oral CoQ10 supplementation. Treatment is however still problematic given the poor bioavailability of CoQ10. We employed S. cerevisiae lacking the orthologous gene to characterize the two different human COQ6 isoforms and the mutations found in patients. COQ6 isoform a can partially complement the defective yeast, while isoform b, which lacks part of the FAD-binding domain, is inactive but partially stable, and could have a regulatory/inhibitory function in CoQ10 biosynthesis. Most mutations identified in patients, including the frameshift Q461fs478X mutation, retain residual enzymatic activity, and all patients carry at least one hypomorphic allele, confirming that the complete block of CoQ biosynthesis is lethal. These mutants are also partially stable and allow the assembly of the CoQ biosynthetic complex. In fact treatment with two hydroxylated analogues of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, namely, vanillic acid or 3-4-hydroxybenzoic acid, restored the respiratory growth of yeast ?coq6 cells expressing the mutant huCOQ6-isoa proteins. These compounds, and particularly vanillic acid, could therefore represent an interesting therapeutic option for COQ6 patients. PMID:24140869

Doimo, Mara; Trevisson, Eva; Airik, Rannar; Bergdoll, Marc; Santos-Ocaña, Carlos; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Navas, Placido; Pierrel, Fabien; Salviati, Leonardo

2014-01-01

160

Characterization of Brucella suis clpB and clpAB Mutants and Participation of the Genes in Stress Responses  

PubMed Central

Pathogens often encounter stressful conditions inside their hosts. In the attempt to characterize the stress response in Brucella suis, a gene highly homologous to Escherichia coli clpB was isolated from Brucella suis, and the deduced amino acid sequence showed features typical of the ClpB ATPase family of stress response proteins. Under high-temperature stress conditions, ClpB of B. suis was induced, and an isogenic B. suis clpB mutant showed increased sensitivity to high temperature, but also to ethanol stress and acid pH. The effects were reversible by complementation. Simultaneous inactivation of clpA and clpB resulted in a mutant that was sensitive to oxidative stress. In B. suis expressing gfp, ClpA but not ClpB participated in degradation of the green fluorescent protein at 42°C. We concluded that ClpB was responsible for tolerance to several stresses and that the lethality caused by harsh environmental conditions may have similar molecular origins. PMID:11274130

Ekaza, Euloge; Teyssier, Jacques; Ouahrani-Bettache, Safia; Liautard, Jean-Pierre; Köhler, Stephan

2001-01-01

161

SspA Is Required for Lethal Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infections in Calves but Is Not Essential for Diarrhea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) encodes virulence determinants, which are important for entero- pathogenicity in calves. To determine whether the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SPI-1 effector proteins SspA and SptP are important for enteropathogenicity, strains lacking these proteins were tested during oral infection of calves. Calves infected with a sptP mutant or its isogenic parent developed diarrhea and lethal morbidity.

RENEE M. TSOLIS; L. GARRY ADAMS; MICHAEL J. HANTMAN; CHRISTINA A. SCHERER; TYLER KIMBROUGH; ROBERT A. KINGSLEY; THOMAS A. FICHT; SAMUEL I. MILLER; ANDREAS J. BAUMLER

2000-01-01

162

Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers is the outcome of the National Academies' effort to glean information from six different case studies of student-perpetrated school shootings. Part 1, "Case Studies of Lethal School Violence," includes: "The Copycat Factor: Mental Illness, Guns, and the Shooting Incident at Heritage High School, Rockdale County, Georgia"…

Moore, Mark H., Ed.; Petrie, Carol V., Ed.; Braga, Anthony A., Ed.; McLaughlin, Brenda L., Ed.

163

Sarcocystis Species Lethal for Domestic Pigeons  

PubMed Central

A large number of Sarcocystis spp. infect birds as intermediate hosts, but pigeons are rarely affected. We identified a novel Sarcocystis sp. that causes lethal neurologic disease in domestic pigeons in Germany. Experimental infections indicated transmission by northern goshawks, and sequence analyses indicated transnational distribution. Worldwide spread is possible. PMID:20202429

Gruber, Achim D.; Kohls, Andrea; Hafez, Hafez M.; Heydorn, Alfred Otto; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Lierz, Michael

2010-01-01

164

Chemically Induced Conditional Rescue of the Reduced Epidermal Fluorescence8 Mutant of Arabidopsis Reveals Rapid Restoration of Growth and Selective Turnover of Secondary Metabolite Pools1[C][OPEN  

PubMed Central

The phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse and important secondary metabolites including lignin and flavonoids. The reduced epidermal fluorescence8 (ref8) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which is defective in a lignin biosynthetic enzyme p-coumaroyl shikimate 3?-hydroxylase (C3?H), exhibits severe dwarfism and sterility. To better understand the impact of perturbation of phenylpropanoid metabolism on plant growth, we generated a chemically inducible C3?H expression construct and transformed it into the ref8 mutant. Application of dexamethasone to these plants greatly alleviates the dwarfism and sterility and substantially reverses the biochemical phenotypes of ref8 plants, including the reduction of lignin content and hyperaccumulation of flavonoids and p-coumarate esters. Induction of C3?H expression at different developmental stages has distinct impacts on plant growth. Although early induction effectively restored the elongation of primary inflorescence stem, application to 7-week-old plants enabled them to produce new rosette inflorescence stems. Examination of hypocotyls of these plants revealed normal vasculature in the newly formed secondary xylem, presumably restoring water transport in the mutant. The ref8 mutant accumulates higher levels of salicylic acid than the wild type, but depletion of this compound in ref8 did not relieve the mutant’s growth defects, suggesting that the hyperaccumulation of salicylic acid is unlikely to be responsible for dwarfism in this mutant. PMID:24381065

Kim, Jeong Im; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Chapple, Clint; Li, Xu

2014-01-01

165

Lethal pulmonary infection with Francisella novicida is associated with severe sepsis  

PubMed Central

The bacterial or host determinants of lethality associated with respiratory Francisella infections are currently unknown. No exo- or endotoxins that contribute to the severity of this disease have been identified. However, a deregulated host immune response upon infection is characterized by an initial 36- to 48-h delay followed by a rapid and excessive inflammatory response prior to death at 72–120 h. Here, we extend these findings by comparing host immune responses between sublethal and lethal respiratory infections of mice with an attenuated transposon mutant (Mut) of F. novicida (F.n.) strain U112 (sublethal) versus the wild-type (WT) strain (lethal). Infection with WT bacteria, but not the Mut, was characterized by sustained bacteremia and systemic dissemination of the pathogen with temporal increases in bacterial burdens in liver and spleen. Severe pathology with large foci of infiltrates associated with extensive tissue damage was evident in WT-infected lungs, and Mut-infected mice displayed much reduced pathology with intact lung architecture. Similar to other experimental models of severe sepsis, WT- but not the Mut-infected mice exhibited a robust increase in numbers of Gr1+ and CD11b+ cells, while displaying a significant depletion of ?? T cells. Further, a dramatic up-regulation of multiple cytokines and chemokines was observed only in lethal WT infection. In addition, an earlier and larger increased expression of S100A9, a known mediator of sepsis, was observed in WT-infected mice. Taken together, these results show that a hyperinflammatory host immune response, culminating in severe sepsis, is responsible for the lethal outcome of respiratory tularemia. PMID:19401387

Sharma, Jyotika; Li, Qun; Mishra, Bibhuti B.; Pena, Christopher; Teale, Judy M.

2009-01-01

166

40 CFR 798.5450 - Rodent dominant lethal assay.  

...species. Dominant lethals are generally accepted to be the result of chromosomal damage (structural and numerical anomalies) but gene mutations and toxic effects cannot be excluded. (b) Definition. A dominant lethal mutation is one occurring in a...

2014-07-01

167

40 CFR 798.5450 - Rodent dominant lethal assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...species. Dominant lethals are generally accepted to be the result of chromosomal damage (structural and numerical anomalies) but gene mutations and toxic effects cannot be excluded. (b) Definition. A dominant lethal mutation is one occurring in a...

2012-07-01

168

40 CFR 798.5450 - Rodent dominant lethal assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...species. Dominant lethals are generally accepted to be the result of chromosomal damage (structural and numerical anomalies) but gene mutations and toxic effects cannot be excluded. (b) Definition. A dominant lethal mutation is one occurring in a...

2011-07-01

169

40 CFR 798.5450 - Rodent dominant lethal assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...species. Dominant lethals are generally accepted to be the result of chromosomal damage (structural and numerical anomalies) but gene mutations and toxic effects cannot be excluded. (b) Definition. A dominant lethal mutation is one occurring in a...

2013-07-01

170

40 CFR 798.5450 - Rodent dominant lethal assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...species. Dominant lethals are generally accepted to be the result of chromosomal damage (structural and numerical anomalies) but gene mutations and toxic effects cannot be excluded. (b) Definition. A dominant lethal mutation is one occurring in a...

2010-07-01

171

Reduced LPS phosphorylation in Escherichia coli lowers the elevated ori/ter ratio in seqA mutants  

PubMed Central

Summary The seqA defect in E. coli increases the ori/ter ratio and causes chromosomal fragmentation, making seqA mutants dependent on recombinational repair (the seqA recA co-lethality). To understand the nature of this chromosomal fragmentation, we characterized ?seqA mutants and isolated suppressors of the ?seqA recA lethality. We demonstrate that our ?seqA alleles have normal function of the downstream pgm gene and normal ratios of the major phospholipids in the membranes, but increased surface lipopolysaccharide (LPS) phosphorylation. The predominant class of ?seqA recA suppressors disrupts the rfaQGP genes, reducing phosphorylation of the inner core region of LPS. The rfaQGP suppressors also reduce the elevated ori/ter ratio of the ?seqA mutants, but, unexpectedly, the suppressed mutants still exhibit the high levels of chromosomal fragmentation and SOS induction, characteristic of the ?seqA mutants. We also found that co-lethality of rfaP with defects in the production of acidic phospholipids is suppressed by alternative initiation of chromosomal replication, suggesting that LPS phosphorylation stimulates replication initiation. The rfaQGP suppression of the seqA recA lethality provides genetic support for the surprising physical evidence that the oriC DNA forms complexes with the outer membrane. PMID:19432803

Rotman, Ella; Bratcher, Preston; Kuzminov, Andrei

2009-01-01

172

A genome-wide RNAi screen identifies multiple synthetic lethal interactions with the Ras oncogene  

PubMed Central

Oncogenic mutations in the small GTPase Ras are highly prevalent in cancer, but an understanding of the vulnerabilities of these cancers is lacking. We undertook a genome-wide RNAi screen to identify synthetic lethal interactions with the KRAS oncogene. We discovered a diverse set of proteins whose depletion selectively impaired the viability of Ras mutant cells. Among these we observed a strong enrichment for genes with mitotic functions. We describe a pathway involving the mitotic kinase PLK1, the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome and the proteasome that, when inhibited, results in prometaphase accumulation and the subsequent death of Ras mutant cells. Gene expression analysis indicates that reduced expression of genes in this pathway correlates with increased survival of patients bearing tumors with a Ras transcriptional signature. Our results suggest a previously underappreciated role for Ras in mitotic progression and demonstrate a pharmacologically tractable pathway for the potential treatment of cancers harboring Ras mutations. PMID:19490893

Luo, Ji; Emanuele, Michael J.; Li, Danan; Creighton, Chad J.; Schlabach, Michael R.; Westbrook, Thomas F.; Wong, Kwok-kin; Elledge, Stephen J.

2009-01-01

173

Carbon monoxide and lethal arrhythmias  

SciTech Connect

The effect of acute exposure to carbon monoxide on ventricular arrhythmias was studied in a previously described chronically maintained animal model of sudden cardiac death. In 60 percent of dogs with a healed anterior myocardial infarction, the combination of mild exercise and acute myocardial ischemia induces ventricular fibrillation. The events in this model are highly reproducible, thus allowing study by internal control analysis. Dogs that develop ventricular fibrillation during the test of exercise and acute myocardial ischemia are considered at high risk for sudden death and are defined as 'susceptible'; dogs that survive the test without a fatal arrhythmia are considered at low risk for sudden death and are defined as 'resistant.' In the current study, the effects of carboxyhemoglobin levels ranging from 5 to 15 percent were tested in resistant and susceptible dogs. A trend toward higher heart rates was observed at all levels of carboxyhemoglobin, although significant differences were observed only with 15 percent carboxyhemoglobin. This trend was observed at rest and during exercise in both resistant and susceptible dogs. In resistant animals, in which acute myocardial ischemia is typically associated with bradycardia even under the control condition, this reflex response occurred earlier and was augmented after exposure to carbon monoxide. This effect may depend on the increased hypoxic challenge caused by carbon monoxide, and thus on an augmentation of the neural reflex activation or a sensitization of the sinus node to acetylcholine induced by hypoxia. In both resistant and susceptible dogs, carbon monoxide exposure induced a worsening of ventricular arrhythmias in a minority of cases. This worsening was not reproducible in subsequent trials. These data indicate that acute exposure to carbon monoxide is seldom arrhythmogenic in dogs that have survived myocardial infarction. (Abstract Truncated)

Farber, J.P.; Schwartz, P.J.; Vanoli, E.; Stramba-Badiale, M.; De Ferrari, G.M. (Univ. of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City (USA))

1990-12-01

174

Inositol Hexakisphosphate-dependent Processing of Clostridium sordellii Lethal Toxin and Clostridium novyi ?-Toxin*  

PubMed Central

Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin and Clostridium novyi ?-toxin, which are virulence factors involved in the toxic shock and gas gangrene syndromes, are members of the family of clostridial glucosylating toxins. The toxins inactivate Rho/Ras proteins by glucosylation or attachment of GlcNAc (?-toxin). Here, we studied the activation of the autoproteolytic processing of the toxins by inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) and compared it with the processing of Clostridium difficile toxin B. In the presence of low concentrations of InsP6 (<1 ?m), toxin fragments consisting of the N-terminal glucosyltransferase (or GlcNAc-transferase) domains and the cysteine protease domains (CPDs) of C. sordellii lethal toxin, C. novyi ?-toxin, and C. difficile toxin B were autocatalytically processed. The cleavage sites of lethal toxin (Leu-543) and ?-toxin (Leu-548) and the catalytic cysteine residues (Cys-698 of lethal toxin and Cys-707 of ?-toxin) were identified. Affinity of the CPDs for binding InsP6 was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. In contrast to full-length toxin B and ?-toxin, autocatalytic cleavage and InsP6 binding of full-length lethal toxin depended on low pH (pH 5) conditions. The data indicate that C. sordellii lethal toxin and C. novyi ?-toxin are InsP6-dependently processed. However, full-length lethal toxin, but not its short toxin fragments consisting of the glucosyltransferase domain and the CPD, requires a pH-sensitive conformational change to allow binding of InsP6 and subsequent processing of the toxin. PMID:21385871

Guttenberg, Gregor; Papatheodorou, Panagiotis; Genisyuerek, Selda; Lü, Wei; Jank, Thomas; Einsle, Oliver; Aktories, Klaus

2011-01-01

175

Simultaneous Analysis of Multiple Mycobacterium tuberculosis Knockdown Mutants In Vitro and In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) represents one of the most persistent bacterial threats to human health and new drugs are needed to limit its impact. Conditional knockdown mutants can help validate new drug targets, but the analysis of individual mutants is laborious and time consuming. Here, we describe quantitative DNA tags (qTags) and their use to simultaneously analyze conditional Mtb knockdown mutants

Antje Blumenthal; Carolina Trujillo; Sabine Ehrt; Dirk Schnappinger; Ludovic Tailleux

2010-01-01

176

Synthetic Lethality with the dut Defect in Escherichia coli Reveals Layers of DNA Damage of Increasing Complexity Due to Uracil Incorporation?  

PubMed Central

Synthetic lethality is inviability of a double-mutant combination of two fully viable single mutants, commonly interpreted as redundancy at an essential metabolic step. The dut-1 defect in Escherichia coli inactivates dUTPase, causing increased uracil incorporation in DNA and known synthetic lethalities [SL(dut) mutations]. According to the redundancy logic, most of these SL(dut) mutations should affect nucleotide metabolism. After a systematic search for SL(dut) mutants, we did identify a single defect in the DNA precursor metabolism, inactivating thymidine kinase (tdk), that confirmed the redundancy explanation of synthetic lethality. However, we found that the bulk of mutations interacting genetically with dut are in DNA repair, revealing layers of damage of increasing complexity that uracil-DNA incorporation sends through the chromosomal metabolism. Thus, we isolated mutants in functions involved in (i) uracil-DNA excision (ung, polA, and xthA); (ii) double-strand DNA break repair (recA, recBC, and ruvABC); and (iii) chromosomal-dimer resolution (xerC, xerD, and ftsK). These mutants in various DNA repair transactions cannot be redundant with dUTPase and instead reveal “defect-damage-repair” cycles linking unrelated metabolic pathways. In addition, two SL(dut) inserts (phoU and degP) identify functions that could act to support the weakened activity of the Dut-1 mutant enzyme, suggesting the “compensation” explanation for this synthetic lethality. We conclude that genetic interactions with dut can be explained by redundancy, by defect-damage-repair cycles, or as compensation. PMID:18586941

Ting, Helen; Kouzminova, Elena A.; Kuzminov, Andrei

2008-01-01

177

Unraveling the physiological complexities of antibiotic lethality.  

PubMed

We face an impending crisis in our ability to treat infectious disease brought about by the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens and a decline in the development of new antibiotics. Urgent action is needed. This review focuses on a less well-understood aspect of antibiotic action: the complex metabolic events that occur subsequent to the interaction of antibiotics with their molecular targets and play roles in antibiotic lethality. Independent lines of evidence from studies of the action of bactericidal antibiotics on diverse bacteria collectively suggest that the initial interactions of drugs with their targets cannot fully account for the antibiotic lethality and that these interactions elicit the production of reactive oxidants including reactive oxygen species that contribute to bacterial cell death. Recent challenges to this concept are considered in the context of the broader literature of this emerging area of research. Possible ways that this new knowledge might be exploited to improve antibiotic therapy are also considered. PMID:25251995

Dwyer, Daniel J; Collins, James J; Walker, Graham C

2015-01-01

178

Synthetic lethality to overcome cancer drug resistance.  

PubMed

A large body of evidence point out that the onset of synthetic lethality may provide a useful tool for amplifying the efficacy of drugs in anticancer regimens, to uncover interdependence between genes and to identify predictive factors that would be extremely useful to guide in the selection of more effective targeted drugs and drug combinations for each patient. Here, we provide an overview on the exploitation of synthetic lethality to overcome drug resistance to conventional chemotherapy in several types of solid tumors. We report recent findings on cellular markers and gene mutations which are specifically essential for the viability of cancer cells and for resistance to chemotherapeutics. In addition, new molecularly targeted strategies to overcome drug resistance are suggested. PMID:22788762

Porcelli, L; Quatrale, A E; Mantuano, P; Silvestris, N; Brunetti, A E; Calvert, H; Paradiso, A; Azzariti, A

2012-01-01

179

Response to Comment on "The hologenomic basis of speciation: gut bacteria cause hybrid lethality in the genus Nasonia".  

PubMed

Chandler and Turelli postulate that intrinsic hybrid dysfunction underscores hybrid lethality in Nasonia. Although it is a suitable conception for examining hybrid incompatibilities, their account of the evidence is factually inaccurate and leaves out the evolutionary process for why lethality became conditional on nuclear-microbe interactions. Hybrid incompatibilities in the context of phylosymbiosis are resolved by hologenomic principles and exemplify this emerging postmodern synthesis. PMID:25170145

Brucker, Robert M; Bordenstein, Seth R

2014-08-29

180

Amelioration of the Cardiovascular Effects of Cocaine in Rhesus Monkeys by a Long-Acting Mutant Form of Cocaine Esterase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-acting mutant form of a naturally occurring bacterial cocaine esterase (T172R\\/G173Q CocE; double mutant CocE (DM CocE)) has previously been shown to antagonize the reinforcing, convulsant, and lethal effects of cocaine in rodents. However, the effectiveness and therapeutic characteristics of DM CocE in nonhuman primates, in a more clinically relevant context, are unknown. The current studies were aimed at

Gregory T Collins; Kathy A Carey; Diwahar Narasimhan; Joseph Nichols; Aaron A Berlin; Nicholas W Lukacs; Roger K Sunahara; James H Woods; Mei-Chuan Ko; M-C Ko

2011-01-01

181

An Arabidopsis pex10 Null Mutant Is Embryo Lethal, Implicating Peroxisomes in an Essential Role during  

E-print Network

and turnover of the signaling molecules nitric oxide and H2O2 (Corpas et al., 2001), as well as in the biosynthesis of the major auxin indole acetic acid (Zolman et al., 2000) and the oxylipin jasmonic acid molecules indole butyric acid (IBA) and 3-oxo- 2(2 [Z]-pentenyl)-cyclopentane-1-octanoic acid), re

182

Superior triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in starchless mutants of Scenedesmus obliquus: (I) mutant generation and characterization  

PubMed Central

Background Microalgae are a promising platform for producing neutral lipids, to be used in the application for biofuels or commodities in the feed and food industry. A very promising candidate is the oleaginous green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus, because it accumulates up to 45% w/w triacylglycerol (TAG) under nitrogen starvation. Under these conditions, starch is accumulated as well. Starch can amount up to 38% w/w under nitrogen starvation, which is a substantial part of the total carbon captured. When aiming for optimized TAG production, blocking the formation of starch could potentially increase carbon allocation towards TAG. In an attempt to increase TAG content, productivity and yield, starchless mutants of this high potential strain were generated using UV mutagenesis. Previous studies in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have shown that blocking the starch synthesis yields higher TAG contents, although these TAG contents do not surpass those of oleaginous microalgae yet. So far no starchless mutants in oleaginous green microalgae have been isolated that result in higher TAG productivities. Results Five starchless mutants have been isolated successfully from over 3,500 mutants. The effect of the mutation on biomass and total fatty acid (TFA) and TAG productivity under nitrogen-replete and nitrogen-depleted conditions was studied. All five starchless mutants showed a decreased or completely absent starch content. In parallel, an increased TAG accumulation rate was observed for the starchless mutants and no substantial decrease in biomass productivity was perceived. The most promising mutant showed an increase in TFA productivity of 41% at 4 days after nitrogen depletion, reached a TAG content of 49.4% (% of dry weight) and had no substantial change in biomass productivity compared to the wild type. Conclusions The improved S. obliquus TAG production strains are the first starchless mutants in an oleaginous green microalga that show enhanced TAG content under photoautotrophic conditions. These results can pave the way towards a more feasible microalgae-driven TAG production platform. PMID:24920957

2014-01-01

183

Essential Plasticity and Redundancy of Metabolism Unveiled by Synthetic Lethality Analysis  

PubMed Central

We unravel how functional plasticity and redundancy are essential mechanisms underlying the ability to survive of metabolic networks. We perform an exhaustive computational screening of synthetic lethal reaction pairs in Escherichia coli in a minimal medium and we find that synthetic lethal pairs divide in two different groups depending on whether the synthetic lethal interaction works as a backup or as a parallel use mechanism, the first corresponding to essential plasticity and the second to essential redundancy. In E. coli, the analysis of pathways entanglement through essential redundancy supports the view that synthetic lethality affects preferentially a single function or pathway. In contrast, essential plasticity, the dominant class, tends to be inter-pathway but strongly localized and unveils Cell Envelope Biosynthesis as an essential backup for Membrane Lipid Metabolism. When comparing E. coli and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, we find that the metabolic networks of the two organisms exhibit a large difference in the relative importance of plasticity and redundancy which is consistent with the conjecture that plasticity is a sophisticated mechanism that requires a complex organization. Finally, coessential reaction pairs are explored in different environmental conditions to uncover the interplay between the two mechanisms. We find that synthetic lethal interactions and their classification in plasticity and redundancy are basically insensitive to medium composition, and are highly conserved even when the environment is enriched with nonessential compounds or overconstrained to decrease maximum biomass formation. PMID:24854166

2014-01-01

184

Phenotypic disruption to orofacial movement topography in conditional mutants with generalized CamKIIa/Cre D1Tox versus striatal-specific DARPP-32/Cre D1Tox ablation of D1 dopamine receptor-expressing cells.  

PubMed

Orofacial movements were quantified in (a) DARPP-32/Cre D1Tox mutants, having progressive loss of D1 dopamine receptor expressing striatal medium spiny neurons and (b) CamKIIa/Cre D1Tox mutants, having progressive, generalized loss of forebrain D1 receptor expressing cells. Horizontal jaw movements and tongue protrusions were reduced in DARPP-32/Cre but not in CamKIIa/Cre mutants; head and vibrissae movements were increased in DARPP-32/Cre but decreased in CamKIIa/Cre mutants. In drug challenge studies, tongue protrusions were increased in CamKIIa/Cre mutants following vehicle, suggesting a stress-related phenotype. These findings indicate that mice with progressive loss of striatal-specific D1 receptor expressing cells have an orofacial phenotype that may be modulated by the loss of extrastriatal D1 receptor expressing cells. As progressive loss of D1 dopamine receptor-expressing cells is a hallmark feature of Huntington's disease (HD), these findings may inform the functional role of loss of this cell population in the overall pathobiology of HD. PMID:21308794

Tomiyama, Katsunori; Kim, Hyun Ah; Kinsella, Anthony; Ehrlich, Michelle E; Schütz, Günter; Koshikawa, Noriaki; Lawrence, Andrew J; Waddington, John L; Drago, John

2011-09-01

185

Enhancement of Overgrowth by Gene Interactions in Lethal(2)giant Discs Imaginal Discs from Drosophila Melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Recessive lethal mutations of the lethal(2)giant discs (l(2)gd) and lethal(2)fat (l(2)ft) loci of Drosophila melanogaster cause imaginal disc hyperplasia during a prolonged larval stage. Imaginal discs from l(2)ft l(2)gd or Gl(2)gd double homozygotes show more extensive overgrowth than in either single homozygote, and double homozygous l(2)ft l(2)gd mitotic clones in adult flies show much more overgrowth than is seen in clones homozygous for either l(2)gd or l(2)ft alone. dachsous (ds) also acts as an enhancer of l(2)gd, producing dramatically overgrown discs and causing failure to pupariate in double homozygotes. The comb gap (cg) mutation, which also interacts with ds, greatly enhances the tendency of imaginal discs from l(2)gd larvae to duplicate as they overgrow. If l(2)gd homozygotes are made heterozygous for l(2)ft, then several discs duplicate, indicating that l(2)ft acts as a dominant enhancer of l(2)gd. l(2)ft also acts as a dominant enhancer of l(2)gd, and conversely l(2)gd acts as a dominant modifier of l(2)ft. The enhancement of overgrowth caused by various mutant combinations is accompanied by changes in expression of Decapentaplegic and Wingless. These results show that tumor suppressor genes act in combination to control cell proliferation, and that tissue hyperplasia can be associated with ectopic expression of genes involved in pattern formation. PMID:9335602

Buratovich, M. A.; Bryant, P. J.

1997-01-01

186

Mutant maize variety containing the glt1-1 allele  

DOEpatents

A maize plant has in its genome a non-mutable form of a mutant allele designated vitX-8132. The allele is located at a locus designated as glt which conditions kernels having an altered starch characteristic. Maize plants including such a mutant allele produce a starch that does not increase in viscosity on cooling, after heating.

Nelson, Oliver E. (Cross Plains, WI); Pan, David (Madison, WI)

1994-01-01

187

Lethal and Sub-lethal Effects of UVB on Juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Pulmonata)  

PubMed Central

Although Schistosoma mansoni occurs mainly in the tropics, where intense levels of solar radiation are present, the impact of ultraviolet (UV) light on schistosome transmission is not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential effects of UVB (290–320 nm) on juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of S. mansoni. Albino and wild type snails were exposed to doses of UVB from UV-fluorescent lamps, and the following were measured: survival, photoreactivation (light-mediated DNA repair), effects on feeding behavior, and morphological tissue abnormalities. Irradiation with UVB is lethal to B. glabrata in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to white light subsequent to UVB irradiation enhances survival, probably by photoreactivation. The shell offers some, but not complete, protection. Experiments in which UVB transmittance through the shell was blocked with black nail polish suggest that injury to both exposed (headfoot) and shell-enclosed (mantle and visceral mass) tissues contributes to mortality in lethally-irradiated snails. Wild-type (pigmented) snails are less susceptible to lethal effects of UVB than albino snails, and they may be more capable of photoreactivation. UVB exposure inhibits snail feeding behavior, and causes tentacle forks and growths on the headfoot. Thus, UVB may influence the life cycle of S. mansoni by both lethal and sub-lethal damage to the snail intermediate host. However, the ability of snails to photoreactivate may mitigate these effects. PMID:16996081

Ruelas, Debbie S.; Karentz, Deneb; Sullivan, John T.

2007-01-01

188

Rehabilitating mutant GCase.  

PubMed

Gaucher's disease is a hereditary deficiency of the enzyme ?-glucocerebrosidase (GCase) that is most commonly treated by enzyme replacement therapy. In this issue of Chemistry & Biology, Tan and colleagues search for alternative ways to rehabilitate mutant GCase by understanding how it interacts with the proteostasis network. PMID:25126987

Rauch, Jennifer N; Gestwicki, Jason E

2014-08-14

189

Cold-Sensitive Mutants of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER Defective in Ribosome Assembly  

PubMed Central

Thirteen X-linked, cold-sensitive lethal, female-sterile mutants of Drosophila melanogaster located at eight separate loci were screened for their ability to assemble ribosomes at the restrictive temperature of 17°. Females were labelled with 3H-uridine for either 2 or 20 hours at 17°. A mitochondria-free extract was prepared and analyzed by means of sucrose gradient centrifugation. Four of the mutants, l(1)TW-2 cs, l(1)HM16cs, l(1)HM23cs, and l(1)HM20 cs, had a lower ratio of cpm in the 40S subunit to cpm in the 60S subunit (40S:60S ratio) than wild type with a 2-hour label. The same was true of a 20-hour label of l(1)TW-2cs, l(1)HM16cs, and l(1)HM23cs, which are allelic, resulted in a 40S:60S ratio higher than wild type. Four other cs mutants were found to have less drastic effects on ribosome assembly. The ribosomal subunits of mutants l(1)HM16sc and l(1)HM20cs sediment at the same rate as their wild-type counterparts. The same is true for the RNA in their ribosomal particles. Sucrose gradient analysis of ribosomes from cold-sensitive lethal, female-sterile mutants appears to be an effective method for finding mutants that affect ribosome assembly. PMID:814036

Falke, Ernest V.; Wright, Theodore R. F.

1975-01-01

190

Mutation Induced Extinction in Finite Populations: Lethal Mutagenesis and Lethal Isolation  

PubMed Central

Reproduction is inherently risky, in part because genomic replication can introduce new mutations that are usually deleterious toward fitness. This risk is especially severe for organisms whose genomes replicate “semi-conservatively,” e.g. viruses and bacteria, where no master copy of the genome is preserved. Lethal mutagenesis refers to extinction of populations due to an unbearably high mutation rate (U), and is important both theoretically and clinically, where drugs can extinguish pathogens by increasing their mutation rate. Previous theoretical models of lethal mutagenesis assume infinite population size (N). However, in addition to high U, small N can accelerate extinction by strengthening genetic drift and relaxing selection. Here, we examine how the time until extinction depends jointly on N and U. We first analytically compute the mean time until extinction (?) in a simplistic model where all mutations are either lethal or neutral. The solution motivates the definition of two distinct regimes: a survival phase and an extinction phase, which differ dramatically in both how ? scales with N and in the coefficient of variation in time until extinction. Next, we perform stochastic population-genetics simulations on a realistic fitness landscape that both (i) features an epistatic distribution of fitness effects that agrees with experimental data on viruses and (ii) is based on the biophysics of protein folding. More specifically, we assume that mutations inflict fitness penalties proportional to the extent that they unfold proteins. We find that decreasing N can cause phase transition-like behavior from survival to extinction, which motivates the concept of “lethal isolation.” Furthermore, we find that lethal mutagenesis and lethal isolation interact synergistically, which may have clinical implications for treating infections. Broadly, we conclude that stably folded proteins are only possible in ecological settings that support sufficiently large populations. PMID:22876168

Wylie, C. Scott; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.

2012-01-01

191

Mutation induced extinction in finite populations: lethal mutagenesis and lethal isolation.  

PubMed

Reproduction is inherently risky, in part because genomic replication can introduce new mutations that are usually deleterious toward fitness. This risk is especially severe for organisms whose genomes replicate "semi-conservatively," e.g. viruses and bacteria, where no master copy of the genome is preserved. Lethal mutagenesis refers to extinction of populations due to an unbearably high mutation rate (U), and is important both theoretically and clinically, where drugs can extinguish pathogens by increasing their mutation rate. Previous theoretical models of lethal mutagenesis assume infinite population size (N). However, in addition to high U, small N can accelerate extinction by strengthening genetic drift and relaxing selection. Here, we examine how the time until extinction depends jointly on N and U. We first analytically compute the mean time until extinction (?) in a simplistic model where all mutations are either lethal or neutral. The solution motivates the definition of two distinct regimes: a survival phase and an extinction phase, which differ dramatically in both how ? scales with N and in the coefficient of variation in time until extinction. Next, we perform stochastic population-genetics simulations on a realistic fitness landscape that both (i) features an epistatic distribution of fitness effects that agrees with experimental data on viruses and (ii) is based on the biophysics of protein folding. More specifically, we assume that mutations inflict fitness penalties proportional to the extent that they unfold proteins. We find that decreasing N can cause phase transition-like behavior from survival to extinction, which motivates the concept of "lethal isolation." Furthermore, we find that lethal mutagenesis and lethal isolation interact synergistically, which may have clinical implications for treating infections. Broadly, we conclude that stably folded proteins are only possible in ecological settings that support sufficiently large populations. PMID:22876168

Wylie, C Scott; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

2012-01-01

192

A synthetic lethal screen identifies a role for the cortical actin patch/endocytosis complex in the response to nutrient deprivation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae whi2Delta cells are unable to halt cell division in response to nutrient limitation and are sensitive to a wide variety of stresses. A synthetic lethal screen resulted in the isolation of siw mutants that had a phenotype similar to that of whi2Delta. Among these were mutations affecting SIW14, FEN2, SLT2, and THR4. Fluid-phase endocytosis is severely reduced or abolished in whi2Delta, siw14Delta, fen2Delta, and thr4Delta mutants. Furthermore, whi2Delta and siw14Delta mutants produce large actin clumps in stationary phase similar to those seen in prk1Delta ark1Delta mutants defective in protein kinases that regulate the actin cytoskeleton. Overexpression of SIW14 in a prk1Delta strain resulted in a loss of cortical actin patches and cables and was lethal. Overexpression of SIW14 also rescued the caffeine sensitivity of the slt2 mutant isolated in the screen, but this was not due to alteration of the phosphorylation state of Slt2. These observations suggest that endocytosis and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton are required for the proper response to nutrient limitation. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that rvs161Delta, sla1Delta, sla2Delta, vrp1Delta, ypt51Delta, ypt52Delta, and end3Delta mutations, which disrupt the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and/or reduce endocytosis, have a phenotype similar to that of whi2Delta mutants. PMID:15020461

Care, Alison; Vousden, Katherine A; Binley, Katie M; Radcliffe, Pippa; Trevethick, Janet; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Sudbery, Peter E

2004-02-01

193

A synthetic lethal screen identifies a role for the cortical actin patch/endocytosis complex in the response to nutrient deprivation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

Saccharomyces cerevisiae whi2Delta cells are unable to halt cell division in response to nutrient limitation and are sensitive to a wide variety of stresses. A synthetic lethal screen resulted in the isolation of siw mutants that had a phenotype similar to that of whi2Delta. Among these were mutations affecting SIW14, FEN2, SLT2, and THR4. Fluid-phase endocytosis is severely reduced or abolished in whi2Delta, siw14Delta, fen2Delta, and thr4Delta mutants. Furthermore, whi2Delta and siw14Delta mutants produce large actin clumps in stationary phase similar to those seen in prk1Delta ark1Delta mutants defective in protein kinases that regulate the actin cytoskeleton. Overexpression of SIW14 in a prk1Delta strain resulted in a loss of cortical actin patches and cables and was lethal. Overexpression of SIW14 also rescued the caffeine sensitivity of the slt2 mutant isolated in the screen, but this was not due to alteration of the phosphorylation state of Slt2. These observations suggest that endocytosis and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton are required for the proper response to nutrient limitation. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that rvs161Delta, sla1Delta, sla2Delta, vrp1Delta, ypt51Delta, ypt52Delta, and end3Delta mutations, which disrupt the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and/or reduce endocytosis, have a phenotype similar to that of whi2Delta mutants. PMID:15020461

Care, Alison; Vousden, Katherine A; Binley, Katie M; Radcliffe, Pippa; Trevethick, Janet; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Sudbery, Peter E

2004-01-01

194

Axonal trajectories and distribution of GABAergic spinal neurons in wildtype and mutant zebrafish lacking floor plate cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the midline floor plate cells in the neuronal differentiation of the spinal cord was examined by comparing putative GABAergic neurons in wildtype zebrafish embryos with those in cyc-1 mutant embryos. The mutation produces a pleiotropic recessive lethal phenotype and is severe in rostra1 brain regions, but its direct effect in the caudal hindbrain and the spinal cord

Robert R. Bernhardt; Chetan K. Patel; Stephen W. Wilson; John Y. Kuwada

1992-01-01

195

Issues surrounding lethal injection as a means of capital punishment.  

PubMed

Lethal injection as a method of state-sanctioned capital punishment was initially proposed in the United States in 1977 and used for the first time in 1982. Most lethal injection protocols use a sequential drug combination of sodium thiopental, pancuronium bromide, and potassium chloride. Lethal injection was originally introduced as a more humane form of execution compared with existing mechanical methods such as electrocution, toxic gassing, hanging, or firing squad. Lethal injection has not, however, been without controversy. Several states are considering whether lethal injection meets constitutional scrutiny forbidding cruel and unusual punishment. Recently in the case of Ralph Baze and Thomas C. Bowling, Petitioners, v John D. Rees, Commissioner, Kentucky Department of Corrections et al, the United States Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the lethal injection protocol as carried out in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Most of the debate has surrounded the dosing and procedures used in lethal injection and whether the drug combinations and measures for administering the drugs truly produce a timely, pain-free, and fail-safe death. Many have also raised issues regarding the "medicalization" of execution and the ethics of health care professionals' participation in any part of the lethal injection process. As a result of all these issues, the future of lethal injection as a means of execution in the United States is under significant scrutiny. Outcomes of ongoing legislative and judicial reviews might result in cessation of lethal injection in totality or in alterations involving specific drug combinations or administration procedures. PMID:19025423

Romanelli, Frank; Whisman, Tyler; Fink, Joseph L

2008-12-01

196

Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin reduces human alveolar epithelial barrier function.  

PubMed

The lung is the site of entry for Bacillus anthracis in inhalation anthrax, the deadliest form of the disease. Bacillus anthracis produces virulence toxins required for disease. Alveolar macrophages were considered the primary target of the Bacillus anthracis virulence factor lethal toxin because lethal toxin inhibits mouse macrophages through cleavage of MEK signaling pathway components, but we have reported that human alveolar macrophages are not a target of lethal toxin. Our current results suggest that, unlike human alveolar macrophages, the cells lining the respiratory units of the lung, alveolar epithelial cells, are a target of lethal toxin in humans. Alveolar epithelial cells expressed lethal toxin receptor protein, bound the protective antigen component of lethal toxin, and were subject to lethal-toxin-induced cleavage of multiple MEKs. These findings suggest that human alveolar epithelial cells are a target of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. Further, no reduction in alveolar epithelial cell viability was observed, but lethal toxin caused actin rearrangement and impaired desmosome formation, consistent with impaired barrier function as well as reduced surfactant production. Therefore, by compromising epithelial barrier function, lethal toxin may play a role in the pathogenesis of inhalation anthrax by facilitating the dissemination of Bacillus anthracis from the lung in early disease and promoting edema in late stages of the illness. PMID:23027535

Langer, Marybeth; Duggan, Elizabeth Stewart; Booth, John Leland; Patel, Vineet Indrajit; Zander, Ryan A; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Ramani, Vijay; Veres, Tibor Zoltan; Prenzler, Frauke; Sewald, Katherina; Williams, Daniel M; Coggeshall, Kenneth Mark; Awasthi, Shanjana; Lupu, Florea; Burian, Dennis; Ballard, Jimmy Dale; Braun, Armin; Metcalf, Jordan Patrick

2012-12-01

197

Bacillus anthracis Lethal Toxin Reduces Human Alveolar Epithelial Barrier Function  

PubMed Central

The lung is the site of entry for Bacillus anthracis in inhalation anthrax, the deadliest form of the disease. Bacillus anthracis produces virulence toxins required for disease. Alveolar macrophages were considered the primary target of the Bacillus anthracis virulence factor lethal toxin because lethal toxin inhibits mouse macrophages through cleavage of MEK signaling pathway components, but we have reported that human alveolar macrophages are not a target of lethal toxin. Our current results suggest that, unlike human alveolar macrophages, the cells lining the respiratory units of the lung, alveolar epithelial cells, are a target of lethal toxin in humans. Alveolar epithelial cells expressed lethal toxin receptor protein, bound the protective antigen component of lethal toxin, and were subject to lethal-toxin-induced cleavage of multiple MEKs. These findings suggest that human alveolar epithelial cells are a target of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. Further, no reduction in alveolar epithelial cell viability was observed, but lethal toxin caused actin rearrangement and impaired desmosome formation, consistent with impaired barrier function as well as reduced surfactant production. Therefore, by compromising epithelial barrier function, lethal toxin may play a role in the pathogenesis of inhalation anthrax by facilitating the dissemination of Bacillus anthracis from the lung in early disease and promoting edema in late stages of the illness. PMID:23027535

Langer, Marybeth; Duggan, Elizabeth Stewart; Booth, John Leland; Patel, Vineet Indrajit; Zander, Ryan A.; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Ramani, Vijay; Veres, Tibor Zoltan; Prenzler, Frauke; Sewald, Katherina; Williams, Daniel M.; Coggeshall, Kenneth Mark; Awasthi, Shanjana; Lupu, Florea; Burian, Dennis; Ballard, Jimmy Dale; Braun, Armin

2012-01-01

198

Scale for assessment of lethality of suicide attempt  

PubMed Central

Background: Lethality of suicidal attempt provides useful information regarding the behavior. There is a perceived need for a clinically useful scale that can be easily adapted to various methods and circumstances of attempt. Aims: The study intended to develop and test utility of a scale for measuring lethality that can reflect overall clinical observation taking into account various indicators of lethality and which can be used across clinical scenarios involving different methods. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study in a hospital. Materials and Methods: The scale for assessment of lethality of suicide attempt (SALSA) has two components: The first component has four items indicating seriousness of the attempt and its likely consequences and the second component is the global impression of lethality. All the items are scored from 1 to 5, higher scores suggestive of increased lethality. SALSA was used to evaluate lethality of 82 consecutive suicide attempters; and it was compared with lethality of suicide attempt rating scale (LSARS) and risk-rescue rating scale. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square, t-test, analysis of variance, Cronbach's alpha, binary logistic regression. Result: There was significant correlation of SALSA score with that of LSARS (r: 0.89) and risk score of risk-rescue rating (r: 0.93, P < 0.001); and negative correlation with rescue score (r: ?0.569; P < 0.001). Internal consistency reliability of SALSA was high (Cronbach's alpha: 0.94). Lethality scores of SALSA differentiated known groups with different lethality, e.g. deceased and survived; attempters with different levels of medical intervention: In-patient only, intensive care, ventilator support. SALSA score significantly predicted the lethal outcome (odds ratio: 3.2, confidence interval: 1.12-8.98). Conclusion: SALSA is a useful instrument for assessment of lethality of suicidal behaviors during clinical evaluations considering the ease of administration, its ability to differentiate clinical groups with known variations of lethality and clinical outcomes.

Kar, Nilamadhab; Arun, Mohanram; Mohanty, Manoj K.; Bastia, Binaya K.

2014-01-01

199

Circadian Clock Mutants of Cyanobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diverse set of circadian clock mutants was isolated in a cyanobacterial strain that carries a bacterial luciferase reporter gene attached to a clock-controlled promoter. Among 150,000 clones of chemically mutagenized bioluminescent cells, 12 mutants were isolated that exhibit a broad spectrum of periods (between 16 and 60 hours), and 5 mutants were found that show a variety of unusual

Takao Kondo; Nicholas F. Tsinoremas; Susan S. Golden; Carl Hirschie Johnson; Shinsuke Kutsuna; Masahiro Ishiura

1994-01-01

200

Moving forward with reactive oxygen species involvement in antimicrobial lethality.  

PubMed

Support for the contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to antimicrobial lethality has been refined and strengthened. Killing by diverse antimicrobials is enhanced by defects in genes that protect against ROS, inhibited by compounds that block hydroxyl radical accumulation, and is associated with surges in intracellular ROS. Moreover, support has emerged for a genetic pathway that controls the level of ROS. Since some antimicrobials kill in the absence of ROS, ROS must add to, rather than replace, known killing mechanisms. New work has addressed many of the questions concerning the specificity of dyes used to detect intracellular ROS and the specificity of perturbations that influence ROS surges. However, complexities associated with killing under anaerobic conditions remain to be resolved. Distinctions among primary lesion formation, resistance, direct lesion-mediated killing and a self-destructive stress response are discussed to facilitate efforts to potentiate ROS-mediated bacterial killing and improve antimicrobial efficacy. PMID:25422287

Zhao, Xilin; Hong, Yuzhi; Drlica, Karl

2015-03-01

201

Connexin Mutants and Cataracts  

PubMed Central

The lens is a multicellular, but avascular tissue that must stay transparent to allow normal transmission of light and focusing of it on the retina. Damage to lens cells and/or proteins can cause cataracts, opacities that disrupt these processes. The normal survival of the lens is facilitated by an extensive network of gap junctions formed predominantly of connexin46 and connexin50. Mutations of the genes that encode these connexins (GJA3 and GJA8) have been identified and linked to inheritance of cataracts in human families and mouse lines. In vitro expression studies of several of these mutants have shown that they exhibit abnormalities that may lead to disease. Many of the mutants reduce or modify intercellular communication due to channel alterations (including loss of function or altered gating) or due to impaired cellular trafficking which reduces the number of gap junction channels within the plasma membrane. However, the abnormalities detected in studies of other mutants suggest that they cause cataracts through other mechanisms including gain of hemichannel function (leading to cell injury and death) and formation of cytoplasmic accumulations (that may act as light scattering particles). These observations and the anticipated results of ongoing studies should elucidate the mechanisms of cataract development due to mutations of lens connexins and abnormalities of other lens proteins. They may also contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of disease due to connexin mutations in other tissues. PMID:23596416

Beyer, Eric C.; Ebihara, Lisa; Berthoud, Viviana M.

2013-01-01

202

Deletion of the last five C-terminal amino acid residues of connexin43 leads to lethal ventricular arrhythmias in mice without affecting coupling via gap junction channels  

PubMed Central

The cardiac intercalated disc harbors mechanical and electrical junctions as well as ion channel complexes mediating propagation of electrical impulses. Cardiac connexin43 (Cx43) co-localizes and interacts with several of the proteins located at intercalated discs in the ventricular myocardium. We have generated conditional Cx43D378stop mice lacking the last five C-terminal amino acid residues, representing a binding motif for zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1), and investigated the functional consequences of this mutation on cardiac physiology and morphology. Newborn and adult homozygous Cx43D378stop mice displayed markedly impaired and heterogeneous cardiac electrical activation properties and died from severe ventricular arrhythmias. Cx43 and ZO-1 were co-localized at intercalated discs in Cx43D378stop hearts, and the Cx43D378stop gap junction channels showed normal coupling properties. Patch clamp analyses of isolated adult Cx43D378stop cardiomyocytes revealed a significant decrease in sodium and potassium current densities. Furthermore, we also observed a significant loss of Nav1.5 protein from intercalated discs in Cx43D378stop hearts. The phenotypic lethality of the Cx43D378stop mutation was very similar to the one previously reported for adult Cx43 deficient (Cx43KO) mice. Yet, in contrast to Cx43KO mice, the Cx43 gap junction channel was still functional in the Cx43D378stop mutant. We conclude that the lethality of Cx43D378stop mice is independent of the loss of gap junctional intercellular communication, but most likely results from impaired cardiac sodium and potassium currents. The Cx43D378stop mice reveal for the first time that Cx43 dependent arrhythmias can develop by mechanisms other than impairment of gap junction channel function. PMID:23558439

Lübkemeier, Indra; Requardt, Robert Pascal; Lin, Xianming; Sasse, Philipp; Andrié, René; Schrickel, Jan Wilko; Chkourko, Halina; Bukauskas, Feliksas F.; Kim, Jung-Sun; Frank, Marina; Malan, Daniela; Zhang, Jiong; Wirth, Angela; Dobrowolski, Radoslaw; Mohler, Peter J.; Offermanns, Stefan; Fleischmann, Bernd K.; Delmar, Mario

2013-01-01

203

Deletion of the last five C-terminal amino acid residues of connexin43 leads to lethal ventricular arrhythmias in mice without affecting coupling via gap junction channels.  

PubMed

The cardiac intercalated disc harbors mechanical and electrical junctions as well as ion channel complexes mediating propagation of electrical impulses. Cardiac connexin43 (Cx43) co-localizes and interacts with several of the proteins located at intercalated discs in the ventricular myocardium. We have generated conditional Cx43D378stop mice lacking the last five C-terminal amino acid residues, representing a binding motif for zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1), and investigated the functional consequences of this mutation on cardiac physiology and morphology. Newborn and adult homozygous Cx43D378stop mice displayed markedly impaired and heterogeneous cardiac electrical activation properties and died from severe ventricular arrhythmias. Cx43 and ZO-1 were co-localized at intercalated discs in Cx43D378stop hearts, and the Cx43D378stop gap junction channels showed normal coupling properties. Patch clamp analyses of isolated adult Cx43D378stop cardiomyocytes revealed a significant decrease in sodium and potassium current densities. Furthermore, we also observed a significant loss of Nav1.5 protein from intercalated discs in Cx43D378stop hearts. The phenotypic lethality of the Cx43D378stop mutation was very similar to the one previously reported for adult Cx43 deficient (Cx43KO) mice. Yet, in contrast to Cx43KO mice, the Cx43 gap junction channel was still functional in the Cx43D378stop mutant. We conclude that the lethality of Cx43D378stop mice is independent of the loss of gap junctional intercellular communication, but most likely results from impaired cardiac sodium and potassium currents. The Cx43D378stop mice reveal for the first time that Cx43 dependent arrhythmias can develop by mechanisms other than impairment of gap junction channel function. PMID:23558439

Lübkemeier, Indra; Requardt, Robert Pascal; Lin, Xianming; Sasse, Philipp; Andrié, René; Schrickel, Jan Wilko; Chkourko, Halina; Bukauskas, Feliksas F; Kim, Jung-Sun; Frank, Marina; Malan, Daniela; Zhang, Jiong; Wirth, Angela; Dobrowolski, Radoslaw; Mohler, Peter J; Offermanns, Stefan; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Delmar, Mario; Willecke, Klaus

2013-05-01

204

Suicide Intent and Accurate Expectations of Lethality: Predictors of Medical Lethality of Suicide Attempts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The degree of intent to commit suicide and the severity of self-injury were examined in individuals (N = 180) who had recently attempted suicide. Although a minimal association was found between the degree of suicide intent and the degree of lethality of the attempt, the accuracy of expectations about the likelihood of dying was found to moderate…

Brown, Gregory K.; Henriques, Gregg R.; Sosdjan, Daniella; Beck, Aaron T.

2004-01-01

205

Mutation Induced Extinction in Finite Populations: Lethal Mutagenesis and Lethal Isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproduction is inherently risky, in part because genomic replication can introduce new mutations that are usually deleterious toward fitness. This risk is especially severe for organisms whose genomes replicate “semi-conservatively,” e.g. viruses and bacteria, where no master copy of the genome is preserved. Lethal mutagenesis refers to extinction of populations due to an unbearably high mutation rate (U), and is

C. Scott Wylie; Eugene I. Shakhnovich

2012-01-01

206

Induction of autophagy by anthrax lethal toxin.  

PubMed

Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved intracellular process whereby cells break down long-lived proteins and organelles. Accumulating evidences suggest increasing physiological significance of autophagy in pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) exerts its influence on numerous cells and herein, we report a novel effect of LT-induced autophagy on mammalian cells. Several autophagy biochemical markers including LC3-II conversion, increased punctuate distribution of GFP-LC3 and development of acidic vesicular organelles (AVO) were detected in cells treated with LT. Analysis of individual LT component revealed a moderate increase in LC3-II conversion for protective antigen-treated cells, whereas the LC3-II level in lethal factor-treated cells remained unchanged. In addition, our preliminary findings suggest a protective role of autophagy in LT intoxication as autophagy inhibition resulted in accelerated cell death. This study presents a hitherto undescribed effect of LT-induced autophagy on cells and provides the groundwork for future studies on the implication of autophagy in anthrax pathogenesis. PMID:19103170

Tan, Yian Kim; Kusuma, Caroline M; St John, Lena J; Vu, Hao A; Alibek, Kenneth; Wu, Aiguo

2009-02-01

207

Enhancing CHK1 inhibitor lethality in glioblastoma.  

PubMed

The present studies were initiated to determine whether inhibitors of MEK1/2 or SRC signaling, respectively, enhance CHK1 inhibitor lethality in primary human glioblastoma cells. Multiple MEK1/2 inhibitors (CI-1040 (PD184352); AZD6244 (ARRY-142886)) interacted with multiple CHK1 inhibitors (UCN-01, AZD7762) to kill multiple primary human glioma cell isolates that have a diverse set of genetic alterations typically found in the disease. Inhibition of SRC family proteins also enhanced CHK1 inhibitor lethality. Combined treatment of glioma cells with (MEK1/2 + CHK1) inhibitors enhanced radiosensitivity. Combined (MEK1/2 + CHK1) inhibitor treatment led to dephosphorylation of ERK1/2 and S6 ribosomal protein, whereas the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 was increased. MEK1/2 + CHK1 inhibitor-stimulated cell death was associated with the cleavage of pro-caspases 3 and 7 as well as the caspase substrate (PARP). We also observed activation of pro-apoptotic BCL-2 effector proteins BAK and BAX and reduced levels of pro-survival BCL-2 family protein BCL-XL. Overexpression of BCL-XL alleviated but did not completely abolish MEK1/2 + CHK1 inhibitor cytotoxicity in GBM cells. These findings argue that multiple inhibitors of the SRC-MEK pathway have the potential to interact with multiple CHK1 inhibitors to kill glioma cells. PMID:22313687

Tang, Yong; Dai, Yun; Grant, Steven; Dent, Paul

2012-04-01

208

A screen for dynein synthetic lethals in Aspergillus nidulans identifies spindle assembly checkpoint genes and other genes involved in mitosis.  

PubMed Central

Cytoplasmic dynein is a ubiquitously expressed microtubule motor involved in vesicle transport, mitosis, nuclear migration, and spindle orientation. In the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, inactivation of cytoplasmic dynein, although not lethal, severely impairs nuclear migration. The role of dynein in mitosis and vesicle transport in this organism is unclear. To investigate the complete range of dynein function in A. nidulans, we searched for synthetic lethal mutations that significantly reduced growth in the absence of dynein but had little effect on their own. We isolated 19 sld (synthetic lethality without dynein) mutations in nine different genes. Mutations in two genes exacerbate the nuclear migration defect seen in the absence of dynein. Mutations in six other genes, including sldA and sldB, show a strong synthetic lethal interaction with a mutation in the mitotic kinesin bimC and, thus, are likely to play a role in mitosis. Mutations in sldA and sldB also confer hypersensitivity to the microtubule-destabilizing drug benomyl. sldA and sldB were cloned by complementation of their mutant phenotypes using an A. nidulans autonomously replicating vector. Sequencing revealed homology to the spindle assembly checkpoint genes BUB1 and BUB3 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetic interaction between dynein and spindle assembly checkpoint genes, as well as other mitotic genes, indicates that A. nidulans dynein plays a role in mitosis. We suggest a model for dynein motor action in A. nidulans that can explain dynein involvement in both mitosis and nuclear distribution. PMID:9584089

Efimov, V P; Morris, N R

1998-01-01

209

Kinetics of CHO A L mutant expression after treatment with gamma radiation, EMS, and asbestos.  

PubMed

The flow cytometry mutation assay (FCMA) uses hybrid CHO A(L) cells to measure mutations of the cd59 gene located on human chromosome 11 by the absence of fluorochrome-conjugated antibody binding to the CD59 surface antigen. Mutant expression peaks between 6 and 12 days, then decreases to a stable plateau, instead of a constant mutant fraction obtained by clonogenic assays. To evaluate this variable mutant expression time, cells were treated with radiation, EMS or asbestos and cell proliferation and survival were measured at times leading up to peak mutant expression. Potential doubling time (T(pot)) values increased by at least 75% for each agent by 3 h after treatment but returned to control levels after only 3 days. Survival returned to 90% of control within a week, close to the peak expression day for all three agents. The survival of CD59(-) cells sorted on the peak day of expression was roughly half that of CD59(+) cells. Cloned EMS-treated CD59(-) cells had a doubling time of 16.7 vs. 14.1 h for CD59(+) cells. Triple mutants (CD59(-)/CD44(-)/CD90(-)) were preferentially lost from the population over time, while the proportion of CD59(-)/CD90(-) mutants increased. In conclusion, the peak day of mutant expression occurs only when cells recover from the toxic effects of the mutagen. A fraction of cells originally quantified as mutants are lost over time due to lethal deletions and slower growth. PMID:19291804

Keysar, Stephen B; Fox, Michael H

2009-05-01

210

Non-lethal effects of predation in birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predators can affect individual fitness and population and community processes through lethal effects (direct consumption or 'density' effects), where prey is consumed, or through non-lethal effects (trait-mediated effects or interactions), where behavioural compensation to predation risk occurs, such as animals avoiding areas of high predation risk. Studies of invertebrates, fish and amphibians have shown that non-lethal effects may be larger

WILL CRESSWELL

2008-01-01

211

White Mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Are Defective in Phytoene Synthase  

PubMed Central

Carotenoids play an integral and essential role in photosynthesis and photoprotection in plants and algae. A collection of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutants lacking carotenoids was characterized for pigment and tocopherol (vitamin E) composition, growth phenotypes under different light conditions, and the molecular basis of their mutant phenotype. The carotenoid-less mutants, or “white” mutants, were also deficient in chlorophylls but had approximately twice the tocopherol content of the wild type. White mutants grew in the dark but were unable to survive in the light, even under very low light conditions on acetate-containing medium. Genetic crosses and recombination tests revealed that all individual white mutants in the collection are alleles of a single gene, lts1, and the white phenotype was closely linked to a marker located in the phytoene synthase gene. DNA sequencing of the phytoene synthase gene from each of the mutants revealed nonsense, missense, frameshift, and splice site mutations. Transformation with a wild-type copy of the phytoene synthase gene was able to complement the lts1-210 mutation. Together, these results show that all the white mutants examined in this work are affected in the phytoene synthase gene. PMID:15579683

McCarthy, Sarah S.; Kobayashi, Marilyn C.; Niyogi, Krishna K.

2004-01-01

212

Behavioral and Biochemical Defects in Temperature-Sensitive Acetylcholinesterase Mutants of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER  

PubMed Central

Temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of the Ace gene, which codes for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in Drosophila melanogaster, were analyzed for defects in viability, behavior and function of the enzyme. The use of heat-sensitive and cold-sensitive mutations permited the function of AChE in the nervous system to be analyzed temporally. All ts mutations were lethal, or nearly so, when animals expressing them were subjected to restrictive temperatures during late embryonic and very early larval stages. Heat treatments to Ace-ts mid- and late larvae had little effect on the behavior of these animals or on the viability or behavior of the eventual adults. Heat-sensitive mutants exposed to nonpermissive temperatures as pupae, by contrast, had severe defects in phototaxis and locomotor activity as adults. AChE extracted from adult ts mutants that had developed at a permissive temperature were abnormally heat labile, and they had reduced substrate affinity when assayed at restrictive temperatures. However, enzyme activity did not decline during exposure of heat-sensitive adults to high temperatures even though such treatments caused decrements in phototaxis (29°) and, eventually, cessation of movement (31°). The cold-sensitive mutant also produced readily detectable levels of AChE when exposed to a restrictive temperature during the early developmental stage when this mutation causes almost complete lethality. We suggest that the relationship among the genetic, biochemical and neurobiological defects in these mutants may involve more than merely temperature-sensitive catalytic functions. PMID:6790339

Hall, Jeffrey C.; Alahiotis, Stamatis N.; Strumpf, David A.; White, Kristin

1980-01-01

213

Sub-lethal glyphosate exposure alters flowering phenology and causes transient male-sterility in Brassica spp  

PubMed Central

Background Herbicide resistance in weedy plant populations can develop through different mechanisms such as gene flow of herbicide resistance transgenes from crop species into compatible weedy species or by natural evolution of herbicide resistance or tolerance following selection pressure. Results from our previous studies suggest that sub-lethal levels of the herbicide glyphosate can alter the pattern of gene flow between glyphosate resistant Canola®, Brassica napus, and glyphosate sensitive varieties of B. napus and B. rapa. The objectives of this study were to examine the phenological and developmental changes that occur in Brassica crop and weed species following sub-lethal doses of the herbicides glyphosate and glufosinate. We examined several vegetative and reproductive traits of potted plants under greenhouse conditions, treated with sub-lethal herbicide sprays. Results Our results indicate that exposure of Brassica spp. to a sub-lethal dose of glyphosate results in altering flowering phenology and reproductive function. Flowering of all sensitive species was significantly delayed and reproductive function, specifically male fertility, was suppressed. Higher dosage levels typically contributed to an increase in the magnitude of phenotypic changes. Conclusions These results demonstrate that Brassica spp. plants that are exposed to sub-lethal doses of glyphosate could be subject to very different pollination patterns and an altered pattern of gene flow that would result from changes in the overlap of flowering phenology between species. Implications include the potential for increased glyphosate resistance evolution and spread in weedy communities exposed to sub-lethal glyphosate. PMID:24655547

2014-01-01

214

A genetic screen for zygotic embryonic lethal mutations affecting cuticular morphology in the wasp Nasonia vitripennis.  

PubMed Central

We have screened for zygotic embryonic lethal mutations affecting cuticular morphology in Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera; Chalcidoidea). Our broad goal was to investigate the use of Nasonia for genetically surveying conservation and change in regulatory gene systems, as a means to understand the diversity of developmental strategies that have arisen during the course of evolution. Specifically, we aim to compare anteroposterior patterning gene functions in two long germ band insects, Nasonia and Drosophila. In Nasonia, unfertilized eggs develop as haploid males while fertilized eggs develop as diploid females, so the entire genome can be screened for recessive zygotic mutations by examining the progeny of F1 females. We describe 74 of >100 lines with embryonic cuticular mutant phenotypes, including representatives of coordinate, gap, pair-rule, segment polarity, homeotic, and Polycomb group functions, as well as mutants with novel phenotypes not directly comparable to those of known Drosophila genes. We conclude that Nasonia is a tractable experimental organism for comparative developmental genetic study. The mutants isolated here have begun to outline the extent of conservation and change in the genetic programs controlling embryonic patterning in Nasonia and Drosophila. PMID:10866651

Pultz, M A; Zimmerman, K K; Alto, N M; Kaeberlein, M; Lange, S K; Pitt, J N; Reeves, N L; Zehrung, D L

2000-01-01

215

An exome sequencing strategy to diagnose lethal autosomal recessive disorders.  

PubMed

Rare disorders resulting in prenatal or neonatal death are genetically heterogeneous. For some conditions, affected fetuses can be diagnosed by ultrasound scan, but this is not usually possible until mid-gestation. There is often limited fetal DNA available for investigation. We investigated a strategy for diagnosing autosomal recessive lethal disorders in non-consanguineous pedigrees with multiple affected fetuses. Exome sequencing was performed to identify genes where each parent is heterozygous for a rare non-synonymous-coding or splicing variant. Putative pathogenic variants were tested for cosegregation in affected fetuses and unaffected siblings. In eight couples of European ancestry, we found on average 1.75 genes (range 0-4) where both parents were heterozygous for rare potentially deleterious variants. A proof-of-principle study detected heterozygous DYNC2H1 variants in a couple whose five fetuses had short-rib polydactyly. Prospective analysis of two couples with multiple pregnancy terminations for fetal akinesia syndrome was performed and a diagnosis was obtained in both the families. The first couple were each heterozygous for a previously reported GLE1 variant, p.Arg569His or p.Val617Met; both were inherited by their two affected fetuses. The second couple were each heterozygous for a novel RYR1 variant, c.14130-2A>G or p.Ser3074Phe; both were inherited by their three affected fetuses but not by their unaffected child. Biallelic GLE1 and RYR1 disease-causing variants have been described in other cases with fetal akinesia syndrome. We conclude that exome sequencing of parental samples can be an effective tool for diagnosing lethal recessive disorders in outbred couples. This permits early prenatal diagnosis in future pregnancies. PMID:24961629

Ellard, Sian; Kivuva, Emma; Turnpenny, Peter; Stals, Karen; Johnson, Matthew; Xie, Weijia; Caswell, Richard; Lango Allen, Hana

2015-03-01

216

Process lethality and product yield for chicken patties processed in a pilot-scale air-steam impingement oven.  

PubMed

Chicken breast patties were processed in a pilot-scale air-steam impingement oven to a patty center temperature of 55 to 80 degrees C. Thermal processing was conducted at an air temperature of 149 degrees C, an air velocity of 7 to 13 m3/min, and a wet bulb temperature of 39 to 98 degrees C. From thermal histories, the total process lethality of the patties was calculated for Salmonella spp. and Listeria innocua using the previously published z-values. The effect of product temperature, wet bulb temperature, and air velocity on process lethality was analyzed using a regression model. The process lethality of Salmonella spp. and L. innocua in the cooked chicken patties was correlated to the patty center temperatures and cooking conditions. The process lethality was strongly correlated to product temperature and was affected by cooking conditions. Process lethality started to increase rapidly at the product temperature around 67 degrees C. Regression analysis was used to correlate the product yield with cooking conditions. Depending on air velocity, product yield decreased 10 to 14% with increasing endpoint temperature from 55 to 80 degrees C and increased 2 to 9% with increasing wet bulb temperature from 39 to 98 degrees C. The effect of air velocity on the yield interacted with product temperature and wet bulb temperature. PMID:11601704

Murphy, R Y; Duncan, L K; Johnson, E R; Davis, M D

2001-10-01

217

Vitellogenin Receptor Mutation Leads to the Oogenesis Mutant Phenotype “scanty vitellin” of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori*  

PubMed Central

In insects, the vitellogenin receptor (VgR) mediates the uptake of vitellogenin (Vg) from the hemolymph by developing oocytes. The oogenesis mutant scanty vitellin (vit) of Bombyx mori (Bm) lacks vitellin and 30-kDa proteins, but B. mori egg-specific protein and BmVg are normal. The vit eggs are white and smaller compared with the pale yellow eggs of the wild type and are embryonic lethal. This study found that a mutation in the B. mori VgR gene (BmVgR) is responsible for the vit phenotype. We cloned the cDNA sequences encoding WT and vit BmVgR. The functional domains of BmVgR are similar to those of other low-density lipoprotein receptors. When compared with the wild type, a 235-bp genomic sequence in vit BmVgR is substituted for a 7-bp sequence. This mutation has resulted in a 50-amino acid deletion in the third Class B region of the first epidermal growth factor (EGF1) domain. BmVgR is expressed specifically in oocytes, and the transcriptional level is changed dramatically and consistently with maturation of oocytes during the previtellogenic periods. Linkage analysis confirmed that BmVgR is mutated in the vit mutant. The coimmunoprecipitation assay confirmed that mutated BmVgR is able to bind BmVg but that BmVg cannot be dissociated under acidic conditions. The WT phenotype determined by RNA interference was similar to that of the vit phenotype for nutritional deficiency, such as BmVg and 30-kDa proteins. These results showed that BmVgR has an important role in transporting proteins for egg formation and embryonic development in B. mori. PMID:23515308

Lin, Ying; Meng, Yan; Wang, Yan-Xia; Luo, Juan; Katsuma, Susumu; Yang, Cong-Wen; Banno, Yutaka; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Shimada, Toru; Xia, Qing-You

2013-01-01

218

Ants defend aphids against lethal disease.  

PubMed

Social insects defend their own colonies and some species also protect their mutualist partners. In mutualisms with aphids, ants typically feed on honeydew produced by aphids and, in turn guard and shelter aphid colonies from insect natural enemies. Here we report that Formica podzolica ants tending milkweed aphids, Aphis asclepiadis, protect aphid colonies from lethal fungal infections caused by an obligate aphid pathogen, Pandora neoaphidis. In field experiments, bodies of fungal-killed aphids were quickly removed from ant-tended aphid colonies. Ant workers were also able to detect infective conidia on the cuticle of living aphids and responded by either removing or grooming these aphids. Our results extend the long-standing view of ants as mutualists and protectors of aphids by demonstrating focused sanitizing and quarantining behaviour that may lead to reduced disease transmission in aphid colonies. PMID:19923138

Nielsen, Charlotte; Agrawal, Anurag A; Hajek, Ann E

2010-04-23

219

Electronic combat and lethal defense suppression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air forces across the world strive to protect their valuable resources from both the air and ground threats. Over the past few years, the surface-to-air missile threat has become more sophisticated and more deadly. It is far cheaper and less technical for a country to own and operate a ground missile system than to maintain a credible air force. It is for this reason that the attention to the ground threat has grown over the past few years. This paper discusses the approach the U.S. Air Force has taken in protecting its aircraft from these ground threats and how the mission of Lethal Defense Suppression has evolved into the complimentary tasks of Reactive Suppression and Pre-emptive Destruction.

Rose, Leo. J.

1995-01-01

220

Maize Mutants Lacking Chloroplast FtsY Exhibit Pleiotropic Defects in the Biogenesis of Thylakoid MembranesW?  

PubMed Central

A chloroplast signal recognition particle (SRP) that is related to the SRP involved in secretion in bacteria and eukaryotic cells is used for the insertion of light-harvesting chlorophyll proteins (LHCPs) into the thylakoid membranes. A conserved component of the SRP mechanism is a membrane-bound SRP receptor, denoted FtsY in bacteria. Plant genomes encode FtsY homologs that are targeted to the chloroplast (cpFtsY). To investigate the in vivo roles of cpFtsY, we characterized maize cpFtsY and maize mutants having a Mu transposon insertion in the corresponding gene (chloroplast SRP receptor1, or csr1). Maize cpFtsY accumulates to much higher levels in leaf tissue than in roots and stems. Interestingly, it is present at similar levels in etiolated and green leaf tissue and was found to bind the prolamellar bodies of etioplasts. A null cpFtsY mutant, csr1-1, showed a substantial loss of leaf chlorophyll, whereas a “leaky” allele, csr1-3, conditioned a more moderate chlorophyll deficiency. Both alleles caused the loss of various LHCPs and the thylakoid-bound photosynthetic enzyme complexes and were seedling lethal. By contrast, levels of the membrane-bound components of the thylakoid protein transport machineries were not altered. The thylakoid membranes in csr1-1 chloroplasts were unstacked and reduced in abundance, but the prolamellar bodies in mutant etioplasts appeared normal. These results demonstrate the essentiality of cpFtsY for the biogenesis not only of the LHCPs but also for the assembly of the other membrane-bound components of the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:14688289

Asakura, Yukari; Hirohashi, Toshiya; Kikuchi, Shingo; Belcher, Susan; Osborne, Erin; Yano, Satoshi; Terashima, Ichiro; Barkan, Alice; Nakai, Masato

2004-01-01

221

A Synthetic Lethal Screen Identifies a Role for the Cortical Actin Patch\\/Endocytosis Complex in the Response to Nutrient Deprivation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccharomyces cerevisiae whi2 cells are unable to halt cell division in response to nutrient limitation and are sensitive to a wide variety of stresses. A synthetic lethal screen resulted in the isolation of siw mutants that had a phenotype similar to that of whi2. Among these were mutations affecting SIW14, FEN2, SLT2, and THR4. Fluid-phase endocytosis is severely reduced or

Alison Care; Katherine A. Vousden; Katie M. Binley; Pippa Radcliffe; Janet Trevethick; Ilaria Mannazzu; Peter E. Sudbery

2004-01-01

222

Distinct regions of NLRP1B are required to respond to anthrax lethal toxin and metabolic inhibition.  

PubMed

Pattern recognition receptors monitor for signs of infection or cellular dysfunction and respond to these events by initiating an immune response. NLRP1B is a receptor that upon activation recruits multiple copies of procaspase-1, which promotes cytokine processing and a proinflammatory form of cell death termed pyroptosis. NLRP1B detects anthrax lethal toxin when the toxin cleaves an amino-terminal fragment from the protein. In addition, NLRP1B is activated when cells are deprived of glucose or treated with metabolic inhibitors, but the mechanism by which the resulting reduction in cytosolic ATP is sensed by NLRP1B is unknown. Here, we addressed whether these two activating signals of NLRP1B converge on a common sensing system. We show that an NLRP1B mutant lacking the amino-terminal region exhibits some spontaneous activity and fails to be further activated by lethal toxin. This mutant was still activated in cells depleted of ATP, however, indicating that the amino-terminal region is not the sole sensing domain of NLRP1B. Mutagenesis of the leucine-rich repeat domain of NLRP1B provided evidence that this domain is involved in autoinhibition of the receptor, but none of the mutants tested was specifically defective at sensing activating signals. Comparison of two alleles of NLRP1B that differed in their response to metabolic inhibitors, but not to lethal toxin, led to the finding that a repeated sequence in the function to find domain (FIIND) that arose from exon duplication facilitated detection of ATP depletion. These results suggest that distinct regions of NLRP1B detect activating signals. PMID:24935976

Neiman-Zenevich, Jana; Liao, Kuo-Chieh; Mogridge, Jeremy

2014-09-01

223

The Aspartate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase of Edwardsiella ictaluri and Its Use as Balanced-Lethal System in Fish Vaccinology  

PubMed Central

asdA mutants of Gram-negative bacteria have an obligate requirement for diaminopimelic acid (DAP), which is an essential constituent of the peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall of these organisms. In environments deprived of DAP, i.e., animal tissues, they will undergo lysis. Deletion of the asdA gene has previously been exploited to develop antibiotic-sensitive strains of live attenuated recombinant bacterial vaccines. Introduction of an Asd+ plasmid into a ?asdA mutant makes the bacterial strain plasmid-dependent. This dependence on the Asd+ plasmid vector creates a balanced-lethal complementation between the bacterial strain and the recombinant plasmid. E. ictaluri is an enteric Gram-negative fish pathogen that causes enteric septicemia in catfish. Because E. ictaluri is a nasal/oral invasive intracellular pathogen, this bacterium is a candidate to develop a bath/oral live recombinant attenuated Edwardsiella vaccine (RAEV) for the catfish aquaculture industry. As a first step to develop an antibiotic-sensitive RAEV strain, we characterized and deleted the E. ictaluri asdA gene. E. ictaluri ?asdA01 mutants exhibit an absolute requirement for DAP to grow. The asdA gene of E. ictaluri was complemented by the asdA gene from Salmonella. Several Asd+ expression vectors with different origins of replication were transformed into E. ictaluri ?asdA01. Asd+ vectors were compatible with the pEI1 and pEI2 E. ictaluri native plasmids. The balanced-lethal system was satisfactorily evaluated in vivo. Recombinant GFP, PspA, and LcrV proteins were synthesized by E. ictaluri ?asdA01 harboring Asd+ plasmids. Here we constructed a balanced-lethal system, which is the first step to develop an antibiotic-sensitive RAEV for the aquaculture industry. PMID:21209920

Santander, Javier; Xin, Wei; Yang, Zhao; Curtiss, Roy

2010-01-01

224

The aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase of Edwardsiella ictaluri and its use as balanced-lethal system in fish vaccinology.  

PubMed

asdA mutants of gram-negative bacteria have an obligate requirement for diaminopimelic acid (DAP), which is an essential constituent of the peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall of these organisms. In environments deprived of DAP, i.e., animal tissues, they will undergo lysis. Deletion of the asdA gene has previously been exploited to develop antibiotic-sensitive strains of live attenuated recombinant bacterial vaccines. Introduction of an Asd(+) plasmid into a ?asdA mutant makes the bacterial strain plasmid-dependent. This dependence on the Asd(+) plasmid vector creates a balanced-lethal complementation between the bacterial strain and the recombinant plasmid. E. ictaluri is an enteric gram-negative fish pathogen that causes enteric septicemia in catfish. Because E. ictaluri is a nasal/oral invasive intracellular pathogen, this bacterium is a candidate to develop a bath/oral live recombinant attenuated Edwardsiella vaccine (RAEV) for the catfish aquaculture industry. As a first step to develop an antibiotic-sensitive RAEV strain, we characterized and deleted the E. ictaluri asdA gene. E. ictaluri ?asdA01 mutants exhibit an absolute requirement for DAP to grow. The asdA gene of E. ictaluri was complemented by the asdA gene from Salmonella. Several Asd(+) expression vectors with different origins of replication were transformed into E. ictaluri ?asdA01. Asd(+) vectors were compatible with the pEI1 and pEI2 E. ictaluri native plasmids. The balanced-lethal system was satisfactorily evaluated in vivo. Recombinant GFP, PspA, and LcrV proteins were synthesized by E. ictaluri ?asdA01 harboring Asd(+) plasmids. Here we constructed a balanced-lethal system, which is the first step to develop an antibiotic-sensitive RAEV for the aquaculture industry. PMID:21209920

Santander, Javier; Xin, Wei; Yang, Zhao; Curtiss, Roy

2010-01-01

225

The Influence of Geographic Mobility on Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a population-based, case-control study of nearly lethal suicide attempts with 153 cases and 513 controls. Results indicate that moving in the past year is positively associated with a nearly lethal suicide attempt, as are specific characteristics of the move. Findings confirm and extend prior research by demonstrating a relationship…

Potter, Lloyd B.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Powell, Kenneth E.; Simon, Thomas R.; Mercy, James A.; Lee, Roberta K.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Swann, Alan C.; Bayer, Timothy; O'Carroll, Patrick W.

2002-01-01

226

Chronic Exposure of Corals to Fine Sediments: Lethal and Sub-Lethal Impacts  

PubMed Central

Understanding the sedimentation and turbidity thresholds for corals is critical in assessing the potential impacts of dredging projects in tropical marine systems. In this study, we exposed two species of coral sampled from offshore locations to six levels of total suspended solids (TSS) for 16 weeks in the laboratory, including a 4 week recovery period. Dose-response relationships were developed to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal thresholds of sedimentation and turbidity for the corals. The sediment treatments affected the horizontal foliaceous species (Montipora aequituberculata) more than the upright branching species (Acropora millepora). The lowest sediment treatments that caused full colony mortality were 30 mg l?1 TSS (25 mg cm?2 day?1) for M. aequituberculata and 100 mg l?1 TSS (83 mg cm?2 day?1) for A. millepora after 12 weeks. Coral mortality generally took longer than 4 weeks and was closely related to sediment accumulation on the surface of the corals. While measurements of damage to photosystem II in the symbionts and reductions in lipid content and growth indicated sub-lethal responses in surviving corals, the most reliable predictor of coral mortality in this experiment was long-term sediment accumulation on coral tissue. PMID:22662225

Flores, Florita; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Smith, Luke D.; Cooper, Timothy F.; Abrego, David; Negri, Andrew P.

2012-01-01

227

A strong loss-of-function mutation in RAN1 results in constitutive activation of the ethylene response pathway as well as a rosette-lethal phenotype  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recessive mutation was identified that constitutively activated the ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis and resulted in a rosette-lethal phenotype. Positional cloning of the gene corresponding to this mutation revealed that it was allelic to responsive to antagonist1 (ran1), a mutation that causes seedlings to respond in a positive manner to what is normally a competitive inhibitor of ethylene binding. In contrast to the previously identified ran1-1 and ran1-2 alleles that are morphologically indistinguishable from wild-type plants, this ran1-3 allele results in a rosette-lethal phenotype. The predicted protein encoded by the RAN1 gene is similar to the Wilson and Menkes disease proteins and yeast Ccc2 protein, which are integral membrane cation-transporting P-type ATPases involved in copper trafficking. Genetic epistasis analysis indicated that RAN1 acts upstream of mutations in the ethylene receptor gene family. However, the rosette-lethal phenotype of ran1-3 was not suppressed by ethylene-insensitive mutants, suggesting that this mutation also affects a non-ethylene-dependent pathway regulating cell expansion. The phenotype of ran1-3 mutants is similar to loss-of-function ethylene receptor mutants, suggesting that RAN1 may be required to form functional ethylene receptors. Furthermore, these results suggest that copper is required not only for ethylene binding but also for the signaling function of the ethylene receptors.

Woeste, K. E.; Kieber, J. J.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

2000-01-01

228

Sirenomelia Phenotype in Bmp7;Shh Compound Mutants: A Novel Experimental Model for Studies of Caudal Body Malformations  

PubMed Central

Sirenomelia is a severe congenital malformation of the lower body characterized by the fusion of the legs into a single lower limb. This striking external phenotype consistently associates severe visceral abnormalities, most commonly of the kidneys, intestine, and genitalia that generally make the condition lethal. Although the causes of sirenomelia remain unknown, clinical studies have yielded two major hypotheses: i) a primary defect in the generation of caudal mesoderm, ii) a primary vascular defect that leaves the caudal part of the embryo hypoperfused. Interestingly, Sirenomelia has been shown to have a genetic basis in mice, and although it has been considered a sporadic condition in humans, recently some possible familial cases have been reported. Here, we report that the removal of one or both functional alleles of Shh from the Bmp7-null background leads to a sirenomelia phenotype that faithfully replicates the constellation of external and internal malformations, typical of the human condition. These mutants represent an invaluable model in which we have analyzed the pathogenesis of sirenomelia. We show that the signaling defect predominantly impacts the morphogenesis of the hindgut and the development of the caudal end of the dorsal aortas. The deficient formation of ventral midline structures, including the interlimb mesoderm caudal to the umbilicus, leads to the approximation and merging of the hindlimb fields. Our study provides new insights for the understanding of the mechanisms resulting in caudal body malformations, including sirenomelia. PMID:23028704

Garrido-Allepuz, Carlos; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Ros, Maria A.

2012-01-01

229

Transient hematopoietic stem cell rescue using umbilical cord blood for a lethally irradiated nuclear accident victim  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed stem cell rescue and allogeneic skin transplantation on a lethally neutron-irradiated nuclear accident victim. HLA-DRB1 mismatched unrelated umbilical cord blood cells (2.08 × 107\\/kg recipient body weight) were transplanted to an 8–10 Gy equivalent neutron-irradiated patient because of a lack of a suitable bone marrow or peripheral blood donor. Pre-transplant conditioning consisted of anti-thymocyte ?-globulin alone, and GVHD

H Nagayama; K Misawa; H Tanaka; J Ooi; T Iseki; A Tojo; K Tani; Y Yamada; H Kodo; TA Takahashi; N Yamashita; S Shimazaki; S Asano

2002-01-01

230

Kinetics of CHO AL mutant expression after treatment with ? radiation, EMS and asbestos  

PubMed Central

The flow cytometry mutation assay (FCMA) uses hybrid CHO AL cells to measure mutations of the cd59 gene located on human chromosome 11 by the absence of fluorochrome-conjugated antibody binding to the CD59 surface antigen. Mutant expression peaks between 6–12 days, then decreases to a stable plateau, instead of a constant mutant fraction obtained by clonogenic assays. To evaluate this variable mutant expression time, cells were treated with radiation, EMS or asbestos and cell proliferation and survival were measured at times leading up to peak mutant expression. Potential doubling time (Tpot) values increased by at least 75% for each agent by 3 hr after treatment but returned to control levels after only three days. Survival returned to 90% of control within a week, close to the peak expression day for all 3 agents. The survival of CD59? cells sorted on the peak day of expression was roughly half that of CD59+ cells. Cloned EMS-treated CD59? cells had a doubling time of 16.7 hr vs. 14.1 hr for CD59+ cells. Triple mutants (CD59?/CD44?/CD90?) were preferentially lost from the population over time, while the proportion of CD59?/CD90? increased. In conclusion, the peak day of mutant expression occurs only when cells recover from the toxic effects of the mutagen. A fraction of cells originally quantified as mutants are lost over time due to lethal deletions and slower growth. PMID:19291804

Keysar, Stephen B.; Fox, Michael H.

2009-01-01

231

ECB deacylase mutants  

DOEpatents

A method for in vitro mutagenesis and recombination of polynucleotide sequences based on polymerase-catalyzed extension of primer oligonucleotides is disclosed. The method involves priming template polynucleotide(s) with random-sequences or defined-sequence primers to generate a pool of short DNA fragments with a low level of point mutations. The DNA fragments are subjected to denaturization followed by annealing and further enzyme-catalyzed DNA polymerization. This procedure is repeated a sufficient number of times to produce full-length genes which comprise mutants of the original template polynucleotides. These genes can be further amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a vector for expression of the encoded proteins.

Arnold, Frances H. (Pasadena, CA); Shao, Zhixin (Penzberg, DE); Zhao, Huimin (San Diego, CA); Giver, Lorraine J. (Sunnyvale, CA)

2002-01-01

232

Molecular defect of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase in the skunk mutant of silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The isovaleric acid-emanating silkworm mutant skunk (sku) was first studied over 30?years ago because of its unusual odour and prepupal lethality. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the gene responsible for the sku mutant. Because of its specific features and symptoms similar to human isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD) deficiency, also known as isovaleric acidaemia, IVD dysfunction in silkworms was predicted to be responsible for the phenotype of the sku mutant. Linkage analysis revealed that the silkworm IVD gene (BmIVD) was closely linked to the odorous phenotype as expected, and a single amino acid substitution (G376V) was found in BmIVD of the sku mutant. To investigate the effect of the G376V substitution on BmIVD function, wild-type and sku-type recombinants were constructed with a baculovirus expression system and the subsequent enzyme activity of sku-type BmIVD was shown to be significantly reduced compared with that of wild-type BmIVD. Molecular modelling suggested that this reduction in the enzyme activity may be due to negative effects of G376V mutation on FAD-binding or on monomer-monomer interactions. These observations strongly suggest that BmIVD is responsible for the sku locus and that the molecular defect in BmIVD causes the characteristic smell and prepupal lethality of the sku mutant. To our knowledge, this is, aside from humans, the first characterization of IVD deficiency in metazoa. Considering that IVD acts in the third step of leucine degradation and the sku mutant accumulates branched-chain amino acids in haemolymph, this mutant may be useful in the investigation of unique branched-chain amino acid catabolism in insects. PMID:21040472

Urano, Kei; Daimon, Takaaki; Banno, Yutaka; Mita, Kazuei; Terada, Tohru; Shimizu, Kentaro; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

2010-11-01

233

Piebald lethal (sl) acts early to disrupt the development of neural crest-derived melanocytes.  

PubMed Central

Mice homozygous for the piebald lethal (sl) mutation have a predominantly white coat due to the absence of neural crest-derived melanocytes in the hair follicles. To investigate the time in embryonic development when the s1 gene affects the melanocyte lineage, we compared the distribution of melanocyte precursors in wild-type and mutant embryos, using an antibody specific for tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP-2). TRP-2 positive cells were first observed adjacent to the anterior cardinal vein in 10.5-day postcoitem wild-type embryos. From 11.5 to 13.5 days postcoitem, there was a nonuniform distribution of TRP-2 positive cells along the anterior-posterior axis, with the highest density of cells in the head and tail regions. Along the dorsal-ventral axis, the cells were restricted to positions lateral, but never dorsal, to the neural tube. In homozygous sl/sl embryos TRP-2 staining was restricted to the non-neural crest-derived melanocytes of the pigmented retinal epithelium and the telencephalon. Few positive cells were seen in areas that will form neural crest-derived melanocytes in the inner ear, skin, hair follicles, leg musculature, or heart. We conclude that the piebald lethal mutation acts prior to the onset of TRP-2 expression to disrupt the development of neural crest-derived melanocytes. The non-uniform distribution of melanoblasts in wild-type mice suggests that piebald acts stochastically to affect melanocyte development. Images PMID:8041763

Pavan, W J; Tilghman, S M

1994-01-01

234

Human cathepsin L rescues the neurodegeneration and lethality incathepsin B/L double deficient mice  

SciTech Connect

Cathepsin B (CTSB) and cathepsin L (CTSL) are two widelyexpressed cysteine proteases thought to predominantly reside withinlysosomes. Functional analysis of CTSL in humans is complicated by theexistence of two CTSL-like homologues (CTSL and CTSL2), in contrast tomice which contain only one CTSL enzyme. Thus transgenic expression ofhuman CTSL in CTSL deficient mice provides an opportunity to study the invivo functions of this human protease without interference by its highlyrelated homologue. While mice with single gene deficiencies for murineCTSB or CTSL survive without apparent neuromuscular impairment, murineCTSB/CTSL double deficient mice display degeneration of cerebellarPurkinje cells and neurons of the cerebral cortex, resulting in severehypotrophy, motility defects, and lethality during their third to fourthweek of life. Here we show that expression of human CTSL through agenomic transgene results in widespread expression of human CTSL in themouse which is capable of rescuing the lethality found in CTSB/CTSLdouble-deficient animals. Human CTSL is expressed in the brain of thesecompound mutants predominantly in neurons of the cerebral cortex and inPurkinje cells of the cerebellum, where it appears to prevent neuronalcell death.

Sevenich, Lisa; Pennacchio, Len A.; Peters, Christoph; Reinheckel, Thomas

2006-01-09

235

Mir-290–295 deficiency in mice results in partially penetrant embryonic lethality and germ cell defects  

PubMed Central

Mir-290 through mir-295 (mir-290–295) is a mammalian-specific microRNA (miRNA) cluster that, in mice, is expressed specifically in early embryos and embryonic germ cells. Here, we show that mir-290–295 plays important roles in embryonic development as indicated by the partially penetrant lethality of mutant embryos. In addition, we show that in surviving mir-290–295-deficient embryos, female but not male fertility is compromised. This impairment in fertility arises from a defect in migrating primordial germ cells and occurs equally in male and female mutant animals. Male mir-290–295?/? mice, due to the extended proliferative lifespan of their germ cells, are able to recover from this initial germ cell loss and are fertile. Female mir-290–295?/? mice are unable to recover and are sterile, due to premature ovarian failure. PMID:21844366

Medeiros, Lea A.; Dennis, Lucas M.; Gill, Mark E.; Houbaviy, Hristo; Markoulaki, Styliani; Fu, Dongdong; White, Amy C.; Kirak, Oktay; Sharp, Phillip A.; Page, David C.; Jaenisch, Rudolf

2011-01-01

236

Clock Mutants of Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three mutants have been isolated in which the normal 24-hour rhythm is drastically changed. One mutant is arrhythmic; another has a period of 19 hr; a third has a period of 28 hr. Both the eclosion rhythm of a population and the locomotor activity of individual flies are affected. All these mutations appear to involve the same functional gene on

Ronald J. Konopka; Seymour Benzer

1971-01-01

237

Conformational properties of nine purified cystathionine ?-synthase mutants.  

PubMed

Protein misfolding due to missense mutations is a common pathogenic mechanism in cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) deficiency. In our previous studies, we successfully expressed, purified, and characterized nine CBS mutant enzymes containing the following patient mutations: P49L, P78R, A114V, R125Q, E176K, R266K, P422L, I435T, and S466L. These purified mutants exhibited full heme saturation, normal tetrameric assembly, and high catalytic activity. In this work, we used several spectroscopic and proteolytic techniques to provide a more thorough insight into the conformation of these mutant enzymes. Far-UV circular dichroism, fluorescence, and second-derivative UV spectroscopy revealed that the spatial arrangement of these CBS mutants is similar to that of the wild type, although the microenvironment of the chromophores may be slightly altered. Using proteolysis with thermolysin under native conditions, we found that the majority of the studied mutants is more susceptible to cleavage, suggesting their increased local flexibility or propensity for local unfolding. Interestingly, the presence of the CBS allosteric activator, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), increased the rate of cleavage of the wild type and the AdoMet-responsive mutants, while the proteolytic rate of the AdoMet-unresponsive mutants was not significantly changed. Pulse proteolysis analysis suggested that the protein structure of the R125Q and E176K mutants is significantly less stable than that of the wild type and the other mutants. Taken together, the proteolytic data shows that the conformation of the pathogenic mutants is altered despite retained catalytic activity and normal tetrameric assembly. This study demonstrates that the proteolytic techniques are useful tools for the assessment of the biochemical penalty of missense mutations in CBS. PMID:22612060

Hnízda, Aleš; Majtan, Tomas; Liu, Lu; Pey, Angel L; Carpenter, John F; Kodí?ek, Milan; Kožich, Viktor; Kraus, Jan P

2012-06-12

238

Lethal body burdens of polar narcotics: Chlorophenols  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the present study was to measure in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) the lethal body burden (LBB) of three chlorophenols that are known as polar narcotic chemicals. The LBBs of the chlorophenols were compared to LBBs of nonpolar narcotic chemicals to consider if the two classes of narcotic chemicals differ on a body burden level. The LBB of the most acidic chlorophenol was measured at two different levels of pH exposure to determine the influence of the degree of ionization on the magnitude of the LBB. Both n-octanol/water partition coefficients and n-hexane/water partition coefficients of the chlorophenols were determined at different pH levels to consider the influence of ionization on the partition coefficient and to determine the importance of a polar group in the organic phase on the partitioning behavior. Partitioning to n-octanol and n-hexane was used as input in a model to simulate the equilibrium partitioning between hydrophobic and nonhydrophobic and target and nontarget compartments in the fish.

Wezel, A.P. van; Punte, S.S. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Chemistry Group; Opperhuizen, A. [Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, The Hague (Netherlands). National Institute for Coastal and Marine Management

1995-09-01

239

Effect of Dim Light on the y-1 Mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 1  

PubMed Central

The y-1 mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii tends to die or revert to wild type when grown in the dark for a long period of time. A small amount of white light (0.5 lux) enables the y-1 mutant to grow indefinitely in a “near dark” condition. Under this condition, the y-1 mutant is physiologically and ultrastructurally similar to the dark-grown y-1 yet remains genetically stable. ImagesFIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:16660398

Wang, Wei-yeh

1978-01-01

240

Superantigen vaccines: a comparative study of genetically attenuated receptor-binding mutants of staphylococcal enterotoxin A.  

PubMed

Superantigens exert their pathologic effects by direct binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and T cell antigen receptors (TCR), thus circumventing the normal, antigen-specific immune response. A direct link between disease and toxin suggests an excellent opportunity for vaccine intervention. Site-directed mutants of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) that have attenuated binding to either the TCR or the MHC class II molecule were developed. Both kinds of SEA mutants induced high levels of antibody against SEA when used as vaccines, and the immunized animals were fully protected when challenged with wild type toxin. However, a residual lethality was associated with the attenuated TCR-binding mutant. These results, combined with an understanding of the molecular nature of superantigen and receptor interactions, indicate that targeting MHC class II binding by site-directed mutagenesis will produce the most effective vaccine. PMID:8699064

Bavari, S; Dyas, B; Ulrich, R G

1996-08-01

241

Novel aspects of COP9 signalosome functions revealed through analysis of hypomorphic csn mutants.  

PubMed

The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a conserved eukaryotic protein complex implicated in the regulation of cullin-RING type E3 ubiquitin ligases by cleaving the small peptide RUB/Nedd8 from cullins. However, detailed analysis of CSN physiological functions in Arabidopsis has been hampered by the early seedling-lethality of csn null mutants. We and others have now identified a number of viable hypomorphic csn mutants which start to reveal novel CSN-dependent activities in adult Arabidopsis plants. Here, we present a detailed comparative analysis of the csn5a-1 and csn2-5 mutants as a mean to improve understanding of CSN functions in plant cells. Our observations point to CSN-independent activities of CSN5 and suggest a role of the CSN in cytoskeleton assembly/organization. PMID:19847120

Stuttmann, Johannes; Parker, Jane E; Noël, Laurent D

2009-09-01

242

Morphogenesis Is Not Required for Candida albicans-Staphylococcus aureus Intra-Abdominal Infection-Mediated Dissemination and Lethal Sepsis  

PubMed Central

Intra-abdominal polymicrobial infections cause significant morbidity and mortality. An established experimental mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus-Candida albicans intra-abdominal infection results in ?60% mortality within 48 h postinoculation, concomitant with amplified local inflammatory responses, while monomicrobial infections are avirulent. The purpose of this study was to characterize early local and systemic innate responses during coinfection and determine the role of C. albicans morphogenesis in lethality, a trait involved in virulence and physical interaction with S. aureus. Local and systemic proinflammatory cytokines were significantly elevated during coinfection at early time points (4 to 12 h) compared to those in monoinfection. In contrast, microbial burdens in the organs and peritoneal lavage fluid were similar between mono- and coinfected animals through 24 h, as was peritoneal neutrophil infiltration. After optimizing the model for 100% mortality within 48 h, using 3.5 × 107 C. albicans (5× increase), coinfection with C. albicans yeast-locked or hypha-locked mutants showed similar mortality, dissemination, and local and systemic inflammation to the isogenic control. However, coinfection with the yeast-locked C. albicans mutant given intravenously (i.v.) and S. aureus given intraperitoneally (i.p.) failed to induce mortality. These results suggest a unique intra-abdominal interaction between the host and C. albicans-S. aureus that results in strong inflammatory responses, dissemination, and lethal sepsis, independent of C. albicans morphogenesis. PMID:24891104

Nash, Evelyn E.; Peters, Brian M.; Palmer, Glen E.; Fidel, Paul L.

2014-01-01

243

Late-acting dominant lethal genetic systems and mosquito control  

PubMed Central

Background Reduction or elimination of vector populations will tend to reduce or eliminate transmission of vector-borne diseases. One potential method for environmentally-friendly, species-specific population control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). SIT has not been widely used against insect disease vectors such as mosquitoes, in part because of various practical difficulties in rearing, sterilization and distribution. Additionally, vector populations with strong density-dependent effects will tend to be resistant to SIT-based control as the population-reducing effect of induced sterility will tend to be offset by reduced density-dependent mortality. Results We investigated by mathematical modeling the effect of manipulating the stage of development at which death occurs (lethal phase) in an SIT program against a density-dependence-limited insect population. We found late-acting lethality to be considerably more effective than early-acting lethality. No such strains of a vector insect have been described, so as a proof-of-principle we constructed a strain of the principal vector of the dengue and yellow fever viruses, Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti, with the necessary properties of dominant, repressible, highly penetrant, late-acting lethality. Conclusion Conventional SIT induces early-acting (embryonic) lethality, but genetic methods potentially allow the lethal phase to be tailored to the program. For insects with strong density-dependence, we show that lethality after the density-dependent phase would be a considerable improvement over conventional methods. For density-dependent parameters estimated from field data for Aedes aegypti, the critical release ratio for population elimination is modeled to be 27% to 540% greater for early-acting rather than late-acting lethality. Our success in developing a mosquito strain with the key features that the modeling indicated were desirable demonstrates the feasibility of this approach for improved SIT for disease control. PMID:17374148

Phuc, Hoang Kim; Andreasen, Morten H; Burton, Rosemary S; Vass, Céline; Epton, Matthew J; Pape, Gavin; Fu, Guoliang; Condon, Kirsty C; Scaife, Sarah; Donnelly, Christl A; Coleman, Paul G; White-Cooper, Helen; Alphey, Luke

2007-01-01

244

Mechanism by Which Caffeine Potentiates Lethality of Nitrogen Mustard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeine is synergistic with many DNA-damaging agents in increasing lethality to mammalian cells. The mechanism is not well understood. Our results show that caffeine potentiates the lethality of the nitrogen mustard 2-chloro-N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-methylethanamine (HN2) by inducing damaged cells to undergo mitosis before properly repairing lesions in their DNA. Treatment with low doses of HN2 (0.5 mu M for 1 hr) caused

Ching C. Lau; Arthur B. Pardee

1982-01-01

245

GPS targeting methods for non-lethal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-lethal systems consist of devices and methods which can be used to incapacitate an adversary's capability, while minimizing casualties and collateral property or environmental damages. Examples of military non-lethal concepts include wire mesh entanglements to snag tank treads, highly expansive sticky foams to immobilize personnel and material, anti-material agents to degrade supplies, and information warfare tactics such as the use

Gerald Frost; Calvin Shipbaugh

1994-01-01

246

First Trimester Ultrasound Diagnosis of Lethal Multiple Pterygium Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Diagnosis of lethal multiple pterygium syndrome in the first trimester of pregnancy. Methods: A 38-year-old woman attended our ultrasound (US) clinic at 11.2 weeks gestation. She has had two previous stillbirths affected by lethal multiple pterygium syndrome. Transabdominal and transvaginal US were performed and identified a recurrence. Autopsy findings are compared to the fetal US findings. Results: Fetal US

Munire Gundogan; Katherine Fong; Sarah Keating; Jacqueline Pierre-Louis; David Chitayat

2006-01-01

247

In vitro breast cancer cell lethality of Brazilian plant extracts.  

PubMed

In this study we screened the cytotoxicity of 1220 plant extracts obtained from 351 plants belonging to 74 families occurring in the Amazon and Atlantic rain forests against MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines. All extracts were tested at a dose of 100 microg/mL. Only 11 aqueous or organic extracts belonging to the Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Araceae, Clusiaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Leguminosae, Olacaceae and Violaceae showed marked lethal activity. Vismia guianensis and Annona hypoglauca extracts showed the greatest lethal activity. PMID:18236788

Suffredini, I B; Paciencia, M L B; Frana, S A; Varella, A D; Younes, R N

2007-10-01

248

Neonatal lethality associated with respiratory distress in mice lacking cytochrome P450 1A2.  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) is a constitutively expressed hepatic enzyme that is highly conserved among mammals. This protein is primarily involved in oxidative metabolism of xenobiotics and is capable of metabolically activating numerous procarcinogens including aflatoxin B1, arylamines, heterocyclic amine food mutagens, and polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons. Expression of CYP1A2 is induced after exposure to certain aromatic hydrocarbons (i.e., 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin). Direct evidence for a role of CYP1A2 in any physiological or developmental pathway has not been documented. We now demonstrate that mice homozygous for a targeted mutation in the Cyp1a-2 gene are nonviable. Lethality occurs shortly after birth with symptoms of severe respiratory distress. Mutant neonates display impaired respiratory function associated with histological signs of lung immaturity, lack of air in alveoli at birth, and changes in expression of surfactant apoprotein in alveolar type II cells. The penetrance of the phenotype is not complete (19 mutants survived to adulthood out of 599 mice). Surviving animals, although lacking expression of CYP1A2, appear to be normal and are able to reproduce. These findings establish that CYP1A2 is critical for neonatal survival by influencing the physiology of respiration in neonates, thus offering etiological insights for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7761462

Pineau, T; Fernandez-Salguero, P; Lee, S S; McPhail, T; Ward, J M; Gonzalez, F J

1995-01-01

249

Legionella pneumophila mutants that are defective for iron acquisition and assimilation and intracellular infection.  

PubMed Central

Legionella pneumophila, a parasite of macrophages and protozoa, requires iron for optimal extracellular and intracellular growth. However, its mechanisms of iron acquisition remain uncharacterized. Using mini-Tn10 mutagenesis, we isolated 17 unique L. pneumophila strains which appeared to be defective for iron acquisition and assimilation. Eleven of these mutants were both sensitive to the iron chelator ethylenediamine di(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) and resistant to streptonigrin, an antibiotic whose lethal effect requires high levels of intracellular iron. Six mutants were also defective for the infection of macrophage-like U937 cells. Although none were altered in entry, mutants generally exhibited prolonged lag phases and in some cases replicated at slower rates. Overall, the reduced recoveries of mutants, relative to that of the wild type, ranged from 3- to 1,000-fold. Strain NU216, the mutant displaying the most severe lag phase and the slowest rate of replication, was studied further. Importantly, within U937 cells, NU216 was approximately 100-fold more sensitive than the wild type was to treatment with the Fe3+ chelator deferoxamine, indicating that it is defective for intracellular iron acquisition and assimilation. Furthermore, this strain was unable to mediate any cytopathic effect and was impaired for infectivity of an amoebal host. Taken together, the isolation of these mutants offers genetic proof that iron acquisition and assimilation are critical for intracellular infection by L. pneumophila. PMID:8550218

Pope, C D; O'Connell, W; Cianciotto, N P

1996-01-01

250

Prenatal diagnosis of lethal fetal malformation in Irish obstetric practice.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of lethal fetal malformation prenatally has profound implications for the pregnancy, the expectant couple and the medical care provided. The aim of this study was to investigate these implications and the medical factors pertaining to prenatal diagnosis of lethal fetal abnormality in current obstetric practice in Ireland. Data was collected prospectively from all cases of lethal fetal malformation diagnosed at the Fetal Medicine Unit, University College Hospital Galway from December 1997 to June 1998 inclusive. Diagnosis was made on the basis of ultrasound findings and invasive procedures (amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling). Thirteen cases of lethal fetal abnormality were diagnosed: Edward's syndrome, Patau's syndrome, bilateral multicystic renal dysplasia, Potters sequence, hypoplastic left heart, anencephaly with craniorrhachischisis, lethal osteogenesis imperfecta and non-immune hydrops. Intrauterine death occurred in four cases. Four women had preterm complications e.g. preterm premature rupture of membranes, preterm labour, placental abruption, coagulopathy and severe pre-eclampsia. Three pregnancies progressed to term, two of which had a vaginal delivery and one had an elective caesarean section for malpresentation, all of which were early neonatal deaths. Three women chose to travel abroad in order to obtain a termination of pregnancy. Obstetric and neonatal dilemmas in management of lethal fetal malformation are discussed. PMID:10360111

Byrne, B M; Morrison, J J

1999-03-01

251

Approach to Recognition of Regulatory Mutants of Cyanobacteria  

PubMed Central

Antimetabolite analogs of essential amino acids are useful as selective agents for isolation of regulatory mutants of cyanobacteria, although we observed striking microbiological differences from other widely used eubacterial systems. Regulatory mutants shown to overproduce and excrete tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, methionine, or arginine were isolated from four cyanobacteria: Anabaena sp. 29151, Synechococcus sp. 602, Synechococcus sp. AN Tx20, and Synechocystis sp. 29108. Surprisingly, regulatory-mutant colonies did not support a halo of cross-fed wild-type growth on selective medium. Since regulatory mutants were shown to excrete substantial levels of amino acids, it was deduced that poor cross-feeding must reflect a generally low nutritional responsiveness of the cyanobacterial background. This conclusion was confirmed by results which showed that regulatory-mutant cells of cyanobacteria dispersed among wild-type populations of Bacillus subtilis did produce halo colonies on solid analog-containing medium. Cross-feeding between one cyanobacterial pair (a phenylalanine excretor and a phenylalanine auxotroph) was successfully demonstrated in the absence of the analog under conditions in which relatively large masses of each cell population type were spread near one another on agar plates. These results suggest that amino acid excreted by regulatory mutants of cyanobacteria on analog-containing selective medium is transported into nearby wild-type cells too inefficiently to overcome the antimetabolite effects of the analog, thereby failing to generate halos of physiologically resistant background cells. Consistent with this interpretation was the finding that the pheA1 auxotroph from Synechococcus sp. 602 exhibited a linearly proportional dependence of growth rate upon exogenous concentration of l-phenylalanine (below 20 ?M). Wild-type B. subtilis serves as a convenient and sensitive test lawn for screening obvious regulatory mutants from among collections of analog-resistant cyanobacterial mutants. Appropriate B. subtilis auxotrophs can be used as convenient indicator strains for the identification of regulatory mutants in cyanobacteria through the observation of syntrophic growth responses. Images PMID:6782084

Hall, Geraldine; Flick, Maryann B.; Jensen, Roy A.

1980-01-01

252

A Novel Balanced-Lethal Host-Vector System Based on glmS  

PubMed Central

During the last decade, an increasing number of papers have described the use of various genera of bacteria, including E. coli and S. typhimurium, in the treatment of cancer. This is primarily due to the facts that not only are these bacteria capable of accumulating in the tumor mass, but they can also be engineered to deliver specific therapeutic proteins directly to the tumor site. However, a major obstacle exists in that bacteria because the plasmid carrying the therapeutic gene is not needed for bacterial survival, these plasmids are often lost from the bacteria. Here, we report the development of a balanced-lethal host-vector system based on deletion of the glmS gene in E. coli and S. typhimurium. This system takes advantage of the phenotype of the GlmS? mutant, which undergoes lysis in animal systems that lack the nutrients required for proliferation of the mutant bacteria, D-glucosamine (GlcN) or N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), components necessary for peptidoglycan synthesis. We demonstrate that plasmids carrying a glmS gene (GlmS+p) complemented the phenotype of the GlmS? mutant, and that GlmS+p was maintained faithfully both in vitro and in an animal system in the absence of selection pressure. This was further verified by bioluminescent signals from GlmS+pLux carried in bacteria that accumulated in grafted tumor tissue in a mouse model. The signal was up to several hundred-fold stronger than that from the control plasmid, pLux, due to faithful maintenance of the plasmid. We believe this system will allow to package a therapeutic gene onto an expression plasmid for bacterial delivery to the tumor site without subsequent loss of plasmid expression as well as to quantify bioluminescent bacteria using in vivo imaging by providing a direct correlation between photon flux and bacterial number. PMID:23555984

Kim, Kwangsoo; Jeong, Jae Ho; Lim, Daejin; Hong, Yeongjin; Yun, Misun; Min, Jung-Joon; Kwak, Sahng-June; Choy, Hyon E.

2013-01-01

253

Lethal effect and in vivo genotoxicity of profenofos to Chinese native amphibian (Rana spinosa) tadpoles.  

PubMed

Amphibian populations are decreasing in size due to environmental stressors in most areas of southern China. Pesticides are known to be a group of potential stressors to amphibians, especially in agricultural ecosystems. Profenofos, an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide, is widely used for controlling insect pests in China. The aim of this study is to evaluate the acute lethality and genotoxicity of profenofos to amphibian under controlled conditions. Results showed that profenofos was highly lethal to tadpoles of Rana spinosa, with 50% lethal concentration (LC(50)) values of 1.59, 1.14, 0.77, and 0.58 mg l(-1) at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, respectively. DNA damage of erythrocytes was observed by alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay at all tested sublethal concentrations. The study also showed, by micronucleus test, that profenofos at moderate to high sublethal concentration might have genotoxicity to the tadpole after 96 h exposure. Furthermore, based on our results, it is suggested that the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay could be used as a screening tool for biomonitoring of pesticide contamination in aquatic systems or agricultural ecosystems. PMID:20333372

Li, Xianbin; Li, Shaonan; Liu, Shaoying; Zhu, Guonian

2010-10-01

254

Fitness of Transgenic Mosquito Aedes aegypti Males Carrying a Dominant Lethal Genetic System  

PubMed Central

OX513A is a transgenic strain of Aedes aegypti engineered to carry a dominant, non-sex-specific, late-acting lethal genetic system that is repressed in the presence of tetracycline. It was designed for use in a sterile-insect (SIT) pest control system called RIDL® (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal gene) by which transgenic males are released in the field to mate with wild females; in the absence of tetracycline, the progeny from such matings will not survive. We investigated the mating fitness of OX513A in the laboratory. Male OX513A were as effective as Rockefeller (ROCK) males at inducing refractoriness to further mating in wild type females and there was no reduction in their ability to inseminate multiple females. They had a lower mating success but yielded more progeny than the wild-type comparator strain (ROCK) when one male of each strain was caged with a ROCK female. Mating success and fertility of groups of 10 males—with different ratios of RIDL to ROCK—competing for five ROCK females was similar, but the median longevity of RIDL males was somewhat (18%) lower. We conclude that the fitness under laboratory conditions of OX513A males carrying a tetracycline repressible lethal gene is comparable to that of males of the wild-type comparator strain. PMID:23690948

Massonnet-Bruneel, Blandine; Corre-Catelin, Nicole; Lacroix, Renaud; Lees, Rosemary S.; Hoang, Kim Phuc; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; Reiter, Paul

2013-01-01

255

Overexpression of dilp2 causes nutrient-dependent semi-lethality in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) plays an important role as a systemic regulator of metabolism in multicellular organisms. Hyperinsulinemia, a high level of blood insulin, is often associated with impaired physiological conditions such as hypoglycemia, insulin resistance, and diabetes. However, due to the complex pathophysiology of hyperinsulinemia, the causative role of excess insulin/IGF signaling has remained elusive. To investigate the biological effects of a high level of insulin in metabolic homeostasis and physiology, we generated flies overexpressing Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 (Dilp2), which has the highest potential of promoting tissue growth among the Ilp genes in Drosophila. In this model, a UAS-Dilp2 transgene was overexpressed under control of sd-Gal4 that drives expression predominantly in developing imaginal wing discs. Overexpression of Dilp2 caused semi-lethality, which was partially suppressed by mutations in the insulin receptor (InR) or Akt1, suggesting that dilp2-induced semi-lethality is mediated by the PI3K/Akt1 signaling. We found that dilp2-overexpressing flies exhibited intensive autophagy in fat body cells. Interestingly, the dilp2-induced autophagy as well as the semi-lethality was partially rescued by increasing the protein content relative to glucose in the media. Our results suggest that excess insulin/IGF signaling impairs the physiology of animals, which can be ameliorated by controlling the nutritional balance between proteins and carbohydrates, at least in flies. PMID:24795642

Sato-Miyata, Yukiko; Muramatsu, Keigo; Funakoshi, Masabumi; Tsuda, Manabu; Aigaki, Toshiro

2014-01-01

256

The Population Genetics of X–Autosome Synthetic Lethals and Steriles  

PubMed Central

Epistatic interactions are widespread, and many of these interactions involve combinations of alleles at different loci that are deleterious when present in the same individual. The average genetic environment of sex-linked genes differs from that of autosomal genes, suggesting that the population genetics of interacting X-linked and autosomal alleles may be complex. Using both analytical theory and computer simulations, we analyzed the evolutionary trajectories and mutation–selection balance conditions for X–autosome synthetic lethals and steriles. Allele frequencies follow a set of fundamental trajectories, and incompatible alleles are able to segregate at much higher frequencies than single-locus expectations. Equilibria exist, and they can involve fixation of either autosomal or X-linked alleles. The exact equilibrium depends on whether synthetic alleles are dominant or recessive and whether fitness effects are seen in males, females, or both sexes. When single-locus fitness effects and synthetic incompatibilities are both present, population dynamics depend on the dominance of alleles and historical contingency (i.e., whether X-linked or autosomal mutations occur first). Recessive synthetic lethality can result in high-frequency X-linked alleles, and dominant synthetic lethality can result in high-frequency autosomal alleles. Many X–autosome incompatibilities in natural populations may be cryptic, appearing to be single-locus effects because one locus is fixed. We also discuss the implications of these findings with respect to standing genetic variation and the origins of Haldane’s rule. PMID:21900269

Lachance, Joseph; Johnson, Norman A.; True, John R.

2011-01-01

257

Fitness of transgenic mosquito Aedes aegypti males carrying a dominant lethal genetic system.  

PubMed

OX513A is a transgenic strain of Aedes aegypti engineered to carry a dominant, non-sex-specific, late-acting lethal genetic system that is repressed in the presence of tetracycline. It was designed for use in a sterile-insect (SIT) pest control system called RIDL® (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal gene) by which transgenic males are released in the field to mate with wild females; in the absence of tetracycline, the progeny from such matings will not survive. We investigated the mating fitness of OX513A in the laboratory. Male OX513A were as effective as Rockefeller (ROCK) males at inducing refractoriness to further mating in wild type females and there was no reduction in their ability to inseminate multiple females. They had a lower mating success but yielded more progeny than the wild-type comparator strain (ROCK) when one male of each strain was caged with a ROCK female. Mating success and fertility of groups of 10 males-with different ratios of RIDL to ROCK-competing for five ROCK females was similar, but the median longevity of RIDL males was somewhat (18%) lower. We conclude that the fitness under laboratory conditions of OX513A males carrying a tetracycline repressible lethal gene is comparable to that of males of the wild-type comparator strain. PMID:23690948

Massonnet-Bruneel, Blandine; Corre-Catelin, Nicole; Lacroix, Renaud; Lees, Rosemary S; Hoang, Kim Phuc; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; Reiter, Paul

2013-01-01

258

Arabidopsis Mutants with lncreased Sensitivity to Aluminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

AI-sensitive (als) mutants of Arabidopsis were isolated and char- acterized with the aim of defining mechanisms of AI toxicity and resistance. Most als mutants selected on the basis of root growth sensitivity to AI were recessive, and together the mutants consti- tuted eight complementation groups. Also, in most als mutants, AI sensitivity appeared to be specific for AI relative to

Paul B. Larsen; Chin-Yin Tai; Leon V. Kochian; Stephen H. Howell

259

Towards an Informative Mutant Phenotype for Every Bacterial Gene  

PubMed Central

Mutant phenotypes provide strong clues to the functions of the underlying genes and could allow annotation of the millions of sequenced yet uncharacterized bacterial genes. However, it is not known how many genes have a phenotype under laboratory conditions, how many phenotypes are biologically interpretable for predicting gene function, and what experimental conditions are optimal to maximize the number of genes with a phenotype. To address these issues, we measured the mutant fitness of 1,586 genes of the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 across 492 diverse experiments and found statistically significant phenotypes for 89% of all assayed genes. Thus, in Z. mobilis, most genes have a functional consequence under laboratory conditions. We demonstrate that 41% of Z. mobilis genes have both a strong phenotype and a similar fitness pattern (cofitness) to another gene, and are therefore good candidates for functional annotation using mutant fitness. Among 502 poorly characterized Z. mobilis genes, we identified a significant cofitness relationship for 174. For 57 of these genes without a specific functional annotation, we found additional evidence to support the biological significance of these gene-gene associations, and in 33 instances, we were able to predict specific physiological or biochemical roles for the poorly characterized genes. Last, we identified a set of 79 diverse mutant fitness experiments in Z. mobilis that are nearly as biologically informative as the entire set of 492 experiments. Therefore, our work provides a blueprint for the functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness. PMID:25112473

Deutschbauer, Adam; Price, Morgan N.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Tarjan, Daniel R.; Xu, Zhuchen; Shao, Wenjun; Leon, Dacia

2014-01-01

260

Are High-Lethality Suicide Attempters With Bipolar Disorder a Distinct Phenotype?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because Bipolar Disorder (BD) individuals making highly lethal suicide attempts have greater injury burden and risk for suicide, early identification is critical. BD patients were classified as high- or low-lethality attempters. High-lethality attempts required inpatient medical treatment. Mixed effects logistic regression models and permutation analyses examined correlations between lethality, number, and order of attempts. High-lethality attempters reported greater suicidal intent

Maria A. Oquendo; Juan Jose Carballo; Namita Rajouria; Dianne Currier; Adrienne Tin; Jessica Merville; Hanga C. Galfalvy; Leo Sher; Michael F. Grunebaum; Ainsley K. Burke; J. John Mann

2009-01-01

261

Mutant Fungus from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Space expert Yuri Karash of Russia says that he anticipates that the Mir Space Station could bring virulent new strains of fungus to earth when it splashes down later this month. Various types of fungus, whose smell is the first thing visitors to Mir notice, grow behind panels and in air-conditioning units on the spacecraft and have likely mutated. This article from the BBC News online covers the story.

2001-01-01

262

Inducible mutant huntingtin expression in HN10 cells reproduces Huntington's disease-like neuronal dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Background Expansion of a polyglutamine repeat at the amino-terminus of huntingtin is the probable cause for Huntington's disease, a lethal progressive autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorders characterized by impaired motor performance and severe brain atrophy. The expanded polyglutamine repeat changes the conformation of huntingtin and initiates a range of pathogenic mechanisms in neurons including intracellular huntingtin aggregates, transcriptional dysregulation, energy metabolism deficits, synaptic dystrophy and ultimately neurodegeneration. It is unclear how these events relate to each other or if they can be reversed by pharmacological intervention. Here, we describe neuronal cell lines expressing inducible fragments of normal and mutant huntingtin. Results In HN10 cells, the expression of wild type and mutant huntingtin fragments was dependent on the induction time as well as on the concentration of the RheoSwitch® inducing ligand. In order to analyze the effect of mutant huntingtin expression on cellular functions we concentrated on the 72Q exon1 huntingtin expressing cell line and found that upon induction, it was possible to carefully dissect mutant huntingtin-induced phenotypes as they developed over time. Dysregulation of transcription as a result of mutant huntingtin expression showed a transcription signature replicating that reported in animal models and Huntington's disease patients. Crucially, triggering of neuronal differentiation in mutant huntingtin expressing cell resulted in the appearance of additional pathological hallmarks of Huntington's disease including cell death. Conclusion We developed neuronal cell lines with inducible expression of wild type and mutant huntingtin. These new cell lines represent a reliable in vitro system for modeling Huntington's disease and should find wide use for high-throughput screening application and for investigating the biology of mutant huntingtin. PMID:19203385

Weiss, Andreas; Roscic, Ana; Paganetti, Paolo

2009-01-01

263

Rag1?/? Mutant Zebrafish Demonstrate Specific Protection following Bacterial Re-Exposure  

PubMed Central

Background Recombination activation gene 1 deficient (rag1?/?) mutant zebrafish have a reduced lymphocyte-like cell population that lacks functional B and T lymphocytes of the acquired immune system, but includes Natural Killer (NK)-like cells and Non-specific cytotoxic cells (NCC) of the innate immune system. The innate immune system is thought to lack the adaptive characteristics of an acquired immune system that provide enhanced protection to a second exposure of the same pathogen. It has been shown that NK cells have the ability to mediate adaptive immunity to chemical haptens and cytomegalovirus in murine models. In this study we evaluated the ability of rag1?/? mutant zebrafish to mount a protective response to the facultative intracellular fish bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri. Methodology/Principal Findings Following secondary challenge with a lethal dose of homologous bacteria 4 and 8 weeks after a primary vaccination, rag1?/? mutant zebrafish demonstrated protective immunity. Heterologous bacterial exposures did not provide protection. Adoptive leukocyte transfers from previously exposed mutants conferred protective immunity to naïve mutants when exposed to homologous bacteria. Conclusions/Significance Our findings show that a component of the innate immune system mounted a response that provided significantly increased survival when rag1?/? mutant zebrafish were re-exposed to the same bacteria. Further, adoptive cell transfers demonstrated that kidney interstitial leukocytes from previously exposed rag1?/? mutant zebrafish transferred this protective immunity. This is the first report of any rag1?/? mutant vertebrate mounting a protective secondary immune response to a bacterial pathogen, and demonstrates that a type of zebrafish innate immune cell can mediate adaptive immunity in the absence of T and B cells. PMID:22970222

Hohn, Claudia; Petrie-Hanson, Lora

2012-01-01

264

PEA MUTANT RISNOD27 AS REFERENCE LINE FOR FIELD ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT OF SYMBIOTIC NITROGEN FIXATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the case of ideal behavior of nodulation mutants under field conditions, the impact of nitrogen fixation on plant growth can be easily determined by subtracting the yield of a mutant from the yield of the original cultivar forming wild-type symbiotic nodules. Therefore, four symbiotic mutants of pea (Pisum sativum L.) cv. Finale termed Risnod2, Risnod27, RisfixO, and RisfixM were

E Biedermannová; K Novák; J Vondrys

2002-01-01

265

Identification of ascorbic acid-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana mutants.  

PubMed Central

Vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid) is a potent antioxidant and cellular reductant present at millimolar concentrations in plants. This small molecule has roles in the reduction of prosthetic metal ions, cell wall expansion, cell division, and in the detoxification of reactive oxygen generated by photosynthesis and adverse environmental conditions. However, unlike in animals, the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid (AsA) in plants is only beginning to be unraveled. The previously described AsA-deficient Arabidopsis mutant vtc1 (vitamin c-1) was recently shown to have a defect in GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase, providing strong evidence for the recently proposed role of GDP-mannose in AsA biosynthesis. To genetically define other AsA biosynthetic loci, we have used a novel AsA assay to isolate four vtc mutants that define three additional VTC loci. We have also isolated a second mutant allele of VTC1. The four loci represented by the vtc mutant collection have been genetically characterized and mapped onto the Arabidopsis genome. The vtc mutants have differing ozone sensitivities. In addition, two of the mutants, vtc2-1 and vtc2-2, have unusually low levels of AsA in the leaf tissue of mature plants. PMID:10655235

Conklin, P L; Saracco, S A; Norris, S R; Last, R L

2000-01-01

266

Enhanced fear expression in Spir-1 actin organizer mutant mice.  

PubMed

Spir proteins nucleate actin filaments at vesicle membranes and facilitate intracellular transport processes. The mammalian genome encodes two Spir proteins, namely Spir-1 and Spir-2. While the mouse spir-2 gene has a rather broad expression pattern, high levels of spir-1 expression are restricted to the nervous system, oocytes, and testis. Spir-1 mutant mice generated by a gene trap method have been employed to address Spir-1 function during mouse development and in adult mouse tissues, with a specific emphasis on viability, reproduction, and the nervous system. The gene trap cassette disrupts Spir-1 expression between the N-terminal KIND domain and the WH2 domain cluster. Spir-1 mutant mice are viable and were born in a Mendelian ratio. In accordance with the redundant function of Spir-1 and Spir-2 in oocyte maturation, spir-1 mutant mice are fertile. The overall brain anatomy of spir-1 mutant mice is not altered and visual and motor functions of the mice remain normal. Microscopic analysis shows a slight reduction in the number of dendritic spines on cortical neurons. Detailed behavioral studies of the spir-1 mutant mice, however, unveiled a very specific and highly significant phenotype in terms of fear learning in male mice. In contextual and cued fear conditioning experiments the male spir-1 mutant mice display increased fear memory when compared to their control littermates. Our data point toward a particular function of the vesicle associated Spir-1 actin organizer in neuronal circuits determining fear behavior. PMID:24345451

Pleiser, Sandra; Banchaabouchi, Mumna Al; Samol-Wolf, Annette; Farley, Dominika; Welz, Tobias; Wellbourne-Wood, Joel; Gehring, Isabell; Linkner, Jörn; Faix, Jan; Riemenschneider, Markus J; Dietrich, Susanne; Kerkhoff, Eugen

2014-01-01

267

Hydrocarbon assimilation and biosurfactant production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants.  

PubMed Central

We isolated transposon Tn5-GM-induced mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG201 that were unable to grow in minimal media containing hexadecane as a carbon source. Some of these mutants lacked extracellular rhamnolipids, as shown by measuring the surface and interfacial tensions of the cell culture supernatants. Furthermore, the concentrated culture media of the mutant strains were tested for the presence of rhamnolipids by thin-layer chromatography and for rhamnolipid activities, including hemolysis and growth inhibition of Bacillus subtilis. Mutant 65E12 was unable to produce extracellular rhamnolipids under any of the conditions tested, lacked the capacity to take up 14C-labeled hexadecane, and did not grow in media containing individual alkanes with chain lengths ranging from C12 to C19. However, growth on these alkanes and uptake of [14C]hexadecane were restored when small amounts of purified rhamnolipids were added to the cultures. Mutant 59C7 was unable to grow in media containing hexadecane, nor was it able to take up [14C]hexadecane. The addition of small amounts of rhamnolipids restored growth on alkanes and [14C]hexadecane uptake. In glucose-containing media, however, mutant 59C7 produced rhamnolipids at levels about twice as high as those of the wild-type strain. These results show that rhamnolipids play a major role in hexadecane uptake and utilization by P. aeruginosa. Images PMID:1648079

Koch, A K; Käppeli, O; Fiechter, A; Reiser, J

1991-01-01

268

Evaluation of lethal and non-lethal sampling methods for the detection of white sturgeon iridovirus infection in white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus (Richardson).  

PubMed

Pectoral fin tissue of white sturgeon was investigated as a potential non-lethal sample source for the detection of white sturgeon iridovirus (WSIV) infection. Histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results using fin tissue were compared with the standard lethal histopathology sampling method that utilizes head tissue. Tissues for each of the three sampling methods were collected weekly for 8 weeks from individual sturgeon undergoing an experimental cohabitation challenge with fish infected with the Abernathy isolate of WSIV. Non-lethal fin histopathological evaluation did not reveal infection during the first 3 weeks of sampling, while non-lethal PCR and the lethal method were variable. However, all three sampling methods were equally capable of identifying infection from 4 to 8 weeks post-exposure. Of the survivors tested, all were negative by PCR and the lethal method, and only one fish was identified as being positive by non-lethal fin histopathology. In another experiment, all three sampling methods were applied to asymptomatic WSIV carriers in a case study conducted at the Kootenai Tribal Sturgeon Conservation Hatchery. Results showed that both lethal and non-lethal fin histopathology were equally effective in detecting infection, but PCR was unable to identify this strain of WSIV. Depending on the virus isolate, these results suggest that non-lethal sampling of fin tissue (histopathology or PCR) is comparable with the lethal sampling method at identifying WSIV infection once infection is established, and under certain circumstances may provide an alternative to lethal sampling. PMID:17498180

Drennan, J D; Lapatra, S E; Samson, C A; Ireland, S; Eversman, K F; Cain, K D

2007-06-01

269

Expression of mdr49 and mdr65 multidrug resistance genes in larval tissues of Drosophila melanogaster under normal and stress conditions  

PubMed Central

In situ expression of 2 multidrug resistance genes, mdr49 and mdr65, of Drosophila melanogaster was examined in wild-type third instar larval tissues under physiological conditions and after heat shock or colchicine feeding. Expression of these 2 genes was also examined in tumorous tissues of lethal (2) giant larvae l(2)gl4 mutant larvae. These 2 mdr genes show similar constitutive expression in different larval tissues under physiological conditions. However, they are induced differentially by endogenous (tumorous growth) and exogenous stresses (colchcine feeding or heat shock): whereas heat shock and colchicine feeding induce mdr49, tumorous condition is accompanied by enhanced expression of mdr49 and mdr65 genes. PMID:15832942

Tapadia, Madhu G.; Lakhotia, S.C.

2005-01-01

270

Expression of mdr49 and mdr65 multidrug resistance genes in larval tissues of Drosophila melanogaster under normal and stress conditions.  

PubMed

In situ expression of 2 multidrug resistance genes, mdr49 and mdr65, of Drosophila melanogaster was examined in wild-type third instar larval tissues under physiological conditions and after heat shock or colchicine feeding. Expression of these 2 genes was also examined in tumorous tissues of lethal (2) giant larvae I(2)gl4 mutant larvae. These 2 mdr genes show similar constitutive expression in different larval tissues under physiological conditions. However, they are induced differentially by endogenous (tumorous growth) and exogenous stresses (colchcine feeding or heat shock): whereas heat shock and colchicine feeding induce mdr49, tumorous condition is accompanied by enhanced expression of mdr49 and mdr65 genes. PMID:15832942

Tapadia, Madhu G; Lakhotia, S C

2005-01-01

271

Lethal shock in partially hepatectomized rats administered tumor necrosis serum.  

PubMed

A minute dose of bacterial endotoxin is known to cause lethal shock in BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guérin)-sensitized mice and rats. To gain insight into the mechanism of this hypersensitivity to endotoxin, serum (tumor necrosis serum: TNS) was prepared from BCG-sensitized Lewis rats following endotoxin challenge and injected intravenously into Lewis rats 2 days after their partial hepatectomy. TNS injection caused lethal shock in Hpx (partially hepatectomized) rats but not in normally fed, fasted, or sham-operated rats. Hpx rats survived injection of serum prepared by either BCG sensitization or endotoxin challenge alone. Biochemical and histological examination of the Hpx rats injected with TNS indicated that profound hypoglycemia, hepatic and renal injury, and dysfunction of the coagulation system accompanied by hemorrhage were involved in the lethal shock. These experiments also suggested that serum component(s), probably monokine(s) derived from activated macrophages, might participate in the endotoxin shock in BCG-sensitized rats. PMID:3056630

Fukushima, H; Ikeuchi, J; Tohkin, M; Matsubara, T; Harada, M

1988-09-01

272

Lethal effects of short-wavelength visible light on insects  

PubMed Central

We investigated the lethal effects of visible light on insects by using light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The toxic effects of ultraviolet (UV) light, particularly shortwave (i.e., UVB and UVC) light, on organisms are well known. However, the effects of irradiation with visible light remain unclear, although shorter wavelengths are known to be more lethal. Irradiation with visible light is not thought to cause mortality in complex animals including insects. Here, however, we found that irradiation with short-wavelength visible (blue) light killed eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of Drosophila melanogaster. Blue light was also lethal to mosquitoes and flour beetles, but the effective wavelength at which mortality occurred differed among the insect species. Our findings suggest that highly toxic wavelengths of visible light are species-specific in insects, and that shorter wavelengths are not always more toxic. For some animals, such as insects, blue light is more harmful than UV light. PMID:25488603

Hori, Masatoshi; Shibuya, Kazuki; Sato, Mitsunari; Saito, Yoshino

2014-01-01

273

Lethal effects of short-wavelength visible light on insects.  

PubMed

We investigated the lethal effects of visible light on insects by using light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The toxic effects of ultraviolet (UV) light, particularly shortwave (i.e., UVB and UVC) light, on organisms are well known. However, the effects of irradiation with visible light remain unclear, although shorter wavelengths are known to be more lethal. Irradiation with visible light is not thought to cause mortality in complex animals including insects. Here, however, we found that irradiation with short-wavelength visible (blue) light killed eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of Drosophila melanogaster. Blue light was also lethal to mosquitoes and flour beetles, but the effective wavelength at which mortality occurred differed among the insect species. Our findings suggest that highly toxic wavelengths of visible light are species-specific in insects, and that shorter wavelengths are not always more toxic. For some animals, such as insects, blue light is more harmful than UV light. PMID:25488603

Hori, Masatoshi; Shibuya, Kazuki; Sato, Mitsunari; Saito, Yoshino

2014-01-01

274

Lethal effects of short-wavelength visible light on insects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the lethal effects of visible light on insects by using light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The toxic effects of ultraviolet (UV) light, particularly shortwave (i.e., UVB and UVC) light, on organisms are well known. However, the effects of irradiation with visible light remain unclear, although shorter wavelengths are known to be more lethal. Irradiation with visible light is not thought to cause mortality in complex animals including insects. Here, however, we found that irradiation with short-wavelength visible (blue) light killed eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of Drosophila melanogaster. Blue light was also lethal to mosquitoes and flour beetles, but the effective wavelength at which mortality occurred differed among the insect species. Our findings suggest that highly toxic wavelengths of visible light are species-specific in insects, and that shorter wavelengths are not always more toxic. For some animals, such as insects, blue light is more harmful than UV light.

Hori, Masatoshi; Shibuya, Kazuki; Sato, Mitsunari; Saito, Yoshino

2014-12-01

275

Conditional control of gene function by an invertible gene trap in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Conditional mutations are essential for determining the stage- and tissue-specific functions of genes. Here we achieve conditional mutagenesis in zebrafish using FT1, a gene-trap cassette that can be stably inverted by both Cre and Flp recombinases. We demonstrate that intronic insertions in the gene-trapping orientation severely disrupt the expression of the host gene, whereas intronic insertions in the neutral orientation do not significantly affect host gene expression. Cre- and Flp-mediated recombination switches the orientation of the gene-trap cassette, permitting conditional rescue in one orientation and conditional knockout in the other. To illustrate the utility of this system we analyzed the functional consequence of intronic FT1 insertion in supv3l1, a gene encoding a mitochondrial RNA helicase. Global supv311 mutants have impaired mitochondrial function, embryonic lethality, and agenesis of the liver. Conditional rescue of supv311 expression in hepatocytes specifically corrected the liver defects. To test whether the liver function of supv311 is required for viability we used Flp-mediated recombination in the germline to generate a neutral allele at the locus. Subsequently, tissue-specific expression of Cre conditionally inactivated the targeted locus. Hepatocyte-specific inactivation of supv311 caused liver degeneration, growth retardation, and juvenile lethality, a phenotype that was less severe than the global disruption of supv311. Thus, supv311 is required in multiple tissues for organismal viability. Our mutagenesis approach is very efficient and could be used to generate conditional alleles throughout the zebrafish genome. Furthermore, because FT1 is based on the promiscuous Tol2 transposon, it should be applicable to many organisms. PMID:22908272

Ni, Terri T.; Lu, Jianjun; Zhu, Meiying; Maddison, Lisette A.; Boyd, Kelli L.; Huskey, Lindsey; Ju, Bensheng; Hesselson, Daniel; Zhong, Tao P.; Page-McCaw, Patrick S.; Stainier, Didier Y.; Chen, Wenbiao

2012-01-01

276

MutMap+: Genetic Mapping and Mutant Identification without Crossing in Rice  

PubMed Central

Advances in genome sequencing technologies have enabled researchers and breeders to rapidly associate phenotypic variation to genome sequence differences. We recently took advantage of next-generation sequencing technology to develop MutMap, a method that allows rapid identification of causal nucleotide changes of rice mutants by whole genome resequencing of pooled DNA of mutant F2 progeny derived from crosses made between candidate mutants and the parental line. Here we describe MutMap+, a versatile extension of MutMap, that identifies causal mutations by comparing SNP frequencies of bulked DNA of mutant and wild-type progeny of M3 generation derived from selfing of an M2 heterozygous individual. Notably, MutMap+ does not necessitate artificial crossing between mutants and the wild-type parental line. This method is therefore suitable for identifying mutations that cause early development lethality, sterility, or generally hamper crossing. Furthermore, MutMap+ is potentially useful for gene isolation in crops that are recalcitrant to artificial crosses. PMID:23874658

Abe, Akira; Natsume, Satoshi; Yaegashi, Hiroki; Sharma, Shailendra; Sharma, Shiveta; Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Hideo; Saitoh, Hiromasa; Mitsuoka, Chikako; Utsushi, Hiroe; Uemura, Aiko; Kanzaki, Eiko; Kosugi, Shunichi; Yoshida, Kentaro; Cano, Liliana; Kamoun, Sophien; Terauchi, Ryohei

2013-01-01

277

Effectiveness and safety of mutant Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT H44A) as an adjuvant for nasal influenza vaccine.  

PubMed

The effectiveness and safety of mutant Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin, LT H44A (His to Arg substitution at position 44 from the N-terminus of the A1 fragment of the A subunit) as an adjuvant for nasal influenza vaccine were examined. (1) When 0.2 microg of LT H44A, together with 0.2 microg of influenza A/PR/8/34 virus (PR8, H1N1) vaccine, was administered intranasally into BALB/c mice (twice, 4 weeks apart), anti-PR8 hemagglutinin (HA) IgA and IgG antibody (Ab) responses were induced at levels that were sufficient to provide either complete protection against infection with a small volume of PR8 virus suspension or partial protection against infection with a lethal dose of the suspension. The dose of the mutant LT and vaccine used here (0.2 microg/ 20 g doses mouse) corresponded to the estimated dose per person, i.e. 0.1 mg/10 kg body weight. (2) Using these vaccination conditions, no additional total IgE Ab responses were induced. (3) The mutant was confirmed to be less toxic than the native LT when the toxicity was analyzed either using Y1 adrenal cells in vitro (1/483 EC(50)) or by an ileal loop test. (4) One hundred micrograms of the mutant, administered intranasally or intraperitoneally into guinea-pigs (Heartley strain, 0.3-0.4 kg), caused no body-weight changes 7 days after administration, although 100 microg of the native LT administered intraperitoneally caused death in all guinea-pigs due to diarrhea within 2 days. The intranasal administration of 100 microg of the mutant resulted in almost no pathological changes in the nasal mucosa 3 days after administration. These results suggest that LT H44A, which can be produced in high yields in an E. coli culture (about 5 mg/l), could be used as one of the effective and safe adjuvants for nasal influenza vaccine in humans. PMID:11228379

Hagiwar, Y; Tsuji, T; Iwasaki, T; Kadowaki, S; Asanuma, H; Chen, Z; Komase, K; Suzuki, Y; Aizawa, C; Kurata, T; Tamura, S

2001-02-28

278

How does Listeria monocytogenes combat acid conditions?  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes, a major foodborne pathogen, possesses a number of mechanisms that enable it to combat the challenges posed by acidic environments, such as that of acidic foods and the gastrointestinal tract. One mechanism employed by L. monocytogenes for survival at low pH is the adaptive acid tolerance response (ATR) in which a short adaptive period at a nonlethal pH induces metabolic changes that allow the organism to survive a lethal pH. Overcoming acid conditions by L. monocytogenes involves a variety of regulatory responses, including the LisRK 2-component regulatory system, the SOS response, components of the ?(B) regulon, changes in membrane fluidity, the F0F1-ATPase proton pump, and at least 2 enzymatic systems that regulate internal hydrogen ion concentration (glutamate decarboxylase and arginine deiminase). It is not clear if these mechanisms exert their protective effects separately or in concert, but it is probable that these mechanisms overlap. Studies using mutants indicate that the glutamate decarboxylase system can protect L. monocytogenes when the organism is present in acidic juices, yogurt, salad dressing, mayonnaise, and modified CO2 atmospheres. The glutamate decarboxylase system also has a role in protecting L. monocytogenes against the acidic environment of the stomach. There is a need to study other acid resistance mechanisms of L. monocytogenes to determine their effectiveness in protecting the organism in acidic foods or during transit through the acid stomach. PMID:23540331

Smith, James L; Liu, Yanhong; Paoli, George C

2013-03-01

279

Lethal toxicity of cadmium to Cyprinus carpio and Tilapia aurea  

SciTech Connect

There have been several studies of the lethal toxicity of cadmium to freshwater fishes, but further information is required on a number of points. For example, the shallow slope which is characteristic of the cadmium toxicity curve makes interspecific comparisons difficult. There also is a paucity of information on cadmium toxicity to non-Salmonid European species. As part of a study of the water quality requirements of cultured fish species in the Mediterranean, the authors report on the lethal toxicity of cadmium to two such species, the common carp Cyprinus carpio, and Tilapia aurea, for which little information has previously been reported.

Not Available

1986-09-01

280

ProTherm, Thermodynamic Database for Proteins and Mutants: developments in version 3.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current release of ProTherm, Thermodynamic Database for Proteins and Mutants, contains more than 10 000 numerical data (300% of the first version) of several thermodynamic parameters, experimental methods and conditions, reversibility of folding, details about the surrounding residues in space for all mutants, structural, functional and literature information. In the current version, we have added information about the source

M. Michael Gromiha; Hatsuho Uedaira; An Jianghong; Samuel Selvaraj; Ponraj Prabakaran; Akinori Sarai

2002-01-01

281

Proton suicide: general method for direct selection of sugar transport- and fermentation-defective mutants  

SciTech Connect

A positive selection procedure was devised for bacterial mutants incapable of producing acid from sugars by fermentation. The method relied on the production of elemental bromine from a mixture of bromide and bromate under acidic conditions. When wild-type Escherichia coli cells were plated on media containing a fermentable sugar and an equimolar mixture of bromide and bromate, most of the cells were killed but a variety of mutants unable to produce acid from the sugar survived. Among these mutants were those defective in (i) sugar uptake, (ii) the glycolytic pathway, and (iii) the excretion. There were also novel mutants with some presumed regulatory defects affecting fermentation.

Winkelman, J.W.; Clark, D.P.

1984-11-01

282

Proton suicide: general method for direct selection of sugar transport- and fermentation-defective mutants.  

PubMed Central

We devised a positive selection procedure for bacterial mutants incapable of producing acid from sugars by fermentation. The method relied on the production of elemental bromine from a mixture of bromide and bromate under acidic conditions. When wild-type Escherichia coli cells were plated on media containing a fermentable sugar and an equimolar mixture of bromide and bromate, most of the cells were killed but a variety of mutants unable to produce acid from the sugar survived. Among these mutants were those defective in (i) sugar uptake, (ii) the glycolytic pathway, and (iii) the excretion. There were also novel mutants with some presumed regulatory defects affecting fermentation. PMID:6094484

Winkelman, J W; Clark, D P

1984-01-01

283

Partial Agonist and Antagonist Activities of a Mutant Scorpion ?-Toxin on Sodium Channels*  

PubMed Central

Scorpion ?-toxin 4 from Centruroides suffusus suffusus (Css4) enhances the activation of voltage-gated sodium channels through a voltage sensor trapping mechanism by binding the activated state of the voltage sensor in domain II and stabilizing it in its activated conformation. Here we describe the antagonist and partial agonist properties of a mutant derivative of this toxin. Substitution of seven different amino acid residues for Glu15 in Css4 yielded toxin derivatives with both increased and decreased affinities for binding to neurotoxin receptor site 4 on sodium channels. Css4E15R is unique among this set of mutants in that it retained nearly normal binding affinity but lost its functional activity for modification of sodium channel gating in our standard electrophysiological assay for voltage sensor trapping. More detailed analysis of the functional effects of Css4E15R revealed weak voltage sensor trapping activity, which was very rapidly reversed upon repolarization and therefore was not observed in our standard assay of toxin effects. This partial agonist activity of Css4E15R is observed clearly in voltage sensor trapping assays with brief (5 ms) repolarization between the conditioning prepulse and the test pulse. The effects of Css4E15R are fit well by a three-step model of toxin action involving concentration-dependent toxin binding to its receptor site followed by depolarization-dependent activation of the voltage sensor and subsequent voltage sensor trapping. Because it is a partial agonist with much reduced efficacy for voltage sensor trapping, Css4E15R can antagonize the effects of wild-type Css4 on sodium channel activation and can prevent paralysis by Css4 when injected into mice. Our results define the first partial agonist and antagonist activities for scorpion toxins and open new avenues of research toward better understanding of the structure-function relationships for toxin action on sodium channel voltage sensors and toward potential toxin-based therapeutics to prevent lethality from scorpion envenomation. PMID:20682774

Karbat, Izhar; Ilan, Nitza; Zhang, Joel Z.; Cohen, Lior; Kahn, Roy; Benveniste, Morris; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A.; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael

2010-01-01

284

Further studies on the inviability of Escherichia coli K12 rho mutant strains carrying IncFII plasmids.  

PubMed

Previous results (Baumberg and Lovett 1977) showed that many conjugative plasmids, most notably those of the IncFII group, were only transferable to Escherichia coli K12 rho mutants at very low frequencies, and that this appeared to be due to a lethal interaction between plasmid and rho- allele. Experiments reported here were designed to examine this phenomenon further, and in particular to test the possibility that uncontrolled plasmid replication in the presence of the rho mutant allele occurs. The rifampicin resistance allele rpo203 antagonizes the effect of rho201 on conjugal plasmid transfer; since the former is known to counteract the latter's effect on transcription termination, this result indicates that the plasmid-rho interaction stems directly from the lack of transcription termination caused by a rho mutant allele. Direct estimation of Rldrd19 replication after conjugal transfer to rho+ and rho201 recipients showed no difference according to rho status. Also, cotransduction of rho101 and 201 with ilv::Tn5 into recipients carrying miniplasmid derivatives of R1, which retain a restriction fragment containing all the DNA known to be involved in plasmid replication, was normal and the rho- transductants retained the miniplasmids. It therefore appears that the lethal interaction between the Inc FII plasmids and rho mutant alleles does not involve plasmid replication functions. PMID:6343793

Light, J; Baumberg, S

1983-01-01

285

[Lethal uropathies: prenatal diagnosis and feto-pathologic aspects].  

PubMed

Forty-three prenatal diagnoses of lethal urinary tract abnormalities were carried out during a five-year-period. The abnormalities were bilateral renal agenesis (56%), autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (16%), autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (14%), MECKEL-GRUBER syndrome and Prune-Belly syndrome (4%). The pregnancy was interrupted in thirty-five cases (81.4%). PMID:10894048

Boutheina, B R; Aïda, M; Lamia, S; Ali, M; MedBadis, C; Samy, J; Issam, L; Ezzeddine, S; Raouf, C; Zohra, M; Faouzia, Z; Hedi, R; Naïma, K; Hela, C; Soumeya, G S

2000-02-01

286

Potentially Lethal Suicide Attempts Using Sharp Objects During Psychotic Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent studies have reported that serious violence toward self and others is more common in the first episode of psychosis than after treatment. Aims: To estimate the proportion of survivors of potentially lethal suicide attempts with sharp objects who have a diagnosis of psychotic illness, and the proportion of those patients who had never received treatment for psychosis with

Olav B. Nielssen; Matthew M. Large

2011-01-01

287

Biopsy findings in malignant histiocytosis presenting as lethal midline granuloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nasal biopsy findings in malignant histiocytosis presenting clinically as lethal midline granuloma are characterised by necrosis and infiltration of atypical histiocytic cells with a diffuse positive reaction for non-specific esterase. This cellular character was common to midline malignant reticulosis, and midline malignant reticulosis and malignant histiocytosis are thought to be the same disease. Patterns of histiocytic infiltration in the nasal

K Aozasa

1982-01-01

288

Regulation of apoptosis by lethal cytokines in human mesothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation of apoptosis by lethal cytokines in human mesothelial cells.BackgroundDysregulation of peritoneal cell death may contribute to the complications of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Chronic peritoneal dialysis and acute peritonitis are both associated with loss of mesothelial cells. In addition, acute peritonitis is characterized by sudden changes in the number of peritoneal leukocytes. However, the factors regulating peritoneal cell survival are

Marina Penélope Catalan; Dolores Subirá; Ana Reyero; Rafael Selgas; Arturo Ortiz-Gonzalez; Jesús Egido; Alberto Ortiz

2003-01-01

289

Analysis of Ebola Glycoprotein Sequences from Strains of Varying Lethality  

E-print Network

Analysis of Ebola Glycoprotein Sequences from Strains of Varying Lethality Biochem 218 Spring 2002 Tammy Doukas tdoukas@stanford.edu I. Background and Significance Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a disease in humans, chimpanzees, and monkeys, caused by infection with Ebola virus, and associated with high

290

The Prevalence, Lethality and Intent of Suicide Attempts among Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents in the United States, little is known about the prevalence or characteristics of suicide attempts among adolescents. Data from 1,710 adolescents attending 9 high schools in 5 communities were examined to determine the prevalence of suicide attempts and the lethality and intent…

Andrews, Judy A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

291

Subcutaneous wounding postirradiation reduces radiation lethality in mice.  

PubMed

The detonation of an improvised nuclear device during a radiological terrorist attack could result in the exposure of thousands of civilians and first responders to lethal or potentially lethal doses of ionizing radiation (IR). There is a major effort in the United States to develop phamacological mitigators of radiation lethality that would be effective particularly if administered after irradiation. We show here that giving female C57BL/6 mice a subcutaneous surgical incision after whole body exposure to an LD50/30 X-ray dose protects against radiation lethality and increases survival from 50% to over 90% (P = 0.0001). The increase in survival, at least in part, appears to be due to enhanced recovery of hematopoiesis, notably red blood cells, neutrophils and platelets. While a definitive mechanism has yet to be elucidated, we propose that this approach may be used to identify potentially novel mechanisms and pathways that could aid in the development of novel pharmacological radiation countermeasures. PMID:24811864

Garrett, Joy; Orschell, Christie M; Mendonca, Marc S; Bigsby, Robert M; Dynlacht, Joseph R

2014-06-01

292

Help-Seeking Behavior Prior to Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The association between help-seeking and nearly lethal suicide attempts was evaluated using data from a population-based, case-control study. Measures of help-seeking included type of consultant contacted, and whether suicide was discussed. Findings suggest efforts to better understand the role of help-seeking in suicide prevention deserves…

Barnes, Lauren Seymour; Ikeda, Robin M.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo

2002-01-01

293

Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice  

SciTech Connect

Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed.

Generoso, W.M.

1983-01-01

294

Targeting lethal minimal residual disease in small cell lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last three decades, treatment for small cell lung cancer has improved with advances in chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Almost all patients respond initially to standard chemotherapy, and some patients with limited stage disease are cured with the combination of chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation. Nonetheless, the majority of patients will experience lethal relapse from chemotherapy-resistant micrometastatic disease, and this has

Jyoti D. Patel; Lee M. Krug; Christopher G. Azzoli; Jorge Gomez; Mark G. Kris; Vincent A. Miller

2003-01-01

295

Galactosamine-Induced Sensitization to the Lethal Effects of Endotoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of rabbits, rats, and mice with D-galactosamine increased their sensitivity to the lethal effects of lipopolysaccharide several thousand fold. The susceptibility of the animals was highest when the lipopolysacharide was injected together with galactosamine and decreased successively when injection was carried out 1, 2, and 3 hr later. Sensitization was absent when the lipopolysaccharide was administered 1 hr before

Chris Galanos; Marina A. Freudenberg; Werner Reutter

1979-01-01

296

Histopathological effects of anthrax lethal factor on rat liver.  

PubMed

Abstract Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, has become an increasingly important scientific topic due to its potential role in bioterrorism. The lethal toxin (LT) of B. anthracis consists of lethal factor (LF) and a protective antigen (PA). This study investigated whether only lethal factor was efficient as a hepatotoxin in the absence of the PA. To achieve this aim, LF (100?µg/kg body weight, dissolved in sterile distilled water) or distilled water vehicle were intraperitoneally injected once into adult rats. At 24?h post-injection, the hosts were euthanized and their livers removed and tissue samples examined under light and electron microscopes. As a result of LF application, hepatic injury - including cytoplasmic and nuclear damage in hepatocytes, sinusoidal dilatation, and hepatocellular lysis - became apparent. Further, light microscopic analyses of liver sections from the LF-injected rats revealed ballooning degeneration and cytoplasmic loss within hepatocytes, as well as peri-sinusoidal inflammation. Additionally, an increase in the numbers of Kupffer cells was evident. Common vascular injuries were also found in the liver samples; these injuries caused hypoxia and pathological changes. In addition, some cytoplasmic and nuclear changes were detected within the liver ultrastructure. The results of these studies allow one to suggest that LF could be an effective toxicant alone and that PA might act in situ to modify the effect of this agent (or the reverse situation wherein LF modifies effects of PA) such that lethality results. PMID:24344743

Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Ozbek, Elvan

2015-01-01

297

Small Molecule Inhibitors of Anthrax Lethal Factor Toxin  

PubMed Central

This manuscript describes the preparation of new small molecule inhibitors of Bacillus anthracis lethal factor. Our starting point was the symmetrical, bis-quinolinyl compound 1 (NSC 12155). Optimization of one half of this molecule led to new LF inhibitors that were desymmetrized to afford more drug-like compounds. PMID:24290062

Williams, John D.; Khan, Atiyya R.; Cardinale, Steven C.; Butler, Michelle M.; Bowlin, Terry L.; Peet, Norton P.

2014-01-01

298

The Lethal "Femme Fatale" in the Noir Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the lethal seductress through Hollywood's "noir" history from "Double Indemnity" (1944) to "The Last Seduction" (1996). Examines how this figure largely abjures traditional romance and passive domesticity, choosing instead to apply her sexuality to homicidal plots toward greed. Argues that her narrative positioning serves as a barometer of…

Boozer, Jack

2000-01-01

299

Burkholderia pseudomallei Known Siderophores and Hemin Uptake Are Dispensable for Lethal Murine Melioidosis  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia pseudomallei is a mostly saprophytic bacterium, but can infect humans where it causes the difficult-to-manage disease melioidosis. Even with proper diagnosis and prompt therapeutic interventions mortality rates still range from >20% in Northern Australia to over 40% in Thailand. Surprisingly little is yet known about how B. pseudomallei infects, invades and survives within its hosts, and virtually nothing is known about the contribution of critical nutrients such as iron to the bacterium's pathogenesis. It was previously assumed that B. pseudomallei used iron-acquisition systems commonly found in other bacteria, for example siderophores. However, our previous discovery of a clinical isolate carrying a large chromosomal deletion missing the entire malleobactin gene cluster encoding the bacterium's major high-affinity siderophore while still being fully virulent in a murine melioidosis model suggested that other iron-acquisition systems might make contributions to virulence. Here, we deleted the major siderophore malleobactin (mba) and pyochelin (pch) gene clusters in strain 1710b and revealed a residual siderophore activity which was unrelated to other known Burkholderia siderophores such as cepabactin and cepaciachelin, and not due to increased secretion of chelators such as citrate. Deletion of the two hemin uptake loci, hmu and hem, showed that Hmu is required for utilization of hemin and hemoglobin and that Hem cannot complement a Hmu deficiency. Prolonged incubation of a hmu hem mutant in hemoglobin-containing minimal medium yielded variants able to utilize hemoglobin and hemin suggesting alternate pathways for utilization of these two host iron sources. Lactoferrin utilization was dependent on malleobactin, but not pyochelin synthesis and/or uptake. A mba pch hmu hem quadruple mutant could use ferritin as an iron source and upon intranasal infection was lethal in an acute murine melioidosis model. These data suggest that B. pseudomallei may employ a novel ferritin-iron acquisition pathway as a means to sustain in vivo growth. PMID:22745846

Kvitko, Brian H.; Goodyear, Andrew; Propst, Katie L.; Dow, Steven W.; Schweizer, Herbert P.

2012-01-01

300

Burkholderia pseudomallei known siderophores and hemin uptake are dispensable for lethal murine melioidosis.  

PubMed

Burkholderia pseudomallei is a mostly saprophytic bacterium, but can infect humans where it causes the difficult-to-manage disease melioidosis. Even with proper diagnosis and prompt therapeutic interventions mortality rates still range from >20% in Northern Australia to over 40% in Thailand. Surprisingly little is yet known about how B. pseudomallei infects, invades and survives within its hosts, and virtually nothing is known about the contribution of critical nutrients such as iron to the bacterium's pathogenesis. It was previously assumed that B. pseudomallei used iron-acquisition systems commonly found in other bacteria, for example siderophores. However, our previous discovery of a clinical isolate carrying a large chromosomal deletion missing the entire malleobactin gene cluster encoding the bacterium's major high-affinity siderophore while still being fully virulent in a murine melioidosis model suggested that other iron-acquisition systems might make contributions to virulence. Here, we deleted the major siderophore malleobactin (mba) and pyochelin (pch) gene clusters in strain 1710b and revealed a residual siderophore activity which was unrelated to other known Burkholderia siderophores such as cepabactin and cepaciachelin, and not due to increased secretion of chelators such as citrate. Deletion of the two hemin uptake loci, hmu and hem, showed that Hmu is required for utilization of hemin and hemoglobin and that Hem cannot complement a Hmu deficiency. Prolonged incubation of a hmu hem mutant in hemoglobin-containing minimal medium yielded variants able to utilize hemoglobin and hemin suggesting alternate pathways for utilization of these two host iron sources. Lactoferrin utilization was dependent on malleobactin, but not pyochelin synthesis and/or uptake. A mba pch hmu hem quadruple mutant could use ferritin as an iron source and upon intranasal infection was lethal in an acute murine melioidosis model. These data suggest that B. pseudomallei may employ a novel ferritin-iron acquisition pathway as a means to sustain in vivo growth. PMID:22745846

Kvitko, Brian H; Goodyear, Andrew; Propst, Katie L; Dow, Steven W; Schweizer, Herbert P

2012-01-01

301

A missense mutation in the endothelin-B receptor gene is associated with Lethal White Foal Syndrome: an equine version of Hirschsprung disease.  

PubMed

Lethal White Foal Syndrome is a disease associated with horse breeds that register white coat spotting patterns. Breedings between particular spotted horses, generally described as frame overo, produce some foals that, in contrast to their parents, are all white or nearly all white and die shortly after birth of severe intestinal blockage. These foals have aganglionosis characterized by a lack of submucosal and myenteric ganglia from the distal small intestine to the large intestine, similar to human Hirschsprung Disease. Some sporadic and familial cases of Hirschsprung Disease are due to mutations in the endothelin B receptor gene (EDNRB). In this study, we investigate the role of EDNRB in Lethal White Foal Syndrome. A cDNA for the wild-type horse endothelin-B receptor gene was cloned and sequenced. In three unrelated lethal white foals, the EDNRB gene contained a 2-bp nucleotide change leading to a missense mutation (I118K) in the first transmembrane domain of the receptor, a highly conserved region of this protein among different species. Seven additional unrelated lethal white foal samples were found to be homozygous for this mutation. No other homozygotes were identified in 138 samples analyzed, suggesting that homozygosity was restricted to lethal white foals. All (40/40) horses with the frame overo pattern (a distinct coat color pattern that is a subset of overo horses) that were tested were heterozygous for this allele, defining a heterozygous coat color phenotype for this mutation. Horses with tobiano markings included some carriers, indicating that tobiano is epistatic to frame overo. In addition, horses were identified that were carriers but had no recognized overo coat pattern phenotype, demonstrating the variable penetrance of the mutation. The test for this mutant allele can be utilized in all breeds where heterozygous animals may be unknowingly bred to each other including the Paint Horse, Pinto horse, Quarter Horse, Miniature Horse, and Thoroughbred. PMID:9585428

Metallinos, D L; Bowling, A T; Rine, J

1998-06-01

302

Development of a non-lethal method for evaluating transcriptomic endpoints in Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus).  

PubMed

With increases in active mining and continued discharge associated with former mine operations, evaluating the health of watersheds in the Canadian Yukon Territory is warranted. Current environmental assessment approaches often employ guidelines established using sentinel species not relevant to Arctic monitoring programs. The present study focused on the successful development of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay directed towards the indigenous Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and examines the feasibility of using non-lethal sampling from the caudal fin as a means for evaluation of mRNA abundance profiles reflective of environmental conditions. In a proof of concept study performed blind, qPCR results from animals in an area with elevated water concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) and higher body burdens of Cd, Zn, and lead (Pb) were compared to a reference location in the Yukon Territory. Lower condition factor and a higher abundance of hepatic and caudal fin gene transcripts encoding the metallothionein isoforms (mta/mtb), in addition to elevated heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and catalase (cat) mRNAs in liver, were observed in fish from the test site. The strong positive correlation between metal body burden and caudal fin mta/mtb mRNA abundance demonstrates a high potential for use of the Arctic grayling assay in non-lethal environmental monitoring programs. PMID:24780232

Veldhoen, Nik; Beckerton, Jean E; Mackenzie-Grieve, Jody; Stevenson, Mitchel R; Truelson, Robert L; Helbing, Caren C

2014-07-01

303

Mutation of Murine Sox4 Untranslated Regions Results in Partially Penetrant Perinatal Lethality  

PubMed Central

Background Sox4 is an essential gene, and genetic deletion results in embryonic lethality. In an effort to develop mice with tissue-specific deletion, we bred conditional knockout mice bearing LoxP recombination sites flanking the Sox4 gene, with the LoxP sites located in the Sox4 5’UTR and 3’UTR. Results The number of mice homozygous for this LoxP-flanked conditional knockout allele was far below the expected number, suggesting embryonic lethality with reduced penetrance. From over 200 animals bred, only 11% were homozygous Sox4flox/flox mice compared to the expected Mendelian ratio of 25% (p < 0.001). Moreover, there was a significant reduction in the number of female Sox4flox/flox mice (26%) relative to male Sox4flox/flox mice (p = 0.0371). Reduced Sox4 expression in homozygous embryos was confirmed by in-situ hybridization and Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR). Conclusions LoxP sites in the 5’ and 3’ UTR of both alleles of Sox4 resulted in reduced, but variable expression of Sox4 message. PMID:25189881

Wiles, Walter Guy; Mou, Zhongming; Du, Yang; Long, Alyssa B.; Scharer, Christopher D.; Bilir, Birdal; Spyropoulos, Demetri D.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Martin, W. David; Moreno, Carlos S.

2014-01-01

304

Fibroblasts from Long-Lived Mutant Mice Exhibit Increased Autophagy and Lower TOR Activity After Nutrient Deprivation or Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Summary Previous work has shown that primary skin-derived fibroblasts from long-lived pituitary dwarf mutants resist the lethal effects of many forms of oxidative and non-oxidative stress. We hypothesized that increased autophagy may protect fibroblasts of Pit-1dw/dw (Snell dwarf) mice from multiple forms of stress. We found dwarf-derived fibroblasts had higher levels of autophagy, using LC3 and p62 as markers, in responses to amino acid deprivation, hydrogen peroxide, and paraquat. Fibroblasts from dwarf mice also showed diminished phosphorylation of mTOR, S6K and 4EBP1, consistent with the higher levels of autophagy in these cells after stress. Similar results were also observed in fibroblasts from mutant mice lacking growth hormone receptor (GHRKO mice) after amino acid withdrawal. Our results suggested that increased autophagy, regulated by TOR-dependent processes, may contribute to stress resistance in fibroblasts from long-lived mutant mice. PMID:22577861

Wang, Min; Miller, Richard A.

2012-01-01

305

Identification of An Arsenic Tolerant Double Mutant With a Thiol-Mediated Component And Increased Arsenic Tolerance in PhyA Mutants  

SciTech Connect

A genetic screen was performed to isolate mutants showing increased arsenic tolerance using an Arabidopsis thaliana population of activation tagged lines. The most arsenic-resistant mutant shows increased arsenate and arsenite tolerance. Genetic analyses of the mutant indicate that the mutant contains two loci that contribute to arsenic tolerance, designated ars4 and ars5. The ars4ars5 double mutant contains a single T-DNA insertion, ars4, which co-segregates with arsenic tolerance and is inserted in the Phytochrome A (PHYA) gene, strongly reducing the expression of PHYA. When grown under far-red light conditions ars4ars5 shows the same elongated hypocotyl phenotype as the previously described strong phyA-211 allele. Three independent phyA alleles, ars4, phyA-211 and a new T-DNA insertion allele (phyA-t) show increased tolerance to arsenate, although to a lesser degree than the ars4ars5 double mutant. Analyses of the ars5 single mutant show that ars5 exhibits stronger arsenic tolerance than ars4, and that ars5 is not linked to ars4. Arsenic tolerance assays with phyB-9 and phot1/phot2 mutants show that these photoreceptor mutants do not exhibit phyA-like arsenic tolerance. Fluorescence HPLC analyses show that elevated levels of phytochelatins were not detected in ars4, ars5 or ars4ars5, however increases in the thiols cysteine, gamma-glutamylcysteine and glutathione were observed. Compared with wild type, the total thiol levels in ars4, ars5 and ars4ars5 mutants were increased up to 80% with combined buthionine sulfoximine and arsenic treatments, suggesting the enhancement of mechanisms that mediate thiol synthesis in the mutants. The presented findings show that PHYA negatively regulates a pathway conferring arsenic tolerance, and that an enhanced thiol synthesis mechanism contributes to the arsenic tolerance of ars4ars5.

Sung, D.Y.; Lee, D.; Harris, H.; Raab, A.; Feldmann, J.; Meharg, A.; Kumabe, B.; Komives, E.A.; Schroeder, J.I.; /SLAC, SSRL /Sydney U. /Aberdeen U. /UC, San Diego

2007-04-06

306

Nonhomeotic Meristic Flower Mutants in Phacelia dubia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two plants with mutant flowers were recovered from the selfed progeny of a field collected seed of Phacelia dubla (L.) Trel. A meristic mutant caused the develop- ment of an additional component in each of the first three flower whorls (calyx, corolla, and androecium). The effects of a second mutant were restricted to the gynoecium. The normal bicarpellate, two-styled pistil

F. Levy

307

Exposure of phytopathogenic Xanthomonas spp. to lethal concentrations of multiple oxidants affects bacterial survival in a complex manner.  

PubMed

During plant-microbe interactions and in the environment, Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli is likely to be exposed to high concentrations of multiple oxidants. Here, we show that simultaneous exposures of the bacteria to multiple oxidants affects cell survival in a complex manner. A superoxide generator (menadione) enhanced the lethal effect of an organic peroxide (tert-butyl hydroperoxide) by 1, 000-fold; conversely, treatment of cells with menadione plus H(2)O(2) resulted in 100-fold protection compared to that for cells treated with the individual oxidants. Treatment of X. campestris with a combination of H(2)O(2) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide elicited no additive or protective effect. High levels of catalase alone are sufficient to protect cells against the lethal effect of menadione plus H(2)O(2) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide plus H(2)O(2). These data suggest that H(2)O(2) is the lethal agent responsible for killing the bacteria as a result of these treatments. However, increased expression of individual genes for peroxide (alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, catalase)- and superoxide (superoxide dismutase)-scavenging enzymes or concerted induction of oxidative stress-protective genes by menadione gave no protection against killing by a combination of menadione plus tert-butyl hydroperoxide. However, X. campestris cells in the stationary phase and a spontaneous H(2)O(2)-resistant mutant (X. campestris pv. phaseoli HR) were more resistant to killing by menadione plus tert-butyl hydroperoxide. These findings give new insight into oxidant killing of Xanthomonas spp. that could be generally applied to other bacteria. PMID:10966423

Sriprang, R; Vattanaviboon, P; Mongkolsuk, S

2000-09-01

308

Overcoming myelosuppression due to synthetic lethal toxicity for FLT3-targeted acute myeloid leukemia therapy  

PubMed Central

Activating mutations in FLT3 confer poor prognosis for individuals with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Clinically active investigational FLT3 inhibitors can achieve complete remissions but their utility has been hampered by acquired resistance and myelosuppression attributed to a ‘synthetic lethal toxicity’ arising from simultaneous inhibition of FLT3 and KIT. We report a novel chemical strategy for selective FLT3 inhibition while avoiding KIT inhibition with the staurosporine analog, Star 27. Star 27 maintains potency against FLT3 in proliferation assays of FLT3-transformed cells compared with KIT-transformed cells, shows no toxicity towards normal human hematopoiesis at concentrations that inhibit primary FLT3-mutant AML blast growth, and is active against mutations that confer resistance to clinical inhibitors. As a more complete understanding of kinase networks emerges, it may be possible to define anti-targets such as KIT in the case of AML to allow improved kinase inhibitor design of clinical agents with enhanced efficacy and reduced toxicity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03445.001 PMID:25531068

Warkentin, Alexander A; Lopez, Michael S; Lasater, Elisabeth A; Lin, Kimberly; He, Bai-Liang; Leung, Anskar YH; Smith, Catherine C; Shah, Neil P; Shokat, Kevan M

2014-01-01

309

B cells are not essential for Lactobacillus-mediated protection against lethal pneumovirus infection.  

PubMed

We have shown previously that priming of respiratory mucosa with live Lactobacillus species promotes robust and prolonged survival from an otherwise lethal infection with pneumonia virus of mice, a property known as heterologous immunity. Lactobacillus priming results in a moderate reduction in virus recovery and a dramatic reduction in virus-induced proinflammatory cytokine production; the precise mechanisms underlying these findings remain to be elucidated. Because B cells have been shown to promote heterologous immunity against respiratory virus pathogens under similar conditions, in this study we explore the role of B cells in Lactobacillus-mediated protection against acute pneumovirus infection. We found that Lactobacillus-primed mice feature elevated levels of airway Igs IgG, IgA, and IgM and lung tissues with dense, B cell (B220(+))-enriched peribronchial and perivascular infiltrates with germinal centers consistent with descriptions of BALT. No B cells were detected in lung tissue of Lactobacillus-primed B cell deficient ?MT mice or Jh mice, and Lactobacillus-primed ?MT mice had no characteristic infiltrates or airway Igs. Nonetheless, we observed diminished virus recovery and profound suppression of virus-induced proinflammatory cytokines CCL2, IFN-?, and CXCL10 in both wild-type and Lactobacillus-primed ?MT mice. Furthermore, Lactobacillus plantarum-primed, B cell-deficient ?MT and Jh mice were fully protected from an otherwise lethal pneumonia virus of mice infection, as were their respective wild-types. We conclude that B cells are dispensable for Lactobacillus-mediated heterologous immunity and were not crucial for promoting survival in response to an otherwise lethal pneumovirus infection. PMID:24748495

Percopo, Caroline M; Dyer, Kimberly D; Garcia-Crespo, Katia E; Gabryszewski, Stanislaw J; Shaffer, Arthur L; Domachowske, Joseph B; Rosenberg, Helene F

2014-06-01

310

Characterization of an avirulent pleiotropic mutant of the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis: reduced expression of flagellin and phospholipases.  

PubMed Central

An avirulent pleiotropic mutant of the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. gelechiae, isolated by Heierson et al. (A. Heierson, I. Sidén, A. Kivaisi, and H. G. Boman, J. Bacteriol. 167:18-24, 1986) as a spontaneous phage-resistant mutant, was further characterized and found to lack the expression of phosphatidylcholine- and phosphatidylinositol-degrading phospholipase C, beta-lactamase, and flagellin because of the absence of corresponding mRNAs. The avirulent mutant was also found to be less efficient in killing insect cells in vitro than the wild type and to have altered behavior in vivo; wild-type B. thuringiensis does not circulate in the insect hemolymph after injection, whereas the avirulent mutant and nonpathogenic control bacteria remain in circulation. Flagella and motility may be important for virulence in the early stages of an infection; mutants with decreased motility appear less virulent when fed to Trichoplusia ni but not when injected. The 50% lethal doses of wild-type strain Bt13 and avirulent mutant strain Bt1302 were estimated to be 0.52 +/- 0.25 and 2,600 +/- 1,300 CFU per injected larva, respectively. Images PMID:7693592

Zhang, M Y; Lövgren, A; Low, M G; Landén, R

1993-01-01

311

Cytogenetic characterization of radiosensitive mouse mutants.  

PubMed

In order to develop mouse models for human mutagen-sensitive syndromes, we carried out cytogenetic characterization of several mouse mutants and MS/Ae mice showing enhanced radiosensitivities. The applied cytogenetic techniques include chromosomal analysis of in vitro cell cultures and lymphocyte cultures as well as in vivo UDS in hepatocytes, induction of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes and translocation induction in spermatogonial stem cells. Among the mutations studied, namely the contrasted allele of steel (Slcon), viable dominant spotting (Wc), wasted (wst), varitint-waddler (Va) and dystonia musculorum (dt) as well as MS/Ae mice, various iso-, hyper- or hypo-sensitive conditions were recorded. Only Va and dt appear to be associated with some deficiency in DNA repair. PMID:1720867

van Buul, P P; Tuinenburg-Bol Raap, A; Goudzwaard, H J; Seelen, C M; Beechey, C V; Natarajan, A T; Searle, A G

1991-12-01

312

Analysis of mutant quantity and quality in human-hamster hybrid AL and AL-179 cells exposed to 137Cs-gamma or HZE-Fe ions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We measured the number of mutants and the kinds of mutations induced by 137Cs-gamma and by HZE-Fe (56Fe [600 MeV/amu, LET = 190 KeV/micrometer) in standard AL human hamster hybrid cells and in a new variant hybrid, AL-179. We found that HZE-Fe was more mutagenic than 137Cs-gamma per unit dose (about 1.6 fold), but was slightly less mutagenic per mean lethal dose, DO, at both the S1 and hprt- loci of AL cells. On the other hand, HZE-Fe induced about nine fold more complex S1- mutants than 137Cs-gamma rays, 28% vs 3%. 137Cs-gamma rays induced about twice as many S1- mutants and hprt-mutants in AL-179 as in AL cells, and about nine times more of the former were complex, and potentially unstable kinds of mutations.

Waldren, C.; Vannais, D.; Drabek, R.; Gustafson, D.; Kraemer, S.; Lenarczyk, M.; Kronenberg, A.; Hei, T.; Ueno, A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

313

Construction, characterization, and complementation of Rhodospirillum rubrum puf region mutants.  

PubMed Central

Rhodospirillum rubrum is a facultatively phototrophic bacterium that, under certain growth conditions, forms an intracytoplasmic chromatophore membrane (ICM) housing the photochemical apparatus. The puf operon of R. rubrum encodes protein subunits of the photochemical reaction center and the B880 light-harvesting antenna complex. Mutant strains of R. rubrum were constructed by interposon mutagenesis through which a kanamycin resistance gene cartridge was inserted into restriction sites and in place of restriction fragments of the puf region. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the defective copies of puf sequences had replaced their normal chromosomal counterparts through homologous recombination. The phenotypes of the mutant strains were evaluated on the basis of puf gene expression, spectral analysis, pigment content of membranes, and electron-microscopic examination of thin sections of cells grown under semi-aerobic and dark anaerobic conditions. Alterations of the puf region affect phototrophic competence and the formation of the ICM. The latter result implies an obligatory role for puf gene products in ICM formation in R. rubrum. One mutant with a deletion in puf structural genes was complemented in trans to the wild-type phenotype. Other mutants could be restored to the wild-type phenotype only by recombination. Images PMID:1715861

Hessner, M J; Wejksnora, P J; Collins, M L

1991-01-01

314

Energetics of cellular repair processes in a respiratory-deficient mutant of yeast. [UV  

SciTech Connect

Repair of potentially lethal damage induced by cytoxic agents like UV irradiation (254 nm), psorelen-plus-UVA (365 mn), and methyl methanesulfonate has been studied in the presence of a glucose analog, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, in yeast cells. Simultaneously, effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose were also investigated on parameters of energy metabolism like glucose utilization, rate of ATP production, and ATP content of cells. The following results were obtained. (i) 2-Deoxy-D-glucose is able to inhibit repair of potentially lethal damage induced by all the cytotoxic agents tested. The 2-deoxy-D-glucose-induced inhibition of repair depends upon the type of lesion and the pattern of cellular energy metabolism, the inhibition being greater in respiratory-deficient mutants than in the wild type. (ii) A continuous energy flow is necessary for repair of potentially lethal damage in yeast cells. Energy may be supplied by the glycolytic and/or the respiratory pathway; respiratory metabolism is not essential for this purpose. (iii) The magnitude of repair correlates with the rate of ATP production in a sigmoid manner.

Jain, V.K.; Gupta, I.; Lata, K.

1982-12-01

315

Experimental ecology of selected vertebrate species. Final report. [Effects of sub-lethal. gamma. radiation on survival of chipmunks and pocket gophers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the results of a long term (1960 to 1973) study designed to determine the suitability of various vertebrate species for experimental radioecology, to determine their individual and population characteristics under natural conditions, and to utilize these characteristics to gauge the effects of sub-lethal doses of gamma radiation. The study focused on free ranging populations of Tamias striatus

R. T. Hartman; D. L. Graybill

1976-01-01

316

Intraguild relationships between sympatric predators exposed to lethal control: predator manipulation experiments  

PubMed Central

Introduction Terrestrial top-predators are expected to regulate and stabilise food webs through their consumptive and non-consumptive effects on sympatric mesopredators and prey. The lethal control of top-predators has therefore been predicted to inhibit top-predator function, generate the release of mesopredators and indirectly harm native fauna through trophic cascade effects. Understanding the outcomes of lethal control on interactions within terrestrial predator guilds is important for zoologists, conservation biologists and wildlife managers. However, few studies have the capacity to test these predictions experimentally, and no such studies have previously been conducted on the eclectic suite of native and exotic, mammalian and reptilian taxa we simultaneously assess. We conducted a series of landscape-scale, multi-year, manipulative experiments at nine sites spanning five ecosystem types across the Australian continental rangelands to investigate the responses of mesopredators (red foxes, feral cats and goannas) to contemporary poison-baiting programs intended to control top-predators (dingoes) for livestock protection. Result Short-term behavioural releases of mesopredators were not apparent, and in almost all cases, the three mesopredators we assessed were in similar or greater abundance in unbaited areas relative to baited areas, with mesopredator abundance trends typically either uncorrelated or positively correlated with top-predator abundance trends over time. The exotic mammals and native reptile we assessed responded similarly (poorly) to top-predator population manipulation. This is because poison baits were taken by multiple target and non-target predators and top-predator populations quickly recovered to pre-control levels, thus reducing the overall impact of baiting on top-predators and averting a trophic cascade. Conclusions These results are in accord with other predator manipulation experiments conducted worldwide, and suggest that Australian populations of native prey fauna at lower trophic levels are unlikely to be negatively affected by contemporary dingo control practices through the release of mesopredators. We conclude that contemporary lethal control practices used on some top-predator populations do not produce the conditions required to generate positive responses from mesopredators. Functional relationships between sympatric terrestrial predators may not be altered by exposure to spatially and temporally sporadic application of non-selective lethal control. PMID:23842144

2013-01-01

317

Methylmercury: teratogenic and lethal effects in frog embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rana pipiens embryos at the cleavage, blastula, gastrula, and neural-plate stages of development were treated with methylmercuric chloride in concentrations of 0.5-200 parts per billion (ppb) to determine embryocidal and teratogenic effects. Concentrations of 40 ppb and above were lethal to embryos treated during the cleavage stage. Embryos at the blastula, gastrula, and neural-plate stages were treated for 5 days

Norman A. Dial

1976-01-01

318

Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) coupling codes for use with the vulnerability/lethality (VIL) taxonomy. Final report, June-October 1984  

SciTech Connect

Based on the vulnerability Lethality (V/L) taxonomy developed by the Ballistic Vulnerability Lethality Division (BVLD) of the Survivability Lethality Analysis Directorate (SLAD), a nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) coupling V/L analysis taxonomy has been developed. A nuclear EMP threat to a military system can be divided into two levels: (1) coupling to a system level through a cable, antenna, or aperture; and (2) the component level. This report will focus on the initial condition, which includes threat definition and target description, as well as the mapping process from the initial condition to damaged components state. EMP coupling analysis at a system level is used to accomplish this. This report introduces the nature of EMP threat, interaction between the threat and target, and how the output of EMP coupling analysis at a system level becomes the input to the component level analysis. Many different tools (EMP coupling codes) will be discussed for the mapping process, which correponds to the physics of phenomenology. This EMP coupling V/L taxonomy and the models identified in this report will provide the tools necessary to conduct basic V/L analysis of EMP coupling.

Mar, M.H.

1995-07-01

319

The lethality test used for estimating the potency of antivenoms against Bothrops asper snake venom: Pathophysiological mechanisms, prophylactic analgesia, and a surrogate in vitro assay.  

PubMed

The potency of antivenoms is assessed by analyzing the neutralization of venom-induced lethality, and is expressed as the Median Effective Dose (ED50). The present study was designed to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for lethality induced by the venom of Bothrops asper, in the experimental conditions used for the evaluation of the neutralizing potency of antivenoms. Mice injected with 4 LD50s of venom by the intraperitoneal route died within ?25 min with drastic alterations in the abdominal organs, characterized by hemorrhage, increment in plasma extravasation, and hemoconcentration, thus leading to hypovolemia and cardiovascular collapse. Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) play a predominat role in lethality, as judged by partial inhibition by the chelating agent CaNa2EDTA. When venom was mixed with antivenom, there was a venom/antivenom ratio at which hemorrhage was significantly reduced, but mice died at later time intervals with evident hemoconcentration, indicating that other components in addition to SVMPs also contribute to plasma extravasation and lethality. Pretreatment with the analgesic tramadol did not affect the outcome of the neutralization test, thus suggesting that prophylactic (precautionary) analgesia can be introduced in this assay. Neutralization of lethality in mice correlated with neutralization of in vitro coagulant activity in human plasma. PMID:25447772

Chacón, Francisco; Oviedo, Andrea; Escalante, Teresa; Solano, Gabriela; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José María

2015-01-01

320

Severe Hypoglycemia–Induced Lethal Cardiac Arrhythmias Are Mediated by Sympathoadrenal Activation  

PubMed Central

For people with insulin-treated diabetes, severe hypoglycemia can be lethal, though potential mechanisms involved are poorly understood. To investigate how severe hypoglycemia can be fatal, hyperinsulinemic, severe hypoglycemic (10–15 mg/dL) clamps were performed in Sprague-Dawley rats with simultaneous electrocardiogram monitoring. With goals of reducing hypoglycemia-induced mortality, the hypotheses tested were that: 1) antecedent glycemic control impacts mortality associated with severe hypoglycemia; 2) with limitation of hypokalemia, potassium supplementation could limit hypoglycemia-associated deaths; 3) with prevention of central neuroglycopenia, brain glucose infusion could prevent hypoglycemia-associated arrhythmias and deaths; and 4) with limitation of sympathoadrenal activation, adrenergic blockers could prevent hypoglycemia-induced arrhythmic deaths. Severe hypoglycemia–induced mortality was noted to be worsened by diabetes, but recurrent antecedent hypoglycemia markedly improved the ability to survive an episode of severe hypoglycemia. Potassium supplementation tended to reduce mortality. Severe hypoglycemia caused numerous cardiac arrhythmias including premature ventricular contractions, tachycardia, and high-degree heart block. Intracerebroventricular glucose infusion reduced severe hypoglycemia–induced arrhythmias and overall mortality. ?-Adrenergic blockade markedly reduced cardiac arrhythmias and completely abrogated deaths due to severe hypoglycemia. Under conditions studied, sudden deaths caused by insulin-induced severe hypoglycemia were mediated by lethal cardiac arrhythmias triggered by brain neuroglycopenia and the marked sympathoadrenal response. PMID:23835337

Reno, Candace M.; Daphna-Iken, Dorit; Chen, Y. Stefanie; VanderWeele, Jennifer; Jethi, Krishan; Fisher, Simon J.

2013-01-01

321

Deficiency of Suppressor Enhancer Lin12 1 Like (SEL1L) in Mice Leads to Systemic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Embryonic Lethality*  

PubMed Central

Stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important causal role in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, and diabetes mellitus. Insight into the genetic determinants responsible for ER homeostasis will greatly facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of these debilitating diseases. Suppressor enhancer Lin12 1 like (SEL1L) is an ER membrane protein and was thought to be involved in the quality control of secreted proteins. Here we show that the mice homozygous mutant for SEL1L were embryonic lethal. Electron microscopy studies revealed a severely dilated ER in the fetal liver of mutant embryos, indicative of alteration in ER homeostasis. Consistent with this, several ER stress responsive genes were significantly up-regulated in the mutant embryos. Mouse embryonic fibroblast cells deficient in SEL1L exhibited activated unfolded protein response at the basal state, impaired ER-associated protein degradation, and reduced protein secretion. Furthermore, markedly increased apoptosis was observed in the forebrain and dorsal root ganglions of mutant embryos. Taken together, our results demonstrate an essential role for SEL1L in protein quality control during mouse embryonic development. PMID:20197277

Francisco, Adam B.; Singh, Rajni; Li, Shuai; Vani, Anish K.; Yang, Liu; Munroe, Robert J.; Diaferia, Giuseppe; Cardano, Marina; Biunno, Ida; Qi, Ling; Schimenti, John C.; Long, Qiaoming

2010-01-01

322

Complete knockout of the lactate dehydrogenase A gene is lethal in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1, 2, 3 down-regulated CHO cells.  

PubMed

Accumulation of high level of lactate can negatively impact cell growth during fed-batch culture process. In this study, we attempted to knockout the lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) gene in CHO cells in order to attenuate the lactate level. To prevent the potential deleterious effect of pyruvate accumulation, consequent to LDHA knockout, on cell culture, we chose a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1, 2, and 3 (PDHK1, 2, and 3) knockdown cell line in which to knock out LDHA alleles. Around 3,000 clones were screened to obtain 152 mutants. Only heterozygous mutants were identified. An attempt to knockout the remaining wild-type allele from one such heterozygote yielded only two mutants after screening 567 clones. One had an extra valine. Another evidenced a duplication event, possessing at lease one wild-type and two different frameshifted alleles. Both mutants still retained LDH activity. Together, our data strongly suggest that a complete knockout of LDHA is lethal in CHO cells, despite simultaneous down-regulation of PDHK1, 2, and 3. PMID:24841241

Yip, Shirley S M; Zhou, Meixia; Joly, John; Snedecor, Bradley; Shen, Amy; Crawford, Yongping

2014-09-01

323

Characterization of four CHO mutants  

E-print Network

'C. The supernatant (TCA-soluble medium amino acids) was removed for analysis and the remaining pellet (TCA-insol- uble medium proteins) was dissolved in 0. 1N NaOH. Cell monolayers were dissolved in 0. 1N NaOH containing 0. 1'/, Tnton X-100... of Department) December 1987 ABSTRACT Characterization of Four CHO Mutants. (December 1987) Michael Raymond Brancheau, B. A. , University of Texas at Austin Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. J. Martyn Gunn This study investigated coordinated cell growth...

Brancheau, Michael Raymond

2012-06-07

324

Loss of Vps54 Function Leads to Vesicle Traffic Impairment, Protein Mis-Sorting and Embryonic Lethality  

PubMed Central

The identification of the mutation causing the phenotype of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) model mouse, wobbler, has linked motor neuron degeneration with retrograde vesicle traffic. The wobbler mutation affects protein stability of Vps54, a ubiquitously expressed vesicle-tethering factor and leads to partial loss of Vps54 function. Moreover, the Vps54 null mutation causes embryonic lethality, which is associated with extensive membrane blebbing in the neural tube and is most likely a consequence of impaired vesicle transport. Investigation of cells derived from wobbler and Vps54 null mutant embryos demonstrates impaired retrograde transport of the Cholera-toxin B subunit to the trans-Golgi network and mis-sorting of mannose-6-phosphate receptors and cargo proteins dependent on retrograde vesicle transport. Endocytosis assays demonstrate no difference between wobbler and wild type cells, indicating that the retrograde vesicle traffic to the trans-Golgi network, but not endocytosis, is affected in Vps54 mutant cells. The results obtained on wobbler cells were extended to test the use of cultured skin fibroblasts from human ALS patients to investigate the retrograde vesicle traffic. Analysis of skin fibroblasts of ALS patients will support the investigation of the critical role of the retrograde vesicle transport in ALS pathogenesis and might yield a diagnostic prospect. PMID:23708095

Karlsson, Páll; Droce, Aida; Moser, Jakob M.; Cuhlmann, Simon; Padilla, Carolina Ortiz; Heimann, Peter; Bartsch, Jörg W.; Füchtbauer, Annette; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Schmitt-John, Thomas

2013-01-01

325

Biological and genetic characterization of TnphoA mutants of Salmonella typhimurium TML in the context of gastroenteritis.  

PubMed Central

TnphoA transposon insertion mutants of phoN-negative derivatives of Salmonella typhimurium TML (of human gastroenteritic origin) were selected by growing mutagenized recipient bacteria under a variety of growth conditions. Ninety-seven individual mutants, which expressed alkaline phosphatase, were collected and tested for their ability to invade HEp-2 cells. Seven smooth mutants had a reduced ability to invade HEp-2 cells, and three smooth mutants were consistently more invasive than their corresponding parental strains. One rough mutant was of similar invasiveness and two were of reduced invasiveness when compared with that of parental strains. The seven smooth hypoinvasive mutants, the three smooth hyperinvasive mutants, and the three rough mutant strains were tested for their abilities to invade ileal enterocytes by the rabbit ileal invasion assay described previously (3). All smooth mutants exhibited parental levels of invasiveness. The rough mutants were hypoinvasive in the rabbit ileal invasion assay. The HEp-2 system is therefore not a good predictor of behavior in gut tissue in this model. DNA sequences flanking the transposon were determined for five mutants which were hypoinvasive in the HEp-2 cell assay. The mutations were found to be insertions in two previously identified invasion genes, invG and invH, and in a gene not normally associated with invasion, pagC. These observations lead one to be cautious in the interpretation of the biological significance of data obtained from invasion of tissue culture monolayers when extrapolated to gut tissue. PMID:7868245

Lodge, J; Douce, G R; Amin, I I; Bolton, A J; Martin, G D; Chatfield, S; Dougan, G; Brown, N L; Stephen, J

1995-01-01

326

Japanese quail acute exposure to methamidophos: experimental design, lethal, sub-lethal effects and cholinesterase biochemical and histochemical expression.  

PubMed

We exposed the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) to the organophosphate methamidophos using acute oral test. Mortality and sub-lethal effects were recorded in accordance to internationally accepted protocols. In addition cholinesterases were biochemically estimated in tissues of the quail: brain, liver and plasma. Furthermore, brain, liver and duodenum cryostat sections were processed for cholinesterase histochemistry using various substrates and inhibitors. Mortalities occurred mainly in the first 1-2h following application. Sub-lethal effects, such as ataxia, ruffled feathers, tremor, salivation and reduced or no reaction to external stimuli were observed. Biochemical analysis in the brain, liver and plasma indicates a strong cholinesterase dependent inhibition with respect to mortality and sub-lethal effects of the quail. The histochemical staining also indicated a strong cholinesterase inhibition in the organs examined and the analysis of the stained sections allowed for an estimation and interpretation of the intoxication effects of methamidophos, in combination with tissue morphology visible by Haematoxylin and Eosin staining. We conclude that the use of biochemistry and histochemistry for the biomarker cholinesterase, may constitute a significantly novel approach for understanding the results obtained by the acute oral test employed in order to assess the effects of methamidophos and other chemicals known to inhibit this very important nervous system enzyme. PMID:23146311

Foudoulakis, Manousos; Balaskas, Christos; Csato, Attila; Szentes, Csaba; Arapis, Gerassimos

2013-04-15

327

Standard protocol for the dominant lethal test on male mice set up by the work group “dominant lethal mutations of the ad hoc Committee Chemogenetics”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The members of the work group “Dominant Lethal Mutations of the ad hoc Committee Chemogenetics” jointly carried out experimental studies in the period from November 1972 until February 1976. On the basis of the results obtained and the experience gained, they worked out on February 27, 1976, a standard protocol for the dominant lethal test (DLT) on male mice. The

U. H. Ehling; L. Machemer; W. Buselmaier; J. Dýcka; H. Frohberg; J. Kratochvilova; R. Lang; D. Lorke; D. Müller; J. Peh; G. Röhrborn; R. Roll; M. Schulze-Schencking; H. Wiemann

1978-01-01

328

A salt-sensitive mutant of Dunaliella tertiolecta  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mutant of Dunaliella tertiolecta produced by treatment with methyl nitrosoguanidine and designated HL25\\/8, grew more slowly than the parent strain under all experimental conditions and was conspicuously less tolerant of NaCl. Total photosynthetic activity (C-fixation and O2 evolution) was less in HL25\\/8 than in the parent strain and was affected differently by [NaCl] in the two strains. Various growth

A. D. Brown; A. Goyal; H. Larsen; R. Mc C. Lilley

1987-01-01

329

Radiation-induced cell lethality of samonella typhimurium ATCC 14028: Cooperative effect of hydroxyl radical and oxygen  

SciTech Connect

The lethality of {gamma}-radiation doses of 0.2 to 1.0 kGy for Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 was measured in the presence of air, N{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O and with the hydroxyl radical scavengers formate and polyethylene glycol (PEG), M{sub r} 8,000. Saturation of cell suspensions with either N{sub 2}O or N{sub 2}/N{sub 2}/N{sub 2}O (1:1, v/v) gas was expected to double the number of hydroxyl radicals (OH{center_dot}) and to produce an equivalent increase in lethality, but this did not occur. Adding 10% (v/v) O{sub 2} to either N{sub 2}/N{sub 2}O gas produced approximately the same {gamma}-irradiation lethality for S. typhimurium as did air. Addition of hydroxyl radical scavengers, 40 mM formate and 1.5% (w/v) PEG, significantly reduced the lethality of {gamma} radiation for S. typhimurium in the presence of air but not in the presence of N{sub 2} or N{sub 2}O gases. Membrane-permeable formate provided slightly better protection than nonpermeable PEG. Cells of S. typhimurium grown under anaerobic conditions were more sensitive to radiation, and were less protected by hydroxyl radical scavengers, especially formate, than when cells grown under aerobic conditions were irradiated in the presence of oxygen. Hydroxyl radical scavengers provided no further protection during irradiation in the absence of oxygen. These results indicated that the increased radiation sensitivity of cells grown under anaerobic conditions may be related to superoxide radicals which could increase intercellular damage during irradiation in the presence of oxygen. However, endogenous superoxide dismutase and catalase activities did not protect cells from the radiation-induced lethality of S. typhimurium. Cytoplasmic extracts protected bacterial DNA in vitro in either the presence of absence of oxygen, and no radiation-induced lipid peroxidation of the cellular components was identified by measuring the levels of 2-thiobarbituric acid. 38 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Kim, Y.A.; Thayer, D.W. [Department of Agricultural, Phildelphia, PA (United States)

1995-10-01

330

In trans complementation of lethal factor reveal roles in colonization and dissemination in a murine mouse model.  

PubMed

Lethal factor (LF) is a component of the B. anthracis exotoxin and critical for pathogenesis. The roles of LF in early anthrax pathogenesis, such as colonization and dissemination from the initial site of infection, are poorly understood. In mice models of infection, LF-deficient strains either have altered dissemination patterns or do not colonize, precluding analysis of the role of LF in colonization and dissemination from the portal of entry. Previous reports indicate rabbit and guinea pig models infected with LF-deficient strains have decreased virulence, yet the inability to use bioluminescent imaging techniques to track B. anthracis growth and dissemination in these hosts makes analysis of early pathogenesis challenging. In this study, the roles of LF early in infection were analyzed using bioluminescent signature tagged libraries of B. anthracis with varying ratios of LF-producing and LF-deficient clones. Populations where all clones produced LF and populations where only 40% of clones produce LF were equally virulent. The 40% LF-producing clones trans complimented the LF mutants and permitted them to colonize and disseminate. Decreases of the LF producing strains to 10% or 0.3% of the population led to increased host survival and decreased trans complementation of the LF mutants. A library with 10% LF producing clones could replicate and disseminate, but fewer clones disseminated and the mutant clones were less competitive than wild type. The inoculum with 0.3% LF producing clones could not colonize the host. This strongly suggests that between 10% and 0.3% of the population must produce LF in order to colonize. In total, these findings suggest that a threshold of LF must be produced in order for colonization and dissemination to occur in vivo. These observations suggest that LF has a major role in the early stages of colonization and dissemination. PMID:24763227

Lowe, David E; Ya, Jason; Glomski, Ian J

2014-01-01

331

The Alternative Oxidase AOX Does Not Rescue the Phenotype of tko25t Mutant Flies  

PubMed Central

A point mutation [technical knockout25t (tko25t)] in the Drosophila gene coding for mitoribosomal protein S12 generates a phenotype of developmental delay and bang sensitivity. tko25t has been intensively studied as an animal model for human mitochondrial diseases associated with deficiency of mitochondrial protein synthesis and consequent multiple respiratory chain defects. Transgenic expression in Drosophila of the alternative oxidase (AOX) derived from Ciona intestinalis has previously been shown to mitigate the toxicity of respiratory chain inhibitors and to rescue mutant and knockdown phenotypes associated with cytochrome oxidase deficiency. We therefore tested whether AOX expression could compensate the mutant phenotype of tko25t using the GeneSwitch system to activate expression at different times in development. The developmental delay of tko25t was not mitigated by expression of AOX throughout development. AOX expression for 1 d after eclosion, or continuously throughout development, had no effect on the bang sensitivity of tko25t adults, and continued expression in adults older than 30 d also produced no amelioration of the phenotype. In contrast, transgenic expression of the yeast alternative NADH dehydrogenase Ndi1 was synthetically semi-lethal with tko25t and was lethal when combined with both AOX and tko25t. We conclude that AOX does not rescue tko25t and that the mutant phenotype is not solely due to limitations on electron flow in the respiratory chain, but rather to a more complex metabolic defect. The future therapeutic use of AOX in disorders of mitochondrial translation may thus be of limited value. PMID:25147191

Kemppainen, Kia K.; Kemppainen, Esko; Jacobs, Howard T.

2014-01-01

332

Loss of the Thioredoxin Reductase Trr1 Suppresses the Genomic Instability of Peroxiredoxin tsa1 Mutants  

PubMed Central

The absence of Tsa1, a key peroxiredoxin that scavenges H2O2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, causes the accumulation of a broad spectrum of mutations. Deletion of TSA1 also causes synthetic lethality in combination with mutations in RAD51 or several key genes involved in DNA double-strand break repair. In the present study, we propose that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the primary cause of genome instability of tsa1? cells. In searching for spontaneous suppressors of synthetic lethality of tsa1? rad51? double mutants, we identified that the loss of thioredoxin reductase Trr1 rescues their viability. The trr1? mutant displayed a CanR mutation rate 5-fold lower than wild-type cells. Additional deletion of TRR1 in tsa1? mutant reduced substantially the CanR mutation rate of tsa1? strain (33-fold), and to a lesser extent, of rad51? strain (4-fold). Loss of Trr1 induced Yap1 nuclear accumulation and over-expression of a set of Yap1-regulated oxido-reductases with antioxidant properties that ultimately re-equilibrate intracellular redox environment, reducing substantially ROS-associated DNA damages. This trr1? -induced effect was largely thioredoxin-dependent, probably mediated by oxidized forms of thioredoxins, the primary substrates of Trr1. Thioredoxin Trx1 and Trx2 were constitutively and strongly oxidized in the absence of Trr1. In trx1? trx2? cells, Yap1 was only moderately activated; consistently, the trx1? trx2? double deletion failed to efficiently rescue the viability of tsa1? rad51?. Finally, we showed that modulation of the dNTP pool size also influences the formation of spontaneous mutation in trr1? and trx1? trx2? strains. We present a tentative model that helps to estimate the respective impact of ROS level and dNTP concentration in the generation of spontaneous mutations. PMID:25247923

Ragu, Sandrine; Dardalhon, Michèle; Sharma, Sushma; Iraqui, Ismail; Buhagiar-Labarchède, Géraldine; Grondin, Virginie; Kienda, Guy; Vernis, Laurence; Chanet, Roland; Kolodner, Richard D.; Huang, Meng-Er; Faye, Gérard

2014-01-01

333

Loss of the thioredoxin reductase Trr1 suppresses the genomic instability of peroxiredoxin tsa1 mutants.  

PubMed

The absence of Tsa1, a key peroxiredoxin that scavenges H2O2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, causes the accumulation of a broad spectrum of mutations. Deletion of TSA1 also causes synthetic lethality in combination with mutations in RAD51 or several key genes involved in DNA double-strand break repair. In the present study, we propose that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the primary cause of genome instability of tsa1? cells. In searching for spontaneous suppressors of synthetic lethality of tsa1? rad51? double mutants, we identified that the loss of thioredoxin reductase Trr1 rescues their viability. The trr1? mutant displayed a Can(R) mutation rate 5-fold lower than wild-type cells. Additional deletion of TRR1 in tsa1? mutant reduced substantially the Can(R) mutation rate of tsa1? strain (33-fold), and to a lesser extent, of rad51? strain (4-fold). Loss of Trr1 induced Yap1 nuclear accumulation and over-expression of a set of Yap1-regulated oxido-reductases with antioxidant properties that ultimately re-equilibrate intracellular redox environment, reducing substantially ROS-associated DNA damages. This trr1? -induced effect was largely thioredoxin-dependent, probably mediated by oxidized forms of thioredoxins, the primary substrates of Trr1. Thioredoxin Trx1 and Trx2 were constitutively and strongly oxidized in the absence of Trr1. In trx1? trx2? cells, Yap1 was only moderately activated; consistently, the trx1? trx2? double deletion failed to efficiently rescue the viability of tsa1? rad51?. Finally, we showed that modulation of the dNTP pool size also influences the formation of spontaneous mutation in trr1? and trx1? trx2? strains. We present a tentative model that helps to estimate the respective impact of ROS level and dNTP concentration in the generation of spontaneous mutations. PMID:25247923

Ragu, Sandrine; Dardalhon, Michèle; Sharma, Sushma; Iraqui, Ismail; Buhagiar-Labarchède, Géraldine; Grondin, Virginie; Kienda, Guy; Vernis, Laurence; Chanet, Roland; Kolodner, Richard D; Huang, Meng-Er; Faye, Gérard

2014-01-01

334

Courtship and visual defects of cacophony mutants reveal functional complexity of a calcium-channel alpha1 subunit in Drosophila.  

PubMed Central

We show by molecular analysis of behavioral and physiological mutants that the Drosophila Dmca1A calcium-channel alpha1 subunit is encoded by the cacophony (cac) gene and that nightblind-A and lethal(1)L13 mutations are allelic to cac with respect to an expanded array of behavioral and physiological phenotypes associated with this gene. The cacS mutant, which exhibits defects in the patterning of courtship lovesong and a newly revealed but subtle abnormality in visual physiology, is mutated such that a highly conserved phenylalanine (in one of the quasi-homologous intrapolypeptide regions called IIIS6) is replaced by isoleucine. The cacH18 mutant exhibits defects in visual physiology (including complete unresponsiveness to light in certain genetic combinations) and visually mediated behaviors; this mutant (originally nbAH18) has a stop codon in an alternative exon (within the cac ORF), which is differentially expressed in the eye. Analysis of the various courtship and visual phenotypes associated with this array of cac mutants demonstrates that Dmca1A calcium channels mediate multiple, separable biological functions; these correlate in part with transcript diversity generated via alternative splicing. PMID:9649530

Smith, L A; Peixoto, A A; Kramer, E M; Villella, A; Hall, J C

1998-01-01

335

Ethylnitrosourea Mutagenesis and the Isolation of Mutant Alleles for Specific Genes Located in the t Region of Mouse Chromosome 17  

PubMed Central

Ethylnitrosourea mutagenesis of spermatogonia in male mice is very efficient and makes it practical to isolate new desired mutant alleles by subsequent progeny screening. This is demonstrated for three genes in the t region of chromosome 17. The first, a mutation designated t-int, interacts with the dominant mutation, T (Brachyury), to produce a tailless mouse. Previously, mutant alleles of the t-int gene were available only in t haplotypes, where they are part of a t chromatin block within which recombination with wild-type chromosomes is inhibited. In addition to t-int, new mutations at the quaking and tufted loci were obtained, as well as at several loci not on chromosome 17, e.g., an X-linked lethal that causes a mottled phenotype in the heterozygote and four new mutant W alleles on chromosome 5. In the experiment, an average of one fertilizing spermatozoan in 1500 was mutant at a given locus and an average of one male in five was able to sire mutants at that locus. PMID:6500258

Bode, Vernon C.

1984-01-01

336

The mutational landscape of lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Characterization of the prostate cancer transcriptome and genome has identified chromosomal rearrangements and copy number gains and losses, including ETS gene family fusions, PTEN loss and androgen receptor (AR) amplification, which drive prostate cancer development and progression to lethal, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, less is known about the role of mutations. Here we sequenced the exomes of 50 lethal, heavily pre-treated metastatic CRPCs obtained at rapid autopsy (including three different foci from the same patient) and 11 treatment-naive, high-grade localized prostate cancers. We identified low overall mutation rates even in heavily treated CRPCs (2.00 per megabase) and confirmed the monoclonal origin of lethal CRPC. Integrating exome copy number analysis identified disruptions of CHD1 that define a subtype of ETS gene family fusion-negative prostate cancer. Similarly, we demonstrate that ETS2, which is deleted in approximately one-third of CRPCs (commonly through TMPRSS2:ERG fusions), is also deregulated through mutation. Furthermore, we identified recurrent mutations in multiple chromatin- and histone-modifying genes, including MLL2 (mutated in 8.6% of prostate cancers), and demonstrate interaction of the MLL complex with the AR, which is required for AR-mediated signalling. We also identified novel recurrent mutations in the AR collaborating factor FOXA1, which is mutated in 5 of 147 (3.4%) prostate cancers (both untreated localized prostate cancer and CRPC), and showed that mutated FOXA1 represses androgen signalling and increases tumour growth. Proteins that physically interact with the AR, such as the ERG gene fusion product, FOXA1, MLL2, UTX (also known as KDM6A) and ASXL1 were found to be mutated in CRPC. In summary, we describe the mutational landscape of a heavily treated metastatic cancer, identify novel mechanisms of AR signalling deregulated in prostate cancer, and prioritize candidates for future study. PMID:22722839

Grasso, Catherine S; Wu, Yi-Mi; Robinson, Dan R; Cao, Xuhong; Dhanasekaran, Saravana M; Khan, Amjad P; Quist, Michael J; Jing, Xiaojun; Lonigro, Robert J; Brenner, J Chad; Asangani, Irfan A; Ateeq, Bushra; Chun, Sang Y; Siddiqui, Javed; Sam, Lee; Anstett, Matt; Mehra, Rohit; Prensner, John R; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Ryslik, Gregory A; Vandin, Fabio; Raphael, Benjamin J; Kunju, Lakshmi P; Rhodes, Daniel R; Pienta, Kenneth J; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Tomlins, Scott A

2012-07-12

337

Lethal Mutagenesis of Poliovirus Mediated by a Mutagenic Pyrimidine Analogue  

E-print Network

: REFERENCES http://jvi.asm.org/content/81/20/11256#ref-list-1at: This article cites 59 articles, 29 of which can be accessed free CONTENT ALERTS more»articles cite this article), Receive: RSS Feeds, eTOCs, free email alerts (when new http... http://jvi.asm.org/ D ow nloaded from JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, Oct. 2007, p. 11256–11266 Vol. 81, No. 20 0022-538X/07/$08.00#1;0 doi:10.1128/JVI.01028-07 Copyright © 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Lethal Mutagenesis...

Graci, Jason D.; Harki, Daniel A.; Korneeva, Victoria S.; Edathil, Jocelyn P.; Too, Kathleen; Franco, David; Smidansky, Eric D.; Paul, Aniko V.; Peterson, Blake R.; Brown, Daniel M.; Loakes, David; Cameron, Craig E.

2007-10-01

338

Advanced antisense therapies for postexposure protection against lethal filovirus infections.  

PubMed

Currently, no vaccines or therapeutics are licensed to counter Ebola or Marburg viruses, highly pathogenic filoviruses that are causative agents of viral hemorrhagic fever. Here we show that administration of positively charged phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOplus), delivered by various dosing strategies initiated 30-60 min after infection, protects>60% of rhesus monkeys against lethal Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV) and 100% of cynomolgus monkeys against Lake Victoria Marburg virus (MARV) infection. PMOplus may be useful for treating these and other highly pathogenic viruses in humans. PMID:20729866

Warren, Travis K; Warfield, Kelly L; Wells, Jay; Swenson, Dana L; Donner, Kelly S; Van Tongeren, Sean A; Garza, Nicole L; Dong, Lian; Mourich, Dan V; Crumley, Stacy; Nichols, Donald K; Iversen, Patrick L; Bavari, Sina

2010-09-01

339

Intimate partner homicide: new insights for understanding lethality and risks.  

PubMed

Research on covictims, family members, and close friends who have lost loved ones to intimate partner homicide (IPH) is a neglected area of study. We conducted phenomenological interviews with covictims to gain insights into risk and lethality, examined affidavits from criminal case files, and reviewed news releases. The data uncovered acute risk factors prior to the homicide, identified changes in the perpetrators' behavior and the perpetrators' perceived loss of control over the victim, and described barriers that victims faced when attempting to gain safety. Findings suggest that recognizing acute risk factors is an important area for future IPH research. PMID:25540257

Sheehan, Brynn E; Murphy, Sharon B; Moynihan, Mary M; Dudley-Fennessey, Erin; Stapleton, Jane G

2015-02-01

340

[Lethal intravenous infusion of a wound antiseptic containing polyhexanide].  

PubMed

Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) is considered to be highly histocompatible and is one of the most frequently used wound antiseptics. Only one case of intoxication has been reported so far. The present case of a lethal intoxication is the first fatal incident described where causality is substantiated by a temporal coincidence between application and ascertainable organ damage. The laboratory-chemical and histological investigations verified the toxicity of this substance after intravenous application with the main findings being severe hepatic and pancreatic damage. PMID:19432089

Wehner, Frank; Wehner, Heinz-Dieter; Schulz, Martin Manfred

2009-01-01

341

Ocular manifestations of the potentially lethal rheumatologic and vasculitic disorders.  

PubMed

Vision threatening ocular inflammation may occur in patients with any of the acquired connective tissue disorders and vasculitic diseases. Additionally, the ocular inflammation may be the presenting manifestation of the disease, which leads the patient to seek medical care. Other manifestations of the potentially lethal disease may be subtle or absent, presenting the thoughtful ophthalmologist with the opportunity to make life saving discoveries. Necrotizing scleritis, peripheral ulcerative keratitis, and retinal vasculitis are the ocular findings which should prompt the ophthalmologist to initiate very aggressive measures aimed at discovering any evidence of extra-ocular abnormalities, laboratory or otherwise. Appropriate therapy will be sight saving and may be life saving. PMID:23688612

Foster, C Stephen

2013-06-01

342

Genetic Screening for Bacterial Mutants in Liquid Growth Media By Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting  

PubMed Central

Many bacterial pathogens have defined in vitro virulence inducing conditions in liquid media which lead to production of virulence factors important during an infection. Identifying mutants that no longer respond to virulence inducing conditions will increase our understanding of bacterial pathogenesis. However, traditional genetic screens require growth on solid media. Bacteria in a single colony are in every phase of the growth curve, which complicates the analysis and make screens for growth phase-specific mutants problematic. Here, we utilize fluorescence-activated cell sorting in conjunction with random transposon mutagenesis to isolate bacteria grown in liquid media that are defective in virulence activation. This method permits analysis of an entire bacterial population in real time and selection of individual bacterial mutants with the desired gene expression profile at any time point after induction. We have used this method to identify Vibrio cholerae mutants defective in virulence induction. PMID:21094189

Abuaita, Basel H.; Withey, Jeffrey H.

2010-01-01

343

Blocking anaplerotic entry of glutamine into the TCA cycle sensitizes K-Ras mutant cancer cells to cytotoxic drugs.  

PubMed

Cancer cells undergo a metabolic transformation that allows for increased anabolic demands, wherein glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates are shunted away for the synthesis of biological molecules required for cell growth and division. One of the key shunts is the exit of citrate from the mitochondria and the TCA cycle for the generation of cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A that can be used for fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. With the loss of mitochondrial citrate, cancer cells rely on the 'conditionally essential' amino acid glutamine (Q) as an anaplerotic carbon source for TCA cycle intermediates. Although Q deprivation causes G1 cell cycle arrest in non-transformed cells, its impact on the cancer cell cycle is not well characterized. We report here a correlation between bypass of the Q-dependent G1 checkpoint and cancer cells harboring K-Ras mutations. Instead of arresting in G1 in response to Q-deprivation, K-Ras-driven cancer cells arrest in either S- or G2/M-phase. Inhibition of K-Ras effector pathways was able to revert cells to G1 arrest upon Q deprivation. Blocking anaplerotic utilization of Q mimicked Q deprivation-causing S- and G2/M-phase arrest in K-Ras mutant cancer cells. Significantly, Q deprivation or suppression of anaplerotic Q utilization created synthetic lethality to the cell cycle phase-specific cytotoxic drugs, capecitabine and paclitaxel. These data suggest that disabling of the G1 Q checkpoint could represent a novel vulnerability of cancer cells harboring K-Ras and possibly other mutations that disable the Q-dependent checkpoint.Oncogene advance online publication, 14 July 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.207. PMID:25023699

Saqcena, M; Mukhopadhyay, S; Hosny, C; Alhamed, A; Chatterjee, A; Foster, D A

2014-07-14

344

p53 constrains progression to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in a Braf-mutant mouse model of papillary thyroid cancer  

PubMed Central

Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) has among the worst prognoses of any solid malignancy. The low incidence of the disease has in part precluded systematic clinical trials and tissue collection, and there has been little progress in developing effective therapies. v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) and tumor protein p53 (TP53) mutations cooccur in a high proportion of ATCs, particularly those associated with a precursor papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). To develop an adult-onset model of BRAF-mutant ATC, we generated a thyroid-specific CreER transgenic mouse. We used a Cre-regulated BrafV600E mouse and a conditional Trp53 allelic series to demonstrate that p53 constrains progression from PTC to ATC. Gene expression and immunohistochemical analyses of murine tumors identified the cardinal features of human ATC including loss of differentiation, local invasion, distant metastasis, and rapid lethality. We used small-animal ultrasound imaging to monitor autochthonous tumors and showed that treatment with the selective BRAF inhibitor PLX4720 improved survival but did not lead to tumor regression or suppress signaling through the MAPK pathway. The combination of PLX4720 and the mapk/Erk kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD0325901 more completely suppressed MAPK pathway activation in mouse and human ATC cell lines and improved the structural response and survival of ATC-bearing animals. This model expands the limited repertoire of autochthonous models of clinically aggressive thyroid cancer, and these data suggest that small-molecule MAPK pathway inhibitors hold clinical promise in the treatment of advanced thyroid carcinoma. PMID:24711431

McFadden, David G.; Vernon, Amanda; Santiago, Philip M.; Martinez-McFaline, Raul; Bhutkar, Arjun; Crowley, Denise M.; McMahon, Martin; Sadow, Peter M.; Jacks, Tyler

2014-01-01

345

Alterations in growth, photosynthesis, and respiration in a starchless mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana (L. ) deficient in chloroplast phosphoglucomutase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. which lacks leaf starch was isolated by screening for plants which did not stain with iodine. When grown in a 12-h photoperiod, leaves of the wild-type accumulated substantial amounts of starch but lower levels of soluble sugars. Under these conditions, the mutant accumulated relatively high levels of soluble sugars. Rates of growth and

T. Caspar; S. C. Huber; C. Somerville

1985-01-01

346

Analysis of Escherichia coli Mutants with a Linear Respiratory Chain  

PubMed Central

The respiratory chain of E. coli is branched to allow the cells' flexibility to deal with changing environmental conditions. It consists of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductases NADH dehydrogenase I and II, as well as of three terminal oxidases. They differ with respect to energetic efficiency (proton translocation) and their affinity to the different quinone/quinol species and oxygen. In order to analyze the advantages of the branched electron transport chain over a linear one and to assess how usage of the different terminal oxidases determines growth behavior at varying oxygen concentrations, a set of isogenic mutant strains was created, which lack NADH dehydrogenase I as well as two of the terminal oxidases, resulting in strains with a linear respiratory chain. These strains were analyzed in glucose-limited chemostat experiments with defined oxygen supply, adjusting aerobic, anaerobic and different microaerobic conditions. In contrast to the wild-type strain MG1655, the mutant strains produced acetate even under aerobic conditions. Strain TBE032, lacking NADH dehydrogenase I and expressing cytochrome bd-II as sole terminal oxidase, showed the highest acetate formation rate under aerobic conditions. This supports the idea that cytochrome bd-II terminal oxidase is not able to catalyze the efficient oxidation of the quinol pool at higher oxygen conditions, but is functioning mainly under limiting oxygen conditions. Phosphorylation of ArcA, the regulator of the two-component system ArcBA, besides Fnr the main transcription factor for the response towards different oxygen concentrations, was studied. Its phosphorylation pattern was changed in the mutant strains. Dephosphorylation and therefore inactivation of ArcA started at lower aerobiosis levels than in the wild-type strain. Notably, not only the micro- and aerobic metabolism was affected by the mutations, but also the anaerobic metabolism, where the respiratory chain should not be important. PMID:24475268

Steinsiek, Sonja; Stagge, Stefan; Bettenbrock, Katja

2014-01-01

347

Analysis of Escherichia coli mutants with a linear respiratory chain.  

PubMed

The respiratory chain of E. coli is branched to allow the cells' flexibility to deal with changing environmental conditions. It consists of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductases NADH dehydrogenase I and II, as well as of three terminal oxidases. They differ with respect to energetic efficiency (proton translocation) and their affinity to the different quinone/quinol species and oxygen. In order to analyze the advantages of the branched electron transport chain over a linear one and to assess how usage of the different terminal oxidases determines growth behavior at varying oxygen concentrations, a set of isogenic mutant strains was created, which lack NADH dehydrogenase I as well as two of the terminal oxidases, resulting in strains with a linear respiratory chain. These strains were analyzed in glucose-limited chemostat experiments with defined oxygen supply, adjusting aerobic, anaerobic and different microaerobic conditions. In contrast to the wild-type strain MG1655, the mutant strains produced acetate even under aerobic conditions. Strain TBE032, lacking NADH dehydrogenase I and expressing cytochrome bd-II as sole terminal oxidase, showed the highest acetate formation rate under aerobic conditions. This supports the idea that cytochrome bd-II terminal oxidase is not able to catalyze the efficient oxidation of the quinol pool at higher oxygen conditions, but is functioning mainly under limiting oxygen conditions. Phosphorylation of ArcA, the regulator of the two-component system ArcBA, besides Fnr the main transcription factor for the response towards different oxygen concentrations, was studied. Its phosphorylation pattern was changed in the mutant strains. Dephosphorylation and therefore inactivation of ArcA started at lower aerobiosis levels than in the wild-type strain. Notably, not only the micro- and aerobic metabolism was affected by the mutations, but also the anaerobic metabolism, where the respiratory chain should not be important. PMID:24475268

Steinsiek, Sonja; Stagge, Stefan; Bettenbrock, Katja

2014-01-01

348

Abundant genetic variability in Drosophila simulans for hybrid female lethality in interspecific crosses to Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Intrinsic postzygotic reproductive isolation is thought to result from the substitution of multiple harmless or beneficial genetic differences between species that are incidentally deleterious when combined in species hybrids, causing hybrid sterility or inviability. Genetic variability for hybrid sterility or inviability phenotypes is, however, rarely assessed in natural populations. Here, we assess variation for Drosophila simulans-encoded maternal factor(s) that cause lethality in D. simulans-Drosophila melanogaster F(1) hybrid females. First, we survey genetic variability in the strength of D. simulans-mediated maternal effect hybrid lethality among 37 geographic and laboratory isolates. We find abundant variability in the strength of maternal effect hybrid lethality, ranging from complete lethality to none. Second, we assess maternal effect hybrid lethality for a subset of wild isolates made heterozygous with two so-called hybrid rescue strains. The results suggest that the D. simulans maternal effect hybrid lethality involves a diversity of alleles and/or multiple loci. PMID:22353244

Gérard, Pierre R; Presgraves, Daven C

2012-02-01

349

An Analysis Employing Temperature-Sensitive Mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of temperature-sensitive mutants of Tetrahymena pyriformis affected in cell division or developmental pathway selection has permitted elucidation of causal dependencies interrelating micronuclear and macronuclear replication and division, oral development, and cytokinesis. In those mutants in which cell division is specifically blocked at restrictive temperatures, micronuclear division proceeds with somewhat accelerated periodicity but maintains normal coupling to predivision oral development.

J. FRANKEL; L. M. JENKINS; L. E. DEBAULT

350

Selecting Bacterial Mutants by the Penicillin Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain improvements are described in the use of penicillin for isolating auxotrophic mutants of bacteria. By obtaining exponential growth before the penicillin is added, and by minimizing the duration of the treatment, cross-feeding is decreased and much denser populations can be screened. These modifications have made it possible to obtain, with regularity, mutants of Escherichia coli blocked in a desired

Luigi Gorini; Harriet Kaufman

1960-01-01

351

Eyespot-assembly mutants in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed Central

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a single-celled green alga that phototaxes toward light by means of a light-sensitive organelle, the eyespot. The eyespot is composed of photoreceptor and Ca(++)-channel signal transduction components in the plasma membrane of the cell and reflective carotenoid pigment layers in an underlying region of the large chloroplast. To identify components important for the positioning and assembly of a functional eyespot, a large collection of nonphototactic mutants was screened for those with aberrant pigment spots. Four loci were identified. eye2 and eye3 mutants have no pigmented eyespots. min1 mutants have smaller than wild-type eyespots. mlt1(ptx4) mutants have multiple eyespots. The MIN1, MLT1(PTX4), and EYE2 loci are closely linked to each other; EYE3 is unlinked to the other three loci. The eye2 and eye3 mutants are epistatic to min1 and mlt1 mutations; all double mutants are eyeless. min1 mlt1 double mutants have a synthetic phenotype; they are eyeless or have very small, misplaced eyespots. Ultrastructural studies revealed that the min1 mutants are defective in the physical connection between the plasma membrane and the chloroplast envelope membranes in the region of the pigment granules. Characterization of these four loci will provide a beginning for the understanding of eyespot assembly and localization in the cell. PMID:10511552

Lamb, M R; Dutcher, S K; Worley, C K; Dieckmann, C L

1999-01-01

352

Escherichia coli mutants impaired in maltodextrin transport.  

PubMed Central

Wild-type Escherichia coli K-12 was found to grow equally well on maltose and on maltodextrins containing up to seven glucose residues. Three classes of mutants unable to grow on maltodextrins, but still able to grow on maltose, were investigated in detail. The first class, already known, was composed of phage lambda-resistant mutants, which lack the outer membrane protein coded by gene lamB. These mutants grow on maltose and maltotriose but not at all on maltotetraose and longer maltodextrins which cannot cross the outer membrane. A second class of mutants were affected in malE, the structural gene of the periplasmic maltose binding protein. The maltose binding proteins isolated from the new mutants were altered in their substrate binding properties, but not in a way that could account for the mutant phenotypes. Rather, the results of growth experiments and transport studies suggest that these malE mutants are impaired in their ability to transport maltodextrins across the outer membrane. This implies that the maltose binding protein (in wild-type strains) cooperates with the lambda receptor in permeation through the outer membrane. The last class of mutants described in this paper were affected in malG, or perhaps in an as yet undetected gene close to malG. They were defective in the transfer of maltodextrins from the periplasmic space to the cytoplasm but only slightly affected in the transport of maltose. Images PMID:387714

Wandersman, C; Schwartz, M; Ferenci, T

1979-01-01

353

Uncaging Mutants: Moving From Menageries to Menages  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The thousands of mutants of maize are a remarkable resource for study of plant physiology, phylogeny, cell biology, biochemistry, development, and molecular biology. Mutants are most often applied in research studies as "members of collections" rather than as select families of members relevant to ...

354

Biology of Mutant KRAS Cell Lines  

Cancer.gov

Posted: September 22, 2014 Posted: September 22, 2014 Biology of Mutant KRAS Cell Lines Target Biology Group Many dozens of cell lines derived from human cancers contain mutant RAS genes, and these cell lines are a good proxy  to study cancer processes.

355

High throughput quantification of mutant huntingtin aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutant protein aggregates are an important biomarker in Huntington's and other neurodegenerative diseases however their quantification has typically relied on manual imaging and counting, or cell-free assays, which do not allow for concurrent analysis of cell viability. Here we describe four automated high throughput image analysis methods, developed using Metamorph™ software, to quantify mutant huntingtin aggregates in a cellular context.

Emma L. Scotter; Pritika Narayan; Michelle Glass; Mike Dragunow

2008-01-01

356

Injury Risk Assessment of Non-Lethal Projectile Head Impacts  

PubMed Central

Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real cases indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head impacts. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such impacts, the assessment approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports may not be appropriate. Therefore, there is a need of a specific approach to assess the lethality of these projectiles. In this framework, some recent research data referred in this article as “force wall approach” suggest the use of three lesional thresholds (unconsciousness, meningeal damages and bone damages) that depend on the intracranial pressure. Three corresponding critical impact forces are determined for a reference projectile. Based on the principle that equal rigid wall maximal impact forces will produce equal damage on the head, these limits can be determined for any other projectile. In order to validate the consistence of this innovative method, it is necessary to compare the results with other existing assessment methods. This paper proposes a comparison between the “force wall approach” and two different head models. The first one is a numerical model (Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model-SUFEHM) from Strasbourg University; the second one is a mechanical surrogate (Ballistics Load Sensing Headform-BLSH) from Biokinetics. PMID:25400712

Oukara, Amar; Nsiampa, Nestor; Robbe, Cyril; Papy, Alexandre

2014-01-01

357

Injury risk assessment of non-lethal projectile head impacts.  

PubMed

Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real cases indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head impacts. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such impacts, the assessment approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports may not be appropriate. Therefore, there is a need of a specific approach to assess the lethality of these projectiles. In this framework, some recent research data referred in this article as "force wall approach" suggest the use of three lesional thresholds (unconsciousness, meningeal damages and bone damages) that depend on the intracranial pressure. Three corresponding critical impact forces are determined for a reference projectile. Based on the principle that equal rigid wall maximal impact forces will produce equal damage on the head, these limits can be determined for any other projectile. In order to validate the consistence of this innovative method, it is necessary to compare the results with other existing assessment methods. This paper proposes a comparison between the "force wall approach" and two different head models. The first one is a numerical model (Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model-SUFEHM) from Strasbourg University; the second one is a mechanical surrogate (Ballistics Load Sensing Headform-BLSH) from Biokinetics. PMID:25400712

Oukara, Amar; Nsiampa, Nestor; Robbe, Cyril; Papy, Alexandre

2014-01-01

358

Rad52 inactivation is synthetically lethal with BRCA2 deficiency  

PubMed Central

Synthetic lethality is a powerful approach to study selective cell killing based on genotype. We show that loss of Rad52 function is synthetically lethal with breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) deficiency, whereas there was no impact on cell growth and viability in BRCA2-complemented cells. The frequency of both spontaneous and double-strand break-induced homologous recombination and ionizing radiation-induced Rad51 foci decreased by 2–10 times when Rad52 was depleted in BRCA2-deficient cells, with little to no effect in BRCA2-complemented cells. The absence of both Rad52 and BRCA2 resulted in extensive chromosome aberrations, especially chromatid-type aberrations. Ionizing radiation-induced and S phase-associated Rad52-Rad51 foci form equally well in the presence or absence of BRCA2, indicating that Rad52 can respond to DNA double-strand breaks and replication stalling independently of BRCA2. Rad52 thus is an independent and alternative repair pathway of homologous recombination and a target for therapy in BRCA2-deficient cells. PMID:21148102

Feng, Zhihui; Scott, Shaun P.; Bussen, Wendy; Sharma, Girdhar G.; Guo, Gongshe; Pandita, Tej K.; Powell, Simon N.

2011-01-01

359

Equation of state and fragmentation issues in computational lethality analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to summarize the status of computational analysis of hypervelocity impact lethality in relatively nontechnical terms from the perspective of the author. It is not intended to be a review of the technical literature on the problems of concern. The discussion is focused by concentrating on two phenomenology areas which are of particular concern in computational impact studies. First, the material`s equation of state, specifically the treatment of expanded states of metals undergoing shock vaporization, is discussed. Second, the process of dynamic fragmentation is addressed. In both cases, the context of the discussion deals with inaccuracies and difficulties associated with numerical hypervelocity impact simulations. Laboratory experimental capabilities in hypervelocity impact for impact velocities greater than 10.0 km/s are becoming increasingly viable. This paper also gives recommendations for experimental thrusts which utilize these capabilities that will help to resolve the uncertainties in the numerical lethality studies that are pointed out in the present report.

Trucano, T.G.

1993-07-01

360

The lethal effects of Cyperus iria on Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

The sedge Cyperus iria, a common weed in rice, contains large amounts of the insect hormone (10R) juvenile hormone III (JH III). Given its widespread distribution in Asia and Africa, we examined the possibility that C. iria could be used as a safe, inexpensive, and readily available mosquito larvicide. Plants of varying ages were harvested and leaves tested for lethal effects on larvae of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The median lethal doses (LD50s) for frozen leaves from 1- and 2-month-old plants were 267 and 427 mg/100 ml of water, respectively. Leaves from 1-month-old C. iria contained 193 micrograms JH III/g fresh weight, whereas leaves from 2-month-old plants contained 143 micrograms JH III/g fresh weight. Larval sensitivity to the plant differed with age; 4-day-old larvae displayed the greatest mortality followed in decreasing sensitivity by larvae 5, 6, 3, and 2 days old. Six Cyperus species (C. albostriatus, C. alternifolius, C. esculentus, C. iria, C. miliifolius, and C. papyrus) of similar developmental stage were assayed for JH III content. Only C. iria was found to contain significant levels of JH III. PMID:9599328

Schwartz, A M; Paskewitz, S M; Orth, A P; Tesch, M J; Toong, Y C; Goodman, W G

1998-03-01

361

Suppressive Effects of Anthrax Lethal Toxin on Megakaryopoiesis  

PubMed Central

Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) is a major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis. LT challenge suppresses platelet counts and platelet function in mice, however, the mechanism responsible for thrombocytopenia remains unclear. LT inhibits cellular mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which are vital pathways responsible for cell survival, differentiation, and maturation. One of the MAPKs, the MEK1/2-extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway, is particularly important in megakaryopoiesis. This study evaluates the hypothesis that LT may suppress the progenitor cells of platelets, thereby inducing thrombocytopenic responses. Using cord blood-derived CD34+ cells and mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells to perform in vitro differentiation, this work shows that LT suppresses megakaryopoiesis by reducing the survival of megakaryocytes. Thrombopoietin treatments can reduce thrombocytopenia, megakaryocytic suppression, and the quick onset of lethality in LT-challenged mice. These results suggest that megakaryocytic suppression is one of the mechanisms by which LT induces thrombocytopenia. These findings may provide new insights for developing feasible approaches against anthrax. PMID:23555687

Lin, Guan-Ling; Wang, Tsung-Pao; Lai, Yi-Ling; Lin, Ting-Kai; Hsieh, Ming-Chun; Kau, Jyh-Hwa; Huang, Hsin-Hsien; Hsu, Hui-Ling; Liao, Chi-Yuan; Sun, Der-Shan

2013-01-01

362

Bacteriocin-resistant mutants of Erwinia chrysanthemi: possible involvement of iron acquisition in phytopathogenicity.  

PubMed Central

A series of bacteriocin-resistant mutants of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937JRH were unable to elicit soft-rot symptoms on saintpaulia plants. The loss of pathogenicity was correlated with the disappearance of one to three outer membrane polypeptides (molecular weights, about 80,000 to 90,000) whose production in wild-type strains was greatly enhanced under iron-limited growth conditions. The mutants did not exhibit altered extracellular pectinolytic or cellulolytic activities. Images PMID:4008442

Expert, D; Toussaint, A

1985-01-01

363

Siderophore mediated plant growth promotion at low temperature by mutant of fluorescent pseudomonad?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cold resistant mutant of Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 was developed, which could grow equally well at 25 and 10 C and its effect on plant growth promotion under in vitro and in situ conditions was observed. Siderophore estimation revealed it to be a siderophore-overproducing mutant (17-fold increase) when\\u000a compared to its wild type counterpart. A gnotobiotic root elongation assay

Vandana Katiyar; Reeta Goel

2004-01-01

364

Mutants of thermotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum  

SciTech Connect

Amoebae of Dictyostelium discoideum, strain HL50 were mutagenized with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, cloned, allowed to form pseudoplasmodia and screened for aberrant positive and negative thermotaxis. Three types of mutants were found. Mutant HO428 exhibits only positive thermotaxis over the entire temperature range (no negative thermotaxis). HO596 and HO813 exhibit weakened positive thermotaxis and normal negative thermotaxis. The weakened positive thermotactic response results in a shift toward warmer temperatures in the transition temperature from negative to positive thermotaxis. Mutant HO209 exhibits weakened positive and negative thermotactic responses and has a transition temperature similar to the 'wild type' (HL50).The two types of mutants represented by HO428, HO596 and HO813 support the model that positive and negative thermotaxis have separate pathways for temperature sensing. The type of mutants which contains HO209 suggests that those two pathways converge at some point before the response.

Schneider, M.J.; Fontana, D.R.; Poff, K.L.

1982-08-01

365

The Maternally Expressed WRKY Transcription Factor TTG2 Controls Lethality in Interploidy Crosses of Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular mechanisms underlying lethality of F1 hybrids between diverged parents are one target of speciation research. Crosses between diploid and tetraploid individuals of the same genotype can result in F1 lethality, and this dosage-sensitive incompatibility plays a role in polyploid speciation. We have identified variation in F1 lethality in interploidy crosses of Arabidopsis thaliana and determined the genetic architecture

Brian P Dilkes; Melissa Spielman; Renate Weizbauer; Brian Watson; Diana Burkart-Waco; Rod J Scott; Luca Comai

2008-01-01

366

Impulsivity, aggression and brain structure in high and low lethality suicide attempters with borderline personality disorder.  

PubMed

Impulsivity and aggressiveness are trait dispositions associated with the vulnerability to suicidal behavior across diagnoses. They are associated with structural and functional abnormalities in brain networks involved in regulation of mood, impulse and behavior. They are also core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD), a disorder defined, in part, by recurrent suicidal behavior. We assessed the relationships between personality traits, brain structure and lethality of suicide attempts in 51 BPD attempters using multiple regression analyses on structural MRI data. BPD was diagnosed by the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients-revised, impulsivity by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), aggression by the Brown-Goodwin Lifetime History of Aggression (LHA), and high lethality by a score of 4 or more on the Lethality Rating Scale (LRS). Sixteen High Lethality attempters were compared to 35 Low Lethality attempters, with no significant differences noted in gender, co-morbidity, childhood abuse, BIS or LHA scores. Degree of medical lethality (LRS) was negatively related to gray matter volumes across multiple fronto-temporal-limbic regions. Effects of impulsivity and aggression on gray matter volumes discriminated High from Low Lethality attempters and differed markedly within lethality groups. Lethality of suicide attempts in BPD may be related to the mediation of these personality traits by specific neural networks. PMID:24656768

Soloff, Paul; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A

2014-06-30

367

Heterochromatin position effects on circularized sex chromosomes cause filicidal embryonic lethality in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Some circularized X-Y chromosomes in Drosophila melanogaster are mitotically unstable and induce early embryonic lethality, but the genetic basis is unknown. Our experiments suggest that a large region of X-linked satellite DNA causes anaphase bridges and lethality when placed into a new heterochromatic environment within certain circularized X-Y chromosomes. These results reveal that repetitive sequences can be incompatible with one another in cis. The lethal phenotype also bears a remarkable resemblance to a case of interspecific hybrid lethality. PMID:24478337

Ferree, Patrick M; Gomez, Karina; Rominger, Peter; Howard, Dagnie; Kornfeld, Hannah; Barbash, Daniel A

2014-04-01

368

Temperature-sensitive paralytic mutants are enriched for those causing neurodegeneration in Drosophila.  

PubMed Central

Age-dependent neurodegeneration is a pathological condition found in many metazoans. Despite the biological and medical significance of this condition, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration are poorly understood. The availability of a large collection of mutants exhibiting neurodegeneration will provide a valuable resource to elucidate these mechanisms. We have developed an effective screen for isolating neurodegeneration mutants in Drosophila. This screen is based on the observation that neuronal dysfunction, which leads to observable behavioral phenotypes, is often associated with neurodegeneration. Thus, we used a secondary histological screen to examine a collection of mutants originally isolated on the basis of conditional paralytic phenotypes. Using this strategy, we have identified 15 mutations affecting at least nine loci that cause gross neurodegenerative pathology. Here, we present a genetic, behavioral, and anatomical analysis of vacuous (vacu), the first of these mutants to be characterized, and an overview of other mutants isolated in the screen. vacu is a recessive mutation located cytologically at 85D-E that causes locomotor defects in both larvae and adults as well as neuronal hyperactivity. In addition, vacu exhibits extensive age-dependent neurodegeneration throughout the central nervous system. We also identified mutations in at least eight other loci that showed significant levels of neurodegeneration with a diverse array of neuropathological phenotypes. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of our screen in identifying mutations causing neurodegeneration. Further studies of vacu and the other neurodegenerative mutants isolated should ultimately help dissect the biochemical pathways leading to neurodegeneration. PMID:12136022

Palladino, Michael J; Hadley, Tricia J; Ganetzky, Barry

2002-01-01

369

Novel method for identifying bacterial mutants with reduced epiphytic fitness  

SciTech Connect

Leaf surfaces are a habitat for large population of diverse bacteria which, in turn, can have numerous effects on the plants on which they live. Such bacteria are considered distinct from other plant-associated bacteria and have probably acquired adaptations which allow them to tolerate the physical and chemical environments found on leaves. Some bacterial traits, such as motility or UV irradiation tolerance, are unambiguously important in epiphytic fitness. However, novel traits may condition bacterial growth or survival on leaves. The author of this study has adapted a tube ice nucleation assay to allow differentiation of mutants of an ice nucleation-active bacterial strain that colonizes leave. The study describes a technique for rapid identification of bacterial mutants with quantitatively different population sized in a natural habitat based on the measurement of ice nucleus production. 41 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Lindow, S.E. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))

1993-05-01

370

Ultradian rhythm unmasked in the Pdf clock mutant of Drosophila.  

PubMed

A diverse range of organisms shows physiological and behavioural rhythms with various periods. Extensive studies have been performed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of circadian rhythms with an approximately 24 h period in both Drosophila and mammals, while less attention has been paid to ultradian rhythms with shorter periods. We used a video-tracking method to monitor the movement of single flies, and clear ultradian rhythms were detected in the locomotor behaviour of wild type and clock mutant flies kept under constant dark conditions. In particular, the Pigment-dispersing factor mutant (Pdf 01) demonstrated a precise and robust ultradian rhythmicity, which was not temperature compensated. Our results suggest that Drosophila has an endogenous ultradian oscillator that is masked by circadian rhythmic behaviours. PMID:25116613

Seki, Yuuichi; Tanimura, Teiichi

2014-09-01

371

CSNK1E/CTNNB1 Are Synthetic Lethal To TP53 in Colorectal Cancer and Are Markers for Prognosis  

PubMed Central

Two genes are called synthetic lethal (SL) if their simultaneous mutations lead to cell death, but each individual mutation does not. Targeting SL partners of mutated cancer genes can kill cancer cells specifically, but leave normal cells intact. We present an integrated approach to uncovering SL pairs in colorectal cancer (CRC). Screening verified SL pairs using microarray gene expression data of cancerous and normal tissues, we first identified potential functionally relevant (simultaneously differentially expressed) gene pairs. From the top-ranked pairs, ~ 20 genes were chosen for immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining in 171 CRC patients. To find novel SL pairs, all 169 combined pairs from the individual IHC were synergistically correlated to five clinicopathological features, e.g. overall survival. Of the 11 predicted SL pairs, MSH2-POLB and CSNK1E-MYC were consistent with literature, and we validated the top two pairs, CSNK1E-TP53 and CTNNB1-TP53 using RNAi knockdown and small molecule inhibitors of CSNK1E in isogenic HCT-116 and RKO cells. Furthermore, synthetic lethality of CSNK1E and TP53 was verified in mouse model. Importantly, multivariate analysis revealed that CSNK1E-P53, CTNNB1-P53, MSH2-RB1, and BRCA1-WNT5A were independent prognosis markers from stage, with CSNK1E-P53 applicable to early-stage and the remaining three throughout all stages. Our findings suggest that CSNK1E is a promising target for TP53-mutant CRC patients which constitute ~ 40% to 50% of patients, while to date safety regarding inhibition of TP53 is controversial. Thus the integrated approach is useful in finding novel SL pairs for cancer therapeutics, and it is readily accessible and applicable to other cancers. PMID:24947187

Tiong, Khong-Loon; Chang, Kuo-Ching; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Liu, Ting-Yuan; Wu, Jia-Hong; Hsieh, Ping-Heng; Lin, Shu-Hui; Lai, Wei-Yun; Hsu, Yu-Chin; Chen, Jeou-Yuan; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Shieh, Grace S.

2014-01-01

372

CMPD: cancer mutant proteome database.  

PubMed

Whole-exome sequencing, which centres on the protein coding regions of disease/cancer associated genes, represents the most cost-effective method to-date for deciphering the association between genetic alterations and diseases. Large-scale whole exome/genome sequencing projects have been launched by various institutions, such as NCI, Broad Institute and TCGA, to provide a comprehensive catalogue of coding variants in diverse tissue samples and cell lines. Further functional and clinical interrogation of these sequence variations must rely on extensive cross-platforms integration of sequencing information and a proteome database that explicitly and comprehensively archives the corresponding mutated peptide sequences. While such data resource is a critical for the mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of exomic variants, no database is currently available for the collection of mutant protein sequences that correspond to recent large-scale genomic data. To address this issue and serve as bridge to integrate genomic and proteomics datasets, CMPD (http://cgbc.cgu.edu.tw/cmpd) collected over 2 millions genetic alterations, which not only facilitates the confirmation and examination of potential cancer biomarkers but also provides an invaluable resource for translational medicine research and opportunities to identify mutated proteins encoded by mutated genes. PMID:25398898

Huang, Po-Jung; Lee, Chi-Ching; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming; Yeh, Yuan-Ming; Julie Chu, Lichieh; Chen, Ting-Wen; Chang, Kai-Ping; Lee, Cheng-Yang; Gan, Ruei-Chi; Liu, Hsuan; Tang, Petrus

2015-01-28

373

Antibiotics induce redox-related physiological alterations as part of their lethality.  

PubMed

Deeper understanding of antibiotic-induced physiological responses is critical to identifying means for enhancing our current antibiotic arsenal. Bactericidal antibiotics with diverse targets have been hypothesized to kill bacteria, in part by inducing production of damaging reactive species. This notion has been supported by many groups but has been challenged recently. Here we robustly test the hypothesis using biochemical, enzymatic, and biophysical assays along with genetic and phenotypic experiments. We first used a novel intracellular H2O2 sensor, together with a chemically diverse panel of fluorescent dyes sensitive to an array of reactive species to demonstrate that antibiotics broadly induce redox stress. Subsequent gene-expression analyses reveal that complex antibiotic-induced oxidative stress responses are distinct from canonical responses generated by supraphysiological levels of H2O2. We next developed a method to quantify cellular respiration dynamically and found that bactericidal antibiotics elevate oxygen consumption, indicating significant alterations to bacterial redox physiology. We further show that overexpression of catalase or DNA mismatch repair enzyme, MutS, and antioxidant pretreatment limit antibiotic lethality, indicating that reactive oxygen species causatively contribute to antibiotic killing. Critically, the killing efficacy of antibiotics was diminished under strict anaerobic conditions but could be enhanced by exposure to molecular oxygen or by the addition of alternative electron acceptors, indicating that environmental factors play a role in killing cells physiologically primed for death. This work provides direct evidence that, downstream of their target-specific interactions, bactericidal antibiotics induce complex redox alterations that contribute to cellular damage and death, thus supporting an evolving, expanded model of antibiotic lethality. PMID:24803433

Dwyer, Daniel J; Belenky, Peter A; Yang, Jason H; MacDonald, I Cody; Martell, Jeffrey D; Takahashi, Noriko; Chan, Clement T Y; Lobritz, Michael A; Braff, Dana; Schwarz, Eric G; Ye, Jonathan D; Pati, Mekhala; Vercruysse, Maarten; Ralifo, Paul S; Allison, Kyle R; Khalil, Ahmad S; Ting, Alice Y; Walker, Graham C; Collins, James J

2014-05-20

374

Antibiotics induce redox-related physiological alterations as part of their lethality  

PubMed Central

Deeper understanding of antibiotic-induced physiological responses is critical to identifying means for enhancing our current antibiotic arsenal. Bactericidal antibiotics with diverse targets have been hypothesized to kill bacteria, in part by inducing production of damaging reactive species. This notion has been supported by many groups but has been challenged recently. Here we robustly test the hypothesis using biochemical, enzymatic, and biophysical assays along with genetic and phenotypic experiments. We first used a novel intracellular H2O2 sensor, together with a chemically diverse panel of fluorescent dyes sensitive to an array of reactive species to demonstrate that antibiotics broadly induce redox stress. Subsequent gene-expression analyses reveal that complex antibiotic-induced oxidative stress responses are distinct from canonical responses generated by supraphysiological levels of H2O2. We next developed a method to quantify cellular respiration dynamically and found that bactericidal antibiotics elevate oxygen consumption, indicating significant alterations to bacterial redox physiology. We further show that overexpression of catalase or DNA mismatch repair enzyme, MutS, and antioxidant pretreatment limit antibiotic lethality, indicating that reactive oxygen species causatively contribute to antibiotic killing. Critically, the killing efficacy of antibiotics was diminished under strict anaerobic conditions but could be enhanced by exposure to molecular oxygen or by the addition of alternative electron acceptors, indicating that environmental factors play a role in killing cells physiologically primed for death. This work provides direct evidence that, downstream of their target-specific interactions, bactericidal antibiotics induce complex redox alterations that contribute to cellular damage and death, thus supporting an evolving, expanded model of antibiotic lethality. PMID:24803433

Dwyer, Daniel J.; Belenky, Peter A.; Yang, Jason H.; MacDonald, I. Cody; Martell, Jeffrey D.; Takahashi, Noriko; Chan, Clement T. Y.; Lobritz, Michael A.; Braff, Dana; Schwarz, Eric G.; Ye, Jonathan D.; Pati, Mekhala; Vercruysse, Maarten; Ralifo, Paul S.; Allison, Kyle R.; Khalil, Ahmad S.; Ting, Alice Y.; Walker, Graham C.; Collins, James J.

2014-01-01

375

Lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin and cypermethrin on Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).  

PubMed

Habrobracon hebetor Say is an ectoparasitoid of larval stage of various lepidopteran pests. Lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin and cypermethrin were evaluated on adult and preimaginal stages of H. hebetor under laboratory conditions. Contact exposure bioassays with adults indicated that the lethal concentration (LC50) of two commercial azadirachtin-containing formulations, NeemGuard and BioNeem, were 43.5 and 10.2 microg a.i./ml, respectively. The LC50 of cypermethrin was 5.4 microg a.i./ml. When larval stage of H. hebetor was exposed to these insecticides with a field recommended concentration of NeemGuard, BioNeem, or cypermethrin by a dip protocol, the emergence rate was reduced by 39.0, 36.6, and 97.6%, respectively. To assay the sublethal effects of these insecticides, adult wasps were exposed to an LC30 concentration of the insecticides, and then demographic parameters of the surviving wasps were determined. Fecundity, fertility, and parameters including the intrinsic rate of increase (r(m)) were affected negatively. The r(m) values following exposure to NeemGuard, BioNeem, cypermethrin, or mock treatment were 0.143, 0.149, 0.160, and 0.179, respectively, female offspring per female per day, respectively. The current study showed that cypermethrin had more acute toxicity on larval and adult stages of H. hebetor compared with azadirachin. The commercial formulations of azadirachtin and cypermethrin negatively affected most of the life table parameters of the parasitoid. Semifield and field studies are needed for obtaining more applicable results on combining H. hebetor and the tested insecticides for an integrated pest management-based strategy for crop protection. PMID:24772544

Abedi, Zahra; Saber, Moosa; Gharekhani, Gholamhossein; Mehrvar, Ali; Kamita, Shizuo George

2014-04-01

376

Incomplete flagellar structures in Escherichia coli mutants.  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli mutants with defects in 29 flagellar genes identified so far were examined by electron microscopy for possession of incomplete flagellar structures in membrane-associated fractions. The results are discussed in consideration of the known transcriptional interaction of flagellar genes. Hook-basal body structures were detected in flaD, flaS, flaT, flbC, and hag mutants. The flaE mutant had a polyhook-basal body structure. An intact basal body appeared in flaK mutants. Putative precursors of the basal body were detected in mutants with defects in flaM, flaU, flaV, and flaY. No structures homologous to the flagellar basal body or its parts were detected in mutants with defects in flaA, flaB, flaC, flaG, flaH, flaI, flaL, flaN, flaO, flaP, flaQ, flaR, flaW, flaX, flbA, flbB, and flbD. One flaZ mutant had an incomplete flagellar basal body structure and another formed no significant structure, suggesting that flaZ is responsible for both basal body assembly and the transcription of the hag gene. Images PMID:7007337

Suzuki, T; Komeda, Y

1981-01-01

377

On the phenomenology of lethal applications of insulin.  

PubMed

This study deals with the postmortem findings in cases of lethal hypoglycaemia due to injections of insulin. In 12 cases (four female; eight male; mean age 42 years) the following aspects were evaluated retrospectively: circumstances of life, scene of death, pathomorphological findings and postmortem biochemistry on cerebrospinal fluid, vitreous humour, blood, and urine (levels of glucose, lactate, hemoglobin A1C and insulin). Furthermore, analyses of ethanol in blood and urine as well as toxicological and histological examinations were performed. Unexpectedly, the dead persons rarely represented diabetics, relatives of diabetics, or medical personnel. It is concluded, that the diagnosis of fatal hypoglycaemia can only be established by a synopsis of postmortem biochemistry, pathomorphological alterations and anamnesis. Besides, this diagnosis must always be made "per exclusionem". PMID:9618911

Kernbach-Wighton, G; Püschel, K

1998-04-22

378

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection and lethal chytridiomycosis in caecilian amphibians (Gymnophiona).  

PubMed

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is commonly termed the 'amphibian chytrid fungus' but thus far has been documented to be a pathogen of only batrachian amphibians (anurans and caudatans). It is not proven to infect the limbless, generally poorly known, and mostly soil-dwelling caecilians (Gymnophiona). We conducted the largest qPCR survey of Bd in caecilians to date, for more than 200 field-swabbed specimens from five countries in Africa and South America, representing nearly 20 species, 12 genera, and 8 families. Positive results were recovered for 58 specimens from Tanzania and Cameroon (4 families, 6 genera, 6+ species). Quantities of Bd were not exceptionally high, with genomic equivalent (GE) values of 0.052-17.339. In addition, we report the first evidence of lethal chytridiomycosis in caecilians. Mortality in captive (wild-caught, commercial pet trade) Geotrypetes seraphini was associated with GE scores similar to those we detected for field-swabbed, wild animals. PMID:23677560

Gower, David J; Doherty-Bone, Thomas; Loader, Simon P; Wilkinson, Mark; Kouete, Marcel T; Tapley, Benjamin; Orton, Frances; Daniel, Olivia Z; Wynne, Felicity; Flach, Edmund; Müller, Hendrik; Menegon, Michele; Stephen, Ian; Browne, Robert K; Fisher, Mathew C; Cunningham, Andrew A; Garner, Trenton W J

2013-06-01

379

Environmental Conditions Environmental Conditions  

E-print Network

Environmental Conditions Environmental Conditions Appendix II The unique geology, hydrology and instream habitat. This chapter examines how environmental conditions in the Deschutes watershed affect, the discussion characterizes the environmental conditions within three watershed areas: the Lower Deschutes

380

Functional comparison of three transformer gene introns regulating conditional female lethality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The trasformer gene plays a critical role in the sex determination pathways of many insects. We cloned two transformer gene introns from Anastrepha suspensa, the Caribbean fruit fly. These introns have sequences that putatively have a role in sex-specific splicing patterns that affect sex determinat...

381

Lethal Dietary Toxicities of Environmental Contaminants and Pesticides to Coturnix  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five-day subacute dietary toxicity tests of 193 potential environmental contaminants, pesticides, organic solvents, and various adjuvants are presented for young coturnix (Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica Temminck and Schlegel). The report provides the most comprehensive data base available for avian subacute dietary toxicity tests and is primarily intended for use in ranking toxicities by a standard method that has a reasonable degree of environmental relevance. Findings are presented in two parts: Part I is a critique of selected drugs that includes discussion of subacute toxicity in relation to chemical class and structure, pesticide formulation, and age of animals; Part II is a summary of toxicologic findings for each test substance and provides a statistically basis for comparing toxicities. Data presented include the median lethal concentration (LC50), slope of the probit regression curve (dose-response curve), response chronology, and food consumption. We observed that: 1) fewer than 15% of the compounds were classed 'very' or 'highly' toxic (i.e, LC50 < 200 ppm) and all of these were either chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, or organometallics; 2) subacute toxicity may vary widely among structurally similar chemicals and between different formulations of the same chemical; therefore, conclusions about lethal hazard must be made cautiously until the actual formulation of inset has been tested: 3) inclusion of a general standard in each battery of tests is useful for detection of atypical trials and monitoring population changes but should not be used indiscriminantly for adjusting LC50's for intertest differences unless the chemicals of concern and the standard elicit their toxicities through the same action; 4) although other species have been tested effectively under the subacute protocol, coturnix were ideal for the stated purpose of this research because they are inexpensive, well-adapted to the laboratory environment, and yield good intertest reproducibility of response.

Hill, E.F.; Camardese, M.B.

1986-01-01

382

Lipopolysaccharides of Salmonella T Mutants  

PubMed Central

The composition of lipopolysaccharides derived from various Salmonella T forms was studied. All T1-form lipopolysaccharides examined contained 14 to 22% each of both d-galactose and pentose in addition to 4 to 9% each of ketodeoxyoctonic acid, heptose, d-glucosamine, and d-glucose. The pentose was identified as d-ribose. The T2-form lipopolysaccharide examined did not contain a significant amount of pentose, nor more than the usual amounts of d-galactose. Periodate oxidation of T1 (lipo) polysaccharides followed by NaBH4 reduction revealed that ribose was almost quantitatively protected, galactose was destroyed, and threitol and mannose were newly formed. The latter two products probably originated from 4-linked galactose and heptose, respectively. Ribose and galactose were found in specific precipitates of T1 lipopolysaccharide with anti-T1 antiserum but were not found in specific precipitates of alkali-treated T1 lipopolysaccharide and of Freeman degraded polysaccharide with anti-T1 serum Ribose and galactose are present in these degraded preparations in the form of nondialyzable polymers. The T1-form mutant lipopolysaccharides lacked the O-specific sugars constituting the side-chains in the wild-type antigens. They did not produce the soluble O-specific haptenic polysaccharide known to be accumulated in RI strains. With these properties, T1 lipopolysaccharides resemble RII lipopolysaccharides. Like RII degraded polysaccharides, T1-degraded polysaccharides also contained glucosamine. Furthermore, strong cross-reactions were found to exist between T1 and RII lipopolysaccharides in both hemagglutination inhibition assays and in precipitation tests. It is proposed that T1 lipopolysaccharides represent RII lipopolysaccharides to which polymers consisting of ribose and galactose are attached. PMID:6057795

Wheat, R. W.; Berst, M.; Ruschmann, E.; Lüderitz, O.; Westphal, O.

1967-01-01

383

A major QTL affects temperature sensitive adult lethality and inbreeding depression in life span in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Background The study of inbreeding depression has major relevance for many disciplines, including conservation genetics and evolutionary biology. Still, the molecular genetic basis of this phenomenon remains poorly characterised, as knowledge on the mechanistic causes of inbreeding depression and the molecular properties of genes that give rise to or modulate its deleterious effects is lacking. These questions warrant the detailed study of genetic loci giving rise to inbreeding depression. However, the complex and polygenic nature of general inbreeding depression makes this a daunting task. Study of inbreeding effects in specific traits, such as age-specific mortality and life span, provide a good starting point, as a limited set of genes is expected to be involved. Results Here we report on a QTL mapping study on inbreeding related and temperature sensitive lethality in male Drosophila melanogaster. The inbreeding effect was expressed at moderately high temperature, and manifested itself as severe premature mortality in males, but not in females. We used a North Carolina crossing design 3 to estimate average dominance ratio and heritability. We found the genetic basis of the lethal effect to be relatively simple, being due mainly to a single recessive QTL on the left arm of chromosome 2. This locus colocalised with a QTL that conditioned variation in female life span, acting as an overdominant locus for this trait. Male life span was additionally affected by variation at the X-chromosome. Conclusion This demonstrates that analysis of large conditional lethal effects is a viable strategy for delineating genes which are sensitive to inbreeding depression. PMID:18957085

2008-01-01

384

Light-Induced Acclimation of the Arabidopsis chlorina1 Mutant to Singlet Oxygen[C][W  

PubMed Central

Singlet oxygen (1O2) is a reactive oxygen species that can function as a stress signal in plant leaves leading to programmed cell death. In microalgae, 1O2-induced transcriptomic changes result in acclimation to 1O2. Here, using a chlorophyll b–less Arabidopsis thaliana mutant (chlorina1 [ch1]), we show that this phenomenon can also occur in vascular plants. The ch1 mutant is highly photosensitive due to a selective increase in the release of 1O2 by photosystem II. Under photooxidative stress conditions, the gene expression profile of ch1 mutant leaves very much resembled the gene responses to 1O2 reported in the Arabidopsis mutant flu. Preexposure of ch1 plants to moderately elevated light intensities eliminated photooxidative damage without suppressing 1O2 formation, indicating acclimation to 1O2. Substantial differences in gene expression were observed between acclimation and high-light stress: A number of transcription factors were selectively induced by acclimation, and contrasting effects were observed for the jasmonate pathway. Jasmonate biosynthesis was strongly induced in ch1 mutant plants under high-light stress and was noticeably repressed under acclimation conditions, suggesting the involvement of this hormone in 1O2-induced cell death. This was confirmed by the decreased tolerance to photooxidative damage of jasmonate-treated ch1 plants and by the increased tolerance of the jasmonate-deficient mutant delayed-dehiscence2. PMID:23590883

Ramel, Fanny; Ksas, Brigitte; Akkari, Elsy; Mialoundama, Alexis S.; Monnet, Fabien; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Mueller, Martin J.; Bouvier, Florence; Havaux, Michel

2013-01-01

385

Co-lethality studied as an asset against viral drug escape: the HIV protease case  

PubMed Central

Background Co-lethality, or synthetic lethality is the documented genetic situation where two, separately non-lethal mutations, become lethal when combined in one genome. Each mutation is called a "synthetic lethal" (SL) or a co-lethal. Like invariant positions, SL sets (SL linked couples) are choice targets for drug design against fast-escaping RNA viruses: mutational viral escape by loss of affinity to the drug may induce (synthetic) lethality. Results From an amino acid sequence alignment of the HIV protease, we detected the potential SL couples, potential SL sets, and invariant positions. From the 3D structure of the same protein we focused on the ones that were close to each other and accessible on the protein surface, to possibly bind putative drugs. We aligned 24,155 HIV protease amino acid sequences and identified 290 potential SL couples and 25 invariant positions. After applying the distance and accessibility filter, three candidate drug design targets of respectively 7 (under the flap), 4 (in the cantilever) and 5 (in the fulcrum) amino acid positions were found. Conclusions These three replication-critical targets, located outside of the active site, are key to our anti-escape strategy. Indeed, biological evidence shows that 2/3 of those target positions perform essential biological functions. Their mutational variations to escape antiviral medication could be lethal, thus limiting the apparition of drug-resistant strains. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Arcady Mushegian, Shamil Sunyaev and Claus Wilke. PMID:20565756

2010-01-01

386

Evaluating the Predictive Validity of Suicidal Intent and Medical Lethality in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To examine whether suicidal intent and medical lethality of past suicide attempts are predictive of future attempts, the association between intent and lethality, and the consistency of these characteristics across repeated attempts among youth. Method: Suicide attempts in a 15-year prospective study of 180 formerly psychiatrically…

Sapyta, Jeffrey; Goldston, David B.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Daniel, Stephanie S.; Heilbron, Nicole; Mayfield, Andrew; Treadway, S. Lyn

2012-01-01

387

Improving on Army Field Gauze for Lethal Vascular Injuries: Challenges in Dressing Development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accounting for half of all deaths, uncontrolled hemorrhage remains the leading cause of death on the battlefield. Gaining hemostatic control of lethal vascular injuries sustained in combat using topical agents remains a challenge. Recent animal testing using a lethal arterial injury model compared a...

388

Non-lethal effect of the invasive predator Bythotrephes longimanus on Daphnia mendotae  

E-print Network

Non-lethal effect of the invasive predator Bythotrephes longimanus on Daphnia mendotae KEVIN L Arbor, MI, U.S.A. SUMMARY 1. We evaluated the antipredator behaviour of Daphnia mendotae to the invasive (referred to as a non-lethal effect of the predator). 2. In a laboratory experiment, Daphnia in the absence

389

The Danger Assessment: Validation of a Lethality Risk Assessment Instrument for Intimate Partner Femicide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Danger Assessment (DA) is an instrument designed to assess the likelihood of lethality or near lethality occurring in a case of intimate partner violence. This article describes the development, psychometric validation, and suggestions for use of the DA. An 11-city study of intimate partner femicide used multivariate analysis to test the…

Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Webster, Daniel W.; Glass, Nancy

2009-01-01

390

Examining the Impact of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Comorbidity on the Medical Lethality of Adolescent "Suicide Attempts"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Specific psychiatric diagnoses and comorbidity patterns were examined to determine if they were related to the medical lethality of "suicide attempts" among adolescents presenting to an urban general hospital (N = 375). Bivariate analysis showed that attempters with substance abuse disorders had higher levels of lethality than attempters without…

Mc Manama O'Brien, Kimberly H.; Berzin, Stephanie C.

2012-01-01

391

ORIGINAL PAPER Evaluating the impact of non-lethal DNA sampling on two  

E-print Network

from the US Fish and Wildlife Service to sample DNA from N. m. mitchellii populations. We suggestORIGINAL PAPER Evaluating the impact of non-lethal DNA sampling on two butterflies, Vanessa cardui not be desirable or permitted. We set out to develop a demonstrably non-lethal method of obtaining DNA from

Landis, Doug

392

Lethality and Autonomous Systems: The Roboticist Demographic Lilia V. Moshkina and Ronald C. Arkin  

E-print Network

responded. Section IV presents a summary and future work, some of which is already underway. 2. Survey of lethal force in warfare. The main objective of the survey is to determine the level of acceptance, of the employment of potentially lethal robots in warfare, as well as their attitude towards related ethical issues

393

Structure, Culture, and Lethality: An Integrated Model Approach to American Indian Suicide and Homicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of lethal violence in the United States have primarily focused on Whites and\\/or African Americans, generally ignoring American Indians. Interestingly, statistics indicate that homicide and suicide rates among American Indians are often higher than other racial\\/ethnic groups within the United States. In an attempt to understand these lethal violence patterns, the current study utilizes the integrated model of suicide

Christina Lanier

2010-01-01

394

Mutant p53: one name, many proteins  

PubMed Central

There is now strong evidence that mutation not only abrogates p53 tumor-suppressive functions, but in some instances can also endow mutant proteins with novel activities. Such neomorphic p53 proteins are capable of dramatically altering tumor cell behavior, primarily through their interactions with other cellular proteins and regulation of cancer cell transcriptional programs. Different missense mutations in p53 may confer unique activities and thereby offer insight into the mutagenic events that drive tumor progression. Here we review mechanisms by which mutant p53 exerts its cellular effects, with a particular focus on the burgeoning mutant p53 transcriptome, and discuss the biological and clinical consequences of mutant p53 gain of function. PMID:22713868

Freed-Pastor, William A.; Prives, Carol

2012-01-01

395

Virulence of Staphylococcus aureus mutants altered in type 5 capsule production.  

PubMed Central

Most clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus produce microcapsules (uronic acid-containing extracellular polysaccharides) that are detectable by serologic methods but are not visible by negative staining. Among the 11 reported serotypes, capsule types 5 and 8 comprise approximately 75% of all isolates. Transposon mutagenesis was performed on S. aureus to create mutants altered in capsule expression. Tn918 was introduced into the capsule type 5 strain Reynolds by filter mating, and a capsule-deficient transconjugate, JL236, was isolated. The wild-type strain was transformed with JL236 chromosomal DNA to confirm that transfer of the appropriate-size chromosomal fragment containing Tn918 generated a capsule-deficient transformant. Strain Reynolds was mutagenized with ethyl methanesulfonate to obtain a capsule-negative mutant (strain JL240). Capsular phenotypes were determined by colony immunoblots, antibody adsorption experiments, and transmission electron microscopy. The virulences of the parental and mutant strains in mice were compared. The 50% lethal doses for strains Reynolds, JL236, and JL240 were similar (10(8.59), 10(8.98), and 10(8.93) CFU, respectively). Animals injected intraperitoneally with either wild-type or mutant strains had comparable levels of bacteremia at 3 and 24 h after challenge. Quantitative cultures of blood and kidneys from animals challenged intravenously with sublethal doses of the S. aureus strains also showed no differences in bacterial clearance or renal abscess formation. These studies indicate that the type 5 S. aureus microcapsule does not promote bacterial virulence in the animal models tested. Images PMID:1847696

Albus, A; Arbeit, R D; Lee, J C

1991-01-01

396

A PCR-based forward genetics screening, using expression domain-specific markers, identifies mutants in endosperm transfer cell development  

PubMed Central

Mutant collections are an invaluable source of material on which forward genetic approaches allow the identification of genes affecting a wide variety of biological processes. However, some particular developmental stages and morphological structures may resist analysis due to their physical inaccessibility or to deleterious effects associated to their modification. Furthermore, lethal mutations acting early in development may escape detection. We have approached the characterization of 101 maize seed mutants, selected from a collection of 27,500 visually screened Mu-insertion lines, using a molecular marker approach based on a set of genes previously ascribed to different tissue compartments within the early developing kernel. A streamlined combination of qRT-PCR assays has allowed us to preliminary pinpoint the affected compartment, establish developmental comparisons to WT siblings and select mutant lines with alterations in the different compartments. Furthermore, clusters of markers co-affected by the underlying mutation were identified. We have analyzed more extensively a set of lines presenting significant variation in transfer cell-associated expression markers, and have performed morphological observations, and immunolocalization experiments to confirm the results, validating this approach as an efficient mutant description tool. PMID:24808899

Muñiz, Luis M.; Gómez, Elisa; Guyon, Virginie; López, Maribel; Khbaya, Bouchaib; Sellam, Olivier; Peréz, Pascual; Hueros, Gregorio

2014-01-01

397

A phenotype survey of 36 mutant mouse strains with gene-targeted defects in glycosyltransferases or glycan-binding proteins  

PubMed Central

The consortium for functional glycomics (CFG) was a large research initiative providing networking and resources for investigators studying the role of glycans and glycan-binding proteins in health and disease. Starting in 2001, six scientific cores were established to generate data, materials and new technologies. By the end of funding in 2011, the mouse phenotype core (MPC) submitted data to a website from the phenotype screen of 36 mutant mouse strains deficient in a gene for either a glycan-binding protein (GBP) or glycosyltransferase (GT). Each mutant strain was allotted three months for analysis and screened by standard phenotype assays used in the fields of immunology, histology, hematology, coagulation, serum chemistry, metabolism and behavior. Twenty of the deficient mouse strains had been studied in other laboratories, and additional tests were performed on these strains to confirm previous observations and discover new data. The CFG constructed 16 new homozygous mutant mouse strains and completed the initial phenotype screen of the majority of these new mutant strains. In total, >300 phenotype changes were observed, but considering the over 100 assays performed on each strain, most of the phenotypes were unchanged. Phenotype differences include abnormal testis morphology in GlcNAcT9- and Siglec-H-deficient mice and lethality in Pomgnt1-deficient mice. The numerous altered phenotypes discovered, along with the consideration of the significant findings of normality, will provide a platform for future characterization to understand the important roles of glycans and GBPs in the mechanisms of health and disease. PMID:23118208

Orr, Sally L; Le, Dzung; Long, Jeffrey M; Sobieszczuk, Peter; Ma, Bo; Tian, Hua; Fang, Xiaoqun; Paulson, James C; Marth, Jamey D; Varki, Nissi

2013-01-01

398

Phenotype, virulence and immunogenicity of Edwardsiella ictaluri cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate receptor protein (Crp) mutants in catfish host.  

PubMed

Edwardsiella ictaluri is an Enterobacteriaceae that causes lethal enteric septicemia in catfish. Being a mucosal facultative intracellular pathogen, this bacterium is an excellent candidate to develop immersion-oral live attenuated vaccines for the catfish aquaculture industry. Deletion of the cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) receptor protein (crp) gene in several Enterobacteriaceae has been utilized in live attenuated vaccines for mammals and birds. Here we characterize the crp gene and report the effect of a crp deletion in E. ictaluri. The E. ictaluri crp gene and encoded protein are similar to other Enterobacteriaceae family members, complementing Salmonella enterica ?crp mutants in a cAMP-dependent fashion. The E. ictaluri ?crp-10 in-frame deletion mutant demonstrated growth defects, loss of maltose utilization, and lack of flagella synthesis. We found that the E. ictaluri ?crp-10 mutant was attenuated, colonized lymphoid tissues, and conferred immune protection against E. ictaluri infection to zebrafish (Danio rerio) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Evaluation of the IgM titers indicated that bath immunization with the E. ictaluri ?crp-10 mutant triggered systemic and skin immune responses in catfish. We propose that deletion of the crp gene in E. ictaluri is an effective strategy to develop immersion live attenuated antibiotic-sensitive vaccines for the catfish aquaculture industry. PMID:22015784

Santander, Javier; Mitra, Arindam; Curtiss, Roy

2011-12-01

399

Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Escherichia coli mutants with defected mixed acid fermentation pathways.  

PubMed

A series of Escherichia coli BW25113 mutants with reduced mixed acid fermentation were constructed. Genes ackA-pta, poxB, ldhA, adhE, and pflB encoding acetate kinase, phosphate acetyltransferase, pyruvate oxidase, D: -lactate dehydrogenase, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, and pyruvate formate-lyase, respectively, were deleted successively. When grown under microaerobic condition, the mutants reduced approximately 90% acetate excretion after the deletion of genes ackA-pta and poxB. Production of lactate, ethanol, and formate was also significantly reduced after the deletion of genes ldhA, adhE, and pflB, respectively. The accumulation of biomass and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) were significantly enhanced after deleting the mixed acid fermentation. E. coli mutant BWapld with deletions of ackA-pta, poxB, ldhA, and adhE produced twice the cell dry weight (CDW) and 3.5 times of PHB compared with its wild-type under microaerobic conditions. E. coli mutant BWapl with deletions of ackA-pta, poxB, and ldhA also achieved nearly twice CDW and three times of PHB content in comparison to the wild-type during 48 h static cultivation. Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] was observed in the mutants under static cultivation. E. coli mutant BWapld could produce approximately 50 wt.% P(3HB-co-3HV) consisting of 5 mol% of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) under aerobic conditions, when the seed culture was inoculated at an appropriate time. When ackA-pta, poxB, ldhA, adhE, and pflB were deleted, E. coli mutant BWapldf accumulated over 70 wt.% P(3HB-co-3HV) consisting of 8 mol% 3HV under aerobic conditions. PMID:20535465

Jian, Jia; Zhang, Shao-Qin; Shi, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Wei; Chen, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Qiong

2010-08-01

400

This Genetic Condition Was Not Inherited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This minds-on analysis and discussion activity guides students to think about how mutation and meiotic nondisjunction can result in genetic conditions that are not inherited (most cases of achondroplasia and Down syndrome, respectively). This activity also addresses the reasons for the rarity of inherited lethal dominant alleles.

Waldron, Ingrid

401

Mouse mutants and phenotypes: accessing information for the study of mammalian gene function  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in high-throughput gene targeting and conditional mutagenesis are creating new and powerful resources to study the in-vivo function of mammalian genes using the mouse as an experimental model. Mutant ES cells and mice are being generated at a rapid rate to study the molecular and phenotypic consequences of genetic mutations, and to correlate these study results with human disease conditions. Likewise, classical genetics approaches to identify mutations in the mouse genome that cause specific phenotypes have become more effective. Here, we describe methods to quickly obtain information on what mutant ES cells and mice are available, including recombinase driver lines for the generation of conditional mutants. Further, we describe means to access genetic and phenotypic data that identify mouse models for specific human diseases. PMID:21185380

Ringwald, Martin; Eppig, Janan T.

2011-01-01

402

Mouse mutants and phenotypes: accessing information for the study of mammalian gene function.  

PubMed

Recent advances in high-throughput gene targeting and conditional mutagenesis are creating new and powerful resources to study the in vivo function of mammalian genes using the mouse as an experimental model. Mutant ES cells and mice are being generated at a rapid rate to study the molecular and phenotypic consequences of genetic mutations, and to correlate these study results with human disease conditions. Likewise, classical genetics approaches to identify mutations in the mouse genome that cause specific phenotypes have become more effective. Here, we describe methods to quickly obtain information on what mutant ES cells and mice are available, including recombinase driver lines for the generation of conditional mutants. Further, we describe means to access genetic and phenotypic data that identify mouse models for specific human diseases. PMID:21185380

Ringwald, Martin; Eppig, Janan T

2011-04-01

403

Gravitropism in a starchless mutant of Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The starch-statolith theory of gravity reception has been tested with a mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. which, lacking plastid phosphoglucomutase (EC 2.7.5.1) activity, does not synthesize starch. The hypocotyls and seedling roots of the mutant were examined by light and electron microscopy to confirm that they did not contain starch. In upright wild-type (WT) seedlings, starch-filled plastids in the

Timothy Caspar; Barbara G. Pickard

1989-01-01

404

Aggregation propensities of superoxide dismutase G93 hotspot mutants mirror ALS clinical phenotypes.  

PubMed

Protein framework alterations in heritable Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) mutants cause misassembly and aggregation in cells affected by the motor neuron disease ALS. However, the mechanistic relationship between superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations and human disease is controversial, with many hypotheses postulated for the propensity of specific SOD mutants to cause ALS. Here, we experimentally identify distinguishing attributes of ALS mutant SOD proteins that correlate with clinical severity by applying solution biophysical techniques to six ALS mutants at human SOD hotspot glycine 93. A small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) assay and other structural methods assessed aggregation propensity by defining the size and shape of fibrillar SOD aggregates after mild biochemical perturbations. Inductively coupled plasma MS quantified metal ion binding stoichiometry, and pulsed dipolar ESR spectroscopy evaluated the Cu(2+) binding site and defined cross-dimer copper-copper distance distributions. Importantly, we find that copper deficiency in these mutants promotes aggregation in a manner strikingly consistent with