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1

A Nutritional Conditional Lethal Mutant Due to Pyridoxine 5?-Phosphate Oxidase Deficiency in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

The concept of auxotrophic complementation has been proposed as an approach to identify genes in essential metabolic pathways in Drosophila melanogaster. However, it has achieved limited success to date, possibly due to the low probability of finding mutations fit with the chemically defined profile. Instead of using the chemically defined culture media lacking specific nutrients, we used bare minimum culture medium, i.e., 4% sucrose, for adult Drosophila. We identified a nutritional conditional lethal mutant and localized a c.95C > A mutation in the Drosophila pyridoxine 5?-phosphate oxidase gene [dPNPO or sugarlethal (sgll)] using meiotic recombination mapping, deficiency mapping, and whole genome sequencing. PNPO converts dietary vitamin B6 such as pyridoxine to its active form pyridoxal 5?-phosphate (PLP). The missense mutation (sgll95) results in the substitution of alanine to aspartate (p.Ala32Asp). The sgll95 flies survive well on complete medium but all die within 6 d on 4% sucrose only diet, which can be rescued by pyridoxine or PLP supplement, suggesting that the mutation does not cause the complete loss of PNPO activity. The sgll knockdown further confirms its function as the Drosophila PNPO. Because better tools for positional cloning and cheaper whole genome sequencing have made the identification of point mutations much easier than before, alleviating the necessity to pinpoint specific metabolic pathways before gene identification, we propose that nutritional conditional screens based on bare minimum growth media like ours represent promising approaches for discovering important genes and mutations in metabolic pathways, thereby accelerating the establishment of in vivo models that recapitulate human metabolic diseases. PMID:24739647

Chi, Wanhao; Zhang, Li; Du, Wei; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

2014-01-01

2

A nutritional conditional lethal mutant due to pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

The concept of auxotrophic complementation has been proposed as an approach to identify genes in essential metabolic pathways in Drosophila melanogaster. However, it has achieved limited success to date, possibly due to the low probability of finding mutations fit with the chemically defined profile. Instead of using the chemically defined culture media lacking specific nutrients, we used bare minimum culture medium, i.e., 4% sucrose, for adult Drosophila. We identified a nutritional conditional lethal mutant and localized a c.95C > A mutation in the Drosophila pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase gene [dPNPO or sugarlethal (sgll)] using meiotic recombination mapping, deficiency mapping, and whole genome sequencing. PNPO converts dietary vitamin B6 such as pyridoxine to its active form pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). The missense mutation (sgll(95)) results in the substitution of alanine to aspartate (p.Ala32Asp). The sgll(95) flies survive well on complete medium but all die within 6 d on 4% sucrose only diet, which can be rescued by pyridoxine or PLP supplement, suggesting that the mutation does not cause the complete loss of PNPO activity. The sgll knockdown further confirms its function as the Drosophila PNPO. Because better tools for positional cloning and cheaper whole genome sequencing have made the identification of point mutations much easier than before, alleviating the necessity to pinpoint specific metabolic pathways before gene identification, we propose that nutritional conditional screens based on bare minimum growth media like ours represent promising approaches for discovering important genes and mutations in metabolic pathways, thereby accelerating the establishment of in vivo models that recapitulate human metabolic diseases. PMID:24739647

Chi, Wanhao; Zhang, Li; Du, Wei; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

2014-06-01

3

Synthetic lethal genes to mutant p53.  

PubMed

Targeted therapy has become a powerful approach for cancer treatment. Better understanding of oncogenes as well as synthetic lethal interactions with oncogenes will lead to new strategies for tumor-specific treatment. It is well known that mutant p53 plays an important role in tumorigenesis and tumor development. Thus, understanding the synthetic lethal relationship between p53 mutations and interacting genes in tumor is critical for the personalized treatments of p53 mutant tumors. Synthetic lethal genes to mutant p53 can be divided into cell cycle regulators and non-cell cycle regulators. This paper review show these two types of target genes contribute to synthetic lethal interactions with p53 mutations and potential applications of these interactions in anticancer therapy. PMID:25881697

Tongyang, Liu; Haiqiang, Guo; Meiyan, Zhu; Yingze, Huang; Shuting, Jia; Ying, Luo; Jihong, Zhang

2015-04-20

4

A new simple method for isolating multistress-tolerant semidominant mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by one-step selection under lethal hydrogen peroxide stress condition.  

PubMed

Tolerance of microorganisms to diverse stresses (i.e., multistress tolerance) is a very useful property with industrial applications. We have developed a simple method for isolating multistress-tolerant semidominant mutants of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by one-step selection under lethal hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) stress condition, which we named the lethal concentration of H(2)O(2) (LCH) method. This method involves simply isolating colonies after plating of mutagenized S. cerevisiae cells, which are cultivated overnight in liquid media, on agar plates containing a lethal concentration of H(2)O(2) for the wild-type strain. Phenotypic and genetic analyses of the ten strains isolated by this method revealed that two strains exhibiting stress tolerance to H(2)O(2), ethanol, heat shock, salt, organic solvent, freeze-thaw, chronological aging, and high concentrations of glucose possess semidominant and distinct single-gene mutations designated as MLT1-1 (multistress tolerance) and MLT2-1, which are responsible for multistress tolerance. From these results, we expect this method to confer multistress tolerance on industrial yeasts. PMID:23391901

Nakagawa, Youji; Seita, Junya; Komiyama, Shohei; Yamamura, Hideki; Hayakawa, Masayuki; Iimura, Yuzuru

2013-01-01

5

Defective Kernel Mutants of Maize. I. Genetic and Lethality Studies  

PubMed Central

A planting of 3,919 M1 kernels from normal ears crossed by EMS-treated pollen produced 3,461 M1 plants and 3,172 selfed ears. These plants yielded 2,477 (72%) total heritable changes; the selfed ears yielded 2,457 (78%) recessive mutants, including 855 (27%) recessive kernel mutants and 8 (0.23%) viable dominant mutants. The ratio of recessive to dominant mutants was 201:1. The average mutation frequency for four known loci was three per 3,172 genomes analyzed. The estimated total number of loci mutated was 535 and the estimated number of kernel mutant loci mutated was 285. Among the 855 kernel mutants, 432 had a nonviable embryo, and 59 germinated but had a lethal seedling. A sample of 194 of the latter two types was tested for heritability, lethality, chromosome arm location and endosperm-embryo interaction between mutant and nonmutant tissues in special hyper-hypoploid combinations produced by manipulation of B-A translocations. The selected 194 mutants were characterized and catalogued according to endosperm phenotype and investigated to determine their effects on the morphology and development of the associated embryo. The possibility of rescuing some of the lethal mutants by covering the mutant embryo with a normal endosperm was investigated. Ninety of these 194 mutants were located on 17 of the 18 chromosome arms tested. Nineteen of the located mutants were examined to determine the effect of having a normal embryo in the same kernel with a mutant endosperm, and vice versa, as compared to the expression observed in kernels with both embryo and endosperm in a mutant condition. In the first situation, for three of the 19 mutants, the mutant endosperm was less extreme (the embryo helped); for seven cases, the mutant endosperm was more extreme (the embryo hindered); and for nine cases, there was no change. In the reverse situation, for four cases the normal endosperm helped the mutant embryo; for 14 cases there was no change and one case was inconclusive. PMID:17249053

Neuffer, M. G.; Sheridan, William F.

1980-01-01

6

Characterization of Lethal Drosophila melanogaster alpha-Actinin Mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have partially characterized four Drosophilamelanogaster alpha-actinin gene mutants,I(1)2Cb1, I(1)2Cb2,I(1)2Cb4, and I(1)2Cb5. Wedemonstrate that in each case the mutation is caused bya chromosomal rearrangement that precludes normal proteinsynthesis. In the absence of alpha-actinin, fliescomplete embryogenesis and develop into flaccid larvaethat die within approximately 24 hr. These larvae have noticeable muscle dysfunction at hatching,although they, nevertheless, are capable of escapingfrom the

Christine Fyrberg; Andrew Ketchum; Elizabeth Ball; Eric Fyrberg

1998-01-01

7

Conditional lethality strains for the biological control of Anastrepha species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pro-apoptotic cell death genes are promising candidates for biologically-based autocidal control of pest insects as demonstrated by tetracycline (tet)-suppressible systems for conditional embryonic lethality in Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and the medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Cc). However, for medfly...

8

Conditional root expansion mutants of Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Regulation of cell expansion is essential to the formation of plant organs. We have characterized 21 mutations, representing six loci, that cause abnormal cell expansion in the root of Arabidopsis thaliana. The phenotype of these mutants is conditional upon the rate of root growth. Calculation of cell volumes indicated that the mutations resulted in defects in either the orientation or the extent of expansion or in both. Analysis of cortical microtubules in the mutants suggested that a shift in the orientation of cell expansion may not be dependent on a change in the orientation of the microtubules. Double mutant combinations resulted in loss of the conditional phenotype suggesting that the genes may act in a similar pathway or encode partially redundant functions. PMID:7743935

Hauser, Marie-Theres; Morikami, Atsushi; Benfey, Philip N.

2015-01-01

9

Dysfunctional conformational dynamics of protein kinase A induced by a lethal mutant of phospholamban hinder phosphorylation.  

PubMed

The dynamic interplay between kinases and substrates is crucial for the formation of catalytically committed complexes that enable phosphoryl transfer. However, a clear understanding on how substrates modulate kinase structural dynamics to control catalytic efficiency is still missing. Here, we used solution NMR spectroscopy to study the conformational dynamics of two complexes of the catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A with WT and R14 deletion phospholamban, a lethal human mutant linked to familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Phospholamban is a central regulator of heart muscle contractility, and its phosphorylation by protein kinase A constitutes a primary response to ?-adrenergic stimulation. We found that the single deletion of arginine in phospholamban's recognition sequence for the kinase reduces its binding affinity and dramatically reduces phosphorylation kinetics. Structurally, the mutant prevents the enzyme from adopting conformations and motions committed for catalysis, with concomitant reduction in catalytic efficiency. Overall, these results underscore the importance of a well-tuned structural and dynamic interplay between the kinase and its substrates to achieve physiological phosphorylation levels for proper Ca(2+) signaling and normal cardiac function. PMID:25775607

Kim, Jonggul; Masterson, Larry R; Cembran, Alessandro; Verardi, Raffaello; Shi, Lei; Gao, Jiali; Taylor, Susan S; Veglia, Gianluigi

2015-03-24

10

Differentially expressed genes in the ovary of the sixth day of pupal "Ming" lethal egg mutant of silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The "Ming" lethal egg mutant (l-em) is a vitelline membrane mutant in silkworm, Bombyx mori. The eggs laid by the l-em mutant lose water, ultimately causing death within an hour. Previous studies have shown that the deletion of BmEP80 is responsible for the l-em mutation in silkworm, B. mori. In the current study, digital gene expression (DGE) was performed to investigate the difference of gene expression in ovaries between wild type and l-em mutant on the sixth day of the pupal stage to obtain a global view of gene expression profiles using the ovaries of three l-em mutants and three wild types. The results showed a total of 3,463,495 and 3,607,936 clean tags in the wild type and the l-em mutant libraries, respectively. Compared with those of wild type, 239 differentially expressed genes were detected in the l-em mutant, wherein 181 genes are up-regulated and 58 genes are down-regulated in the mutant strain. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis results showed that no pathway was significantly enriched and three pathways are tightly related to protein synthesis among the five leading pathways. Moreover, the expression profiles of eight important differentially expressed genes related to oogenesis changed. These results provide a comprehensive gene expression analysis of oogenesis and vitellogenesis in B. mori which facilitates understanding of both the specific molecular mechanism of the 1-em mutant and Lepidopteran oogenesis in general. PMID:23769927

Gao, Peng; Chen, An-Li; Zhao, Qiao-Ling; Shen, Xing-Jia; Qiu, Zhi-Yong; Xia, Ding-Guo; Tang, Shun-Ming; Zhang, Guo-Zheng

2013-09-15

11

Synthetic lethality in ATM-deficient RAD50-mutant tumors underlie outlier response to cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Metastatic solid tumors are almost invariably fatal. Patients with disseminated small-cell cancers have a particularly unfavorable prognosis with most succumbing to their disease within two years. Here, we report on the genetic and functional analysis of an outlier curative response of a patient with metastatic small cell cancer to combined checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) inhibition and DNA damaging chemotherapy. Whole-genome sequencing revealed a clonal hemizygous mutation in the Mre11 complex gene RAD50 that attenuated ATM signaling which in the context of Chk1 inhibition contributed, via synthetic lethality, to extreme sensitivity to irinotecan. As Mre11 mutations occur in a diversity of human tumors, the results suggest a tumor-specific combination therapy strategy whereby checkpoint inhibition in combination with DNA damaging chemotherapy is synthetically lethal in tumor but not normal cells with somatic mutations that impair Mre11 complex function. PMID:24934408

Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Iyer, Gopa; Hohl, Marcel; Asthana, Saurabh; Inagaki, Akiko; Schultz, Nikolaus; Hanrahan, Aphrothiti J.; Scott, Sasinya N.; Brannon, A. Rose; McDermott, Gregory C.; Pirun, Mono; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Kim, Philip; Socci, Nicholas D.; Viale, Agnes; Schwartz, Gary K.; Reuter, Victor; Bochner, Bernard H.; Rosenberg, Jonathan E.; Bajorin, Dean F.; Berger, Michael F.; Petrini, John H.J.; Solit, David B.; Taylor, Barry S.

2014-01-01

12

KRAS mutant NSCLC, a new opportunity for the synthetic lethality therapeutic approach  

PubMed Central

K-RAS accounts for 90% of RAS mutations in lung adenocarcinomas, the most commonly mutated oncogene in NSCLC, with mutations detected in about 25% of all tumors. Direct inhibition of KRAS has proven clinically challenging. So far, no successful targeted therapy has been developed and remains an elusive target for cancer therapy. Despite significant efforts, currently there are no drugs directly targeting mutated KRAS. Thus, new strategies have emerged for targeting RAS including the use of synthetic lethality. A specific knowledge of individual tumor molecular abnormalities that result in oncogene-specific “synthetic lethal” interactions will allow the rationale to combine promising targeted therapies for KRAS-mutated NSCLC. In this article, we review the new approach based on testing drugs or combinations of agents that work downstream of activated K-RAS.

Belda-Iniesta, Cristóbal

2013-01-01

13

Natural and glucosyl flavonoids inhibit poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity and induce synthetic lethality in BRCA mutant cells  

PubMed Central

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have been proven to represent superior clinical agents targeting DNA repair mechanisms in cancer therapy. We investigated PARP inhibitory effects of the natural and synthetic flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, monoglucosyl rutin and maltooligosyl rutin) and tested the synthetic lethality in BRCA2 mutated cells. In vitro ELISA assay suggested that the flavonoids have inhibitory effects on PARP activity, but glucosyl modifications reduced the inhibitory effect. Cytotoxicity tests of Chinese hamster cells defective in BRCA2 gene (V-C8) and its parental V79 cells showed BRCA2-dependent synthetic lethality when treated with the flavonoids. BRCA2 mutated cells were three times more sensitive to the flavonoids than the wild-type and gene complemented cells. Reduced toxicity was observed in a glucosyl modification-dependent manner. The present study provides support for the clinical use of new treatment drugs, and is the beginning of the potential application of flavonoids in cancer prevention and the periodic consumption of appropriate flavonoids to reduce cancer risk in individuals carrying a mutant allele of the BRCA2 gene. PMID:24317580

MAEDA, JUNKO; ROYBAL, ERICA J.; BRENTS, COLLEEN A.; UESAKA, MITSURU; AIZAWA, YASUSHI; KATO, TAKAMITSU A.

2014-01-01

14

Strategy for enhanced transgenic strain development for embryonic conditional lethality in Anastrepha suspensa  

PubMed Central

Here the first reproductive sterility system for the tephritid fruit fly pest, Anastrepha suspensa, is presented, based on lethality primarily limited to embryos heterozygous for a conditional lethal transgene combination. This tetracycline (Tet)-suppressible system uses a driver construct having the promoter from the newly isolated embryo-specific A. suspensa serendipity ? gene linked to the Tet-transactivator. This was used to drive expression of a phosphomutated variant of the pro-apoptotic cell death gene, hid, from A. ludens, that was isolated, based on its identity to A. suspensa hid. The AlhidAla2 variant was shown to have the highest cell death activity in an in vitro A. suspensa cell death assay compared to the orthologous genes Ashid, Dmhid, and the variant DmhidAla5. These cell death assays also allowed a determination of the most-efficient driver-effector cassette combinations for use in A. suspensa transformants, resulting in two hybrid strains exhibiting 100% lethality. One strain was 96% lethal in embryos in the absence of tetracycline, with none surviving past the first larval instar, which is critical for pests that are most damaging in late-larval stages. We demonstrate that the isolation and in vitro validation of species-specific promoters and lethal effector genes can greatly improve the efficiency of creating high-performance conditional lethality strains that may be extended to other insect pest species. PMID:22647610

Schetelig, Marc F.; Handler, Alfred M.

2012-01-01

15

Genetic modification of prenatal lethality and dilated cardiomyopathy in Mn superoxide dismutase mutant mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), a mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme, has been shown to be essential for animal survival. MnSOD mutant mice (Sod2?\\/? mice) on the CD1 background develop severe dilated cardiomyopathy and usually die within 10 d after birth. To characterize better the phenotype and understand the mechanism of superoxide-mediated tissue damage in Sod2?\\/? mice, congenic Sod2?\\/? mice on inbred backgrounds

Ting-Ting Huang; Elaine J. Carlson; Heather M. Kozy; Sailaja Mantha; Stephen I. Goodman; Philip C. Ursell; Charles J. Epstein

2001-01-01

16

Fission yeast minichromosome loss mutants mis cause lethal aneuploidy and replication abnormality.  

PubMed Central

Precise chromosome transmission in cell division cycle is maintained by a number of genes. The attempt made in the present study was to isolate temperature-sensitive (ts) fission yeast mutants that display high loss rates of minichromosomes at permissive or semipermissive temperature (designated mis). By colony color assay of 539 ts strains that contain a minichromosome, we have identified 12 genetic loci (mis1-mis12) and determined their phenotypes at restrictive temperature. Seven of them are related to cell cycle block phenotype at restrictive temperature, three of them in mitosis. Unequal distribution of regular chromosomes in the daughters is extensive in mis6 and mis12. Cells become inviable after rounds of cell division due to missegregation. The phenotype of mis5 is DNA replication defect and hypersensitivity to UV ray and hydroxyurea. mis5+ encodes a novel member of the ubiquitous MCM family required for the onset of replication. The mis5+ gene is essential for viability and functionally distinct from other previously identified members in fission yeast, cdc21+, nda1+, and nda4+. The mis11 mutant phenotype was the cell division block with reduced cell size. Progression of the G1 and G2 phases is blocked in mis11. The cloned mis11+ gene is identical to prp2+, which is essential for RNA splicing and similar to a mammalian splicing factor U2AF65. Images PMID:7865880

Takahashi, K; Yamada, H; Yanagida, M

1994-01-01

17

Lethality in PARP-1/Ku80 double mutant mice reveals physiologicalsynergy during early embryogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Ku is an abundant heterodimeric nuclear protein, consisting of 70-kDa and 86-kDa tightly associated subunits that comprise the DNA binding component of DNA-dependent protein kinase. Poly(ADP)ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a 113-kDa protein that catalyzes the synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) on target proteins. Both Ku and PARP-1 recognize and bind to DNA ends. Ku functions in the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathway whereas PARP-1 functions in the single strand break repair and base excision repair (BER) pathways. Recent studies have revealed that PARP-1 and Ku80 interact in vitro. To determine whether the association of PARP-1 and Ku80 has any physiological significance or synergistic function in vivo, mice lacking both PARP-1 and Ku80 were generated. The resulting offspring died during embryonic development displaying abnormalities around the gastrulation stage. In addition, PARP-1-/-Ku80-/- cultured blastocysts had an increased level of apoptosis. These data suggest that the functions of both Ku80 and PARP-1 are essential for normal embryogenesis and that a loss of genomic integrity leading to cell death through apoptosis is likely the cause of the embryonic lethality observed in these mice.

Henrie, Melinda S.; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Burma, Sandeep; Menissier-de Murcia, Josiane; de Murcia, Gilbert; Li, Gloria C.; Chen,David J.

2002-09-24

18

Effects of metallothionein on zinc metabolism in lethal-milk mutant mice  

SciTech Connect

The lethal-milk mice (C57BL/6J-Im) exhibit various pleiotropic effects, including a congenital otolith defect, production of zinc-deficient milk, and clinical signs of a systemic Zn deficiency by one year of age. The clinical signs include alopecia, dermatitis, and skin lesions. The systemic zinc deficiency may be due to increased levels of metallothionein (MT) in the intestine and/or liver of Im mice. The untreated Im mice contain twice as much intestinal MT as do C57BL/6J-(+/sup im//+ /sup Im/) (B6) controls. This was determined by a sulfhydryl assay, by the /sup 109/Cd-saturation/hemolysate method, and by the /sup 65/Zn-binding assay. Various concentrations of Cd or Zn were added to the drinking water three days before assaying for MT. Compared to B6 mice, the Im mice exhibited more MT in their liver by the /sup 65/Zn-MT binding assay (3-fold) and by the /sup 109/Cd-saturation/hemolysate method (18-fold). The effects of the two zinc treatments did not differ significantly between Im and B6 mice. The retention and excretion of /sup 65/Zn (administered intraperitoneally) were determined over a 14-day period, but the results did not different between the Im and B6 mice. The increased concentrations of MT within the Im mice was not significantly different for the intestine and liver. Based on these data and other studies, the Im mice may exhibit alterations in zinc homeostasis due to some deregulation of MT metabolism, including the inner ear of the fetus, the lactating mammary gland, and the intestine and liver of adults by one year of age.

Grider, A. Jr.

1986-01-01

19

Embryonic Lethality of Fortilin-null mutant mice by BMP-pathway overactivation  

PubMed Central

Background Fortilin negatively regulates apoptosis and is overexpressed in cancer. However, the role of fortilin in mammalian development is not clear. Methods & Results In order to evaluate the physiological role of fortilin in vivo, we performed a targeted disruption of the fortilin gene in mice. Fortilin+/? mice have the ability to survive and exhibit normal growth, while fortilin?/? mice are embryonically lethal around the 3.5 days post-coitum (dpc). Cultured blastocysts from fortilin+/? embryos undergo normal outgrowth to produce inner cell mass (ICM) and trophoblasts (TB), while ICM of fortilin?/? embryos either fails to outgrow or prematurely disintegrates. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) derived from fortilin+/? embryos are more susceptible to noxious stimuli than are wild type embryos. It has been consistently shown in Xenopus embryos that the depletion of fortilin’s message severely compromises the formation of neural tissue, including the brain, while overexpression of fortilin induces the partial double body axis in embryos and is capable of blocking BMP4-induced transcription of Vent1, Vent2, and Msx1 genes. This suggests that fortilin is an inhibitor of the BMP pathway. Strikingly, when fortilin levels are reduced by siRNA, BMP4 causes MEF to undergo extensive DNA-fragmentation, while DNA fragmentation is minimal in the presence of fortilin. In addition, BMP4 induces more Msx2 in the absence of fortilin than in its presence. Furthermore, Msx2 overexpression causes MEF to undergo apoptotic cell death. Conclusion We conclude that in early phase of development, fortilin functions as an inhibitor of the BMP pathway. The presence of fortilin in the very early stages of development is required for the survival of embryos. General Significance Abnormalities in the fortilin gene may be associated with early pregnancy loss. PMID:19364479

Koide, Yuichi; Kiyota, Tomomi; Tonganunt, Moltira; Pinkaew, Decha; Liu, Zhihe; Kato, Yoichi; Hutadilok-Towantana, Nongporn; Phongdara, Amornrat; Fujise, Ken

2009-01-01

20

When a Fly Has to Fly to Reproduce: Selection against Conditional Recessive Lethals in "Drosophila"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We propose an experimental model suitable for demonstrating allele frequency change in Drosophila melanogaster populations caused by selection against an easily scorable conditional lethal, namely recessive flightless alleles such as apterous and vestigial. Homozygotes for these alleles are excluded from reproduction because the food source used…

Plunkett, Andrea D.; Yampolsky, Lev Y.

2010-01-01

21

sigE facilitates the adaptation of Bordetella bronchiseptica to stress conditions and lethal infection in immunocompromised mice  

PubMed Central

Background The cell envelope of a bacterial pathogen can be damaged by harsh conditions in the environment outside a host and by immune factors during infection. Cell envelope stress responses preserve the integrity of this essential compartment and are often required for virulence. Bordetella species are important respiratory pathogens that possess a large number of putative transcription factors. However, no cell envelope stress responses have been described in these species. Among the putative Bordetella transcription factors are a number of genes belonging to the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) group of alternative sigma factors, some of which are known to mediate cell envelope stress responses in other bacteria. Here we investigate the role of one such gene, sigE, in stress survival and pathogenesis of Bordetella bronchiseptica. Results We demonstrate that sigE encodes a functional sigma factor that mediates a cell envelope stress response. Mutants of B. bronchiseptica strain RB50 lacking sigE are more sensitive to high temperature, ethanol, and perturbation of the envelope by SDS-EDTA and certain ?-lactam antibiotics. Using a series of immunocompromised mice deficient in different components of the innate and adaptive immune responses, we show that SigE plays an important role in evading the innate immune response during lethal infections of mice lacking B cells and T cells. SigE is not required, however, for colonization of the respiratory tract of immunocompetent mice. The sigE mutant is more efficiently phagocytosed and killed by peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) than RB50, and exhibits decreased cytotoxicity toward macrophages. These altered interactions with phagocytes could contribute to the defects observed during lethal infection. Conclusions Much of the work on transcriptional regulation during infection in B. bronchiseptica has focused on the BvgAS two-component system. This study reveals that the SigE regulon also mediates a discrete subset of functions associated with virulence. SigE is the first cell envelope stress-sensing system to be described in the bordetellae. In addition to its role during lethal infection of mice deficient in adaptive immunity, our results indicate that SigE is likely to be important for survival in the face of stresses encountered in the environment between hosts. PMID:22897969

2012-01-01

22

Production of viable seeds from the seedling lethal mutant ppi2-2 lacking the atToc159 chloroplast protein import receptor using plastic containers, and characterization of the homozygous mutant progeny  

PubMed Central

Biogenesis of chloroplasts is essential for plant growth and development. A number of homozygous mutants lacking a chloroplast protein exhibit an albino phenotype. In general, it is challenging to grow albino Arabidopsis plants on soil until they set seeds. Homozygous albino mutants are usually obtained as progenies of heterozygous parents. Here, we describe a method of recovering seeds from the seedling lethal Arabidopsis mutant ppi2-2, which lacks the atToc159 protein import receptor at the outer envelope membrane of chloroplast. Using plastic containers, we were able to grow homozygous ppi2-2 plants until these set seed. Although the germination rate of the harvested seeds was relatively low, it was still sufficient to allow us to further analyze the ppi2-2 progeny. Using ppi2-2 homozygous seeds, we were able to analyze the role of plastid protein import in the light-regulated induction of nuclear genes. We propose that this method be applied to other seedling lethal Arabidopsis mutants to obtain homozygous seeds, helping us further investigate the roles of plastid proteins in plant growth and development. PMID:24926298

Tada, Akari; Adachi, Fumi; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Inaba, Takehito

2014-01-01

23

Zebrafish mutants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two developing Danio mutants with slow beating two-chambered hearts. A no tail mutant shows problems with both the heart and the tail. They cannot swim to catch food making the no tail mutation lethal.

Mildred Hoover (Salem State College; Biology Department)

2008-07-19

24

The uses of genome-wide yeast mutant collections  

PubMed Central

We assess five years of usage of the major genome-wide collections of mutants from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: single deletion mutants, double mutants conferring 'synthetic' lethality and the 'TRIPLES' collection of mutants obtained by random transposon insertion. Over 100 experimental conditions have been tested and more than 5,000 novel phenotypic traits have been assigned to yeast genes using these collections. PMID:15239820

Scherens, Bart; Goffeau, Andre

2004-01-01

25

Identification of novel temperature-sensitive lethal alleles in essential beta-tubulin and nonessential alpha 2-tubulin genes as fission yeast polarity mutants.  

PubMed

We have screened for temperature-sensitive (ts) fission yeast mutants with altered polarity (alp1-15). Genetic analysis indicates that alp2 is allelic to atb2 (one of two alpha-tubulin genes) and alp12 to nda3 (the single beta-tubulin gene). atb2(+) is nonessential, and the ts atb2 mutations we have isolated are dominant as expected. We sequenced two alleles of ts atb2 and one allele of ts nda3. In the ts atb2 mutants, the mutated residues (G246D and C356Y) are found at the longitudinal interface between alpha/beta-heterodimers, whereas in ts nda3 the mutated residue (Y422H) is situated in the domain located on the outer surface of the microtubule. The ts nda3 mutant is highly sensitive to altered gene dosage of atb2(+); overexpression of atb2(+) lowers the restrictive temperature, and, conversely, deletion rescues ts. Phenotypic analysis shows that contrary to undergoing mitotic arrest with high viability via the spindle assembly checkpoint as expected, ts nda3 mutants execute cytokinesis and septation and lose viability. Therefore, it appears that the ts nda3 mutant becomes temperature lethal because of irreversible progression through the cell cycle in the absence of activating the spindle assembly checkpoint pathway. PMID:9658169

Radcliffe, P; Hirata, D; Childs, D; Vardy, L; Toda, T

1998-07-01

26

Lethal phenotype in conditional late-onset arginase 1 deficiency in the mouse  

PubMed Central

Human arginase deficiency is characterized by hyperargininemia and infrequent episodes of hyperammonemia, which lead to neurological impairment with spasticity, loss of ambulation, seizures, and severe mental and growth retardation; uncommonly, patients suffer early death from this disorder. In a murine targeted knockout model, onset of the phenotypic abnormality is heralded by weight loss at around day 15, and death occurs typically by postnatal day 17 with hyperargininemia and markedly elevated ammonia. This discrepancy between the more attenuated juvenile-onset human disease and the lethal neonatal murine model has remained suboptimal for studying and developing therapy for the more common presentation of argianse deficiency. These investigations aimed to address this issue by creating an adult conditional knockout mouse to determine whether later onset of arginase deficiency also resulted in lethality. Animal survival and ammonia levels, body weight, circulating amino acids, and tissue arginase levels were examined as outcome parameters after widespread Cre-recombinase activation in a conditional knockout model of arginase 1 deficiency. One hundred percent of adult female and 70 percent of adult male mice died an average of 21.0 and 21.6 days, respectively, after the initiation of tamoxifen administration. Animals demonstrated elevated circulating ammonia and arginine at the onset of phenotypic abnormalities. In addition, brain and liver amino acids demonstrated abnormalities. These studies demonstrate that (a) the absence of arginase in adult animals results in a disease profile (leading to death) similar to that of the targeted knockout and (b) the phenotypic abnormalities seen in the juvenile-onset model are not exclusive to the age of the animal but instead to the biochemistry of the disorder. This adult model will be useful for developing gene- and cell-based therapies for this disorder that will not limited by by the small animal size of neonatal therapy and for developing a better understanding of the characteristics of hyperargininemia. PMID:23920045

Kasten, Jennifer; Hu, Chuhong; Bhargava, Ragini; Park, Hana; Tai, Denise; Byrne, James A.; Marescau, Bart; De Deyn, Peter P.; Schlichting, Lisa; Grody, Wayne W.; Cederbaum, Stephen D.; Lipshutz, Gerald S.

2013-01-01

27

Mitochondrial degeneration and not apoptosis is the primary cause of embryonic lethality in ceramide transfer protein mutant mice  

PubMed Central

Ceramide transfer protein (CERT) functions in the transfer of ceramide from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi. In this study, we show that CERT is an essential gene for mouse development and embryonic survival and, quite strikingly, is critical for mitochondrial integrity. CERT mutant embryos accumulate ceramide in the ER but also mislocalize ceramide to the mitochondria, compromising their function. Cells in mutant embryos show abnormal dilation of the ER and degenerating mitochondria. These subcellular changes manifest as heart defects and cause severely compromised cardiac function and embryonic death around embryonic day 11.5. In spite of ceramide accumulation, CERT mutant mice do not die as a result of enhanced apoptosis. Instead, cell proliferation is impaired, and expression levels of cell cycle–associated proteins are altered. Individual cells survive, perhaps because cell survival mechanisms are activated. Thus, global compromise of ER and mitochondrial integrity caused by ceramide accumulation in CERT mutant mice primarily affects organogenesis rather than causing cell death via apoptotic pathways. PMID:19139267

Wang, Xin; Rao, Raghavendra Pralhada; Kosakowska-Cholody, Teresa; Masood, M. Athar; Southon, Eileen; Zhang, Helin; Berthet, Cyril; Nagashim, Kunio; Veenstra, Timothy K.; Tessarollo, Lino; Acharya, Usha; Acharya, Jairaj K.

2009-01-01

28

A microfluidic live cell assay to study anthrax toxin induced cell lethality assisted by conditioned medium  

PubMed Central

It is technically challenging to investigate the function of secreted protein in real time by supply of conditioned medium that contains secreted protein of interest. The internalization of anthrax toxin is facilitated by a secreted protein Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and its receptor, and eventually leads to cell lethality. To monitor the dynamic interplay between these components in live cells, we use an integrated microfluidic device to perform the cell viability assays with real-time controlled culture microenvironment in parallel. Conditioned medium, which contains the secreted proteins from specific cell lines, can be continuously pumped towards the cells that exposed to toxin. The exogenous DKK1 secreted from distant cells is able to rescue the sensitivity to toxin for those DKK1-knocked-down cells. This high-throughput assay allows us to precisely quantify the dynamic interaction between key components that cause cell death, and provide independent evidence of the function of DKK1 in the complex process of anthrax toxin internalization. PMID:25731605

Shen, Jie; Cai, Changzu; Yu, Zhilong; Pang, Yuhong; Zhou, Ying; Qian, Lili; Wei, Wensheng; Huang, Yanyi

2015-01-01

29

A microfluidic live cell assay to study anthrax toxin induced cell lethality assisted by conditioned medium.  

PubMed

It is technically challenging to investigate the function of secreted protein in real time by supply of conditioned medium that contains secreted protein of interest. The internalization of anthrax toxin is facilitated by a secreted protein Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and its receptor, and eventually leads to cell lethality. To monitor the dynamic interplay between these components in live cells, we use an integrated microfluidic device to perform the cell viability assays with real-time controlled culture microenvironment in parallel. Conditioned medium, which contains the secreted proteins from specific cell lines, can be continuously pumped towards the cells that exposed to toxin. The exogenous DKK1 secreted from distant cells is able to rescue the sensitivity to toxin for those DKK1-knocked-down cells. This high-throughput assay allows us to precisely quantify the dynamic interaction between key components that cause cell death, and provide independent evidence of the function of DKK1 in the complex process of anthrax toxin internalization. PMID:25731605

Shen, Jie; Cai, Changzu; Yu, Zhilong; Pang, Yuhong; Zhou, Ying; Qian, Lili; Wei, Wensheng; Huang, Yanyi

2015-01-01

30

Use of a conditionally lethal gene in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 to select for double recombinants and to entrap insertion sequences  

SciTech Connect

Use of the sacB gene provides a simple, effective, positive selection for double recombinants in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, a filamentous cyanobacterium. This gene, which encodes the secretory levansucrase of Bacillus subtilis, was inserted into the vector portion of a suicide plasmid bearing a mutant version of a chromosomal gene. Cells of colonies in which such a plasmid had integrated into the Anabaena chromosome through single recombination were plated on solid medium containing 5% sucrose. Under this condition, the presence of the sacB gene is lethal. A small fraction of the cells from initially sucrose-sensitive colonies became sucrose resistant; the majority of these sucrose-resistant derivatives had undergone a second recombinational event in which the sacB-containing vector had been lost and the wild-type form of the chromosomal gene had been replaced by the mutant form. By the use of this technique, they mutated two selected genes in the chromosome of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. The conditionally lethal nature of the sacB gene was also used to detect insertion sequences from this Anabaena strain. Sucrose-resistant colonies derived from cells bearing a sacB-containing autonomously replicating plasmid were analyzed. Five different, presumed insertion sequences were found to have inserted into the sacB gene of the plasmids in these colonies. One of them, denoted IS892, was characterized by physical mapping. It is 1.7 kilobases in size and is present in at least five copies in the genome of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

Cai, Yuping; Wolk, C.P. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1990-06-01

31

Enhanced non-homologous end joining contributes toward synthetic lethality of pathological RAD51C mutants with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase.  

PubMed

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitors are actively under clinical trials for the treatment of breast and ovarian cancers that arise due to mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. The RAD51 paralog RAD51C has been identified as a breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene. The pathological RAD51C mutants that were identified in cancer patients are hypomorphic with partial repair function. However, targeting cancer cells that express hypomorphic mutants of RAD51C is highly challenging. Here, we report that RAD51C-deficient cells can be targeted by a 'synthetic lethal' approach using PARP inhibitor and this sensitivity was attributed to accumulation of cells in the G2/M and chromosomal aberrations. In addition, spontaneous hyperactivation of PARP1 was evident in RAD51C-deficient cells. Interestingly, RAD51C-negative cells exhibited enhanced recruitment of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) proteins onto chromatin and this accumulation correlated with increased activity of error-prone NHEJ as well as genome instability leading to cell death. Notably, inhibition of DNA-PKcs or depletion of KU70 or Ligase IV rescued this phenotype. Strikingly, stimulation of NHEJ by low dose of ionizing radiation (IR) in the PARP inhibitor-treated RAD51C-deficient cells and cells expressing pathological RAD51C mutants induced enhanced toxicity 'synergistically'. These results demonstrate that cancer cells arising due to hypomorphic mutations in RAD51C can be specifically targeted by a 'synergistic approach' and imply that this strategy can be potentially applied to cancers with hypomorphic mutations in other homologous recombination pathway genes. PMID:25292178

Somyajit, Kumar; Mishra, Anup; Jameei, Aida; Nagaraju, Ganesh

2015-01-01

32

The zebrafish early arrest mutants.  

PubMed

This report describes mutants of the zebrafish having phenotypes causing a general arrest in early morphogenesis. These mutants identify a group of loci making up about 20% of the loci identified by mutants with visible morphological phenotypes within the first day of development. There are 12 Class I mutants, which fall into 5 complementation groups and have cells that lyse before morphological defects are observed. Mutants at three loci, speed bump, ogre and zombie, display abnormal nuclei. The 8 Class II mutants, which fall into 6 complementation groups, arrest development before cell lysis is observed. These mutants seemingly stop development in the late segmentation stages, and maintain a body shape similar to a 20 hour embryo. Mutations in speed bump, ogre, zombie, specter, poltergeist and troll were tested for cell lethality by transplanting mutant cells into wild-type hosts. With poltergeist, transplanted mutant cells all survive. The remainder of the mutants tested were autonomously but conditionally lethal: mutant cells, most of which lyse, sometimes survive to become notochord, muscles, or, in rare cases, large neurons, all cell types which become postmitotic in the gastrula. Some of the genes of the early arrest group may be necessary for progression though the cell cycle; if so, the survival of early differentiating cells may be based on having their terminal mitosis before the zygotic requirement for these genes. PMID:9007229

Kane, D A; Maischein, H M; Brand, M; van Eeden, F J; Furutani-Seiki, M; Granato, M; Haffter, P; Hammerschmidt, M; Heisenberg, C P; Jiang, Y J; Kelsh, R N; Mullins, M C; Odenthal, J; Warga, R M; Nüsslein-Volhard, C

1996-12-01

33

Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

PubMed Central

Background The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae). Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dependent on newly isolated medfly promoter/enhancer elements of cellularization-specifically-expressed genes. These elements act differently in expression strength and their ability to drive lethal effector gene activation. Moreover, position effects strongly influence the efficiency of the system. Out of 60 combinations of driver and effector construct integrations, several lines resulted in larval and pupal lethality with one line showing complete embryonic lethality. This line was highly competitive to wildtype medfly in laboratory and field cage tests. Conclusion The high competitiveness of the transgenic lines and the achieved 100% embryonic lethality causing reproductive sterility without the need of irradiation can improve the efficacy of operational medfly SIT programs. PMID:19173707

Schetelig, Marc F; Caceres, Carlos; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Franz, Gerald; Wimmer, Ernst A

2009-01-01

34

Comparison of the Behavior of Epiphytic Fitness Mutants of Pseudomonas syringae under Controlled and Field Conditions  

PubMed Central

The epiphytic fitness of four Tn5 mutants of Pseudomonas syringae that exhibited reduced epiphytic fitness in the laboratory was evaluated under field conditions. The mutants differed more from the parental strain under field conditions than under laboratory conditions in their survival immediately following inoculation onto bean leaves and in the size of the epiphytic populations that they established, demonstrating that their fitness was reduced more under field conditions than in the laboratory. Under both conditions, the four mutants exhibited distinctive behaviors. One mutant exhibited particularly large population decreases and short half-lives following inoculation but grew epiphytically at near-wild-type rates, while the others exhibited reduced survival only in the warmest, driest conditions tested and grew epiphytically at reduced rates or, in the case of one mutant, not at all. The presence of the parental strain, B728a, did not influence the survival or growth of three of the mutants under field conditions; however, one mutant, an auxotroph, established larger populations in the presence of B728a than in its absence, possibly because of cross-feeding by B728a in planta. Experiments with B728a demonstrated that established epiphytic populations survived exposure of leaves to dry conditions better than newly inoculated cells did and that epiphytic survival was not dependent on the cell density in the inoculum. Three of the mutants behaved similarly to two nonpathogenic strains of P. syringae, suggesting that the mutants may be altered in traits that are missing or poorly expressed in naturally occurring nonpathogenic epiphytes. PMID:16349418

Beattie, Gwyn A.; Lindow, Steven E.

1994-01-01

35

Unimpaired trace classical eyeblink conditioning in Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd) mutant mice  

PubMed Central

Young adult Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd) mutant mice, with complete loss of cerebellar cortical Purkinje cells, are impaired in delay eyeblink classical conditioning. In the delay paradigm, the conditioned stimulus (CS) overlaps and coterminates with the unconditioned stimulus (US), and the cerebellar cortex supports normal acquisition. The ability of pcd mutant mice to acquire trace eyeblink conditioning in which the CS and US do not overlap has not been explored. Recent evidence suggests that cerebellar cortex may not be necessary for trace eyeblink classical conditioning. Using a 500 ms trace paradigm for which forebrain structures are essential in mice, we assessed the performance of homozygous male pcd mutant mice and their littermates in acquisition and extinction. In contrast to results with delay conditioning, acquisition of trace conditioning was unimpaired in pcd mutant mice. Extinction to the CS alone did not differ between pcd and littermate control mice, and timing of the conditioned response was not altered by the absence of Purkinje cells during acquisition or extinction. The ability of pcd mutant mice to acquire and extinguish trace eyeblink conditioning at levels comparable to controls suggests that the cerebellar cortex is not a critical component of the neural circuitry underlying trace conditioning. Results indicate that the essential neural circuitry for trace eyeblink conditioning involves connectivity that bypasses cerebellar cortex. PMID:19931625

Brown, Kevin L.; Agelan, Alexis; Woodruff-Pak, Diana S.

2009-01-01

36

Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae). Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. RESULTS: Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality.

Marc F Schetelig; Carlos Caceres; Antigone Zacharopoulou; Gerald Franz; Ernst A Wimmer

2009-01-01

37

Producing Conditional Mutants for Studying Plant Microtubule Function  

SciTech Connect

The cytoskeleton, and in particular its microtubule component, participates in several processes that directly affect growth and development in higher plants. Normal cytoskeletal function requires the precise and orderly arrangement of microtubules into several cell cycle and developmentally specific arrays. One of these, the cortical array, is notable for its role in directing the deposition of cellulose (the most prominent polymer in the biosphere). An understanding of how these arrays form, and the molecular interactions that contribute to their function, is incomplete. To gain a better understanding of how microtubules work, we have been working to characterize mutants in critical cytoskeletal genes. This characterization is being carried out at the subcellular level using vital microtubule gene constructs. In the last year of funding colleagues have discovered that gamma-tubulin complexes form along the lengths of cortical microtubules where they act to spawn new microtubules at a characteristic 40 deg angle. This finding complements nicely the finding from our lab (which was funded by the DOE) showing that microtubule encounters are angle dependent; high angles encounters results in catastrophic collisions while low angle encounters result in favorable zippering. The finding of a 40 deg spawn of new microtubules from extant microtubule, together with aforementioned rules of encounters, insures favorable co-alignment in the array. I was invited to write a New and Views essay on this topic and a PDF is attached (News and Views policy does not permit funding acknowledgments and so I was not allowed to acknowledge support from the DOE).

Richard Cyr

2009-09-29

38

Burkholderia cenocepacia conditional growth mutant library created by random promoter replacement of essential genes  

PubMed Central

Identification of essential genes by construction of conditional knockouts with inducible promoters allows the identification of essential genes and creation of conditional growth (CG) mutants that are then available as genetic tools for further studies. We used large-scale transposon delivery of the rhamnose-inducible promoter, PrhaB followed by robotic screening of rhamnose-dependent growth to construct a genomic library of 106 Burkholderia cenocepacia CG mutants. Transposon insertions were found where PrhaB was in the same orientation of widely conserved, well-characterized essential genes as well as genes with no previous records of essentiality in other microorganisms. Using previously reported global gene-expression analyses, we demonstrate that PrhaB can achieve the wide dynamic range of expression levels required for essential genes when the promoter is delivered randomly and mutants with rhamnose-dependent growth are selected. We also show specific detection of the target of an antibiotic, novobiocin, by enhanced sensitivity of the corresponding CG mutant (PrhaB controlling gyrB expression) within the library. Modulation of gene expression to achieve 30–60% of wild-type growth created conditions for specific hypersensitivity demonstrating the value of the CG mutant library for chemogenomic experiments. In summary, CG mutants can be obtained on a large scale by random delivery of a tightly regulated inducible promoter into the bacterial chromosome followed by a simple screening for the CG phenotype, without previous information on gene essentiality. PMID:23389959

Bloodworth, Ruhi A M; Gislason, April S; Cardona, Silvia T

2013-01-01

39

Drosophila Embryonic Cell-Cycle Mutants  

E-print Network

Nearly all cell division mutants in Drosophila were recovered in late larval/pupal lethal screens, with less than 10 embryonic lethal mutants identified, because larval development occurs without a requirement for cell ...

Unhavaithaya, Yingdee

40

Lethal laryngopyocele.  

PubMed

A 44-year-old man collapsed after complaining of difficulty breathing. Layer dissection of the neck at autopsy revealed a large mixed internal and external laryngopyocele occluding the upper airway. It contained 30 mls of yellow-gray pus. Mechanisms of death in laryngoceles involve obstruction of the opening into the larynx resulting in accumulation of mucus or air within the sac causing airway occlusion. Once infection supervenes, deaths in laryngopyocoeles result either from accumulated pus causing airway occlusion from a mass effect (as in the current case) or the discharge of pus into the airway causing death from aspiration. Sudden death in laryngopyoceles is a very rare event that requires careful dissection at autopsy to demonstrate the characteristics of the underlying lesion and the possible mechanism of death. Laryngopyocele should be considered in the differential diagnosis of natural conditions causing acute, potentially lethal, upper airway obstruction. PMID:25556289

Byard, Roger W; Gilbert, John D

2015-03-01

41

Rhodobacter sphaeroides mutants which accumulate 5-aminolevulinic acid under aerobic and dark conditions.  

PubMed

The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides accumulates 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), which is a precursor in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, under light illumination and upon addition of levulinic acid as an inhibitor of ALA dehydratase. To generate an industrial strain which produces ALA in the absence of light, we sequentially mutated R. sphaeroides CR-286 using N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG). The mutant strains were screened by cultivating in the absence of light and assayed for ALA by the Ehrlich reaction in a 96-well microtiter plate. The mutant strain CR-386, derived from R. sphaeroides CR-286, was selected as a mutant that exhibited significant ALA accumulation. While CR-286 required light illumination for ALA production, CR-386 was able to accumulate 1.5 mM ALA in the presence of 50 mM glucose, 60 mM glycine, 15 mM levulinic acid and 1.0% (w/v) yeast extract under conditions of agitation in the absence of light. The mutant strain CR-450, derived from strain CR-386, was selected further as a mutant that exhibited significant ALA accumulation but no accumulation of aminoacetone, analogue of ALA. CR-450 accumulated 3.8 mM ALA under the same conditions. In the presence of 50 mM glucose, 60 mM glycine, 5 mM levulinic acid and 1.0% (w/v) yeast extract, the mutant strain CR-520, derived from strain CR-450, and strain CR-606, derived from strain CR-520, accumulated 8.1 mM and 11.2 mM ALA, respectively. In batch fermentation, the strain CR-606 accumulated 20 mM ALA over 18 h after the addition of glycine, levulinic acid, glucose and yeast extract. PMID:16232557

Nishikawa, S; Watanabe, K; Tanaka, T; Miyachi, N; Hotta, Y; Murooka, Y

1999-01-01

42

Thiamine Deficiency in Self-Induced Refeeding Syndrome, an Undetected and Potentially Lethal Condition  

PubMed Central

Rapid restoration of nutrients and electrolytes after prolonged starvation could result in a life threatening condition characterized by sensory and neurological dysfunction and severe metabolic imbalance that has been designated as refeeding syndrome. Its diagnosis is frequently missed resulting in severe complications and even death. We describe a 25-years-old female patient with mental disorders and severe malnutrition who developed severe clinical manifestations and biochemical abnormalities characteristic of the refeeding syndrome, after restarting oral feeding on her own. Schizophrenia was later diagnosed. Increased awareness of this condition and its complications is necessary to prevent its detrimental complications. PMID:25614745

Hershkowitz, Einat; Reshef, Alon; Munich, Olga; Yosefi, Bracha; Markel, Arie

2014-01-01

43

The Live Attenuated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Triple-Deletion Mutant ?apxIC ?apxIIC ?apxIV-ORF1 Strain, SLW05, Immunizes Pigs against Lethal Challenge with Haemophilus parasuis  

PubMed Central

Haemophilus parasuis and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae both belong to the family Pasteurellaceae and are major respiratory pathogens that cause large economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. We previously constructed an attenuated A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 1 live vaccine prototype, SLW05 (?apxIC ?apxIIC ?apxIV-ORF1), which is able to produce nontoxic but immunogenic ApxIA, ApxIIA, and ApxIVA. This triple-deletion mutant strain was shown to elicit protective immunity against virulent A. pleuropneumoniae. In the present study, we investigated whether immunization with SLW05 could also protect against lethal challenge with virulent H. parasuis SH0165 (serovar 5) or MD0322 (serovar 4). The SLW05 strain was found to elicit a strong humoral antibody response in pigs and to confer significant protection against challenge with a lethal dose of H. parasuis SH0165 or MD0322. IgG subtype analysis revealed that SLW05 induces a bias toward a Th1-type immune response and stimulates interleukin 2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-?) production. Moreover, antisera from SLW05-vaccinated pigs efficiently inhibited both A. pleuropneumoniae and H. parasuis growth in a whole-blood assay. This is the first report that a live attenuated A. pleuropneumoniae vaccine with SLW05 can protect against lethal H. parasuis infection, which provides a novel approach for developing an attenuated H. parasuis vaccine. PMID:23220998

Fu, Shulin; Ou, Jiwen; Zhang, Minmin; Xu, Juan; Liu, Huazhen; Liu, Jinlin; Yuan, Fangyan; Chen, Huanchun

2013-01-01

44

A defective conditioned behavior and a defective adenylate cyclase in the Drosophila mutant rutabaga  

Microsoft Academic Search

TheDrosophila X-linked mutantrutabaga (Duerr and Quinn 1982) fails to perform normally in olfactory conditioning paradigms, in spite of being able to sense odorants and shock (Figs. 1–3).rut is capable of forming an association between shock and odorant, but memory decays rapidly; the memory of the mutant following intensive training resembles that of normal flies following very brief training (Fig. 4).rut

Yadin Dudai; Shoshana Zvi; Susie Segel

1984-01-01

45

Chromosome condensation may enhance X-ray-related cell lethality in a temperature-sensitive mutant (tsBN2) of baby hamster kidney cells (BHK21)  

SciTech Connect

In the tsBN2 cell line, which has a temperature-sensitive defect in the regulatory mechanism for chromosome condensation, the lethal effect of X rays was enhanced by incubating the cells at a nonpermissive temperature (40 degrees C) following X irradiation. This enhancement was suppressed in the presence of cycloheximide, which inhibits induction of premature chromosome condensation. The findings obtained in the case of delayed incubation at 40 degrees C and in synchronized cells indicate that X-ray-related potentially lethal damage, which can be expressed by chromosome condensation, is produced in the cells at any stage of the cell cycle, but it is repairable for all cells except those at around the late G2-M phase, where chromosome condensation occurs at a permissive temperature (33.5 degrees C). These observations suggest that the high sensitivity of late G2-M cells to X rays is caused by the events associated with chromosome condensation.

Sasaki, H.; Nishimoto, T.

1987-03-01

46

Unlinked Noncomplementation: Isolation of New Conditional-Lethal Mutations in Each of the Tubulin Genes of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Mutations in genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that code for proteins that interact with ?-tubulin were sought by screening for unlinked mutations that fail to complement mutations in the single ?-tubulin-encoding gene (TUB2). Among the first three noncomplementing mutations examined, two are linked to TUB2 while one is unlinked. The unlinked mutation was shown to be a conditional-lethal allele of the major ?-tubulin-encoding gene (TUB1) and represents the first such mutation in that gene. The tub1-1 mutation itself causes a cold-sensitive cell-cycle arrest, and confers supersensitivity to the antimicrotubule drug benomyl. These phenotypes occur in the presence of a wild-type copy of the minor ?-tubulin-encoding gene, TUB3; the combination of tub1-1 and a tub3 null mutation is inviable in haploids. Through further application of this method, new mutations in TUB2 and TUB3 were isolated as unlinked noncomplementers of tub1-1. The noncomplementation between tub1 and tub2 mutations is gene specific and allele specific, suggesting that the phenotype is due to an interaction at the protein level. We conclude that isolation of unlinked noncomplementing mutations is likely to be a generally useful method for isolating mutations in interacting gene products. PMID:3294100

Stearns, T.; Botstein, D.

1988-01-01

47

Discovering the mechanism of action of novel antibacterial agents through transcriptional profiling of conditional mutants.  

PubMed

We present a new strategy for predicting novel antibiotic mechanisms of action based on the analysis of whole-genome microarray data. We first built up a reference compendium of Bacillus subtilis expression profiles induced by 14 different antibiotics. This data set was expanded by adding expression profiles from mutants that showed downregulation of genes coding for proven or emerging antibacterial targets. Here, we investigate conditional mutants underexpressing ileS, pheST, fabF, and accDA, each of which is essential for growth. Our proof-of-principle analyses reveal that conditional mutants can be used to mimic chemical inhibition of the corresponding gene products. Moreover, we show that a statistical data analysis combined with thorough pathway and regulon analysis can pinpoint the molecular target of uncharacterized antibiotics. We apply this approach to two novel antibiotics: a recently published phenyl-thiazolylurea derivative and the natural product moiramide B. Our results support recent findings suggesting that the phenyl-thiazolylurea derivative is a novel phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitor. Finally, we propose a completely novel antibiotic mechanism of action for moiramide B based on inhibition of the bacterial acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase. PMID:15673760

Freiberg, C; Fischer, H P; Brunner, N A

2005-02-01

48

Growth stimulation in inflorescences of an Arabidopsis tubulin mutant under microgravity conditions in space.  

PubMed

Cortical microtubules are involved in plant resistance to hypergravity, but their roles in resistance to 1 g gravity are still uncertain. To clarify this point, we cultivated an Arabidopsis ?-tubulin 6 mutant (tua6) in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility on the Kibo Module of the International Space Station, and analyzed growth and cell wall mechanical properties of inflorescences. Growth of inflorescence stems was stimulated under microgravity conditions, as compared with ground and on-orbit 1 g conditions. The stems were 10-45% longer and their growth rate 15-55% higher under microgravity conditions than those under both 1 g conditions. The degree of growth stimulation tended to be higher in the tua6 mutant than the wild-type Columbia. Under microgravity conditions, the cell wall extensibility in elongating regions of inflorescences was significantly higher than the controls, suggesting that growth stimulation was caused by cell wall modifications. No clear differences were detected in any growth or cell wall property between ground and on-orbit 1 g controls. These results support the hypothesis that cortical microtubules generally play an important role in plant resistance to the gravitational force. PMID:24148142

Hoson, T; Soga, K; Wakabayashi, K; Hashimoto, T; Karahara, I; Yano, S; Tanigaki, F; Shimazu, T; Kasahara, H; Masuda, D; Kamisaka, S

2014-01-01

49

Tn5-induced mutants of Azotobacter vinelandii affected in nitrogen fixation under Mo-deficient and Mo-sufficient conditions.  

PubMed Central

Mutants of Azotobacter vinelandii affected in N2 fixation in the presence of 1 microM Na2MoO4 (conventional system), 50 nM V2O5, or under Mo deficiency (alternative system) have been isolated after Tn5 mutagenesis with the suicide plasmid pSUP1011. These mutants can be grouped into at least four broad phenotypic classes. Mutants in the first class are Nif- under Mo sufficiency but Nif+ under Mo deficiency or in the presence of V2O5. A nifk mutant and a mutant apparently affected in regulation of the conventional system belong to this class. Mutants in the second class are Nif- under all conditions. An FeMo-cofactor-negative mutant (NifB-) belongs to this class, implying an involvement of nifB in both the conventional and the alternative N2 fixation systems. The third mutant class consists of mutants incapable of N2-dependent growth under Mo deficiency. Most of the mutants in this class are also affected in N2 fixation in the presence of 1 microM Na2MoO4, with acetylene reduction rates ranging from 28 to 51% of the rates of the wild type. Strains constructed by genetic transfer of the Kanr marker of mutants from this class into nifHDK or nifK deletion mutants showed N2-dependent growth only in the presence of V2O5, suggesting that growth in the presence of V2O5 and growth under Mo deficiency are independent phenomena. The only mutant in the fourth class shows wild-type nitrogenase activity under Mo sufficiency, but only 10% of the acetylene reduction activity of the wild type in the presence of 50 nM V2O5. The acetylene reduction rates of whole cells of this mutant are identical in Mo-deficient medium and in medium containing V2O5. The conventional nitrogenase subunits are expressed in this mutant even under Mo deficiency or in the presence of V2O5; however, the NH4+- and Mo-repressible proteins normally seen under these conditions could not be detected on two-dimensional gels. The Tn5 insertion carried by this mutant makes N2 fixation dependent solely on the conventional system and consequently abolishes the vanadium effect. Images PMID:3023285

Joerger, R D; Premakumar, R; Bishop, P E

1986-01-01

50

Tn5-induced mutants of Azotobacter vinelandii affected in nitrogen fixation under Mo-deficient and Mo-sufficient conditions  

SciTech Connect

Mutants of Azotobacter vinelandii affected in N/sub 2/ fixation in the presence of 1 ..mu..M Na/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/ (conventional system), 50 nM V/sub 2/O/sub 5/, or under Mo deficiency (alternative system) have been isolated after Tn5 mutagenesis with the suicide plasmid pSUP1011. These mutants are grouped into four broad phenotypic classes. Mutants in the first class are Nif/sup -/ under Mo sufficiency but Nif/sup +/ under Mo deficiency or in the presence of V/sub 2/O/sub 5/. Mutants in the second class are Nif/sup -/ under all conditions. An FeMo-cofactor-negative mutant (NifB/sup -/) belongs to this class. The third mutant class consists of mutants incapable of N/sub 2/-dependent growth under Mo deficiency. Most of the mutants of this class are also affected in N/sub 2/ fixation in the presence of 1 ..mu..M Na/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/, with acetylene reduction rates ranging from 28 to 51% of the rates of the wild type. Strains constructed by genetic transfer of the Kan/sup r/ marker of mutants from this class into nifHDK or nifK deletion mutants showed N/sub 2/-dependent growth only in the presence of V/sup 2/O/sub 5/. The only mutant in the fourth class shows wild-type nitrogenase activity under Mo sufficiency, but only 10% of the acetylene reduction activity of the wild type in the presence of 50 nM V/sub 2/O/sub 5/. The acetylene reduction rates of whole cells of this mutant are identical in Mo-deficient medium and in medium containing V/sub 2/O/sub 5/. The conventional nitrogenase subunits are expressed in this mutant even under Mo deficiency or in the presence of V/sub 2/O/sub 5/; however, the NH/sub 4//sup +/-and Mo-repressible proteins normally seen under these conditions could not be detected on two-dimensional gels.

Joerger, R.D.; Premakumar, R.; Bishop, P.E.

1986-11-01

51

A Comprehensive Analysis of the Importance of Translation Initiation Factors for Haloferax volcanii Applying Deletion and Conditional Depletion Mutants  

PubMed Central

Translation is an important step in gene expression. The initiation of translation is phylogenetically diverse, since currently five different initiation mechanisms are known. For bacteria the three initiation factors IF1 – IF3 are described in contrast to archaea and eukaryotes, which contain a considerably higher number of initiation factor genes. As eukaryotes and archaea use a non-overlapping set of initiation mechanisms, orthologous proteins of both domains do not necessarily fulfill the same function. The genome of Haloferax volcanii contains 14 annotated genes that encode (subunits of) initiation factors. To gain a comprehensive overview of the importance of these genes, it was attempted to construct single gene deletion mutants of all genes. In 9 cases single deletion mutants were successfully constructed, showing that the respective genes are not essential. In contrast, the genes encoding initiation factors aIF1, aIF2?, aIF5A, aIF5B, and aIF6 were found to be essential. Factors aIF1A and aIF2? are encoded by two orthologous genes in H. volcanii. Attempts to generate double mutants failed in both cases, indicating that also these factors are essential. A translatome analysis of one of the single aIF2? deletion mutants revealed that the translational efficiency of the second ortholog was enhanced tenfold and thus the two proteins can replace one another. The phenotypes of the single deletion mutants also revealed that the two aIF1As and aIF2?s have redundant but not identical functions. Remarkably, the gene encoding aIF2?, a subunit of aIF2 involved in initiator tRNA binding, could be deleted. However, the mutant had a severe growth defect under all tested conditions. Conditional depletion mutants were generated for the five essential genes. The phenotypes of deletion mutants and conditional depletion mutants were compared to that of the wild-type under various conditions, and growth characteristics are discussed. PMID:24244275

Gäbel, Katrin; Schmitt, Jessica; Schulz, Sebastian; Näther, Daniela J.; Soppa, Jörg

2013-01-01

52

Conditionally lethal amber mutations in the dnaA region of the Escherichia coli chromosome that affect chromosome replication.  

PubMed Central

Three amber mutations, dna-801, dna-803, and dna-806, were isolated by localized mutagenesis of the dnaA-oriC region of the chromosome from an Escherichia coli strain carrying temperature-sensitive amber suppressors. When the mutations were not suppressed at 42 degrees C, the cells did not grow and DNA synthesis was arrested. They were very closely linked to each other and to the dnaA46 mutation. The mutant phenotype of each strain was converted to the wild type by infecting the mutants with specialized transducing phase lambda i21 dnaA-2 but not with lambda i21 tna. Derivatives of lambda i21 dnaA-2, each of which carried the amber mutation dna-801 dna-803, or dna-806, converted the dnaA mutant phenotype to Dna+ but did not convert rhe amber mutants to the wild-type phenotype. E. coli uvrB cells were irradiated with ultraviolet light and infected with each of these phage strains. An analysis of proteins synthesized in the cells revealed that two proteins with molecular weights of 50,000 and 43,000 were specified by lambda i21 dnaA-2 but not by lambda i21 tna. When the ultraviolet-irradiated cells did not carry an amber suppressor, the derivative phage with the amber mutation invariably failed to produce the 43,000-dalton protein, but when the host cell carried supF (tyrT), the protein was produced. The 50,000-dalton protein was unaffected. Images PMID:160413

Kimura, M; Miki, T; Hiraga, S; Nagata, T; Yura, T

1979-01-01

53

Culture conditions of protoplast-derived cells of nicotiana sylvestris for mutant selection.  

PubMed

Large numbers of protoplasts showing reproducible high plating efficiency can be isolated from in vitro propagated, haploid and diploid, plants of Nicotiana sylvestris. Their successful use in the selection of biochemical mutants depends on the establishment of suitable selection parameters: culture medium, cell density, age of cells at selection etc. Plating of protoplasts at low densities as well as simulation and reconstruction experiments of mutant selection were employed to optimize such selection parameters. The results show that some of the principles determined for tobacco protoplast cultures manipulated at low densities or in view of mutant selection are of more general value. However, requirements specific to N. sylvestris protoplast cultures have also been established; they play a decisive part in the successful isolation of resistant mutants in this species. PMID:24258746

Negrutiu, I; Muller, J F

1981-08-01

54

The activity of nodules of the supernodulating mutant Mtsunn is not limited by photosynthesis under optimal growth conditions.  

PubMed

Legumes match the nodule number to the N demand of the plant. When a mutation in the regulatory mechanism deprives the plant of that ability, an excessive number of nodules are formed. These mutants show low productivity in the fields, mainly due to the high carbon burden caused through the necessity to supply numerous nodules. The objective of this study was to clarify whether through optimal conditions for growth and CO2 assimilation a higher nodule activity of a supernodulating mutant of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) can be induced. Several experimental approaches reveal that under the conditions of our experiments, the nitrogen fixation of the supernodulating mutant, designated as sunn (super numeric nodules), was not limited by photosynthesis. Higher specific nitrogen fixation activity could not be induced through short- or long-term increases in CO2 assimilation around shoots. Furthermore, a whole plant P depletion induced a decline in nitrogen fixation, however this decline did not occur significantly earlier in sunn plants, nor was it more intense compared to the wild-type. However, a distinctly different pattern of nitrogen fixation during the day/night cycles of the experiment indicates that the control of N2 fixing activity of the large number of nodules is an additional problem for the productivity of supernodulating mutants. PMID:24727372

Cabeza, Ricardo A; Lingner, Annika; Liese, Rebecca; Sulieman, Saad; Senbayram, Mehmet; Tränkner, Merle; Dittert, Klaus; Schulze, Joachim

2014-01-01

55

The Activity of Nodules of the Supernodulating Mutant Mtsunn Is not Limited by Photosynthesis under Optimal Growth Conditions  

PubMed Central

Legumes match the nodule number to the N demand of the plant. When a mutation in the regulatory mechanism deprives the plant of that ability, an excessive number of nodules are formed. These mutants show low productivity in the fields, mainly due to the high carbon burden caused through the necessity to supply numerous nodules. The objective of this study was to clarify whether through optimal conditions for growth and CO2 assimilation a higher nodule activity of a supernodulating mutant of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) can be induced. Several experimental approaches reveal that under the conditions of our experiments, the nitrogen fixation of the supernodulating mutant, designated as sunn (super numeric nodules), was not limited by photosynthesis. Higher specific nitrogen fixation activity could not be induced through short- or long-term increases in CO2 assimilation around shoots. Furthermore, a whole plant P depletion induced a decline in nitrogen fixation, however this decline did not occur significantly earlier in sunn plants, nor was it more intense compared to the wild-type. However, a distinctly different pattern of nitrogen fixation during the day/night cycles of the experiment indicates that the control of N2 fixing activity of the large number of nodules is an additional problem for the productivity of supernodulating mutants. PMID:24727372

Cabeza, Ricardo A.; Lingner, Annika; Liese, Rebecca; Sulieman, Saad; Senbayram, Mehmet; Tränkner, Merle; Dittert, Klaus; Schulze, Joachim

2014-01-01

56

Manipulating individual decisions and environmental conditions reveal individual quality in decision-making and non-lethal costs of predation risk.  

PubMed

Habitat selection is a crucial decision for any organism. Selecting a high quality site will positively impact survival and reproductive output. Predation risk is an important component of habitat quality that is known to impact reproductive success and individual condition. However, separating the breeding consequences of decision-making of wild animals from individual quality is difficult. Individuals face reproductive decisions that often vary with quality such that low quality individuals invest less. This reduced reproductive performance could appear a cost of increased risk but may simply reflect lower quality. Thus, teasing apart the effects of individual quality and the effect of predation risk is vital to understand the physiological and reproductive costs of predation risk alone on breeding animals. In this study we alter the actual territory location decisions of pied flycatchers by moving active nests relative to breeding sparrowhawks, the main predators of adult flycatchers. We experimentally measure the non-lethal effects of predation on adults and offspring while controlling for effects of parental quality, individual territory choice and initiation of breeding. We found that chicks from high predation risk nests (<50 m of hawk) were significantly smaller than chicks from low risk nests (>200 m from hawk). However, in contrast to correlative results, females in manipulated high risk nests did not suffer decreased body condition or increased stress response (HSP60 and HSP70). Our results suggest that territory location decisions relative to breeding avian predators cause spatial gradients in individual quality. Small adjustments in territory location decisions have crucial consequences and our results confirm non-lethal costs of predation risk that were expressed in terms of smaller offspring produced. However, females did not show costs in physiological condition which suggests that part of the costs incurred by adults exposed to predation risk are quality determined. PMID:23272226

Thomson, Robert L; Tomás, Gustavo; Forsman, Jukka T; Mönkkönen, Mikko

2012-01-01

57

Impaired lysosomes in a temperature-sensitive mutant of Chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. We describe here the properties of a mutant of Chinese hamster,ovary cells that expresses a conditional-lethal mutation,affecting dense lysosomes. This mutant, termed V.24.1, is a member of the End4 complementation,group,of temperature-sensitive mu- tants selected for resistance to protein toxins (Col- baugh, P. A., C.-Y. Kao, S.-P. Shia, M. Stookey, and R. K. Draper. 1988. Somatic Cell Mol. Genet. 14:499-507).

Penelope A. Colbaugh; Margaret Stookey; Rockford K. Draper

1989-01-01

58

Conditions supporting repair of potentially lethal damage cause a significant reduction of ultraviolet light-induced division delay in synchronized and plateau-phase Ehrlich ascites tumor cells  

SciTech Connect

Repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) induced by uv light in synchronized and in plateau-phase cultures of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells was studied by measuring cell survival. In particlar the influence of conditions supporting repair of PLD on growth kinetics was investigated. In synchronized G/sub 1/, S, or G/sub 2/ + M cells as well as in plateau-phase cells, uv light induced, almost exclusively, delay in the next S phase. A significant decrease of this delay was observed when the cells were incubated for 24 hr in balanced salt solution. Repair of PLD after uv irradiation was found to occur in plateau-phase cells and in cells in different phases of the cell cycle provided that after irradiation these were kept under conditions inhibiting cell multiplication (incubation in balanced salt solution or in conditioned medium). The repair time constant t/sub 50/ was significantly higher than those found for X irradiation (5-10 hr compared to 2 hr), and repair was not significantly inhibited by either 20 ..mu..g/ml cycloheximide or 2 mM caffeine in 24 hr.

Iliakis, G.; Nusse, M.

1982-09-01

59

Deacidification of red and white wines by a mutant of Schizosaccharomyces malidevorans under commercial winemaking conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mutant ofSchizosaccharomyces malidevorans, which utilizes malic acid more rapidly than the wild-type strain and does not utilize significant amounts of glucose or fructose, was used in commercial scale deacidification of grape juice during two vintages in a New Zealand winery. Four trials were conducted in Chardonnay, Semillon and Cabernet Sauvignon juices, 1000–4500 l. In the first two trials, the

R. J. Thornton; S. B. Rodriguez

1996-01-01

60

Conditional poliovirus mutants made by random deletion mutagenesis of infectious cDNA.  

PubMed Central

Small deletions were introduced into DNA plasmids bearing cDNA copies of Mahoney type 1 poliovirus RNA. The procedure used was similar to that of P. Hearing and T. Shenk (J. Mol. Biol. 167:809-822, 1983), with modifications designed to introduce only one lesion randomly into each DNA molecule. Methods to map small deletions in either large DNA or RNA molecules were employed. Two poliovirus mutants, VP1-101 and VP1-102, were selected from mutagenized populations on the basis of their host range phenotype, showing a large reduction in the relative numbers of plaques on CV1 and HeLa cells compared with wild-type virus. The deletions borne by the mutant genomes were mapped to the region encoding the amino terminus of VP1. That these lesions were responsible for the mutant phenotypes was substantiated by reintroduction of the sequenced lesions into a wild-type poliovirus cDNA by deoxyoligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. The deletion of nucleotides encoding amino acids 8 and 9 of VP1 was responsible for the VP1-101 phenotype; the VP1-102 defect was caused by the deletion of the sequences encoding the first four amino acids of VP1. The peptide sequence at the VP1-VP3 proteolytic cleavage site was altered from glutamine-glycine to glutamine-methionine in VP1-102; this apparently did not alter the proteolytic cleavage pattern. The biochemical defects resulting from these mutations are discussed in the accompanying report. Images PMID:2152811

Kirkegaard, K; Nelsen, B

1990-01-01

61

Effect of Tie-2 conditional deletion of BDNF on atherosclerosis in the ApoE null mutant mouse.  

PubMed

The reduced expression (haplodeficiency) of the main brain derived neurotrophic factor receptor, namely TrkB is associated with reduced atherosclerosis, smooth muscle cells accumulation and collagen content in the lesion. These data support the concept that brain derived neurotrophic factor of vascular origin may contribute to atherosclerosis. However, to date, no experimental approach was possible to investigate this issue due to the lethality of brain derived neurotrophic factor null mice. To overcome these limitations, we generated a mouse model with a conditional deletion of brain derived neurotrophic factor in endothelial cells (Tie-2 Cre recombinase) on an atherosclerotic prone background (apolipoprotein E knock out) and investigated the effect of conditional brain derived neurotrophic factor deficiency on atherosclerosis. Despite brain derived neurotrophic factor reduction in the vascular wall, mice with conditional deletion of brain derived neurotrophic factor did not develop larger atherosclerotic lesion compared to controls. Smooth muscle cell content as well as the distribution of total and fibrillar collagen was similar in the atherosclerotic lesions from mice with brain derived neurotrophic factor conditional deficiency compared to controls. Finally an extended gene expression analysis failed to identify pro-atherogenic gene expression patterns among the animal with brain derived neurotrophic factor deficiency. In spite of the reduced brain derived neurotrophic factor expression, similar atherosclerosis development was observed in the brain derived neurotrophic factor conditional deficient mouse compared to controls. These pieces of evidence indicate that endothelial derived-brain derived neurotrophic factor is not a pro-atherogenic factor and would rather suggest to investigate the role of other TrkB activators on atherosclerosis. PMID:22386878

Norata, Giuseppe Danilo; Venu, Vivek Krishna Pulakazhi; Callegari, Elisa; Paloschi, Valentina; Catapano, Alberico Luigi

2012-06-01

62

Conditional human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease mutants show no role for the viral protease early in virus replication.  

PubMed Central

The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease plays a critical role in the proteolytic processing of precursor polyproteins during virion maturation. Contradictory evidence has been obtained for a possible role for the protease early after infection, i.e., during DNA synthesis and/or integration. We have reexamined this question by using conditional mutants of the protease. In one set of experiments, protease mutants that confer a temperature-sensitive phenotype for processing were used to assess the need for protease activity early after infection. No significant difference from results with wild-type virus was seen when infections were carried out at either 35 or 40 degrees C. In a separate set of experiments, infections were carried out in the presence of a protease inhibitor. In this case, both wild-type virus and a drug-resistant variant were used, the latter as a control to ensure a specific effect of the inhibitor. Infection with either virus was not inhibited at drug concentrations that were up to 10-fold higher than those needed to inhibit intracellular processing by the viral protease. The results obtained by both of these experimental protocols provide evidence that the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease does not play a role early after infection. PMID:8709202

Kaplan, A H; Manchester, M; Smith, T; Yang, Y L; Swanstrom, R

1996-01-01

63

Functional citric acid cycle in an arcA mutant of Escherichia coli during growth with nitrate under anoxic conditions.  

PubMed

The operation of the citric acid cycle of Escherichia coli during nitrate respiration (anoxic conditions) was studied by measuring end products and enzyme activities. Excretion of products other than CO2, such as acetate or ethanol, was taken as an indication for a non-functional cycle. From glycerol, approximately 0.3 mol acetate was produced; the residual portion was completely oxidized, indicating the presence of a partially active citric acid cycle. In an arcA mutant devoid of the transcriptional regulator ArcA, glycerol was completely oxidized with nitrate as an electron acceptor, demonstrating derepression and function of the complete pathway. Glucose, on the other hand, was excreted mostly as acetate by the wild-type and by the arcA mutant. During growth on glucose, but not on glycerol, activities of succinate dehydrogenase and of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase were missing nearly completely. Thus, the previously described strong repression of the citric acid cycle during nitrate respiration occurs only during growth on glucose and is the effect of anaerobic and, more important, of glucose repression. In Pseudomonas fluorescens (but not Pseudomonas stutzeri), a similar decrease of citric acid cycle function during anaerobic growth with nitrate was found, indicating a broad distribution of this regulatory principle. PMID:9639597

Prohl, C; Wackwitz, B; Vlad, D; Unden, G

1998-07-01

64

Conditional Auxin Response and Differential Cytokinin Profiles in Shoot Branching Mutants1[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Strigolactone (SL), auxin, and cytokinin (CK) are hormones that interact to regulate shoot branching. For example, several ramosus (rms) branching mutants in pea (Pisum sativum) have SL defects, perturbed xylem CK levels, and diminished responses to auxin in shoot decapitation assays. In contrast with the last of these characteristics, we discovered that buds on isolated nodes (explants) of rms plants instead respond normally to auxin. We hypothesized that the presence or absence of attached roots would result in transcriptional and hormonal differences in buds and subtending stem tissues, and might underlie the differential auxin response. However, decapitated plants and explants both showed similar up-regulation of CK biosynthesis genes, increased CK levels, and down-regulation of auxin transport genes. Moreover, auxin application counteracted these trends, regardless of the effectiveness of auxin at inhibiting bud growth. Multivariate analysis revealed that stem transcript and CK changes were largely associated with decapitation and/or root removal and auxin response, whereas bud transcript profiles related more to SL defects. CK clustering profiles were indicative of additional zeatin-type CKs in decapitated stems being supplied by roots and thus promoting bud growth in SL-deficient genotypes even in the presence of added auxin. This difference in CK content may explain why rms buds on explants respond better to auxin than those on decapitated plants. We further conclude that rapid changes in CK status in stems are auxin dependent but largely SL independent, suggesting a model in which auxin and CK are dominant regulators of decapitation-induced branching, whereas SLs are more important in intact plants. PMID:24904042

Young, Naomi F.; Ferguson, Brett J.; Antoniadi, Ioanna; Bennett, Mark H.; Beveridge, Christine A.; Turnbull, Colin G.N.

2014-01-01

65

Establishment of permanent chimerism in a lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mouse mutant with hemolytic anemia  

SciTech Connect

Pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell function was investigated in the homozygous muscle type lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-A) mutant mouse using bone marrow transplantation experiments. Hemopoietic tissues of LDH-A mutants showed a marked decreased in enzyme activity that was associated with severe hemolytic anemia. This condition proved to be transplantable into wild type mice (+/+) through total body irradiation (TBI) at a lethal dose of 8.0 Gy followed by engraftment of mutant bone marrow cells. Since the mutants are extremely radiosensitive (lethal dose50/30 4.4 Gy vs 7.3 Gy in +/+ mice), 8.0-Gy TBI followed by injection of even high numbers of normal bone marrow cells did not prevent death within 5-6 days. After a nonlethal dose of 4.0 Gy and grafting of normal bone marrow cells, a transient chimerism showing peripheral blood characteristics of the wild type was produced that returned to the mutant condition within 12 weeks. The transfusion of wild type red blood cells prior to and following 8.0-Gy TBI and reconstitution with wild type bone marrow cells prevented the early death of the mutants and permanent chimerism was achieved. The chimeras showed all hematological parameters of wild type mice, and radiosensitivity returned to normal. It is concluded that the mutant pluripotent stem cells are functionally comparable to normal stem cells, emphasizing the significance of this mouse model for studies of stem cell regulation.

Datta, T.; Doermer, P.

1987-12-01

66

Role of enterobactin and intracellular iron in cell lethality during near-UV irradiation in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

In Escherichia coli, fur mutants that constitutively express their native iron chelating agent, enterobactin, are significantly more sensitive to near-UV radiation (NUV) than wild type, An entA mutant, which is incapable of synthesizing enterobactin, is equal to wild type in resistance to NUV irradiation. However, the addition of Fe+3 enterobactin but not AI+3 enterobactin to entA cell suspensions just prior to irradiation results in an increased sensitivity to NUV irradiation. A fes mutant, which is unable to reduce and release iron from enterobactin, is significantly more sensitive to NUV irradiation than wild type. The addition of nontoxic levels of H2O2 (5 microM) just prior to irradiation significantly increases sensitivity of both fur and fes mutants. These results suggest that one mechanism by which NUV irradiation leads to cell lethality is by creating a transient iron overload, producing very favorable conditions for the production of highly deleterious free radicals through a variety of mechanisms that lead to oxidative stress and DNA damage including lethal and mutagenic lesions. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that enterobactin is an endogenous chromophore for NUV and contributes to cell lethality via the destruction of its ligand, releasing Fe+2 into the cytoplasm to catalyze the production of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals and other toxic oxygen species via the Haber-Weiss reaction. PMID:8806229

Hoerter, J; Pierce, A; Troupe, C; Epperson, J; Eisenstark, A

1996-09-01

67

Conditional mouse mutants highlight mechanisms of corticotropin-releasing hormone effects on stress-coping behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypersecretion of central corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of affective disorders. Both, basic and clinical studies suggested that disrupting CRH signaling through CRH type 1 receptors (CRH-R1) can ameliorate stress-related clinical conditions. To study the effects of CRH-R1 blockade upon CRH-elicited behavioral and neurochemical changes we created different mouse lines overexpressing CRH in distinct spatially restricted

A Lu; M A Steiner; N Whittle; A M Vogl; S M Walser; M Ableitner; D Refojo; M Ekker; J L Rubenstein; G K Stalla; N Singewald; F Holsboer; C T Wotjak; W Wurst; J M Deussing

2008-01-01

68

Effect of cycloheximide on repair in a temperature conditional radiation-sensitive mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

SciTech Connect

Previous results have shown that rad54-3 strains are temperature conditional for double-strand break repair. Rad54-3 strains provide a system to study the effects of drugs that block protein synthesis such as cycloheximide on repair of X-ray damage. Repair of X-ray damage is studied by irradiating rad54-3 cells, incubating them at the permissive temperature, 23/sup 0/C, for 5 hr, shifting the cells to the restrictive temperature, 36/sup 0/C, and assaying for colony-forming ability. Comparing the survival of these cell with those which had been continuously incubated at the restrictive temperature after irradiation shows the extent of repair. Addition of cycloheximide at the time of irradiation causes an inhibition of repair. If cycloheximide is added a short time after irradiation, an enhanced recovery is observed compared with the addition of the drug at the time of irradiation. One explanation for the enhanced recovery is an increased synthesis of repair enzymes after irradiation.

Budd, M.; Mortimer, R.K.

1984-09-01

69

Construction of Listeria monocytogenes mutants with in-frame deletions in the phosphotransferase transport system (PTS) and analysis of their growth under stress conditions.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that is difficult to eliminate due to its ability to survive under different stress conditions such as low pH and high salt. To better control this pathogen in food, it is important to understand its survival mechanisms under these stress conditions. LMOf2365_0442, 0443, and 0444 encode for phosphotransferase transport system (PTS) permease (fructose-specific IIABC components) that is responsible for sugar transport. LMOf2365_0445 encodes for glycosyl hydrolase. These genes were induced by high pressure and inhibited under salt treatments; therefore, we hypothesized that genes encoding these PTS proteins may be involved in general stress responses. To study the function of these genes, deletion mutants of the PTS genes (LMOf2365_0442, LMOf2365_0443, and LMOf2365_0444) and the downstream gene LMOf2365_0445 were created in L. monocytogenes strain F2365. These deletion mutants were tested under different stress conditions. The growth of ?LMOf2365_0445 was increased under nisin (125 ?g/mL) treatments compared to the wild-type (P < 0.01). The growth of ?LMOf2365_0442 in salt (brain-heart infusion medium with 5% NaCl) was significantly increased (P < 0.01), and ?LMOf2365_0442 showed increased growth under acidic conditions (pH 5.0) compared to the wild-type (P < 0.01). The results from phenotypic arrays demonstrated that some of these mutants showed slightly slower growth under different carbon sources and basic conditions. The results indicate that deletion mutants ?LMOf2365_0442 and ?LMOf2365_0445 were more resistant to multiple stress conditions compared to the wild-type, suggesting that they may contribute to the general stress response in L. monocytogenes. An understanding of the growth of these mutants under multiple stress conditions may assist in the development of intervention strategies to control L. monocytogenes in food. PMID:23909479

Liu, Yanhong; Ceruso, Marina; Jiang, Yuji; Datta, Atin R; Carter, Laurenda; Strain, Errol; Pepe, Tiziana; Anastasi, Aniello; Fratamico, Pina

2013-09-01

70

Increased dopaminergic innervation in the brain of conditional mutant mice overexpressing Otx2: effects on locomotor behavior and seizure susceptibility.  

PubMed

The homeobox-containing transcription factor Otx2 controls the identity, fate and proliferation of mesencephalic dopaminergic (mesDA) neurons. Transgenic mice, in which Otx2 was conditionally overexpressed by a Cre recombinase expressed under the transcriptional control of the Engrailed1 gene (En1(Cre/+); tOtx2(ov/+)), show an increased number of mesDA neurons during development. In adult mice, Otx2 is expressed in a subset of neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and its overexpression renders mesDA more resistant to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-HCl (MPTP) neurotoxin. Here we further investigated the neurological consequences of the increased number of mesDA neurons in En1(Cre/+); tOtx2(ov/+) adult mice. Immunohistochemistry for the active, glycosylated form of the dopamine transporter (glyco-Dat) showed that En1(Cre/+); tOtx2(ov/+) adult mice display an increased density of mesocortical DAergic fibers, as compared to control animals. Increased glyco-Dat staining was accompanied by a marked hypolocomotion in En1(Cre/+); tOtx2(ov/+) mice, as detected in the open field test. Since conditional knockout mice lacking Otx2 in mesDA precursors (En1(Cre/+); Otx2(floxv/flox) mice) show a marked resistance to kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures, we investigated the behavioral response to KA in En1(Cre/+); tOtx2(ov/+) and control mice. No difference was observed between mutant and control mice, but En1(Cre/+); tOtx2(ov/+) mice showed a markedly different c-fos mRNA induction profile in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus after KA seizures, as compared to controls. Accordingly, an increased density of parvalbumin (PV)-positive inhibitory interneurons was detected in the deep layers of the frontal cortex of naïve En1(Cre/+); tOtx2(ov/+) mice, as compared to controls. These data indicate that Otx2 overexpression results in increased DAergic innervation and PV cell density in the fronto-parietal cortex, with important consequences on spontaneous locomotor activity and seizure-induced gene expression. Our results strengthen the notion that Otx2 mutant mouse models are a powerful genetic tool to unravel the molecular and behavioral consequences of altered development of the DAergic system. PMID:24384227

Tripathi, P P; Di Giovannantonio, L G; Sanguinetti, E; Acampora, D; Allegra, M; Caleo, M; Wurst, W; Simeone, A; Bozzi, Y

2014-03-01

71

The effect of Wag31 phosphorylation on the cells and the cell envelope fraction of wild-type and conditional mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis  

E-print Network

envelope fraction a b s t r a c t Non-surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using a 514.5 nm wavelength laser-type and conditional mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis studied by visible-wavelength Raman spectroscopy Khozima Keywords: Raman spectroscopy Mycobacterium smegmatis Phosphorylation Peptidoglycan biosynthesis Cell

Rehse, Steven J.

72

Complementation of the embryo-lethal T-DNA insertion mutant of AUXIN-BINDING-PROTEIN 1 (ABP1) with abp1 point mutated versions reveals crosstalk of ABP1 and phytochromes  

PubMed Central

The function of the extracytoplasmic AUXIN-BINDING-PROTEIN1 (ABP1) is largely enigmatic. We complemented a homozygous T-DNA insertion null mutant of ABP1 in Arabidopsis thaliana Wassilewskia with three mutated and one wild-type (wt) ABP1 cDNA, all tagged C-terminally with a strepII–FLAG tag upstream the KDEL signal. Based on in silico modelling, the abp1 mutants were predicted to have altered geometries of the auxin binding pocket and calculated auxin binding energies lower than the wt. Phenotypes linked to auxin transport were compromised in these three complemented abp1 mutants. Red light effects, such as elongation of hypocotyls in constant red (R) and far-red (FR) light, in white light supplemented by FR light simulating shade, and inhibition of gravitropism by R or FR, were all compromised in the complemented lines. Using auxin- or light-induced expression of marker genes, we showed that auxin-induced expression was delayed already after 10min, and light-induced expression within 60min, even though TIR1/AFB or phyB are thought to act as receptors relevant for gene expression regulation. The expression of marker genes in seedlings responding to both auxin and shade showed that for both stimuli regulation of marker gene expression was altered after 10–20min in the wild type and phyB mutant. The rapidity of expression responses provides a framework for the mechanics of functional interaction of ABP1 and phyB to trigger interwoven signalling pathways. PMID:25392478

Effendi, Yunus; Ferro, Noel; Labusch, Corinna; Geisler, Markus; Scherer, Günther F. E.

2015-01-01

73

Complementation of the embryo-lethal T-DNA insertion mutant of AUXIN-BINDING-PROTEIN 1 (ABP1) with abp1 point mutated versions reveals crosstalk of ABP1 and phytochromes.  

PubMed

The function of the extracytoplasmic AUXIN-BINDING-PROTEIN1 (ABP1) is largely enigmatic. We complemented a homozygous T-DNA insertion null mutant of ABP1 in Arabidopsis thaliana Wassilewskia with three mutated and one wild-type (wt) ABP1 cDNA, all tagged C-terminally with a strepII-FLAG tag upstream the KDEL signal. Based on in silico modelling, the abp1 mutants were predicted to have altered geometries of the auxin binding pocket and calculated auxin binding energies lower than the wt. Phenotypes linked to auxin transport were compromised in these three complemented abp1 mutants. Red light effects, such as elongation of hypocotyls in constant red (R) and far-red (FR) light, in white light supplemented by FR light simulating shade, and inhibition of gravitropism by R or FR, were all compromised in the complemented lines. Using auxin- or light-induced expression of marker genes, we showed that auxin-induced expression was delayed already after 10 min, and light-induced expression within 60 min, even though TIR1/AFB or phyB are thought to act as receptors relevant for gene expression regulation. The expression of marker genes in seedlings responding to both auxin and shade showed that for both stimuli regulation of marker gene expression was altered after 10-20 min in the wild type and phyB mutant. The rapidity of expression responses provides a framework for the mechanics of functional interaction of ABP1 and phyB to trigger interwoven signalling pathways. PMID:25392478

Effendi, Yunus; Ferro, Noel; Labusch, Corinna; Geisler, Markus; Scherer, Günther F E

2015-01-01

74

Production of infectious RNA transcripts from Sindbis virus cDNA clones: mapping of lethal mutations, rescue of a temperature-sensitive marker, and in vitro mutagenesis to generate defined mutants.  

PubMed Central

We constructed full-length cDNA clones of Sindbis virus that can be transcribed in vitro by SP6 RNA polymerase to produce infectious genome-length transcripts. Viruses produced from in vitro transcripts are identical to Sindbis virus and show strain-specific phenotypes reflecting the source of RNA used for cDNA synthesis. The cDNA clones were used to confirm the mapping of the causal mutation of ts2 to the capsid protein. A general strategy for mapping Sindbis virus mutations is described and was used to identify two lethal mutations in an original full-length construct which did not produce infectious transcripts. An XbaI linker was inserted in the cDNA clone near the transcriptional start of the subgenomic mRNA; the resulting virus retains the XbaI recognition sequence, thus providing formal evidence that viruses are derived from in vitro transcripts of cDNA clones. The potential applications of the cDNA clones are discussed. Images PMID:3479621

Rice, C M; Levis, R; Strauss, J H; Huang, H V

1987-01-01

75

Responses of 4 X-ray-sensitive CHO cell mutants to different radiations and to irradiation conditions promoting cellular recovery.  

PubMed

Four X-ray-sensitive mutants of CHO cells, described previously by Jeggo and Kemp (1983), showed enhanced sensitivity to both 60Co gamma-rays and 238Pu alpha-particles relative to the responses of the parent line. The enhanced response to a densely ionising radiation (alpha-particles) was less than that to X- or gamma-rays, suggesting that these mutants are deficient mainly in the repair of damage from relatively sparsely ionising radiation tracks. Plateau-phase cultures of the parental CHO cells showed considerable recovery upon irradiation with low-dose-rate gamma-rays, compared to irradiation at 'high' dose rates, but little or no recovery was seen for the mutants. Similarly, preliminary data on recovery during post-irradiation holding of plateau-phase cultures show that this process is also absent in the mutants. These responses have several similarities to those of cells from patients with the radiosensitive disorder ataxia telangiectasia (AT), and are discussed with reference to AT cells and other radiosensitive mutants. PMID:4000151

Thacker, J; Stretch, A

1985-07-01

76

Anthrax lethal factor inhibition  

PubMed Central

The primary virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis is a secreted zinc-dependent metalloprotease toxin known as lethal factor (LF) that is lethal to the host through disruption of signaling pathways, cell destruction, and circulatory shock. Inhibition of this proteolytic-based LF toxemia could be expected to provide therapeutic value in combination with an antibiotic during and immediately after an active anthrax infection. Herein is shown the crystal structure of an intimate complex between a hydroxamate, (2R)-2-[(4-fluoro-3-methylphenyl)sulfonylamino]-N-hydroxy-2-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)acetamide, and LF at the LF-active site. Most importantly, this molecular interaction between the hydroxamate and the LF active site resulted in (i) inhibited LF protease activity in an enzyme assay and protected macrophages against recombinant LF and protective antigen in a cell-based assay, (ii) 100% protection in a lethal mouse toxemia model against recombinant LF and protective antigen, (iii) ?50% survival advantage to mice given a lethal challenge of B. anthracis Sterne vegetative cells and to rabbits given a lethal challenge of B. anthracis Ames spores and doubled the mean time to death in those that died in both species, and (iv) 100% protection against B. anthracis spore challenge when used in combination therapy with ciprofloxacin in a rabbit “point of no return” model for which ciprofloxacin alone provided 50% protection. These results indicate that a small molecule, hydroxamate LF inhibitor, as revealed herein, can ameliorate the toxemia characteristic of an active B. anthracis infection and could be a vital adjunct to our ability to combat anthrax. PMID:15911756

Shoop, W. L.; Xiong, Y.; Wiltsie, J.; Woods, A.; Guo, J.; Pivnichny, J. V.; Felcetto, T.; Michael, B. F.; Bansal, A.; Cummings, R. T.; Cunningham, B. R.; Friedlander, A. M.; Douglas, C. M.; Patel, S. B.; Wisniewski, D.; Scapin, G.; Salowe, S. P.; Zaller, D. M.; Chapman, K. T.; Scolnick, E. M.; Schmatz, D. M.; Bartizal, K.; MacCoss, M.; Hermes, J. D.

2005-01-01

77

Heat Shock Transcriptional Responses in an MC-Producing Cyanobacterium (Planktothrix agardhii) and Its MC-Deficient Mutant under High Light Conditions  

PubMed Central

Microcystins (MCs) are the most commonly-reported hepatotoxins produced by various cyanobacterial taxa in fresh waters to constitute a potential threat to human and animal health. The biological role of MCs in the producer organisms is not known, and it would be very useful to understand the driving force behind the toxin production. Recent studies have suggested that MCs may have a protective function in cells facing environmental stress. Following this starting premise, we speculate that under adverse conditions the expression of stress-related genes coding for Heat Shock Proteins (Hsp) might be different in an MC-producing strain and its MC-deficient mutant. We therefore used RT-qPCR to compare the expression of 13 hsp genes of an MC-producing strain of Planktothrix agardhii (CYA126/8) and its MC-deficient ?mcyD mutant over different periods of exposure to high light stress (HL). Three reference genes (RGs) were selected from six candidates to normalize the RT-qPCR data. Of these three RGs (rsh, rpoD, and gltA), gltA is used here for the first time as an RG in prokaryotes. Under HL stress, five genes were found to be strongly up-regulated in both strains (htpG, dnaK, hspA, groES, and groEL). Unexpectedly, we found that the MC-producing wild type strain accumulated higher levels of htpG and dnaK transcripts in response to HL stress than the MC-deficient mutant. In addition, a significant increase in the mcyE transcript was detected in the mutant, suggesting that MCs are required under HL conditions. We discuss several possible roles of MCs in the response to HL stress through their possible involvement in the protective mechanisms of the cells. PMID:24023831

Tran, Thi Du Chi; Bernard, Cecile; Ammar, Myriam; Chaouch, Soraya; Comte, Katia

2013-01-01

78

Higher order Arabidopsis 14-3-3 mutants show 14-3-3 involvement in primary root growth both under control and abiotic stress conditions  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis 14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved proteins that interact with numerous partner proteins in a phospho-specific manner, and can affect the target proteins in a number of ways; e.g. modification of enzymatic activity. We isolated T-DNA insertion lines in six 14-3-3 genes within the non-epsilon group that phylogenetically group in three closely related gene pairs. In total, 6 single, 3 double, 12 triple, and 3 quadruple mutants were generated. The mutants were phenotyped for primary root growth on control plates: single and double mutants were indistinguishable from WT, whereas six triples and all quadruples showed a shorter primary root. In addition, length of the first epidermal cell with a visible root hair bulge (LEH) was used to determine primary root elongation on medium containing mannitol and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). This analysis showed clear differences depending on the stress and 14-3-3 gene combinations. Next to the phenotypic growth analyses, a 14-3-3 pull-down assay on roots treated with and without mannitol showed that mannitol stress strongly affects the 14-3-3 interactome. In conclusion, we show gene specificity and functional redundancy among 14-3-3 proteins in primary root elongation under control and under abiotic stress conditions and changes in the 14-3-3 interactome during the onset of stress adaptation. PMID:25189593

van Kleeff, P. J. M.; Jaspert, N.; Li, K. W.; Rauch, S.; Oecking, C.; de Boer, A. H.

2014-01-01

79

Electroshock weapons can be lethal!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroshock weapons (EWs)-stun guns, tasers, riot shields-are electroconductive devices designed to safely incapacitate healthy men neuromuscularly, so they are called nonlethal or less-lethal. EW firms seeking large nonmilitary markets targeted law enforcement and corrections personnel, who began using EWs in prisons/jails and on public patrol in 1980 in the USA. This shifted the EW-shocked population from healthy soldiers to a heterogeneous mix of both sexes, ages 6-92, in a wide variety of health conditions! An EW operates by disrupting normal physiological processes, producing transient effects in healthy people. But if a person's health is sufficiently compromised, the margin of safety can be lost, resulting in death or permanent health problems. 325 people have died after EW shock since 1980. Did the EW cause these deaths? Evidence indicates that EWs do play a causal role in most such deaths. EWs can be lethal for people in diabetic shock^1 (hypoglycemia), which may be why Robert Dziekanski-a Polish immigrant to Canada-died so quickly after he was tasered at Vancouver Airport: not having eaten for over 10 hours, he likely was severely hypoglycemic. The EW death rate in North America is 30 times higher than need be, because EW users have not been properly trained to use EWs on a heterogeneous population safely! ^1J. Clinical Engineering 30(3):111(2005).

Lundquist, Marjorie

2008-03-01

80

Isolation of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mutant in ABA 8?-hydroxylase gene: effect of reduced ABA catabolism on germination inhibition under field condition  

PubMed Central

Pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seeds on the mother plant under moist condition, is a serious problem in cereals. To investigate the effect of reduced abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism on germination in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), we cloned the wheat ABA 8?-hydroxyase gene which was highly expressed during seed development (TaABA8?OH1) and screened for mutations that lead to reduced ABA catabolism. In a screen for natural variation, one insertion mutation in exon 5 of TaABA8?OH1 on the D genome (TaABA8?OH1-D) was identified in Japanese cultivars including ‘Tamaizumi’. However, a single mutation in TaABA8?OH1-D had no clear effect on germination inhibition in double haploid lines. In a screen for a mutation, one deletion mutant lacking the entire TaABA8?OH1 on the A genome (TaABA8?OH1-A), TM1833, was identified from gamma-ray irradiation lines of ‘Tamaizumi’. TM1833 (a double mutant in TaABA8?OH1-A and TaABA8?OH1-D) showed lower TaABA8?OH1 expression, higher ABA content in embryos during seed development under field condition and lower germination than those in ‘Tamaizumi’ (a single mutant in TaABA8?OH1-D). These results indicate that reduced ABA catabolism through mutations in TaABA8?OH1 may be effective in germination inhibition in field-grown wheat. PMID:23641187

Chono, Makiko; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Seki, Masako; Fujita, Masaya; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Oda, Shunsuke; Kojima, Hisayo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kawakami, Naoto

2013-01-01

81

Escherichia coli genes that reduce the lethal effects of stress  

PubMed Central

Background The continuing emergence of antimicrobial resistance requires the development of new compounds and/or enhancers of existing compounds. Genes that protect against the lethal effects of antibiotic stress are potential targets of enhancers. To distinguish such genes from those involved in drug uptake and efflux, a new susceptibility screen is required. Results Transposon (Tn5)-mediated mutagenesis was used to create a library of Escherichia coli mutants that was screened for hypersensitivity to the lethal action of quinolones and counter-screened to have wild-type bacteriostatic susceptibility. Mutants with this novel "hyperlethal" phenotype were found. The phenotype was transferable to other E. coli strains by P1-mediated transduction, and for a subset of the mutants the phenotype was complemented by the corresponding wild-type gene cloned into a plasmid. Thus, the inactivation of these genes was responsible for hyperlethality. Nucleotide sequence analysis identified 14 genes, mostly of unknown function, as potential factors protecting from lethal effects of stress. The 14 mutants were killed more readily than wild-type cells by mitomycin C and hydrogen peroxide; nine were also more readily killed by UV irradiation, and several exhibited increased susceptibility to killing by sodium dodecyl sulfate. No mutant was more readily killed by high temperature. Conclusions A new screening strategy identified a diverse set of E. coli genes involved in the response to lethal antimicrobial and environmental stress, with some genes being involved in the response to multiple stressors. The gene set, which differed from sets previously identified with bacteriostatic assays, provides an entry point for obtaining small-molecule enhancers that will affect multiple antimicrobial agents. PMID:20128927

2010-01-01

82

Severity of mutant phenotype in a series of chlorophyll-deficient wheat mutants depends on light intensity and the severity of the block in chlorophyll synthesis.  

PubMed Central

Analyses of a series of allelic chlorina mutants of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which have partial blocks in chlorophyll (Chl) synthesis and, therefore, a limited Chl supply, reinforce the principle that Chl is required for the stable accumulation of Chl-binding proteins and that only reaction centers accumulate when the supply of Chl is severely limited. Depending on the rate of Chl accumulation (determined by the severity of the mutation) and on the rate of turnover of Chl and its precursors (determined by the environment in which the plant is grown), the mutants each reach an equilibrium of Chl synthesis and degradation. Together these mutants generate a spectrum of phenotypes. Under the harshest conditions (high illumination), plants with moderate blocks in Chl synthesis have membranes with very little Chl and Chl-proteins and membrane stacks resembling the thylakoids of the lethal xantha mutants of barely grown at low to medium light intensities (which have more severe blocks). In contrast, when grown under low-light conditions the same plants with moderate blocks have thylakoids resembling those of the wild type. The wide range of phenotypes of Chl b-deficient mutants has historically produced more confusion than enlightenment, but incomparable growth conditions can now explain the discrepancies reported in the literature. PMID:8883392

Falbel, T G; Meehl, J B; Staehelin, L A

1996-01-01

83

Deficits in Adult Neurogenesis, Contextual Fear Conditioning, and Spatial Learning in a Gfap Mutant Mouse Model of Alexander Disease  

PubMed Central

Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the major intermediate filament of mature astrocytes in the mammalian CNS. Dominant gain of function mutations in GFAP lead to the fatal neurodegenerative disorder, Alexander disease (AxD), which is characterized by cytoplasmic protein aggregates known as Rosenthal fibers along with variable degrees of leukodystrophy and intellectual disability. The mechanisms by which mutant GFAP leads to these pleiotropic effects are unknown. In addition to astrocytes, GFAP is also expressed in other cell types, particularly neural stem cells that form the reservoir supporting adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. Here, we show that mouse models of AxD exhibit significant pathology in GFAP-positive radial glia-like cells in the dentate gyrus, and suffer from deficits in adult neurogenesis. In addition, they display impairments in contextual learning and spatial memory. This is the first demonstration of cognitive phenotypes in a model of primary astrocyte disease. PMID:24259590

Paylor, Richard; Messing, Albee

2013-01-01

84

Dynamics of Mitochondrial RNA-Binding Protein Complex in Trypanosoma brucei and Its Petite Mutant under Optimized Immobilization Conditions  

PubMed Central

There are a variety of complex metabolic processes ongoing simultaneously in the single, large mitochondrion of Trypanosoma brucei. Understanding the organellar environment and dynamics of mitochondrial proteins requires quantitative measurement in vivo. In this study, we have validated a method for immobilizing both procyclic stage (PS) and bloodstream stage (BS) T. brucei brucei with a high level of cell viability over several hours and verified its suitability for undertaking fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), with mitochondrion-targeted yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Next, we used this method for comparative analysis of the translational diffusion of mitochondrial RNA-binding protein 1 (MRP1) in the BS and in T. b. evansi. The latter flagellate is like petite mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae because it lacks organelle-encoded nucleic acids. FRAP measurement of YFP-tagged MRP1 in both cell lines illuminated from a new perspective how the absence or presence of RNA affects proteins involved in mitochondrial RNA metabolism. This work represents the first attempt to examine this process in live trypanosomes. PMID:25063375

Huang, Zhenqiu; Kaltenbrunner, Sabine; Šimková, Eva; Stan?k, David

2014-01-01

85

Phytohemagglutinin-activated human T cells induce lethal graft-versus-host disease in cyclophosphamide and anti-CD122 conditioned NOD/SCID mice.  

PubMed

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a common complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Much of our knowledge regarding GVHD comes from experiments on the mouse hematopoietic system due to ethical and technical constraints. Thus, in vivo GVHD models of the human immune system are required. In this study, we report an effective and reliable protocol for xenogeneic GVHD (xeno-GVHD) model induction using NOD/SCID mice, in which mice underwent a conditioning regimen consisting of intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide and anti-CD122, followed by transfusion of phytohemagglutinin-activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells containing 1?×?10? T cells, which has not been reported previously. The present model can be utilized to study human immune cell function in vivo and elucidate the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of human GVHD. In addition, this model system can help researchers to rapidly determine whether proposed therapeutic strategies for GVHD are efficient in vivo and will elucidate the underlying mechanisms of drugs and cells to be investigated. Furthermore, such a protocol will undoubtedly be very helpful to laboratories that have no available sources of irradiation. PMID:22699803

Hu, Yongxian; Gu, Yanjun; Cui, Qu; Fu, Huarui; Sheng, Lixia; Wu, Kangni; Liu, Lizhen; Fu, Shan; Yu, Xiaohong; Huang, He

2012-11-01

86

Synthetic Lethality of Cohesins with PARPs and Replication Fork Mediators  

E-print Network

Synthetic lethality has been proposed as a way to leverage the genetic differences found in tumor cells to affect their selective killing. Cohesins, which tether sister chromatids together until anaphase onset, are mutated in a variety of tumor types. The elucidation of synthetic lethal interactions with cohesin mutants therefore identifies potential therapeutic targets. We used a cross-species approach to identify robust negative genetic interactions with cohesin mutants. Utilizing essential and non-essential mutant synthetic genetic arrays in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we screened genome-wide for genetic interactions with hypomorphic mutations in cohesin genes. A somatic cell proliferation assay in Caenorhabditis elegans demonstrated that the majority of interactions were conserved. Analysis of the interactions found that cohesin mutants require the function of genes that mediate replication fork progression. Conservation of these interactions between replication fork mediators and cohesin in both yeast and C. elegans prompted us to test whether other replication fork mediators not found in the yeast were required for viability in cohesin mutants. PARP1 has roles in the DNA damage response but also in the restart of stalled replication forks. We found that a hypomorphic allele of the C. elegans SMC1 orthologue, him-1(e879), genetically interacted with mutations in the orthologues of PAR metabolism genes resulting in a reduced brood size and somatic cell defects. We then demonstrated that this interaction is conserved in human cells by showing that PARP inhibitors reduce the viability of cultured human cells depleted for cohesin components. This work

Jessica L. Mclellan; Nigel J. O’neil; Irene Barrett; Elizabeth Ferree; Derek M. Van Pel; Payal Sipahimalani; Jennifer Bryan; Ann M. Rose; Philip Hieter

87

Dominant lethal mutations in the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

The plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an essential protein that is required to establish cellular membrane potential and maintain a normal internal pH. An Asp-378 to Asn substitution at the residue phosphorylated during catalysis is dominant lethal when the pma1-D378N mutation is expressed along with a wild-type plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (PMA1) gene. Several mutations in the first two putative transmembrane domains are also dominant lethal. However, these dominant lethal mutants often appear to be innocuous, because they are frequently lost by gene conversion to the wild-type sequence during the process of introducing the mutant sequence and subsequently removing the wild-type gene. Loss of the mutation by gene conversion does not occur while introducing recessive lethal mutations. Cells carrying the wild-type PMA1 gene on the chromosome and a dominant lethal mutation under the control of a GAL1 promoter on a centromere-containing plasmid exhibit a galactose-dependent lethality. Indirect immunofluorescence staining using anti-Pma1 antibodies shows that induction of dominant lethal PMA1 mutations leads to the accumulation of a number of intensely staining cytoplasmic structures that are not coincident with the nucleus and its immediately surrounding endoplasmic reticulum. These structures also accumulate the endoplasmic reticulum protein Kar2. Expression of the dominant lethal protein also prevents transport of the wild-type ATPase to the plasma membrane. Images PMID:7937988

Harris, S L; Na, S; Zhu, X; Seto-Young, D; Perlin, D S; Teem, J H; Haber, J E

1994-01-01

88

Less lethal technology: medical issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Less lethal weapons have become a critical tool for law enforcement when confronting dangerous, combative individuals in the field. The purpose of this paper is to review the medical aspects and implications of three different types of less lethal weapons. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper conducted a comprehensive medical literature review on blunt projectiles, irritant sprays including oleoresin capsicum

Gary M. Vilke; Theodore C. Chan

2007-01-01

89

Mutant Cockroaches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Images of mutant cockroaches, provided by the Genetic Stock Center for the German Cockroach at Virginia Tech. Useful as a visual aid for explaining the effects of mutation. A linkage map is also available.

0000-00-00

90

Mesophyll conductance decreases in the wild type but not in an ABA-deficient mutant (aba1) of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia under drought conditions.  

PubMed

Under drought conditions, leaf photosynthesis is limited by the supply of CO2 . Drought induces production of abscisic acid (ABA), and ABA decreases stomatal conductance (gs ). Previous papers reported that the drought stress also causes the decrease in mesophyll conductance (gm ). However, the relationships between ABA content and gm are unclear. We investigated the responses of gm to the leaf ABA content [(ABA)L ] using an ABA-deficient mutant, aba1, and the wild type (WT) of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. We also measured leaf water potential (?L ) because leaf hydraulics may be related to gm . Under drought conditions, gm decreased with the increase in (ABA)L in WT, whereas both (ABA)L and gm were unchanged by the drought treatment in aba1. Exogenously applied ABA decreased gm in both WT and aba1 in a dose-dependent manner. ?L in WT was decreased by the drought treatment to -0.7?MPa, whereas ?L in aba1 was around -0.8?MPa even under the well-watered conditions and unchanged by the drought treatment. From these results, we conclude that the increase in (ABA)L is crucial for the decrease in gm under drought conditions. We discuss possible relationships between the decrease in gm and changes in the leaf hydraulics. PMID:24995523

Mizokami, Yusuke; Noguchi, Ko; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Terashima, Ichiro

2015-03-01

91

MUTANTS PRODUCED BY X-IRRADIATION OF SPORES OF CHAETOMIUM GLOBOSUM AND A COMPARISON WITH THOSE PRODUCED BY ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION  

PubMed Central

1. Mutants produced by x-irradiation of fungal spores of Chaetomium globosum have been compared with those produced by ultraviolet irradiation. 2. The most striking difference between the mutants produced by x-irradiation and ultraviolet irradiation is the absence in x-ray experiments of the K mutant which is produced in large numbers at short ultraviolet wave lengths. 3. A comparison is made of the relation between x-ray dose and numbers of lethal mutants, and the relation between the short ultraviolet wave length 2804 dose and numbers of lethal mutants. Both are compared with theoretical curves for 1, 2, 5, and 8 quantum hits. 4. The production of lethal mutants by x-rays is shown to be consistent with the theoretical curve for five quantum hits on the sensitive spot of the spore, whereas the production of lethal mutants by the ultraviolet wave length 2804 Å.u. is consistent with two quantum hits. PMID:18131868

Ford, J. M.; Kirwan, D. P.

1949-01-01

92

Alterations in peptidoglycan chemical composition associated with rod-to-sphere transition in a conditional mutant of Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella pneumoniae Mir M7 is a spontaneous parentless morphology mutant which grows as cocci at pH 7 and as rods at pH 5.8. This strain has been characterized as defective in lateral wall formation (at pH7). Data suggest that the cell wall is mainly made up of poles of the rods (G. Satta, R. Fontana, P. Canepari, and G. Botta, J. Bacteriol. 137:727--734, 1979). In this work the isolation and the biochemical properties of the peptidoglycan of both Mir M7 rods and cocci and a nonconditional rod-shaped Mir M7 revertant (strain Mir A12) are described. The peptidoglycan of Mir M7 (both rods and cocci) and Mir A12 strains carried covalently bound proteins which could be easily removed by pronase treatment in Mir M7 rods and Mir A12 cells, but not in Mir M7 round cells. However, when the sodium dodecyl sulfate-insoluble residues of Mir M7 cocci were pretreated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), pronase digestion removed the covalently bound proteins, and pure peptidoglycan was obtained. EDTA treatment of the rigid layer of Mir M7 cocci removed amounts of Mg2+ and Ca2+, which were 10- and 50-fold higher, respectively, than the amount liberated from the rigid layer of Mir M7 rods and Mir A12 cells. Amino acid composition was qualitatively similar in both strains, but Mir M7 cocci contained a higher amount of alanine and glucosamine. Mir M7 cocci contained approximately 50% less peptidoglycan than rods. Under electron microscopy, the rigid layer of the Mir M7 rods and Mir A12 cells appeared to be rod-shaped and their shape remained unchanged after EDTA and pronase treatment. On the contrary, the Mir M7 cocci rigid layer appeared to be round, and after EDTA treatment it collapsed and lost any definite morphology. In spite of these alterations, the peptidoglycan of Mir M7 cocci still appeared able to determine the shape of the cell and protect it from osmotic shock and mechanical damages. The accumluation of divalent cations appeared necessary for the peptidoglycan to acquire sufficient rigidity for shape determination and cell protection. We concluded that the coccal shape in Mir M7 cells is not due to loss of cell wall rigidity but is a consequence of the formation of a round peptidoglycan molecule. The possibility that the alterations found in the Mir M7 cocci rigid layer may reflect natural differences in the biochemical composition of the septa and lateral wall of normally shaped bacteria is discussed. Images PMID:113382

Fontana, R; Canepari, P; Satta, G

1979-01-01

93

Tie2-Cre-induced inactivation of a conditional mutant Nf1 allele in mouse results in a myeloproliferative disorder that models juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

Neurofibromatosis type one (NF1) is a common genetic disorder affecting 1:4000 births and is characterized by benign and malignant tumors. Children with NF1 are predisposed to juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. The Nf1 gene encodes neurofibromin, which can function as a Ras GTPase-activating protein. Neurofibromin deficiency in mice leads to mid-gestation lethality due to cardiovascular defects. We have previously shown that conditional inactivation of Nf1 using Tie2-Cre recapitulates the heart defects seen in Nf1(-/-) embryos. Tie2-Cre transgenic mice express Cre recombinase in all endothelial cells. Here, we show that Tie2-Cre-mediated deletion of Nf1 also leads to excision of Nf1 in the hematopoietic lineage. Surviving mice exhibit a myeloproliferative disorder similar to juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia seen in NF1 patients. These mice provide a useful model to study neurofibromin deficiency in hematopoiesis. Furthermore, defects in Tie2-Cre-expressing progenitors that result in heart and blood defects suggest that related heart and blood disorders in NF1 and other syndromes represent disorders of the hemangioblast. PMID:14739366

Gitler, Aaron D; Kong, Yi; Choi, John K; Zhu, Yuan; Pear, Warren S; Epstein, Jonathan A

2004-04-01

94

Stability of the residual structure in unfolded BPTI in different conditions of temperature and solvent composition measured by disulphide kinetics and double mutant cycle analysis.  

PubMed

The folding funnel model proposes a clear description of the protein folding process. To test this model, additional data on the structures populated in different stages of folding and their influence on further folding are required. Here, we use the double mutant strategy and disulphide formation kinetics measurements to study the impact on folding of the residual structure in unfolded bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). We show how five amino acid residues stabilise a folding initiation site, possibly a beta-hairpin, and influence the shape of the upper region of the folding funnel in BPTI in different conditions of temperature and solvent composition. Our data provide experimental evidence for the mechanism by which a fast search for a proper chain topology is made possible early in the folding of proteins. The results apply to proteins in general, not necessarily just to disulphide bonded proteins, since cysteine residues are used here merely as reporter groups. PMID:10080904

Zdanowski, K; Dadlez, M

1999-03-26

95

Molecular Characterization of Mutant Arabidopsis Plants with Reduced Plasma Membrane Proton Pump Activity*  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis mutants containing gene disruptions in AHA1 and AHA2, the two most highly expressed isoforms of the Arabidopsis plasma membrane H+-ATPase family, have been isolated and characterized. Plants containing homozygous loss-of-function mutations in either gene grew normally under laboratory conditions. Transcriptome and mass spectrometric measurements demonstrate that lack of lethality in the single gene mutations is not associated with compensation by increases in RNA or protein levels. Selected reaction monitoring using synthetic heavy isotope-labeled C-terminal tryptic peptides as spiked standards with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer revealed increased levels of phosphorylation of a regulatory threonine residue in both isoforms in the mutants. Using an extracellular pH assay as a measure of in vivo ATPase activity in roots, less proton secreting activity was found in the aha2 mutant. Among 100 different growth conditions, those that decrease the membrane potential (high external potassium) or pH gradient (high external pH) caused a reduction in growth of the aha2 mutant compared with wild type. Despite the normal appearance of single mutants under ideal laboratory growth conditions, embryos containing homozygous double mutations are lethal, demonstrating that, as expected, this protein is absolutely essential for plant cell function. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the two genes together perform an essential function and that the effects of their single mutations are mostly masked by overlapping patterns of expression and redundant function as well as by compensation at the post-translational level. PMID:20348108

Haruta, Miyoshi; Burch, Heather L.; Nelson, Rachel B.; Barrett-Wilt, Greg; Kline, Kelli G.; Mohsin, Sheher B.; Young, Jeffery C.; Otegui, Marisa S.; Sussman, Michael R.

2010-01-01

96

Lethal Myocardial Ischemic Injury  

PubMed Central

The biologic changes occurring in severely ischemic myocytes in vivo as the affected cells pass through the phase of reversible to the phase of lethal or irreversible injury are reviewed with special emphasis on the effect of ischemia on the production and utilization of highenergy phosphate, the destruction of the adenine nucleotide pool, and the appearance of signs of damage to the plasma membrane of the sarcolemma. Evidence is presented that indicates that the events occurring in severe ischemia in vivo are essentially identical to those found in total ischemia in vitro except that the biologic changes of ischemia develop more slowly in total ischemia in vitro than in severe ischemia in vivo. The slower time course of injury, together with the uniformity of injury provided by total ischemia in vitro, may allow for more precise identification of potential lethal cellular events in ischemic injury. The production of highenergy phosphates (HEP) from anaerobic glycolysis have been estimated in both in vivo and in vitro ischemia by the measurement of lactate accumulation, and total HEP utilization has been estimated from the depletion of stores of preformed HEP. The results show that between 80% and 90% of the HEP utilized by ischemic dog left ventricle is produced by anaerobic glycolysis. The onset of irreversibility is associated with marked depletion of the HEP and adenine nucleotide pools of the tissue and the cessation of energy production via glycolysis. The cessation of anaerobic glycolysis may be caused by the low sarcoplasmic, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration of the dying myocyte. In addition to the foregoing changes, irreversibly injured tissue exhibits both ultrastructural and functional evidence of disruption of the plasmalemma of the sarcolemma. The possible relationships, causal and otherwise, between severe HEP depletion and membrane damage are discussed. Both HEP depletion (ATP < 3-8% of control) and membrane damage are considered to be objective signs of the presence of irreversible myocardial ischemic injury. However, at the present time, there is no proof that these changes are causally related either to each other or to cell death in severe in vivo ischemia. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4 PMID:7008621

Jennings, Robert B.; Reimer, Keith A.

1981-01-01

97

Cortical Efferents Lacking Mutant huntingtin Improve Striatal Neuronal Activity and Behavior in a Conditional Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease.  

PubMed

Abnormal electrophysiological activity in the striatum, which receives dense innervation from the cerebral cortex, is believed to set the stage for the behavioral phenotype observed in Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative condition caused by mutation of the huntingtin (mhtt) protein. However, cortical involvement is far from clear. To determine whether abnormal striatal processing can be explained by mhtt alone (cell-autonomous model) or by mhtt in the corticostriatal projection cell-cell interaction model, we used BACHD/Emx1-Cre (BE) mice, a conditional HD model in which full-length mhtt is genetically reduced in cortical output neurons, including those that project to the striatum. Animals were assessed beginning at 20 weeks of age for at least the next 40 weeks, a range over which presymptomatic BACHD mice become symptomatic. Both open-field and nest-building behavior deteriorated progressively in BACHD mice relative to both BE and wild-type (WT) mice. Neuronal activity patterns in the dorsal striatum, which receives input from the primary motor cortex (M1), followed a similar age progression because BACHD activity changed more rapidly than either BE or WT mice. However, in the M1, BE neuronal activity differed significantly from both WT and BACHD. Although abnormal cortical activity in BE mice likely reflects input from mhtt-expressing afferents, including cortical interneurons, improvements in BE striatal activity and behavior suggest a critical role for mhtt in cortical output neurons in shaping the onset and progression of striatal dysfunction. PMID:25762686

Estrada-Sánchez, Ana María; Burroughs, Courtney L; Cavaliere, Stephen; Barton, Scott J; Chen, Shirley; Yang, X William; Rebec, George V

2015-03-11

98

A Conditional Mouse Mutant in the Tumor Suppressor SdhD Gene Unveils a Link between p21WAF1/Cip1 Induction and Mitochondrial Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Mutations in mitochondrial complex II (MCII; succinate dehydrogenase, Sdh) genes cause familiar pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma tumors. Several mechanisms have been proposed to account for Sdh-mutation-induced tumorigenesis, the most accepted of which is based on the constitutive expression of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (Hif1?) at normal oxygen tension, a theory referred to as “pseudo-hypoxic drive”. Other molecular processes, such as oxidative stress, apoptosis, or chromatin remodeling have been also proposed to play a causative role. Nevertheless, the actual contribution of each of these mechanisms has not been definitively established. Moreover, the biological factors that determine the tissue-specificity of these tumors have not been identified. In this work, we made use of the inducible SDHD-ESR mouse, a conditional mutant in the SdhD gene, which encodes the small subunit of MCII, and that acts as a tumor suppressor gene in humans. The analysis of the Hif1? pathway in SDHD-ESR tissues and in two newly derived cell lines after complete SdhD loss -a requirement for hereditary paraganglioma type-1 tumor formation in humans- partially recapitulated the “pseudo-hypoxic” response and rendered inconsistent results. Therefore, we performed microarray analysis of adrenal medulla and kidney in order to identify other early gene expression changes elicited by SdhD deletion. Our results revealed that each mutant tissue displayed different variations in their gene expression profiles affecting to different biological processes. However, we found that the Cdkn1a gene was up-regulated in both tissues. This gene encodes the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/Cip1, a factor implicated in cell cycle, senescence, and cancer. The two SDHD-ESR cell lines also showed accumulation of this protein. This new and unprecedented evidence for a link between SdhD dysfunction and p21WAF1/Cip1 will open new avenues for the study of the mechanisms that cause tumors in Sdh mutants. Finally, we discuss the actual role of Hif1? in tumorigenesis. PMID:24465590

Millán-Uclés, África; Díaz-Castro, Blanca; García-Flores, Paula; Báez, Alicia; Pérez-Simón, José Antonio; López-Barneo, José; Piruat, José I.

2014-01-01

99

Lethal and sublethal effects of cypermethrin to Hypsiboas pulchellus tadpoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the effects of the insecticide cypermethrin (CY) technical grade and its Sherpa® commercial formulation on Hypsiboas pulchellus tadpoles assessing lethality, behavior, growth, and abnormalities under standardized laboratory conditions is reported. Observed\\u000a behaviors were identified and categorized by means of a ranking system according to the loss of mobility. Results of acute\\u000a lethal effects indicate higher potency for

M. Gabriela Agostini; Guillermo S. Natale; Alicia E. Ronco

2010-01-01

100

Lethal outcome in xanthogranulomatous endometritis.  

PubMed

Xanthogranulomatous inflammation is rare, mainly involving the kidneys, while primary xanthogranulomatous endometritis (XE) is a very unusual finding, histologically characterized by partial or complete replacement of the mucosa by granulation tissue with an abundance of foamy histiocytes, siderophages and multinucleated giant cells. We present the case of a 69-year-old woman with a short history of abdominal pain and a palpable mass in the pouch of Douglas. Dilatation of the cervix drained a pyometra. Histological examination of the curettage rendered the diagnosis of XE. Microbiological studies revealed enterococcus spp. and Peptostreptococcus magnus. Despite antibiotic treatment the patient died of heart failure due to systemic inflammation. Autopsy confirmed the diagnosis of XE with transmural extension into the peritoneal cavity. Such a lethal course of XE is extraordinary. Proposed causes of XE include obstruction, infection and hemorrhage. Demonstration of enterococcus spp. and P. magnus supports the probable significance of bacteria in the development of XE. Because this condition may mimic malignant disease macroscopically and histologically, knowledge of XE is of major importance for both pathologists and gynecologists. PMID:16725016

Noack, Frank; Briese, Juliane; Stellmacher, Florian; Hornung, Daniela; Horny, Hans-Peter

2006-05-01

101

Role of swi7H4 Mutant Allele of DNA Polymerase ? in the DNA Damage Checkpoint Response  

PubMed Central

Besides being a mediator of initiation of DNA replication, DNA polymerase ? plays a key role in chromosome maintenance. Swi7H4, a novel temperature sensitive mutant of DNA polymerase ? was shown to be defective in transcriptional silencing at the mating type centromere and telomere loci. It is also required for the establishment of chromatin state that can recruit the components of the heterochromatin machinery at these regions. Recently the role of DNA polymerase ? in the S-phase alkylation damage response in S. pombe has also been studied. Here we investigate whether defects generated by swi7H4, a mutant allele of DNA polymerase ? can activate a checkpoint response. We show that swi7H4 exhibit conditional synthetic lethality with chk1 null mutant and the double mutant of swi7H4 with chk1 deletion aggravate the chromosome segregation defects. More importantly swi7H4 mutant cells delay the mitotic progression at non permissive temperature that is mediated by checkpoint protein kinase Chk1. In addition we show that, in the swi7H4 mutant background, cells accumulate DNA damage at non permissive temperature activating the checkpoint kinase protein Chk1. Further, we observed synthetic lethality between swi7H4 and a number of genes involved in DNA repair pathway at semi permissive temperature. We summarize that defects in swi7H4 mutant results in DNA damage that delay mitosis in a Chk1 dependent manner that also require the damage repair pathway for proper recovery. PMID:25822347

Khan, Saman; Ahmed, Shakil

2015-01-01

102

Arabidopsis genes essential for seedling viability: isolation of insertional mutants and molecular cloning.  

PubMed Central

We have undertaken a large-scale genetic screen to identify genes with a seedling-lethal mutant phenotype. From screening approximately 38,000 insertional mutant lines, we identified >500 seedling-lethal mutants, completed cosegregation analysis of the insertion and the lethal phenotype for >200 mutants, molecularly characterized 54 mutants, and provided a detailed description for 22 of them. Most of the seedling-lethal mutants seem to affect chloroplast function because they display altered pigmentation and affect genes encoding proteins predicted to have chloroplast localization. Although a high level of functional redundancy in Arabidopsis might be expected because 65% of genes are members of gene families, we found that 41% of the essential genes found in this study are members of Arabidopsis gene families. In addition, we isolated several interesting classes of mutants and genes. We found three mutants in the recently discovered nonmevalonate isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway and mutants disrupting genes similar to Tic40 and tatC, which are likely to be involved in chloroplast protein translocation. Finally, we directly compared T-DNA and Ac/Ds transposon mutagenesis methods in Arabidopsis on a genome scale. In each population, we found only about one-third of the insertion mutations cosegregated with a mutant phenotype. PMID:11779813

Budziszewski, G J; Lewis, S P; Glover, L W; Reineke, J; Jones, G; Ziemnik, L S; Lonowski, J; Nyfeler, B; Aux, G; Zhou, Q; McElver, J; Patton, D A; Martienssen, R; Grossniklaus, U; Ma, H; Law, M; Levin, J Z

2001-01-01

103

A synthetic lethal screen identifies SLK1, a novel protein kinase homolog implicated in yeast cell morphogenesis and cell growth.  

PubMed Central

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPA2 protein localizes at sites involved in polarized cell growth in budding cells and mating cells. spa2 mutants have defects in projection formation during mating but are healthy during vegetative growth. A synthetic lethal screen was devised to identify mutants that require the SPA2 gene for vegetative growth. One mutant, called slk-1 (for synthetic lethal kinase), has been characterized extensively. The SLK1 gene has been cloned, and sequence analysis predicts that the SLK1 protein is 1,478 amino acid residues in length. Approximately 300 amino acids at the carboxy terminus exhibit sequence similarity with the catalytic domains of protein kinases. Disruption mutations have been constructed in the SLK1 gene. slk1 null mutants cannot grow at 37 degrees C, but many cells can grow at 30, 24, and 17 degrees C. Dead slk1 mutant cells usually have aberrant cell morphologies, and many cells are very small, approximately one-half the diameter of wild-type cells. Surviving slk1 cells also exhibit morphogenic defects; these cells are impaired in their ability to form projections upon exposure to mating pheromones. During vegetative growth, a higher fraction of slk1 cells are unbudded compared with wild-type cells, and under nutrient limiting conditions, slk1 cells exhibit defects in cell cycle arrest. The different slk1 mutant defects are partially rescued by an extra copy of the SSD1/SRK1 gene. SSD1/SRK1 has been independently isolated as a suppressor of mutations in genes involved in growth control, sit4, pde2, bcy1, and ins1 (A. Sutton, D. Immanuel, and K.T. Arnat, Mol. Cell. Biol. 11:2133-2148, 1991; R.B. Wilson, A.A. Brenner, T.B. White, M.J. Engler, J.P. Gaughran, and K. Tatchell, Mol. Cell. Biol. 11:3369-3373, 1991). These data suggest that SLK1 plays a role in both cell morphogenesis and the control of cell growth. We speculate that SLK1 may be a regulatory link for these two cellular processes. Images PMID:1545797

Costigan, C; Gehrung, S; Snyder, M

1992-01-01

104

Effects of Wolbachia Infection and ovarian tumor Mutations on Sex-lethal Germline Functioning in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wolbachia is a ubiquitous intracellular endosymbiont of invertebrates. Surprisingly, infection of Drosophila melanogaster by this maternally inherited bacterium restores fertility to females carrying ovarian tumor (cystocyte overproliferation) mutant alleles of the Drosophila master sex-determination gene, Sex- lethal (Sxl). We scanned the Drosophila genome for effects of infection on transcript levels in wild-type previtellogenic ovaries that might be relevant to this

Sha Sun; Thomas W. Cline

2009-01-01

105

Synthetic lethality and cancer therapy: lessons learned from the development of PARP inhibitors.  

PubMed

The genetic concept of synthetic lethality, in which the combination or synthesis of mutations in multiple genes results in cell death, provides a framework to design novel therapeutic approaches to cancer. Already there are promising indications, from clinical trials exploiting this concept by using poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in patients with germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations, that this approach could be beneficial. We discuss the biological rationale for BRCA-PARP synthetic lethality, how the synthetic lethal approach is being assessed in the clinic, and how mechanisms of resistance are starting to be dissected. Applying the synthetic lethal concept to target non-BRCA-mutant cancers also has clear potential, and we discuss how some of the principles learned in developing PARP inhibitors might also drive the development of additional genetic approaches. PMID:25341009

Lord, Christopher J; Tutt, Andrew N J; Ashworth, Alan

2015-01-01

106

Escherichia coli mutants with defects in the biosynthesis of 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thio-uridine or 1-methylguanosine in their tRNA.  

PubMed Central

Two tRNA methyltransferase mutants, isolated as described in the accompanying paper (G.R. Björk and K. Kjellin-Stråby, J. Bacteriol. 133:499-207, 1978), are biochemicaaly and genetically characterized. tRNA from mutant IB13 lacks 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thio-uridine in vivo due to a permanently nonfunctional methyltransferase. Thus tRNA from this mutant is a specific substrate for the corresponding tRNA methyltransferase in vitro. In spite of this defect in tRNA, such a mutant is viable. Mutant IB11 is conditionally defective in the biosynthesis of 1-methylguanosine in tRNA due to a temperature-sensitive tRNA (1-methyl-guanosine) methyltransferase. In mutant cells grown at a high temperature, the level of 1-methylguanosine in bulk tRNA is 20% of that of the wild type, demonstrating that in this mutant an 80% deficiency of 1-methylguanosine in tRNA is not lethal. Genetically these two distinct lesions, trmC2, causing 5=methylaminomethyl-2-thio-uridine deficiency, and trmD1, giving a temperature-sensitive tRNA (1-methylguanosine)methyltransferase, are both located between 50 and 61 min on the Escherichia coli chromosome. Images PMID:342495

Björk, G R; Kjellin-Stråby, K

1978-01-01

107

Starch mutants of Chlamydomonas  

SciTech Connect

Wild type Chlamydomonas accumulates starch and triglycerides when grown under nitrogen limiting conditions. Toward elucidation of the mechanisms for control of starch biosynthesis, we isolated mutants impaired int he accumulation of storage carbohydrates. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (strain ya-12) was mutagenized by UV irradiation and colonies were screened by iodine staining after growth in darkness. Mutants, denoted ais for altered in iodine staining, have been characterized by electron microscopy and assays for starch synthease, ADPG-pyrophosphorylase, phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), phosphoglucomutase and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and amylase activities. Transcript analysis of wild type and mutant RNAs with PGI, ADPG-pyrophosphorylase, and waxy probes have also been carried out. No deficiencies of any of these components have been detected. Furthermore, long-term cultures of ya-12 and ais-1d in nitrogen-limited chemostats have been studied; starch also does not accumulate in ais-1d under these conditions. Thus, the lesion affects an essential factor of unknown identity that is required for starch synthesis.

Berry-Lowe, S.L.; Schmidt, G.W. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA))

1990-05-01

108

Introduction to Lethal School Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, we offer an introduction to the topic of the book, lethal school violence (LSV). We begin with an introduction\\u000a to and definition of LSV, and then highlight five different situations that often result in fatalities (i.e., suicide, rampage\\u000a shootings, gang-related deaths, domestic murder\\/suicide that occurs on campus, and barricaded captive events). We then turn\\u000a our attention to

Jeffrey A. Daniels; Mary C. Bradley

109

Electroshock weapons can be lethal!  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroshock weapons (EWs)-stun guns, tasers, riot shields-are electroconductive devices designed to safely incapacitate healthy men neuromuscularly, so they are called nonlethal or less-lethal. EW firms seeking large nonmilitary markets targeted law enforcement and corrections personnel, who began using EWs in prisons\\/jails and on public patrol in 1980 in the USA. This shifted the EW-shocked population from healthy soldiers to a

Marjorie Lundquist

2008-01-01

110

The "Lethal Chamber": Further Evidence of the Euthanasia Option.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historical discussions of the euthanasia or "lethal chamber" option in relation to people with mental retardation are presented. The paper concludes that eugenic beliefs in the primacy of heredity over environment and the positive role of natural selection may have condoned the poor conditions characteristic of large, segregated institutions and…

Elks, Martin A.

1993-01-01

111

Mitotic Chromosome Transmission Fidelity Mutants in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

We have isolated 136 independent mutations in haploid yeast strains that exhibit decreased chromosome transmission fidelity in mitosis. Eighty-five percent of the mutations are recessive and 15% are partially dominant. Complementation analysis between MATa and MAT? isolates identifies 11 chromosome transmission fidelity (CTF) complementation groups, the largest of which is identical to CHL1. For 49 independent mutations, no corresponding allele has been recovered in the opposite mating type. The initial screen monitored the stability of a centromere-linked color marker on a nonessential yeast chromosome fragment; the mitotic inheritance of natural yeast chromosome III is also affected by the ctf mutations. Of the 136 isolates identified, seven were inviable at 37° and five were inviable at 11°. In all cases tested, these temperature conditional lethalities cosegregated with the chromosome instability phenotype. Five additional complementation groups (ctf12 through ctf16) have been defined by complementation analysis of the mutations causing inviability at 37°. Twenty-three of the 136 isolates exhibited growth defects at concentrations of benomyl permissive for the parent strain, and nine appeared to be tolerant of inhibitory levels of benomyl. All of the mutant strains showed normal sensitivity to ultraviolet and ?-irradiation. Further characterization of these mutant strains will describe the functions of gene products crucial to the successful execution of processes required for aspects of the chromosome cycle that are important for chromosome transmission fidelity in mitosis. PMID:2407610

Spencer, F.; Gerring, S. L.; Connelly, C.; Hieter, P.

1990-01-01

112

D-2-hydroxyglutarate produced by mutant IDH1 perturbs collagen maturation and basement membrane function  

PubMed Central

Isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) R132 mutations occur in glioma, but their physiological significance is unknown. Here we describe the generation and characterization of brain-specific Idh1 R132H conditional knock-in (KI) mice. Idh1 mutation results in hemorrhage and perinatal lethality. Surprisingly, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are attenuated in Idh1-KI brain cells despite an apparent increase in the NADP+/NADPH ratio. Idh1-KI cells also show high levels of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG) that are associated with inhibited prolyl-hydroxylation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1? (Hif1?) and up-regulated Hif1? target gene transcription. Intriguingly, D2HG also blocks prolyl-hydroxylation of collagen, causing a defect in collagen protein maturation. An endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response induced by the accumulation of immature collagens may account for the embryonic lethality of these mutants. Importantly, D2HG-mediated impairment of collagen maturation also led to basement membrane (BM) aberrations that could play a part in glioma progression. Our study presents strong in vivo evidence that the D2HG produced by the mutant Idh1 enzyme is responsible for the above effects. PMID:22925884

Sasaki, Masato; Knobbe, Christiane B.; Itsumi, Momoe; Elia, Andrew J.; Harris, Isaac S.; Chio, Iok In Christine; Cairns, Rob A.; McCracken, Susan; Wakeham, Andrew; Haight, Jillian; Ten, Annick You; Snow, Bryan; Ueda, Takeshi; Inoue, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Ko, Myunggon; Rao, Anjana; Yen, Katharine E.; Su, Shinsan M.; Mak, Tak Wah

2012-01-01

113

Ethical language and decision-making for prenatally diagnosed lethal malformations  

PubMed Central

Summary In clinical practice, and in the medical literature, severe congenital malformations such as trisomy 18, anencephaly, and renal agenesis are frequently referred to as ‘lethal’ or as ‘incompatible with life’. However, there is no agreement about a definition of lethal malformations, nor which conditions should be included in this category. Review of outcomes for malformations commonly designated ‘lethal’ reveals that prolonged survival is possible, even if rare. This article analyses the concept of lethal malformations and compares it to the problematic concept of ‘futility’. We recommend avoiding the term ‘lethal’ and suggest that counseling should focus on salient prognostic features instead. For conditions with a high chance of early death or profound impairment in survivors despite treatment, perinatal and neonatal palliative care would be ethical. However, active obstetric and neonatal management, if desired, may also sometimes be appropriate. PMID:25200733

Wilkinson, Dominic; de Crespigny, Lachlan; Xafis, Vicki

2014-01-01

114

Urate-null rosy mutants of Drosophila melanogaster are hypersensitive to oxygen stress.  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that uric acid is an important scavenger of deleterious oxygen radicals in biological systems [Ames, B. N., Cathcart, R., Schwiers, E. & Hochstein, P. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 6858-6852]. We report here an in vivo investigation of the oxygen defense role of uric acid through an analysis of mutants of the rosy (ry) gene of Drosophila melanogaster. The ry gene is the structural gene for the molybdoenzyme, xanthine dehydrogenase; xanthine dehydrogenase-null ry mutants are therefore unable to synthesize urate. The rationale of our approach was to measure the response of urate-null ry mutants to extraordinary oxygen stress as imposed by exposure to radical-generating agents and as conferred by a genetic defect in superoxide dismutase, an established oxygen defense function. We show that urate-null mutants of the ry locus are hypersensitive to paraquat, ionizing radiation, and hyperoxia. Furthermore, compound mutants doubly deficient for uric acid and Cu/Zn-containing superoxide dismutase are synthetic lethals, which are unable to complete metamorphosis under normal growth conditions. These experiments demonstrate unambiguously the importance of urate in oxygen defense in vivo and support our earlier proposal that the molybdoenzyme genetic system plays a critical role in oxygen defense in Drosophila. They also form the basis for our proposal that metamorphosis in Drosophila imposes a crisis of oxygen stress on the developing imago against which uric acid plays an important organ-specific defense. Finally, the results provide a basis for understanding the syndrome of phenotypes, including the hallmark dull brown eye color, which characterizes mutants of this classic genetic system of Drosophila. Images PMID:1316606

Hilliker, A J; Duyf, B; Evans, D; Phillips, J P

1992-01-01

115

The Identification of Zebrafish Mutants Showing Alterations in Senescence-Associated Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

There is an interesting overlap of function in a wide range of organisms between genes that modulate the stress responses and those that regulate aging phenotypes and, in some cases, lifespan. We have therefore screened mutagenized zebrafish embryos for the altered expression of a stress biomarker, senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal) in our current study. We validated the use of embryonic SA-?-gal production as a screening tool by analyzing a collection of retrovirus-insertional mutants. From a pool of 306 such mutants, we identified 11 candidates that showed higher embryonic SA-?-gal activity, two of which were selected for further study. One of these mutants is null for a homologue of Drosophila spinster, a gene known to regulate lifespan in flies, whereas the other harbors a mutation in a homologue of the human telomeric repeat binding factor 2 (terf2) gene, which plays roles in telomere protection and telomere-length regulation. Although the homozygous spinster and terf2 mutants are embryonic lethal, heterozygous adult fish are viable and show an accelerated appearance of aging symptoms including lipofuscin accumulation, which is another biomarker, and shorter lifespan. We next used the same SA-?-gal assay to screen chemically mutagenized zebrafish, each of which was heterozygous for lesions in multiple genes, under the sensitizing conditions of oxidative stress. We obtained eight additional mutants from this screen that, when bred to homozygosity, showed enhanced SA-?-gal activity even in the absence of stress, and further displayed embryonic neural and muscular degenerative phenotypes. Adult fish that are heterozygous for these mutations also showed the premature expression of aging biomarkers and the accelerated onset of aging phenotypes. Our current strategy of mutant screening for a senescence-associated biomarker in zebrafish embryos may thus prove to be a useful new tool for the genetic dissection of vertebrate stress response and senescence mechanisms. PMID:18704191

Uchiyama, Junzo; Koshimizu, Eriko; Qi, Jie; Nanjappa, Purushothama; Imamura, Shintaro; Islam, Asiful; Neuberg, Donna; Amsterdam, Adam; Roberts, Thomas M.

2008-01-01

116

Properties of r Mutants of Bacteriophage T4 Photodynamically Induced in the Presence of Thiopyronin and Psoralen  

PubMed Central

About 4 × 10?4r mutants were induced per lethal hit, a frequency characteristic of weak mutagens. Collections of mutants produced in the presence of either dye were indistinguishable in most of their properties. The rII mutants differed sharply from spontaneous mutants in their mutational spectra (fine scale map distribution) and their reversion responses to specific mutagens. Few or none of the induced mutants were induced to revert with proflavine (sign mutants; reading frame shift mutants). A majority were induced to revert with base analogues (base pair substitution mutants), and about half of these also responded to the hydroxymethylcytosine-specific agent hydroxylamine. A large minority of the mutants reverted spontaneously but failed to respond either to proflavine or to base analogues. We believe these mutants, as well as some of the mutants which did respond to base analogues, to be transversions (base pair substitutions which reverse the purine-pyrimidine orientation). PMID:5623962

Drake, John W.; McGuire, Janice

1967-01-01

117

Extinction of Hepatitis C Virus by Ribavirin in Hepatoma Cells Involves Lethal Mutagenesis  

PubMed Central

Lethal mutagenesis, or virus extinction produced by enhanced mutation rates, is under investigation as an antiviral strategy that aims at counteracting the adaptive capacity of viral quasispecies, and avoiding selection of antiviral-escape mutants. To explore lethal mutagenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV), it is important to establish whether ribavirin, the purine nucleoside analogue used in anti-HCV therapy, acts as a mutagenic agent during virus replication in cell culture. Here we report the effect of ribavirin during serial passages of HCV in human hepatoma Huh-7.5 cells, regarding viral progeny production and complexity of mutant spectra. Ribavirin produced an increase of mutant spectrum complexity and of the transition types associated with ribavirin mutagenesis, resulting in HCV extinction. Ribavirin-mediated depletion of intracellular GTP was not the major contributory factor to mutagenesis since mycophenolic acid evoked a similar decrease in GTP without an increase in mutant spectrum complexity. The intracellular concentration of the other nucleoside-triphosphates was elevated as a result of ribavirin treatment. Mycophenolic acid extinguished HCV without an intervening mutagenic activity. Ribavirin-mediated, but not mycophenolic acid-mediated, extinction of HCV occurred via a decrease of specific infectivity, a feature typical of lethal mutagenesis. We discuss some possibilities to explain disparate results on ribavirin mutagenesis of HCV. PMID:23976977

Ortega-Prieto, Ana M.; Sheldon, Julie; Grande-Pérez, Ana; Tejero, Héctor; Gregori, Josep; Quer, Josep; Esteban, Juan I.; Domingo, Esteban; Perales, Celia

2013-01-01

118

Acute and sub-lethal response to mercury in Arctic and boreal calanoid copepods.  

PubMed

Acute lethal toxicity, expressed as LC50 values, is a widely used parameter in risk assessment of chemicals, and has been proposed as a tool to assess differences in species sensitivities to chemicals between climatic regions. Arctic Calanus glacialis and boreal Calanus finmarchicus were exposed to mercury (Hg(2+)) under natural environmental conditions including sea temperatures of 2° and 10°C, respectively. Acute lethal toxicity (96 h LC50) and sub-lethal molecular response (GST expression; in this article gene expression is used as a synonym of gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression is also regulated, e.g., at translation and protein stability level) were studied. The acute lethal toxicity was monitored for 96 h using seven different Hg concentrations. The sub-lethal experiment was set up on the basis of nominal LC50 values for each species using concentrations equivalent to 50, 5 and 0.5% of their 96 h LC50 value. No significant differences were found in acute lethal toxicity between the two species. The sub-lethal molecular response revealed large differences both in response time and the fold induction of GST, where the Arctic species responded both faster and with higher mRNA levels of GST after 48 h exposure. Under the natural exposure conditions applied in the present study, the Arctic species C. glacialis may potentially be more susceptible to mercury exposure on the sub-lethal level. PMID:25036619

Overjordet, Ida Beathe; Altin, Dag; Berg, Torunn; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

2014-10-01

119

The Maternally Expressed WRKY Transcription Factor TTG2 Controls Lethality in Interploidy Crosses of Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

The molecular mechanisms underlying lethality of F1 hybrids between diverged parents are one target of speciation research. Crosses between diploid and tetraploid individuals of the same genotype can result in F1 lethality, and this dosage-sensitive incompatibility plays a role in polyploid speciation. We have identified variation in F1 lethality in interploidy crosses of Arabidopsis thaliana and determined the genetic architecture of the maternally expressed variation via QTL mapping. A single large-effect QTL, DR. STRANGELOVE 1 (DSL1), was identified as well as two QTL with epistatic relationships to DSL1. DSL1 affects the rate of postzygotic lethality via expression in the maternal sporophyte. Fine mapping placed DSL1 in an interval encoding the maternal effect transcription factor TTG2. Maternal parents carrying loss-of-function mutations in TTG2 suppressed the F1 lethality caused by paternal excess interploidy crosses. The frequency of cellularization in the endosperm was similarly affected by both natural variation and ttg2 loss-of-function mutants. The simple genetic basis of the natural variation and effects of single-gene mutations suggests that F1 lethality in polyploids could evolve rapidly. Furthermore, the role of the sporophytically active TTG2 gene in interploidy crosses indicates that the developmental programming of the mother regulates the viability of interploidy hybrid offspring. PMID:19071961

Dilkes, Brian P; Spielman, Melissa; Weizbauer, Renate; Watson, Brian; Burkart-Waco, Diana; Scott, Rod J; Comai, Luca

2008-01-01

120

Early events of lethal action by tobramycin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

SciTech Connect

The immediate activities of the aminoglycoside antibiotic, tobramycin, were investigated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The influence of carbon growth substate and the antibiotic exposure environment in the magnitude of activity were examined. Lethality by 8 {mu}g/ml tobramycin occurred rapidly (1 to 3 minutes). The release of specific cellular components into the supernatant was associated with lethality. This material was initially detected as an increase in UV-absorbance. Magnesium in the reaction mixture provided protection against lethality and leakage, but did not reverse lethal damage after a 3 minute tobramycin treatment. Also, uptake of {sup 3}H-tobramycin was reduced in the presence of magnesium. Cells grown with glucose as a carbon source were more susceptible than organic acid grown cells as was the rapidity and amount of cell damage. Analyses of the leakage material revealed a 2-fold increase of protein in the supernatant after a 1-3 minute treatment which paralleled lethality. A prominent 29 kDa protein was observed by SDS-PAGE in the released material, which has been identified as the periplasmic enzyme, {beta}-lactamase. The immediate activities of tobramycin did not involve (i) release of overall cell protein, (ii) massive loss of total pool amino acids, (iii) cell lysis, (iv) inhibition of proline uptake, (v) release of lipopolysaccharide, or (vi) leakage of ATP. Electron microscopy showed no apparent damage after a 3 minute exposure. 40% inhibition of protein synthesis had occurred by 3 minutes of exposure, while release of UV-absorbing material and lethality were detectable after only 1 minute. Resistant cystic fibrosis isolates of P. aeruginosa did not leak under the same experimental conditions, but one of two susceptible strains examined did show increased UV-absorbance following treatment.

Raulston, J.E.

1988-01-01

121

Conditional expression of the mutant Ki-rasG12C allele results in formation of benign lung adenomas: development of a novel mouse lung tumor model  

PubMed Central

To determine the effects of expression of mutant Ki-ras on lung tumorigenesis, we developed a bitransgenic mouse model that expresses the human Ki-rasG12C allele in alveolar type II and/or Clara cells in a tetracycline-inducible, lung-specific manner. Expression of Ki-rasG12C caused multiple, small lung tumors over a 12-month time period. Although tumor multiplicity increased upon continued Ki-ras expression, most lung lesions were hyperplasias or well-differentiated adenomas. This is in contrast to the more severe phenotypes observed in other transgenic mouse models in which different mutant Ki-ras alleles were expressed in the lung. Expression of Ki-rasG12C was associated with a 2-fold increase in the activation of the Ras and Ral signaling pathways and increased phosphorylation of Ras downstream effectors, including Erk, p90 ribosomal S6 kinase, ribosomal S6 protein, p38 and MAPKAPK-2. In contrast, expression of the transgene had no effect on the activation of the JNK and Akt signaling pathways. Withdrawal of doxycycline for 1 month resulted in almost a complete absence of proliferative pulmonary lesions, suggesting tumor regression in the absence of Ki-ras expression. Mutant Ki-rasG12C expression was sufficient for initial lung tumor transformation, required for maintenance of tumor phenotype, and induced transformation of lung epithelial cells by the activation of multiple effector pathways. These results describe a novel mouse lung tumor model demonstrating benign tumor development in the absence of tumor progression, which will provide a new tool for understanding the early stages of lung tumor pathogenesis. PMID:16051643

S.Floyd, Heather; L.Farnsworth, Charles; D.Kock, Nancy; C.Mizesko, Melissa; L.Little, Joy; T.Dance, Stephanie; Everitt, Jeff; Tichelaar, Jay; A.Whitsett, Jeffrey; Miller, Mark Steven

2005-01-01

122

Expression of Galactose Permease and Pyruvate Carboxylase in Escherichia coli ptsG Mutant Increases the Growth Rate and Succinate Yield under Anaerobic Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Escherichia coli, disruption of ptsG, which encodes the glucose-specific permease of the phosphotransferase transport system (PTS) protein EIICBGlc, is crucial for high succinate production. This mutation can, however, cause very slow growth and low glucose consumption\\u000a rates. The ptsG mutant (TUQ2), from wild type E. coli W1485, and E. coli\\u000a \\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009galP (encoding galactose permease) and glk (encoding glucose kinase)

Qingzhao Wang; Chanyuan Wu; Tao Chen; Xun Chen; Xueming Zhao

2006-01-01

123

Compartmentalized self-replication under fast PCR cycling conditions yields Taq DNA polymerase mutants with increased DNA-binding affinity and blood resistance  

PubMed Central

Faster-cycling PCR formulations, protocols, and instruments have been developed to address the need for increased throughput and shorter turn-around times for PCR-based assays. Although run times can be cut by up to 50%, shorter cycle times have been correlated with lower detection sensitivity and increased variability. To address these concerns, we applied Compartmentalized Self Replication (CSR) to evolve faster-cycling mutants of Taq DNA polymerase. After five rounds of selection using progressively shorter PCR extension times, individual mutations identified in the fastest-cycling clones were randomly combined using ligation-based multi-site mutagenesis. The best-performing combinatorial mutants exhibit 35- to 90-fold higher affinity (lower Kd) for primed template and a moderate (2-fold) increase in extension rate compared to wild-type Taq. Further characterization revealed that CSR-selected mutations provide increased resistance to inhibitors, and most notably, enable direct amplification from up to 65% whole blood. We discuss the contribution of individual mutations to fast-cycling and blood-resistant phenotypes. PMID:25177317

Arezi, Bahram; McKinney, Nancy; Hansen, Connie; Cayouette, Michelle; Fox, Jeffrey; Chen, Keith; Lapira, Jennifer; Hamilton, Sarah; Hogrefe, Holly

2014-01-01

124

Viability of Female Germ-Line Cells Homozygous for Zygotic Lethals in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER  

PubMed Central

We have analyzed the viability of different types of X chromosomes in homozygous clones of female germ cells. The chromosomes carried viable mutations, single-cistron zygotic-lethal and semi-lethal mutations, or small (about six chromosome band) deletions. Homozygous germ-line clones were produced by recombination in females heterozygous for an X-linked, dominant, agametic female sterile. All the zygotic-viable mutants are also viable in germ cells. Of 16 deletions tested (uncovering a total of 93 bands) only 2 (of 4 and 5 bands) are germ-cell viable. Mutations in 15 lethal complementation groups in the zeste-white region were tested. When known, the most extreme alleles at each locus were tested. Only in five loci (33%) were the mutants viable in the germ line. Similar studies of the same deletions and point-mutant lethals in epidermal cells show that 42% of the bands and 77% of the lethal alleles are viable. Thus, germ-line cells have more stringent cell-autonomous genetic requirements than do epidermal cells. The eggs recovered from clones of three of the germ-cell viable zw mutations gave embryos arrested early in embryogenesis, although genotypically identical embryos derived from heterozygous oogonia die as larvae or even hatch as adult escapers. For two genes, homozygosis of the mutations tested also caused embryonic arrest of heterozygous female embryos, and in one case, the eggs did not develop at all. Germ-line clones of one quite leaky mutation gave eggs that were indistinguishable from normal. The abundance of genes whose products are required for oogenesis, whose products are required in the oocyte, and whose activity is required during zygotic development is discussed. PMID:17246109

Garcia-Bellido, Antonio; Robbins, Leonard G.

1983-01-01

125

Alcohol Consumption and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a case-control study of the association between nearly lethal suicide attempts and facets of alcohol consumption; namely, drinking frequency, drinking quantity, binge drinking, alcoholism, drinking within 3 hours of suicide attempt, and age began drinking. In bivariate analyses, all measures were associated with nearly lethal suicide…

Powell, Kenneth E.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Swann, Alan C.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Lee, Roberta K.; Bayer, Timothy L.

2002-01-01

126

Conditional expression of Parkinson's disease-related mutant ?-synuclein in the midbrain dopaminergic neurons causes progressive neurodegeneration and degradation of transcription factor nuclear receptor related 1.  

PubMed

?-Synuclein (?-syn) plays a prominent role in the degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, only a few studies on ?-syn have been performed in the mDA neurons in vivo, which may be attributed to a lack of ?-syn transgenic mice that develop PD-like severe degeneration of mDA neurons. To gain mechanistic insights into the ?-syn-induced mDA neurodegeneration, we generated a new line of tetracycline-regulated inducible transgenic mice that overexpressed the PD-related ?-syn A53T missense mutation in the mDA neurons. Here we show that the mutant mice developed profound motor disabilities and robust mDA neurodegeneration, resembling some key motor and pathological phenotypes of PD. We also systematically examined the subcellular abnormalities that appeared in the mDA neurons of mutant mice and observed a profound decrease of dopamine release, the fragmentation of Golgi apparatus, and the impairments of autophagy/lysosome degradation pathways in these neurons. To further understand the specific molecular events leading to the ?-syn-dependent degeneration of mDA neurons, we found that overexpression of ?-syn promoted a proteasome-dependent degradation of nuclear receptor-related 1 protein (Nurr1), whereas inhibition of Nurr1 degradation ameliorated the ?-syn-induced loss of mDA neurons. Given that Nurr1 plays an essential role in maintaining the normal function and survival of mDA neurons, our studies suggest that the ?-syn-mediated suppression of Nurr1 protein expression may contribute to the preferential vulnerability of mDA neurons in the pathogenesis of PD. PMID:22764233

Lin, Xian; Parisiadou, Loukia; Sgobio, Carmelo; Liu, Guoxiang; Yu, Jia; Sun, Lixin; Shim, Hoon; Gu, Xing-Long; Luo, Jing; Long, Cai-Xia; Ding, Jinhui; Mateo, Yolanda; Sullivan, Patricia H; Wu, Ling-Gang; Goldstein, David S; Lovinger, David; Cai, Huaibin

2012-07-01

127

Recovery of plants from “Near-Lethal” stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the dieback and recovery of red-osier dogwood, Cornus sericea L. plants from “near-lethal” (NL, sublethal) stress after varying lengths of post-stress environment (PSE). Intact dormant stems were subjected to 47° C for one hour during either October, November or December, and then placed into either constant 0° C or 23° C (dark condition) or kept under

A. M. Shirazi; L. H. Fuchigami

1993-01-01

128

Acute Lethality of Copper, Cadmium, and Zinc to Northern Squawfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow-through acute toxicity tests on juvenile northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were conducted with copper, cadmium, and zinc. The 96-hour median lethal concentrations were 18 ?g\\/liter for copper, 1,104 ?g\\/liter for cadmium, and 3,693 ?g\\/liter for zinc in 12 C water. These values, when compared to those for chinook salmon and steelhead parr tested under similar conditions, show that the northern

James D. Andros; Ronald R. Garton

1980-01-01

129

Acute lethality of copper, cadmium, and zinc to northern squawfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow-through acute toxicity tests on juvenile northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were conducted with copper, cadmium, and zinc. The 96-hour median lethal concentrations were 18 ..mu..g\\/liter for copper, 1104 ..mu..g\\/liter for cadmium, and 3693 ..mu..g\\/liter for zinc in 12°C water. These values, when compared to those for chinook salmon and steelhead parr tested under similar conditions, show that the northern squawfish

JAMES D. ANDROS; RONALD R. GARTON

1980-01-01

130

Isolation and characterization of a low phytic acid rice mutant reveals a mutation in the rice orthologue of maize mik.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Using a forward genetics approach, we isolated two independent low phytic acid (lpa) rice mutants, N15-186 and N15-375. Both mutants are caused by single gene, recessive non-lethal mutations which result in approximately 75% (N15-186) and 43% (N15-375) reductions in seed phytic acid (inositol hexaki...

131

Effect of temperature and heating rate on apparent lethal concentrations of pyrolysis products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The apparent lethal concentrations for 50 percent of the test animals of the pyrolysis products from twelve polymeric materials were studied as a function of temperature and heating rate. The materials were polyethylene, nylon 6, ABS, polycarbonate, polyether sulfone, polyaryl sulfone, wool fabric, aromatic polyamide fabric, polychloroprene foam, polyvinyl fluoride film, Douglas fir, and red oak. The apparent lethal concentration values of most materials vary significantly with temperature and heating rate. The apparent lethal concentration values, based on weight of sample charged, appears to effectively integrate the thermophysical, thermochemical, and physiological responses from a known quantity of material under specified imposed conditions.

Hilado, C. J.; Solis, A. N.; Marcussen, W. H.; Furst, A.

1976-01-01

132

Lethal factor, but not edema factor, is required to cause fatal anthrax in cynomolgus macaques after pulmonary spore challenge.  

PubMed

Inhalational anthrax is caused by inhalation of Bacillus anthracis spores. The ability of B. anthracis to cause anthrax is attributed to the plasmid-encoded A/B-type toxins, edema toxin (edema factor and protective antigen) and lethal toxin (lethal factor and protective antigen), and a poly-d-glutamic acid capsule. To better understand the contribution of these toxins to the disease pathophysiology in vivo, we used B. anthracis Ames strain and isogenic toxin deletion mutants derived from the Ames strain to examine the role of lethal toxin and edema toxin after pulmonary spore challenge of cynomolgus macaques. Lethal toxin, but not edema toxin, was required to induce sustained bacteremia and death after pulmonary challenge with spores delivered via bronchoscopy. After intravenous challenge with bacilli to model the systemic phase of infection, lethal toxin contributed to bacterial proliferation and subsequent host death to a greater extent than edema toxin. Deletion of protective antigen resulted in greater loss of virulence after intravenous challenge with bacilli than deletion of lethal toxin or edema toxin alone. These findings are consistent with the ability of anti-protective antigen antibodies to prevent anthrax and suggest that lethal factor is the dominant toxin that contributes to the escape of significant numbers of bacilli from the thoracic cavity to cause anthrax after inhalation challenge with spores. PMID:25285720

Hutt, Julie A; Lovchik, Julie A; Drysdale, Melissa; Sherwood, Robert L; Brasel, Trevor; Lipscomb, Mary F; Lyons, C Rick

2014-12-01

133

Conditionals  

E-print Network

This article introduces the classic accounts of the meaning of conditionals (material implication, strict implication, variably strict conditional) and discusses the difference between indicative and subjunctive/counterfactual ...

von Fintel, Kai

2011-01-01

134

Embryonic lethality after combined inactivation of Fancd2 and Mlh1 in mice  

PubMed Central

DNA repair defects are frequently encountered in human cancers. These defects are utilized by traditional therapeutics but also offer novel cancer treatment strategies based on synthetic lethality. To determine the consequences of combined Fanconi anemia and mismatch repair pathway inactivation, defects in Fancd2 and Mlh1 were combined in one mouse model. Fancd2/Mlh1 double mutant embryos displayed growth retardation resulting in embryonic lethality and significant under-representation among progeny. Additional inactivation of Trp53 failed to improve the survival of Fancd2/Mlh1 deficient embryos. Mouse fibroblasts were obtained and challenged with crosslinking agents. Fancd2-deficient cells displayed the FA-characteristic growth inhibition after mitomycin C exposure. In primary fibroblasts, absence of Mlh1 did not greatly affect the mitomycin C sensitivity of Fancd2-deficient and proficient cells. However, in Trp53 mutant immortalized fibroblasts Mlh1-deficiency reduced the growth-inhibiting effect of mitomycin C in Fancd2 mutant and complemented cells. Similar data were obtained using psoralen/UVA, signifying that MLH1 influences the cellular sensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslinks. Next, the effect of MLH1-deficiency on the formation of chromosomal aberrations in response to crosslinking agents was determined. Surprisingly, Mlh1 mutant fibroblasts displayed a modest, but noticeable decrease in induced chromosomal breakage and interchange frequencies, suggesting that MLH1 promotes ICL repair catastrophe. In conclusion, the combined inactivation of Fancd2 and Mlh1 did not result in synthetic lethality at the cellular level. Although, absence of Fancd2 sensitized Mlh1 / Trp53 mutant fibroblasts to mitomycin C, the differential survival of primary and immortalized fibroblasts advocates against systemic inactivation of FANCD2 to enhance treatment of MLH1-deficient tumors. PMID:19934329

van de Vrugt, Henri J.; Eaton, Laura; Newell, Amy Hanlon; Al-Dhalimy, Mushen; Liskay, R. Michael; Olson, Susan B.; Grompe, Markus

2009-01-01

135

The MAP Kinase Slt2 Is Involved in Vacuolar Function and Actin Remodeling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mutants Affected by Endogenous Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress causes transient actin cytoskeleton depolarization and also provokes vacuole fragmentation in wild-type cells. Under conditions of oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide, the Slt2 protein is required to repolarize the actin cytoskeleton and to promote vacuole fusion. In this study, we show that grx3 grx4 and grx5 mutants are cellular models of endogenous oxidative stress. This stress is the result of alterations in iron homeostasis that lead to impairment of vacuolar function and also to disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Slt2 overexpression suppresses defects in vacuolar function and actin cytoskeleton organization in the grx3 grx4 mutant. Slt2 exerts this effect independently of the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of iron homeostasis. The deletion of SLT2 in the grx3 grx4 mutant results in synthetic lethality related to vacuolar function with substantial vacuole fragmentation. The observation that both Vps4 and Vps73 (two proteins related to vacuole sorting) suppress vacuole fragmentation and actin depolarization in the grx3 grx4 slt2 triple mutant strengthens the hypothesis that Slt2 plays a role in vacuole homeostasis related to actin dynamics. Here we show that in sod1, grx5, and grx3 grx4 slt2 mutants, all of which are affected by chronic oxidative stress, the overexpression of Slt2 favors vacuole fusion through a mechanism dependent on an active actin cytoskeleton. PMID:23956390

Pujol-Carrion, Nuria; Petkova, Mima I.; Serrano, Luis

2013-01-01

136

The MAP kinase Slt2 is involved in vacuolar function and actin remodeling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants affected by endogenous oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress causes transient actin cytoskeleton depolarization and also provokes vacuole fragmentation in wild-type cells. Under conditions of oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide, the Slt2 protein is required to repolarize the actin cytoskeleton and to promote vacuole fusion. In this study, we show that grx3 grx4 and grx5 mutants are cellular models of endogenous oxidative stress. This stress is the result of alterations in iron homeostasis that lead to impairment of vacuolar function and also to disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Slt2 overexpression suppresses defects in vacuolar function and actin cytoskeleton organization in the grx3 grx4 mutant. Slt2 exerts this effect independently of the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of iron homeostasis. The deletion of SLT2 in the grx3 grx4 mutant results in synthetic lethality related to vacuolar function with substantial vacuole fragmentation. The observation that both Vps4 and Vps73 (two proteins related to vacuole sorting) suppress vacuole fragmentation and actin depolarization in the grx3 grx4 slt2 triple mutant strengthens the hypothesis that Slt2 plays a role in vacuole homeostasis related to actin dynamics. Here we show that in sod1, grx5, and grx3 grx4 slt2 mutants, all of which are affected by chronic oxidative stress, the overexpression of Slt2 favors vacuole fusion through a mechanism dependent on an active actin cytoskeleton. PMID:23956390

Pujol-Carrion, Nuria; Petkova, Mima I; Serrano, Luis; de la Torre-Ruiz, Maria Angeles

2013-10-01

137

Lethal photosensitization of Helicobacter species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is associated with a large number of gastroduodenal disorders. Clearance of the bacteria has been shown to benefit patients with duodenal ulcers, gastric ulcers, and certain rare types of gastric tumors. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are the mainstay of current treatment strategies but side-effects, poor compliance, and drug resistance limit their usefulness. We sensitized H. pylori with toluidine blue, haematoporphyrin derivative, aluminum disulphonated phthalocyanine, methylene blue or protoporphyrin IX prior to exposure to low-power laser light from either a gallium aluminum arsenide laser or a helium neon gas laser. All 5 sensitizers caused reductions of greater than 1000-fold in the number of viable bacteria. Light alone had no effect and only HpD caused a significant decrease in bacterial numbers without laser light. Next, we sensitized H. mustelae on explanted ferret gastric mucosa (ex vivo) with the same sensitizers and exposed them to light from a copper vapor pumped dye laser tuned appropriately. MB caused significant reductions in bacterial counts. Successful lethal photosensitization of Helicobacter pylori both in vitro and ex vivo raises the possibility of a local method for eradicating the bacteria, especially as the bacteria are only found in those parts of the upper gastrointestinal tract that are accessible to the endoscope.

Millson, Charles E.; Wilson, Michael; MacRobert, Alexander J.; Thurrell, Wendy; Mlkvy, Peter; Davies, Claire; Bown, Stephen G.

1995-01-01

138

Construction of Listeria monocytogenes mutants with in-frame deletions in putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and analysis of their growth under stress conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that is difficult to eliminate since it can survive under multiple stress conditions such as low pH and low temperature. Understanding its survival under stress conditions is important to control this pathogen in food. ABC transporters have been shown...

139

Effects of lymphocyte subpopulations on the clonal assay of HPRT mutants: occupational exposure to cytostatic drugs.  

PubMed

The mutagenic effect of occupational exposure to antineoplastic agents was studied in chemotherapy nurses and pharmacists using the T-lymphocyte clonal assay. A significant increase in mutant frequency was observed compared to controls. However, in the present study, cloning efficiency without selection (CEU) was significantly reduced in exposed personnel raising the possibility of an overestimation of the calculated MF. Changes in lymphocyte populations and clonal potential of T-cells were also observed following exposure. CEU was related to % CD4 cells but CE with selection (CETG) was not. Differences in clonal ability of T-cells under selective and unselective conditions coupled with differential lethal effect of antineoplastic agents on lymphocyte subsets may result in inaccurate estimation of MF. PMID:7513065

Dubeau, H; Zazi, W; Baron, C; Messing, K

1994-05-01

140

Lens Extrusion from Laminin Alpha 1 Mutant Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

We report analysis of the ocular lens phenotype of the recessive, larval lethal zebrafish mutant, lama1a69/a69. Previous work revealed that this mutant has a shortened body axis and eye defects including a defective hyaloid vasculature, focal corneal dysplasia, and loss of the crystalline lens. While these studies highlight the importance of laminin ?1 in lens development, a detailed analysis of the lens defects seen in these mutants was not reported. In the present study, we analyze the lenticular anomalies seen in the lama1a69/a69 mutants and show that the lens defects result from the anterior extrusion of lens material from the eye secondary to structural defects in the lens capsule and developing corneal epithelium associated with basement membrane loss. Our analysis provides further insights into the role of the lens capsule and corneal basement membrane in the structural integrity of the developing eye. PMID:24526906

Semina, Elena V.; Duncan, Melinda K.

2014-01-01

141

Drosophila switch gene Sex-lethal can bypass its switch-gene target transformer to regulate aspects of female behavior  

PubMed Central

The switch gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) was thought to elicit all aspects of Drosophila female somatic differentiation other than size dimorphism by controlling only the switch gene transformer (tra). Here we show instead that Sxl controls an aspect of female sexual behavior by acting on a target other than or in addition to tra. We inferred the existence of this unknown Sxl target from the observation that a constitutively feminizing tra transgene that restores fertility to tra? females failed to restore fertility to Sxl-mutant females that were adult viable but functionally tra?. The sterility of these mutant females was caused by an ovulation failure. Because tra expression is not sufficient to render these Sxl-mutant females fertile, we refer to this pathway as the tra-insufficient feminization (TIF) branch of the sex-determination regulatory pathway. Using a transgene that conditionally expresses two Sxl feminizing isoforms, we find that the TIF branch is required developmentally for neurons that also sex-specifically express fruitless, a tra gene target controlling sexual behavior. Thus, in a subset of fruitless neurons, targets of the TIF and tra pathways appear to collaborate to control ovulation. In most insects, Sxl has no sex-specific functions, and tra, rather than Sxl, is both the target of the primary sex signal and the gene that maintains the female developmental commitment via positive autoregulation. The TIF pathway may represent an ancestral female-specific function acquired by Sxl in an early evolutionary step toward its becoming the regulator of tra in Drosophila. PMID:24191002

Evans, Daniel S.; Cline, Thomas W.

2013-01-01

142

Reaming experiments for the lethality test system  

SciTech Connect

Various reaming techniques were tried for use on the barrel of the Lethality Test System railgun. This report covers the successes and failures of the reamers and the techniques that were tried. 5 figs.

Hooten, D.; Stanley, P.

1988-01-01

143

DNA Packaging Mutant: Repression of the Vaccinia Virus A32 Gene Results in Noninfectious, DNA-Deficient, Spherical, Enveloped Particles  

PubMed Central

The vaccinia virus A32 open reading frame was predicted to encode a protein with a nucleoside triphosphate-binding motif and a mass of 34 kDa. To investigate the role of this protein, we constructed a mutant in which the original A32 gene was replaced by an inducible copy. The recombinant virus, vA32i, has a conditional lethal phenotype: infectious virus formation was dependent on isopropyl-?-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Under nonpermissive conditions, the mutant synthesized early- and late-stage viral proteins, as well as viral DNA that was processed into unit-length genomes. Electron microscopy of cells infected in the absence of IPTG revealed normal-appearing crescents and immature virus particles but very few with nucleoids. Instead of brick-shaped mature particles with defined core structures, there were numerous electron-dense, spherical particles. Some of these spherical particles were wrapped with cisternal membranes, analogous to intracellular and extracellular enveloped virions. Mutant viral particles, purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, had low infectivity and transcriptional activity, and the majority were spherical and lacked DNA. Nevertheless, the particle preparation contained representative membrane proteins, cleaved and uncleaved core proteins, the viral RNA polymerase, the early transcription factor and several enzymes, suggesting that incorporation of these components is not strictly coupled to DNA packaging. PMID:9621036

Cassetti, Maria Cristina; Merchlinsky, Michael; Wolffe, Elizabeth J.; Weisberg, Andrea S.; Moss, Bernard

1998-01-01

144

Metabolic regulation of Escherichia coli and its phoB and phoR genes knockout mutants under phosphate and nitrogen limitations as well as at acidic condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The phosphorus compounds serve as major building blocks of many biomolecules, and have important roles in signal transduction.\\u000a The phosphate is involved in many biochemical reactions by the transfer of phosphoryl groups. All living cells sophisticatedly\\u000a regulate the phosphate uptake, and survive even under phosphate-limiting condition, and thus phosphate metabolism is closely\\u000a related to the diverse metabolism including energy and

Lolo Wal Marzan; Kazuyuki Shimizu

2011-01-01

145

Crystallographic studies of the Anthrax lethal toxin. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

The lethal form of Anthrax results from the inhalation of anthrax spores. Death is primarily due to the effects of the lethal toxin (Protective Antigen (PA) + Lethal Factor) from the causative agent, Bacillus anthracis. All the Anthrax vaccines currently in use or under development contain or produce PA, the major antigenic component of anthrax toxin, and there is a clear need for an improved vaccine for human use. In the previous report we described the first atomic resolution structure of PA, revealing that the molecule is composed largely of beta-sheets organized into four domains. This information can be used in the design. of recombinant PA vaccines. In this report we describe additional features of the full-length PA molecule derived from further crystallographic refinement and careful examination of the structure. We compare two crystal forms of PA grown at different pH values and discuss the functional implications. A complete definition of the function of each domain must await the crystal structure of the PA63 heptamer. We have grown crystals of the heptamer under both detergent and detergent-free conditions, and made substantial progress towards the crystal structure. The mechanism of anthrax intoxication in the light of our results is reviewed.

Frederick, C.A.

1996-07-01

146

Lethality of sortase depletion in Actinomyces oris caused by excessive membrane accumulation of a surface glycoprotein.  

PubMed

Sortase, a cysteine-transpeptidase conserved in Gram-positive bacteria, anchors on the cell wall many surface proteins that facilitate bacterial pathogenesis and fitness. Genetic disruption of the housekeeping sortase in several Gram-positive pathogens reported thus far attenuates virulence, but not bacterial growth. Paradoxically, we discovered that depletion of the housekeeping sortase SrtA was lethal for Actinomyces oris; yet, all of its predicted cell wall-anchored protein substrates (AcaA-N) were individually dispensable for cell viability. Using Tn5-transposon mutagenesis to identify factors that upend lethality of srtA deletion, we uncovered a set of genetic suppressors harbouring transposon insertions within genes of a locus encoding AcaC and a LytR-CpsA-Psr (LCP)-like protein. AcaC was shown to be highly glycosylated and dependent on LCP for its glycosylation. Upon SrtA depletion, the glycosylated form of AcaC, hereby renamed GspA, was accumulated in the membrane. Overexpression of GspA in a mutant lacking gspA and srtA was lethal; conversely, cells overexpressing a GspA mutant missing a membrane-localization domain were viable. The results reveal a unique glycosylation pathway in A. oris that is coupled to cell wall anchoring catalysed by sortase SrtA. Significantly, this novel phenomenon of glyco-stress provides convenient cell-based assays for developing a new class of inhibitors against Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:25230351

Wu, Chenggang; Huang, I-Hsiu; Chang, Chungyu; Reardon-Robinson, Melissa Elizabeth; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

2014-12-01

147

Appearance of recessive lethal mutations in derivatives of an unstable X{sup Z} chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster  

SciTech Connect

An X{sup Z} chromosome isolated from a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster is characterized by spontaneous mutability of the genes yellow, white, and singed and the appearance of chromosomal rearrangements. In mutant lines derived from the line carrying the X{sup Z} chromosome that had one, two, or three unstable vision mutations (markers), the rate of appearance of sex-linked lethal mutations was analyzed. This rate was shown to increase with an increase in the number of markers in a line. This phenomenon, termed {open_quotes}marker induction,{close_quotes} might explain the phenotypic homogeneity of natural Drosophila populations. Spontaneous lethal mutations were mapped, and their nonrandom distribution along the X{sup Z} chromosome was shown. Along with common {open_quotes}hot spot{close_quotes} sites of lethal mutations, the derivatives of the X{sup Z} chromosomes had their own specific sites for lethal mutations. In some cases, the appearance of lethal mutations was accompanied by the formation of inversions in the X{sup Z} chromosome. The lethal destabilization of the X{sup Z} derivatives, caused by selection for accumulation of visible mutations, is associated with an increase in the number of hot spots for nuclear mutations. Presumably, these hot spots are hot sites for the transposition of mobile genetic elements. 18 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Yurchenko, N.N.; Koryakov, D.E.; Zakharov, I.K. [Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

1995-09-01

148

Hybrid lethal systems in the Drosophila melanogaster species complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lethal phases of the hybrids betweenDrosophila melanogaster and its sibling species,D. simulans are classified into three types: (1) embryonic lethality in hybrids carryingD. simulans cytoplasm andD. melanogaster X chromosome, (2) larval lethality in hybrids not carryingD. simulans X, and (3) temperature-sensitive pupal lethality in hybrids carryingD. simulans X. The same lethal phases are also observed when either of the two

Kyoichi Sawamura; Takao K. Watanabe; Masa-Toshi Yamamoto

1993-01-01

149

Acute lethality of copper, cadmium, and zinc to northern squawfish  

SciTech Connect

Flow-through acute toxicity tests on juvenile northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were conducted with copper, cadmium, and zinc. The 96-hour median lethal concentrations were 18 ..mu..g/liter for copper, 1104 ..mu..g/liter for cadmium, and 3693 ..mu..g/liter for zinc in 12/sup 0/C water. These values, when compared to those for chinook salmon and steelhead parr tested under similar conditions, show that the northern squawfish are more tolerant than the two salmonids to zinc and cadmium but equally sensitive to copper.

Andros, J.D.; Garton, R.R.

1980-03-01

150

Effects of fuzzless cottonseed phenotype on cottonseed nutrient composition in near isogenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) mutant lines under well-watered and water stress conditions1  

PubMed Central

There is no information available on the effect of fuzzless seed trait on cottonseed nutrient composition (minerals, N, S, protein, and oil) under drought stress. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of the fuzzless seed trait on cottonseed nutrients using five sets of near-isogenic lines (NILs). Each set consists of two lines that share the same genetic background, but differ in seed fuzziness (fuzzy, F; fuzzless, N). The near isogenic lines will enable us to compare the effect of the trait without confounding the genotypic background effects. We hypothesized that since the fuzzless trait involved in fiber initiation development, and was reported to be involved in biochemical, molecular, and genetic processes, this trait may also alter cottonseed nutrient composition. Results showed that NIL sets accumulated different levels of minerals in seeds and leaves, and the fuzzless trait (N) in most of the lines altered seed and leaf mineral accumulations when compared with fuzzy lines (F) or the control line. For example, K, P, Mg, Cu, and Na concentrations in seeds were higher in MD N and STV N than in their equivalent MD F and STV F lines. Leaf concentrations of Ca, K, Mg, S, B, Cu, and Fe in MD N lines were higher than MD F line. Lower levels of nutrients in seeds and leaves were observed under water stress conditions, especially Ca, Mg, N, and B in seeds.Generally and with few exceptions, seed protein was higher in fuzzy lines than in fuzzless lines; however, seed oil was higher in fuzzless lines than in fuzzy lines. Our research demonstrated that fuzzless trait altered the composition and level of nutrients in seed and leaves in well watered and water stressed plants. Differences in protein and oil between fuzzy and fuzzless seeds may indicate alteration in nitrogen and carbon fixation and metabolism. The differential accumulation of seed nutrients in this germplasm could be used by cotton breeders to select for higher cottonseed quality. PMID:24416037

Bellaloui, Nacer; Turley, Rickie B.

2013-01-01

151

Live deaths online: internet suicide and lethality.  

PubMed

The Internet provides an infinite platform for the portrayal of lethal events. Beyond mere display, however, it dispenses information, allows for participation and sharing of content, and constitutes a virtual interactive forum. The Internet may ultimately shape society's approach to perceiving and dealing with death. Thus, psychiatrists may wish to be aware of these matters so that they may be considered in assessments and clinical care. In this article, the author attempts to identify key online locations where lethality is portrayed and how it may affect the individual patient and practitioner and the population at large. PMID:23233475

Klein, Carolina A

2012-01-01

152

Disruption of the rice plastid ribosomal protein s20 leads to chloroplast developmental defects and seedling lethality.  

PubMed

Plastid ribosomal proteins (PRPs) are essential for ribosome biogenesis, plastid protein biosynthesis, chloroplast differentiation, and early chloroplast development. This study identifies the first rice PRP mutant, asl1 (albino seedling lethality1), which exhibits an albino lethal phenotype at the seedling stage. This albino phenotype was associated with altered chlorophyll (Chl) content and chloroplast development. Map-based cloning revealed that ASL1 encodes PRP S20 (PRPS20), which localizes to the chloroplast. ASL1 showed tissue-specific expression, as it was highly expressed in plumule and young seedlings but expressed at much lower levels in other tissues. In addition, ASL1 expression was regulated by light. The transcript levels of nuclear genes for Chl biosynthesis and chloroplast development were strongly affected in asl1 mutants; transcripts of some plastid genes for photosynthesis were undetectable. Our findings indicate that nuclear-encoded PRPS20 plays an important role in chloroplast development in rice. PMID:23979931

Gong, Xiaodi; Jiang, Quan; Xu, Jianlong; Zhang, Jianhui; Teng, Sheng; Lin, Dongzhi; Dong, Yanjun

2013-10-01

153

STUDIES ON THE SEX-SPECIFIC LETHALS OF DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. IV. GYNANDROMORPH ANALYSIS OF THREE MALE-SPECIFIC LETHALS, mle, m~l-2~~ AND mle(3)132  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutants at three male-specific lethal loci of Drosophila melanogaster (mle, m~l-2~' and mle(31132) were examined by gynandromorph analysis. In all cases only a very few gynandromorphs with small X\\/O patches appeared. Most of these small X\\/O patches were in the abdomen, and the structures in these X\\/O regions were reduced in size. These results indicate that the primary effects of

T. UENOYAMA; S. UCHIDA; A. FUKUNAGA; K. OISHI

154

Evaluation of the database on mutant frequencies and DNA sequence alterations of vermilion mutations induced in germ cells of Drosophila shows the importance of a neutral mutation detection system.  

PubMed

The vermilion gene in Drosophila has extensively been used for the molecular analysis of mutations induced by chemicals in germ cells in vivo. The gene is located on the X-chromosome and is a useful target for the study of mutagenesis since all types of mutations are generated. We have critically evaluated this system with respect to sensitivity for mutation induction and selectivity for different types of mutations, using a database of more than 600 vermilion mutants induced in postmeiotic male germ cells by 18 mutagens. From most of these mutants the mutation has been analysed. These data showed 336 base substitutions, 96 intra-locus DNA rearrangements and 78 multi-locus deletions (MLD). Mutants containing a MLD were either heterozygous sterile or homozygous and hemizygous lethal. The distribution of both basepair (bp) changes and intra-locus rearrangements over the coding region of the vermilion gene was uniform with no preferences concerning 5' or 3' regions, certain exons, splice sites, specific amino acid changes or nonsense mutations. Possible hotspots for base substitutions seem to be related to the type of DNA damage rather than to the vermilion system. Gene mutations other than bp changes were examined on sequence characteristics flanking the deletion breakpoints. Induction frequencies of vermilion mosaic mutants were, in general, higher than those of vermilion complete mutants, suggesting that persistent lesions are the main contributors to the molecular spectra. Comparison of induction frequencies of vermilion mutants and sex-linked recessive lethal (SLRL) mutants for the 18 mutagens showed that the sensitivity of the vermilion gene against a mutagenic insult is representative for genes located on the X-chromosome. The effect of nucleotide excision repair (NER) on the formation of SLRL mutants correlated with an increase of transversions in the vermilion spectra under NER deficient conditions. Furthermore, the clastogenic potency of the mutagens, i.e., the efficiency to induce chromosomal-losses vs. SLRL forward mutations, shows a positive correlation with the percentage of DNA deletions in the molecular spectra of vermilion mutants. PMID:10656485

Nivard, M J; Aguirrezabalaga, I; Ballering, L A; Pastink, A; Sierra, L M; Vogel, E W

1999-12-16

155

Potentially lethal damage repair in drug arrested G2-phase cells after radiation exposure.  

PubMed

Potentially lethal damage (PLD) repair has been defined as that property conferring the ability of cells to recover from DNA damage depending on the postirradiation environment. Using a novel cyclin dependent kinase 1 inhibitor RO-3306 to arrest cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, examined PLD repair in G2 in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Several CHO-derived DNA repair mutant cell lines were used in this study to elucidate the mechanism of DNA double-strand break repair and to examine PLD repair during the G2 phase of the cell cycle. While arrested in G2 phase, wild-type CHO cells displayed significant PLD repair and improved cell survival compared with cells released immediately from G2 after irradiation. Both the radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations and the delayed entry into mitosis were also reduced by G2-holding PLD recovery. The PLD repair observed in G2 was observed in nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) mutant cell lines but absent in homologous recombination mutant cell lines. From the survival curves, G2-NHEJ mutant cell lines were found to be very sensitive to gamma-ray exposure when compared to G2/homologous recombination mutant cell lines. Our findings suggest that after exposure to ionizing radiation during G2, NHEJ is responsible for the majority of non-PLD repair, and conversely, that the homologous recombination is responsible for PLD repair in G2. PMID:25251700

Maeda, Junko; Bell, Justin J; Genet, Stefan C; Fujii, Yoshihiro; Genet, Matthew D; Brents, Colleen A; Genik, Paula C; Kato, Takamitsu A

2014-10-01

156

Programmed Cell Death in the Leaves of the Arabidopsis Spontaneous Necrotic Spots (sns-D) Mutant Correlates with Increased Expression of the Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor eIF4B2  

PubMed Central

From a pool of transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants harboring an activator T-DNA construct, one mutant was identified that developed spontaneous necrotic spots (sns-D) on the rosette leaves under aseptic conditions. The sns-D mutation is dominant and homozygous plants are embryo lethal. The mutant produced smaller rosettes with a different number of stomata than the wild-type. DNA fragmentation in the nuclei of cells in the necrotic spots and a significant increase of caspase-3 and caspase-6 like activities in sns-D leaf extracts indicated that the sns-D mutation caused programmed cell death (PCD). The integration of the activator T-DNA caused an increase of the expression level of At1g13020, which encodes the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4B2. The expression level of eIF4B2 was positively correlated with the severity of sns-D mutant phenotype. Overexpression of the eIF4B2 cDNA mimicked phenotypic traits of the sns-D mutant indicating that the sns-D mutant phenotype is indeed caused by activation tagging of eIF4B2. Thus, incorrect regulation of translation initiation may result in PCD. PMID:22639576

Gaussand, Gwénaël M. D. J.-M.; Jia, Qi; van der Graaff, Eric; Lamers, Gerda E. M.; Fransz, Paul F.; Hooykaas, Paul J. J.; de Pater, Sylvia

2011-01-01

157

Non-lethal technologies—an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

hilst the focus for this issue of Disarmament Forum is on chemical and biological weapons, sight should not be lost of the spectrum of non-lethal technologies that are being deployed or under development. These technologies will have an increasing impact on war fighting, peace support operations, civil policing and prison control. It is our purpose here to briefly review the

Nick LEWER; Neil DAVISON

158

Crystal structure of the anthrax lethal factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lethal factor (LF) is a protein (relative molecular mass 90,000) that is critical in the pathogenesis of anthrax. It is a highly specific protease that cleaves members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) family near to their amino termini, leading to the inhibition of one or more signalling pathways. Here we describe the crystal structure of LF and its

Andrew D. Pannifer; Thiang Yian Wong; Robert Schwarzenbacher; Martin Renatus; Carlo Petosa; Jadwiga Bienkowska; D. Borden Lacy; R. John Collier; Stephen H. Leppla; Philip Hanna; Robert C. Liddington

2001-01-01

159

The evolution of lethal intergroup violence  

PubMed Central

Recent findings and analyses in evolutionary biology, archaeology, and ethnology provide a favorable conjuncture for examining the evolution of lethal intergroup violence among hominids during the 2.9-million-year Paleolithic time span. Here, I seek to identify and investigate the main turning points in this evolutionary trajectory and to delineate the periodization that follows from this inquiry. PMID:16129826

Kelly, Raymond C.

2005-01-01

160

THE RELATIVE INFLUENCE OF SEX OF PROGENY ON THE LETHAL EXPRESSION OF THE SONLESS GENE IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sex-linked maternally influenced lethal gene, sonless (snl), in D. melanoggnster was shown to affect the survival of daughters as well as sons of snl\\/snl mothers but to a lesser degree. Interaction studies of sonless with the sex altering mutants transformer (tra) and doublesex (dsz) revealed that any alteration toward increased masculinity of progeny from snl\\/snl females re- duced their

JAMES J. COLAIANNE; A. E. BELL

161

SspA Is Required for Lethal Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infections in Calves but Is Not Essential for Diarrhea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) encodes virulence determinants, which are important for entero- pathogenicity in calves. To determine whether the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SPI-1 effector proteins SspA and SptP are important for enteropathogenicity, strains lacking these proteins were tested during oral infection of calves. Calves infected with a sptP mutant or its isogenic parent developed diarrhea and lethal morbidity.

RENEE M. TSOLIS; L. GARRY ADAMS; MICHAEL J. HANTMAN; CHRISTINA A. SCHERER; TYLER KIMBROUGH; ROBERT A. KINGSLEY; THOMAS A. FICHT; SAMUEL I. MILLER; ANDREAS J. BAUMLER

2000-01-01

162

Plant hormone mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The techniques used for the production and identification of plant hormone mutants are described. The properties used to classify\\u000a these mutants into the broad synthesis and response categories are discussed, and the genetic considerations needed to allow\\u000a their effective use in plant hormone research examined. A brief outline of significant work on gibberellin (GA), abscisic\\u000a acid (ABA), auxin, ethylene, cytokinin

James B. Reid

1993-01-01

163

Chemically Induced Conditional Rescue of the Reduced Epidermal Fluorescence8 Mutant of Arabidopsis Reveals Rapid Restoration of Growth and Selective Turnover of Secondary Metabolite Pools1[C][OPEN  

PubMed Central

The phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse and important secondary metabolites including lignin and flavonoids. The reduced epidermal fluorescence8 (ref8) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which is defective in a lignin biosynthetic enzyme p-coumaroyl shikimate 3?-hydroxylase (C3?H), exhibits severe dwarfism and sterility. To better understand the impact of perturbation of phenylpropanoid metabolism on plant growth, we generated a chemically inducible C3?H expression construct and transformed it into the ref8 mutant. Application of dexamethasone to these plants greatly alleviates the dwarfism and sterility and substantially reverses the biochemical phenotypes of ref8 plants, including the reduction of lignin content and hyperaccumulation of flavonoids and p-coumarate esters. Induction of C3?H expression at different developmental stages has distinct impacts on plant growth. Although early induction effectively restored the elongation of primary inflorescence stem, application to 7-week-old plants enabled them to produce new rosette inflorescence stems. Examination of hypocotyls of these plants revealed normal vasculature in the newly formed secondary xylem, presumably restoring water transport in the mutant. The ref8 mutant accumulates higher levels of salicylic acid than the wild type, but depletion of this compound in ref8 did not relieve the mutant’s growth defects, suggesting that the hyperaccumulation of salicylic acid is unlikely to be responsible for dwarfism in this mutant. PMID:24381065

Kim, Jeong Im; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Chapple, Clint; Li, Xu

2014-01-01

164

Unexpected double lethal oleander poisoning.  

PubMed

Nerium oleander is a very popular urban ornamental plant in Europe, but it is also extremely dangerous because it contains several types of glycosides, accidental ingestion of which can cause cardiac arrhythmias and even deaths. The rarity of such cases makes it difficult to think of oleander poisoning without evidences that suggest this possibility as the cause of the unexpected death. This report concerns the discovery of the bodies of 2 young people, a man and a woman, in a forest in conditions of extreme malnutrition. Medicolegal investigations showed neither pathologic nor traumatic causes of death, but the presence of vegetal remains in the stomach was noticed. A common toxicological analysis resulted negative, but the implementation of more detailed investigations showed the presence of digoxin in the blood of both cadavers, excluding the possibility of a pharmaceutical provenience of digoxin, this laboratory result was interpreted as evidence of ingestion of oleander, which contains oleandrine, the cross reaction of which with digoxin is widely described in the literature. Identification of the 2 subjects, which occurred after 4 years, strengthened the hypothesis of accidental poisoning by oleander because it was ascertained that the 2 young people were vegans--extreme vegetarians who reject the ingestion of foods of animal origin and live by eating only what they find in nature. PMID:21926903

Papi, Luigi; Luciani, Alessandro Bassi; Forni, David; Giusiani, Mario

2012-03-01

165

Mice Expressing Mutant Trpv4 Recapitulate the Human TRPV4 Disorders††  

PubMed Central

Activating mutations in TRPV4 are known to cause a spectrum of skeletal dysplasias ranging from autosomal dominant brachyolmia to lethal metatropic dysplasia. To develop an animal model of these disorders, we created transgenic mice expressing either wild-type or mutant TRPV4. Mice transgenic for wild-type Trpv4 showed no morphological changes at embryonic day 16.5, but did have a delay in bone mineralization. Overexpression of a mutant TRPV4 caused a lethal skeletal dysplasia that phenocopied many abnormalities associated with metatropic dysplasia in humans, including dumbbell-shaped long bones, a small ribcage, abnormalities in the autopod, and abnormal ossification in the vertebrae. The difference in phenotype between embryos transgenic for wild-type or mutant Trpv4 demonstrates that an increased amount of wild-type protein can be tolerated and that an activating mutation of this protein is required to produce a skeletal dysplasia phenotype. PMID:24644033

Chen, Yuqing; Lee, Brendan; Cohn, Daniel H.

2014-01-01

166

Carbon monoxide and lethal arrhythmias  

SciTech Connect

The effect of acute exposure to carbon monoxide on ventricular arrhythmias was studied in a previously described chronically maintained animal model of sudden cardiac death. In 60 percent of dogs with a healed anterior myocardial infarction, the combination of mild exercise and acute myocardial ischemia induces ventricular fibrillation. The events in this model are highly reproducible, thus allowing study by internal control analysis. Dogs that develop ventricular fibrillation during the test of exercise and acute myocardial ischemia are considered at high risk for sudden death and are defined as 'susceptible'; dogs that survive the test without a fatal arrhythmia are considered at low risk for sudden death and are defined as 'resistant.' In the current study, the effects of carboxyhemoglobin levels ranging from 5 to 15 percent were tested in resistant and susceptible dogs. A trend toward higher heart rates was observed at all levels of carboxyhemoglobin, although significant differences were observed only with 15 percent carboxyhemoglobin. This trend was observed at rest and during exercise in both resistant and susceptible dogs. In resistant animals, in which acute myocardial ischemia is typically associated with bradycardia even under the control condition, this reflex response occurred earlier and was augmented after exposure to carbon monoxide. This effect may depend on the increased hypoxic challenge caused by carbon monoxide, and thus on an augmentation of the neural reflex activation or a sensitization of the sinus node to acetylcholine induced by hypoxia. In both resistant and susceptible dogs, carbon monoxide exposure induced a worsening of ventricular arrhythmias in a minority of cases. This worsening was not reproducible in subsequent trials. These data indicate that acute exposure to carbon monoxide is seldom arrhythmogenic in dogs that have survived myocardial infarction. (Abstract Truncated)

Farber, J.P.; Schwartz, P.J.; Vanoli, E.; Stramba-Badiale, M.; De Ferrari, G.M. (Univ. of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City (USA))

1990-12-01

167

Rescue of Progeria in Trichothiodystrophy by Homozygous Lethal Xpd Alleles  

PubMed Central

Although compound heterozygosity, or the presence of two different mutant alleles of the same gene, is common in human recessive disease, its potential to impact disease outcome has not been well documented. This is most likely because of the inherent difficulty in distinguishing specific biallelic effects from differences in environment or genetic background. We addressed the potential of different recessive alleles to contribute to the enigmatic pleiotropy associated with XPD recessive disorders in compound heterozygous mouse models. Alterations in this essential helicase, with functions in both DNA repair and basal transcription, result in diverse pathologies ranging from elevated UV sensitivity and cancer predisposition to accelerated segmental progeria. We report a variety of biallelic effects on organismal phenotype attributable to combinations of recessive Xpd alleles, including the following: (i) the ability of homozygous lethal Xpd alleles to ameliorate a variety of disease symptoms when their essential basal transcription function is supplied by a different disease-causing allele, (ii) differential developmental and tissue-specific functions of distinct Xpd allele products, and (iii) interallelic complementation, a phenomenon rarely reported at clinically relevant loci in mammals. Our data suggest a re-evaluation of the contribution of “null” alleles to XPD disorders and highlight the potential of combinations of recessive alleles to affect both normal and pathological phenotypic plasticity in mammals. PMID:17020410

Andressoo, Jaan-Olle; Jans, Judith; de Wit, Jan; Coin, Frederic; Hoogstraten, Deborah; van de Ven, Marieke; Toussaint, Wendy; Huijmans, Jan; Thio, H. Bing; van Leeuwen, Wibeke J; de Boer, Jan; Egly, Jean-Marc; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T. J; Mitchell, James R

2006-01-01

168

Genome-Wide Screen for Oxalate-Sensitive Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae? †  

PubMed Central

Oxalic acid is an important virulence factor produced by phytopathogenic filamentous fungi. In order to discover yeast genes whose orthologs in the pathogen may confer self-tolerance and whose plant orthologs may protect the host, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion library consisting of 4,827 haploid mutants harboring deletions in nonessential genes was screened for growth inhibition and survival in a rich medium containing 30 mM oxalic acid at pH 3. A total of 31 mutants were identified that had significantly lower cell yields in oxalate medium than in an oxalate-free medium. About 35% of these mutants had not previously been detected in published screens for sensitivity to sorbic or citric acid. Mutants impaired in endosomal transport, the rgp1?, ric1?, snf7?, vps16?, vps20?, and vps51? mutants, were significantly overrepresented relative to their frequency among all verified yeast open reading frames. Oxalate exposure to a subset of five mutants, the drs2?, vps16?, vps51?, ric1?, and rib4? mutants, was lethal. With the exception of the rib4? mutant, all of these mutants are impaired in vesicle-mediated transport. Indirect evidence is provided suggesting that the sensitivity of the rib4? mutant, a riboflavin auxotroph, is due to oxalate-mediated interference with riboflavin uptake by the putative monocarboxylate transporter Mch5. PMID:17644632

Cheng, V.; Stotz, H. U.; Hippchen, K.; Bakalinsky, A. T.

2007-01-01

169

Reduced LPS phosphorylation in Escherichia coli lowers the elevated ori/ter ratio in seqA mutants  

PubMed Central

Summary The seqA defect in E. coli increases the ori/ter ratio and causes chromosomal fragmentation, making seqA mutants dependent on recombinational repair (the seqA recA co-lethality). To understand the nature of this chromosomal fragmentation, we characterized ?seqA mutants and isolated suppressors of the ?seqA recA lethality. We demonstrate that our ?seqA alleles have normal function of the downstream pgm gene and normal ratios of the major phospholipids in the membranes, but increased surface lipopolysaccharide (LPS) phosphorylation. The predominant class of ?seqA recA suppressors disrupts the rfaQGP genes, reducing phosphorylation of the inner core region of LPS. The rfaQGP suppressors also reduce the elevated ori/ter ratio of the ?seqA mutants, but, unexpectedly, the suppressed mutants still exhibit the high levels of chromosomal fragmentation and SOS induction, characteristic of the ?seqA mutants. We also found that co-lethality of rfaP with defects in the production of acidic phospholipids is suppressed by alternative initiation of chromosomal replication, suggesting that LPS phosphorylation stimulates replication initiation. The rfaQGP suppression of the seqA recA lethality provides genetic support for the surprising physical evidence that the oriC DNA forms complexes with the outer membrane. PMID:19432803

Rotman, Ella; Bratcher, Preston; Kuzminov, Andrei

2009-01-01

170

Functional Genomics Reveals the Induction of Inflammatory Response and Metalloproteinase Gene Expression during Lethal Ebola Virus Infection?†  

PubMed Central

Ebola virus is the etiologic agent of a lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates with mortality rates of up to 90%. Previous studies with Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV), mouse-adapted virus (MA-ZEBOV), and mutant viruses (ZEBOV-NPma, ZEBOV-VP24ma, and ZEBOV-NP/VP24ma) allowed us to identify the mutations in viral protein 24 (VP24) and nucleoprotein (NP) responsible for acquisition of high virulence in mice. To elucidate specific molecular signatures associated with lethality, we compared global gene expression profiles in spleen samples from mice infected with these viruses and performed an extensive functional analysis. Our analysis showed that the lethal viruses (MA-ZEBOV and ZEBOV-NP/VP24ma) elicited a strong expression of genes 72 h after infection. In addition, we found that although the host transcriptional response to ZEBOV-VP24ma was nearly the same as that to ZEBOV-NP/VP24ma, the contribution of a mutation in the NP gene was required for a lethal phenotype. Further analysis indicated that one of the most relevant biological functions differentially regulated by the lethal viruses was the inflammatory response, as was the induction of specific metalloproteinases, which were present in our newly identify functional network that was associated with Ebola virus lethality. Our results suggest that this dysregulated proinflammatory response increased the severity of disease. Consequently, the newly discovered molecular signature could be used as the starting point for the development of new drugs and therapeutics. To our knowledge, this is the first study that clearly defines unique molecular signatures associated with Ebola virus lethality. PMID:21734050

Cilloniz, Cristian; Ebihara, Hideki; Ni, Chester; Neumann, Gabriele; Korth, Marcus J.; Kelly, Sara M.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Feldmann, Heinz; Katze, Michael G.

2011-01-01

171

Chemotaxis mutants of Spirochaeta aurantia.  

PubMed

Five Spirochaeta aurantia chemotaxis mutants were isolated. One mutant (the che-101 mutant) never reversed, one (the che-200 mutant) flexed predominantly, two (the che-300 and che-400-1 mutants) exhibited elevated reversal frequencies, and one (the che-400 mutant) exhibited chemotactically unstimulated behavior similar to that of the wild-type strain. The che-101 and che-400 mutants were essentially nonchemotactic, whereas the che-200, che-300, and che-400-1 mutants showed impaired chemotactic responses. Protein methylation in response to attractant addition appeared normal in all of the mutants. Compared with the wild type, all of the mutants exhibited significantly altered membrane potential responses to the attractant xylose. PMID:2914860

Fosnaugh, K; Greenberg, E P

1989-01-01

172

Synthetic Lethality of Yeast slt Mutations with U2 Small Nuclear RNA Mutations Suggests Functional Interactions between U2 and U5 snRNPs That Are Important for Both Steps of Pre-mRNA Splicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic screen was devised to identify Saccharomyces cerevisiae splicing factors that are important for the function of the 5* end of U2 snRNA. Six slt (stands for synthetic lethality with U2) mutants were isolated on the basis of synthetic lethality with a U2 snRNA mutation that perturbs the U2-U6 snRNA helix II interaction. SLT11 encodes a new splicing factor

DEMING XU; DEBORAH J. FIELD; SHOU-JIANG TANG; ARNAUD MORIS; BRIAN P. BOBECHKO; JAMES D. FRIESEN

1998-01-01

173

Conditional Synergism between Cryptochrome 1 and Phytochrome B Is Shown by the Analysis of phyA, phyB, and hy4 Simple, Double, and Triple Mutants in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild-type or phyA, phyB ,o rhy4 mutant Arabidopsis seedlings lacking phytochrome A (phyA), phytochrome B (phyB), or crypto- chrome 1 (cry1), respectively, and the double and triple mutants were used in combination with blue-light treatments given simul- taneously with red or far-red light. We investigated the interaction between phytochromes and cry1 in the control of hypocotyl growth and cotyledon unfolding.

Jorge JoseCasal; Maria Agustina Mazzella

1998-01-01

174

Henipaviruses-unanswered questions of lethal zoonoses.  

PubMed

The highly lethal Hendra and Nipah viruses have been described for little more than a decade, yet within that time have been aetiologically associated with major livestock and human health impacts, albeit on a limited scale. Do these emerging pathogens pose a broader threat, or are they inconsequential 'viral chatter'. Given their lethality, and the evident multi-generational human-to-human transmission associated with Nipah virus in Bangladesh, it seems prudent to apply the precautionary principle. While much is known of their clinical, pathogenic and epidemiologic features in livestock species and humans, a number of fundamental questions regarding the relationship between the viruses, their natural fruit-bat host and the environment remain unanswered. In this paper, we pose and probe these questions in context, and offer perspectives based primarily on our experience with Hendra virus in Australia, augmented with Nipah virus parallels. PMID:22440924

Field, Hume; Kung, Nina

2011-12-01

175

Lethal recurrent hemorrhages of a brainstem cavernoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemorrhages of brainstem cavernomas may cause severe neurological deficits. Surgical strategies are frequently described,\\u000a and advanced neuromonitoring with intraoperative imaging can help neurosurgeons to achieve good results. However, patients\\u000a are often confronted with significant therapeutic risks by the primary doctor before talking to an experienced brainstem neurosurgeon.\\u000a On the other hand, lethal progression with repeated hemorrhages is rarely described, although

Alexandru Vlad Ciurea; Cristian Nastase; Alexandru Tascu; Felix Mircea Brehar

2007-01-01

176

The deoxyhypusine synthase mutant dys1-1 reveals the association of eIF5A and Asc1 with cell wall integrity.  

PubMed

The putative eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is a highly conserved protein among archaea and eukaryotes that has recently been implicated in the elongation step of translation. eIF5A undergoes an essential and conserved posttranslational modification at a specific lysine to generate the residue hypusine. The enzymes deoxyhypusine synthase (Dys1) and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (Lia1) catalyze this two-step modification process. Although several Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF5A mutants have importantly contributed to the study of eIF5A function, no conditional mutant of Dys1 has been described so far. In this study, we generated and characterized the dys1-1 mutant, which showed a strong depletion of mutated Dys1 protein, resulting in more than 2-fold decrease in hypusine levels relative to the wild type. The dys1-1 mutant demonstrated a defect in total protein synthesis, a defect in polysome profile indicative of a translation elongation defect and a reduced association of eIF5A with polysomes. The growth phenotype of dys1-1 mutant is severe, growing only in the presence of 1 M sorbitol, an osmotic stabilizer. Although this phenotype is characteristic of Pkc1 cell wall integrity mutants, the sorbitol requirement from dys1-1 is not associated with cell lysis. We observed that the dys1-1 genetically interacts with the sole yeast protein kinase C (Pkc1) and Asc1, a component of the 40S ribosomal subunit. The dys1-1 mutant was synthetically lethal in combination with asc1? and overexpression of TIF51A (eIF5A) or DYS1 is toxic for an asc1? strain. Moreover, eIF5A is more associated with translating ribosomes in the absence of Asc1 in the cell. Finally, analysis of the sensitivity to cell wall-perturbing compounds revealed a more similar behavior of the dys1-1 and asc1? mutants in comparison with the pkc1? mutant. These data suggest a correlated role for eIF5A and Asc1 in coordinating the translational control of a subset of mRNAs associated with cell integrity. PMID:23573236

Galvão, Fabio Carrilho; Rossi, Danuza; Silveira, Wagner da Silva; Valentini, Sandro Roberto; Zanelli, Cleslei Fernando

2013-01-01

177

Detection of low numbers of healthy and sub-lethally injured Salmonella enterica in chocolate.  

PubMed

The capacity to detect low levels of healthy and sub-lethally injured Salmonella enterica cells in chocolate by two alternative rapid detection methods iQ-Check(TM)Salmonella II real-time PCR (Bio-Rad) and VIDAS® Easy SLM (BioMérieux) was assessed and compared with ISO 6579:2005. Chocolate, a low moisture food known to support the survival of Salmonella, was challenged as food matrix. Buffered peptone water (BPW) did not support the recovery of low levels of sub-lethally injured S. enterica independent of the detection method, while BPW supplemented with milk powder enabled detection by the three examined methods. However, inhibition of real-time PCR was observed since for one out of three repetitions of chocolate inoculated with a low number of sub-lethally injured S. enterica cells, no PCR signal was obtained. Therefore, attention should be paid to the enrichment step to avoid false negative results due to the presence of especially sub-lethally injured Salmonella cells in chocolate. An appropriate sample preparation (such as enrichment media and conditions for incubation) remains the key factor for reliable detection including sub-lethally injured cells and should be evaluated, if necessary optimized, for each detection assay. PMID:21320732

Jasson, Vicky; Baert, Leen; Uyttendaele, Mieke

2011-02-28

178

Lethal infection thresholds of Paenibacillus larvae for honeybee drone and worker larvae (Apis mellifera).  

PubMed

We compared the mortality of honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone and worker larvae from a single queen under controlled in vitro conditions following infection with Paenibacillus larvae, a bacterium causing the brood disease American Foulbrood (AFB). We also determined absolute P. larvae cell numbers and lethal titres in deceased individuals of both sexes up to 8 days post infection using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Our results show that in drones the onset of infection induced mortality is delayed by 1 day, the cumulative mortality is reduced by 10% and P. larvae cell numbers are higher than in worker larvae. Since differences in bacterial cell titres between sexes can be explained by differences in body size, larval size appears to be a key parameter for a lethal threshold in AFB tolerance. Both means and variances for lethal thresholds are similar for drone and worker larvae suggesting that drone resistance phenotypes resemble those of related workers. PMID:20545737

Behrens, Dieter; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; Moritz, Robin F A

2010-10-01

179

Lethal and Sub-lethal Effects of UVB on Juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Pulmonata)  

PubMed Central

Although Schistosoma mansoni occurs mainly in the tropics, where intense levels of solar radiation are present, the impact of ultraviolet (UV) light on schistosome transmission is not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential effects of UVB (290–320 nm) on juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of S. mansoni. Albino and wild type snails were exposed to doses of UVB from UV-fluorescent lamps, and the following were measured: survival, photoreactivation (light-mediated DNA repair), effects on feeding behavior, and morphological tissue abnormalities. Irradiation with UVB is lethal to B. glabrata in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to white light subsequent to UVB irradiation enhances survival, probably by photoreactivation. The shell offers some, but not complete, protection. Experiments in which UVB transmittance through the shell was blocked with black nail polish suggest that injury to both exposed (headfoot) and shell-enclosed (mantle and visceral mass) tissues contributes to mortality in lethally-irradiated snails. Wild-type (pigmented) snails are less susceptible to lethal effects of UVB than albino snails, and they may be more capable of photoreactivation. UVB exposure inhibits snail feeding behavior, and causes tentacle forks and growths on the headfoot. Thus, UVB may influence the life cycle of S. mansoni by both lethal and sub-lethal damage to the snail intermediate host. However, the ability of snails to photoreactivate may mitigate these effects. PMID:16996081

Ruelas, Debbie S.; Karentz, Deneb; Sullivan, John T.

2007-01-01

180

Enhancement of Overgrowth by Gene Interactions in Lethal(2)giant Discs Imaginal Discs from Drosophila Melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Recessive lethal mutations of the lethal(2)giant discs (l(2)gd) and lethal(2)fat (l(2)ft) loci of Drosophila melanogaster cause imaginal disc hyperplasia during a prolonged larval stage. Imaginal discs from l(2)ft l(2)gd or Gl(2)gd double homozygotes show more extensive overgrowth than in either single homozygote, and double homozygous l(2)ft l(2)gd mitotic clones in adult flies show much more overgrowth than is seen in clones homozygous for either l(2)gd or l(2)ft alone. dachsous (ds) also acts as an enhancer of l(2)gd, producing dramatically overgrown discs and causing failure to pupariate in double homozygotes. The comb gap (cg) mutation, which also interacts with ds, greatly enhances the tendency of imaginal discs from l(2)gd larvae to duplicate as they overgrow. If l(2)gd homozygotes are made heterozygous for l(2)ft, then several discs duplicate, indicating that l(2)ft acts as a dominant enhancer of l(2)gd. l(2)ft also acts as a dominant enhancer of l(2)gd, and conversely l(2)gd acts as a dominant modifier of l(2)ft. The enhancement of overgrowth caused by various mutant combinations is accompanied by changes in expression of Decapentaplegic and Wingless. These results show that tumor suppressor genes act in combination to control cell proliferation, and that tissue hyperplasia can be associated with ectopic expression of genes involved in pattern formation. PMID:9335602

Buratovich, M. A.; Bryant, P. J.

1997-01-01

181

Superior triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in starchless mutants of Scenedesmus obliquus: (I) mutant generation and characterization  

PubMed Central

Background Microalgae are a promising platform for producing neutral lipids, to be used in the application for biofuels or commodities in the feed and food industry. A very promising candidate is the oleaginous green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus, because it accumulates up to 45% w/w triacylglycerol (TAG) under nitrogen starvation. Under these conditions, starch is accumulated as well. Starch can amount up to 38% w/w under nitrogen starvation, which is a substantial part of the total carbon captured. When aiming for optimized TAG production, blocking the formation of starch could potentially increase carbon allocation towards TAG. In an attempt to increase TAG content, productivity and yield, starchless mutants of this high potential strain were generated using UV mutagenesis. Previous studies in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have shown that blocking the starch synthesis yields higher TAG contents, although these TAG contents do not surpass those of oleaginous microalgae yet. So far no starchless mutants in oleaginous green microalgae have been isolated that result in higher TAG productivities. Results Five starchless mutants have been isolated successfully from over 3,500 mutants. The effect of the mutation on biomass and total fatty acid (TFA) and TAG productivity under nitrogen-replete and nitrogen-depleted conditions was studied. All five starchless mutants showed a decreased or completely absent starch content. In parallel, an increased TAG accumulation rate was observed for the starchless mutants and no substantial decrease in biomass productivity was perceived. The most promising mutant showed an increase in TFA productivity of 41% at 4 days after nitrogen depletion, reached a TAG content of 49.4% (% of dry weight) and had no substantial change in biomass productivity compared to the wild type. Conclusions The improved S. obliquus TAG production strains are the first starchless mutants in an oleaginous green microalga that show enhanced TAG content under photoautotrophic conditions. These results can pave the way towards a more feasible microalgae-driven TAG production platform. PMID:24920957

2014-01-01

182

Architectural phenotypes in the transparent testa mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Flavonoids are low molecular weight secondary plant metabolites with a myriad of functions. As flavonoids affect auxin transport (an important growth-controlling hormone) and are biologically active in eukaryotes, flavonoid mutants were expected to have undescribed architectural phenotypes. The Arabidopsis thaliana transparent testa (tt) mutants are compromised in the enzymatic steps or transcriptional regulators affecting flavonoid synthesis. tt mutant seedlings were grown on hard-slanted agar (a stress condition), under varying light conditions, and in soil to examine the resulting growth patterns. These tt mutants revealed a wide variety of architectural phenotypes in root and aerial tissues. Mutants with increased inflorescences, siliques, and lateral root density or reduced stature are traits that could affect plant yield or performance under certain environmental conditions. The regulatory genes affected in architectural traits may provide useful molecular targets for examination in other plants. PMID:19129166

Buer, Charles S.; Djordjevic, Michael A.

2009-01-01

183

Mutant maize variety containing the glt1-1 allele  

DOEpatents

A maize plant has in its genome a non-mutable form of a mutant allele designated vitX-8132. The allele is located at a locus designated as glt which conditions kernels having an altered starch characteristic. Maize plants including such a mutant allele produce a starch that does not increase in viscosity on cooling, after heating.

Nelson, Oliver E. (Cross Plains, WI); Pan, David (Madison, WI)

1994-01-01

184

Mutant maize variety containing the glt1-1 allele  

DOEpatents

A maize plant has in its genome a non-mutable form of a mutant allele designated vitX-8132. The allele is located at a locus designated as glt which conditions kernels having an altered starch characteristic. Maize plants including such a mutant allele produce a starch that does not increase in viscosity on cooling, after heating. 2 figs.

Nelson, O.E.; Pan, D.

1994-07-19

185

Physiological characterization of 'stay green' mutants in durum wheat.  

PubMed

Four mutants with delayed leaf senescence were selected from seed of durum wheat mutagenized with ethylmethane sulphonate. Changes in net photosynthetic rate, efficiency of photosystem II and chlorophyll concentration during the maturation and senescence of the flag leaves of both mutant and parental plants were determined under glasshouse conditions. The four mutant lines maintained photosynthetic competence for longer than the parental line and are therefore functionally 'stay green'. The mutant lines also had higher seed weights and grain yields per plant than the parental line. PMID:12709488

Spano, G; Di Fonzo, N; Perrotta, C; Platani, C; Ronga, G; Lawlor, D W; Napier, J A; Shewry, P R

2003-05-01

186

Growth and development of maize that contains mutant tubulin genes  

SciTech Connect

Mutant maize plants containing a Mu transposon disrupting one of the five beta tubulin genes of interest were followed for several generations and hybridized with each other to produce plants containing disruptions in both copies of a single gene or disruption of more than one tubulin gene. Seedlings of some of these plants were grown under chilling conditions for a few weeks. After DOE funding ended, plants have been assessed to see whether mutant are more or less tolerant to chilling. Other mutant plants will be assessed for their male and female fertility relative to non-mutant siblings or other close relatives.

Susan M. Wick

2004-07-23

187

MICROBIOLOGY: Enhanced: Fighting Anthrax with a Mutant Toxin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required: There is an urgent need to develop new therapeutics against the microbe causing anthrax, which has the potential to be used in biological warfare. In their Perspective, Olsnes and Wesche discuss a new therapeutic approach designed by Sellman and colleagues. In this approach, a mutant subunit of the toxin prevents correct assembly of wild-type subunits into a pore in the host cell membrane. In this way, lethal bacterial enzymes are prevented from translocating into the host cell.

Sjur Olsnes (Institute for Cancer Research; Department of Biochemistry)

2008-10-05

188

Mutant fatty acid desaturase  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

2004-02-03

189

Bipyridine (2,2'-dipyridyl) potentiates Escherichia coli lethality induced by nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine.  

PubMed

Alkylating agents are used in anti-tumor chemotherapy because they bind covalently to DNA and generate adducts that may lead to cell death. Bifunctional (HN2) and monofunctional (HN1) nitrogen are two such agents, and HN2 was the first drug successfully employed in anti-leukemia chemotherapy. Currently, HN2 is used either alone or combined with other drugs to treat Hodgkin's disease. It is well known that several crosslinking agents require metabolic activation via reactive oxygen species (ROS) to exert their lethal effects. The objective of this work was therefore to determine whether the abovementioned mustards would also require metabolic activation to exert lethal action against Escherichia coli. For this purpose, we measured survival following exposure to HN2 in E. coli strains that were deficient in nucleotide excision repair (uvrA NER mutant), base excision repair (xthA nfo nth fpg BER mutant) or superoxide dismutase (sodAB mutant) activity. We also performed the same experiments in cells pretreated with an iron chelator (2,2'-dipyridyl, DIP). The NER and BER mutants were only sensitive to HN2 treatment (survival rates similar to those of the wild-type were achieved with 5-fold lower HN2 doses). However, wild-type and sodAB strains were not sensitive to treatment with HN2. In all tested strains, survival dropped by 2.5-fold following pretreatment with DIP compared to treatment with HN2 alone. Furthermore, DIP treatment increased ROS generation in both wild type and sodAB-deficient strains. Based on these data and on the survival of the SOD-deficient strain, we suggest that the increased production of ROS caused by Fe(2+) chelation may potentiate the lethal effects of HN2 but not HN1. This potentiation may arise as a consequence of enhancement in the number of or modification of the type of lesions formed. No sensitization was observed for the non-crosslinkable HN2 analog, HN1. PMID:24632511

De Alencar, T A M; Wilmart-Gonçalves, T C; Vidal, L S; Fortunato, R S; Leitão, A C; Lage, C

2014-07-01

190

A synthetic lethal screen identifies a role for the cortical actin patch/endocytosis complex in the response to nutrient deprivation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

Saccharomyces cerevisiae whi2Delta cells are unable to halt cell division in response to nutrient limitation and are sensitive to a wide variety of stresses. A synthetic lethal screen resulted in the isolation of siw mutants that had a phenotype similar to that of whi2Delta. Among these were mutations affecting SIW14, FEN2, SLT2, and THR4. Fluid-phase endocytosis is severely reduced or abolished in whi2Delta, siw14Delta, fen2Delta, and thr4Delta mutants. Furthermore, whi2Delta and siw14Delta mutants produce large actin clumps in stationary phase similar to those seen in prk1Delta ark1Delta mutants defective in protein kinases that regulate the actin cytoskeleton. Overexpression of SIW14 in a prk1Delta strain resulted in a loss of cortical actin patches and cables and was lethal. Overexpression of SIW14 also rescued the caffeine sensitivity of the slt2 mutant isolated in the screen, but this was not due to alteration of the phosphorylation state of Slt2. These observations suggest that endocytosis and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton are required for the proper response to nutrient limitation. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that rvs161Delta, sla1Delta, sla2Delta, vrp1Delta, ypt51Delta, ypt52Delta, and end3Delta mutations, which disrupt the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and/or reduce endocytosis, have a phenotype similar to that of whi2Delta mutants. PMID:15020461

Care, Alison; Vousden, Katherine A; Binley, Katie M; Radcliffe, Pippa; Trevethick, Janet; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Sudbery, Peter E

2004-01-01

191

The effects of oil sands wastewater on fish resulting from exposure to sub-lethal concentrations  

SciTech Connect

Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of oil sands wastewater in flow through laboratory experiments as well as to artificial ponds containing sub-lethal concentrations of tailings pond water and fine tails in order to study the viability of the wet landscape remediation option. Large (200--300 g) fish were used for all the exposures in this preliminary study and the following data were collected: blood cell counts, sex hormone concentrations, sexual maturation, stress protein concentrations, PAH-metabolites in bile, condition factors, liver somatic indices, mixed function oxygenase induction, PAHs in muscle, external condition and the condition of internal organs. The data obtained from this study revealed no adverse effects upon fish during extended field exposures. Given similar exposure conditions in the release waters of a wet landscape reclamation, the data suggest that there may be no adverse effects upon fish, however, longer term studies, other indicator organisms and additional chronic tests should be conducted.

Birkholz, D.A. [Enviro-Test Labs., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Goudey, J.S.; Balch, G.C. [HydroQual Labs. Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Nelson, L.R. [Alberta Department of Energy, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Oil Sands and Research Division; Gulley, J. [Suncor Inc., Fort McMurray, Alberta (Canada); MacKinnon, M. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

1995-12-31

192

Expression of Nlrp1b Inflammasome Components in Human Fibroblasts Confers Susceptibility to Anthrax Lethal Toxin ?  

PubMed Central

Anthrax lethal toxin causes macrophages and dendritic cells from some mouse strains to undergo caspase-1-dependent cell death. Central to this process is the NOD-like receptor Nlrp1b (Nalp1b), which detects intoxication and then self-associates to form a complex, termed an inflammasome, that is capable of activating the procaspase-1 zymogen. The nature of the signal detected directly by Nlrp1b is not known, and the mechanisms of inflammasome assembly are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that transfection of human fibroblasts with plasmids encoding murine Nlrp1b and procaspase-1 was sufficient to confer susceptibility to lethal toxin-mediated death on the cells. As has been observed in murine macrophages, the enzymatic activities of lethal toxin and the proteasome were both required for activation of the Nlrp1b inflammasome and this activation led to prointerleukin-1? processing. Release of interleukin-1? from cells was not dependent on cell lysis, as its secretion was not affected by an osmoprotectant that prevented the appearance of lactate dehydrogenase in the culture medium. We generated constitutively active mutants of Nlrp1b by making amino-terminal deletions to the protein and observed that the ability to activate procaspase-1 was dependent on the CARD domain, which bound procaspase-1, and a region adjacent to the CARD domain that promoted self-association. Our results demonstrate that lethal toxin can activate Nlrp1b in a nonmyeloid cell line and are consistent with work that suggests that activation induces proximity of procaspase-1. PMID:19651869

Liao, Kuo-Chieh; Mogridge, Jeremy

2009-01-01

193

Lethal mobilization of DDT by cowbirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study is an experimental demonstration of lethal mobilization of DDT by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and the effects of food deprivation on the distribution and loss of DDT, DDD, and DDE. The principal experimental group consisted of 20 birds fed a dietary dosage of 100 ppm of DDT for 13 days. After 2 days of full rations of untreated food, they were subjected to food restriction. Food was reduced to 43 percent of normal. Seven of the 20 birds died within 4 days. No birds died in the three control groups, treated as follows: ( 1 ) 20 birds fed 100 ppm DDT for 13 days and full rations of untreated food thereafter, (2) 20 birds fed only untreated food but subjected to food restriction, and (3) 20 birds fed full rations of untreated food throughout. In a pilot study, birds were fed 100, 200, or 300 ppm of DDT and subjected to two periods of food restriction, the first of these immediately after dosage ceased and the second 4 months later. DDT-dosed birds from all dosage levels died in each period of food restriction. Before the weight loss that accompanied food restriction, the brains of DDT-dosed birds had concentrations of DDT and DDD that were far below the lethal range. Concentrations increased rapidly to lethal levels. In these birds, DDT in carcasses decreased while DDD increased. DDT-dosed birds that died during food restriction lost 16 percent of their total body burden of DDT + DDD + DDE, 21 percent of their weight, and 81 percent of their fat. The DDT-dosed birds that were subjected to food restriction but survived lost a significantly greater proportion of their body burden of residues than similarly dosed birds not subjected to weight loss. Brain levels of DDT and DDD in birds that died during food restriction soon after dosage did not differ significantly from brain levels of birds that died in a period of food restriction 4 months after dosage. Concentrations of DDE were significantly higher in the latter group, although they were lower than concentrations considered to be lethal. In contrast, carcass levels of DDT and DDD were significantly lower, and DDE was only slightly higher, in the birds that died in the second period of food restriction. It is concluded that stored DDT residues present a hazard to birds, which utilize stored fat during periods of stress due to reproduction, cold weather, disease, injury, limited food supply, or migration.

Van Velzen, A.C.; Stiles, W.B.; Stickel, L.F.

1972-01-01

194

Lethal congenital contracture syndrome (LCCS) and other lethal arthrogryposes in Finland--an epidemiological study.  

PubMed

Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by multiple contractures with an estimated frequency of 1 in 3,000 births. With improving diagnostic methods, increasing numbers of fetuses with arthrogryposis are found. The pathogenetic mechanisms are relatively well known but the epidemiology and genetics of the prenatally lethal forms of arthrogryposis are less well known. In this study we collected all cases of a multiple contractures diagnosed in Finland during 1987-2002 including live born infants, stillbirths, and terminated pregnancies. Ninety-two cases of 214 suffered intrauterine demise (68 selective pregnancy terminations and 24 stillbirths) and 58 died in infancy. In 141 out of these cases the diagnosis could be included within lethal arthrogryposes, with a prevalence of 1 in 6,985 (1.43/10,000) births. Of these, 59 had spinal cord pathology at autopsy and thus were of neurogenic origin. Thirty-nine cases had lethal congenital contracture syndrome (LCCS) clinically characterized by total immobility of the fetus at all ultrasound examinations (12 weeks or later), multiple joint contractures in both upper and lower limbs, hydrops, and fetal death before the 32nd week of pregnancy. LCCS is noted as a unique Finnish disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 25,250 (0.40/10,000) births and is a major cause of lethal arthrogryposis in Finland. PMID:16892327

Pakkasjärvi, Niklas; Ritvanen, Annukka; Herva, Riitta; Peltonen, Leena; Kestilä, Marjo; Ignatius, Jaakko

2006-09-01

195

Lethal mutagenesis in a structured environment  

PubMed Central

We analyze how lethal mutagenesis operates in a compartmentalized host. We assume that different compartments receive different amounts of mutagen and that virions can migrate among compartments. We address two main questions: 1. To what extent can refugia, i.e., compartments that receive little mutagen, prevent extinction? 2. Does migration among compartments limit the effectiveness of refugia? We find that if there is little migration, extinction has to be achieved separately in all compartments. In this case, the total dose of mutagen administered to the host needs to be so high that the mutagen is effective even in the refugia. By contrast, if migration is extensive, then lethal mutagenesis is effective as long as the average growth in all compartments is reduced to below replacement levels. The effective-ness of migration is governed by the ratio of virion replication and death rates, R0. The smaller R0, the less migration is necessary to neutralize refugia and the less mutagen is necessary to achieve extinction at high migration rates. PMID:19627995

Steinmeyer, Shelby H.; Wilke, Claus O.

2010-01-01

196

Deletion of the last five C-terminal amino acid residues of connexin43 leads to lethal ventricular arrhythmias in mice without affecting coupling via gap junction channels  

PubMed Central

The cardiac intercalated disc harbors mechanical and electrical junctions as well as ion channel complexes mediating propagation of electrical impulses. Cardiac connexin43 (Cx43) co-localizes and interacts with several of the proteins located at intercalated discs in the ventricular myocardium. We have generated conditional Cx43D378stop mice lacking the last five C-terminal amino acid residues, representing a binding motif for zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1), and investigated the functional consequences of this mutation on cardiac physiology and morphology. Newborn and adult homozygous Cx43D378stop mice displayed markedly impaired and heterogeneous cardiac electrical activation properties and died from severe ventricular arrhythmias. Cx43 and ZO-1 were co-localized at intercalated discs in Cx43D378stop hearts, and the Cx43D378stop gap junction channels showed normal coupling properties. Patch clamp analyses of isolated adult Cx43D378stop cardiomyocytes revealed a significant decrease in sodium and potassium current densities. Furthermore, we also observed a significant loss of Nav1.5 protein from intercalated discs in Cx43D378stop hearts. The phenotypic lethality of the Cx43D378stop mutation was very similar to the one previously reported for adult Cx43 deficient (Cx43KO) mice. Yet, in contrast to Cx43KO mice, the Cx43 gap junction channel was still functional in the Cx43D378stop mutant. We conclude that the lethality of Cx43D378stop mice is independent of the loss of gap junctional intercellular communication, but most likely results from impaired cardiac sodium and potassium currents. The Cx43D378stop mice reveal for the first time that Cx43 dependent arrhythmias can develop by mechanisms other than impairment of gap junction channel function. PMID:23558439

Lübkemeier, Indra; Requardt, Robert Pascal; Lin, Xianming; Sasse, Philipp; Andrié, René; Schrickel, Jan Wilko; Chkourko, Halina; Bukauskas, Feliksas F.; Kim, Jung-Sun; Frank, Marina; Malan, Daniela; Zhang, Jiong; Wirth, Angela; Dobrowolski, Radoslaw; Mohler, Peter J.; Offermanns, Stefan; Fleischmann, Bernd K.; Delmar, Mario

2013-01-01

197

Deletion of the last five C-terminal amino acid residues of connexin43 leads to lethal ventricular arrhythmias in mice without affecting coupling via gap junction channels.  

PubMed

The cardiac intercalated disc harbors mechanical and electrical junctions as well as ion channel complexes mediating propagation of electrical impulses. Cardiac connexin43 (Cx43) co-localizes and interacts with several of the proteins located at intercalated discs in the ventricular myocardium. We have generated conditional Cx43D378stop mice lacking the last five C-terminal amino acid residues, representing a binding motif for zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1), and investigated the functional consequences of this mutation on cardiac physiology and morphology. Newborn and adult homozygous Cx43D378stop mice displayed markedly impaired and heterogeneous cardiac electrical activation properties and died from severe ventricular arrhythmias. Cx43 and ZO-1 were co-localized at intercalated discs in Cx43D378stop hearts, and the Cx43D378stop gap junction channels showed normal coupling properties. Patch clamp analyses of isolated adult Cx43D378stop cardiomyocytes revealed a significant decrease in sodium and potassium current densities. Furthermore, we also observed a significant loss of Nav1.5 protein from intercalated discs in Cx43D378stop hearts. The phenotypic lethality of the Cx43D378stop mutation was very similar to the one previously reported for adult Cx43 deficient (Cx43KO) mice. Yet, in contrast to Cx43KO mice, the Cx43 gap junction channel was still functional in the Cx43D378stop mutant. We conclude that the lethality of Cx43D378stop mice is independent of the loss of gap junctional intercellular communication, but most likely results from impaired cardiac sodium and potassium currents. The Cx43D378stop mice reveal for the first time that Cx43 dependent arrhythmias can develop by mechanisms other than impairment of gap junction channel function. PMID:23558439

Lübkemeier, Indra; Requardt, Robert Pascal; Lin, Xianming; Sasse, Philipp; Andrié, René; Schrickel, Jan Wilko; Chkourko, Halina; Bukauskas, Feliksas F; Kim, Jung-Sun; Frank, Marina; Malan, Daniela; Zhang, Jiong; Wirth, Angela; Dobrowolski, Radoslaw; Mohler, Peter J; Offermanns, Stefan; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Delmar, Mario; Willecke, Klaus

2013-05-01

198

Rest mutant zebrafish swim erratically and display atypical spatial preferences.  

PubMed

The Rest/Nrsf transcriptional repressor modulates expression of a large set of neural specific genes. Many of these target genes have well characterized roles in nervous system processes including development, plasticity and synaptogenesis. However, the impact of Rest-mediated transcriptional regulation on behavior has been understudied due in part to the embryonic lethality of the mouse knockout. To investigate the requirement for Rest in behavior, we employed the zebrafish rest mutant to explore a range of behaviors in adults and larva. Adult rest mutants of both sexes showed abnormal behaviors in a novel environment including increased vertical swimming, erratic swimming patterns and a proclivity for the tank walls. Adult males also had diminished reproductive success. At 6 days post fertilization (dpf), rest mutant larva were hypoactive, but displayed normal evoked responses to light and sound stimuli. Overall, these results provide evidence that rest dysfunction produces atypical swimming patterns and preferences in adults, and reduced locomotor activity in larvae. This study provides the first behavioral analysis of rest mutants and reveals specific behaviors that are modulated by Rest. PMID:25712696

Moravec, Cara E; Li, Edward; Maaswinkel, Hans; Kritzer, Mary F; Weng, Wei; Sirotkin, Howard I

2015-05-01

199

Growth of an Escherichia coli mutant deficient in respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Escherichia coli mutant deficient in genes for heme biosynthesis grew in medium of initial pH 8 containing 1% tryptone and glucose under aerobic growth conditions, and its doubling time was approximately 60 min at 37°C. The growth rate was not increased under O2-limiting conditions. When the mutant was grown in medium of initial pH 6, growth stopped at the

Lui Futatsugi; Hiromi Saito; Tomohito Kakegawa; Hiroshi Kobayashi

1997-01-01

200

Sub-lethal glyphosate exposure alters flowering phenology and causes transient male-sterility in Brassica spp  

PubMed Central

Background Herbicide resistance in weedy plant populations can develop through different mechanisms such as gene flow of herbicide resistance transgenes from crop species into compatible weedy species or by natural evolution of herbicide resistance or tolerance following selection pressure. Results from our previous studies suggest that sub-lethal levels of the herbicide glyphosate can alter the pattern of gene flow between glyphosate resistant Canola®, Brassica napus, and glyphosate sensitive varieties of B. napus and B. rapa. The objectives of this study were to examine the phenological and developmental changes that occur in Brassica crop and weed species following sub-lethal doses of the herbicides glyphosate and glufosinate. We examined several vegetative and reproductive traits of potted plants under greenhouse conditions, treated with sub-lethal herbicide sprays. Results Our results indicate that exposure of Brassica spp. to a sub-lethal dose of glyphosate results in altering flowering phenology and reproductive function. Flowering of all sensitive species was significantly delayed and reproductive function, specifically male fertility, was suppressed. Higher dosage levels typically contributed to an increase in the magnitude of phenotypic changes. Conclusions These results demonstrate that Brassica spp. plants that are exposed to sub-lethal doses of glyphosate could be subject to very different pollination patterns and an altered pattern of gene flow that would result from changes in the overlap of flowering phenology between species. Implications include the potential for increased glyphosate resistance evolution and spread in weedy communities exposed to sub-lethal glyphosate. PMID:24655547

2014-01-01

201

Isolation and Characterization of Sex-Linked Female-Sterile Mutants in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER with Special Attention to Eggshell Mutants  

PubMed Central

To study genes that function mainly or exclusively during oogenesis, we have isolated and analyzed female-sterile mutations, with special emphasis on those that affect eggshell formation. Following treatment that induced 61 to 66% lethals, 8.1% of the 1071 X chromosomes tested carried recessive female sterility mutations (87 isolates), and 8.0% carried partial female-sterile mutations (86 isolates), respectively. In addition, three dominant female steriles were recovered. Some of the mutants had very low fecundity, and others laid morphologically normal eggs that failed to develop. A third category included 29 mutants that laid eggs with morphological abnormalities: 26 were female steriles, two were partial female steriles and one was fertile. Mutants of this third category were characterized in some detail and compared with 40 previously isolated mutants that laid similarly abnormal eggs. Approximately 28–31 complementation groups with morphological abnormalities were detected, some of which were large allelic series (11, 9, 7, 6 and 5 alleles). Twenty-four groups were mapped genetically or cytogenetically, and 21 were partially characterized by ultrastructural and biochemical procedures. Of the latter, one group showed clear deficiency of yolk proteins, and nine showed prominent ultrastructural defects in the chorion (at least eight accompanied by deficiencies in characterized chorion proteins). At least six groups with clear-cut effects were found at loci not previously identified with known chorion structural genes. PMID:17246182

Komitopoulou, Katia; Gans, Madeleine; Margaritis, Lukas H.; Kafatos, Fotis C.; Masson, Michele

1983-01-01

202

A novel histone H4 mutant defective in nuclear division and mitotic chromosome transmission.  

PubMed Central

The histone proteins are essential for the assembly and function of th e eukaryotic chromosome. Here we report the first isolation of a temperature-sensitive lethal histone H4 mutant defective in mitotic chromosome transmission Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mutant requires two amino acid substitutions in histone H4: a lethal Thr-to-Ile change at position 82, which lies within one of the DNA-binding surfaces of the protein, and a substitution of Ala to Val at position 89 that is an intragenic suppressor. Genetic and biochemical evidence shows that the mutant histone H4 is temperature sensitive for function but not for synthesis, deposition, or stability. The chromatin structure of 2 micrometer circle minichromosomes is temperature sensitive in vivo, consistent with a defect in H4-DNA interactions. The mutant also has defects in transcription, displaying weak Spt- phenotypes. At the restrictive temperature, mutant cells arrest in the cell cycle at nuclear division, with a large bud, a single nucleus with 2C DNA content, and a short bipolar spindle. At semipermissive temperatures, the frequency of chromosome loss is elevated 60-fold in the mutant while DNA recombination frequencies are unaffected. High-copy CSE4, encoding an H3 variant related to the mammalian CENP-A kinetochore antigen, was found to suppress the temperature sensitivity of the mutant without suppressing the Spt- transcription defect. These genetic, biochemical, and phenotypic results indicate that this novel histone H4 mutant defines one or more chromatin-dependent steps in chromosome segregation. PMID:8622646

Smith, M M; Yang, P; Santisteban, M S; Boone, P W; Goldstein, A T; Megee, P C

1996-01-01

203

An exome sequencing strategy to diagnose lethal autosomal recessive disorders  

PubMed Central

Rare disorders resulting in prenatal or neonatal death are genetically heterogeneous. For some conditions, affected fetuses can be diagnosed by ultrasound scan, but this is not usually possible until mid-gestation. There is often limited fetal DNA available for investigation. We investigated a strategy for diagnosing autosomal recessive lethal disorders in non-consanguineous pedigrees with multiple affected fetuses. Exome sequencing was performed to identify genes where each parent is heterozygous for a rare non-synonymous-coding or splicing variant. Putative pathogenic variants were tested for cosegregation in affected fetuses and unaffected siblings. In eight couples of European ancestry, we found on average 1.75 genes (range 0–4) where both parents were heterozygous for rare potentially deleterious variants. A proof-of-principle study detected heterozygous DYNC2H1 variants in a couple whose five fetuses had short-rib polydactyly. Prospective analysis of two couples with multiple pregnancy terminations for fetal akinesia syndrome was performed and a diagnosis was obtained in both the families. The first couple were each heterozygous for a previously reported GLE1 variant, p.Arg569His or p.Val617Met; both were inherited by their two affected fetuses. The second couple were each heterozygous for a novel RYR1 variant, c.14130-2A>G or p.Ser3074Phe; both were inherited by their three affected fetuses but not by their unaffected child. Biallelic GLE1 and RYR1 disease-causing variants have been described in other cases with fetal akinesia syndrome. We conclude that exome sequencing of parental samples can be an effective tool for diagnosing lethal recessive disorders in outbred couples. This permits early prenatal diagnosis in future pregnancies. PMID:24961629

Ellard, Sian; Kivuva, Emma; Turnpenny, Peter; Stals, Karen; Johnson, Matthew; Xie, Weijia; Caswell, Richard; Lango Allen, Hana

2015-01-01

204

Lethal fish hook attachment - An unusual occurrence.  

PubMed

A 39-year-old fisherman is reported who was dragged into the water from a boat after he became entangled in fishing line. His death was attributed to salt water drowning. At autopsy the cause of death was confirmed and the mechanism of the lethal event elucidated. Specifically, a large fish hook attached to line was embedded in his right wrist. The hook had passed beneath flexor tendons and had firmly attached him to fishing line that was being dropped from the vessel. There were no other significant injuries or underlying diseases present. This case demonstrates another rare situation in the commercial fishing industry that may result in a victim being dragged from a boat and drowned. PMID:23357398

Byard, Roger W

2013-02-01

205

Differentiation of lethal and non lethal prostate cancer: PSA and PSA isoforms and kinetics  

PubMed Central

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer has led to a decrease in cancer mortality. However, the high prevalence of low-grade prostate cancer and its long natural history, competing causes of death in older men and treatment patterns of prostate cancer, have led to dramatic overtreatment of the disease. Improved markers of prostate cancer lethality are needed to reduce the overtreatment of prostate cancer that leads to a reduced quality of life without extending life for a high proportion of men. The PSA level prior to treatment is routinely used in multivariable models to predict prostate cancer aggressiveness. PSA isoforms and PSA kinetics have been associated with more aggressive phenotypes, but are not routinely employed as part of prediction tools prior to treatment. PSA kinetics is a valuable marker of lethality post treatment and routinely used in determining the need for salvage therapy. PMID:22343493

Ballentine Carter, H

2012-01-01

206

Vitellogenin Receptor Mutation Leads to the Oogenesis Mutant Phenotype “scanty vitellin” of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori*  

PubMed Central

In insects, the vitellogenin receptor (VgR) mediates the uptake of vitellogenin (Vg) from the hemolymph by developing oocytes. The oogenesis mutant scanty vitellin (vit) of Bombyx mori (Bm) lacks vitellin and 30-kDa proteins, but B. mori egg-specific protein and BmVg are normal. The vit eggs are white and smaller compared with the pale yellow eggs of the wild type and are embryonic lethal. This study found that a mutation in the B. mori VgR gene (BmVgR) is responsible for the vit phenotype. We cloned the cDNA sequences encoding WT and vit BmVgR. The functional domains of BmVgR are similar to those of other low-density lipoprotein receptors. When compared with the wild type, a 235-bp genomic sequence in vit BmVgR is substituted for a 7-bp sequence. This mutation has resulted in a 50-amino acid deletion in the third Class B region of the first epidermal growth factor (EGF1) domain. BmVgR is expressed specifically in oocytes, and the transcriptional level is changed dramatically and consistently with maturation of oocytes during the previtellogenic periods. Linkage analysis confirmed that BmVgR is mutated in the vit mutant. The coimmunoprecipitation assay confirmed that mutated BmVgR is able to bind BmVg but that BmVg cannot be dissociated under acidic conditions. The WT phenotype determined by RNA interference was similar to that of the vit phenotype for nutritional deficiency, such as BmVg and 30-kDa proteins. These results showed that BmVgR has an important role in transporting proteins for egg formation and embryonic development in B. mori. PMID:23515308

Lin, Ying; Meng, Yan; Wang, Yan-Xia; Luo, Juan; Katsuma, Susumu; Yang, Cong-Wen; Banno, Yutaka; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Shimada, Toru; Xia, Qing-You

2013-01-01

207

Technical Report GITGVU0901 Responsibility and Lethality for Unmanned Systems  

E-print Network

a responsibility advisor in autonomous systems capable lethal target engagement. The ramifications surrounding demonstrated a relevant military scenario. 1. INTRODUCTION advent autonomous lethal robotic systems is underway it is simple matter time before autonomous engagements targets present battlefield. We written extensively

208

The Aspartate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase of Edwardsiella ictaluri and Its Use as Balanced-Lethal System in Fish Vaccinology  

PubMed Central

asdA mutants of Gram-negative bacteria have an obligate requirement for diaminopimelic acid (DAP), which is an essential constituent of the peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall of these organisms. In environments deprived of DAP, i.e., animal tissues, they will undergo lysis. Deletion of the asdA gene has previously been exploited to develop antibiotic-sensitive strains of live attenuated recombinant bacterial vaccines. Introduction of an Asd+ plasmid into a ?asdA mutant makes the bacterial strain plasmid-dependent. This dependence on the Asd+ plasmid vector creates a balanced-lethal complementation between the bacterial strain and the recombinant plasmid. E. ictaluri is an enteric Gram-negative fish pathogen that causes enteric septicemia in catfish. Because E. ictaluri is a nasal/oral invasive intracellular pathogen, this bacterium is a candidate to develop a bath/oral live recombinant attenuated Edwardsiella vaccine (RAEV) for the catfish aquaculture industry. As a first step to develop an antibiotic-sensitive RAEV strain, we characterized and deleted the E. ictaluri asdA gene. E. ictaluri ?asdA01 mutants exhibit an absolute requirement for DAP to grow. The asdA gene of E. ictaluri was complemented by the asdA gene from Salmonella. Several Asd+ expression vectors with different origins of replication were transformed into E. ictaluri ?asdA01. Asd+ vectors were compatible with the pEI1 and pEI2 E. ictaluri native plasmids. The balanced-lethal system was satisfactorily evaluated in vivo. Recombinant GFP, PspA, and LcrV proteins were synthesized by E. ictaluri ?asdA01 harboring Asd+ plasmids. Here we constructed a balanced-lethal system, which is the first step to develop an antibiotic-sensitive RAEV for the aquaculture industry. PMID:21209920

Santander, Javier; Xin, Wei; Yang, Zhao; Curtiss, Roy

2010-01-01

209

Chronic Exposure of Corals to Fine Sediments: Lethal and Sub-Lethal Impacts  

PubMed Central

Understanding the sedimentation and turbidity thresholds for corals is critical in assessing the potential impacts of dredging projects in tropical marine systems. In this study, we exposed two species of coral sampled from offshore locations to six levels of total suspended solids (TSS) for 16 weeks in the laboratory, including a 4 week recovery period. Dose-response relationships were developed to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal thresholds of sedimentation and turbidity for the corals. The sediment treatments affected the horizontal foliaceous species (Montipora aequituberculata) more than the upright branching species (Acropora millepora). The lowest sediment treatments that caused full colony mortality were 30 mg l?1 TSS (25 mg cm?2 day?1) for M. aequituberculata and 100 mg l?1 TSS (83 mg cm?2 day?1) for A. millepora after 12 weeks. Coral mortality generally took longer than 4 weeks and was closely related to sediment accumulation on the surface of the corals. While measurements of damage to photosystem II in the symbionts and reductions in lipid content and growth indicated sub-lethal responses in surviving corals, the most reliable predictor of coral mortality in this experiment was long-term sediment accumulation on coral tissue. PMID:22662225

Flores, Florita; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Smith, Luke D.; Cooper, Timothy F.; Abrego, David; Negri, Andrew P.

2012-01-01

210

Endothelin receptor B polymorphism associated with lethal white foal syndrome in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overo lethal white syndrome (OLWS) is an inherited syndrome of foals born to American Paint Horse parents of the overo coat-pattern\\u000a lineage. Affected foals are totally or almost totally white and die within days from complications due to intestinal aganglionosis.\\u000a Related conditions occur in humans and rodents in which mutations in the endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) gene are responsible.\\u000a EDNRB

Elizabeth M. Santschi; Amanda K. Purdy; Stephanie J. Valberg; Paul D. Vrotsos; Heather Kaese; James R. Mickelson

1998-01-01

211

Transient hematopoietic stem cell rescue using umbilical cord blood for a lethally irradiated nuclear accident victim  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed stem cell rescue and allogeneic skin transplantation on a lethally neutron-irradiated nuclear accident victim. HLA-DRB1 mismatched unrelated umbilical cord blood cells (2.08 × 107\\/kg recipient body weight) were transplanted to an 8–10 Gy equivalent neutron-irradiated patient because of a lack of a suitable bone marrow or peripheral blood donor. Pre-transplant conditioning consisted of anti-thymocyte ?-globulin alone, and GVHD

H Nagayama; K Misawa; H Tanaka; J Ooi; T Iseki; A Tojo; K Tani; Y Yamada; H Kodo; TA Takahashi; N Yamashita; S Shimazaki; S Asano

2002-01-01

212

Germline Transformation Using a Prune Cdna Rescues Prune/Killer of Prune Lethality and the Prune Eye Color Phenotype in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Null mutations in the prune gene of Drosophila melanogaster result in prune eye color due to reductions in red pigment accumulation. When one copy of the awd(Killer of prune) mutant gene is present in a prune background, the animals die. The cause of prune/Killer of prune lethality remains unknown. The genomic region characterized for the prune locus is transcriptionally active and complex, with multiple and overlapping transcripts. Despite the transcriptional complexity of the genomic region of prune, accumulated evidence suggests that the prune locus is small and consists of a single transcription unit, since every prune allele to date exhibits both prune eye color and prune/Killer of prune lethality. A functional prune product from a single, full-length cDNA was identified in this study that can rescue both the eye phenotype and prune/Killer of prune lethality. The DNA sequences of several mutant prune alleles along with Western blot analysis of mutant proteins provide convincing evidence that prune mutations are nulls, and that the cDNA identified in this study encodes the only product of the prune locus. PMID:8978047

Timmons, L.; Shearn, A.

1996-01-01

213

A strong loss-of-function mutation in RAN1 results in constitutive activation of the ethylene response pathway as well as a rosette-lethal phenotype  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recessive mutation was identified that constitutively activated the ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis and resulted in a rosette-lethal phenotype. Positional cloning of the gene corresponding to this mutation revealed that it was allelic to responsive to antagonist1 (ran1), a mutation that causes seedlings to respond in a positive manner to what is normally a competitive inhibitor of ethylene binding. In contrast to the previously identified ran1-1 and ran1-2 alleles that are morphologically indistinguishable from wild-type plants, this ran1-3 allele results in a rosette-lethal phenotype. The predicted protein encoded by the RAN1 gene is similar to the Wilson and Menkes disease proteins and yeast Ccc2 protein, which are integral membrane cation-transporting P-type ATPases involved in copper trafficking. Genetic epistasis analysis indicated that RAN1 acts upstream of mutations in the ethylene receptor gene family. However, the rosette-lethal phenotype of ran1-3 was not suppressed by ethylene-insensitive mutants, suggesting that this mutation also affects a non-ethylene-dependent pathway regulating cell expansion. The phenotype of ran1-3 mutants is similar to loss-of-function ethylene receptor mutants, suggesting that RAN1 may be required to form functional ethylene receptors. Furthermore, these results suggest that copper is required not only for ethylene binding but also for the signaling function of the ethylene receptors.

Woeste, K. E.; Kieber, J. J.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

2000-01-01

214

Selective targeting of KRAS-Mutant cells by miR-126 through repression of multiple genes essential for the survival of KRAS-Mutant cells  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of hundreds of genes. However, identifying the critical targets within a miRNA-regulated gene network is challenging. One approach is to identify miRNAs that exert a context-dependent effect, followed by expression profiling to determine how specific targets contribute to this selective effect. In this study, we performed miRNA mimic screens in isogenic KRAS-Wild-type (WT) and KRAS-Mutant colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines to identify miRNAs selectively targeting KRAS-Mutant cells. One of the miRNAs we identified as a selective inhibitor of the survival of multiple KRAS-Mutant CRC lines was miR-126. In KRAS-Mutant cells, miR-126 over-expression increased the G1 compartment, inhibited clonogenicity and tumorigenicity, while exerting no effect on KRAS-WT cells. Unexpectedly, the miR-126-regulated transcriptome of KRAS-WT and KRAS-Mutant cells showed no significant differences. However, by analyzing the overlap between miR-126 targets with the synthetic lethal genes identified by RNAi in KRAS-Mutant cells, we identified and validated a subset of miR-126-regulated genes selectively required for the survival and clonogenicity of KRAS-Mutant cells. Our strategy therefore identified critical target genes within the miR-126-regulated gene network. We propose that the selective effect of miR-126 on KRAS-Mutant cells could be utilized for the development of targeted therapy for KRAS mutant tumors. PMID:25245095

Hara, Toshifumi; Jones, Matthew F.; Subramanian, Murugan; Li, Xiao Ling; Ou, Oliver; Zhu, Yuelin; Yang, Yuan; Wakefield, Lalage M.; Hussain, S. Perwez; Gaedcke, Jochen; Ried, Thomas; Luo, Ji; Caplen, Natasha J.; Lal, Ashish

2014-01-01

215

A comparative study of proliferative nodules and lethal melanomas in congenital nevi from children.  

PubMed

Differentiating proliferative nodules (PNs) from melanomas arising in congenital nevi (CN) is a considerable challenge for dermatopathologists. Most of the specimens dermatopathologists assess that deal with this differential diagnosis involve proliferations of melanocytes arising in the dermis. In this study, we compare the clinical, histologic, and molecular findings of these 2 conditions. In our database, we found 22 examples of PNs arising in the dermis of CN and 2 cases of lethal melanomas arising from the dermis/epidermis of CN of children. Importantly, we found that among dermal melanocytic proliferations arising from CN in children, PNs are far more common than lethal melanomas. Clinically, multiplicity of lesions favored a diagnosis of PNs, whereas ulceration was infrequent in PNs compared with lethal melanomas. Histologically, PNs showed several distinct patterns including expansile nodules of epithelioid melanocytes with mitotic counts lower than that seen in the melanomas (1.67 vs. 12.5 mitoses/mm), a small round blue cell pattern often highly mitotically active, neurocristic-like, blue nevus-like, a nevoid melanoma-like pattern, or an undifferentiated spindle cell pattern. The lethal melanomas both featured expansile nodules of epithelioid melanocytes with high mitotic counts (range, 5 to 20 mitoses/mm) and an ulcerated overlying epidermis. At the molecular level, the PNs showed mostly whole chromosomal copy number aberrations, which in some cases were accompanied by rare partial chromosomal aberrations, whereas both lethal melanomas showed highly elevated copy number aberrations involving 6p25 without gains of the long arm of chromosome 6. PMID:25517953

Yélamos, Oriol; Arva, Nicoleta C; Obregon, Roxana; Yazdan, Pedram; Wagner, Annette; Guitart, Joan; Gerami, Pedram

2015-03-01

216

Sirenomelia Phenotype in Bmp7;Shh Compound Mutants: A Novel Experimental Model for Studies of Caudal Body Malformations  

PubMed Central

Sirenomelia is a severe congenital malformation of the lower body characterized by the fusion of the legs into a single lower limb. This striking external phenotype consistently associates severe visceral abnormalities, most commonly of the kidneys, intestine, and genitalia that generally make the condition lethal. Although the causes of sirenomelia remain unknown, clinical studies have yielded two major hypotheses: i) a primary defect in the generation of caudal mesoderm, ii) a primary vascular defect that leaves the caudal part of the embryo hypoperfused. Interestingly, Sirenomelia has been shown to have a genetic basis in mice, and although it has been considered a sporadic condition in humans, recently some possible familial cases have been reported. Here, we report that the removal of one or both functional alleles of Shh from the Bmp7-null background leads to a sirenomelia phenotype that faithfully replicates the constellation of external and internal malformations, typical of the human condition. These mutants represent an invaluable model in which we have analyzed the pathogenesis of sirenomelia. We show that the signaling defect predominantly impacts the morphogenesis of the hindgut and the development of the caudal end of the dorsal aortas. The deficient formation of ventral midline structures, including the interlimb mesoderm caudal to the umbilicus, leads to the approximation and merging of the hindlimb fields. Our study provides new insights for the understanding of the mechanisms resulting in caudal body malformations, including sirenomelia. PMID:23028704

Garrido-Allepuz, Carlos; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Ros, Maria A.

2012-01-01

217

Collapsin response mediator protein-2 phosphorylation promotes the reversible retraction of oligodendrocyte processes in response to non-lethal oxidative stress  

PubMed Central

The extension of processes of oligodendrocyte (OLG) and their precursor cells (OPCs) are crucial for migration, axonal contact and myelination. Here we show that a non-lethal oxidative stress induced by 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) elicited a rapid shortening of processes (~24%) in primary OLGs and in OLN-93 cells (~36%) as compared to vehicle-exposed cells. This was reversible and prevented by antioxidants. Proteomics of OLG lysates with and without 3-NP treatment yielded collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) as a candidate effector molecule. Inhibition of rho kinase (ROCK) was sufficient to prevent process retraction in both OLGs and OLN-93 cells. Oxidative stress increased phosphorylation of CRMP-2 at T555 that was completely prevented by Y27632. Moreover, transfection of OLN-93 cells with the mutant CRMP-2 T555A which cannot be phosphorylated by ROCK, prevented process shortening induced by 3-NP as compared to wild-type CRMP-2. Our results suggest a role for endogenous reactive oxygen species in a pathway that regulates OLG process extension. The vulnerability of late myelinated neurons in the adult brain and the presence of white matter pathology in human dementias warrant the study of this oligodendroglial pathway in the early stages of neurodegenerative conditions characterized by oxidative stress. PMID:22443207

Fernández-Gamba, Agata; Leal, María Celeste; Maarouf, Chera L.; Richter-Landsberg, Christiane; Wu, Terence; Morelli, Laura; Roher, Alex E.; Castaño, Eduardo M.

2012-01-01

218

Bloomsbury report on mouse embryo phenotyping: recommendations from the IMPC workshop on embryonic lethal screening  

PubMed Central

Identifying genes that are important for embryo development is a crucial first step towards understanding their many functions in driving the ordered growth, differentiation and organogenesis of embryos. It can also shed light on the origins of developmental disease and congenital abnormalities. Current international efforts to examine gene function in the mouse provide a unique opportunity to pinpoint genes that are involved in embryogenesis, owing to the emergence of embryonic lethal knockout mutants. Through internationally coordinated efforts, the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) has generated a public resource of mouse knockout strains and, in April 2012, the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC), supported by the EU InfraCoMP programme, convened a workshop to discuss developing a phenotyping pipeline for the investigation of embryonic lethal knockout lines. This workshop brought together over 100 scientists, from 13 countries, who are working in the academic and commercial research sectors, including experts and opinion leaders in the fields of embryology, animal imaging, data capture, quality control and annotation, high-throughput mouse production, phenotyping, and reporter gene analysis. This article summarises the outcome of the workshop, including (1) the vital scientific importance of phenotyping embryonic lethal mouse strains for basic and translational research; (2) a common framework to harmonise international efforts within this context; (3) the types of phenotyping that are likely to be most appropriate for systematic use, with a focus on 3D embryo imaging; (4) the importance of centralising data in a standardised form to facilitate data mining; and (5) the development of online tools to allow open access to and dissemination of the phenotyping data. PMID:23519032

Adams, David; Baldock, Richard; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Copp, Andrew J.; Dickinson, Mary; Greene, Nicholas D. E.; Henkelman, Mark; Justice, Monica; Mohun, Timothy; Murray, Stephen A.; Pauws, Erwin; Raess, Michael; Rossant, Janet; Weaver, Tom; West, David

2013-01-01

219

ECB deacylase mutants  

DOEpatents

A method for in vitro mutagenesis and recombination of polynucleotide sequences based on polymerase-catalyzed extension of primer oligonucleotides is disclosed. The method involves priming template polynucleotide(s) with random-sequences or defined-sequence primers to generate a pool of short DNA fragments with a low level of point mutations. The DNA fragments are subjected to denaturization followed by annealing and further enzyme-catalyzed DNA polymerization. This procedure is repeated a sufficient number of times to produce full-length genes which comprise mutants of the original template polynucleotides. These genes can be further amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a vector for expression of the encoded proteins.

Arnold, Frances H. (Pasadena, CA); Shao, Zhixin (Penzberg, DE); Zhao, Huimin (San Diego, CA); Giver, Lorraine J. (Sunnyvale, CA)

2002-01-01

220

40 CFR 798.5275 - Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster. 798.5275 Section...Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster. (a) Purpose. ...recessive lethal (SLRL) test using Drosophila melanogaster detects the...

2011-07-01

221

40 CFR 798.5275 - Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster. 798.5275 Section...Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster. (a) Purpose. ...recessive lethal (SLRL) test using Drosophila melanogaster detects the...

2010-07-01

222

40 CFR 798.5275 - Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster. 798.5275 Section...Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster. (a) Purpose. ...recessive lethal (SLRL) test using Drosophila melanogaster detects the...

2013-07-01

223

40 CFR 798.5275 - Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster. 798.5275 Section...Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster. (a) Purpose. ...recessive lethal (SLRL) test using Drosophila melanogaster detects the...

2012-07-01

224

40 CFR 798.5275 - Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster. 798.5275 Section...Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster. (a) Purpose. ...recessive lethal (SLRL) test using Drosophila melanogaster detects the...

2014-07-01

225

[Analysis of dominant and recessive sex-linked lethal mutations induced by low radiation doses in genetically different strains of Drosophila melanogaster w and MS].  

PubMed

Frequencies of induced recessive sex-linked lethal mutations (RSLLM) and dominant lethal mutations (DLM) were analyzed in genetically different Drosophila melanogaster strains w and ms after their exposure to radiation on radioactive soil in laboratory conditions. The RSLLM test applied to males after their 14-day radiation exposure yielded controversial results. An analysis of induced and spontaneous DLM demonstrated an increase in the frequency of early embryonic lethal mutations in the experiment (radiation exposure) in comparison with the control (spontaneous mutation rate) in both strains examined. PMID:8001805

Aslanian, M M; Kim, A I; Magomedova, M A; Fatkulbaianova, N L

1994-09-01

226

ZBTB42 mutation defines a novel lethal congenital contracture syndrome (LCCS6).  

PubMed

Lethal congenital contracture syndrome (LCCS) is a lethal autosomal recessive form of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC). LCCS is genetically heterogeneous with mutations in five genes identified to date, all with a role in the innervation or contractile apparatus of skeletal muscles. In a consanguineous Saudi family with multiple stillbirths presenting with LCCS, we excluded linkage to all known LCCS loci and combined autozygome analysis and whole-exome sequencing to identify a novel homozygous variant in ZBTB42, which had been shown to be enriched in skeletal muscles, especially at the neuromuscular junction. Knockdown experiments of zbtb42 in zebrafish consistently resulted in grossly abnormal skeletal muscle development and myofibrillar disorganization at the microscopic level. This severe muscular phenotype is successfully rescued with overexpression of the human wild-type ZBTB42 gene, but not with the mutant form of ZBTB42 that models the human missense change. Our data assign a novel muscular developmental phenotype to ZBTB42 in vertebrates and establish a new LCCS6 type caused by ZBTB42 mutation. PMID:25055871

Patel, Nisha; Smith, Laura L; Faqeih, Eissa; Mohamed, Jawahir; Gupta, Vandana A; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

2014-12-15

227

Human cathepsin L rescues the neurodegeneration and lethality incathepsin B/L double deficient mice  

SciTech Connect

Cathepsin B (CTSB) and cathepsin L (CTSL) are two widelyexpressed cysteine proteases thought to predominantly reside withinlysosomes. Functional analysis of CTSL in humans is complicated by theexistence of two CTSL-like homologues (CTSL and CTSL2), in contrast tomice which contain only one CTSL enzyme. Thus transgenic expression ofhuman CTSL in CTSL deficient mice provides an opportunity to study the invivo functions of this human protease without interference by its highlyrelated homologue. While mice with single gene deficiencies for murineCTSB or CTSL survive without apparent neuromuscular impairment, murineCTSB/CTSL double deficient mice display degeneration of cerebellarPurkinje cells and neurons of the cerebral cortex, resulting in severehypotrophy, motility defects, and lethality during their third to fourthweek of life. Here we show that expression of human CTSL through agenomic transgene results in widespread expression of human CTSL in themouse which is capable of rescuing the lethality found in CTSB/CTSLdouble-deficient animals. Human CTSL is expressed in the brain of thesecompound mutants predominantly in neurons of the cerebral cortex and inPurkinje cells of the cerebellum, where it appears to prevent neuronalcell death.

Sevenich, Lisa; Pennacchio, Len A.; Peters, Christoph; Reinheckel, Thomas

2006-01-09

228

Density gradient enrichment of Escherichia coli lpxL mutants.  

PubMed

We previously described enrichment of conditional Escherichia coli msbA mutants defective in lipopolysaccharide export using Ludox density gradients (Doerrler WT (2007) Appl Environ Microbiol 73; 7992-7996). Here, we use this approach to isolate and characterize temperature-sensitive lpxL mutants. LpxL is a late acyltransferase of the pathway of lipid A biosynthesis (The Raetz Pathway). Sequencing the lpxL gene from the mutants revealed the presence of both missense and nonsense mutations. The missense mutations include several in close proximity to the enzyme's active site or conserved residues (E137K, H132Y, G168D). These data demonstrate that Ludox gradients can be used to efficiently isolate conditional E. coli mutants with defects in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and provide insight into the enzymatic mechanism of LpxL. PMID:22554681

Six, David A; Lambert, Bliss; Raetz, Christian R H; Doerrler, William T

2012-07-01

229

Human cooperation by lethal group competition  

PubMed Central

Why humans are prone to cooperate puzzles biologists, psychologists and economists alike. Between-group conflict has been hypothesized to drive within-group cooperation. However, such conflicts did not have lasting effects in laboratory experiments, because they were about luxury goods, not needed for survival (“looting”). Here, we find within-group cooperation to last when between-group conflict is implemented as “all-out war” (eliminating the weakest groups). Human subjects invested in helping group members to avoid having the lowest collective pay-off, whereas they failed to cooperate in control treatments with random group elimination or with no subdivision in groups. When the game was repeated, experience was found to promote helping. Thus, not within-group interactions alone, not random group elimination, but pay-off-dependent group elimination was found to drive within-group cooperation in our experiment. We suggest that some forms of human cooperation are maintained by multi-level selection: reciprocity within groups and lethal competition among groups acting together. PMID:23459158

Egas, Martijn; Kats, Ralph; van der Sar, Xander; Reuben, Ernesto; Sabelis, Maurice W.

2013-01-01

230

Tumor clone dynamics in lethal prostate cancer.  

PubMed

It is unclear whether a single clone metastasizes and remains dominant over the course of lethal prostate cancer. We describe the clonal architectural heterogeneity at different stages of disease progression by sequencing serial plasma and tumor samples from 16 ERG-positive patients. By characterizing the clonality of commonly occurring deletions at 21q22, 8p21, and 10q23, we identified multiple independent clones in metastatic disease that are differentially represented in tissue and circulation. To exemplify the clinical utility of our studies, we then showed a temporal association between clinical progression and emergence of androgen receptor (AR) mutations activated by glucocorticoids in about 20% of patients progressing on abiraterone and prednisolone or dexamethasone. Resistant clones showed a complex dynamic with temporal and spatial heterogeneity, suggesting distinct mechanisms of resistance at different sites that emerged and regressed depending on treatment selection pressure. This introduces a management paradigm requiring sequential monitoring of advanced prostate cancer patients with plasma and tumor biopsies to ensure early discontinuation of agents when they become potential disease drivers. PMID:25232177

Carreira, Suzanne; Romanel, Alessandro; Goodall, Jane; Grist, Emily; Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Miranda, Susana; Prandi, Davide; Lorente, David; Frenel, Jean-Sebastien; Pezaro, Carmel; Omlin, Aurelius; Rodrigues, Daniel Nava; Flohr, Penelope; Tunariu, Nina; S de Bono, Johann; Demichelis, Francesca; Attard, Gerhardt

2014-09-17

231

Lethal body burdens of polar narcotics: Chlorophenols  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the present study was to measure in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) the lethal body burden (LBB) of three chlorophenols that are known as polar narcotic chemicals. The LBBs of the chlorophenols were compared to LBBs of nonpolar narcotic chemicals to consider if the two classes of narcotic chemicals differ on a body burden level. The LBB of the most acidic chlorophenol was measured at two different levels of pH exposure to determine the influence of the degree of ionization on the magnitude of the LBB. Both n-octanol/water partition coefficients and n-hexane/water partition coefficients of the chlorophenols were determined at different pH levels to consider the influence of ionization on the partition coefficient and to determine the importance of a polar group in the organic phase on the partitioning behavior. Partitioning to n-octanol and n-hexane was used as input in a model to simulate the equilibrium partitioning between hydrophobic and nonhydrophobic and target and nontarget compartments in the fish.

Wezel, A.P. van; Punte, S.S. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Chemistry Group; Opperhuizen, A. [Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, The Hague (Netherlands). National Institute for Coastal and Marine Management

1995-09-01

232

Synthetic lethal interactions for the development of cancer therapeutics: biological and methodological advancements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic lethal interaction is defined as a combination of two mutations that is lethal when present in the same cell; each\\u000a individual mutation is non-lethal. Synthetic lethal interactions attract attention in cancer research fields since the discovery\\u000a of synthetic lethal genes with either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) provides novel cancer therapeutic targets.\\u000a Due to the selective lethal effect

Shinji Mizuarai; Hidehito Kotani

2010-01-01

233

An opsin mutant with increased thermal stability.  

PubMed

This report describes the biochemical characterization of a double mutant of rhodopsin (N2C,D282C) in which Cys residues engineered into the protein at positions 2 (in the amino-terminal extracellular domain) and 282 (in the extracellular loop between transmembrane helices 6 and 7) are shown to form a disulfide bond and increase the thermal stability of the unliganded or opsin form of the protein. Wild-type opsin does not survive detergent solubilization and purification at pH 7.5 and 25 degrees C. In contrast, the N2C,D282C mutant opsin survives the purification protocol and loses less than 50% activity after incubation for 20 days under the same conditions. Less than 5% is lost after 20 days at 4 degrees C. While the disulfide bond clearly has a dramatic effect on protein stability, it has a minor impact on the activity of the pigment. The MII lifetime of the mutant (6.6 min) is similar to that of the wild type (7.9 min), and the specific activity of the light-activated mutant for activation of transducin is within 20% of the wild-type activity. Therefore, it seems likely that the disulfide bond does not perturb greatly the structure of the protein. For these reasons, we anticipate that the mutant may be of use in detailed kinetic and mechanistic investigations of the ligand binding reaction and for crystallization trials involving recombinant rhodopsin, especially the unliganded opsin form of the protein. PMID:12590586

Xie, Guifu; Gross, Alecia K; Oprian, Daniel D

2003-02-25

234

Clock Mutants of Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three mutants have been isolated in which the normal 24-hour rhythm is drastically changed. One mutant is arrhythmic; another has a period of 19 hr; a third has a period of 28 hr. Both the eclosion rhythm of a population and the locomotor activity of individual flies are affected. All these mutations appear to involve the same functional gene on

Ronald J. Konopka; Seymour Benzer

1971-01-01

235

Fitness Analyses of All Possible Point-Mutants for Regions of Genes in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Deep sequencing can accurately measure the relative abundance of hundreds of mutants in a single bulk competition experiment, which can give a direct readout of the fitness of each mutant. Here, we describe a protocol that we previously developed and optimized to measure the fitness effects of all possible individual codon substitutions for 10 amino acid regions of essential genes in yeast. Starting with a conditional strain (i.e., a temperature sensitive strain), we describe how to efficiently generate plasmid libraries of point mutants that can then be transformed to generate libraries of yeast. The yeast libraries are competed under conditions that select for mutant function. Deep sequencing analyses are used to determine the relative fitness of all mutants. This approach is faster and cheaper per mutant compared to analyzing individually isolated mutants. The protocol can be performed in ~4 weeks and many 10 amino acid regions can be analyzed in parallel. PMID:22722372

Hietpas, Ryan; Roscoe, Benjamin; Jiang, Li; Bolon, Daniel N. A.

2012-01-01

236

Conformational properties of nine purified cystathionine beta-synthase mutants  

PubMed Central

Protein misfolding due to missense mutations is a common pathogenic mechanism in cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency. In our previous studies, we have successfully expressed, purified and characterized nine CBS mutant enzymes containing the following patient mutations: P49L, P78R, A114V, R125Q, E176K, R266K, P422L, I435T and S466L. These purified mutants exhibited full heme saturation, normal tetrameric assembly and high catalytic activity. In this work, we used several spectroscopic and proteolytic techniques to provide a more thorough insight into the conformation of these mutant enzymes. Far-UV circular dichroism, fluorescence and second derivative-UV spectroscopy revealed that the spatial arrangement of these CBS mutants is similar to the wild-type although the microenvironment of the chromophores may be slightly altered. Using proteolysis with thermolysin under native conditions, we found that the majority of the studied mutants is more susceptible towards cleavage suggesting their increased local flexibility or propensity to local unfolding. Interestingly, the presence of the CBS allosteric activator, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), increased the cleavage rate of wild-type and the AdoMet-responsive mutants, while the proteolytic rate of the AdoMet-unresponsive mutants was not significantly changed. Pulse proteolysis analysis suggested that the protein structure of the R125Q and E176K mutants is significantly less stable than that of wild-type and the other mutants. Taken together, the proteolytic data show that the conformation of pathogenic mutants is altered despite retained catalytic activity and normal tetrameric assembly. This study demonstrates that the proteolytic techniques are a useful tool for the assessment of the biochemical penalty of missense mutations in CBS. PMID:22612060

Hnízda, Aleš; Majtan, Tomas; Liu, Lu; Pey, Angel L.; Carpenter, John F.; Kodí?ek, Milan; Kožich, Viktor; Kraus, Jan P.

2012-01-01

237

Engineered Repressible Lethality for Controlling the Pink Bollworm, a Lepidopteran Pest of Cotton  

PubMed Central

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environmentally friendly method of pest control in which insects are mass-produced, irradiated and released to mate with wild counterparts. SIT has been used to control major pest insects including the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders), a global pest of cotton. Transgenic technology has the potential to overcome disadvantages associated with the SIT, such as the damaging effects of radiation on released insects. A method called RIDL (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) is designed to circumvent the need to irradiate insects before release. Premature death of insects’ progeny can be engineered to provide an equivalent to sterilisation. Moreover, this trait can be suppressed by the provision of a dietary antidote. In the pink bollworm, we generated transformed strains using different DNA constructs, which showed moderate-to-100% engineered mortality. In permissive conditions, this effect was largely suppressed. Survival data on cotton in field cages indicated that field conditions increase the lethal effect. One strain, called OX3402C, showed highly penetrant and highly repressible lethality, and was tested on host plants where its larvae caused minimal damage before death. These results highlight a potentially valuable insecticide-free tool against pink bollworm, and indicate its potential for development in other lepidopteran pests. PMID:23226548

Morrison, Neil I.; Simmons, Gregory S.; Fu, Guoliang; O’Connell, Sinead; Walker, Adam S.; Dafa’alla, Tarig; Walters, Michelle; Claus, John; Tang, Guolei; Jin, Li; Marubbi, Thea; Epton, Matthew J.; Harris, Claire L.; Staten, Robert T.; Miller, Ernest; Miller, Thomas A.; Alphey, Luke

2012-01-01

238

Engineered repressible lethality for controlling the pink bollworm, a lepidopteran pest of cotton.  

PubMed

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environmentally friendly method of pest control in which insects are mass-produced, irradiated and released to mate with wild counterparts. SIT has been used to control major pest insects including the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders), a global pest of cotton. Transgenic technology has the potential to overcome disadvantages associated with the SIT, such as the damaging effects of radiation on released insects. A method called RIDL (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) is designed to circumvent the need to irradiate insects before release. Premature death of insects' progeny can be engineered to provide an equivalent to sterilisation. Moreover, this trait can be suppressed by the provision of a dietary antidote. In the pink bollworm, we generated transformed strains using different DNA constructs, which showed moderate-to-100% engineered mortality. In permissive conditions, this effect was largely suppressed. Survival data on cotton in field cages indicated that field conditions increase the lethal effect. One strain, called OX3402C, showed highly penetrant and highly repressible lethality, and was tested on host plants where its larvae caused minimal damage before death. These results highlight a potentially valuable insecticide-free tool against pink bollworm, and indicate its potential for development in other lepidopteran pests. PMID:23226548

Morrison, Neil I; Simmons, Gregory S; Fu, Guoliang; O'Connell, Sinead; Walker, Adam S; Dafa'alla, Tarig; Walters, Michelle; Claus, John; Tang, Guolei; Jin, Li; Marubbi, Thea; Epton, Matthew J; Harris, Claire L; Staten, Robert T; Miller, Ernest; Miller, Thomas A; Alphey, Luke

2012-01-01

239

Purification and characterization of a lethal toxin from the venom of Heloderma horridum horridum.  

PubMed

A lethal toxin was isolated from the venom of Heloderma h. horridum by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. Molecular weight of the purified toxin was determined to be 28 kDa under reducing and nonreducing conditions. Biological activity, assayed by i.v. routes of injection, shows an LD50 for this preparation of 0.135 micrograms/g. Additionally, the toxin possesses an inhibitory effect on direct electrical stimulation of the isolated mouse hemi-diaphragm. However, neither hemorrhagic nor hemolytic activities were detected. Phospholipase A2 activity, proteolytic activity and arginine esterolytic activity were absent. The amino acid composition of the lethal toxin and the NH2-terminal sequence up to residue number 33 were determined. Neither show similarities to other components from H. h. horridum venom. PMID:3401225

Komori, Y; Nikai, T; Sugihara, H

1988-07-29

240

Mutant prevention concentrations of pradofloxacin for susceptible and mutant strains of Escherichia coli with reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility.  

PubMed

Pharmacodynamic and mutant prevention properties of the fluoroquinolone pradofloxacin (PRA) were measured against a set of 17 Escherichia coli strains carrying no, one or two known mutations conferring reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility. The strains included susceptible wild-types, isogenic constructed mutants, isogenic selected mutants and clinical isolates. The effectiveness of PRA was determined with regard to preventing the selection of resistant mutants, using static and changing concentrations of drug. Ciprofloxacin was used as a reference drug. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and mutant prevention concentrations (MPCs) of PRA for the susceptible wild-type strains were in the range 0.012-0.016mg/L and 0.2-0.3mg/L, respectively, giving a mean±standard deviation mutant prevention index (MPI=MPC/MIC) of 17.7±1.1. The mean MPI PRA of the 14 mutant strains was 19.2±12, and the mean MPI across all 17 strains was 18.9±10.8. In an in vitro kinetic model in which PRA was diluted with a half-life of 7h to mimic in vivo conditions, an initial concentration of PRA of 1.6-2.4mg/L (8-10× MPC), giving a PRA AUC/MPC ratio of 73-92, and a T>MPC of 21-23h was sufficient to prevent the selection of resistant mutants from the three susceptible wild-type strains. Dosing to reduce selection for antibiotic resistance in veterinary therapy has a role in reducing the reservoir of resistant mutants. We conclude that a level of dosing that prevents the selection of resistant mutants during therapy should be achievable in vivo. PMID:25129317

Marcusson, Linda L; Komp Lindgren, Patricia; Olofsson, Sara K; Hughes, Diarmaid; Cars, Otto

2014-10-01

241

Characterization of mutations that are synthetic lethal with pol3-13, a mutated allele of DNA polymerase delta in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The pol3-13 mutation is located in the C-terminal end of POL3, the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of polymerase delta, and confers thermosensitivity onto the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain. To get insight about DNA replication control, we performed a genetic screen to identify genes that are synthetic lethal with pol3-13. Mutations in genes encoding the two other subunits of DNA polymerase delta (HYS2, POL32) were identified. Mutations in two recombination genes (RAD50, RAD51) were also identified, confirming that homologous recombination is necessary for pol3-13 mutant strain survival. Other mutations were identified in genes involved in repair and genome stability (MET18/ MMS19), in the control of origin-firing and/or transcription (ABF1, SRB7), in the S/G2 checkpoint (RAD53), in the Ras-cAMP signal transduction pathway (MKS1), in nuclear pore metabolism (SEH1), in protein degradation (DOC1) and in folding (YDJ1). Finally, mutations in three genes of unknown function were isolated (NBP35, DRE2, TAH18). Synthetic lethality between pol3-13 and each of the three mutants pol32, mms19 and doc1 could be suppressed by a rad18 deletion, suggesting an important role of ubiquitination in DNA replication control. We propose that the pol3-13 mutant generates replicative problems that need both homologous recombination and an intact checkpoint machinery to be overcome. PMID:12759774

Chanet, Roland; Heude, Martine

2003-08-01

242

Heterozygous expression of myocilin glaucoma mutants increases secretion of the mutant forms and reduces extracellular processed myocilin  

PubMed Central

Purpose Heterozygous mutations in the myocilin gene (MYOC) cause glaucoma by an unknown mechanism. MYOC encodes an extracellular protein of unidentified function that undergoes intracellular endoproteolytic processing in the secretory pathway. It has been described that co-expression of wild-type/mutant myocilin reduces the secretion of the wild-type protein and that single expression of glaucoma myocilin mutants reduces its proteolytic processing. However, the effect of wild-type myocilin on mutant myocilin secretion and how mutant myocilin affects the proteolytic processing of wild-type myocilin have not been investigated. We herein analyze these two issues. Methods We modeled the heterozygous state for 4 missense (E323K, R346T, P370L, D380A) and 1 nonsense (Q368X) myocilin mutants by transiently co-expressing each mutant with the wild-type protein in HEK-293T cells. Recombinant mutant and wild-type myocilin in both culture media and cellular fractions were quantified by western immunoblot and densitometry. Results A 24 h transient co-expression of each myocilin mutant with the wild-type protein elicited an augmented secretion of the mutant forms from 1.5 fold (D380A) to 5.4 fold (E323K). Under such conditions, extracellular mutant myocilin represented up to 20% of the total mutant protein. Other than this effect, secreted wild-type myocilin significantly decreased from 2.6 fold (E323K) to 36 fold (Q368X). When myocilin proteolytic processing was enhanced (96 hour co-expression) the extracellular amount of wild-type processed myocilin diminished from approximately 2.1 fold (E323K) to 6.3 fold (P370L). Nonreducing SDS-PAGE indicated that extracellular myocilin resulting from 24 h co-expression of wild-type myocilin and each of the 4 missense mutants forms hetero-oligomers and that glaucoma mutations do not increase the size of myocilin aggregates. Conclusions Increased extracellular levels of mutant myocilin expressed in heterozygosis may play a relevant role in glaucoma pathogenesis. This effect is likely the result of intracellular mutant/wild-type myocilin hetero-oligomerization. PMID:19023451

Aroca-Aguilar, José-Daniel; Sánchez-Sánchez, Francisco; Martínez-Redondo, Francisco; Coca-Prados, Miguel

2008-01-01

243

A molecular model for the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the mouse lethal yellow (A{sup y}) mutation  

SciTech Connect

Lethal yellow (A{sup y}) is a mutation at the mouse agouti locus in chromosome 2 that causes a number of dominant pleiotropic effects, including a completely yellow coat color, obesity, an insulin-resistant type II diabetic condition, and an increased propensity to develop a variety of spontaneous and induced tumors. Additionally, homozygosity for A{sup y} results in preimplantation lethality, which terminates development by the blastocyst stage. The A{sup y} mutation is the result of a 170-kb deletion that removes all but the promoter and noncoding first exon of another gene called Raly, which lies in the same transcriptional orientation as agouti and maps 280 kb proximal to the 3{prime} end of the agouti gene. The authors present a model for the structure of the A{sub y} allele that can explain the dominant pleiotropic effects associated with this mutation, as well as the recessive lethality, which is unrelated to the agouti gene.

Michaud, E.J.; Klebig, M.L.; Stubbs, L.J.; Russell, L.B.; Woychik, R.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bultman, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Vugt, M.J. van [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Agricultural Univ. of Wageningen (Netherlands)

1994-03-29

244

Transferrin iron starvation therapy for lethal bacterial and fungal infections.  

PubMed

New strategies to treat antibiotic-resistant infections are urgently needed. We serendipitously discovered that stem cell conditioned media possessed broad antimicrobial properties. Biochemical, functional, and genetic assays confirmed that the antimicrobial effect was mediated by supra-physiological concentrations of transferrin. Human transferrin inhibited growth of gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram-negative (Acinetobacter baumannii), and fungal (Candida albicans) pathogens by sequestering iron and disrupting membrane potential. Serial passage in subtherapeutic transferrin concentrations resulted in no emergence of resistance. Infected mice treated with intravenous human transferrin had improved survival and reduced microbial burden. Finally, adjunctive transferrin reduced the emergence of rifampin-resistant mutants of S. aureus in infected mice treated with rifampin. Transferrin is a promising, novel antimicrobial agent that merits clinical investigation. These results provide proof of principle that bacterial infections can be treated in vivo by attacking host targets (ie, trace metal availability) rather than microbial targets. PMID:24446527

Lin, Lin; Pantapalangkoor, Paul; Tan, Brandon; Bruhn, Kevin W; Ho, Tiffany; Nielsen, Travis; Skaar, Eric P; Zhang, Yaofang; Bai, Ruipeng; Wang, Amy; Doherty, Terence M; Spellberg, Brad

2014-07-15

245

Back to the future: revisiting HIV-1 lethal mutagenesis  

PubMed Central

The concept of eliminating HIV-1 infectivity by elevating the viral mutation rate was first proposed over a decade ago, even though the general concept had been conceived earlier for RNA viruses. Lethal mutagenesis was originally viewed as a novel chemotherapeutic approach for treating HIV-1 infection in which use of a viral mutagen would over multiple rounds of replication lead to the lethal accumulation of mutations, rendering the virus population non infectious – known as the slow mutation accumulation model. There have been limitations in obtaining good efficacy data with drug leads, leaving some doubt into clinical translation. More recent studies of the APOBEC3 proteins as well as new progress in the use of nucleoside analogs for inducing lethal mutagenesis have helped to refocus attention on rapid induction of HIV-1 lethal mutagenesis in a single or limited number of replication cycles leading to a rapid mutation accumulation model. PMID:23195922

Dapp, Michael J.; Patterson, Steven E.; Mansky, Louis M.

2012-01-01

246

Exploiting synthetic lethal interactions for targeted cancer therapy  

E-print Network

Emerging data suggests that synthetic lethal interactions between mutated oncogenes/tumor suppressor genes and molecules involved in DNA damage signaling and repair can be therapeutically exploited to preferentially kill ...

Jiang, Hai

247

[Mutagenesis, screening and characterization of mutants known as peroxisome biogenesis disorders in yeast].  

PubMed

Peroxisomes are essential for organisms' development and physiology. This fact is underscored by the lethality of a group of genetic disorders collectively known as the peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs), such as Zellweger syndrome, in which peroxisomes fail to assemble properly. Defining the molecular bases of the PBDs has been the impetus behind the identification of the genes controlling peroxisome assembly, the PEX genes, from various modern organisms. Here as a original strain, Yarrowia lipolytica E122 was mutated by diethyl sulfate (DES) treatment and two mutants including temperature sensitive one were obtained. Compared to the initial strain, the two mutants showed more diffuse pattern of fluorescence characteristic of a cytosolic localization in immunofluorescence analysis, and showed no morphologically recognizable peroxisomes in electron micrographs. The two mutants arose from new gene mutation characterized by transformation and will be very useful in identification of new gene controlling peroxisome assembly from yeast. PMID:16933624

Luo, Yu-Ping; Li, Si-Guang

2006-06-01

248

Mechanism by Which Caffeine Potentiates Lethality of Nitrogen Mustard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeine is synergistic with many DNA-damaging agents in increasing lethality to mammalian cells. The mechanism is not well understood. Our results show that caffeine potentiates the lethality of the nitrogen mustard 2-chloro-N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-methylethanamine (HN2) by inducing damaged cells to undergo mitosis before properly repairing lesions in their DNA. Treatment with low doses of HN2 (0.5 mu M for 1 hr) caused

Ching C. Lau; Arthur B. Pardee

1982-01-01

249

Late-acting dominant lethal genetic systems and mosquito control  

PubMed Central

Background Reduction or elimination of vector populations will tend to reduce or eliminate transmission of vector-borne diseases. One potential method for environmentally-friendly, species-specific population control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). SIT has not been widely used against insect disease vectors such as mosquitoes, in part because of various practical difficulties in rearing, sterilization and distribution. Additionally, vector populations with strong density-dependent effects will tend to be resistant to SIT-based control as the population-reducing effect of induced sterility will tend to be offset by reduced density-dependent mortality. Results We investigated by mathematical modeling the effect of manipulating the stage of development at which death occurs (lethal phase) in an SIT program against a density-dependence-limited insect population. We found late-acting lethality to be considerably more effective than early-acting lethality. No such strains of a vector insect have been described, so as a proof-of-principle we constructed a strain of the principal vector of the dengue and yellow fever viruses, Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti, with the necessary properties of dominant, repressible, highly penetrant, late-acting lethality. Conclusion Conventional SIT induces early-acting (embryonic) lethality, but genetic methods potentially allow the lethal phase to be tailored to the program. For insects with strong density-dependence, we show that lethality after the density-dependent phase would be a considerable improvement over conventional methods. For density-dependent parameters estimated from field data for Aedes aegypti, the critical release ratio for population elimination is modeled to be 27% to 540% greater for early-acting rather than late-acting lethality. Our success in developing a mosquito strain with the key features that the modeling indicated were desirable demonstrates the feasibility of this approach for improved SIT for disease control. PMID:17374148

Phuc, Hoang Kim; Andreasen, Morten H; Burton, Rosemary S; Vass, Céline; Epton, Matthew J; Pape, Gavin; Fu, Guoliang; Condon, Kirsty C; Scaife, Sarah; Donnelly, Christl A; Coleman, Paul G; White-Cooper, Helen; Alphey, Luke

2007-01-01

250

Exploiting synthetic lethal interactions for targeted cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Emerging data suggests that synthetic lethal interactions between mutated oncogenes/tumor suppressor genes and molecules involved in DNA damage signaling and repair can be therapeutically exploited to preferentially kill tumor cells. in this review, we discuss the concept of synthetic lethality, and describe several recent examples in which this concept was successfully implemented to target tumor cells in culture, in mouse models, and in human cancer patients. PMID:19755856

Reinhardt, H. Christian; Jiang, Hai; Hemann, Michael T.; Yaffe, Michael B.

2011-01-01

251

Internal Lethal Concentrations of Halobenzenes with Fish ( Gambusia affinis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The internal lethal concentration is a potential measure of toxicity which could be usefully applied in environmental toxicology and risk assessment. Using halobenzenes, which are common environmental contaminants, and represented test compounds, experiments were conducted in aquaria with the mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis). The average internal lethal concentration (ILC50) for four representative halohydrocarbons, 1,4-diBB, 1,2,3-triCB, 1,2,4-triBB, and pentaCB, were consistent with

Yupadee Chaisuksant; Qiming Yu; Des Connell

1997-01-01

252

Mutagenesis-Mediated Virus Extinction: Virus-Dependent Effect of Viral Load on Sensitivity to Lethal Defection  

PubMed Central

Background Lethal mutagenesis is a transition towards virus extinction mediated by enhanced mutation rates during viral genome replication, and it is currently under investigation as a potential new antiviral strategy. Viral load and virus fitness are known to influence virus extinction. Here we examine the effect or the multiplicity of infection (MOI) on progeny production of several RNA viruses under enhanced mutagenesis. Results The effect of the mutagenic base analogue 5-fluorouracil (FU) on the replication of the arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) can result either in inhibition of progeny production and virus extinction in infections carried out at low multiplicity of infection (MOI), or in a moderate titer decrease without extinction at high MOI. The effect of the MOI is similar for LCMV and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), but minimal or absent for the picornaviruses foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). The increase in mutation frequency and Shannon entropy (mutant spectrum complexity) as a result of virus passage in the presence of FU was more accentuated at low MOI for LCMV and VSV, and at high MOI for FMDV and EMCV. We present an extension of the lethal defection model that agrees with the experimental results. Conclusions (i) Low infecting load favoured the extinction of negative strand viruses, LCMV or VSV, with an increase of mutant spectrum complexity. (ii) This behaviour is not observed in RNA positive strand viruses, FMDV or EMCV. (iii) The accumulation of defector genomes may underlie the MOI-dependent behaviour. (iv) LCMV coinfections are allowed but superinfection is strongly restricted in BHK-21 cells. (v) The dissimilar effects of the MOI on the efficiency of mutagenic-based extinction of different RNA viruses can have implications for the design of antiviral protocols based on lethal mutagenesis, presently under development. PMID:22442668

Moreno, Héctor; Tejero, Héctor; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Domingo, Esteban; Martín, Verónica

2012-01-01

253

Transposon insertions causing constitutive sex-lethal activity in Drosophila melanogaster affect Sxl sex-specific transcript splicing  

SciTech Connect

Sex-lethal (Sxl) gene products induce female development in Drosophila melanogaster and suppress the transcriptional hyperactivation of X-linked genes responsible for male X-chromosome dosage compensation. Control of Sxl functioning by the dose of X-chromosomes normally ensures that the female-specific functions of this developmental switch gene are only expressed in diplo-X individuals. Although the immediate effect of X-chromosome dose is on Sxl transcription, during most of the life cycle {open_quotes}on{close_quotes} vs. {open_quotes}off{close_quotes} reflects alternative Sxl RNA splicing, with the female (productive) splicing mode maintained by a positive feedback activity of SXL protein on Sxl pre-mRNA splicing. {open_quotes}Male-lethal{close_quotes} (Sxl{sup M}) gain-of-function alleles subvert Sxl control by X-chromosome dose, allowing female Sxl functions to be expressed independent of the positive regulators upstream of Sxl. As a consequence, Sxl{sup M} haplo-X animals (chromosomal males) die because of improper dosage compensation, and Sxl{sup m} chromosomal females survive the otherwise lethal effects of mutations in upstream positive regulators. Transcript analysis of double-mutant male-viable Sxl{sup M} derivatives in which the Sxl{sup M} insertion is cis to loss-of-function mutations, combined with other results reported here, indicates that the constitutive character of these Sxl{sup M} alleles is a consequence of an alteration of the structure of the pre-mRNA that allow some level of female splicing to occur even in the absence of functional SXL protein. Surprisingly, however, most of the constitutive character of Sxl{sup M} alleles appears to depend on the mutant alleles` responsiveness, perhaps greater than wild-type, to the autoregulatory splicing activity of the wild-type SXL proteins they produce. 47 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Berstein, M.; Cline, T.W. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States)]|[Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Lersch, R.A.; Subrahmanyan, L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1995-02-01

254

Protection against Anthrax Lethal Toxin Challenge by Genetic Immunization with a Plasmid Encoding the Lethal Factor Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of genetic vaccination to protect against a lethal challenge of anthrax toxin was evaluated. BALB\\/c mice were immunized via gene gun inoculation with eucaryotic expression vector plasmids encoding either a fragment of the protective antigen (PA) or a fragment of lethal factor (LF). Plasmid pCLF4 contains the N-terminal region (amino acids (aa) 10 to 254) of Bacillus anthracis

BRIAN M. PRICE; ADRIANE L. LINER; STEPHEN H. LEPPLA; ALFRED MATECZUN; DARRELL R. GALLOWAY

2001-01-01

255

Characterization of Streptomyces scabies mutants deficient in melanin biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Streptomyces scabies, a causal agent of common scab, produces both melanin and a secondary metabolite called thaxtomin A. To establish a possible relation between melanin and thaxtomin A production in S. scabies, we carried out N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) mutagenesis and isolated 11 melanin-negative mutants of S. scabies EF-35. These mutants were characterized for thaxtomin A production, pathogenicity, sporulation, and stress resistance. Nine of these mutants showed a significant reduction in thaxtomin A production when compared with the wild strain. However, only a few mutants exhibited a reduced level of virulence or a loss in their ability to induce common scab symptoms on potato tubers. Other pleiotrophic effects, such as higher sensitivity to heavy metals and incapacity to sporulate under certain stress conditions, were also associated with a deficiency in melanin production. PMID:15644924

Beauséjour, Julie; Beaulieu, Carole

2004-09-01

256

Connexin mutant embryonic stem cells and human diseases  

PubMed Central

Intercellular communication via gap junctions allows cells within multicellular organisms to share small molecules. The effect of such interactions has been elucidated using mouse gene knockout strategies. Although several mutations in human gap junction-encoding connexin (Cx) have been described, Cx mutants in mice do not always recapitulate the human disease. Among the 20 mouse Cxs, Cx26, Cx43, and Cx45 play roles in early cardiac or placental development, and disruption of the genes results in lethality that hampers further analyses. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that lack Cx43 or Cx45 have made analysis feasible in both in vitro differentiated cell cultures and in vivo chimeric tissues. The success of mouse ESCs studies is leading to the use of induced pluripotent stem cells to learn more about the pathogenesis of human Cx diseases. This review summarizes the current status of mouse Cx disruption models and ESC differentiation studies, and discusses their implication for understanding human Cx diseases. PMID:25426253

Nishii, Kiyomasa; Shibata, Yosaburo; Kobayashi, Yasushi

2014-01-01

257

Investigation of new dominant-negative inhibitors of anthrax protective antigen mutants for use in therapy and vaccination.  

PubMed

The lethal toxin (LeTx) of Bacillus anthracis plays a key role in the pathogenesis of anthrax. The protective antigen (PA) is a primary part of the anthrax toxin and forms LeTx by combination with lethal factor (LF). Phenylalanine-427 (F427) is crucial for PA function. This study was designed to discover potential novel therapeutic agents and vaccines for anthrax. This was done by screening PA mutants that were mutated at the F427 residue for a dominant-negative inhibitory (DNI) phenotype which was nontoxic but inhibited the toxicity of the wild-type LeTx. For this, PA residue F427 was first mutated to each of the other 19 naturally occurring amino acids. The cytotoxicity and DNI phenotypes of the mutated PA proteins were tested in the presence of 1 microg/ml LF in RAW264.7 cells and were shown to be dependent on the individual amino acid replacements. A total of 16 nontoxic mutants with various levels of DNI activity were identified in vitro. Among them, F427D and F427N mutants had the highest DNI activities in RAW264.7 cells. Both mutants inhibited LeTx intoxication in mice in a dose-dependent way. Furthermore, they induced a Th2-predominant immune response and protected mice against a challenge with five 50% lethal doses of LeTx. The protection was correlated mainly with a low level of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and with high levels of PA-specific immunoglobulin G1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Thus, PA DNI mutants, such as F427D and F427N mutants, may serve in the development of novel therapeutic agents and vaccines to fight B. anthracis infections. PMID:19620345

Cao, Sha; Guo, Aizhen; Liu, Ziduo; Tan, Yadi; Wu, Gaobing; Zhang, Chengcai; Zhao, Yaxing; Chen, Huanchun

2009-10-01

258

Seedling Lethal1, a Pentatricopeptide Repeat Protein Lacking an E/E+ or DYW Domain in Arabidopsis, Is Involved in Plastid Gene Expression and Early Chloroplast Development1[C][W  

PubMed Central

Chloroplasts are the site of photosynthesis and the biosynthesis of essential metabolites, including amino acids, fatty acids, and secondary metabolites. It is known that many seedling-lethal mutants are impaired in chloroplast function or development, indicating the development of functional chloroplast is essential for plant growth and development. Here, we isolated a novel transfer DNA insertion mutant, dubbed sel1 (for seedling lethal1), that exhibited a pigment-defective and seedling-lethal phenotype with a disrupted pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) gene. Sequence analysis revealed that SEL1 is a member of the PLS subgroup, which is lacking known E/E+ or DYW domains at the C terminus, in the PLS subfamily of the PPR protein family containing a putative N-terminal transit peptide and 14 putative PPR or PPR-like motifs. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that the SEL1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein is localized in chloroplasts. Transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed that the sel1 mutant is impaired in the etioplast, as well as in chloroplast development. In sel1 mutants, plastid-encoded proteins involved in photosynthesis were rarely detected due to the lack of the corresponding transcripts. Furthermore, transcript profiles of plastid genes revealed that, in sel1 mutants, the transcript levels of plastid-encoded RNA polymerase-dependent genes were greatly reduced, but those of nuclear-encoded RNA polymerase-dependent genes were increased or not changed. Additionally, the RNA editing of two editing sites of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta subunit gene transcripts in the sel1 mutant was compromised, though it is not directly connected with the sel1 mutant phenotype. Our results demonstrate that SEL1 is involved in the regulation of plastid gene expression required for normal chloroplast development. PMID:24144791

Pyo, Young Jae; Kwon, Kwang-Chul; Kim, Anna; Cho, Myeon Haeng

2013-01-01

259

Targeted disruption of the homeobox transcription factor Nkx2-3 in mice results in postnatal lethality and abnormal development of small intestine and spleen.  

PubMed

The homeodomain transcription factor Nkx2-3 is expressed in gut mesenchyme and spleen of embryonic and adult mice. Targeted inactivation of the Nkx2-3 gene results in severe morphological alterations of both organs and early postnatal lethality in the majority of homozygous mutants. Villus formation in the small intestine appears considerably delayed in Nkx2-3(-)/- foetuses due to reduced proliferation of the epithelium, while massively increased growth of crypt cells ensues in surviving adult mutants. Interestingly, differentiated cell types of the intestinal epithelium are present in homozygous mutants, suggesting that Nkx2-3 is not required for their cell lineage allocation or migration-dependent differentiation. Hyperproliferation of the gut epithelium in adult mutants is associated with markedly reduced expression of BMP-2 and BMP-4, suggesting that these signalling molecules may be involved in mediating non-cell-autonomous control of intestinal cell growth. Spleens of Nkx2-3 mutants are generally smaller and contain drastically reduced numbers of lymphatic cells. The white pulp appears anatomically disorganized, possibly owing to a homing defect in the spleen parenchyme. Moreover, some of the Nkx2-3 mutants exhibit asplenia. Taken together these observations indicate that Nkx2-3 is essential for normal development and functions of the small intestine and spleen. PMID:10207146

Pabst, O; Zweigerdt, R; Arnold, H H

1999-05-01

260

Phytohormone mutants in plant research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The techniques used for the production and identification of plant hormone mutants are described. The properties used to classify\\u000a these mutants into the broad synthesis and sensitivity categories are discussed, and the genetic considerations needed to\\u000a allow their effective use in plant hormone research examined. A brief outline of significant recent work on the gibberellin\\u000a (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), auxin,

James B. Reid

1990-01-01

261

Fitness of Transgenic Mosquito Aedes aegypti Males Carrying a Dominant Lethal Genetic System  

PubMed Central

OX513A is a transgenic strain of Aedes aegypti engineered to carry a dominant, non-sex-specific, late-acting lethal genetic system that is repressed in the presence of tetracycline. It was designed for use in a sterile-insect (SIT) pest control system called RIDL® (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal gene) by which transgenic males are released in the field to mate with wild females; in the absence of tetracycline, the progeny from such matings will not survive. We investigated the mating fitness of OX513A in the laboratory. Male OX513A were as effective as Rockefeller (ROCK) males at inducing refractoriness to further mating in wild type females and there was no reduction in their ability to inseminate multiple females. They had a lower mating success but yielded more progeny than the wild-type comparator strain (ROCK) when one male of each strain was caged with a ROCK female. Mating success and fertility of groups of 10 males—with different ratios of RIDL to ROCK—competing for five ROCK females was similar, but the median longevity of RIDL males was somewhat (18%) lower. We conclude that the fitness under laboratory conditions of OX513A males carrying a tetracycline repressible lethal gene is comparable to that of males of the wild-type comparator strain. PMID:23690948

Massonnet-Bruneel, Blandine; Corre-Catelin, Nicole; Lacroix, Renaud; Lees, Rosemary S.; Hoang, Kim Phuc; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; Reiter, Paul

2013-01-01

262

The population genetics of X-autosome synthetic lethals and steriles.  

PubMed

Epistatic interactions are widespread, and many of these interactions involve combinations of alleles at different loci that are deleterious when present in the same individual. The average genetic environment of sex-linked genes differs from that of autosomal genes, suggesting that the population genetics of interacting X-linked and autosomal alleles may be complex. Using both analytical theory and computer simulations, we analyzed the evolutionary trajectories and mutation-selection balance conditions for X-autosome synthetic lethals and steriles. Allele frequencies follow a set of fundamental trajectories, and incompatible alleles are able to segregate at much higher frequencies than single-locus expectations. Equilibria exist, and they can involve fixation of either autosomal or X-linked alleles. The exact equilibrium depends on whether synthetic alleles are dominant or recessive and whether fitness effects are seen in males, females, or both sexes. When single-locus fitness effects and synthetic incompatibilities are both present, population dynamics depend on the dominance of alleles and historical contingency (i.e., whether X-linked or autosomal mutations occur first). Recessive synthetic lethality can result in high-frequency X-linked alleles, and dominant synthetic lethality can result in high-frequency autosomal alleles. Many X-autosome incompatibilities in natural populations may be cryptic, appearing to be single-locus effects because one locus is fixed. We also discuss the implications of these findings with respect to standing genetic variation and the origins of Haldane's rule. PMID:21900269

Lachance, Joseph; Johnson, Norman A; True, John R

2011-11-01

263

Lethal and sub-lethal effects of faecal deltamethrin residues on dung-feeding insects.  

PubMed

Endectocides administered to livestock to facilitate pest and parasite control may be excreted in the faeces at concentrations that are toxic to coprophagous insects, including species of ecological importance. Although much research has focused on the effects of macrocyclic lactones, relatively less attention has been given to any similar impacts of the widely used pyrethroid insecticides. Here, the effects of faecal residues of the pyrethroid deltamethrin after application to Holstein-Friesian cattle in a proprietary pour-on formulation are examined. Freshly dropped dung was collected 1, 3, 5 and 7?days after treatment and from an untreated control group. In laboratory bioasssays, female Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) blow flies matured significantly smaller egg batches and had a lower percentage of eggs hatch after feeding on dung collected for up to 5?days after treatment, compared with flies feeding on dung from untreated cattle. In the field, artificial dung pats were constructed from the collected dung and left on pastureland for 7?days before being retrieved and searched for insects. Significantly more adult Diptera emerged from the faeces of untreated cattle than from the dung of treated cattle collected on days 1 and 3 after treatment. Adult Coleoptera were found in lower numbers in the dung of treated animals compared with control dung, suggesting a repellent effect. The results indicate that deltamethrin residues in cattle faeces have a range of lethal and sub-lethal effects on dung-feeding insects for up to a week after treatment, but that the precise duration and nature of toxicity varies depending on the sensitivity of the insect in question. PMID:25594879

Mann, C M; Barnes, S; Offer, B; Wall, R

2015-06-01

264

A double mutant between fission yeast telomerase and RecQ helicase is sensitive to thiabendazole, an anti-microtubule drug.  

PubMed

In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, deletion of trt1(+) causes gradual telomere shortening, while deletion of pot1(+) causes rapid telomere loss. The double mutant between pot1 and RecQ helicase rqh1 is synthetically lethal. We found that the trt1 rqh1 double mutant was not synthetically lethal. The chromosome end fragments in both the trt1? rqh1? and the trt1? rqh1-hd (helicase dead) double mutants did not enter a pulsed-field electrophoresis gel. Both the trt1? rqh1? and the trt1? rqh1-hd double mutants were sensitive to the anti-microtubule drug thiabendazole. Moreover, the trt1? rqh1-hd double mutant displayed RPA foci on the chromosome bridge at high frequency in M phase cells. These phenotypes are very similar to that of the pot1? rqh1-hd double mutant, in which recombination intermediates accumulate at the chromosme ends in the M phase. These results suggest that the entangled chromosome ends, most likely recombination intermediates, are present in the M phase in the trt1? rqh1-hd double mutant. PMID:22313747

Ukimori, Shinobu; Kawabata, Naoki; Shimada, Hideki; Imano, Ryota; Takahashi, Katsunori; Yukawa, Masashi; Tsuchiya, Eiko; Ueno, Masaru

2012-01-01

265

Are High-Lethality Suicide Attempters With Bipolar Disorder a Distinct Phenotype?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because Bipolar Disorder (BD) individuals making highly lethal suicide attempts have greater injury burden and risk for suicide, early identification is critical. BD patients were classified as high- or low-lethality attempters. High-lethality attempts required inpatient medical treatment. Mixed effects logistic regression models and permutation analyses examined correlations between lethality, number, and order of attempts. High-lethality attempters reported greater suicidal intent

Maria A. Oquendo; Juan Jose Carballo; Namita Rajouria; Dianne Currier; Adrienne Tin; Jessica Merville; Hanga C. Galfalvy; Leo Sher; Michael F. Grunebaum; Ainsley K. Burke; J. John Mann

2009-01-01

266

The mutant selection window and antimicrobial resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutant selection window is an antimicrobial concentration range extending from the minimal concen- tration required to block the growth of wild-type bacteria up to that required to inhibit the growth of the least susceptible, single-step mutant. The upper boundary is also called the mutant prevention concentration (MPC). Placing antimicrobial concentrations inside the window is expected to enrich resistant mutant

Karl Drlica

2003-01-01

267

Mutants of Escherichia coli deficient in the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase  

SciTech Connect

Mutants of Escherichia coli deficient in the fermentative NAD-linked lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) have been isolated. These mutants showed no growth defects under anaerobic conditions unless present together with a defect in pyruvate formate lyase (pfl). Double mutants (pfl ldh) were unable to grow anaerobically on glucose or other sugars even when supplemented with acetate, whereas pfl mutants can do so. The ldh mutation was found to map at 30.5 min on the E. coli chromosome. The ldh mutant FMJ39 showed no detectable lactate dehydrogenase activity and produced no lactic acid from glucose under anaerobic conditions as estimated by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. We also found that in wild-type strains the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase was conjointly induced by anaerobic conditions and an acidic pH. Despite previous findings that phosphate concentrations affect the proportion of lactic acid produced during fermentation, we were unable to find any intrinsic effect of phosphate on lactate dehydrogenase activity, apart from the buffering effect of this ion.

Mat-Jan, F.; Alam, K.Y.; Clark, D.P. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale (USA))

1989-01-01

268

Towards an Informative Mutant Phenotype for Every Bacterial Gene  

PubMed Central

Mutant phenotypes provide strong clues to the functions of the underlying genes and could allow annotation of the millions of sequenced yet uncharacterized bacterial genes. However, it is not known how many genes have a phenotype under laboratory conditions, how many phenotypes are biologically interpretable for predicting gene function, and what experimental conditions are optimal to maximize the number of genes with a phenotype. To address these issues, we measured the mutant fitness of 1,586 genes of the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 across 492 diverse experiments and found statistically significant phenotypes for 89% of all assayed genes. Thus, in Z. mobilis, most genes have a functional consequence under laboratory conditions. We demonstrate that 41% of Z. mobilis genes have both a strong phenotype and a similar fitness pattern (cofitness) to another gene, and are therefore good candidates for functional annotation using mutant fitness. Among 502 poorly characterized Z. mobilis genes, we identified a significant cofitness relationship for 174. For 57 of these genes without a specific functional annotation, we found additional evidence to support the biological significance of these gene-gene associations, and in 33 instances, we were able to predict specific physiological or biochemical roles for the poorly characterized genes. Last, we identified a set of 79 diverse mutant fitness experiments in Z. mobilis that are nearly as biologically informative as the entire set of 492 experiments. Therefore, our work provides a blueprint for the functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness. PMID:25112473

Deutschbauer, Adam; Price, Morgan N.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Tarjan, Daniel R.; Xu, Zhuchen; Shao, Wenjun; Leon, Dacia

2014-01-01

269

Towards an informative mutant phenotype for every bacterial gene.  

PubMed

Mutant phenotypes provide strong clues to the functions of the underlying genes and could allow annotation of the millions of sequenced yet uncharacterized bacterial genes. However, it is not known how many genes have a phenotype under laboratory conditions, how many phenotypes are biologically interpretable for predicting gene function, and what experimental conditions are optimal to maximize the number of genes with a phenotype. To address these issues, we measured the mutant fitness of 1,586 genes of the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 across 492 diverse experiments and found statistically significant phenotypes for 89% of all assayed genes. Thus, in Z. mobilis, most genes have a functional consequence under laboratory conditions. We demonstrate that 41% of Z. mobilis genes have both a strong phenotype and a similar fitness pattern (cofitness) to another gene, and are therefore good candidates for functional annotation using mutant fitness. Among 502 poorly characterized Z. mobilis genes, we identified a significant cofitness relationship for 174. For 57 of these genes without a specific functional annotation, we found additional evidence to support the biological significance of these gene-gene associations, and in 33 instances, we were able to predict specific physiological or biochemical roles for the poorly characterized genes. Last, we identified a set of 79 diverse mutant fitness experiments in Z. mobilis that are nearly as biologically informative as the entire set of 492 experiments. Therefore, our work provides a blueprint for the functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness. PMID:25112473

Deutschbauer, Adam; Price, Morgan N; Wetmore, Kelly M; Tarjan, Daniel R; Xu, Zhuchen; Shao, Wenjun; Leon, Dacia; Arkin, Adam P; Skerker, Jeffrey M

2014-10-01

270

Mutant Fungus from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Space expert Yuri Karash of Russia says that he anticipates that the Mir Space Station could bring virulent new strains of fungus to earth when it splashes down later this month. Various types of fungus, whose smell is the first thing visitors to Mir notice, grow behind panels and in air-conditioning units on the spacecraft and have likely mutated. This article from the BBC News online covers the story.

271

Lethal combat and sex ratio evolution in a parasitoid wasp  

PubMed Central

Sex allocation theory provides excellent opportunities for testing how behavior and life histories are adjusted in response to environmental variation. One of the most successful areas from this respect is Hamilton’s local mate competition theory. As predicted by theory, a large number of animal species have been shown to adjust their offspring sex ratios (proportion male) conditionally, laying less female-biased sex ratios as the number of females that lay eggs on a patch increases. However, recent studies have shown that this predicted pattern is not followed by 2 parasitoid species in the genus Melittobia, which always produce extremely female-biased sex ratios. A possible explanation for this is that males fight fatally and that males produced by the first female to lay eggs on a patch have a competitive advantage over later emerging males. This scenario would negate the advantage of later females producing a less female-biased sex ratio. Here we examine fatal fighting and sex ratio evolution in another species, Melittobia acasta. We show that females of this species also fail to adjust their offspring sex ratio in response to the number of females laying eggs on a patch. We then show that although earlier emerging males do have an advantage in winning fights, this advantage 1) can be reduced by an interaction with body size, with larger males more likely to win fights and 2) only holds for a brief period around the time at which the younger males emerge from their pupae. This suggests that lethal male combat cannot fully explain the lack of sex ratio shift observed in Melittobia species. We discuss alternative explanations. PMID:24273326

Innocent, Tabitha M.; Savage, Joanna; West, Stuart A.; Reece, Sarah E.

2013-01-01

272

Germination-defective mutant of Neurospora crassa that responds to siderophores  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conditionally germination-defective mutant of Neurospora crassa has been found to be partially curable by ferricrocin and other siderophores. The mutant conidia rapidly lose their membrane-bound siderophores when suspended in buffer or growth media. Germination is consequently delayed unless large numbers of conidia are present (positive population effect). This indicates that the mutant has a membrane defect involving the siderophore attachment site.

Charlang, G.; Williams, N. P.

1977-01-01

273

Homoserine and threonine pools of borrelidin resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants with an altered aspartokinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borrelidin is a specific inhibitor of the threonyl-tRNA-synthethase. A class of dominant borrelidin resistant mutants (BOR1) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was biochemically characterized. The mutants possess an altered aspartokinase which is insensitive to threonine inhibition. The threonine and homoserine pools in these mutants are 22 times larger than in the wild type. By feeding aspartate under a variety of conditions the

Michael Seibold; Karl Nill; Karl Poralla

1981-01-01

274

Mating behaviour and analysis of eye pigmentation of several mutants of Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating in the dark between individuals carrying different eye color mutants extracted from the same natural population is shown to be random. (Previous experiments had shown that darker-eye males mate more successfully under alternating light-dark conditions). Extraction of pigments and quantitative analysis by absorption curves show that all mutants have less pigmentation than wild-type individuals; unexpectedly, darker-eye mutants do not

M. D. Ochando

1981-01-01

275

The effects of disorders of cartilage formation and bone resorption on bone shape: a study with chondrodystrophic and osteopetrotic mouse mutants.  

PubMed Central

The shapes of scapulae and basi-occipital bones from three genetically distinct achondroplastic mutants and one osteopetrotic mutant in the mouse (achondroplasia, brachymorphic, stumpy and grey lethal), and appropriate controls, have been compared using Fourier analysis and multivariate statistical techniques. Normal littermates were generally similar in shape, but mutants were significantly different from these controls and from each other. The pattern of morphological differences between the mutants and between the mutants and normal controls is examined. These differences are discussed in relation to the different effects of the four genes on bone morphogenesis, and the significance of these findings in relation to the contributions of cartilage formation and bone resorption to skeletal morphogenesis is considered. PMID:1917676

Johnson, D R; O'Higgins, P; McAndrew, T J

1991-01-01

276

Lethal effects of short-wavelength visible light on insects  

PubMed Central

We investigated the lethal effects of visible light on insects by using light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The toxic effects of ultraviolet (UV) light, particularly shortwave (i.e., UVB and UVC) light, on organisms are well known. However, the effects of irradiation with visible light remain unclear, although shorter wavelengths are known to be more lethal. Irradiation with visible light is not thought to cause mortality in complex animals including insects. Here, however, we found that irradiation with short-wavelength visible (blue) light killed eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of Drosophila melanogaster. Blue light was also lethal to mosquitoes and flour beetles, but the effective wavelength at which mortality occurred differed among the insect species. Our findings suggest that highly toxic wavelengths of visible light are species-specific in insects, and that shorter wavelengths are not always more toxic. For some animals, such as insects, blue light is more harmful than UV light. PMID:25488603

Hori, Masatoshi; Shibuya, Kazuki; Sato, Mitsunari; Saito, Yoshino

2014-01-01

277

Lethal effects of short-wavelength visible light on insects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the lethal effects of visible light on insects by using light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The toxic effects of ultraviolet (UV) light, particularly shortwave (i.e., UVB and UVC) light, on organisms are well known. However, the effects of irradiation with visible light remain unclear, although shorter wavelengths are known to be more lethal. Irradiation with visible light is not thought to cause mortality in complex animals including insects. Here, however, we found that irradiation with short-wavelength visible (blue) light killed eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of Drosophila melanogaster. Blue light was also lethal to mosquitoes and flour beetles, but the effective wavelength at which mortality occurred differed among the insect species. Our findings suggest that highly toxic wavelengths of visible light are species-specific in insects, and that shorter wavelengths are not always more toxic. For some animals, such as insects, blue light is more harmful than UV light.

Hori, Masatoshi; Shibuya, Kazuki; Sato, Mitsunari; Saito, Yoshino

2014-12-01

278

Biofilm-defective mutants of Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

Many bacteria can adopt organized, sessile, communal lifestyles. The gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis,forms biofilms on solid surfaces and at air-liquid interfaces, and biofilm development is dependent on environmental conditions. We demonstrate that biofilm formation by B. subtilis strain JH642 can be either activated or repressed by glucose, depending on the growth medium used, and that these glucose effects are at least in part mediated by the catabolite control protein, CcpA. Starting with a chromosomal Tn917-LTV3 insertional library, we isolated mutants that are defective for biofilm formation. The biofilm defects of these mutants were observable in both rich and minimal media, and both on polyvinylchloride abiotic surfaces and in borosilicate tubes. Two mutants were defective in flagellar synthesis. Chemotaxis was shown to be less important for biofilm formation than was flagellar-driven motility. Although motility is known to be required for biofilm formation in other bacteria, this had not previously been demonstrated for B. subtilis. In addition, our study suggests roles for glutamate synthase, GltAB, and an aminopeptidase, AmpS. The loss of these enzymes did not decrease growth or cellular motility but had dramatic effects on biofilm formation under all conditions assayed. The effect of the gltAB defect on biofilm formation could not be due to a decrease in poly-gamma-glutamate synthesis since this polymer proved to be nonessential for robust biofilm formation. High exogenous concentrations of glutamate, aspartate, glutamine or proline did not override the glutamate synthase requirement. This is the first report showing that glutamate synthase and a cytoplasmic aminopeptidase play roles in bacterial biofilm formation. Possible mechanistic implications and potential roles of biofilm formation in other developmental processes are discussed. PMID:16088219

Chagneau, Claudia; Saier, Milton H

2004-01-01

279

Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome: a three generational family with markedly variable phenotype including neonatal lethality.  

PubMed

Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome (BOFS) is a rare autosomal dominant condition with variable expressivity, caused by mutations in the TFAP2A gene. We report a three generational family with four affected individuals. The consultand has typical features of BOFS including infra-auricular skin nodules, coloboma, lacrimal duct atresia, cleft lip, conductive hearing loss and typical facial appearance. She also exhibited a rare feature of preaxial polydactyly. Her brother had a lethal phenotype with multiorgan failure. We also report a novel variant in TFAP2A gene. This family highlights the variable severity of BOFS and, therefore, the importance of informed genetic counselling in families with BOFS. PMID:25325185

Titheradge, Hannah L; Patel, Chirag; Ragge, Nicola K

2015-01-01

280

Necrotizing fasciitis of the abdominal wall with lethal outcome: a case report.  

PubMed

Necrotizing fasciitis is an acute surgical condition that demands prompt and multi-faceted treatment. Early recognition, aggressive surgical debridement, and targeted antibiotic therapy significantly affect the overall course of treatment and survival. The author reports here the case of a woman with necrotizing fasciitis of the abdominal wall and the course and methods of treatment. Two comorbidity factors (extreme obesity, diabetes) and the late diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis, the latter masked by celullitis and phlegmona of the abdominal wall, resulted in overdue adequate surgical treatment. The combination of these factors contributed to medical treatment failure and, consequently, a lethal outcome. PMID:17180543

Huljev, Dubravko

2007-06-01

281

Lethal Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome in posttraumatic asplenia.  

PubMed

We herein report a case of fulminant lethal Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome in an elderly female patient seven years after posttraumatic splenectomy. In contrast to various reports, this patient had not been vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, or Haemophilus influenzae, respectively, although infections with these microorganisms are known to cause the main lethal diseases in asplenic patients. Again, we recommend obligatory vaccinations against the mentioned bacteria for it is known that this decreases the risk of fatal septic events in these patients. To optimize prevention, it is imperative to vaccinate patients undergoing splenectomy before discharge from hospital. PMID:7473978

Locker, G J; Wagner, A; Peter, A; Staudinger, T; Marosi, C; Rintelen, C; Knapp, S; Malzer, R; Weiss, K; Metnitz, P

1995-10-01

282

Lethal toxicity of cadmium to Cyprinus carpio and Tilapia aurea  

SciTech Connect

There have been several studies of the lethal toxicity of cadmium to freshwater fishes, but further information is required on a number of points. For example, the shallow slope which is characteristic of the cadmium toxicity curve makes interspecific comparisons difficult. There also is a paucity of information on cadmium toxicity to non-Salmonid European species. As part of a study of the water quality requirements of cultured fish species in the Mediterranean, the authors report on the lethal toxicity of cadmium to two such species, the common carp Cyprinus carpio, and Tilapia aurea, for which little information has previously been reported.

Not Available

1986-09-01

283

Immunological characterization of a gidA mutant strain of Salmonella for potential use in a live-attenuated vaccine  

PubMed Central

Background Salmonella is often associated with gastrointestinal disease outbreaks in humans throughout the world due to the consumption of contaminated food. Our previous studies have shown that deletion of glucose-inhibited division gene (gidA) significantly attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STM) virulence in both in vitro and in vivo models of infection. Most importantly, immunization with the gidA mutant protected mice from a lethal dose challenge of wild-type STM. In this study, we further characterize the gidA mutant STM strain for potential use in a live-attenuated vaccine. Results The protective efficacy of immunization with the gidA mutant was evaluated by challenging immunized mice with a lethal dose of wild-type STM. Sera levels of IgG2a and IgG1, passive transfer of sera and cells, and cytokine profiling were performed to study the induction of humoral and cellular immune responses induced by immunization with the gidA mutant strain. Additionally, a lymphocyte proliferation assay was performed to gauge the splenocyte survival in response to treatment with STM cell lysate. Mice immunized with the gidA mutant strain were fully protected from a lethal dose challenge of wild-type STM. Naïve mice receiving either cells or sera from immunized mice were partially protected from a lethal dose challenge of wild-type STM. The lymphocyte proliferation assay displayed a significant response of splenocytes from immunized mice when compared to splenocytes from non-immunized control mice. Furthermore, the immunized mice displayed significantly higher levels of IgG1 and IgG2a with a marked increase in IgG1. Additionally, immunization with the gidA mutant strain evoked higher levels of IL-2, IFN-?, and IL-10 cytokines in splenocytes induced with STM cell lysate. Conclusions Together, the results demonstrate that immunization with the gidA mutant strain protects mice by inducing humoral and cellular immune responses with the humoral immune response potentially being the main mechanism of protection. PMID:23194372

2012-01-01

284

[Some properties of a mutant of Streptomyces globisporus 1912 supersensitive to ultraviolet radiation].  

PubMed

A well-sporulating mutant Spo 1 has been isolated after the action of defective phage from the zone of total lysis of Streptomyces globisporus 1912. It has been shown, that mutant Spo 1 is supersensitive to the action of ultraviolet radiation and has the increased sensitivity to the action of methyl-methane-sulfonate, has mutation in the cluster of genes of synthesis of landomycin E and is not sensitive to the action of nitrous acid and hydrogen peroxide. Spo 1 also has a high level of UV-mutability. After the action of UV on spores 4620 colonies were analysed and 17 auxotrophic mutants (0.36%) were selected. Four auxotrophs restored their ability to produce landomycin E and a partial block of synthesis of the antibiotic was observed in six auxotrophs. Seven of white (lnd E) auxotrophs were analysed with the help of a system "secretor-conventer" and it has been shown that two mutants do not synthesize daidzeine flavonoide and have genotype lnd E dai aux uvs, five of them were capable to synthesize this flavonoide and have genotype lnd dai(+) aux uvs. Initial species of S. globisporus 1912 has increased sensitivity to lethal action of UV. It is supposed that mutant Spo 1 bears two uvs-mutations. PMID:15515898

Lavrinchuk, V Ia; Matseliukh, B P; Tymchyk, O V

2004-01-01

285

Mutant KRAS as a critical determinant of the therapeutic response of colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the KRAS oncogene represent one of the most prevalent genetic alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC), the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the US. In addition to their well-characterized function in driving tumor progression, KRAS mutations have been recognized as a critical determinant of the therapeutic response of CRC. Recent studies demonstrate that KRAS-mutant tumors are intrinsically insensitive to clinically-used epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting antibodies, including cetuximab and panitumumab. Acquired resistance to the anti-EGFR therapy was found to be associated with enrichment of KRAS-mutant tumor cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of mutant-KRAS-mediated therapeutic resistance has remained unclear. Despite intensive efforts, directly targeting mutant KRAS has been largely unsuccessful. This review summarizes the recent advances in understanding the biological function of KRAS mutations in determining the therapeutic response of CRC, highlighting several recently developed agents and strategies for targeting mutant KRAS, such as synthetic lethal interactions.

Knickelbein, Kyle; Zhang, Lin

2014-01-01

286

MutMap+: Genetic Mapping and Mutant Identification without Crossing in Rice  

PubMed Central

Advances in genome sequencing technologies have enabled researchers and breeders to rapidly associate phenotypic variation to genome sequence differences. We recently took advantage of next-generation sequencing technology to develop MutMap, a method that allows rapid identification of causal nucleotide changes of rice mutants by whole genome resequencing of pooled DNA of mutant F2 progeny derived from crosses made between candidate mutants and the parental line. Here we describe MutMap+, a versatile extension of MutMap, that identifies causal mutations by comparing SNP frequencies of bulked DNA of mutant and wild-type progeny of M3 generation derived from selfing of an M2 heterozygous individual. Notably, MutMap+ does not necessitate artificial crossing between mutants and the wild-type parental line. This method is therefore suitable for identifying mutations that cause early development lethality, sterility, or generally hamper crossing. Furthermore, MutMap+ is potentially useful for gene isolation in crops that are recalcitrant to artificial crosses. PMID:23874658

Abe, Akira; Natsume, Satoshi; Yaegashi, Hiroki; Sharma, Shailendra; Sharma, Shiveta; Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Hideo; Saitoh, Hiromasa; Mitsuoka, Chikako; Utsushi, Hiroe; Uemura, Aiko; Kanzaki, Eiko; Kosugi, Shunichi; Yoshida, Kentaro; Cano, Liliana; Kamoun, Sophien; Terauchi, Ryohei

2013-01-01

287

How does Listeria monocytogenes combat acid conditions?  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes, a major foodborne pathogen, possesses a number of mechanisms that enable it to combat the challenges posed by acidic environments, such as that of acidic foods and the gastrointestinal tract. One mechanism employed by L. monocytogenes for survival at low pH is the adaptive acid tolerance response (ATR) in which a short adaptive period at a nonlethal pH induces metabolic changes that allow the organism to survive a lethal pH. Overcoming acid conditions by L. monocytogenes involves a variety of regulatory responses, including the LisRK 2-component regulatory system, the SOS response, components of the ?(B) regulon, changes in membrane fluidity, the F0F1-ATPase proton pump, and at least 2 enzymatic systems that regulate internal hydrogen ion concentration (glutamate decarboxylase and arginine deiminase). It is not clear if these mechanisms exert their protective effects separately or in concert, but it is probable that these mechanisms overlap. Studies using mutants indicate that the glutamate decarboxylase system can protect L. monocytogenes when the organism is present in acidic juices, yogurt, salad dressing, mayonnaise, and modified CO2 atmospheres. The glutamate decarboxylase system also has a role in protecting L. monocytogenes against the acidic environment of the stomach. There is a need to study other acid resistance mechanisms of L. monocytogenes to determine their effectiveness in protecting the organism in acidic foods or during transit through the acid stomach. PMID:23540331

Smith, James L; Liu, Yanhong; Paoli, George C

2013-03-01

288

A genetic and physiological analysis of late flowering mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monogenic mutants of the early ecotype Landsberg erecta were selected on the basis of late flowering under long day (LD) conditions after treatment with ethyl methanesulphonate or irradiation. In addition to later flowering the number of rosette and cauline leaves is proportionally higher in all mutants, although the correlation coefficient between the two parameters is not the same for all

M. Koornneef; C. J. Hanhart; J. H. Veen

1991-01-01

289

Two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of the regulation of SOS proteins in three ssb mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously undescribed mutation in the ssb gene, which codes for a major single strand DNA binding protein essential for DNA repelication, was mapped on the Escherichia coli Chromosome. Three ssb mutants were analyzed under parallel physiological conditions for the induction of SOS proteins (products of recA, uvrA, and an unknown gene), the production of mutants, the induction of lambda

Ben F. Johnson

1984-01-01

290

Proton suicide: general method for direct selection of sugar transport- and fermentation-defective mutants  

SciTech Connect

A positive selection procedure was devised for bacterial mutants incapable of producing acid from sugars by fermentation. The method relied on the production of elemental bromine from a mixture of bromide and bromate under acidic conditions. When wild-type Escherichia coli cells were plated on media containing a fermentable sugar and an equimolar mixture of bromide and bromate, most of the cells were killed but a variety of mutants unable to produce acid from the sugar survived. Among these mutants were those defective in (i) sugar uptake, (ii) the glycolytic pathway, and (iii) the excretion. There were also novel mutants with some presumed regulatory defects affecting fermentation.

Winkelman, J.W.; Clark, D.P.

1984-11-01

291

Regulation of apoptosis by lethal cytokines in human mesothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation of apoptosis by lethal cytokines in human mesothelial cells.BackgroundDysregulation of peritoneal cell death may contribute to the complications of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Chronic peritoneal dialysis and acute peritonitis are both associated with loss of mesothelial cells. In addition, acute peritonitis is characterized by sudden changes in the number of peritoneal leukocytes. However, the factors regulating peritoneal cell survival are

Marina Penélope Catalan; Dolores Subirá; Ana Reyero; Rafael Selgas; Arturo Ortiz-Gonzalez; Jesús Egido; Alberto Ortiz

2003-01-01

292

Histopathological effects of anthrax lethal factor on rat liver.  

PubMed

Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, has become an increasingly important scientific topic due to its potential role in bioterrorism. The lethal toxin (LT) of B. anthracis consists of lethal factor (LF) and a protective antigen (PA). This study investigated whether only lethal factor was efficient as a hepatotoxin in the absence of the PA. To achieve this aim, LF (100 µg/kg body weight, dissolved in sterile distilled water) or distilled water vehicle were intraperitoneally injected once into adult rats. At 24 h post-injection, the hosts were euthanized and their livers removed and tissue samples examined under light and electron microscopes. As a result of LF application, hepatic injury - including cytoplasmic and nuclear damage in hepatocytes, sinusoidal dilatation, and hepatocellular lysis - became apparent. Further, light microscopic analyses of liver sections from the LF-injected rats revealed ballooning degeneration and cytoplasmic loss within hepatocytes, as well as peri-sinusoidal inflammation. Additionally, an increase in the numbers of Kupffer cells was evident. Common vascular injuries were also found in the liver samples; these injuries caused hypoxia and pathological changes. In addition, some cytoplasmic and nuclear changes were detected within the liver ultrastructure. The results of these studies allow one to suggest that LF could be an effective toxicant alone and that PA might act in situ to modify the effect of this agent (or the reverse situation wherein LF modifies effects of PA) such that lethality results. PMID:24344743

Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Ozbek, Elvan

2015-01-01

293

ACUTE LETHALITY OF COPPER, CADMIUM, AND ZINC TO NORTHERN SQUAWFISH  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow-through acute toxicity tests on juvenile northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were conducted with copper, cadmium, and zinc. The 96-hour median lethal concentrations were 18 micrograms/liter for copper, 1,104 micrograms/liter for cadmium, and 3,693 micrograms/liter...

294

Annotating novel genes by integrating synthetic lethals and genomic information  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Large scale screening for synthetic lethality serves as a common tool in yeast genetics to systematically search for genes that play a role in specific biological processes. Often the amounts of data resulting from a single large scale screen far exceed the capacities of experimental characterization of every identified target. Thus, there is need for computational tools that select

Daniel Schöner; Markus Kalisch; Christian Leisner; Lukas Meier; Marc Sohrmann; Mahamadou Faty; Yves Barral; Matthias Peter; Wilhelm Gruissem; Peter Bühlmann

2008-01-01

295

Anthrax Toxin Receptor 2Dependent Lethal Toxin Killing In Vivo  

E-print Network

Anthrax Toxin Receptor 2­Dependent Lethal Toxin Killing In Vivo Heather M. Scobie1,2 , Darran J Jolla, California, United States of America Anthrax toxin receptors 1 and 2 (ANTXR1 and ANTXR2) have by residue D683 of the protective antigen (PA) subunit of anthrax toxin. The receptor-bound metal ion and PA

Sejnowski, Terrence J.

296

Hyperinsulinaemia: A prospective risk factor for lethal clinical prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have suggested that hyperinsulinaemia and other components of metabolic syndrome are risk factors for clinical prostate cancer. This prospective study tested the hypothesis that hyperinsulinaemia and other components of metabolic syndrome are risk factors for lethal clinical prostate cancer. The clinical, haemodynamic, anthropometric, metabolic and insulin profile at baseline in men who had died from clinical prostate cancer

Jan Hammarsten; Benkt Högstedt

2005-01-01

297

Effect of sublethal and lethal temperature on plant cells.  

PubMed

Soybean, Glycine max L., and elodea, Elodea canadensis Michx, leaves were exposed to sublethal and lethal temperatures and examined by light microscopy. Loss of chlorophyll and swollen chloroplasts were observed in cells of elodea leaves exposed to sublethal temperatures. At the thermal death point of leaf cells of elodea and soybean, there was a disorganization of the tonoplast membrane, plasmalemma, and chloroplast membranes. Approximately 40% of the cells in elodea and 50% of the cells in soybean leaves exhibited oriteria of cell death when exposed to a temperature which induced necrotic leaf tissue. Plasmolysis of leaf cells of elodea and soybean occurred at lethal temperatures, but did not appear to be the primary cause of cellular death. The primary effect of lethal temperatures on the leaf cells used in these experiments is disintegration of the cellular membranes.Following exposure of attached elodea leaves to lethal temperatures, changes in leaf cells were periodically observed with a light microscope. In low temperature treatments, (43 through 52 degrees ), the percentages of cells exhibiting criteria of death 12 days after treatment did not change from the percentages determined immediately after treatment. All treatments above 52 degrees resulted in 40% or more of the cells exhibiting criteria of cell death immediately after treatment. In these treatments, this resulted in all cells exhibiting criteria of death on the fourth day after treatment. PMID:16657257

Daniell, J W; Chappell, W E; Couch, H B

1969-12-01

298

Small Molecule Inhibitors of Anthrax Lethal Factor Toxin  

PubMed Central

This manuscript describes the preparation of new small molecule inhibitors of Bacillus anthracis lethal factor. Our starting point was the symmetrical, bis-quinolinyl compound 1 (NSC 12155). Optimization of one half of this molecule led to new LF inhibitors that were desymmetrized to afford more drug-like compounds. PMID:24290062

Williams, John D.; Khan, Atiyya R.; Cardinale, Steven C.; Butler, Michelle M.; Bowlin, Terry L.; Peet, Norton P.

2014-01-01

299

Cardiotoxic and Lethal Effects of Listeria monocytogenes Hemolysin  

PubMed Central

Cardiotoxic and lethal effects of Listeria monocytogenes hemolysin were studied in CD-1 mice injected with varying doses of hemolysin. Intravenous injection of 100 complete hemolytic units (CHU) caused 100% lethality within 4 to 5 min. Doses ranging from 40 to 50 CHU caused death of approximately 50% of the animals. Adrenergic blocking agents and antihistamine failed to protect mice against lethality and thereby suggested that death was not due to release of vasoactive agents by hemolysin. Plasma levels of creatine phosphokinase increased after intravenous administration of hemolysin and suggested myopathy, possibly of the myocardium. Electrocardiograms from hemolysin-treated mice indicated serious alterations in heart rate and rhythm, suggesting damage to contractile and pacemaker cardiac tissue. In addition, there were indications of increased potassium levels influencing the heart. Presumably, death was due to functional damage to heart muscle and electrical arrest. The cardiotoxic and lethal effects could be prevented by prior incubation of hemolysin with cholesterol, heating, or failure to reactivate the preparation with cysteine. PMID:16557744

Kingdon, G. Charles; Sword, C. P.

1970-01-01

300

Analysis of Ebola Glycoprotein Sequences from Strains of Varying Lethality  

E-print Network

Analysis of Ebola Glycoprotein Sequences from Strains of Varying Lethality Biochem 218 Spring 2002 Tammy Doukas tdoukas@stanford.edu I. Background and Significance Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a disease in humans, chimpanzees, and monkeys, caused by infection with Ebola virus, and associated with high

301

Physicians' Attitudes About Involvement in Lethal Injection for Capital Punishment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Physicians could play various roles in car- rying out capital punishment via lethal injection. Medi- cal societies like the American Medical Association (AMA) and American College of Physicians have established which roles are acceptable and which are disallowed. No one has explored physicians' attitudes toward their po- tential roles in this process. Methods: We surveyed physicians about how accept-

Neil Farber; Elizabeth B. Davis; Joan Weiner; Janine Jordan; E. Gil Boyer; Peter A. Ubel

2000-01-01

302

The Lethal "Femme Fatale" in the Noir Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the lethal seductress through Hollywood's "noir" history from "Double Indemnity" (1944) to "The Last Seduction" (1996). Examines how this figure largely abjures traditional romance and passive domesticity, choosing instead to apply her sexuality to homicidal plots toward greed. Argues that her narrative positioning serves as a barometer of…

Boozer, Jack

2000-01-01

303

Proteinase Mutants of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE  

PubMed Central

Fifty-nine mutants with reduced ability to cleave the chymotrypsin substrate N-acetyl-DL-phenylalanine ?-naphthyl ester have been isolated in S. cerevisiae. All have reduced levels of one or more of the three well-characterized proteinases in yeast. All have reduced levels of proteinase C (carboxy-peptidase Y). These mutations define 16 complementation groups. PMID:320092

Jones, Elizabeth W.

1977-01-01

304

Properties of Mutants of Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 Lacking Inorganic Carbon Sequestration Systems  

SciTech Connect

A mutant ( 5) of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 constructed by inactivating five inorganic carbon sequestration systems did not take up CO2 or HCO3– and was unable to grow in air with or without glucose. The 4 mutant in which BicA is the only active inorganic carbon sequestration system showed low activity of HCO3– uptake and grew under these conditions but more slowly than the wild-type strain. The 5 mutant required 1.7% CO2 to attain half the maximal growth rate. Electron transport activity of the mutants was strongly inhibited under high light intensities, with the 5 mutant more susceptible to high light than the 4 mutant. The results implicated the significance of carbon sequestration in dissipating excess light energy.

Xu, Min; Bernat, Gabor; Singh, Abhay K.; Mi, Hualing; Rogner, Matthias; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Ogawa, Teruo

2008-09-10

305

A multivariate model of stakeholder preference for lethal cat management.  

PubMed

Identifying stakeholder beliefs and attitudes is critical for resolving management conflicts. Debate over outdoor cat management is often described as a conflict between two groups, environmental advocates and animal welfare advocates, but little is known about the variables predicting differences among these critical stakeholder groups. We administered a mail survey to randomly selected stakeholders representing both of these groups (n=1,596) in Florida, where contention over the management of outdoor cats has been widespread. We used a structural equation model to evaluate stakeholder intention to support non-lethal management. The cognitive hierarchy model predicted that values influenced beliefs, which predicted general and specific attitudes, which in turn, influenced behavioral intentions. We posited that specific attitudes would mediate the effect of general attitudes, beliefs, and values on management support. Model fit statistics suggested that the final model fit the data well (CFI=0.94, RMSEA=0.062). The final model explained 74% of the variance in management support, and positive attitudes toward lethal management (humaneness) had the largest direct effect on management support. Specific attitudes toward lethal management and general attitudes toward outdoor cats mediated the relationship between positive (p<0.05) and negative cat-related impact beliefs (p<0.05) and support for management. These results supported the specificity hypothesis and the use of the cognitive hierarchy to assess stakeholder intention to support non-lethal cat management. Our findings suggest that stakeholders can simultaneously perceive both positive and negative beliefs about outdoor cats, which influence attitudes toward and support for non-lethal management. PMID:24736744

Wald, Dara M; Jacobson, Susan K

2014-01-01

306

A Multivariate Model of Stakeholder Preference for Lethal Cat Management  

PubMed Central

Identifying stakeholder beliefs and attitudes is critical for resolving management conflicts. Debate over outdoor cat management is often described as a conflict between two groups, environmental advocates and animal welfare advocates, but little is known about the variables predicting differences among these critical stakeholder groups. We administered a mail survey to randomly selected stakeholders representing both of these groups (n?=?1,596) in Florida, where contention over the management of outdoor cats has been widespread. We used a structural equation model to evaluate stakeholder intention to support non-lethal management. The cognitive hierarchy model predicted that values influenced beliefs, which predicted general and specific attitudes, which in turn, influenced behavioral intentions. We posited that specific attitudes would mediate the effect of general attitudes, beliefs, and values on management support. Model fit statistics suggested that the final model fit the data well (CFI?=?0.94, RMSEA?=?0.062). The final model explained 74% of the variance in management support, and positive attitudes toward lethal management (humaneness) had the largest direct effect on management support. Specific attitudes toward lethal management and general attitudes toward outdoor cats mediated the relationship between positive (p<0.05) and negative cat-related impact beliefs (p<0.05) and support for management. These results supported the specificity hypothesis and the use of the cognitive hierarchy to assess stakeholder intention to support non-lethal cat management. Our findings suggest that stakeholders can simultaneously perceive both positive and negative beliefs about outdoor cats, which influence attitudes toward and support for non-lethal management. PMID:24736744

Wald, Dara M.; Jacobson, Susan K.

2014-01-01

307

Burkholderia pseudomallei Known Siderophores and Hemin Uptake Are Dispensable for Lethal Murine Melioidosis  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia pseudomallei is a mostly saprophytic bacterium, but can infect humans where it causes the difficult-to-manage disease melioidosis. Even with proper diagnosis and prompt therapeutic interventions mortality rates still range from >20% in Northern Australia to over 40% in Thailand. Surprisingly little is yet known about how B. pseudomallei infects, invades and survives within its hosts, and virtually nothing is known about the contribution of critical nutrients such as iron to the bacterium's pathogenesis. It was previously assumed that B. pseudomallei used iron-acquisition systems commonly found in other bacteria, for example siderophores. However, our previous discovery of a clinical isolate carrying a large chromosomal deletion missing the entire malleobactin gene cluster encoding the bacterium's major high-affinity siderophore while still being fully virulent in a murine melioidosis model suggested that other iron-acquisition systems might make contributions to virulence. Here, we deleted the major siderophore malleobactin (mba) and pyochelin (pch) gene clusters in strain 1710b and revealed a residual siderophore activity which was unrelated to other known Burkholderia siderophores such as cepabactin and cepaciachelin, and not due to increased secretion of chelators such as citrate. Deletion of the two hemin uptake loci, hmu and hem, showed that Hmu is required for utilization of hemin and hemoglobin and that Hem cannot complement a Hmu deficiency. Prolonged incubation of a hmu hem mutant in hemoglobin-containing minimal medium yielded variants able to utilize hemoglobin and hemin suggesting alternate pathways for utilization of these two host iron sources. Lactoferrin utilization was dependent on malleobactin, but not pyochelin synthesis and/or uptake. A mba pch hmu hem quadruple mutant could use ferritin as an iron source and upon intranasal infection was lethal in an acute murine melioidosis model. These data suggest that B. pseudomallei may employ a novel ferritin-iron acquisition pathway as a means to sustain in vivo growth. PMID:22745846

Kvitko, Brian H.; Goodyear, Andrew; Propst, Katie L.; Dow, Steven W.; Schweizer, Herbert P.

2012-01-01

308

Burkholderia pseudomallei known siderophores and hemin uptake are dispensable for lethal murine melioidosis.  

PubMed

Burkholderia pseudomallei is a mostly saprophytic bacterium, but can infect humans where it causes the difficult-to-manage disease melioidosis. Even with proper diagnosis and prompt therapeutic interventions mortality rates still range from >20% in Northern Australia to over 40% in Thailand. Surprisingly little is yet known about how B. pseudomallei infects, invades and survives within its hosts, and virtually nothing is known about the contribution of critical nutrients such as iron to the bacterium's pathogenesis. It was previously assumed that B. pseudomallei used iron-acquisition systems commonly found in other bacteria, for example siderophores. However, our previous discovery of a clinical isolate carrying a large chromosomal deletion missing the entire malleobactin gene cluster encoding the bacterium's major high-affinity siderophore while still being fully virulent in a murine melioidosis model suggested that other iron-acquisition systems might make contributions to virulence. Here, we deleted the major siderophore malleobactin (mba) and pyochelin (pch) gene clusters in strain 1710b and revealed a residual siderophore activity which was unrelated to other known Burkholderia siderophores such as cepabactin and cepaciachelin, and not due to increased secretion of chelators such as citrate. Deletion of the two hemin uptake loci, hmu and hem, showed that Hmu is required for utilization of hemin and hemoglobin and that Hem cannot complement a Hmu deficiency. Prolonged incubation of a hmu hem mutant in hemoglobin-containing minimal medium yielded variants able to utilize hemoglobin and hemin suggesting alternate pathways for utilization of these two host iron sources. Lactoferrin utilization was dependent on malleobactin, but not pyochelin synthesis and/or uptake. A mba pch hmu hem quadruple mutant could use ferritin as an iron source and upon intranasal infection was lethal in an acute murine melioidosis model. These data suggest that B. pseudomallei may employ a novel ferritin-iron acquisition pathway as a means to sustain in vivo growth. PMID:22745846

Kvitko, Brian H; Goodyear, Andrew; Propst, Katie L; Dow, Steven W; Schweizer, Herbert P

2012-01-01

309

Behavioral and pheromonal phenotypes associated with expression of loss-of-function mutations in the sex-lethal gene of Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

We have shown that female-specific functions of the sex determination gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) regulate sexual behavior and synthesis of the three major sex pheromones that have been identified in normal, sexually mature Drosophilia melanogaster males and virgin females. Diplo-X flies, heterozygous in trans for two partial loss-of-function Sxl mutations, elicit less courtship than normal females and produce large quantities of the inhibitory pheromones that normal males synthesize. In addition, the mutant flies fail to synthesize the female-predominant aphrodisiac pheromone or make very small quantities of this compound. PMID:7760212

Tompkins, L; McRobert, S P

1995-02-01

310

Development of a non-lethal method for evaluating transcriptomic endpoints in Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus).  

PubMed

With increases in active mining and continued discharge associated with former mine operations, evaluating the health of watersheds in the Canadian Yukon Territory is warranted. Current environmental assessment approaches often employ guidelines established using sentinel species not relevant to Arctic monitoring programs. The present study focused on the successful development of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay directed towards the indigenous Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and examines the feasibility of using non-lethal sampling from the caudal fin as a means for evaluation of mRNA abundance profiles reflective of environmental conditions. In a proof of concept study performed blind, qPCR results from animals in an area with elevated water concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) and higher body burdens of Cd, Zn, and lead (Pb) were compared to a reference location in the Yukon Territory. Lower condition factor and a higher abundance of hepatic and caudal fin gene transcripts encoding the metallothionein isoforms (mta/mtb), in addition to elevated heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and catalase (cat) mRNAs in liver, were observed in fish from the test site. The strong positive correlation between metal body burden and caudal fin mta/mtb mRNA abundance demonstrates a high potential for use of the Arctic grayling assay in non-lethal environmental monitoring programs. PMID:24780232

Veldhoen, Nik; Beckerton, Jean E; Mackenzie-Grieve, Jody; Stevenson, Mitchel R; Truelson, Robert L; Helbing, Caren C

2014-07-01

311

Altered lipid composition in Streptococcus pneumoniae cpoA mutants  

PubMed Central

Background Penicillin-resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae is mainly due to alterations in genes encoding the target enzymes for beta-lactams, the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). However, non-PBP genes are altered in beta-lactam-resistant laboratory mutants and confer decreased susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics. Two piperacillin resistant laboratory mutants of Streptococcus pneumoniae R6 contain mutations in the putative glycosyltransferase gene cpoA. The CpoA gene is part of an operon including another putative glycosyltransferase gene spr0982, both of which being homologous to glycolipid synthases present in other Gram-positive bacteria. Results We now show that the cpoA mutants as well as a cpoA deletion mutant are defective in the synthesis of galactosyl-glucosyl-diacylglycerol (GalGlcDAG) in vivo consistent with the in vitro function of CpoA as ?-GalGlcDAG synthase as shown previously. In addition, the proportion of phosphatidylglycerol increased relative to cardiolipin in cpoA mutants. Moreover, cpoA mutants are more susceptible to acidic stress, have an increased requirement for Mg2+ at low pH, reveal a higher resistance to lysis inducing conditions and are hypersensitive to bacitracin. Conclusions The data show that deficiency of the major glycolipid GalGlcDAG causes a pleitotropic phenotype of cpoA mutant cells consistent with severe membrane alterations. We suggest that the cpoA mutations selected with piperacillin are directed against the lytic response induced by the beta-lactam antibiotic. PMID:24443834

2014-01-01

312

Cold-sensitive Mutants of Neurospora crassa  

PubMed Central

Cold-sensitive mutants of the eucaryote Neurospora crassa have been isolated by a modification of the filtration-enrichment technique of Catcheside. The mutants include osmotic remedial, auxotrophic, transport, and incorporation deficient isolates. PMID:4269583

Roberds, Doris R.; DeBusk, A. Gib

1973-01-01

313

Molybdenum cofactor negative mutants of Escherichia coli use citrate anaerobically.  

PubMed

Anaerobically, Escherichia coli cannot grow using either glycerol or citrate as sole carbon and energy source. However, it has been reported that a mixture of glycerol and citrate will support growth. We have found that wild-type strains of E. coli K-12 do not grow on glycerol plus citrate anaerobically. However, growth eventually occurs due to the frequent appearance of mutants. We found that such Cit+ mutants were defective in anaerobic respiration with nitrate or trimethylamine-N-oxide and were chlorate resistant (i.e. molybdenum cofactor deficient). Conversely, well characterized mutants in any of chlA, B, D, E, G and N were also able to use citrate anaerobically. No anaerobic growth differences between wild type and chl mutants were observed either with fermentable sugars or with glycerol plus fumarate or glycerol plus tartrate. Citrate lyase was induced anaerobically by citrate and repressed by glucose in both wild type strains and chl mutants. Furthermore, levels of citrate lyase, fumarate reductase, malate dehydrogenase, fumarase and alcohol dehydrogenase were similar in both types of strains under anaerobic conditions. It is conceivable that a functioning molybdenum cofactor prevents use of citrate by keeping citrate lyase in the inactive form. PMID:2182384

Clark, D P

1990-02-01

314

Ion Conductance of the Stem of the Anthrax Toxin Channel during Lethal Factor Translocation.  

PubMed

The tripartite anthrax toxin consists of protective antigen, lethal factor (LF), and edema factor. PA63 (the 63-kDa, C-terminal part of protective antigen) forms heptameric channels in cell membranes that allow for the transport of LF and edema factor into the cytosol. These channels are mushroom shaped, with a ring of seven phenylalanine residues (known as the phenylalanine clamp) lining the junction between the cap and the stem. It is known that when LF is translocated through the channel, the phenylalanine clamp creates a seal that causes an essentially complete block of conduction. In order to examine ion conductance in the stem of the channel, we used Venus yellow fluorescent protein as a molecular stopper to trap LFN (the 30-kDa, 263-residue N-terminal segment of LF), as well as various truncated constructs of LFN, in mutant channels in which the phenylalanine clamp residues were mutated to alanines. Here we present evidence that ion movement occurs within the channel stem (but is stopped, of course, at the phenylalanine clamp) during protein translocation. Furthermore, we also propose that the lower region of the stem plays an important role in securing peptide chains during translocation. PMID:24996036

Schiffmiller, Aviva; Finkelstein, Alan

2015-03-27

315

Overcoming myelosuppression due to synthetic lethal toxicity for FLT3-targeted acute myeloid leukemia therapy.  

PubMed

Activating mutations in FLT3 confer poor prognosis for individuals with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Clinically active investigational FLT3 inhibitors can achieve complete remissions but their utility has been hampered by acquired resistance and myelosuppression attributed to a 'synthetic lethal toxicity' arising from simultaneous inhibition of FLT3 and KIT. We report a novel chemical strategy for selective FLT3 inhibition while avoiding KIT inhibition with the staurosporine analog, Star 27. Star 27 maintains potency against FLT3 in proliferation assays of FLT3-transformed cells compared with KIT-transformed cells, shows no toxicity towards normal human hematopoiesis at concentrations that inhibit primary FLT3-mutant AML blast growth, and is active against mutations that confer resistance to clinical inhibitors. As a more complete understanding of kinase networks emerges, it may be possible to define anti-targets such as KIT in the case of AML to allow improved kinase inhibitor design of clinical agents with enhanced efficacy and reduced toxicity. PMID:25531068

Warkentin, Alexander A; Lopez, Michael S; Lasater, Elisabeth A; Lin, Kimberly; He, Bai-Liang; Leung, Anskar Yh; Smith, Catherine C; Shah, Neil P; Shokat, Kevan M

2014-01-01

316

Anthrax lethal toxin paralyzes actin-based motility by blocking Hsp27 phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Inhalation of anthrax causes fatal bacteremia, indicating a meager host immune response. We previously showed that anthrax lethal toxin (LT) paralyzes neutrophils, a major component of innate immunity. Here, we have found that LT also inhibits actin-based motility of the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. LT inhibition of actin assembly is mediated by blockade of Hsp27 phosphorylation, and can be reproduced by treating cells with the p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitor SB203580. Nonphosphorylated Hsp27 inhibits Listeria actin-based motility in cell extracts, and binds to and sequesters purified actin monomers. Phosphorylation of Hsp27 reverses these effects. RNA interference knockdown of Hsp27 blocks LT inhibition of Listeria actin-based motility. Rescue with wild-type Hsp27 accelerates Listeria speed in knockdown cells, whereas introduction of Hsp27 mutants incapable of phosphorylation or dephosphorylation causes slowing down. We propose that Hsp27 facilitates actin-based motility through a phosphorylation cycle that shuttles actin monomers to regions of new actin filament assembly. Our findings provide a previously unappreciated mechanism for LT virulence, and emphasize a central role for p38 MAP kinase-mediated phosphorylation of Hsp27 in actin-based motility and innate immunity. PMID:17446863

During, Russell L; Gibson, Bruce G; Li, Wei; Bishai, Ellen A; Sidhu, Gurjit S; Landry, Jacques; Southwick, Frederick S

2007-05-01

317

Identification of An Arsenic Tolerant Double Mutant With a Thiol-Mediated Component And Increased Arsenic Tolerance in PhyA Mutants  

SciTech Connect

A genetic screen was performed to isolate mutants showing increased arsenic tolerance using an Arabidopsis thaliana population of activation tagged lines. The most arsenic-resistant mutant shows increased arsenate and arsenite tolerance. Genetic analyses of the mutant indicate that the mutant contains two loci that contribute to arsenic tolerance, designated ars4 and ars5. The ars4ars5 double mutant contains a single T-DNA insertion, ars4, which co-segregates with arsenic tolerance and is inserted in the Phytochrome A (PHYA) gene, strongly reducing the expression of PHYA. When grown under far-red light conditions ars4ars5 shows the same elongated hypocotyl phenotype as the previously described strong phyA-211 allele. Three independent phyA alleles, ars4, phyA-211 and a new T-DNA insertion allele (phyA-t) show increased tolerance to arsenate, although to a lesser degree than the ars4ars5 double mutant. Analyses of the ars5 single mutant show that ars5 exhibits stronger arsenic tolerance than ars4, and that ars5 is not linked to ars4. Arsenic tolerance assays with phyB-9 and phot1/phot2 mutants show that these photoreceptor mutants do not exhibit phyA-like arsenic tolerance. Fluorescence HPLC analyses show that elevated levels of phytochelatins were not detected in ars4, ars5 or ars4ars5, however increases in the thiols cysteine, gamma-glutamylcysteine and glutathione were observed. Compared with wild type, the total thiol levels in ars4, ars5 and ars4ars5 mutants were increased up to 80% with combined buthionine sulfoximine and arsenic treatments, suggesting the enhancement of mechanisms that mediate thiol synthesis in the mutants. The presented findings show that PHYA negatively regulates a pathway conferring arsenic tolerance, and that an enhanced thiol synthesis mechanism contributes to the arsenic tolerance of ars4ars5.

Sung, D.Y.; Lee, D.; Harris, H.; Raab, A.; Feldmann, J.; Meharg, A.; Kumabe, B.; Komives, E.A.; Schroeder, J.I.; /SLAC, SSRL /Sydney U. /Aberdeen U. /UC, San Diego

2007-04-06

318

Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

Szeberenyi, Jozsef

2010-01-01

319

The genetic characteristics Saccharomyces cerevisiae aci(+) mutants.  

PubMed

A series of 30 Saccharomyces cerevisiae aci(+) mutants (characterized as acidifying Ogur's glucose medium containing bromocresol purple) were isolated after EMS mutagenesis. All the mutants excreted acid metabolites to the medium after 24 or 48 hours of incubation. The character of the aci(+) mutations was defined using classical genetic techniques. Three of the aci(+) mutants were studied by molecular genetics techniques. PMID:12813559

Grochowalska, Renata; Machnicka, Beata; Wysocki, Robert; Lachowicz, Tadeusz M

2003-01-01

320

? Mutants Which Persist as Plasmids  

PubMed Central

Lambda phages mutated in gene N do not kill sensitive host bacteria, but persist as plasmids. Plasmids are formed by genomes containing cI+, and also by sus, ts, or c mutants of cI. Bacteria infected with two or more phage particles give rise to clones in which most of the bacteria are carriers. The introduced ? genomes replicate more than once per bacterial division until there are 10 to 20 ? plasmids per host genome. In bacteria containing both F and ? plasmids, both replicate independently, and elimination by growth in acridine orange is also independent. Carriers of ? Nsus plasmids are not immune, and there is complementation between the plasmids and superinfecting ? mutants. PMID:4925775

Lieb, M.

1970-01-01

321

HTST Milk Processing: Evaluating the Thermal Lethality inside Plate Heat Exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the design of HTST processes, the lethality inside the plate heat exchanger and the heat loss at the holding tube are usually neglected. Thus, the thermal processing becomes more intensive than required and nutrient and sensorial losses may occur. In this work, the overall thermal lethality in milk pasteurization is evaluated by taking into account the lethality throughout the

2004-01-01

322

Characterization of an avirulent pleiotropic mutant of the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis: reduced expression of flagellin and phospholipases.  

PubMed Central

An avirulent pleiotropic mutant of the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. gelechiae, isolated by Heierson et al. (A. Heierson, I. Sidén, A. Kivaisi, and H. G. Boman, J. Bacteriol. 167:18-24, 1986) as a spontaneous phage-resistant mutant, was further characterized and found to lack the expression of phosphatidylcholine- and phosphatidylinositol-degrading phospholipase C, beta-lactamase, and flagellin because of the absence of corresponding mRNAs. The avirulent mutant was also found to be less efficient in killing insect cells in vitro than the wild type and to have altered behavior in vivo; wild-type B. thuringiensis does not circulate in the insect hemolymph after injection, whereas the avirulent mutant and nonpathogenic control bacteria remain in circulation. Flagella and motility may be important for virulence in the early stages of an infection; mutants with decreased motility appear less virulent when fed to Trichoplusia ni but not when injected. The 50% lethal doses of wild-type strain Bt13 and avirulent mutant strain Bt1302 were estimated to be 0.52 +/- 0.25 and 2,600 +/- 1,300 CFU per injected larva, respectively. Images PMID:7693592

Zhang, M Y; Lövgren, A; Low, M G; Landén, R

1993-01-01

323

The lethal and sub-lethal consequences of entomopathogenic nematode infestation and exposure for adult pine weevils, Hylobius abietis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) frequently kill their host within 1–2days, and interest in EPN focuses mainly on their lethality. However, insects may take longer to die, or may fail to die despite being infected, but little is known about the effects of EPN infection on insects, other than death. Here we investigate both lethal and sub-lethal effects of infection by two

R. D. Girling; D. Ennis; A. B. Dillon; C. T. Griffin

2010-01-01

324

Harnessing synthetic lethal interactions in anticancer drug discovery  

PubMed Central

Unique features of tumours that can be exploited by targeted therapies are a key focus of current cancer research. One such approach is known as synthetic lethality screening, which involves searching for genetic interactions of two mutations whereby the presence of either mutation alone has no effect on cell viability but the combination of the two mutations results in cell death. The presence of one of these mutations in cancer cells but not in normal cells can therefore create opportunities to selectively kill cancer cells by mimicking the effect of the second genetic mutation with targeted therapy. Here, we summarize strategies that can be used to identify synthetic lethal interactions for anticancer drug discovery, describe examples of such interactions that are currently being investigated in preclinical and clinical studies of targeted anticancer therapies, and discuss the challenges of realizing the full potential of such therapies. PMID:21532565

Chan, Denise A.; Giaccia, Amato J.

2013-01-01

325

Continuous flow nonthermal CO2 processing: the lethal effects of subcritical and supercritical CO2 on total microbial populations and bacterial spores in raw milk.  

PubMed

The effect of pressurized (<50 MPa) CO2 as a nonthermal process for bacterial reduction in raw skim milk was examined using a unique pressurized continuous flow system. The lethal effects of subcritical and super-critical CO2 applied at different temperatures and pressures toward total native psychrotrophic microbial populations, total inoculated Pseudomonas fluorescens, and total inoculated spore populations were studied and compared. Pressures between 10.3 and 48.3 MPa; temperatures of 15, 30, 35, and 40 degrees C; and CO2 concentrations of 0, 3, 66, and 132 g/kg of milk were studied. For both native populations and inoculated P. fluorescens, greater total microbial lethality was observed under supercritical CO2 conditions than under subcritical CO2 conditions. At 30 degrees C, there was no effect on total microbial lethality of increasing pressure up to 20.7 MPa with either 66 or 132 g/kg of CO2; at 35 degrees C, there was a positive relationship between pressure and lethality at CO2 levels of 132 g/kg, but no relationship at 66 g/kg of CO2. For total microbial populations and P. fluorescens, CO2 applied at 132 g/kg at 30 degrees C and pressures of 10.3 to 20.7 MPa resulted in an average standard plate count reduction of 3.81 and 2.93 log, respectively; at 35 degrees C and 20.7 MPa, maximum reductions achieved were 5.36 and 5.02 log, respectively. For both total microbial populations and inoculated P. fluorescens, CO2 exhibited a greater overall lethal effect at 132 g/kg than at 66 g/kg and a greater effect at 35 degrees C than at 30 degrees C. At 24.1 and 48.3 MPa and 40 degrees C, microbial lethality in raw aged milk treated with 3 g/kg of CO2 was not significantly different than that observed for uncarbonated milk; lethality achieved in milk treated with 132 g/kg of CO2 was significantly higher than that achieved in these 2 low-level CO2 treatments. No treatment studied had any significant impact on spore populations. Our work shows that, using the studied system, pressurized CO2 results in greater microbial lethality in milk above critical temperatures than below and suggests that a critical concentration threshold level of CO2 is required for lethal effects. Our work also suggests that supercritical CO2 processing in a continuous flow system can achieve reductions in some microbial populations equal to or better than that typically achieved during high-temperature, short-time pasteurization. PMID:16507680

Werner, B G; Hotchkiss, J H

2006-03-01

326

Aortocolic fistula, a lethal cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Aortocolic fistula occurs with spontaneous upture of aortic and iliac aneurysms into the sigmoid colon, or due to involvement\\u000a of the aneurysmal wall by acute diverticulitis. In the eight cases reviewed, this complication proved uniformly lethal, although\\u000a sufficient clinical findings were present for diagnosis, and adequate time was available for a planned therapeutic approach.\\u000a Lower gastrointestinal bleeding in the patient

Samuel E. Wilson; Milton L. Owens

1976-01-01

327

Lethal seizures predicted after aminophylline therapy in cocaine abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice with a history of chronic (10 days), but not acute, treatment with a non-convulsant dose of cocaine showed increased sensitivity (P<0.001) to the toxic effects of aminophylline (seizures, lethality) relative to controls even days after the cessation of cocaine treatment. The present finding suggests that individuals with a history of cocaine use may be at increased risk for convulsive

Maciej Gasior; Jesse T Ungard; Jeffrey M Witkin

2000-01-01

328

Intraguild relationships between sympatric predators exposed to lethal control: predator manipulation experiments  

PubMed Central

Introduction Terrestrial top-predators are expected to regulate and stabilise food webs through their consumptive and non-consumptive effects on sympatric mesopredators and prey. The lethal control of top-predators has therefore been predicted to inhibit top-predator function, generate the release of mesopredators and indirectly harm native fauna through trophic cascade effects. Understanding the outcomes of lethal control on interactions within terrestrial predator guilds is important for zoologists, conservation biologists and wildlife managers. However, few studies have the capacity to test these predictions experimentally, and no such studies have previously been conducted on the eclectic suite of native and exotic, mammalian and reptilian taxa we simultaneously assess. We conducted a series of landscape-scale, multi-year, manipulative experiments at nine sites spanning five ecosystem types across the Australian continental rangelands to investigate the responses of mesopredators (red foxes, feral cats and goannas) to contemporary poison-baiting programs intended to control top-predators (dingoes) for livestock protection. Result Short-term behavioural releases of mesopredators were not apparent, and in almost all cases, the three mesopredators we assessed were in similar or greater abundance in unbaited areas relative to baited areas, with mesopredator abundance trends typically either uncorrelated or positively correlated with top-predator abundance trends over time. The exotic mammals and native reptile we assessed responded similarly (poorly) to top-predator population manipulation. This is because poison baits were taken by multiple target and non-target predators and top-predator populations quickly recovered to pre-control levels, thus reducing the overall impact of baiting on top-predators and averting a trophic cascade. Conclusions These results are in accord with other predator manipulation experiments conducted worldwide, and suggest that Australian populations of native prey fauna at lower trophic levels are unlikely to be negatively affected by contemporary dingo control practices through the release of mesopredators. We conclude that contemporary lethal control practices used on some top-predator populations do not produce the conditions required to generate positive responses from mesopredators. Functional relationships between sympatric terrestrial predators may not be altered by exposure to spatially and temporally sporadic application of non-selective lethal control. PMID:23842144

2013-01-01

329

Analysis of mutant quantity and quality in human-hamster hybrid AL and AL-179 cells exposed to 137Cs-gamma or HZE-Fe ions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We measured the number of mutants and the kinds of mutations induced by 137Cs-gamma and by HZE-Fe (56Fe [600 MeV/amu, LET = 190 KeV/micrometer) in standard AL human hamster hybrid cells and in a new variant hybrid, AL-179. We found that HZE-Fe was more mutagenic than 137Cs-gamma per unit dose (about 1.6 fold), but was slightly less mutagenic per mean lethal dose, DO, at both the S1 and hprt- loci of AL cells. On the other hand, HZE-Fe induced about nine fold more complex S1- mutants than 137Cs-gamma rays, 28% vs 3%. 137Cs-gamma rays induced about twice as many S1- mutants and hprt-mutants in AL-179 as in AL cells, and about nine times more of the former were complex, and potentially unstable kinds of mutations.

Waldren, C.; Vannais, D.; Drabek, R.; Gustafson, D.; Kraemer, S.; Lenarczyk, M.; Kronenberg, A.; Hei, T.; Ueno, A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

330

5-Lipoxygenase Deficiency Reduces Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Lethality  

PubMed Central

5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) converts arachidonic acid into leukotrienes (LTs) and is involved in inflammation. At present, the participation of 5-LO in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity and liver damage has not been addressed. 5-LO deficient (5-LO?/?) mice and background wild type mice were challenged with APAP (0.3–6?g/kg) or saline. The lethality, liver damage, neutrophil and macrophage recruitment, LTB4, cytokine production, and oxidative stress were assessed. APAP induced a dose-dependent mortality, and the dose of 3?g/kg was selected for next experiments. APAP induced LTB4 production in the liver, the primary target organ in APAP toxicity. Histopathological analysis revealed that 5-LO?/? mice presented reduced APAP-induced liver necrosis and inflammation compared with WT mice. APAP-induced lethality, increase of plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, liver cytokine (IL-1?, TNF-?, IFN-?, and IL-10), superoxide anion, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production, myeloperoxidase and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase activity, Nrf2 and gp91phox mRNA expression, and decrease of reduced glutathione and antioxidant capacity measured by 2,2?-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonate) assay were prevented in 5-LO?/? mice compared to WT mice. Therefore, 5-LO deficiency resulted in reduced mortality due to reduced liver inflammatory and oxidative damage, suggesting 5-LO is a promising target to reduce APAP-induced lethality and liver inflammatory/oxidative damage. PMID:24288682

Hohmann, Miriam S. N.; Cardoso, Renato D. R.; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A.; Crespigio, Jefferson; Cunha, Thiago M.; Alves-Filho, José C.; da Silva, Rosiane V.; Pinge-Filho, Phileno; Ferreira, Sergio H.; Cunha, Fernando Q.; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A.

2013-01-01

331

Intact alternation performance in high lethality suicide attempters.  

PubMed

Suicide attempters often perform poorly on tasks linked to ventral prefrontal cortical (VPFC) function. Object Alternation (OA) - a VPFC probe - has not been used in these studies. In this study, currently depressed medication-free past suicide attempters whose most severe attempt was of high (n=31) vs. low (n=64) lethality, 114 medication-free depressed non-attempters, and 86 non-patients completed a computerized OA task. Participants also completed comparison tasks assessing the discriminant validity of OA (Wisconsin Card Sort), its concurrent validity relative to tasks associated with past attempt status (computerized Stroop task, Buschke Selective Reminding Test), and its construct validity as a VPFC measure (Go-No Go and Iowa Gambling Task). Against expectations, high lethality suicide attempters - the majority of whom used non-violent methods in their attempts with some planning - outperformed other depressed groups on OA, with no group differences observed on Wisconsin Card Sort. Despite intact performance on OA, past attempters exhibited deficits on the Stroop and Buschke. OA performance was associated with performance on Go-No Go and Iowa Gambling, confirming that OA measures a similar construct. VPFC dysfunction may not be a characteristic of all suicide attempters, especially those who make more carefully planned, non-violent - though potentially lethal - attempts. PMID:24878299

Keilp, John G; Wyatt, Gwinne; Gorlyn, Marianne; Oquendo, Maria A; Burke, Ainsley K; John Mann, J

2014-09-30

332

Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) coupling codes for use with the vulnerability/lethality (VIL) taxonomy. Final report, June-October 1984  

SciTech Connect

Based on the vulnerability Lethality (V/L) taxonomy developed by the Ballistic Vulnerability Lethality Division (BVLD) of the Survivability Lethality Analysis Directorate (SLAD), a nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) coupling V/L analysis taxonomy has been developed. A nuclear EMP threat to a military system can be divided into two levels: (1) coupling to a system level through a cable, antenna, or aperture; and (2) the component level. This report will focus on the initial condition, which includes threat definition and target description, as well as the mapping process from the initial condition to damaged components state. EMP coupling analysis at a system level is used to accomplish this. This report introduces the nature of EMP threat, interaction between the threat and target, and how the output of EMP coupling analysis at a system level becomes the input to the component level analysis. Many different tools (EMP coupling codes) will be discussed for the mapping process, which correponds to the physics of phenomenology. This EMP coupling V/L taxonomy and the models identified in this report will provide the tools necessary to conduct basic V/L analysis of EMP coupling.

Mar, M.H.

1995-07-01

333

Reduction of renal mass is lethal in mice lacking vimentin. Role of endothelin-nitric oxide imbalance.  

PubMed Central

Modulation of vascular tone by chemical and mechanical stimuli is a crucial adaptive phenomenon which involves cytoskeleton elements. Disruption, by homologous recombination, of the gene encoding vimentin, a class III intermediate filament protein mainly expressed in vascular cells, was reported to result in apparently normal phenotype under physiological conditions. In this study, we evaluated whether the lack of vimentin affects vascular adaptation to pathological situations, such as reduction of renal mass, a pathological condition which usually results in immediate and sustained vasodilation of the renal vascular bed. Ablation of 3/4 of renal mass was constantly lethal within 72 h in mice lacking vimentin (Vim-/-), whereas no lethality was observed in wild-type littermates. Death in Vim-/- mice resulted from end-stage renal failure. Kidneys from Vim-/- mice synthesized more endothelin, but less nitric oxide (NO), than kidneys from normal animals. In vitro, renal resistance arteries from Vim-/- mice were selectively more sensitive to endothelin, less responsive to NO-dependent vasodilators, and exhibited an impaired flow (shear stress)- induced vasodilation, which is NO dependent, as compared with those from normal littermates. Finally, in vivo administration of bosentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist, totally prevented lethality in Vim-/- mice. These results suggest that vimentin plays a key role in the modulation of vascular tone, possibly via the tuning of endothelin-nitric oxide balance. PMID:9294120

Terzi, F; Henrion, D; Colucci-Guyon, E; Federici, P; Babinet, C; Levy, B I; Briand, P; Friedlander, G

1997-01-01

334

Construction, characterization, and complementation of Rhodospirillum rubrum puf region mutants.  

PubMed

Rhodospirillum rubrum is a facultatively phototrophic bacterium that, under certain growth conditions, forms an intracytoplasmic chromatophore membrane (ICM) housing the photochemical apparatus. The puf operon of R. rubrum encodes protein subunits of the photochemical reaction center and the B880 light-harvesting antenna complex. Mutant strains of R. rubrum were constructed by interposon mutagenesis through which a kanamycin resistance gene cartridge was inserted into restriction sites and in place of restriction fragments of the puf region. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the defective copies of puf sequences had replaced their normal chromosomal counterparts through homologous recombination. The phenotypes of the mutant strains were evaluated on the basis of puf gene expression, spectral analysis, pigment content of membranes, and electron-microscopic examination of thin sections of cells grown under semi-aerobic and dark anaerobic conditions. Alterations of the puf region affect phototrophic competence and the formation of the ICM. The latter result implies an obligatory role for puf gene products in ICM formation in R. rubrum. One mutant with a deletion in puf structural genes was complemented in trans to the wild-type phenotype. Other mutants could be restored to the wild-type phenotype only by recombination. PMID:1715861

Hessner, M J; Wejksnora, P J; Collins, M L

1991-09-01

335

Rhizobium japonicum mutant strains unable to grow chemoautotrophically with H2.  

PubMed Central

Rhizobium japonicum strain SR grows chemoautotrophically on a mineral salts medium when incubated in an H2- and CO2-containing atmosphere. Mutant strains unable to grow or that grow very poorly chemoautotrophically with H2 have been isolated from strain SR. The mutant isolation procedure involved mutagenesis with ethyl methane sulfonate, penicillin selection under chemoautotrophic growth conditions, and plating of the survivors onto medium containing carbon. The resulting colonies were replica plated onto medium that did not contain carbon, and the plates were incubated in an H2- and CO2-containing atmosphere. Mutant strains unable to grow under these conditions were chosen. Over 100 mutant strains with defects in chemoautotrophic metabolism were obtained. The phenotypes of the mutants fall into various classes. These include strains unable to oxidize H2 and strains deficient in CO2 uptake. Some of the mutant strains were capable of oxidizing H2 only when artificial electron acceptors were provided. Two mutant strains specifically lack activity of the key CO2-fixing enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase. Other mutant strains lack both H2-oxidizing ability and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity. PMID:6780521

Maier, R J

1981-01-01

336

Assessing lethal and sub-lethal effects of trichlorfon on different trophic levels.  

PubMed

Trichlorfon (TCF) is one of the most used veterinary pharmaceuticals not only to fight infestations but also as a preventive measure worldwide. The high concentrations used generate concerns about environmental and human health. In this work we assessed the acute toxicity of this compound to non-target organisms belonging to different trophic levels: Danio rerio (early life stages and adults), Daphnia magna and algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris), and studied the potential of the biomarkers cholinesterase (ChE), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and catalase (CAT) to assess sub-lethal effects of trichlorfon in zebrafish and daphnids. The fish embryo test followed the OECD draft guideline FET and was based on the exposure of newly fertilized eggs to 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 mg/L of TCF for 5 days; the fish acute test followed the OECD guideline 203 and was based on the exposure of adult fish to 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/L of TCF for 4 days; Daphnia sp. immobilization assay followed the OECD guideline 202 and was based on the exposure of juvenile daphnids to 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1 and 2 ?g/L of TCF for 2 days and the algae growth inhibition assay followed the OECD guideline 201 and was based on the exposure of the two species to 0, 1, 3.2, 10, 32, 100 and 300 mg/L of TCF for 4 days. Biomarker levels were measured after 96 h exposure to TCF in zebrafish early life stages and adults and after 48 h exposure in D. magna. Tested organisms seem to have dissimilar sensitivities towards TCF exposure. D. magna (48 h-LC(50)=0.29 ?g/L) was the most sensitive organism, followed by early life stages and adults of zebrafish (96 h-LC(50)=25.4 and 28.8 mg/L, respectively) and finally by the algae P. subcapitata (96 h-LC(50)=274.5 mg/L) and C. vulgaris (no effect observed). As daphnids are a source of food for organisms of higher trophic levels, the impairment on its population is prone to have consequences in the entire ecosystem. The biomarker activities measured in daphnids and fish seemed to be useful tools in the assessment of trichlorfon effects, especially ChE activity which was the most sensitive biomarker tested for all organisms. Trichlorfon was teratogenic for zebrafish embryos leading to anomalies in the absorption of the yolk sac, spine bending and pericardial oedemas. The present research suggests that further work is urgently needed in order to monitor environmental concentrations of trichlorfon and to test the long term effects of environmentally realistic concentrations of this compound. PMID:21473847

Coelho, Sónia; Oliveira, Rhaul; Pereira, Susana; Musso, Carolina; Domingues, Inês; Bhujel, Ram C; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Nogueira, António J A

2011-06-01

337

An Allele of Sequoia Dominantly Enhances a Trio Mutant Phenotype to Influence Drosophila Larval Behavior  

PubMed Central

The transition of Drosophila third instar larvae from feeding, photo-phobic foragers to non-feeding, photo-neutral wanderers is a classic behavioral switch that precedes pupariation. The neuronal network responsible for this behavior has recently begun to be defined. Previous genetic analyses have identified signaling components for food and light sensory inputs and neuropeptide hormonal outputs as being critical for the forager to wanderer transition. Trio is a Rho-Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor integrated into a variety of signaling networks including those governing axon pathfinding in early development. Sequoia is a pan-neuronally expressed zinc-finger transcription factor that governs dendrite and axon outgrowth. Using pre-pupal lethality as an endpoint, we have screened for dominant second-site enhancers of a weakly lethal trio mutant background. In these screens, an allele of sequoia has been identified. While these mutants have no obvious disruption of embryonic central nervous system architecture and survive to third instar larvae similar to controls, they retain forager behavior and thus fail to pupariate at high frequency. PMID:24376789

Liebl, Eric C.

2013-01-01

338

The lethality test used for estimating the potency of antivenoms against Bothrops asper snake venom: pathophysiological mechanisms, prophylactic analgesia, and a surrogate in vitro assay.  

PubMed

The potency of antivenoms is assessed by analyzing the neutralization of venom-induced lethality, and is expressed as the Median Effective Dose (ED50). The present study was designed to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for lethality induced by the venom of Bothrops asper, in the experimental conditions used for the evaluation of the neutralizing potency of antivenoms. Mice injected with 4 LD50s of venom by the intraperitoneal route died within ?25 min with drastic alterations in the abdominal organs, characterized by hemorrhage, increment in plasma extravasation, and hemoconcentration, thus leading to hypovolemia and cardiovascular collapse. Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) play a predominat role in lethality, as judged by partial inhibition by the chelating agent CaNa2EDTA. When venom was mixed with antivenom, there was a venom/antivenom ratio at which hemorrhage was significantly reduced, but mice died at later time intervals with evident hemoconcentration, indicating that other components in addition to SVMPs also contribute to plasma extravasation and lethality. Pretreatment with the analgesic tramadol did not affect the outcome of the neutralization test, thus suggesting that prophylactic (precautionary) analgesia can be introduced in this assay. Neutralization of lethality in mice correlated with neutralization of in vitro coagulant activity in human plasma. PMID:25447772

Chacón, Francisco; Oviedo, Andrea; Escalante, Teresa; Solano, Gabriela; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José María

2015-01-01

339

Blockade of liver macrophages by gadolinium chloride reduces lethality in endotoxemic rats-analysis of mechanisms of lethality in endotoxemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of gadolinium chlo- ride (GdCl3 ? 6H20), which blocks phagocytosis by liver macrophages, on the mortality, blood tumor necrosis fac- tor (TNF) levels, and hepatotoxicity in a lethal endotoxic shock rat model system (iO mg\\/kg body weight lipopoly- saccharide (LPS) intravenously). With administration of GdC13, twice at 0.5 or 5 mg\\/kg, the survival rate 24 h

Masayuki Yamamoto; Hiroshi Kohno; Jun Itakura; Hideki Fujii; Yoshiro Matsumoto

1994-01-01

340

Cytotoxic T cells deficient in both functional fas ligand and perforin show residual cytolytic activity yet lose their capacity to induce lethal acute graft-versus-host disease  

PubMed Central

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the main complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Although the tissue damage and subsequent patient mortality are clearly dependent on T lymphocytes present in the grafted inoculum, the lethal effector molecules are unknown. Here, we show that acute lethal GVHD, induced by the transfer of splenocytes from C57BL/6 mice into sensitive BALB/c recipients, is dependent on both perforin and Fas ligand (FasL)-mediated lytic pathways. When spleen cells from mutant mice lacking both effector molecules were transferred to sublethally irradiated allogeneic recipients, mice survived. Delayed mortality was observed with grafted cells deficient in only one lytic mediator. In contrast, protection from lethal acute GVHD in resistant mice was exclusively perforin dependent. Perforin-FasL-deficient T cells failed to lyse most target cells in vitro. However, they still efficiently killed tumor necrosis factor alpha-sensitive fibroblasts, demonstrating that cytotoxic T cells possess a third lytic pathway. PMID:8627178

1996-01-01

341

Loss of Vps54 Function Leads to Vesicle Traffic Impairment, Protein Mis-Sorting and Embryonic Lethality  

PubMed Central

The identification of the mutation causing the phenotype of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) model mouse, wobbler, has linked motor neuron degeneration with retrograde vesicle traffic. The wobbler mutation affects protein stability of Vps54, a ubiquitously expressed vesicle-tethering factor and leads to partial loss of Vps54 function. Moreover, the Vps54 null mutation causes embryonic lethality, which is associated with extensive membrane blebbing in the neural tube and is most likely a consequence of impaired vesicle transport. Investigation of cells derived from wobbler and Vps54 null mutant embryos demonstrates impaired retrograde transport of the Cholera-toxin B subunit to the trans-Golgi network and mis-sorting of mannose-6-phosphate receptors and cargo proteins dependent on retrograde vesicle transport. Endocytosis assays demonstrate no difference between wobbler and wild type cells, indicating that the retrograde vesicle traffic to the trans-Golgi network, but not endocytosis, is affected in Vps54 mutant cells. The results obtained on wobbler cells were extended to test the use of cultured skin fibroblasts from human ALS patients to investigate the retrograde vesicle traffic. Analysis of skin fibroblasts of ALS patients will support the investigation of the critical role of the retrograde vesicle transport in ALS pathogenesis and might yield a diagnostic prospect. PMID:23708095

Karlsson, Páll; Droce, Aida; Moser, Jakob M.; Cuhlmann, Simon; Padilla, Carolina Ortiz; Heimann, Peter; Bartsch, Jörg W.; Füchtbauer, Annette; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Schmitt-John, Thomas

2013-01-01

342

Characterization of nonattaching mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.  

PubMed Central

The first step in tumor formation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the site-specific binding of the bacteria to plant host cells. Transposon mutants of the bacteria which fail to attach to carrot suspension culture cells were isolated. These mutants showed no significant attachment to carrot cells with either microscopic or viable cell count assays of bacterial binding. The nonattaching mutants were all avirulent. When revertants of the mutants were obtained by enriching for bacteria which do bind to carrot cells, the bacteria were found to have regained the ability to bind to carrot cells and virulence simultaneously. These results suggest that the ability of the bacteria to bind to plant cells is required for virulence. Like the parent strain, all of the nonattaching mutants synthesized cellulose, but unlike the parent strain, they failed to aggregate carrot suspension culture cells. The transposon Tn5, which was used to obtain the mutants, was located on a 12-kilobase EcoRI fragment of the bacterial chromosomal DNA in all of the nonattaching mutants from strain C58. That the mutant phenotype was due to the Tn5 insertion was shown by cloning the Tn5-containing DNA fragment from the mutant bacteria and using it to replace the wild-type fragment in the parent strain by marker exchange. The resulting bacteria had the same mutant phenotype as the original Tn5 mutants; they did not attach to carrot cells, they did not cause the aggregation of carrot cells, and they were avirulent. No difference was seen between the parent strain and the nonattaching mutants in hydrophobicity, motility, flagella, fimbriae, beta-2-glucan content, size of lipopolysaccharide, or ability of the lipopolysaccharide to inhibit bacterial attachment to tissue culture cells. Differences were seen between the parent strain and the nonattaching mutants in the polypeptides removed from the bacteria during the preparation of spheroplasts. Three of the mutants were lacking a polypeptide of about 34 kilodaltons (kDa). One mutant was lacking the 34-kDa polypeptide and another polypeptide of about 38 kDa. The fifth mutant was lacking a polypeptide slightly smaller than the 34-kDa polypeptide missing in the other four mutants. These missing polypeptides all reappeared in the revertants of the mutants. Thus, bacterial binding to plant cells appears to require the presence of these polypeptides. Images PMID:3025176

Matthysse, A G

1987-01-01

343

Repeated Administration of a Mutant Cocaine Esterase: Effects on Plasma Cocaine Levels, Cocaine-Induced Cardiovascular Activity, and Immune Responses in Rhesus Monkeys  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have demonstrated the capacity of a long-acting mutant form of a naturally occurring bacterial double mutant cocaine esterase (DM CocE) to antagonize the reinforcing, discriminative, convulsant, and lethal effects of cocaine in rodents and reverse the increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) produced by cocaine in rhesus monkeys. This study was aimed at characterizing the immunologic responses to repeated dosing with DM CocE and determining whether the development of anti-CocE antibodies altered the capacity of DM CocE to reduce plasma cocaine levels and ameliorate the cardiovascular effects of cocaine in rhesus monkeys. Under control conditions, intravenous administration of cocaine (3 mg/kg) resulted in a rapid increase in the plasma concentration of cocaine (n = 2) and long-lasting increases in MAP and HR (n = 3). Administration of DM CocE (0.32 mg/kg i.v.) 10 min after cocaine resulted in a rapid hydrolysis of cocaine with plasma levels below detection limits within 5 to 8 min. Elevations in MAP and HR were significantly reduced within 25 and 50 min of DM CocE administration, respectively. Although slight (10-fold) increases in anti-CocE antibodies were observed after the fourth administration of DM CocE, these antibodies did not alter the capacity of DM CocE to reduce plasma cocaine levels or ameliorate cocaine's cardiovascular effects. Anti-CocE titers were transient and generally dissipated within 8 weeks. Together, these results suggest that highly efficient cocaine esterases, such as DM CocE, may provide a novel and effective therapeutic for the treatment of acute cocaine intoxication in humans. PMID:22518021

Collins, Gregory T.; Brim, Remy L.; Noon, Kathleen R.; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Sunahara, Roger K.; Woods, James H.

2012-01-01

344

Conditional Deletion of Jak2 Reveals an Essential Role in Hematopoiesis throughout Mouse Ontogeny: Implications for Jak2 Inhibition in Humans  

PubMed Central

Germline deletion of Jak2 in mice results in embryonic lethality at E12.5 due to impaired hematopoiesis. However, the role that Jak2 might play in late gestation and postnatal life is unknown. To understand this, we utilized a conditional knockout approach that allowed for the deletion of Jak2 at various stages of prenatal and postnatal life. Specifically, Jak2 was deleted beginning at either mid/late gestation (E12.5), at postnatal day 4 (PN4), or at ?2 months of age. Deletion of Jak2 beginning at E12.5 resulted in embryonic death characterized by a lack of hematopoiesis. Deletion beginning at PN4 was also lethal due to a lack of erythropoiesis. Deletion of Jak2 in young adults was characterized by blood cytopenias, abnormal erythrocyte morphology, decreased marrow hematopoietic potential, and splenic atrophy. However, death was observed in only 20% of the mutants. Further analysis of these mice suggested that the increased survivability was due to an incomplete deletion of Jak2 and subsequent re-population of Jak2 expressing cells, as conditional deletion in mice having one floxed Jak2 allele and one null allele resulted in a more severe phenotype and subsequent death of all animals. We found that the deletion of Jak2 in the young adults had a differential effect on hematopoietic lineages; specifically, conditional Jak2 deletion in young adults severely impaired erythropoiesis and thrombopoiesis, modestly affected granulopoiesis and monocytopoiesis, and had no effect on lymphopoiesis. Interestingly, while the hematopoietic organs of these mutant animals were severely affected by the deletion of Jak2, we found that the hearts, kidneys, lungs, and brains of these same mice were histologically normal. From this, we conclude that Jak2 plays an essential and non-redundant role in hematopoiesis during both prenatal and postnatal life and this has direct implications regarding the inhibition of Jak2 in humans. PMID:23544085

Park, Sung O.; Wamsley, Heather L.; Bae, Kyungmi; Hu, Zhongbo; Li, Xiaomiao; Choe, Se-woon; Slayton, William B.; Oh, S. Paul; Wagner, Kay-Uwe; Sayeski, Peter P.

2013-01-01

345

Uroporphyrin-accumulating mutant of Escherichia coli K-12.  

PubMed Central

An uroporphyrin III-accumulating mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 was isolated by neomycin. The mutant, designated SASQ85, was catalase deficient and formed dwarf colonies on usual media. Comparative extraction by cyclohexanone and ethyl acetate showed the superiority of the former for the extraction of the uroporphyrin accumulated by the mutant. Cell-free extracts of SASQ85 were able to convert 5-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen to uroporphyrinogen, but not to copro- or protoporphyrinogen. Under the same conditions cell-free extracts of the parent strain converted 5-aminolevulinic to uroporphyringen, coproporphyrinogen, and protoporphyrinogen. The conversion of porphobilinogen to uroporphyrinogen by cell-free extracts of the mutant was inhibited 98 and 95%, respectively, by p-chloromercuribenzoate and p-chloromercuriphenyl-sulfonate, indicating the presence of uroporphyrinogen synthetase activity in the extracts. Spontaneous transformation of porphobilinogen to uroporphyrin was not detectable under the experimental conditions used [4 h at 37 C in tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-potassium phosphate buffer, pH 8.2]. The results indicate a deficient uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity of SASQ85 which is thus the first uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase-deficient mutant isolated in E. coli K-12. Mapping of the corresponding locus by P1-mediated transduction revealed the frequent joint transduction of hemE and thiA markers (frequency of co-transduction, 41 to 44%). The results of the genetic analysis suggest the gene order rif, hemE, thiA, metA; however, they do not totally exclude the gene order rif, thiA, hemE, metA. PMID:1104578

S?s?rman, A; Chartrand, P; Proschek, R; Desrochers, M; Tardif, D; Lapointe, C

1975-01-01

346

Transposon Insertions Causing Constitutive Sex-Lethal Activity in Drosophila Melanogaster Affect Sxl Sex-Specific Transcript Splicing  

PubMed Central

Sex-lethal (Sxl) gene products induce female development in Drosophila melanogaster and suppress the transcriptional hyperactivation of X-linked genes responsible for male X-chromosome dosage compensation. Control of Sxl functioning by the dose of X-chromosomes normally ensures that the female-specific functions of this developmental switch gene are only expressed in diplo-X individuals. Although the immediate effect of X-chromosome dose is on Sxl transcription, during most of the life cycle ``on'' vs. ``off'' reflects alternative Sxl RNA splicing, with the female (productive) splicing mode maintained by a positive feedback activity of SXL protein on Sxl pre-mRNA splicing. ``Male-lethal'' (Sxl(M)) gain-of-function alleles subvert Sxl control by X-chromosome dose, allowing female Sxl functions to be expressed independent of the positive regulators upstream of Sxl. As a consequence, Sxl(M) haplo-X animals (chromosomal males) die because of improper dosage compensation, and Sxl(M) chromosomal females survive the otherwise lethal effects of mutations in upstream positive regulators. Five independent spontaneous Sxl(M) alleles were shown previously to be transposon insertions into what was subsequently found to be the region of regulated sex-specific Sxl RNA splicing. We show that these five alleles represent three different mutant types: Sxl(M1), Sxl(M3), and Sxl(M4). Sxl(M1) is an insertion of a roo element 674 bp downstream of the translation-terminating male-specific exon. Sxl(M3) is an insertion of a hobo transposon (not 297 as previously reported) into the 3' splice site of the male exon, and Sxl(M4) is an insertion of a novel transposon into the male-specific exon itself. We show that these three gain-of-function mutants differ considerably in their ability to bypass the sex determination signal, with Sxl(M4) being the strongest and Sxl(M1) the weakest. This difference is also reflected in effects of these mutations on sex-specific RNA splicing and on the rate of appearance of SXL protein in male embryos. Transcript analysis of double-mutant male-viable Sxl(M) derivatives in which the Sxl(M) insertion is cis to loss-of-function mutations, combined with other results reported here, indicates that the constitutive character of these Sxl(M) alleles is a consequence of an alteration of the structure of the pre-mRNA that allows some level of female splicing to occur even in the absence of functional SXL protein. Surprisingly, however, most of the constitutive character of Sxl(M) alleles appears to depend on the mutant alleles' responsiveness, perhaps greater than wild-type, to the autoregulatory splicing activity of the wild-type SXL proteins they produce. PMID:7713421

Bernstein, M.; Lersch, R. A.; Subrahmanyan, L.; Cline, T. W.

1995-01-01

347

Radiation-induced cell lethality of samonella typhimurium ATCC 14028: Cooperative effect of hydroxyl radical and oxygen  

SciTech Connect

The lethality of {gamma}-radiation doses of 0.2 to 1.0 kGy for Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 was measured in the presence of air, N{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O and with the hydroxyl radical scavengers formate and polyethylene glycol (PEG), M{sub r} 8,000. Saturation of cell suspensions with either N{sub 2}O or N{sub 2}/N{sub 2}/N{sub 2}O (1:1, v/v) gas was expected to double the number of hydroxyl radicals (OH{center_dot}) and to produce an equivalent increase in lethality, but this did not occur. Adding 10% (v/v) O{sub 2} to either N{sub 2}/N{sub 2}O gas produced approximately the same {gamma}-irradiation lethality for S. typhimurium as did air. Addition of hydroxyl radical scavengers, 40 mM formate and 1.5% (w/v) PEG, significantly reduced the lethality of {gamma} radiation for S. typhimurium in the presence of air but not in the presence of N{sub 2} or N{sub 2}O gases. Membrane-permeable formate provided slightly better protection than nonpermeable PEG. Cells of S. typhimurium grown under anaerobic conditions were more sensitive to radiation, and were less protected by hydroxyl radical scavengers, especially formate, than when cells grown under aerobic conditions were irradiated in the presence of oxygen. Hydroxyl radical scavengers provided no further protection during irradiation in the absence of oxygen. These results indicated that the increased radiation sensitivity of cells grown under anaerobic conditions may be related to superoxide radicals which could increase intercellular damage during irradiation in the presence of oxygen. However, endogenous superoxide dismutase and catalase activities did not protect cells from the radiation-induced lethality of S. typhimurium. Cytoplasmic extracts protected bacterial DNA in vitro in either the presence of absence of oxygen, and no radiation-induced lipid peroxidation of the cellular components was identified by measuring the levels of 2-thiobarbituric acid. 38 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Kim, Y.A.; Thayer, D.W. [Department of Agricultural, Phildelphia, PA (United States)

1995-10-01

348

Recombination and ligation of transfected DNA in CHO mutant EM9, which has high levels of sister chromatid exchange.  

PubMed

Transformation frequencies were measured in CHO mutant EM9 after transfection with intact or modified plasmid pSV2-gpt. The mutant and wild-type strain behaved similarly under all conditions except when homologous recombination was required to produce an intact plasmid. Therefore, the defect of the mutant which renders it slow in DNA strand break rejoining and high in sister chromatid exchange induction reduces its ability to recombine foreign DNA molecules. PMID:3600655

Hoy, C A; Fuscoe, J C; Thompson, L H

1987-05-01

349

NH4+-Excreting Azospirillum brasilense Mutants Enhance the Nitrogen Supply of a Wheat Host  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous ethylenediamine-resistant mutants of Azospirillum brasilense were selected on the basis of their excretion of NH4+. Two mutants exhibited no repression of their nitrogenase enzyme systems in the presence of high (20 mM) concentrations of NH4+. The nitrogenase activities of these mutants on nitrogen-free minimal medium were two to three times higher than the nitrogenase activity of the wild type. The mutants excreted substantial amounts of ammonia when they were grown either under oxygen-limiting conditions (1 kPa of O2) or aerobically on nitrate or glutamate. The mutants grew well on glutamate as a sole nitrogen source but only poorly on NH4Cl. Both mutants failed to incorporate [14C]methylamine. We demonstrated that nitrite ammonification occurs in the mutants. Wild-type A. brasilense, as well as the mutants, became established in the rhizospheres of axenically grown wheat plants at levels of > 107 cells per g of root. The rhizosphere acetylene reduction activity was highest in the preparations containing the mutants. When plants were grown on a nitrogen-free nutritional medium, both mutants were responsible for significant increases in root and shoot dry matter compared with wild-type-treated plants or with noninoculated controls. Total plant nitrogen accumulation increased as well. When they were exposed to a 15N2-enriched atmosphere, both A. brasilense mutants incorporated significantly higher amounts of 15N inside root and shoot material than the wild type did. The results of our nitrogen balance and 15N enrichment studies indicated that NH4+-excreting A. brasilense strains potentially support the nitrogen supply of the host plants. PMID:16348569

Christiansen-Weniger, C.; Van Veen, J. A.

1991-01-01

350

Fructose operon mutants of Spiroplasma citri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fructose-negative mutants of Spiroplasma citri wild-type strain GII-3 were selected by two methods. The first method is based on the selection of spontaneous xylitol-resistant mutants, xylitol being a toxic fructose analogue. Five such mutants were obtained, but only one, xyl3, was unable to use fructose and had no phosphoenolpuryvate: fructose phosphotransferase system (fructose-PTS) activity. Amplification and sequencing of the fructose

Patrice Gaurivaud; Eric Verdin; Monique Garnier; Joseph M. Bove

351

Abnormal lignin in a loblolly pine mutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel lignin is formed in a mutant loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) severely depleted in cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.195), which converts coniferaldehyde to coniferyl alcohol, the primary lignin precursor in pines. Dihydroconiferyl alcohol, a monomer not normally associated with the lignin biosynthetic pathway, is the major component of the mutant`s lignin, accounting for â¼30 percent (versus â¼3 percent in

J. Ralph; J. J. MacKay; R. D. Hatfield

1997-01-01

352

EVALUATING THE PREDICTIVE VALIDITY OF SUICIDAL INTENT AND MEDICAL LETHALITY IN YOUTH  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine whether suicidal intent and medical lethality of past suicide attempts are predictive of future attempts, the association between intent and lethality, and the consistency of these characteristics across repeated attempts among youth. Method Suicide attempts in a 15-year prospective study of 180 formerly psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents (Mage at hospitalization = 14.83; 51% female; 80% Caucasian) were characterized using the Subjective Intent Rating Scale and Lethality of Attempt Rating Scale. Anderson-Gill recurrent events survival models and generalized estimating equations were used to assess predictive validity. Generalized linear models were used to examine stability of characteristics across attempts. Results Neither intent nor lethality from the most recent attempt predicted future attempts. The highest level of intent and most severe lethality of attempts during the follow-up predicted subsequent attempts, but the degree to which highest intent and most severe lethality contributed to prediction after considering methods of suicide attempts, past number of attempts, or psychiatric diagnoses was mixed. Across successive attempts, there was little consistency in reported characteristics. Intent and lethality were related to each other only for attempts occurring in early adulthood. Conclusions Highest intent and lethality were better predictors of future attempts than intent and lethality of the most recent attempt. However, these characteristics should only be considered as predictors within the context of other factors. For youth, clinicians should not infer true intent from the lethality of attempts, nor assume that characteristics of future suicide attempts will be similar to previous attempts. PMID:22250854

Sapyta, Jeffrey; Goldston, David B.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Daniel, Stephanie S.; Heilbron, Nicole; Mayfield, Andrew; Treadway, S. Lyn

2012-01-01

353

Preparation and characterization of cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor (CoLF) is highly active. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CoLF can be prepared by bio-assimilation and direct exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lethal factor binds cobalt tightly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electronic spectrum of CoLF reveals penta-coordination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction of CoLF with thioglycolic acid follows a 2-step mechanism. -- Abstract: Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase involved in the cleavage of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases near their N-termini. The current report concerns the preparation of cobalt-substituted LF (CoLF) and its characterization by electronic spectroscopy. Two strategies to produce CoLF were explored, including (i) a bio-assimilation approach involving the cultivation of LF-expressing Bacillus megaterium cells in the presence of CoCl{sub 2}, and (ii) direct exchange by treatment of zinc-LF with CoCl{sub 2}. Independent of the method employed, the protein was found to contain one Co{sup 2+} per LF molecule, and was shown to be twice as active as its native zinc counterpart. The electronic spectrum of CoLF suggests the Co{sup 2+} ion to be five-coordinate, an observation similar to that reported for other Co{sup 2+}-substituted gluzincins, but distinct from that documented for the crystal structure of native LF. Furthermore, spectroscopic studies following the exposure of CoLF to thioglycolic acid (TGA) revealed a sequential mechanism of metal removal from LF, which likely involves the formation of an enzyme: Co{sup 2+}:TGA ternary complex prior to demetallation of the active site. CoLF reported herein constitutes the first spectroscopic probe of LF's active site, which may be utilized in future studies to gain further insight into the enzyme's mechanism and inhibitor interactions.

Saebel, Crystal E.; Carbone, Ryan; Dabous, John R.; Lo, Suet Y. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Rd., Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6 (Canada)] [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Rd., Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6 (Canada); Siemann, Stefan, E-mail: ssiemann@laurentian.ca [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Rd., Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6 (Canada)] [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Rd., Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6 (Canada)

2011-12-09

354

Rifaximin diminishes neutropenia following potentially lethal whole-body radiation.  

PubMed

Terrorist attacks involving radiological or nuclear weapons are a substantial geopolitical concern, given that large populations could be exposed to potentially lethal doses of radiation. Because of this, evaluating potential countermeasures against radiation-induced mortality is critical. Gut microflora are the most common source of systemic infection following exposure to lethal doses of whole-body radiation, suggesting that prophylactic antibiotic therapy may reduce mortality after radiation exposure. The chemical stability, easy administration and favorable tolerability profile of the non-systemic antibiotic, rifaximin, make it an ideal potential candidate for use as a countermeasure. This study evaluated the use of rifaximin as a countermeasure against low-to-intermediate-dose whole-body radiation in rodents. Female Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were irradiated with 550 cGy to the whole body and were evaluated for 30 d. Animals received methylcellulose, neomycin (179 mg/kg/d) or variably dosed rifaximin (150-2000 mg/kg/d) one hour after irradiation and daily throughout the study period. Clinical assessments (e.g. body weight) were made daily. On postirradiation day 30, blood samples were collected and a complete blood cell count was performed. Animals receiving high doses of rifaximin (i.e. 1000 or 2000 mg/kg/d) had a greater increase in weight from the day of irradiation to postirradiation day 30 compared with animals that received placebo or neomycin. For animals with an increase in average body weight from irradiation day within 80-110% of the group average, methylcellulose rendered an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of 211, neomycin rendered an ANC of 334, rifaximin 300 mg/kg/d rendered an ANC of 582 and rifaximin 1000 mg/kg/d rendered an ANC of 854 (P = 0.05 for group comparison). Exposure to rifaximin after near-lethal whole-body radiation resulted in diminished levels of neutropenia. PMID:20558844

Jahraus, Christopher D; Schemera, Bettina; Rynders, Patricia; Ramos, Melissa; Powell, Charles; Faircloth, John; Brawner, William R

2010-07-01

355

Mutant IDH is sufficient to initiate enchondromatosis in mice  

PubMed Central

Enchondromas are benign cartilage tumors and precursors to malignant chondrosarcomas. Somatic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase genes (IDH1 and IDH2) are present in the majority of these tumor types. How these mutations cause enchondromas is unclear. Here, we identified the spectrum of IDH mutations in human enchondromas and chondrosarcomas and studied their effects in mice. A broad range of mutations was identified, including the previously unreported IDH1-R132Q mutation. These mutations harbored enzymatic activity to catalyze ?-ketoglutarate to d-2-hydroxyglutarate (d-2HG). Mice expressing Idh1-R132Q in one allele in cells expressing type 2 collagen showed a disordered growth plate, with persistence of type X-expressing chondrocytes. Chondrocyte cell cultures from these animals or controls showed that there was an increase in proliferation and expression of genes characteristic of hypertrophic chondrocytes with expression of Idh1-R132Q or 2HG treatment. Col2a1-Cre;Idh1-R132Q mutant knock-in mice (mutant allele expressed in chondrocytes) did not survive after the neonatal stage. Col2a1-Cre/ERT2;Idh1-R132 mutant conditional knock-in mice, in which Cre was induced by tamoxifen after weaning, developed multiple enchondroma-like lesions. Taken together, these data show that mutant IDH or d-2HG causes persistence of chondrocytes, giving rise to rests of growth-plate cells that persist in the bone as enchondromas. PMID:25730874

Hirata, Makoto; Sasaki, Masato; Cairns, Rob A.; Inoue, Satoshi; Puviindran, Vijitha; Li, Wanda Y.; Snow, Bryan E.; Jones, Lisa D.; Wei, Qingxia; Sato, Shingo; Tang, Yuning J.; Nadesan, Puviindran; Rockel, Jason; Whetstone, Heather; Poon, Raymond; Weng, Angela; Gross, Stefan; Straley, Kimberly; Gliser, Camelia; Xu, Yingxia; Wunder, Jay; Mak, Tak W.; Alman, Benjamin A.

2015-01-01

356

Mutant IDH is sufficient to initiate enchondromatosis in mice.  

PubMed

Enchondromas are benign cartilage tumors and precursors to malignant chondrosarcomas. Somatic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase genes (IDH1 and IDH2) are present in the majority of these tumor types. How these mutations cause enchondromas is unclear. Here, we identified the spectrum of IDH mutations in human enchondromas and chondrosarcomas and studied their effects in mice. A broad range of mutations was identified, including the previously unreported IDH1-R132Q mutation. These mutations harbored enzymatic activity to catalyze ?-ketoglutarate to d-2-hydroxyglutarate (d-2HG). Mice expressing Idh1-R132Q in one allele in cells expressing type 2 collagen showed a disordered growth plate, with persistence of type X-expressing chondrocytes. Chondrocyte cell cultures from these animals or controls showed that there was an increase in proliferation and expression of genes characteristic of hypertrophic chondrocytes with expression of Idh1-R132Q or 2HG treatment. Col2a1-Cre;Idh1-R132Q mutant knock-in mice (mutant allele expressed in chondrocytes) did not survive after the neonatal stage. Col2a1-Cre/ERT2;Idh1-R132 mutant conditional knock-in mice, in which Cre was induced by tamoxifen after weaning, developed multiple enchondroma-like lesions. Taken together, these data show that mutant IDH or d-2HG causes persistence of chondrocytes, giving rise to rests of growth-plate cells that persist in the bone as enchondromas. PMID:25730874

Hirata, Makoto; Sasaki, Masato; Cairns, Rob A; Inoue, Satoshi; Puviindran, Vijitha; Li, Wanda Y; Snow, Bryan E; Jones, Lisa D; Wei, Qingxia; Sato, Shingo; Tang, Yuning J; Nadesan, Puviindran; Rockel, Jason; Whetstone, Heather; Poon, Raymond; Weng, Angela; Gross, Stefan; Straley, Kimberly; Gliser, Camelia; Xu, Yingxia; Wunder, Jay; Mak, Tak W; Alman, Benjamin A

2015-03-01

357

Genome stability in the uvh6 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Plant XPD homolog UVH6 is the protein involved in the repair of strand breaks, and the excision repair and uvh6 mutant is not impaired in transgenerational increase in HRF. While analyzing the transgenerational response to stress in plants, we found that the promoter and gene body of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) XPD homolog UVH6 underwent hypomethylation and showed an increase in the level of transcript. Here, we analyzed the mutant of this gene, uvh6-1, by crossing it to two different reporter lines: one which allows for analysis of homologous recombination frequency (HRF) and another which makes it possible to analyze the frequency of point mutations. We observed that uvh6-1 plants exhibited lower rate of spontaneous homologous recombination but higher frequencies of spontaneous point mutations. The analysis of strand breaks using ROPS and Comet assays showed that the mutant had a much higher level of strand breaks at non-induced conditions. Exposure to stresses such as UVC, heat, cold, flood and drought showed that the mutant was not impaired in an increase in somatic HRF. The analysis of spontaneous HRF in the progeny of control plants compared to that of the progeny of stressed plants demonstrated that uvh6-1 was mildly affected in response to temperature, UV and drought. Our data suggest that UVH6 may be involved in the repair of strand breaks and excision repair, but it is unlikely that UVH6 is required for transgenerational increase in HRF. PMID:24553752

Bilichak, Andriy; Yao, Youli; Titov, Viktor; Golubov, Andrey; Kovalchuk, Igor

2014-06-01

358

Loss of the Thioredoxin Reductase Trr1 Suppresses the Genomic Instability of Peroxiredoxin tsa1 Mutants  

PubMed Central

The absence of Tsa1, a key peroxiredoxin that scavenges H2O2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, causes the accumulation of a broad spectrum of mutations. Deletion of TSA1 also causes synthetic lethality in combination with mutations in RAD51 or several key genes involved in DNA double-strand break repair. In the present study, we propose that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the primary cause of genome instability of tsa1? cells. In searching for spontaneous suppressors of synthetic lethality of tsa1? rad51? double mutants, we identified that the loss of thioredoxin reductase Trr1 rescues their viability. The trr1? mutant displayed a CanR mutation rate 5-fold lower than wild-type cells. Additional deletion of TRR1 in tsa1? mutant reduced substantially the CanR mutation rate of tsa1? strain (33-fold), and to a lesser extent, of rad51? strain (4-fold). Loss of Trr1 induced Yap1 nuclear accumulation and over-expression of a set of Yap1-regulated oxido-reductases with antioxidant properties that ultimately re-equilibrate intracellular redox environment, reducing substantially ROS-associated DNA damages. This trr1? -induced effect was largely thioredoxin-dependent, probably mediated by oxidized forms of thioredoxins, the primary substrates of Trr1. Thioredoxin Trx1 and Trx2 were constitutively and strongly oxidized in the absence of Trr1. In trx1? trx2? cells, Yap1 was only moderately activated; consistently, the trx1? trx2? double deletion failed to efficiently rescue the viability of tsa1? rad51?. Finally, we showed that modulation of the dNTP pool size also influences the formation of spontaneous mutation in trr1? and trx1? trx2? strains. We present a tentative model that helps to estimate the respective impact of ROS level and dNTP concentration in the generation of spontaneous mutations. PMID:25247923

Ragu, Sandrine; Dardalhon, Michèle; Sharma, Sushma; Iraqui, Ismail; Buhagiar-Labarchède, Géraldine; Grondin, Virginie; Kienda, Guy; Vernis, Laurence; Chanet, Roland; Kolodner, Richard D.; Huang, Meng-Er; Faye, Gérard

2014-01-01

359

The Alternative Oxidase AOX Does Not Rescue the Phenotype of tko25t Mutant Flies  

PubMed Central

A point mutation [technical knockout25t (tko25t)] in the Drosophila gene coding for mitoribosomal protein S12 generates a phenotype of developmental delay and bang sensitivity. tko25t has been intensively studied as an animal model for human mitochondrial diseases associated with deficiency of mitochondrial protein synthesis and consequent multiple respiratory chain defects. Transgenic expression in Drosophila of the alternative oxidase (AOX) derived from Ciona intestinalis has previously been shown to mitigate the toxicity of respiratory chain inhibitors and to rescue mutant and knockdown phenotypes associated with cytochrome oxidase deficiency. We therefore tested whether AOX expression could compensate the mutant phenotype of tko25t using the GeneSwitch system to activate expression at different times in development. The developmental delay of tko25t was not mitigated by expression of AOX throughout development. AOX expression for 1 d after eclosion, or continuously throughout development, had no effect on the bang sensitivity of tko25t adults, and continued expression in adults older than 30 d also produced no amelioration of the phenotype. In contrast, transgenic expression of the yeast alternative NADH dehydrogenase Ndi1 was synthetically semi-lethal with tko25t and was lethal when combined with both AOX and tko25t. We conclude that AOX does not rescue tko25t and that the mutant phenotype is not solely due to limitations on electron flow in the respiratory chain, but rather to a more complex metabolic defect. The future therapeutic use of AOX in disorders of mitochondrial translation may thus be of limited value. PMID:25147191

Kemppainen, Kia K.; Kemppainen, Esko; Jacobs, Howard T.

2014-01-01

360

Intimate partner homicide: new insights for understanding lethality and risks.  

PubMed

Research on covictims, family members, and close friends who have lost loved ones to intimate partner homicide (IPH) is a neglected area of study. We conducted phenomenological interviews with covictims to gain insights into risk and lethality, examined affidavits from criminal case files, and reviewed news releases. The data uncovered acute risk factors prior to the homicide, identified changes in the perpetrators' behavior and the perpetrators' perceived loss of control over the victim, and described barriers that victims faced when attempting to gain safety. Findings suggest that recognizing acute risk factors is an important area for future IPH research. PMID:25540257

Sheehan, Brynn E; Murphy, Sharon B; Moynihan, Mary M; Dudley-Fennessey, Erin; Stapleton, Jane G

2015-02-01

361

Palliative care of the infant with lethal anomalies.  

PubMed

Although many families of infants with prenatally diagnosed lethal anomalies may receive counseling by clinicians with perinatal, neonatal, or genetic expertise and deliver their babies in a tertiary care center, pediatricians may be called on to support and care for these infants. Their involvement may begin prenatally, at the time of delivery, in the newborn nursery, or upon discharge home from a NICU. The goal of this article is to help the general pediatrician gain some comfort in knowing which cases might be considered and provide some tools and ideas for counseling a family from any point of involvement. PMID:15157596

Leuthner, Steven R

2004-06-01

362

[Streptomyces spheroides mutant deprepressed for exoprotease biosynthesis].  

PubMed

The effect of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur sources on the biosynthesis of exoproteases was studied with the parent Streptomyces spheroides strain 35 and its mutant M8-2. Addition of a carbon, nitrogen and sulfur source to the medium deficient in one of these elements did not repress the synthesis of exoproteases by the washed mycelium of the mutant as compared to the parent strain. Protein as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur had no effect on the biosynthesis of exoproteases by the mutant. In contrast to the parent strain, the biosynthesis of exoproteases in the mutant was not controlled by metabolite repression. PMID:3517601

Al'-Nuri, M A; Prianishnikova, N I; Antisar, M D; Egorov, N S

1986-01-01

363

Mutants of Dictyostelium discoideum with defects in the regulation of discoidin I expression.  

PubMed

Discoidins are proteins, coded by a multigene family, which are regulated by extracellular factors during growth and development of Dictyostelium discoideum. In this paper we describe the isolation and characterization of mutants which misregulate the expression of the discoidin I subgroup. One mutant (III29) induces discoidin I during late growth phase but does not express it during development. Another mutant (VI41) has significantly reduced discoidin levels under all conditions tested, while two mutants (VI88 and X27) express discoidin early during exponential growth and accumulate more discoidin protein than the wild type. The defects are due to abnormal regulation of transcription in all mutants except VI41. Experiments in which mutants and wild type are mixed suggest that the mutant phenotypes are not caused by changes in extracellular signals. Since multiple members of the multigene family are affected, it can be concluded that the intracellular signals regulating discoidin expression are changed rather than the genes themselves. The mutants are thus likely to have defects in the reception or intracellular processing of environmental signals. PMID:8396055

Wetterauer, B; Jacobsen, G; Morandini, P; MacWilliams, H

1993-09-01

364

Induction of lethal bystander effects in human breast cancer cell cultures by DNA-incorporated Iodine-125 depends on phenotype  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study uses a three-dimensional cell culture model to investigate lethal bystander effects in human breast cancer cell cultures (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) treated with 125I-labeled 5-iodo-2?-deoxyuridine (125IdU). These breast cancer cell lines respectively form metastatic xenografts in nude mice in an estrogen-dependent and independent manner. Materials and methods In the present study, these cells were cultured in loosely-packed three-dimensional architecture in a Cytomatrix™ carbon scaffold. Cultures were pulse-labeled for 3 h with 125IdU to selectively irradiate a minor fraction of cells, and simultaneously co-pulse-labeled with 0.04 mM 5-ethynyl-2?-deoxyuridine (EdU) to identify the radiolabeled cells using Click-iT® EdU and flow cytometry. The cultures were then washed and incubated for 48 h. The cells were then harvested, serially diluted, and seeded for colony formation. Aliquots of cells were subjected to flow cytometry to determine the percentage of cells labeled with 125IdU/EdU. Additional aliquots were used to determine the mean 125I activity per labeled cell. The percentage of labeled cells was about 15% and 10% for MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively. This created irradiation conditions wherein the cross-dose to unlabeled cells was small relative to the self-dose to labeled cells. The surviving fraction relative to EdU-treated controls was measured. Results Survival curves indicated significant lethal bystander effect in MCF-7 cells, however, no significant lethal bystander effect was observed in MDA-MB-231 cells. Conclusions These studies demonstrate the capacity of 125IdU to induce lethal bystander effects in human breast cancer cells and suggest that the response depends on phenotype. PMID:22489958

Akudugu, John M.; Azzam, Edouard I.; Howell, Roger W.

2013-01-01

365

X-ray survival characteristics and genetic analysis for nine saccharomyces deletion mutants that show altered radiation sensitivity  

SciTech Connect

The availability of a genome-wide set of Saccharomyces deletion mutants provides a chance to identify all the yeast genes involved in DNA repair. Using X-rays, we are screening these mutants to identify additional genes that show increased sensitivity to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation. For each mutant identified as sensitive, we are confirming that the sensitivity phenotype co-segregates with the deletion allele and are obtaining multipoint survival-versus-dose assays in at least two haploid and one homozygous diploid strains. We present data for deletion mutants involving the genes DOT1, MDM20, NAT3, SPT7, SPT20, GCN5, HFI1, DCC1 and VID21/EAF1, and discuss their potential roles in repair. Eight of these genes have a clear radiation-sensitive phenotype when deleted, but the ninth, GCN5, has at most a borderline phenotype. None of the deletions confer substantial sensitivity to ultra-violet radiation, although one or two may confer marginal sensitivity. The DOT1 gene is of interest because its only known function is to methylate one lysine residue in the core of the histone H3 protein. We find that histone H3 mutants (supplied by K. Struhl) in which this residue is replaced by other amino-acids are also X-ray sensitive, seeming to confirm that methylation of the lysine-79 residue is required for effective repair of radiation damage.

Game, John C.; Williamson, Marsha S.; Baccari, Clelia

2004-01-07

366

Courtship and visual defects of cacophony mutants reveal functional complexity of a calcium-channel alpha1 subunit in Drosophila.  

PubMed Central

We show by molecular analysis of behavioral and physiological mutants that the Drosophila Dmca1A calcium-channel alpha1 subunit is encoded by the cacophony (cac) gene and that nightblind-A and lethal(1)L13 mutations are allelic to cac with respect to an expanded array of behavioral and physiological phenotypes associated with this gene. The cacS mutant, which exhibits defects in the patterning of courtship lovesong and a newly revealed but subtle abnormality in visual physiology, is mutated such that a highly conserved phenylalanine (in one of the quasi-homologous intrapolypeptide regions called IIIS6) is replaced by isoleucine. The cacH18 mutant exhibits defects in visual physiology (including complete unresponsiveness to light in certain genetic combinations) and visually mediated behaviors; this mutant (originally nbAH18) has a stop codon in an alternative exon (within the cac ORF), which is differentially expressed in the eye. Analysis of the various courtship and visual phenotypes associated with this array of cac mutants demonstrates that Dmca1A calcium channels mediate multiple, separable biological functions; these correlate in part with transcript diversity generated via alternative splicing. PMID:9649530

Smith, L A; Peixoto, A A; Kramer, E M; Villella, A; Hall, J C

1998-01-01

367

Attempt to Identify Novel IFT Mutant through PCR Sequencing and Analysis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Flagellar Mutants  

E-print Network

and flagella. One route in which to study the flagella organelle is through the creation and analysis of flagellar mutants. Six possible C. reinhardtii IFT mutants (created from a previous transformation process and confirmed through a phototaxis test) were...

Hernandez, Catherine Marie

2013-02-06

368

How many loci on the X-chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster can mutate to recessive lethals  

SciTech Connect

The sensitivity of the sex-linked recessive lethal test is due to the fact that a very large number of loci are included in the mutation study. From extensive studies on the spontaneous sex-linked recessive lethal frequency and spontaneous specific locus mutation rates, it is possible to derive an estimate of the number of loci included in the recessive lethal test. The average number derived from three estimates on male and female germ cells in 563 loci. A second independent approach derives from published data which analyzed short regions of the genome and the proportion of loci within these regions which mutate to lethality. This analysis suggests that 830 loci are potentially lethal mutables. We describe the reasons for concluding that 600 to 800 loci of the approximately 1000 loci on the X-chromosome are involved in the X-linked recessive lethal test.

Abrahamson, S. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison); Wuergler, F.E.; DeJongh, C.; Meyer, H.U.

1980-01-01

369

Abundant genetic variability in Drosophila simulans for hybrid female lethality in interspecific crosses to Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Intrinsic postzygotic reproductive isolation is thought to result from the substitution of multiple harmless or beneficial genetic differences between species that are incidentally deleterious when combined in species hybrids, causing hybrid sterility or inviability. Genetic variability for hybrid sterility or inviability phenotypes is, however, rarely assessed in natural populations. Here, we assess variation for Drosophila simulans-encoded maternal factor(s) that cause lethality in D. simulans-Drosophila melanogaster F(1) hybrid females. First, we survey genetic variability in the strength of D. simulans-mediated maternal effect hybrid lethality among 37 geographic and laboratory isolates. We find abundant variability in the strength of maternal effect hybrid lethality, ranging from complete lethality to none. Second, we assess maternal effect hybrid lethality for a subset of wild isolates made heterozygous with two so-called hybrid rescue strains. The results suggest that the D. simulans maternal effect hybrid lethality involves a diversity of alleles and/or multiple loci. PMID:22353244

Gérard, Pierre R; Presgraves, Daven C

2012-02-01

370

Equation of state and fragmentation issues in computational lethality analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to summarize the status of computational analysis of hypervelocity impact lethality in relatively nontechnical terms from the perspective of the author. It is not intended to be a review of the technical literature on the problems of concern. The discussion is focused by concentrating on two phenomenology areas which are of particular concern in computational impact studies. First, the material`s equation of state, specifically the treatment of expanded states of metals undergoing shock vaporization, is discussed. Second, the process of dynamic fragmentation is addressed. In both cases, the context of the discussion deals with inaccuracies and difficulties associated with numerical hypervelocity impact simulations. Laboratory experimental capabilities in hypervelocity impact for impact velocities greater than 10.0 km/s are becoming increasingly viable. This paper also gives recommendations for experimental thrusts which utilize these capabilities that will help to resolve the uncertainties in the numerical lethality studies that are pointed out in the present report.

Trucano, T.G.

1993-07-01

371

A virulent parasite can provide protection against a lethal parasitoid.  

PubMed

Hosts often become infected with multiple parasite strains or species. Previous work has shown that the outcome of infections with multiple parasite strains or species often differs significantly from that of single infections, making them a potentially important factor in determining the prevalence and spread of disease. Here we show that infection with a virulent parasite increases host survival during later exposure to a lethal parasitoid. Specifically, when monarch butterfly larvae (Danaus plexippus) are inoculated with the virulent protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha and then attacked by the lethal parasitoid fly Lespesia archippivora, survival is higher than when the larvae are exposed to the parasitoid only. This is potentially a result of the protozoan's requirement for host survival to obtain between-host transmission. Our findings suggest that a virulent parasite can play a protective role for its host and indicate that parasites can act as mutualists depending on the presence of other parasites. We emphasize the importance of considering infection in an ecological context, including the presence of competing parasites. PMID:21145987

Sternberg, Eleanore D; Lefèvre, Thierry; Rawstern, Amanda H; de Roode, Jacobus C

2011-03-01

372

Effectiveness of lethal, directed wolf-depredation control in Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wolf (Canis lupus) depredations on livestock in Minnesota, USA, are an economic problem for many livestock producers, and depredating wolves are lethally controlled. We sought to determine the effectiveness of lethal control through the analysis of data from 923 government-verified wolf depredations from 1979 to 1998. We analyzed the data by 1) assessing the correlations between the number of wolves killed in response to depredations with number of depredations the following year at state and local levels, and 2) the time to the next depredation. No analysis indicated that trapping wolves substantially reduced the following year's depredations at state or local levels. However, more specific analyses indicated that in certain situations, killing wolves was more effective than no action (i.e., not trapping). For example, trapping and killing adult males decreased the re-depredation risk. At sheep farms, killing wolves was generally effective. Attempting to trap, regardless of the results, seemed more effective at reducing depredations than not trapping, suggesting that mere human activity near depredation sites might deter future depredations.

Harper, E.K.; Paul, W.J.; Mech, L.D.; Weisberg, S.

2008-01-01

373

Injury risk assessment of non-lethal projectile head impacts.  

PubMed

Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real cases indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head impacts. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such impacts, the assessment approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports may not be appropriate. Therefore, there is a need of a specific approach to assess the lethality of these projectiles. In this framework, some recent research data referred in this article as "force wall approach" suggest the use of three lesional thresholds (unconsciousness, meningeal damages and bone damages) that depend on the intracranial pressure. Three corresponding critical impact forces are determined for a reference projectile. Based on the principle that equal rigid wall maximal impact forces will produce equal damage on the head, these limits can be determined for any other projectile. In order to validate the consistence of this innovative method, it is necessary to compare the results with other existing assessment methods. This paper proposes a comparison between the "force wall approach" and two different head models. The first one is a numerical model (Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model-SUFEHM) from Strasbourg University; the second one is a mechanical surrogate (Ballistics Load Sensing Headform-BLSH) from Biokinetics. PMID:25400712

Oukara, Amar; Nsiampa, Nestor; Robbe, Cyril; Papy, Alexandre

2014-01-01

374

Less-lethal munitions as extended-range impact weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the proliferation of 'suicide by cop' incidents, the concept of less lethal (LL) impact munitions has definitely caught on. There is much to be said for sterile laboratory testing and wound ballistic studies, but having 'real world' operational data is invaluable. Two years ago, a data base was set up to collect this information. The data base continues to grow with incidents from a cross the country and others pursued internationally. Indications are that LL munitions deliver a similar amount of force as conventional police impact weapons i.e., police batons, PR-24's, nunchakus, etc. One advantage over conventional impact weapons, is that LL munitions can be used at much greater distances from a suspect or crown of rioters. This gave rise to the term: extended range impact weapons. Having the ability to examine numerous cases in which these LL munitions have been successfully used for the resolution of critical incidents, is beneficial in evaluating the application and defending the usage of these force options. This paper examines 187 less lethal shootings and discusses such things as: the distance the munitions were fired, the types of injuries sustained by the targeted suspect, the body area of impact, what, if any weapons the suspect was armed with, and the type of incident requiring police response.

Hubbs, Ken

1997-01-01

375

HLA-A2-Restricted Protection against Lethal Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis? †  

PubMed Central

The consequences of human lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection can be severe, including aseptic meningitis in immunocompetent individuals, hydrocephalus or chorioretinitis in fetal infection, or a highly lethal outcome in immunosuppressed individuals. In murine models of LCMV infection, CD8+ T cells play a primary role in providing protective immunity, and there is evidence that cellular immunity may also be important in related arenavirus infections in humans. For this reason, we sought to identify HLA-A2 supertype-restricted epitopes from the LCMV proteome and evaluate them as vaccine determinants in HLA transgenic mice. We identified four HLA-A*0201-restricted peptides—nucleoprotein NP69-77, glycoprotein precursor GPC10-18, GPC447-455, and zinc-binding protein Z49-58—that displayed high-affinity binding (?275 nM) to HLA-A*0201, induced CD8+ T-cell responses of high functional avidity in HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice, and were naturally processed from native LCMV antigens in HLA-restricted human antigen presenting cells. One of the epitopes (GPC447-455), after peptide immunization of HLA-A*0201 mice, induced CD8+ T cells capable of killing peptide-pulsed HLA-A*0201-restricted target cells in vivo and protected mice against lethal intracranial challenge with LCMV. PMID:17166907

Botten, Jason; Whitton, J. Lindsay; Barrowman, Polly; Sidney, John; Whitmire, Jason K.; Alexander, Jeff; Ting, Joey P. C.; Bui, Huynh-Hoa; Sette, Alessandro; Buchmeier, Michael J.

2007-01-01

376

Injury Risk Assessment of Non-Lethal Projectile Head Impacts  

PubMed Central

Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real cases indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head impacts. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such impacts, the assessment approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports may not be appropriate. Therefore, there is a need of a specific approach to assess the lethality of these projectiles. In this framework, some recent research data referred in this article as “force wall approach” suggest the use of three lesional thresholds (unconsciousness, meningeal damages and bone damages) that depend on the intracranial pressure. Three corresponding critical impact forces are determined for a reference projectile. Based on the principle that equal rigid wall maximal impact forces will produce equal damage on the head, these limits can be determined for any other projectile. In order to validate the consistence of this innovative method, it is necessary to compare the results with other existing assessment methods. This paper proposes a comparison between the “force wall approach” and two different head models. The first one is a numerical model (Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model-SUFEHM) from Strasbourg University; the second one is a mechanical surrogate (Ballistics Load Sensing Headform-BLSH) from Biokinetics. PMID:25400712

Oukara, Amar; Nsiampa, Nestor; Robbe, Cyril; Papy, Alexandre

2014-01-01

377

Congenital lethal motor neuron disease with a novel defect in ribosome biogenesis  

PubMed Central

Objective: We describe a novel congenital motor neuron disease with early demise due to respiratory insufficiency with clinical overlap with spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress (SMARD) type 1 but lacking a mutation in the IGHMBP2 gene. Methods: Exome sequencing was used to identify a de novo mutation in the LAS1L gene in the proband. Pathogenicity of the mutation was validated using a zebrafish model by morpholino-mediated knockdown of las1l. Results: We identified a de novo mutation in the X-linked LAS1L gene in the proband (p.S477N). The mutation is in a highly conserved region of the LAS1L gene predicted to be deleterious by bioinformatic analysis. Morpholino-based knockdown of las1l, the orthologous gene in zebrafish, results in early lethality and disruption of muscle and peripheral nerve architecture. Coinjection of wild-type but not mutant human RNA results in partial rescue of the phenotype. Conclusion: We report a patient with a SMARD phenotype due to a mutation in LAS1L, a gene important in coordinating processing of the 45S pre-rRNA and maturation of the large 60S ribosomal subunit. Similarly, the IGHMB2 gene associated with SMARD type 1 has been suggested to have an important role in ribosomal biogenesis from its role in processing the 45S pre-rRNA. We propose that disruption of ribosomal maturation may be a common pathogenic mechanism linking SMARD phenotypes caused by both IGHMBP2 and LAS1L. PMID:24647030

Butterfield, Russell J.; Stevenson, Tamara J.; Xing, Lingyan; Newcomb, Tara M.; Nelson, Benjamin; Zeng, Wenqi; Li, Xiang; Lu, Hsiao-Mei; Lu, Hong; Farwell Gonzalez, Kelly D.; Wei, Jia-Perng; Chao, Elizabeth C.; Prior, Thomas W.; Snyder, Pamela J.; Bonkowsky, Joshua L.

2014-01-01

378

An update to the list of mouse mutants with neural tube closure defects and advances toward a complete genetic perspective of neural tube closure.  

PubMed

The number of mouse mutants and strains with neural tube defects (NTDs) now exceeds 240, including 205 representing specific genes, 30 for unidentified genes, and 9 multifactorial strains. These mutants identify genes needed for embryonic neural tube closure. Reports of 50 new NTD mutants since our 2007 review (Harris and Juriloff, 2007) were considered in relation to the previously reviewed mutants to obtain new insights into mechanisms of NTD etiology. In addition to null mutations, some are hypomorphs or conditional mutants. Some mutations do not cause NTDs on their own, but do so in digenic, trigenic, and oligogenic combinations, an etiology that likely parallels the nature of genetic etiology of human NTDs. Mutants that have only exencephaly are fourfold more frequent than those that have spina bifida aperta with or without exencephaly. Many diverse cellular functions and biochemical pathways are involved; the NTD mutants draw new attention to chromatin modification (epigenetics), the protease-activated receptor cascade, and the ciliopathies. Few mutants directly involve folate metabolism. Prevention of NTDs by maternal folate supplementation has been tested in 13 mutants and reduces NTD frequency in six diverse mutants. Inositol reduces spina bifida aperta frequency in the curly tail mutant, and three new mutants involve inositol metabolism. The many NTD mutants are the foundation for a future complete genetic understanding of the processes of neural fold elevation and fusion along mechanistically distinct cranial-caudal segments of the neural tube, and they point to several candidate processes for study in human NTD etiology. PMID:20740593

Harris, Muriel J; Juriloff, Diana M

2010-08-01

379

The Effect of Non-Lethal Weapons on Police Officer Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1990 and 2000, there was an increase in the use of non-lethal weapons and a decline in the number and severity of attacks on police officers. Using longitudinal data on several hundred U.S. police agencies, I investigate the relationship between police officer safety and the adoption of non-lethal weapons. I find that the adoption of non-lethal chemical weapons had

Alex Yuskavage

380

Alterations in growth, photosynthesis, and respiration in a starchless mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana (L. ) deficient in chloroplast phosphoglucomutase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. which lacks leaf starch was isolated by screening for plants which did not stain with iodine. When grown in a 12-h photoperiod, leaves of the wild-type accumulated substantial amounts of starch but lower levels of soluble sugars. Under these conditions, the mutant accumulated relatively high levels of soluble sugars. Rates of growth and

T. Caspar; S. C. Huber; C. Somerville

1985-01-01

381

Stress Granule-Defective Mutants Deregulate Stress Responsive Transcripts  

PubMed Central

To reduce expression of gene products not required under stress conditions, eukaryotic cells form large and complex cytoplasmic aggregates of RNA and proteins (stress granules; SGs), where transcripts are kept translationally inert. The overall composition of SGs, as well as their assembly requirements and regulation through stress-activated signaling pathways remain largely unknown. We have performed a genome-wide screen of S. cerevisiae gene deletion mutants for defects in SG formation upon glucose starvation stress. The screen revealed numerous genes not previously implicated in SG formation. Most mutants with strong phenotypes are equally SG defective when challenged with other stresses, but a considerable fraction is stress-specific. Proteins associated with SG defects are enriched in low-complexity regions, indicating that multiple weak macromolecule interactions are responsible for the structural integrity of SGs. Certain SG-defective mutants, but not all, display an enhanced heat-induced mutation rate. We found several mutations affecting the Ran GTPase, regulating nucleocytoplasmic transport of RNA and proteins, to confer SG defects. Unexpectedly, we found stress-regulated transcripts to reach more extreme levels in mutants unable to form SGs: stress-induced mRNAs accumulate to higher levels than in the wild-type, whereas stress-repressed mRNAs are reduced further in such mutants. Our findings are consistent with the view that, not only are SGs being regulated by stress signaling pathways, but SGs also modulate the extent of stress responses. We speculate that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of RNA-binding proteins is required for gene expression regulation during stress, and that SGs modulate this traffic. The absence of SGs thus leads the cell to excessive, and potentially deleterious, reactions to stress. PMID:25375155

Yang, Xiaoxue; Hao, Xinxin; Krumlinde, Daniel; Cvijovi?, Marija; Arens, Christina; Nyström, Thomas; Liu, Beidong; Sunnerhagen, Per

2014-01-01

382

Electron transport and oxidative stress in Zymomonas mobilis respiratory mutants.  

PubMed

The ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis is of great interest from a bioenergetic perspective because, although it has a very high respiratory capacity, the respiratory system does not appear to be primarily required for energy conservation. To investigate the regulation of respiratory genes and function of electron transport branches in Z. mobilis, several mutants of the common wild-type strain Zm6 (ATCC 29191) were constructed and analyzed. Mutant strains with a chloramphenicol-resistance determinant inserted in the genes encoding the cytochrome b subunit of the bc (1) complex (Zm6-cytB), subunit II of the cytochrome bd terminal oxidase (Zm6-cydB), and in the catalase gene (Zm6-kat) were constructed. The cytB and cydB mutants had low respiration capacity when cultivated anaerobically. Zm6-cydB lacked the cytochrome d absorbance at 630 nm, while Zm6-cytB had very low spectral signals of all cytochromes and low catalase activity. However, under aerobic growth conditions, the respiration capacity of the mutant cells was comparable to that of the parent strain. The catalase mutation did not affect aerobic growth, but rendered cells sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. Cytochrome c peroxidase activity could not be detected. An upregulation of several thiol-dependent oxidative stress-protective systems was observed in an aerobically growing ndh mutant deficient in type II NADH dehydrogenase (Zm6-ndh). It is concluded that the electron transport chain in Z. mobilis contains at least two electron pathways to oxygen and that one of its functions might be to prevent endogenous oxidative stress. PMID:22228443

Strazdina, Inese; Kravale, Zane; Galinina, Nina; Rutkis, Reinis; Poole, Robert K; Kalnenieks, Uldis

2012-06-01

383

Analysis of Escherichia coli mutants with a linear respiratory chain.  

PubMed

The respiratory chain of E. coli is branched to allow the cells' flexibility to deal with changing environmental conditions. It consists of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductases NADH dehydrogenase I and II, as well as of three terminal oxidases. They differ with respect to energetic efficiency (proton translocation) and their affinity to the different quinone/quinol species and oxygen. In order to analyze the advantages of the branched electron transport chain over a linear one and to assess how usage of the different terminal oxidases determines growth behavior at varying oxygen concentrations, a set of isogenic mutant strains was created, which lack NADH dehydrogenase I as well as two of the terminal oxidases, resulting in strains with a linear respiratory chain. These strains were analyzed in glucose-limited chemostat experiments with defined oxygen supply, adjusting aerobic, anaerobic and different microaerobic conditions. In contrast to the wild-type strain MG1655, the mutant strains produced acetate even under aerobic conditions. Strain TBE032, lacking NADH dehydrogenase I and expressing cytochrome bd-II as sole terminal oxidase, showed the highest acetate formation rate under aerobic conditions. This supports the idea that cytochrome bd-II terminal oxidase is not able to catalyze the efficient oxidation of the quinol pool at higher oxygen conditions, but is functioning mainly under limiting oxygen conditions. Phosphorylation of ArcA, the regulator of the two-component system ArcBA, besides Fnr the main transcription factor for the response towards different oxygen concentrations, was studied. Its phosphorylation pattern was changed in the mutant strains. Dephosphorylation and therefore inactivation of ArcA started at lower aerobiosis levels than in the wild-type strain. Notably, not only the micro- and aerobic metabolism was affected by the mutations, but also the anaerobic metabolism, where the respiratory chain should not be important. PMID:24475268

Steinsiek, Sonja; Stagge, Stefan; Bettenbrock, Katja

2014-01-01

384

Red Mutant Hunt with Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this laboratory exercise, haploid yeast are exposed to UV radiation (UV-C) to induce mutations. Survivors are screened for red adenie mutants when characterized for nutritional requirements. Mutants produced in both mating types are crossed to determine inheritance patterns.

Brad Williamson (Olathe East High School; )

1999-01-01

385

Uncaging Mutants: Moving From Menageries to Menages  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The thousands of mutants of maize are a remarkable resource for study of plant physiology, phylogeny, cell biology, biochemistry, development, and molecular biology. Mutants are most often applied in research studies as "members of collections" rather than as select families of members relevant to ...

386

Selecting Bacterial Mutants by the Penicillin Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain improvements are described in the use of penicillin for isolating auxotrophic mutants of bacteria. By obtaining exponential growth before the penicillin is added, and by minimizing the duration of the treatment, cross-feeding is decreased and much denser populations can be screened. These modifications have made it possible to obtain, with regularity, mutants of Escherichia coli blocked in a desired

Luigi Gorini; Harriet Kaufman

1960-01-01

387

LKTA DELETION MUTANT OF PASTEURELLA HAEMOLYTICA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mutants of Pasteurella haemolytica provide excellent safety and efficacy when used as vaccines in ruminants, for example cattle, sheep and goats, subject to pneumonic pasteurellosis. They can be administered by a variety of routes. Especially preferred is the use in animal feeds. The mutants are ...

388

Biology of Mutant KRAS Cell Lines  

Cancer.gov

Posted: September 22, 2014 Posted: September 22, 2014 Biology of Mutant KRAS Cell Lines Target Biology Group Many dozens of cell lines derived from human cancers contain mutant RAS genes, and these cell lines are a good proxy  to study cancer processes.

389

Acid excreting mutants of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants acidifying glucose medium containing bromocresol purple were shown to excrete protons when placed in unbuffered water in the absence of any external carbon source. The mutants belong to 16 different complementation groups. Most of them do not grow on glycerol and the excreted protons are associated to particular sets of organic anions such as citrate, aconitate, succinate,

B. Machnicka; R. Grochowalska; E. Boniewska-Bernacka; L. S?omi?ska; T. M. Lachowicz

2004-01-01

390

Nebulin binding impedes mutant desmin filament assembly  

PubMed Central

Desmin intermediate filaments (DIFs) form an intricate meshwork that organizes myofibers within striated muscle cells. The mechanisms that regulate the association of desmin to sarcomeres and their role in desminopathy are incompletely understood. Here we compare the effect nebulin binding has on the assembly kinetics of desmin and three desminopathy-causing mutant desmin variants carrying mutations in the head, rod, or tail domains of desmin (S46F, E245D, and T453I). These mutants were chosen because the mutated residues are located within the nebulin-binding regions of desmin. We discovered that, although nebulin M160–164 bound to both desmin tetrameric complexes and mature filaments, all three mutants exhibited significantly delayed filament assembly kinetics when bound to nebulin. Correspondingly, all three mutants displayed enhanced binding affinities and capacities for nebulin relative to wild-type desmin. Electron micrographs showed that nebulin associates with elongated normal and mutant DIFs assembled in vitro. Moreover, we measured significantly delayed dynamics for the mutant desmin E245D relative to wild-type desmin in fluorescence recovery after photobleaching in live-cell imaging experiments. We propose a mechanism by which mutant desmin slows desmin remodeling in myocytes by retaining nebulin near the Z-discs. On the basis of these data, we suggest that for some filament-forming desmin mutants, the molecular etiology of desminopathy results from subtle deficiencies in their association with nebulin, a major actin-binding filament protein of striated muscle. PMID:23615443

Baker, Laura K.; Gillis, David C.; Sharma, Sarika; Ambrus, Andy; Herrmann, Harald; Conover, Gloria M.

2013-01-01

391

Enhancers of Conidiation Mutants in Aspergillus Nidulans  

PubMed Central

Mutants at a number of loci, designated sthenyo, have been isolated as enhancers of the oligoconidial mutations at the medA locus. Two loci have been mapped: sthA on linkage group I, and sthB on linkage group V. Two probable alleles have been identified at each locus but two further mutants were unlinked to either sthA or sthB. Neither sthA nor sthB mutants have conspicuous effects on morphology on their own, nor could the sthA1 sthB2 double mutant be distinguished from wild type. Mutants at both loci also interact with the temperature-sensitive brlA42 mutant at the permissive temperature to give a phenotype described as ``Abacoid.'' sthA1 also induces a slight modification of the phenotype of an abaA mutant. We conclude that sthenyo genes act mainly at the phialide stage of conidiation. We also describe the isolation of new medA mutants arising spontaneously as outgrowths on brlA42 colonies. PMID:8056325

Gems, D. H.; Clutterbuck, A. J.

1994-01-01

392

Heterochromatin position effects on circularized sex chromosomes cause filicidal embryonic lethality in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Some circularized X-Y chromosomes in Drosophila melanogaster are mitotically unstable and induce early embryonic lethality, but the genetic basis is unknown. Our experiments suggest that a large region of X-linked satellite DNA causes anaphase bridges and lethality when placed into a new heterochromatic environment within certain circularized X-Y chromosomes. These results reveal that repetitive sequences can be incompatible with one another in cis. The lethal phenotype also bears a remarkable resemblance to a case of interspecific hybrid lethality. PMID:24478337

Ferree, Patrick M; Gomez, Karina; Rominger, Peter; Howard, Dagnie; Kornfeld, Hannah; Barbash, Daniel A

2014-04-01

393

Impulsivity, aggression and brain structure in high and low lethality suicide attempters with borderline personality disorder.  

PubMed

Impulsivity and aggressiveness are trait dispositions associated with the vulnerability to suicidal behavior across diagnoses. They are associated with structural and functional abnormalities in brain networks involved in regulation of mood, impulse and behavior. They are also core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD), a disorder defined, in part, by recurrent suicidal behavior. We assessed the relationships between personality traits, brain structure and lethality of suicide attempts in 51 BPD attempters using multiple regression analyses on structural MRI data. BPD was diagnosed by the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients-revised, impulsivity by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), aggression by the Brown-Goodwin Lifetime History of Aggression (LHA), and high lethality by a score of 4 or more on the Lethality Rating Scale (LRS). Sixteen High Lethality attempters were compared to 35 Low Lethality attempters, with no significant differences noted in gender, co-morbidity, childhood abuse, BIS or LHA scores. Degree of medical lethality (LRS) was negatively related to gray matter volumes across multiple fronto-temporal-limbic regions. Effects of impulsivity and aggression on gray matter volumes discriminated High from Low Lethality attempters and differed markedly within lethality groups. Lethality of suicide attempts in BPD may be related to the mediation of these personality traits by specific neural networks. PMID:24656768

Soloff, Paul; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A

2014-06-30

394

Siderophore mediated plant growth promotion at low temperature by mutant of fluorescent pseudomonad?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cold resistant mutant of Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 was developed, which could grow equally well at 25 and 10 C and its effect on plant growth promotion under in vitro and in situ conditions was observed. Siderophore estimation revealed it to be a siderophore-overproducing mutant (17-fold increase) when\\u000a compared to its wild type counterpart. A gnotobiotic root elongation assay

Vandana Katiyar; Reeta Goel

2004-01-01

395

Tetrahymena Thermophila Mutants Defective in the Developmentally Programmed Maturation and Maintenance of the Rdna Minichromosome  

PubMed Central

The abundant rDNA minichromosome of Tetrahymena thermophila is generated by a series of developmentally controlled processing steps, termed rDNA maturation, during the formation of the new macronucleus in conjugating cells. rDNA maturation involves excision of a region encoding the single copy rRNA gene (rDNA) from its germline location, rearrangement of the rDNA into a palindromic minichromosome, de novo telomere addition, and amplification to approximately 10(4) copies. The rDNA is maintained at this high level in vegetatively growing cells. Using a previously developed genetic scheme for studying rDNA maturation and maintenance, we report the isolation of a new class of mutants defective for rDNA maturation. Several new rDNA maintenance mutants were also obtained. The maturation mutant, rmm10, is severely defective for the production of both monomeric and palindromic rDNA in the developing macronucleus. The rmm10 mutation is recessive-lethal and cis-acting. None of the previously identified DNA sequence elements that control rDNA maturation or maintenance is mutated in rmm10. Therefore, additional cis-acting sequence elements must be required for rDNA maturation. Based on our current understanding of rDNA maturation processes, we suggest that the rmm10 mutation affects rDNA excision rather than subsequent rDNA amplification/replication. PMID:8070657

Kapler, G. M.; Orias, E.; Blackburn, E. H.

1994-01-01

396

The Zebra fish cassiopeia Mutant Reveals that SIL Is Required for Mitotic Spindle Organization? §  

PubMed Central

A critical step in cell division is formation of the mitotic spindle, which is a bipolar array of microtubules that mediates chromosome separation. Here, we report that the SCL-interrupting locus (SIL), a vertebrate-specific cytosolic protein, is necessary for proper mitotic spindle organization in zebrafish and human cells. A homozygous lethal zebrafish mutant, cassiopeia (csp), was identified by a genetic screen for mitotic mutant. csp mutant embryos have an increased mitotic index, have highly disorganized mitotic spindles, and often lack one or both centrosomes. These phenotypes are caused by a loss-of-function mutation in zebrafish sil. To determine if the requirement for SIL in mitotic spindle organization is conserved in mammals, we generated an antibody against human SIL, which revealed that SIL localizes to the poles of the mitotic spindle during metaphase. Furthermore, short hairpin RNA knockdown of SIL in human cells recapitulates the zebrafish csp mitotic spindle defects. These data, taken together, identify SIL as a novel, vertebrate-specific regulator of mitotic spindle assembly. PMID:17576815

Pfaff, Kathleen L.; Straub, Christian T.; Chiang, Ken; Bear, Daniel M.; Zhou, Yi; Zon, Leonard I.

2007-01-01

397

A Suitable Streptomycin-Resistant Mutant for Constructing Unmarked In-Frame Gene Deletions Using rpsL as a Counter-Selection Marker  

PubMed Central

The streptomycin counter-selection system is a useful tool for constructing unmarked in-frame gene deletions, which is a fundamental approach to study bacteria and their pathogenicity at the molecular level. A prerequisite for this system is acquiring a streptomycin-resistant strain due to rpsL mutations, which encodes the ribosomal protein S12. However, in this study no streptomycin resistance was found to be caused by rpsL mutations in all 127 clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from liver abscess patients. By screening 107 spontaneous mutants of streptomycin resistance from a clinical strain of K. pneumoniae, nucleotide substitution or insertion located within the rpsL was detected in each of these strains. Thirteen different mutants with varied S12 proteins were obtained, including nine streptomycin-dependent mutants. The virulence of all four streptomycin-resistant mutants was further evaluated. Compared with the parental strain, the K42N, K42T and K87R mutants showed a reduction in growth rate, and the K42N and K42T mutants became susceptible to normal human serum. In the mice LD50 (the bacterial dose that caused 50% death) assay, the K42N and K42T mutants were ?1,000-fold less lethal (?2×105 CFU) and the K87R mutant was ?50-fold less lethal (?1×104 CFU) than the parental strain (?2×102 CFU). A K42R mutant showed non-observable effects on the above assays, while this mutant exhibited a small cost (P<0.01) in an in vitro growth competition experiment. In summary, most of the K. pneumoniae strains with streptomycin resistance caused by rpsL mutations are less virulent than their parental strain in the absence of streptomycin. The K42R mutant showed similar pathogenicity to its parental strain and should be one of the best choices when using rpsL as a counter-selection marker. PMID:25268958

Tsai, Yu-Kuo; Liou, Ci-Hong; Lin, Jung-Chung; Ma, Ling; Fung, Chang-Phone; Chang, Feng-Yee; Siu, L. Kristopher

2014-01-01

398

Radiation-sensitive mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana  

SciTech Connect

Five Arabidopsis mutants have been isolated on the basis of hypersensitivity of leaf tissue to UV light. For each mutant, the UV-hypersensitive phenotype (uvh) was inherited as a single recessive Mendelian trait. In addition, each uvh mutant represented a separate complementation group. Three of the mutations producing the UV hypersensitive phenotype have been mapped relative to either genetic markers or physical microsatellite polymorphisms. Locus UVH1 is linked to nga76 on chromosome 5, UVH3 to GL1 on chromosome three, and UVH6 to nga59 on chromosome 1. Each uvh mutant has a characteristic pattern of sensitivity based on UV sensitivity of leaf tissue, UV sensitivity of root tissue, and ionizing radiation sensitivity of seeds. On the basis of these patterns, possible molecular defects in these mutants are discussed. 30 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Jenkins, M.E.; Harlow, G.R.; Liu, Z. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01

399

Survival, growth, and localization of epiphytic fitness mutants of pseudomonas syringae on leaves  

SciTech Connect

Among 82 epiphytic fitness mutants of a Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain that were characterized in a previous study, 4 mutants were particularly intolerant of the stresses associated with dry leaf surfaces. These four mutants each exhibited distinctive behaviors when inoculated into and into plant leaves. For example, while non showed measurable growth on dry potato leaf surfaces, they grew to different population sizes in the intercellular space of bean leaves and on dry bean leaf surfaces, and one mutant appeared incapable of growth in both environments although it grew well on moist bean leaves. The presence of the parental strain did not influence the survival of the mutants immediately following exposure of leaves to dry, high-light incubation conditions, suggesting that the reduced survival of the mutants did not result from an inability to produce extracellular factors in planta. On moist bean leaves that were colonized by either a mutant or the wild type, the proportion of the total epiphytic population that was located in sizes protected from a surface sterilant was smaller for the mutants than for the wild type, indicating that the mutants were reduced in their ability to locate, multiply in, and/or survive in such protected sites. This reduced ability was only one of possible several factors contributing to the reduced epiphytic fitness of each mutant. Their reduced fitness was not specific to the host plant bean, since they also exhibited reduced fitness on the nonhost plant potato; the functions altered in these strains are thus of interest for their contribution to the general fitness of bacterial epiphytes. 52 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Beattie, G.A.; Lindow, S.E. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States))

1994-10-01

400

A West Nile virus NS4B-P38G mutant strain induces adaptive immunity via TLR7-MyD88-dependent and independent signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Prior work shows that an attenuated West Nile virus (WNV), the nonstructural (NS)4B-P38G mutant infection in mice induced strong immune responses and protected host from subsequent lethal wild-type WNV infection. Here, we investigated NS4B-P38G mutant infection in myeloid differentiation factor 88-deficient (MyD88(-/-)) and Toll-like receptor 7-deficient (TLR7(-/-)) mice and found they had enhanced susceptibility compared to wild-type mice. Both groups had lower WNV-specific IgM response and reduced effector T cell functions. Dendritic cells (DCs) also exhibited a reduced maturation and impaired antigen-presenting functions compared to wild-type DCs. Moreover, infection with NS4B-P38G mutant in TLR7(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice provided full and partial protection respectively from subsequent challenge with lethal wild-type WNV. There were reduced T cell responses in MyD88(-/-) and interleukin-1 receptor deficient (IL-1R(-/-)) mice during secondary challenge with wild-type WNV. In contrast, TLR7(-/-) mice displayed normal T cell functions. Collectively, these results suggest that TLR7-dependent MyD88 signaling is required for T cell priming during NS4B-P38G mutant infection, whereas the TLR7-independent MyD88 signaling pathways are involved in memory T cell development, which may contribute to host protection during secondary challenge with wild-type WNV. PMID:23845800

Xie, Guorui; Welte, Thomas; Wang, Jia; Whiteman, Melissa C; Wicker, Jason A; Saxena, Vandana; Cong, Yingzi; Barrett, Alan D T; Wang, Tian

2013-08-28

401

A West Nile virus NS4B-P38G mutant strain induces adaptive immunity via TLR7-MyD88-dependent and independent signaling pathways  

PubMed Central

Prior work shows that an attenuated West Nile virus (WNV), the nonstructural (NS)4B-P38G mutant infection in mice induced strong immune responses and protected host from subsequent lethal wild-type WNV infection. Here, we investigated NS4B-P38G mutant infection in myeloid differentiation factor 88-deficient (MyD88?/?) and Toll-like receptor 7-deficient (TLR7?/?) mice and found they had enhanced susceptibility compared to wild-type mice. Both groups had lower WNV-specific IgM response and reduced effector T cell functions. Dendritic cells (DCs) also exhibited a reduced maturation and impaired antigen-presenting functions compared to wild-type DCs. Moreover, infection with NS4B-P38G mutant in TLR7?/? and MyD88?/? mice provided full and partial protection respectively from subsequent challenge with lethal wild-type WNV. There were reduced T cell responses in MyD88?/? and interleukin-1 receptor deficient (IL-1R?/?) mice during secondary challenge with wild-type WNV. In contrast, TLR7?/? mice displayed normal T cell functions. Collectively, these results suggest that TLR7-dependent MyD88 signaling is required for T cell priming during NS4B-P38G mutant infection, whereas the TLR7-independent MyD88 signaling pathways are involved in memory T cell development, which may contribute to host protection during secondary challenge with wild-type WNV PMID:23845800

Xie, Guorui; Welte, Thomas; Wang, Jia; Whiteman, Melissa C.; Wicker, Jason A.; Saxena, Vandana; Cong, Yingzi; Barrett, Alan D.T.; Wang, Tian

2013-01-01