Science.gov

Sample records for conditioning system annex

  1. State of Washington Department of Health radioactive air emission notice of construction phase 1 for spent nuclear fuel project - hot conditioning system annex, project W-484

    SciTech Connect

    Turnbaugh, J.E.

    1996-08-15

    This notice of construction (NOC) provides information regarding the source and the estimated annual possession quantity resulting from the operation of the Hot Conditioning System Annex (HCSA). This information will be discussed again in the Phase II NOC, providing additional details on emissions generated by the operation of the HCSA. This Phase I NOC is defined as construct in the substructure, including but limited to, pouring the concrete for the floor; construction of the process pits and exterior walls; making necessary interface connections to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) ventilation and utility systems for personnel comfort; and extending the multi-canister over-pack (MCO) handling machine rails into the HCSA. A Phase II NOC will be submitted for approval prior to installation and is defined as the completion of the HCSA, which will consist of installation of Hot Conditioning System Equipment (HCSA), air emissions control equipment, and emission monitoring equipment. About 80 percent of the U.S. Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel (SNF) inventory is stored under water in the Hanford Site K Basins. Spent nuclear fuel in the K West Basin is contained in closed canisters, while the SNF in the K East Basin is contained in open canisters, which allow free release of corrosion products to the K East Basin water. Storage in the K Basins was originally intended to be on an as-needed basis to sustain operation of the N Reactor while the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant was refurbished and restarted. The decision in December 1992 to deactivate the PUREX Plant left approximately 2,300 MT (2,530 tons) of N Reactor SNF in the K Basins with no means for near-term removal and processing. The HCSA will be constructed as an addition to the CSB and will contain the HCSA. The hot conditioning system (HCS) will remove chemically-bound water and will passivate the exposed uranium surfaces associated,with the SNF. The HCSA will house seven hot

  2. IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, VAN

    2003-05-19

    With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case has its own

  3. State of Washington Department of Ecology criteria pollutants and toxic air pollutants phase 1 notice of construction for the Hanford site spent nuclear fuel project - hot conditioning system annex, project W-484

    SciTech Connect

    Turnbaugh, J.E.

    1996-08-15

    This notice of construction (NOC) provides information regarding the source and the air toxic and criteria pollutants resulting from operation of the Hot: Conditioning System Annex (HCSA). Additional details on emissions generated by the operation of the HCSA will be, discussed again in the Phase 11 NOC. This Phase I NOC is defined as, constructing the substructure, including but not limited to pouring the concrete for the floor; construction of the process pits and `exterior walls; making necessary interface connections to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) ventilation and utility systems for personnel comfort; and extending the multi-canister overpack (MCO) handling machine rails into the HCSA. A Phase 11 NOC, will be submitted for approval prior to installing and is defined as the completion of the HCSA, which will consist of installation of the Hot Conditioning System Equipment (HCSE), air emissions control equipment and emissions monitoring equipment. About 80 percent of the !U.S. Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel (SNF) inventory is stored under water in the Hanford Site K Basins; spent nuclear fuel in the K West Basin is contained in closed canisters, while the SNF in the K East Basin is contained in open canisters, which allow free release of corrosion products to the K Basin water. Storage in the K Basins was `originally intended to be on an as-needed basis to sustain operation of the N Reactor while the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant was refurbished and restarted. The decision in December 1992 to deactivate the PUREX Plant left approximately 2,300 MT (2,530 tons) of N Reactor SNF in the K Basins with no means for near-term removal and processing.

  4. Proceedings of the IEA implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems. Annex 4 workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement on Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS), established in 1993, is a collaborative effort of sponsoring countries to reduce costs of technology applications, increase awareness of potential value, and foster market deployment of PV. Task 4, the Modeling of Distributed Photovoltaic Power Generation in Support of the Electric Grid, is one of six project work areas established under the Implementing Agreement. The work under Task 4 has been assigned to Annex 4. Although Task 4 was framed in 1993, no progress had been made in implementation as of mid-1995. The Annex 4 Workshop, described herein, was a focused effort by the participants to redefine the issuer in light of today`s knowledge, and to gain interest among potential collaborators and participants. The purpose of the workshop was to determine the current status of methods for evaluating the benefits of and planning for grid-connected PV systems and to establish a plan for further action according to the needs and priorities of participants.

  5. Annex II technical documentation assessed.

    PubMed

    van Drongelen, A W; Roszek, B; van Tienhoven, E A E; Geertsma, R E; Boumans, R T; Kraus, J J A M

    2005-12-01

    Annex II of the Medical Device Directive (MDD) is used frequently by manufacturers to obtain CE-marking. This procedure relies on a full quality assurance system and does not require an assessment of the individual medical device by a Notified Body. An investigation into the availability and the quality of technical documentation for Annex II devices revealed severe shortcomings, which are reported here. PMID:16419921

  6. 28 CFR 51.61 - Annexations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...., City of Pleasant Grove v. United States, 479 U.S. 462 (1987). In analyzing annexations and... to review all of a jurisdiction's unprecleared annexations and deannexations together. See City of... foreseeable future. (3) Whether the electoral system to be used in the jurisdiction fails fairly to...

  7. 28 CFR 51.61 - Annexations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...., City of Pleasant Grove v. United States, 479 U.S. 462 (1987). In analyzing annexations and... to review all of a jurisdiction's unprecleared annexations and deannexations together. See City of... foreseeable future. (3) Whether the electoral system to be used in the jurisdiction fails fairly to...

  8. Demand controlled ventilating systems: Sensor market survey. Energy conservation in buildings and community systems programme, annex 18, December 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raatschen, W.; Sjoegren, M.

    The subject of indoor and outdoor air quality has generated a great deal of attention in many countries. Areas of concern include outgassing of building materials as well as occupant-generated pollutants such as carbon dioxide, moisture, and odors. Progress has also been made towards addressing issues relating to the air tightness of the building envelope. Indoor air quality studies indicate that better control of supply flow rates as well as the air distribution pattern within buildings are necessary. One method of maintaining good indoor air quality without extensive energy consumption is to control the ventilation rate according to the needs and demands of the occupants, or to preserve the building envelope. This is accomplished through the use of demand controlled ventilating (DCV) systems. The specific objective of Annex 18 is to develop guidelines for demand controlled ventilating systems based on state of the art analyses, case studies on ventilation effectiveness, and proposed ventilation rates for different users in domestic, office, and school buildings.

  9. Heat pump concepts for nZEB Technology developments, design tools and testing of heat pump systems for nZEB in the USA: Country report IEA HPT Annex 40 Task 2, Task 3 and Task 4 of the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Van D.; Payne, W. Vance; Ling, Jiazhen; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2015-12-01

    The IEA HPT Annex 40 "Heat pump concepts for Nearly Zero Energy Buildings" deals with the application of heat pumps as a core component of the HVAC system for Nearly or Net Zero energy buildings (nZEB). This report covers Task 2 on the system comparison and optimisation and Task 3 dedicated to the development of adapted technologies for nZEB and field monitoring results of heat pump systems in nZEB. In the US team three institutions are involved and have worked on the following projects: The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will summarize development activities through the field demonstration stage for several integrated heat pump (IHP) systems electric ground-source (GS-IHP) and air-source (AS-IHP) versions and an engine driven AS-IHP version. The first commercial GS-IHP product was just introduced to the market in December 2012. This work is a contribution to Task 3 of the Annex. The University of Maryland will contribute a software development project to Task 2 of the Annex. The software ThermCom evaluates occupied space thermal comfort conditions accounting for all radiative and convective heat transfer effects as well as local air properties. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is working on a field study effort on the NIST Net Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF). This residential building was constructed on the NIST campus and officially opened in summer 2013. During the first year, between July 2013 and June 2014, baseline performance of the NZERTF was monitored under a simulated occupancy protocol. The house was equipped with an air-to-air heat pump which included a dedicated dehumidification operating mode. Outdoor conditions, internal loads and modes of heat pump operation were monitored. Field study results with respect to heat pump operation will be reported and recommendations on heat pump optimization for a net zero energy building will be provided. This work is a contribution to Task 3 of the Annex.

  10. The 30/20 GHz fixed communications systems service demand assessment. Volume 3: Annex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, R. B.; Seltzer, H. R.; Speter, K. M.; Westheimer, M.

    1979-01-01

    A review of studies forecasting the communication market in the United States is given. The applicability of these forecasts to assessment of demand for the 30/20 GHz fixed communications system is analyzed. Costs for the 30/20 satellite trunking systems are presented and compared with the cost of terrestrial communications.

  11. Land mobile satellite communication system. Volume 3: Annexes to volume 2: Particular aspects of market analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnebianca, C.; Pavesi, B.; Tuozzi, A.; Capone, R.

    1986-06-01

    The socioeconomic desirability in terms of market demand, technical economic feasibility, and price-performance for a Land Mobile Communication system ground based and/or satellite aided, able to satisfy the request of the traffic demand, foreseeable in the 1995 to 2005 time frame, for the Western European countries was assessed. The criterion of economic value of the mobile system is considered as the driving element. Data on traffic; socioeconomic factors; economic factors; and radiotelephony, paging, and dispatch subscription and value for money trends are presented.

  12. Mergers, Annexations, Dissolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Consolidations come in all shapes and sizes, including mergers, annexations and dissolutions. They do not all take place under state mandate, however. A handful of districts consolidate every year in some states like Illinois that have large numbers of small districts, many of them dual districts that serve K-8 or 9-12 in the same geographic area.…

  13. Hot conditioning equipment conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, F.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This report documents the conceptual design of the Hot Conditioning System Equipment. The Hot conditioning System will consist of two separate designs: the Hot Conditioning System Equipment; and the Hot Conditioning System Annex. The Hot Conditioning System Equipment Design includes the equipment such as ovens, vacuum pumps, inert gas delivery systems, etc.necessary to condition spent nuclear fuel currently in storage in the K Basins of the Hanford Site. The Hot Conditioning System Annex consists of the facility of house the Hot Conditioning System. The Hot Conditioning System will be housed in an annex to the Canister Storage Building. The Hot Conditioning System will consist of pits in the floor which contain ovens in which the spent nuclear will be conditioned prior to interim storage.

  14. 28 CFR 51.61 - Annexations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annexations. 51.61 Section 51.61 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Determinations by the Attorney General § 51.61 Annexations. (a) Coverage. Annexations, even of...

  15. 28 CFR 51.61 - Annexations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annexations. 51.61 Section 51.61 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Determinations by the Attorney General § 51.61 Annexations. (a) Coverage. Annexations and...

  16. Signal conditioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahzah, Mohamad (Inventor); Korkosz, Gregory J. (Inventor); Bohr, Gerald (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A current-driven signal conditioning system comprising a first terminal, a second terminal, a strain gauge, and an instrumentation amplifier is disclosed. The strain gauge is adapted to measure a deformation of a structure and to generate a resistance which corresponds to the measured deformation. The instrumentation amplifier is adapted to be connected between the first terminal and the second terminal. The instrumentation amplifier is further adapted to be connected to the strain gauge and to place an output current on the second terminal. The output current is proportional to the resistance generated by the strain gauge. An output resister is coupled between the strain gauge and the second terminal, and a capacitor is coupled between the resister and the first terminal. A zenor diode is coupled between the first terminal and the strain gauge, and a diode is also coupled between the first terminal and the strain gauge.

  17. Tethys and Annex IV Progress Report for FY 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, Luke A.; Butner, R. Scott; Whiting, Jonathan M.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-09-01

    The marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) environmental Impacts Knowledge Management System, dubbed “Tethys” after the mythical Greek titaness of the seas, is being developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s Wind and Water Power Program (WWPP). Functioning as a smart database, Tethys enables its users to identify key words or terms to help gather, organize and make available information and data pertaining to the environmental effects of MHK and offshore wind (OSW) energy development. By providing and categorizing relevant publications within a simple and searchable database, Tethys acts as a dissemination channel for information and data which can be utilized by regulators, project developers and researchers to minimize the environmental risks associated with offshore renewable energy developments and attempt to streamline the permitting process. Tethys also houses a separate content-related Annex IV data base with identical functionality to the Tethys knowledge base. Annex IV is a collaborative project among member nations of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Ocean Energy Systems – Implementing Agreement (OES-IA) that examines the environmental effects of ocean energy devices and projects. The U.S. Department of Energy leads the Annex IV working with federal partners such as the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). While the Annex IV database contains technical reports and journal articles, it is primarily focused on the collection of project site and research study metadata forms (completed by MHK researchers and developers around the world, and collected by PNNL) which provide information on environmental studies and the current progress of the various international MHK developments in the Annex IV member nations. The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the content

  18. Condition Assessment Information System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-09-16

    CAIS2000 records, tracks and cost maintenance deficiencies associated with condition assessments of real property assets. Cost information is available for 39,000 items in the currenht RS Means, Facilities Construction Manual. These costs can, in turn, be rolled by by asset to produce the summary condition of an asset or site.

  19. Unmanned Aviation Systems Models of the Radio Communications Links: Study Results - Appendices Annex 2. Volume 1 and Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birr, Richard B.; Spencer, Roy; Murray, Jennifer; Lash, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the analysis of communications between the Control Station and an Unmanned Aircraft (UA) flying in the National Airspace System (NAS). This work is based on the RTCA SC-203 Operational Services and Environment Description (OSED). The OSED document seeks to characterize the highly different attributes of all UAs navigating the airspace and define their relationship to airspace users, air traffic services, and operating environments of the NAS. One goal of this report is to lead to the development of Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards for Control and Communications. This report takes the nine scenarios found in the OSED and analyzes the communication links.

  20. A Description of Charles Dickens Annex, 1971-72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Marilyn J.

    A primary annex, built to relieve overcrowding, is attended by children registered in kindergarten through grade 3. The building consists of an open area organized into a number of learning centers plus three closed classrooms. The school's program is based on two concepts adapted from the British Infant School system: (1) family or vertical…

  1. Rocket engine condition monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Hagar, S.K.; Alcock, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    It is expected that the Rocket Engine Condition Monitoring System (RECMS) program will define engine monitoring technologies and an integration approach which can be applied to engine development in support of advanced launch system objectives. The RECMS program approaches engine monitoring as a system which is fully integrated with the engine controller, vehicle monitoring system, and ground processing systems to ensure mission success in addition to engine reliability. The system components are monitored through health and performance sensors; they are analyzed with the diagnostic and prognostic algorithms and demonstrated by system testing with hardware from other advanced development programs.

  2. A guidebook for insulated low-slope roof systems. IEA Annex 19, Low-slope roof systems: International Energy Agency Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems Programme

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Low-slope roof systems are common on commercial and industrial buildings and, to a lesser extent, on residential buildings. Although insulating materials have nearly always been a component of low-slope roofs, the amount of insulation used has increased in the past two decades because of escalation of heating and cooling costs and increased awareness of the need for energy conservation. As the amount of insulation has increased, the demand has intensified for design, installation, and maintenance information specifically for well-insulated roofs. Existing practices for design, installation, and maintenance of insulated roofs have evolved from experience. Typically, these practices feature compromises due to the different properties of materials making up a given roof system. Therefore, they should be examined from time to time to ensure that they are appropriate as new materials continue to enter the market and as the data base on existing systems expands. A primary purpose of this International Energy Agency (IEA) study is to assess current roofing insulation practices in the context of an accumulating data base on performance.

  3. The CMS Condition Database System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Guida, S.; Govi, G.; Ojeda, M.; Pfeiffer, A.; Sipos, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Condition Database plays a key role in the CMS computing infrastructure. The complexity of the detector and the variety of the sub-systems involved are setting tight requirements for handling the Conditions. In the last two years the collaboration has put a substantial effort in the re-design of the Condition Database system, with the aim at improving the scalability and the operability for the data taking starting in 2015. The re-design has focused on simplifying the architecture, using the lessons learned during the operation of the Run I data-taking period (20092013). In the new system the relational features of the database schema are mainly exploited to handle the metadata (Tag and Interval of Validity), allowing for a limited and controlled set of queries. The bulk condition data (Payloads) are stored as unstructured binary data, allowing the storage in a single table with a common layout for all of the condition data types. In this paper, we describe the full architecture of the system, including the services implemented for uploading payloads and the tools for browsing the database. Furthermore, the implementation choices for the core software will be discussed.

  4. 19 CFR Annex Vi to Part 351 - Countervailing Investigations Timeline

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Countervailing Investigations Timeline VI Annex VI to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VI Annex VI to Part 351—Countervailing Investigations Timeline ER19MY97.000...

  5. 19 CFR Annex Vi to Part 351 - Countervailing Investigations Timeline

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Countervailing Investigations Timeline VI Annex VI to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VI Annex VI to Part 351—Countervailing Investigations Timeline ER19MY97.000...

  6. 19 CFR Annex Vi to Part 351 - Countervailing Investigations Timeline

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Countervailing Investigations Timeline VI Annex VI to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VI Annex VI to Part 351—Countervailing Investigations Timeline ER19MY97.000...

  7. 19 CFR Annex Vii to Part 351 - Antidumping Investigations Timeline

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antidumping Investigations Timeline VII Annex VII to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VII Annex VII to Part 351—Antidumping Investigations Timeline ER19MY97.001...

  8. 19 CFR Annex Vi to Part 351 - Countervailing Investigations Timeline

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Countervailing Investigations Timeline VI Annex VI to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VI Annex VI to Part 351—Countervailing Investigations Timeline ER19MY97.000...

  9. 19 CFR Annex Vii to Part 351 - Antidumping Investigations Timeline

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Antidumping Investigations Timeline VII Annex VII to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VII Annex VII to Part 351—Antidumping Investigations Timeline ER19MY97.001...

  10. 19 CFR Annex Vi to Part 351 - Countervailing Investigations Timeline

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Countervailing Investigations Timeline VI Annex VI to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VI Annex VI to Part 351—Countervailing Investigations Timeline ER19MY97.000...

  11. 22 CFR 121.16 - Missile Technology Control Regime Annex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Missile Technology Control Regime Annex. 121.16... STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.16 Missile Technology Control Regime Annex. Some of the items on the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex are controlled by both the Department...

  12. Municipal Underbounding: Annexation and Racial Exclusion in Small Southern Towns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Daniel T.; Parisi, Domenico; Grice, Steven Michael; Taquino, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines patterns of annexation, including municipal "underbounding," in nonmetropolitan towns in the South; that is, whether blacks living adjacent to municipalities are systematically excluded from incorporation. Annexation--or the lack of annexation--can be a political tool used by municipal leaders to exclude disadvantaged or…

  13. Rupture loop annex ion exchange RLAIX vault deactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.; Harris, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This engineering report documents the deactivation, stabilization and final conditions of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located northwest of the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns, piping debris, and column liquid were removed from the vault, packaged and shipped for disposal. The vault walls and floor were decontaminated, and portions of the vault were painted to fix loose contamination. Process piping and drains were plugged, and the cover blocks and rain cover were installed. Upon closure,the vault was empty, stabilized, isolated.

  14. 77 FR 21359 - MARPOL Annex I Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ..., 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). D. Public Meeting We do not plan to hold a public... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register Sec. Section symbol ICR Information Collection Renewal... ships. Since the last revision of Coast Guard regulations implementing Annex I in 2001, (66 FR...

  15. Alcoholism: a systemic proinflammatory condition.

    PubMed

    González-Reimers, Emilio; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco; Martín-González, María Candelaria; Fernández-Rodríguez, Camino María; Quintero-Platt, Geraldine

    2014-10-28

    Excessive ethanol consumption affects virtually any organ, both by indirect and direct mechanisms. Considerable research in the last two decades has widened the knowledge about the paramount importance of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of many of the systemic manifestations of alcoholism. These cytokines derive primarily from activated Kupffer cells exposed to Gram-negative intestinal bacteria, which reach the liver in supra-physiological amounts due to ethanol-mediated increased gut permeability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that enhance the inflammatory response are generated both by activation of Kupffer cells and by the direct metabolic effects of ethanol. The effects of this increased cytokine secretion and ROS generation lie far beyond liver damage. In addition to the classic consequences of endotoxemia associated with liver cirrhosis that were described several decades ago, important research in the last ten years has shown that cytokines may also induce damage in remote organs such as brain, bone, muscle, heart, lung, gonads, peripheral nerve, and pancreas. These effects are even seen in alcoholics without significant liver disease. Therefore, alcoholism can be viewed as an inflammatory condition, a concept which opens the possibility of using new therapeutic weapons to treat some of the complications of this devastating and frequent disease. In this review we examine some of the most outstanding consequences of the altered cytokine regulation that occurs in alcoholics in organs other than the liver. PMID:25356029

  16. Alcoholism: A systemic proinflammatory condition

    PubMed Central

    González-Reimers, Emilio; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco; Martín-González, María Candelaria; Fernández-Rodríguez, Camino María; Quintero-Platt, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Excessive ethanol consumption affects virtually any organ, both by indirect and direct mechanisms. Considerable research in the last two decades has widened the knowledge about the paramount importance of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of many of the systemic manifestations of alcoholism. These cytokines derive primarily from activated Kupffer cells exposed to Gram-negative intestinal bacteria, which reach the liver in supra-physiological amounts due to ethanol-mediated increased gut permeability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that enhance the inflammatory response are generated both by activation of Kupffer cells and by the direct metabolic effects of ethanol. The effects of this increased cytokine secretion and ROS generation lie far beyond liver damage. In addition to the classic consequences of endotoxemia associated with liver cirrhosis that were described several decades ago, important research in the last ten years has shown that cytokines may also induce damage in remote organs such as brain, bone, muscle, heart, lung, gonads, peripheral nerve, and pancreas. These effects are even seen in alcoholics without significant liver disease. Therefore, alcoholism can be viewed as an inflammatory condition, a concept which opens the possibility of using new therapeutic weapons to treat some of the complications of this devastating and frequent disease. In this review we examine some of the most outstanding consequences of the altered cytokine regulation that occurs in alcoholics in organs other than the liver. PMID:25356029

  17. Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development Around the World. Annex IV Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea; Hanna, L.; Whiting, J.; Geerlofs, S.; Grear, M.; Blake, K.; Coffey, A.; Massaua, M.; Brown-Saracino, J.; Battey, H.

    2013-01-01

    This Annex IV report contains three case studies of specific interactions of marine energy devices with the marine environment addressing the physical interactions between animals and tidal turbines, the acoustic impact of marine energy devices on marine animals, and the effects of energy removal on physical systems.

  18. WASTEWATER SAMPLING, TRANSFER AND CONDITIONING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the construction and field evaluation of an automatic on-line hardware system for reliably sampling, transferring, and conditioning various wastewater-treatment process streams such that the resulting transferred and conditioned samples are suitable for inte...

  19. Conditions database system of the COMPASS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toeda, T.; Lamanna, M.; Duic, V.; Manara, A.

    2003-05-01

    The CERN SPS experiment COMPASS has integrated a Conditions Database System in its off-line software. The system is used to manage time-dependent information, detector condition, calibration, and geometrical alignment information, by using a package provided by the CERN IT/DB. This integrated system consists of administration tools, a data handling library, and data transfer software from the detector control system to the Conditions Database. In this paper, the status of the Conditions Database project is described, and the results of the performance test on the COMPASS computing farm are given.

  20. 44. SECOND FLOOR 'ANNEX' INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST: Interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. SECOND FLOOR 'ANNEX' - INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST: Interior view towards southwest on second floor of the powerhouse 'annex.' Note the steel column and beam construction and the old shunt car formerly used to move cable cars around the yard. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 4. Photocopy of an original drawing of the Annex (from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of an original drawing of the Annex (from the U.S. Forest Service, Wenatchee National Forest) 5 August 1940 CONSTRUCTION DETAILS - U.S. Forest Service Chelan Ranger Station, Annex, 428 West Woodin Avenue, Chelan, Chelan County, WA

  2. 78 FR 13481 - Implementation of MARPOL Annex V Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ...The Coast Guard is publishing an interim rule with request for comments to conform regulations to the adopted MARPOL Annex V amendments which entered into force on January 1, 2013. The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) Annex V (Garbage) amendments prohibiting the discharge of garbage from vessels unless expressly allowed were adopted by the......

  3. Fuel-cell engine stream conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur

    2002-01-01

    A stream conditioning system for a fuel cell gas management system or fuel cell engine. The stream conditioning system manages species potential in at least one fuel cell reactant stream. A species transfer device is located in the path of at least one reactant stream of a fuel cell's inlet or outlet, which transfer device conditions that stream to improve the efficiency of the fuel cell. The species transfer device incorporates an exchange media and a sorbent. The fuel cell gas management system can include a cathode loop with the stream conditioning system transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell related to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  4. Application of entanglement conditions to spin systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Hongjun; Hillery, Mark; Dung, Ho Trung

    2010-06-15

    There have been numerous studies of entanglement in spin systems. These have usually focused on examining the entanglement between individual spins or determining whether the state of the system is completely separable. Here, we present conditions that allow us to determine whether blocks of spins are entangled. We show that sometimes these conditions can detect entanglement better than conditions involving individual spins. We apply these conditions to study entanglement in spin-wave states, both when there are only a few magnons present and also at finite temperature.

  5. Environmental effects of marine energy development around the world. Annex IV Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea; Hanna, Luke; Whiting, Johnathan; Geerlofs, Simon; Grear, Molly; Blake, Kara ); Coffey, Anna; Massaua, Meghan; Brown-Saracino, Jocelyn; Battey, Hoyt )

    2013-01-15

    Annex IV is an international collaborative project to examine the environmental effects of marine energy devices among countries through the International Energy Agency’s Ocean Energy Systems Initiative (OES). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) serves as the Operating Agent for the Annex, in partnership with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM; formerly the Minerals Management Service), the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Numerous ocean energy technologies and devices are being developed around the world, and the few data that exist about the environmental effects of these technologies are dispersed among countries and developers. The purpose of Annex IV is to facilitate efficient government oversight of the development of ocean energy systems by compiling and disseminating information about the potential environmental effects of marine energy technologies and to identify methods of monitoring for these effects. Beginning in 2010, this three-year effort produced a publicly available searchable online database of environmental effects information (Tethys). It houses scientific literature pertaining to the environmental effects of marine energy systems, as well as metadata on international ocean energy projects and research studies. Two experts’ workshops were held in Dublin, Ireland (September 2010 and October 2012) to engage with international researchers, developers, and regulators on the scope and outcomes of the Annex IV project. Metadata and information stored in the Tethys database and feedback obtained from the two experts’ workshops were used as resources in the development of this report. This Annex IV final report contains three case studies of specific interactions of marine energy devices with the marine environment that survey, compile, and analyze the best available information in one coherent location. These case studies address 1) the physical interactions

  6. Status of the International Energy Agency, Annex 11, Subtask B. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Skolnik, E.G.

    1997-04-01

    This document is meant to describe the status of the International Energy Agency (IEA), Annex 11 (Integrated Systems), Subtask B (Analytical Tools) effort being carried out by the Member Nations. The goal of this Annex is to identify, compile, and integrate models of hydrogen technology components into system models that will describe overall pathways. Examples would include: PV/electrolysis/pipeline transport/hydride storage/PEM fuel cell utilization or natural gas steam reforming/liquefaction/truck transport/hydrogen refueling station. Component models are developed by the Member Nations and integrated into the desired overall system. Subtask B is concerned with identifying and compiling existing component models from Member Nations, or developing these models from data supplied by the Member Nations via Subtask A.

  7. Status of the International Energy Agency, Annex 11, Subtask B. 2. interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Skolnik, E.G.

    1997-07-01

    This document is meant to describe the status of the International Energy Agency (IEA), Annex 11 (Integrated Systems), Subtask B (Analytical Tools) effort being carried out by the Member Nations. This includes Canada, Japan, Italy (inactive at this time), the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, and the United States. The Subtask status is taken as of the end of July 1997. The goal of this Annex is to identify, compile, and integrate models of hydrogen technology components into system models that will describe overall pathways. Examples would include: PV/electrolysis/pipeline transport/hydride storage/PEM fuel cell utilization or natural gas steam reforming/liquefaction/truck transport/hydrogen refueling station. Component models are developed by the Member Nations and integrated into the desired overall system. Subtask B is concerned with identifying and compiling existing component models from Member Nations, or developing these models from data supplied by the Member Nations via Subtask A.

  8. SCIENCE BRIEF: CONDITION ASSESSMENT OF COLLECTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the condition of a collection system, data and information are gathered through observation, direct inspection, investigation, and indirect monitoring and reporting. An analysis of the data and information helps determine the structural, operational, and performance sta...

  9. MBTS Boundary Conditions in Continuous Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benesh, G. A.; Haydock, Roger

    2015-03-01

    Boundary conditions imposed on a local system that is joined to a larger substrate system often introduce unphysical reflections that affect eigenstate energies, densities of states, and charge densities. These problems are common in both atomic cluster and surface slab calculations. Solutions of the Schrodinger equation for the physical system do not possess such reflections; these wave functions carry current smoothly across the (artificial) boundary between the local system and the underlying medium. Previously, Haydock and Nex derived a non-reflecting boundary condition for discrete systems [Phys. Rev. B 75, 205121 (2006)]. Solutions satisfying this maximal breaking of time-reversal symmetry (MBTS) boundary condition carry current away from the boundary at a maximal rate--in much the same way as the exact wave functions for the physical system. The MBTS boundary condition has proved useful in discrete systems for constructing densities of states and other distributions from moments or continued fractions. The MBTS approach has now been extended to studies employing continuous spatial wave functions, including surface slab calculations and model systems. Results are compared with free slab calculations, embedding calculations, and experiment.

  10. Air Conditioning System using Rankine Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Shigemi; Yamaguchi, Hiroichi; Hattori, Hitoshi; Futamura, Motonori

    Natural gas is used as the energy source to cope with the recent situation of increasing demand for electricity especially in summer. In this paper, the performance of a Rankine cycle air conditioning system driven by natural gas was studied. The following results were obtained : (1) Basic equations of performance, refrigerant mass flow rate and expander volume were developed by using the values of heating efficiency, regeneration efficiency, expander efficiency and compressor efficiency. (2) R134a refrigerant has been considered to be suitable for the Rankine cycle air conditioning system, compared with other refrigerants. (3)A Rankine cycle cooling system using R134a refrigerant as a single working fluid was developed. System COP of 0.47 was attained at typical operating condition.

  11. 2. View of south side (Art and Architecture Annex and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of south side (Art and Architecture Annex and Communications Building visible to the left) - University of Idaho, YMCA Hut, Northeast corner of University Avenue & Line Street, Moscow, Latah County, ID

  12. Voice interactive systems in severe noise conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steeneken, J. H. M.; Langhout, G.

    1987-02-01

    In a comparison of word recognition performance between human listeners and automatic speech recognition systems (ASR), the human listeners performs much better, especially in severe noise conditions. An application engineer can try to optimize the performance of an ASR system by selecting the optimal noise cancelling microphone and vocabulary for voice input. Some results from a study on the effect of signal handling and vocabulary configuration on the performance of voice input and voice output systems are discussed.

  13. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  14. Conditional reversibility in nonequilibrium stochastic systems.

    PubMed

    Bonança, Marcus V S; Jarzynski, Christopher

    2016-02-01

    For discrete-state stochastic systems obeying Markovian dynamics, we establish the counterpart of the conditional reversibility theorem obtained by Gallavotti for deterministic systems [Ann. de l'Institut Henri Poincaré (A) 70, 429 (1999)]. Our result states that stochastic trajectories conditioned on opposite values of entropy production are related by time reversal, in the long-time limit. In other words, the probability of observing a particular sequence of events, given a long trajectory with a specified entropy production rate σ, is the same as the probability of observing the time-reversed sequence of events, given a trajectory conditioned on the opposite entropy production, -σ, where both trajectories are sampled from the same underlying Markov process. To obtain our result, we use an equivalence between conditioned ("microcanonical") and biased ("canonical") ensembles of nonequilibrium trajectories. We provide an example to illustrate our findings. PMID:26986282

  15. Conditional reversibility in nonequilibrium stochastic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonança, Marcus V. S.; Jarzynski, Christopher

    2016-02-01

    For discrete-state stochastic systems obeying Markovian dynamics, we establish the counterpart of the conditional reversibility theorem obtained by Gallavotti for deterministic systems [Ann. de l'Institut Henri Poincaré (A) 70, 429 (1999)]. Our result states that stochastic trajectories conditioned on opposite values of entropy production are related by time reversal, in the long-time limit. In other words, the probability of observing a particular sequence of events, given a long trajectory with a specified entropy production rate σ , is the same as the probability of observing the time-reversed sequence of events, given a trajectory conditioned on the opposite entropy production, -σ , where both trajectories are sampled from the same underlying Markov process. To obtain our result, we use an equivalence between conditioned ("microcanonical") and biased ("canonical") ensembles of nonequilibrium trajectories. We provide an example to illustrate our findings.

  16. Exact quantization conditions for cluster integrable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Sebastián; Hatsuda, Yasuyuki; Mariño, Marcos

    2016-06-01

    We propose exact quantization conditions for the quantum integrable systems of Goncharov and Kenyon, based on the enumerative geometry of the corresponding toric Calabi–Yau manifolds. Our conjecture builds upon recent results on the quantization of mirror curves, and generalizes a previous proposal for the quantization of the relativistic Toda lattice. We present explicit tests of our conjecture for the integrable systems associated to the resolved {{{C}}3}/{{{Z}}5} and {{{C}}3}/{{{Z}}6} orbifolds.

  17. Signal conditioning circuitry design for instrumentation systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Cory A.

    2012-01-01

    This report details the current progress in the design, implementation, and validation of the signal conditioning circuitry used in a measurement instrumentation system. The purpose of this text is to document the current progress of a particular design in signal conditioning circuitry in an instrumentation system. The input of the signal conditioning circuitry comes from a piezoresistive transducer and the output will be fed to a 250 ksps, 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with an input range of 0-5 V. It is assumed that the maximum differential voltage amplitude input from the sensor is 20 mV with an unknown, but presumably high, sensor bandwidth. This text focuses on a specific design; however, the theory is presented in such a way that this text can be used as a basis for future designs.

  18. Solar powered desiccant air conditioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    A solar-powered desiccant air conditioning system using silica gel was developed, and modifications to the existing unit and additional testing are proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of the unit. Conversion from a rotating bed to a fixed bed of silica gel is proposed. Some general plans for commercialization are briefly discussed.

  19. Troubleshooting the residential air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Puzio, H.

    1996-01-01

    In order to effectively diagnose problems in a residential air conditioning system, the technician should develop and follow a logical step-by-step troubleshooting procedure. A list of problems, along with possible causes and solutions, that a technician may encounter when servicing a residential air conditioner is presented.

  20. Conditional RNAi Using the Lentiviral GLTR System.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffenberger, Elisabeth; Sigl, Reinhard; Geley, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has become an essential technology for functional gene analysis. Its success depends on the effective expression of target gene-specific RNAi-inducing small double-stranded interfering RNA molecules (siRNAs). Here, were describe the use of a recently developed lentiviral RNAi system that allows the rapid generation of stable cell lines with inducible RNAi based on conditional expression of double-stranded short hairpin RNA (shRNA). These lentiviral vectors can be generated rapidly using the GATEWAY recombination cloning technology. Conditional cell lines can be established by using either a two-vector system in which the regulator is encoded by a separate vector or by a one-vector system. The available different lentiviral vectors for conditional shRNA expression cassette delivery co-express additional genes that allow (1) the use of fluorescent proteins for color-coded combinatorial RNAi or monitoring RNAi induction (pGLTR-FP), (2) selection of transduced cells (pGLTR-S), and (3) the generation of conditional cell lines using a one-vector system (pGLTR-X). PMID:27317178

  1. Radiological assessment report for the University of Rochester Annex, 400 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, New York, April-May 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Wynveen, R.A.; Smith, W.H.; Sholeen, C.M.; Flynn, K.F.

    1984-12-01

    In light of the results of the comprehensive radiological assessment of the annex and auxiliary facilities, the following conclusions can be made: There is no immediate hazard from the elevated levels of radioactivity detected; however, some of these levels are above criteria. The radon, thoron, actinon, long-lived particulates, and tritium in the air are all below criteria for unrestricted use. Some ductwork has been identified as being contaminated. All ductwork must, therefore, be considered potentially contaminated. Since several floor drains were found to exhibit elevated readings, and the samples had elevated concentrations of radionuclides, it must be concluded that the drain and sewer systems of the Annex are contaminated with radioactive material. Since the samples collected from the storm and sewer systems outside the building also had elevated concentrations of radionuclides, these systems are also considered contaminated with radioactive material. The grounds around the Annex have exhibited background concentrations of radionuclides. Two rooms, B-330 and B-332, were inaccessible for survey due to the presence of stored furniture and equipment. Therefore, no comment about their radiological status can be made. At the common baseboard for Room C-12 and C-16 and on the floor below the tile in Room C-40, contamination appeared to be masked by construction modifications. Other areas of the Annex must also be considered potentially contaminated where modifications may have masked the contamination.

  2. A Resilient Condition Assessment Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Humberto Garcia; Wen-Chiao Lin; Semyon M. Meerkov

    2012-08-01

    An architecture and supporting methods are presented for the implementation of a resilient condition assessment monitoring system that can adaptively accommodate both cyber and physical anomalies to a monitored system under observation. In particular, the architecture includes three layers: information, assessment, and sensor selection. The information layer estimates probability distributions of process variables based on sensor measurements and assessments of the quality of sensor data. Based on these estimates, the assessment layer then employs probabilistic reasoning methods to assess the plant health. The sensor selection layer selects sensors so that assessments of the plant condition can be made within desired time periods. Resilient features of the developed system are then illustrated by simulations of a simplified power plant model, where a large portion of the sensors are under attack.

  3. Telemetric measurement system of beehive environment conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walendziuk, Wojciech; Sawicki, Aleksander

    2014-11-01

    This work presents a measurement system of beehive environmental conditions. The purpose of the device is to perform measurements of parameters such as ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, internal temperature, humidity and sound level. The measured values were transferred to the MySQL database, which is located on an external server, with the use of GPRS protocol. A website presents the measurement data in the form of tables and graphs. The study also shows exemplary results of environmental conditions measurements recorded in the beehive by hour cycle.

  4. Quaternion Based Thermal Condition Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Wai Kit; Loo, Chu Kiong; Lim, Way Soong; Tan, Poi Ngee

    In this paper, we will propose a new and effective machine condition monitoring system using log-polar mapper, quaternion based thermal image correlator and max-product fuzzy neural network classifier. Two classification characteristics namely: peak to sidelobe ratio (PSR) and real to complex ratio of the discrete quaternion correlation output (p-value) are applied in the proposed machine condition monitoring system. Large PSR and p-value observe in a good match among correlation of the input thermal image with a particular reference image, while small PSR and p-value observe in a bad/not match among correlation of the input thermal image with a particular reference image. In simulation, we also discover that log-polar mapping actually help solving rotation and scaling invariant problems in quaternion based thermal image correlation. Beside that, log-polar mapping can have a two fold of data compression capability. Log-polar mapping can help smoother up the output correlation plane too, hence makes a better measurement way for PSR and p-values. Simulation results also show that the proposed system is an efficient machine condition monitoring system with accuracy more than 98%.

  5. Power conditioning for space nuclear reactor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, Baruch

    1987-01-01

    This paper addresses the power conditioning subsystem for both Stirling and Brayton conversion of space nuclear reactor systems. Included are the requirements summary, trade results related to subsystem implementation, subsystem description, voltage level versus weight, efficiency and operational integrity, components selection, and shielding considerations. The discussion is supported by pertinent circuit and block diagrams. Summary conclusions and recommendations derived from the above studies are included.

  6. STATUS OF THE NIF POWER CONDITIONING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P; Hulsey, S; Ullery, G; Petersen, D; Pendleton, D; Ollis, C; Newton, M

    2007-07-26

    The NIF Power Conditioning System provides the pulsed excitation required to drive flashlamps in the laser's optical amplifiers. Modular in design, each of the 192 Main Energy Storage Modules (MESMs) storage up to 2.2 MJ of electrical energy in its capacitor bank before delivering the energy to 20 pairs of flashlamps in a 400 {micro}s pulse (10% power points). The peak current of each MESM discharge is 0.5 MA. Production, installation, commissioning and operation of the NIF Power Conditioning continue to progress rapidly, with the goals of completing accelerated production in late 2007 and finishing commissioning by early 2008, all the while maintaining an aggressive operations schedule. To date, more than 80% of the required modules have been assembled, shipped and installed in the facility, representing more that 240 MJ of stored energy available for driving NIF flashlamps. The MESMs have displayed outstanding reliability during daily, multiple-shift operations.

  7. Condition monitoring system of wind turbine generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdusamad, Khaled B.

    The development and implementation of the condition monitoring systems (CMS) play a significant role in overcoming the number of failures in the wind turbine generators that result from the harsh operation conditions, such as over temperature, particularly when turbines are deployed offshore. In order to increase the reliability of the wind energy industry, monitoring the operation conditions of wind generators is essential to detect the immediate faults rapidly and perform appropriate preventative maintenance. CMS helps to avoid failures, decrease the potential shutdowns while running, reduce the maintenance and operation costs and maintain wind turbines protected. The knowledge of wind turbine generators' faults, such as stator and rotor inter-turn faults, is indispensable to perform the condition monitoring accurately, and assist with maintenance decision making. Many techniques are utilized to avoid the occurrence of failures in wind turbine generators. The majority of the previous techniques that are applied to monitor the wind generator conditions are based on electrical and mechanical concepts and theories. An advanced CMS can be implemented by using a variety of different techniques and methods to confirm the validity of the obtained electrical and mechanical condition monitoring algorithms. This thesis is focused on applying CMS on wind generators due to high temperature by contributing the statistical, thermal, mathematical, and reliability analyses, and mechanical concepts with the electrical methodology, instead of analyzing the electrical signal and frequencies trends only. The newly developed algorithms can be compared with previous condition monitoring methods, which use the electrical approach in order to establish their advantages and limitations. For example, the hazard reliability techniques of wind generators based on CMS are applied to develop a proper maintenance strategy, which aims to extend the system life-time and reduce the potential

  8. Requirements for a transformerless power conditioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, J.; Koerner, T.; Rippel, W.; Kalbach, J.

    1984-01-01

    Requirements for development of a Transformerless Power Conditioning Subsystem (TPCS) that will meet utility, manufacturer, and customer needs are detailed. Issues analyzed include current utility guidelines, safety and grounding issues that appear as local codes, various kinds of TPCS connections that can be developed, dc injection, and a brief survey of TPCS circuit topologies that will meet requirements. The major result is that a finite time exists for control operation before dc injection into the distribution transformer causes customer outage (on the order of seconds). This time permits the control system to sense a dc injection condition and remove the TPCS from the utility system. Requirements for such a control system are specified. A three wire connection will ensure balanced operation for customer loads and two wire connections caused average value dc to be injected into single phase loads. This type of connection also allows for the lowest array voltage. The conclusion is that requirements for a TPCS can be determined and that there are not showstopping issues preventing implementation. The actual design and topology of the TPCS was left for further study.

  9. 19 CFR Annex Viii-B to Part 351 - Schedule for Expedited Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Schedule for Expedited Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII-B to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-B Annex VIII-B to Part 351—Schedule for...

  10. 19 CFR Annex II to Part 351 - Deadlines for Parties in Countervailing Administrative Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deadlines for Parties in Countervailing Administrative Reviews II Annex II to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex II Annex II to Part 351—Deadlines for...

  11. 19 CFR Annex IV to Part 351 - Deadlines for Parties in Antidumping Administrative Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deadlines for Parties in Antidumping Administrative Reviews IV Annex IV to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex IV Annex IV to Part 351—Deadlines for...

  12. 19 CFR Annex Viii-C to Part 351 - Schedule for Full Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Schedule for Full Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII-C to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-C Annex VIII-C to Part 351—Schedule for Full Sunset Reviews Day 1...

  13. 19 CFR Annex III to Part 351 - Deadlines for Parties in Antidumping Investigations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deadlines for Parties in Antidumping Investigations III Annex III to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex III Annex III to Part 351—Deadlines...

  14. 19 CFR Annex IV to Part 351 - Deadlines for Parties in Antidumping Administrative Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deadlines for Parties in Antidumping Administrative Reviews IV Annex IV to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex IV Annex IV to Part 351—Deadlines for...

  15. 19 CFR Annex I to Part 351 - Deadlines for Parties in Countervailing Investigations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deadlines for Parties in Countervailing Investigations I Annex I to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex I Annex I to Part 351—Deadlines for Parties...

  16. 19 CFR Annex Viii-A to Part 351 - Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII-A to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-A Annex VIII-A to Part 351—Schedule for 90-Day...

  17. 19 CFR Annex I to Part 351 - Deadlines for Parties in Countervailing Investigations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deadlines for Parties in Countervailing Investigations I Annex I to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex I Annex I to Part 351—Deadlines for Parties...

  18. 19 CFR Annex Viii-B to Part 351 - Schedule for Expedited Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule for Expedited Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII-B to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-B Annex VIII-B to Part 351—Schedule for...

  19. 19 CFR Annex Viii-A to Part 351 - Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII-A to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-A Annex VIII-A to Part 351—Schedule for 90-Day...

  20. 19 CFR Annex III to Part 351 - Deadlines for Parties in Antidumping Investigations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deadlines for Parties in Antidumping Investigations III Annex III to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex III Annex III to Part 351—Deadlines...

  1. 19 CFR Annex Viii-C to Part 351 - Schedule for Full Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule for Full Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII-C to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-C Annex VIII-C to Part 351—Schedule for Full Sunset Reviews Day 1...

  2. 19 CFR Annex II to Part 351 - Deadlines for Parties in Countervailing Administrative Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deadlines for Parties in Countervailing Administrative Reviews II Annex II to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex II Annex II to Part 351—Deadlines for...

  3. 19 CFR Annex V to Part 351 - Comparison of Prior and New Regulations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Comparison of Prior and New Regulations V Annex V to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex V Annex V to Part 351—Comparison of Prior and New Regulations Prior...

  4. 19 CFR Annex V to Part 351 - Comparison of Prior and New Regulations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Comparison of Prior and New Regulations V Annex V to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex V Annex V to Part 351—Comparison of Prior and New Regulations Prior...

  5. 19 CFR Annex V to Part 351 - Comparison of Prior and New Regulations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Comparison of Prior and New Regulations V Annex V to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex V Annex V to Part 351—Comparison of Prior and New Regulations Prior...

  6. 19 CFR Annex IV to Part 351 - Deadlines for Parties in Antidumping Administrative Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Administrative Reviews IV Annex IV to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex IV Annex IV to Part 351—Deadlines for Parties... initiation) 66 days 2 Notification of difficulty in responding to questionnaire 351.301(c)(2)(iv) (14...

  7. LHCb Conditions database operation assistance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemencic, M.; Shapoval, I.; Cattaneo, M.; Degaudenzi, H.; Santinelli, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Conditions Database (CondDB) of the LHCb experiment provides versioned, time dependent geometry and conditions data for all LHCb data processing applications (simulation, high level trigger (HLT), reconstruction, analysis) in a heterogeneous computing environment ranging from user laptops to the HLT farm and the Grid. These different use cases impose front-end support for multiple database technologies (Oracle and SQLite are used). Sophisticated distribution tools are required to ensure timely and robust delivery of updates to all environments. The content of the database has to be managed to ensure that updates are internally consistent and externally compatible with multiple versions of the physics application software. In this paper we describe three systems that we have developed to address these issues. The first system is a CondDB state tracking extension to the Oracle 3D Streams replication technology, to trap cases when the CondDB replication was corrupted. Second, an automated distribution system for the SQLite-based CondDB, providing also smart backup and checkout mechanisms for the CondDB managers and LHCb users respectively. And, finally, a system to verify and monitor the internal (CondDB self-consistency) and external (LHCb physics software vs. CondDB) compatibility. The former two systems are used in production in the LHCb experiment and have achieved the desired goal of higher flexibility and robustness for the management and operation of the CondDB. The latter one has been fully designed and is passing currently to the implementation stage.

  8. NIF Power Conditioning System Testing at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Fulkerson, E S; Newton, M; Hulsey, s; Hammon, J; Moore, W

    2001-06-05

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is now under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Power Conditioning System (PCS) for NIF, when completed will consist of a 192 nearly identical 2 megajoule capacitor storage banks driving 7680 two meter long flashlamps. A fully integrated single-module test facility was completed in August of 2000 at LLNL. The purpose to the Test Facility is to conduct Reliability and Maintainability (RAM) testing of a true ''First Article'' system (built to the final drawing package as opposed to a prototype). The test facility can be fired once every ten minutes with a total peak output current of 580kA with a pulse width of 400us. To date over 4000 full power shots have been conducted at this facility.

  9. Living systems in hypomagnetic conditions of Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trukhanov, Kirill; Gurieva, Tamara; Dadasheva, Olga; Spassky, Andrey; Lebedev, Viktor; Kruglov, Oleg

    Living Systems in Hypomagnetic Conditions of Space Trukhanov К. A.1, Guryeva T.S.1, Dadasheva О.А.1, Spassky А.V.2, Lebedev V.М.2, Kruglov О.S.1 1 SSC RF - Institute of bio-medical problems RAS, Moscow 2 Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow When working at a long-term lunar base, at stations in the near-moon space and during interplanetary missions cosmonauts will be continuously exposed to an entirely new environmental factor - hypomagnetic conditions (HMC). Interplanetary magnetic field and the field on the Lunar surface is three-five orders of magnitude below the usual geomagnetic field (GMF). It is well known that exposure to even a slightly decreased GMF adversely affect human and other living systems. Nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular systems and blood are considered to be the most sensitive to reduced GMF. There are some data in literature about the significant vulnerability of developing organism to the HMC. In this paper we present the results of further studies on the impact of the HMC on the embryogenesis of the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica), including the works performed as the development of studies reported at the conferences COSPAR 37 and COSPAR 39. Duration of quail embryos exposure to different values of attenuation HMC (till thousandfold and more) came up to 18 days. It is shown that the prolonged exposure to the HMC heightens the adverse effects on embryogenesis. The background of alternating electromagnetic fields of the systems and equipment will exist at the habitable base or on the board of the spacecraft. The results of studies on the combined effects of HMC and weak alternating magnetic fields are also presented.

  10. Rupture Loop Annex (RLA) ion exchange vault entry and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.

    1996-01-04

    This engineering report documents the entry and characterization of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located near the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns were found in the vault. Some of which contained transuranics, Cs 137, and Co 60. The characterization information is necessary for future vault cleanout and column disposal.

  11. 9. Photocopy of a photograph of the Warehouse and Annex ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of a photograph of the Warehouse and Annex (in the latter's original location prior to being moved) (from the U.S. Forest Service, Wenatchee National Forest) W.W. Gano, Photographer, September 1941 EAST ELEVATIONS, VIEW TO WEST - U. S. Forest Service Chelan Ranger Station, Warehouse, 428 West Woodin Avenue, Chelan, Chelan County, WA

  12. International Collaboration on Offshore Wind Energy Under IEA Annex XXIII

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Lemming, J.

    2005-11-01

    This paper defines the purpose of IEA Annex XXIII, the International Collaboration on Offshore Wind Energy. This international collaboration through the International Energy Agency (IEA) is an efficient forum from which to advance the technical and environmental experiences collected from existing offshore wind energy projects, as well as the research necessary to advance future technology for deep-water wind energy technology.

  13. LOX System Prestart Conditioning on X-34

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goode, Brian K.

    2001-01-01

    The X-34 is a reusable launch vehicle that will be carried underneath an airplane to altitude of 35000 feet where it will be launched. It utilizes a single Fastrac 60K rocket engine for propulsion. This engine burns RP-1 and Lox as propellants and has a single shaft Lox and RP-1 turbopump. With these features there are three important requirements that must be met during the prestart thermal conditioning of this engine and feed system. First, the Lox temperature prior to starting the engine must be cold enough to be in the predefined start box at that pressure. Second, the RP-1 in the single shaft turbopump in close proximity to the lox must not freeze significantly where it effects turbopump or engine operation. Third, the chill phase of the prestart countdown has been allocated 700lb of Lox which if exceeded starts to effect mission performance. Extensive testing and analysis has been performed to evaluate the chill characteristics of the Fastrac Engine as well as test facilities and X-34 Lox feed and bleed systems.

  14. Conditions for entanglement in multipartite systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hillery, Mark; Zheng Hongjun; Dung, Ho Trung

    2010-06-15

    We introduce two entanglement conditions that take the form of inequalities involving expectation values of operators. These conditions are sufficient conditions for entanglement; that is, if they are satisfied the state is entangled, but if they are not, one can say nothing about the entanglement of the state. These conditions are quite flexible, because the operators in them are not specified, and they are particularly useful in detecting multipartite entanglement. We explore the range of utility of these conditions by considering a number of examples of entangled states, and seeing under what conditions entanglement in them can be detected by the inequalities presented here.

  15. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, D.M.; Sullivan, R.A.

    1993-02-01

    A study is made of several outstanding issues concerning the commercial development of environmental control systems for electric vehicles (EVs). Engineering design constraints such as federal regulations and consumer requirements are first identified. Next, heating and cooling loads in a sample automobile are calculated using a computer model available from the literature. The heating and cooling loads are then used as a basis for estimating the electrical consumption that is to be expected for heat pumps installed in EVs. The heat pump performance is evaluated using an automobile heat pump computer model which has been developed recently at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The heat pump design used as input to the model consists of typical finned-tube heat exchangers and a hermetic compressor driven by a variable-speed brushless dc motor. The simulations suggest that to attain reasonable system efficiencies, the interior heat exchangers that are currently installed as automobile air conditioning will need to be enlarged. Regarding the thermal envelope of the automobile itself, calculations are made which show that considerable energy savings will result if steps are taken to reduce {open_quote}hot soak{close_quote} temperatures and if the outdoor air ventilation rate is well controlled. When these changes are made, heating and cooling should consume less than 10% of the total stored electrical energy for steady driving in most U.S. climates. However, this result depends strongly upon the type of driving: The fraction of total power for heating and cooling ({open_quote}range penalty{close_quote}) increases sharply for driving scenarios having low average propulsion power, such as stop-and-go driving.

  16. Geohydrology and water quality of Marine Corps Logistics Base, Nebo and Yermo annexes, near Barstow, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Jill N.; Cox, Brett F.; Crawford, Steven M.

    1997-01-01

    Because ground water is the only dependable source of water in the Barstow area, a thorough understanding of the relationship between the geology and hydrology of this area is needed to make informed ground-water management andremediation decisions. This report summarizes geologic and hydrologic studies done during 1992-95 at the Marine Corps Logistics Base, Nebo and Yermo Annexes, near Barstow, California. The geologic investigation dealt with the stratigraphy and geologic history of the area and determined the location of faults that cross the Marine Corps Logistics Base, Nebo Annex. Two of these faultscoincide with significant ground-water barriers. Geologic and hydrologic data collected for this study were used to define two main aquifer systems in this area. The Mojave River aquifer is contained within the sand and gravel of the Mojave River alluvium, and the regional aquifer lies in the bordering alluvial-fan deposits and older alluvium. Water-level data showed that recharge occurs exten sively in the Mojave River aquifer but occurs only in small areas of the regional aquifer. Dissolved- solids concentrations showed that ground-water degradation exists in the Mojave River aquifer near the Nebo Annex and extends at least 1 mile downgradient of the Nebo golf course in the younger Mojave River alluvium. Nitrogen concentrations show that more than one source is causing the observed degradation in the Mojave River aquifer. Oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, andcarbon-14 data indicate that the Mojave River and regional aquifers have different sources of recharge and that recent recharge occurs in the Mojave River aquifer but is more limited in the regional aquifer.

  17. Status of the International Energy Agency, Annex 11, Subtask B. 3. (and final) interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Skolnik, E.G.

    1997-10-01

    This document is meant to describe the status of the International Energy Agency (IEA), Annex 11 (Integrated Systems), Subtask B (Analytical Tools) effort being carried out by the Member Nations. This includes Canada, Japan, Italy (inactive at this time), the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, and the United States. The Subtask status is taken as of the end of September 1997, following the Fall Experts Meeting. This was held in Toronto, September 23--26. The goal of this Annex is to identify, compile, and integrate models of hydrogen technology components into system models that will describe overall pathways. Examples would include: PV/electrolysis/pipeline transport/hydride storage/PEM fuel cell utilization or natural gas steam reforming/liquefaction/truck transport/hydrogen refueling station. Component models are developed by the Member Nations and integrated into the desired overall system. Subtask B is concerned with identifying and compiling existing component models from Member Nations, or developing these models from data supplied by the Member Nations via Subtask A.

  18. Condition Assessment for Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will enable a systematic approach to characterizing the value of condition assessment of drinking water mains that will provide the basis for better communication among, and decisions by, stakeholders regarding goals and priorities for research, development, and tech...

  19. Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Municipal sanitary sewer collection systems play a critical role in protecting public health in our municipalities. They are designed to convey wastewater from their sources to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Collection systems consist of house service laterals, sewers, pu...

  20. Power conditioning system for energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, Sudip K.; Burra, Rajni K.; Acharya, Kaustuva

    2008-05-13

    Apparatus for conditioning power generated by an energy source includes an inverter for converting a DC input voltage from the energy source to a square wave AC output voltage, and a converter for converting the AC output voltage from the inverter to a sine wave AC output voltage.

  1. Ice storage systems spark air conditioning savings

    SciTech Connect

    Kohlenberger, C.R.

    1981-03-01

    Thermal storage systems similar to giant storage batteries are explained by means of storing energy (either hot or cold) during these off-peak times for use at the more convenient time when the actual load is impressed on to the system. This load shifting, of course, does not actually save energy. It merely shifts the load to a time when the electric utility can more conveniently handle that load. In fact, more actual KW hours may be utilized by this shift, but with the resulting cost to the consumer being reduced. System concepts are described and energy cost comparisons are made. Various methods of ice making systems are presented and analyzed.

  2. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  3. 42 CFR 493.1250 - Condition: Analytic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Analytic systems. 493.1250 Section 493... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1250 Condition: Analytic systems. Each laboratory that performs nonwaived testing must...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  5. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  6. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  7. 42 CFR 493.1230 - Condition: General laboratory systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: General laboratory systems. 493.1230... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1230 Condition: General laboratory systems. Each laboratory...

  8. Annex to 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    The Annex to the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Conceptual Design Report updates the Conceptual Design Report of 1987 (CDR-87) to include the results of further optimization and changes of the design during the past year. The design changes can be summarized as affecting three areas: the accelerator system, conventional facilities, and experimental systems. Most of the changes in the accelerator system result from inclusion of a positron accumulator ring (PAR), which was added at the suggestion of the 1987 DOE Review Committee, to speed up the filling rate of the storage ring. The addition of the PAR necessitates many minor changes in the linac system, the injector synchrotron, and the low-energy beam transport lines. 63 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Screening systems adapt to changing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-08-15

    Prep plants are installing larger screening systems and synthetic media is meeting those challenges. The largest manufacturer of synthetic screen media is Polydeck located in Spartanburg, South Carolina. The company's primary product lines include modular polyurethane and rubber screen panels and the frame systems to support the media. The modular approach overcomes a wear problem in one area of the deck common on Banana screens and facilitates maintenance. A rubber formation used in 1- x 2-pt screen panels called the Flexi design is softer and allows more vibration than standard urethane panels. The Maxi screen panel design combined with the PipeTop II frame makes the system highly versatile. 1 photo.

  10. Control system and method for a universal power conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Park, Sung Yeul; Chen, Chien-Liang

    2014-09-02

    A new current loop control system method is proposed for a single-phase grid-tie power conditioning system that can be used under a standalone or a grid-tie mode. This type of inverter utilizes an inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL) filter as the interface in between inverter and the utility grid. The first set of inductor-capacitor (LC) can be used in the standalone mode, and the complete LCL can be used for the grid-tie mode. A new admittance compensation technique is proposed for the controller design to avoid low stability margin while maintaining sufficient gain at the fundamental frequency. The proposed current loop controller system and admittance compensation technique have been simulated and tested. Simulation results indicate that without the admittance path compensation, the current loop controller output duty cycle is largely offset by an undesired admittance path. At the initial simulation cycle, the power flow may be erratically fed back to the inverter causing catastrophic failure. With admittance path compensation, the output power shows a steady-state offset that matches the design value. Experimental results show that the inverter is capable of both a standalone and a grid-tie connection mode using the LCL filter configuration.

  11. Method and system for monitoring environmental conditions

    DOEpatents

    Kulesz, James J [Oak Ridge, TN; Lee, Ronald W [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-11-16

    A system for detecting the occurrence of anomalies includes a plurality of spaced apart nodes, with each node having adjacent nodes, each of the nodes having one or more sensors associated with the node and capable of detecting anomalies, and each of the nodes having a controller connected to the sensors associated with the node. The system also includes communication links between adjacent nodes, whereby the nodes form a network. At least one software agent is capable of changing the operation of at least one of the controllers in response to the detection of an anomaly by a sensor.

  12. Field Demonstration of Condition Assessment Technologies for Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reliable information on pipe condition is needed to accurately estimate the remaining service life of wastewater collection system assets. Although inspections with conventional closed-circuit television (CCTV) have been the mainstay of pipeline condition assessment for decades,...

  13. A&M. Hot cell annex (TAN633) contextual view also showing east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot cell annex (TAN-633) contextual view also showing east facade. Camera facing west. Note corridor connecting annex to pool area of TAN-607. Pumice block walls. Date: March 2004. INEEL negative no. HD-39-2-2 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. 77 FR 19537 - MARPOL Annex V Special Areas: Wider Caribbean Region

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Homeland Security FR Federal Register IMO International Maritime Organization ISM International Safety... MARPOL Annex V Wider Caribbean Region Special Area'' in the Federal Register (74 FR 39334). This notice... Annex V Wider Caribbean Region Special Area'' in the Federal Register (76 FR 19380). That...

  15. The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement with an emphasis on annex 4 nutrients -and Lake Erie

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presented will be an overview of the Great Lakes Water Quality Act of 2012 including a general description of the Annexes and the new Binational Governance. The talk will focus on the Annex 4 Nutrients Subcommittee and the Objectives and Targets Task Team efforts that have been ...

  16. Condition responsive truck rollover warning systems: Alternative system designs

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, S.; Richards, S.H.

    1997-10-01

    Truck rollover is a serious highway safety problem, with consequences that make the occurrences important despite their relative infrequency. Truck accidents on urban freeways occur more frequently at interchange off-ramps that at any other location, accounting for about 5% of fatal truck accidents, according to accident statistics summarized in a study performed by Bellomo-McGee, Inc., for FHWA. Severe traffic disruption often results from truck rollover, and the severity of incidents can be sorely multiplied by the type of cargo the truck is hauling. Some hazardous cargos have the potential to cause true disaster is they are spilled as a result of truck rollover. Because of the severity of consequences of truck rollover accidents, it is important to seek ways to avoid such accidents. In the near-term future, the most likely means to prevent such rollover accidents is a condition responsive system that can warn truck drivers of impending rollover in time for them to take corrective actions.

  17. Thermal Environment for Classrooms. Central System Approach to Air Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triechler, Walter W.

    This speech compares the air conditioning requirements of high-rise office buildings with those of large centralized school complexes. A description of one particular air conditioning system provides information about the system's arrangement, functions, performance efficiency, and cost effectiveness. (MLF)

  18. A New Boundary Condition for Computer Simulations of Interfacial Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Ka-Yiu; Pettitt, Bernard M.; Montgomery, B.

    2000-08-18

    A new boundary condition for computer simulations of interfacial systems is presented. The simulation box used in this boundary condition is the asymmetric unit of space group Pb, and it contains only one interface. Compared to the simulation box using common periodic boundary conditions which contains two interfaces, the number of particles in the simulation is reduced by half. This boundary condition was tested against common periodic boundary conditions in molecular dynamic simulations of liquid water interacting with hydroxylated silica surfaces. It yielded results essentially identical to periodic boundary condition and consumed less CPU time for comparable statistics.

  19. A new boundary condition for computer simulations of interfacial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ka-Yiu; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2000-08-01

    A new boundary condition for computer simulations of interfacial systems is presented. The simulation box used in this boundary condition is the asymmetric unit of space group Pb, and it contains only one interface. Compared to the simulation box using common periodic boundary conditions which contains two interfaces, the number of particles in the simulation is reduced by half. This boundary condition was tested against common periodic boundary conditions in molecular dynamic simulations of liquid water interacting with hydroxylated silica surfaces. It yielded results essentially identical to periodic boundary condition and consumed less CPU time for comparable statistics.

  20. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOEpatents

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq; Weng, Kuo-Liang

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  1. System and method for statistically monitoring and analyzing sensed conditions

    DOEpatents

    Pebay, Philippe P.; Brandt, James M. , Gentile; Ann C. , Marzouk; Youssef M. , Hale; Darrian J. , Thompson; David C.

    2010-07-13

    A system and method of monitoring and analyzing a plurality of attributes for an alarm condition is disclosed. The attributes are processed and/or unprocessed values of sensed conditions of a collection of a statistically significant number of statistically similar components subjected to varying environmental conditions. The attribute values are used to compute the normal behaviors of some of the attributes and also used to infer parameters of a set of models. Relative probabilities of some attribute values are then computed and used along with the set of models to determine whether an alarm condition is met. The alarm conditions are used to prevent or reduce the impact of impending failure.

  2. System and method for statistically monitoring and analyzing sensed conditions

    DOEpatents

    Pebay, Philippe P.; Brandt, James M.; Gentile, Ann C.; Marzouk, Youssef M.; Hale, Darrian J.; Thompson, David C.

    2011-01-25

    A system and method of monitoring and analyzing a plurality of attributes for an alarm condition is disclosed. The attributes are processed and/or unprocessed values of sensed conditions of a collection of a statistically significant number of statistically similar components subjected to varying environmental conditions. The attribute values are used to compute the normal behaviors of some of the attributes and also used to infer parameters of a set of models. Relative probabilities of some attribute values are then computed and used along with the set of models to determine whether an alarm condition is met. The alarm conditions are used to prevent or reduce the impact of impending failure.

  3. System and method for statistically monitoring and analyzing sensed conditions

    DOEpatents

    Pebay, Philippe P.; Brandt, James M.; Gentile, Ann C.; Marzouk, Youssef M.; Hale, Darrian J.; Thompson, David C.

    2011-01-04

    A system and method of monitoring and analyzing a plurality of attributes for an alarm condition is disclosed. The attributes are processed and/or unprocessed values of sensed conditions of a collection of a statistically significant number of statistically similar components subjected to varying environmental conditions. The attribute values are used to compute the normal behaviors of some of the attributes and also used to infer parameters of a set of models. Relative probabilities of some attribute values are then computed and used along with the set of models to determine whether an alarm condition is met. The alarm conditions are used to prevent or reduce the impact of impending failure.

  4. Report on Condition Assessment Technology of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The wastewater collection system infrastructure in the United States is recognized as being in poor condition and in urgent need of condition assessment and rehabilitation. As part of an effort to address aging infrastructure needs, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEP...

  5. A power conditioning system for radioisotope thermoelectric generator energy sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The use of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) as the primary source of energy in unmanned spacecraft is discussed. RTG output control, power conditioning system requirements, the electrical design, and circuit performance are also discussed.

  6. Advanced power conditioning for maglev systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nerem, A.; Bowles, E.E.; Chapelle, S.; Callanan, R.J.

    1992-08-01

    The final report contains parametric scaling data and computer models of power conditioning equipment applicable to the design of an advanced maglev system. The power conditioning topologies were selected based on data from a literature search, on characteristics of present power semiconductor technology devices, and on actual performance characterization of designs using a circuit analysis program. The analyses show that GTOs are the best switches for traction drives, input power conditioning equipment, and the braking chopper. At lower power levels, as required for auxiliary power and superconducting coil power conditioning, the IGBT appeared to be the best switch.

  7. The CMS Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bell, A. J.; Dabrowski, A.; Guthoff, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Hempel, M.; Henschel, H.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Müller, S.; Novgorodova, O.; Pfeiffer, D.; Ryjov, V.; Stickland, D.; Schimdt, R.; Walsh, R.

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the two large, general purpose experiments situated at the LHC at CERN. As with all high energy physics experiments, knowledge of the beam conditions and luminosity is of vital importance. The Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System (BRM) is installed in CMS to protect the detector and to provide feedback to LHC on beam conditions. It is composed of several sub-systems that measure the radiation level close to or inside all sub-detectors, monitor the beam halo conditions with different time resolution, support beam tuning and protect CMS in case of adverse beam conditions by firing a beam abort signal. This paper presents three of the BRM subsystems: the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F), which is designed for fast flux monitoring, measuring with nanosecond time resolution, both the beam halo and collision products; the Beam Scintillator Counters (BSC), that provide hit rates and time information of beam halo and collision products; and the Beam Conditions Monitors (BCM) used as a protection system that can trigger a beam dump when beam losses occur in order to prevent damage to the pixel and tracker detectors. A description of the systems and a characterization on the basis of data collected during LHC operation is presented.

  8. Identification of abnormal operating conditions and intelligent decision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiuliang; Jiang, Junjie; Su, Hongye; Chu, Jian

    2011-12-01

    In earth pressure balance (EPB) shield construction, the "plastic flow state" is difficult to form using the soil dug in the capsule because it can cause three abnormal operating conditions, including occlusion, caking in the capsule, and spewing at the outlet of the dump device. These abnormal operating conditions can, in turn, trigger failure in tunneling, cutter-device damage, and even catastrophic incidents, such as ground settlement. This present paper effectively integrates the mechanism of abnormal operating conditions and knowledge of soil conditioning, and establishes a uniform model of identifying abnormal conditions and intelligent decision support system based on the belief rule-base system. The model maximizes knowledge in improving the soil, construction experience, and data to optimize the model online. Finally, a numerical simulation with specific construction data is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  9. OES-IA Annex IV: Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices - Report from the Experts’ Workshop September 27th – 28th 2010 Clontarf Castle, Dublin Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; O'Toole, Michael J.

    2010-12-02

    An experts' workshop was convened in Dublin Ireland September 27th – 28th 2010 in support of IEA Ocean Energy Systems Implementing Agreement Annex IV. PNNL was responsible for organizing the content of the workshop, overseeing the contractors (Irish Marine Institute) hosting the event, presenting material on Annex IV and materials applicable to the workshop intent. PNNL is also overseeing a contractor (Wave Energy Center/University of Plymouth – WEC/UP) in the collection and analysis of the Annex IV data. Fifty-eight experts from 8 countries attended the workshop by invitation, spending two days discussing the needs of Annex IV. Presentations by DOE (background on Annex IV), PNNL (process for developing Annex IV; presentation of the draft database for PNNL project, plans for incorporating Annex IV data), WEC/UP on the environmental effect matrix, and four MHK developers (two from the UK, one from Ireland and one from Sweden; each discussing their own projects and lessons learned for measuring and mitigating environmental effects, as well as interactions with consenting [permitting] processes) helped provide background. The workshop participants worked part of the time in the large group and most of the time in four smaller breakout groups. Participants engaged in the process and provided a wealth of examples of MHK environmental work, particularly in the European nations. They provided practical and actionable advice on the following: • Developing the Annex IV database, with specific uses and audiences • Strong consensus that we should collect detailed metadata on available data sets, rather than attempting to draw in copious datasets. The participants felt there would then be an opportunity to then ask for specific set of data as needed, with specific uses and ownership of the data specified. This is particularly important as many data collected, particularly in Europe but also in Canada, are proprietary; developers were not comfortable with the idea of

  10. The dopaminergic projection system, basal forebrain macrosystems, and conditioned stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Zahm, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    This review begins with a description of some problems that in recent years have beset an influential circuit model of fear-conditioning and goes on to look at neuroanatomy that might subserve conditioning viewed in a broader perspective, including not only fear, but also appetitive, conditioning. The paper then focuses on basal forebrain functional-anatomical systems, or macrosystems, as they have come to be called, which Lennart Heimer and colleagues described beginning in the 1970’s. Yet more specific attention is then given to the relationships of the dorsal and ventral striatopallidal systems and extended amygdala with the dopaminergic mesotelencephalic projection systems, culminating with the hypothesis that all macrosystems contribute to behavioral conditioning. PMID:18204412

  11. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration within IEA Wind Annex XXIII: Phase II Results Regarding Monopile Foundation Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Jonkman, J.; Butterfield, S.; Passon, P.; Larsen, T.; Camp, T.; Nichols, J.; Azcona, J.; Martinez, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and describes the latest findings of the code-to-code verification activities of the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, which operates under Subtask 2 of the International Energy Agency Wind Annex XXIII.

  12. DETAIL VIEW OF 5TON STEAM HAMMER IN EAST ANNEX, CA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF 5-TON STEAM HAMMER IN EAST ANNEX, CA. 1885, MANUFACTURED BY W.H. SELLERS COMPANY, PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA. - Cambria Iron Company, Blacksmith Shop, Lower Works, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  13. Controlled cooling of an electronic system based on projected conditions

    DOEpatents

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2016-05-17

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided based, in part, on projected conditions. The control includes automatically determining an adjusted control setting(s) for an adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on projected power consumed by the electronic system at a future time and projected temperature at the future time of a heat sink to which heat extracted is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on an experimentally obtained model(s) relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system.

  14. Controlled cooling of an electronic system based on projected conditions

    DOEpatents

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2015-08-18

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided based, in part, on projected conditions. The control includes automatically determining an adjusted control setting(s) for an adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on projected power consumed by the electronic system at a future time and projected temperature at the future time of a heat sink to which heat extracted is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on an experimentally obtained model(s) relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system.

  15. Application of solar energy to air conditioning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, J. M.; Harstad, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a survey of solar energy system applications of air conditioning are summarized. Techniques discussed are both solar powered (absorption cycle and the heat engine/Rankine cycle) and solar related (heat pump). Brief descriptions of the physical implications of various air conditioning techniques, discussions of status, proposed technological improvements, methods of utilization and simulation models are presented, along with an extensive bibliography of related literature.

  16. Rotor equivalent wind speed for power curve measurement - comparative exercise for IEA Wind Annex 32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.; Cañadillas, B.; Clifton, A.; Feeney, S.; Nygaard, N.; Poodt, M.; St. Martin, C.; Tüxen, E.; Wagenaar, J. W.

    2014-06-01

    A comparative exercise has been organised within the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Annex 32 in order to test the Rotor Equivalent Wind Speed (REWS) method under various conditions of wind shear and measurement techniques. Eight organisations from five countries participated in the exercise. Each member of the group has derived both the power curve based on the wind speed at hub height and the power curve based on the REWS. This yielded results for different wind turbines, located in diverse types of terrain and where the wind speed profile was measured with different instruments (mast or various lidars). The participants carried out two preliminary steps in order to reach consensus on how to implement the REWS method. First, they all derived the REWS for one 10 minute wind speed profile. Secondly, they all derived the power curves for one dataset. The main point requiring consensus was the definition of the segment area used as weighting for the wind speeds measured at the various heights in the calculation of the REWS. This comparative exercise showed that the REWS method results in a significant difference compared to the standard method using the wind speed at hub height in conditions with large shear and low turbulence intensity.

  17. Encryption Devices for Use in a Conditional Access System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinder, Howard G.; Palgon, Michael S.

    2002-07-01

    A cable television system provides conditional access to services. The cable television system includes a headend from which service 'instances', or programs, are broadcast and a plurality of set top units for receiving the instances and selectively decrypting the instances for display to system subscribers. The service instances are encrypted using public and/or private keys provided by service providers or central authorization agents. Keys used by the set tops for selective decryption may also be public or private in nature, and such keys may be reassigned at different times to provide a cable television system in which piracy concerns are minimized.

  18. An IPTG Inducible Conditional Expression System for Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ravishankar, Sudha; Ambady, Anisha; Ramu, Haripriya; Mudugal, Naina Vinay; Tunduguru, Ragadeepthi; Anbarasu, Anand; Sharma, Umender K.; Sambandamurthy, Vasan K.; Ramaiah, Sudha

    2015-01-01

    Conditional expression strains serve as a valuable tool to study the essentiality and to establish the vulnerability of a target under investigation in a drug discovery program. While essentiality implies an absolute requirement of a target function, vulnerability provides valuable information on the extent to which a target function needs to be depleted to achieve bacterial growth inhibition followed by cell death. The critical feature of an ideal conditional expression system is its ability to tightly regulate gene expression to achieve the full spectrum spanning from a high level of expression in order to support growth and near zero level of expression to mimic conditions of gene knockout. A number of bacterial conditional expression systems have been reported for use in mycobacteria. The utility of an isopropylthiogalactoside (IPTG) inducible system in mycobacteria has been reported for protein overexpression and anti-sense gene expression from a replicating multi-copy plasmid. Herein, we report the development of a versatile set of non-replicating IPTG inducible vectors for mycobacteria which can be used for generation of conditional expression strains through homologous recombination. The role of a single lac operator versus a double lac operator to regulate gene expression was evaluated by monitoring the expression levels of β-galactosidase in Mycobacterium smegmatis. These studies indicated a significant level of leaky expression from the vector with a single lac operator but none from the vector with double lac operator. The significance of the double lac operator vector for target validation was established by monitoring the growth kinetics of an inhA, a rpoB and a ftsZ conditional expression strain grown in the presence of different concentrations of IPTG. The utility of this inducible system in identifying target specific inhibitors was established by screening a focussed library of small molecules using an inhA and a rpoB conditional expression

  19. An IPTG Inducible Conditional Expression System for Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ravishankar, Sudha; Ambady, Anisha; Ramu, Haripriya; Mudugal, Naina Vinay; Tunduguru, Ragadeepthi; Anbarasu, Anand; Sharma, Umender K; Sambandamurthy, Vasan K; Ramaiah, Sudha

    2015-01-01

    Conditional expression strains serve as a valuable tool to study the essentiality and to establish the vulnerability of a target under investigation in a drug discovery program. While essentiality implies an absolute requirement of a target function, vulnerability provides valuable information on the extent to which a target function needs to be depleted to achieve bacterial growth inhibition followed by cell death. The critical feature of an ideal conditional expression system is its ability to tightly regulate gene expression to achieve the full spectrum spanning from a high level of expression in order to support growth and near zero level of expression to mimic conditions of gene knockout. A number of bacterial conditional expression systems have been reported for use in mycobacteria. The utility of an isopropylthiogalactoside (IPTG) inducible system in mycobacteria has been reported for protein overexpression and anti-sense gene expression from a replicating multi-copy plasmid. Herein, we report the development of a versatile set of non-replicating IPTG inducible vectors for mycobacteria which can be used for generation of conditional expression strains through homologous recombination. The role of a single lac operator versus a double lac operator to regulate gene expression was evaluated by monitoring the expression levels of β-galactosidase in Mycobacterium smegmatis. These studies indicated a significant level of leaky expression from the vector with a single lac operator but none from the vector with double lac operator. The significance of the double lac operator vector for target validation was established by monitoring the growth kinetics of an inhA, a rpoB and a ftsZ conditional expression strain grown in the presence of different concentrations of IPTG. The utility of this inducible system in identifying target specific inhibitors was established by screening a focussed library of small molecules using an inhA and a rpoB conditional expression

  20. Technical Basis for Radiological Emergency Plan Annex for WTD Emergency Response Plan: West Point Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, Eva E.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-01

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document, Volume 3 of PNNL-15163 is the technical basis for the Annex to the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP) Emergency Response Plan related to responding to a radiological emergency at the WPTP. The plan primarily considers response to radioactive material that has been introduced in the other combined sanitary and storm sewer system from a radiological dispersion device, but is applicable to any accidental or deliberate introduction of materials into the system.

  1. Boundary conditions on faster-than-light transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Knowles, H. B.

    1993-01-01

    In order to be consistent with current physical theories, any proposal of a faster-than light (FTL) transportation system must satisfy several critical conditions. It must predict the mass, space, and time dimensional changes predicted by relativity physics when velocity falls below the speed of light. It must also not violate causality, and remain consistent with quantum physics in the limit of microscopic systems. It is also essential that the proposal conserve energy.

  2. Torsion d'annexe après hystérectomie abdominale: une première observation

    PubMed Central

    Elhjouji, Abderrahman; Zahdi, Othman; Baba, Hicham; Belhamidi, Said; Bounaim, Ahmed; Aitali, Abdelmounaim; Sair, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    La torsion d'annexes survient classiquement sur ovaires kystiques ou tumoraux. De rares cas de torsion ont été rapports dans la littérature après hystérectomie laparoscopique. Nous rapportons la première observation de torsion d'annexe survenant sur annexe normale après hystérectomie abdominale et décrivons les particularités de cette forme clinique. PMID:26759694

  3. Generalized Helmholtz Conditions for Non-Conservative Lagrangian Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucataru, Ioan; Constantinescu, Oana

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we provide generalized Helmholtz conditions, in terms of a semi-basic 1-form, which characterize when a given system of second order ordinary differential equations is equivalent to the Lagrange equations, for some given arbitrary non-conservative forces. For the particular cases of dissipative or gyroscopic forces, these conditions, when expressed in terms of a multiplier matrix, reduce to those obtained in Mestdag et al. (Differential Geom. Appl. 29(1), 55-72, 2011). When the involved geometric structures are homogeneous with respect to the fibre coordinates, we show how one can further simplify the generalized Helmholtz conditions. We provide examples where the proposed generalized Helmholtz conditions, expressed in terms of a semi-basic 1-form, can be integrated and the corresponding Lagrangian and Lagrange equations can be found.

  4. Glow discharge techniques for conditioning high vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.

    1988-03-01

    A review is given of glow discharge techniques which are useful for conditioning vacuum vessels for high vacuum applications. Substantial development of glow discharge techniques has been done for the purpose of in-situ conditioning of the large ultrahigh vacuum systems for particle accelerators and magnetic fusion devices. In these applications the glow discharge treatments remove impurities from vessel surfaces in order to minimize particle-induced desorption coefficients. Cleaning mechanisms involve a mixture of sputtering and ion- (or neutral) induced desorption effects depending on the gas mixture (ArO/sub 2/ vs. H/sub 2/) and excitation method (DC, RF, and ECR). The author will review the methodology of glow discharge conditioning, diagnostic measurements provided by residual gas and surface composition analysis, and applications to vessel conditioning and materials processing. 76 refs., 16 figs.

  5. New boundary conditions for the c=-2 ghost system

    SciTech Connect

    Creutzig, Thomas; Quella, Thomas; Schomerus, Volker

    2008-01-15

    We investigate a novel boundary condition for the bc system with central charge c=-2. Its boundary state is constructed and tested in detail. It appears to give rise to the first example of a local logarithmic boundary sector within a bulk theory whose Virasoro zero modes are diagonalizable.

  6. Cometabolism of Monochloramine by Nitrosomonas europaea under Distribution System Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Batch kinetic experiments were carried out with a pure culture of N. europaea to characterize the kinetics of NH2Cl cometabolism. Nitrite, nitrate, NH2Cl, ammonia and pH were measured. The experiments were performed at a variety of conditions relevant to distribution system nitri...

  7. Systemic conditions in children associated with pigmentary changes.

    PubMed

    Treadwell, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Systemic conditions may have pigmentary associations. Prompt recognition of these associations allows the practitioner to initiate the appropriate workup and therapy when indicated. This contribution highlights some of the clinical features of neurofibromatosis 1, LEOPARD syndrome, acanthosis nigricans, hypomelanosis of Ito, incontinentia pigmenti, CHILD syndrome, and piebaldism to assist the dermatologist in making the proper diagnosis. PMID:25889139

  8. New power-conditioning systems for superconducting magnetic energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Byung Moon

    1992-06-01

    This dissertation presents the development of new power-conditioning systems for superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), which can regulate fast and independently the active and reactive powers demanded in the ac network. Three new power-conditioning systems were developed through a systematic approach to match the requirements of the superconducting coil and the ac power network. Each of these new systems is composed of ten 100-MW modules connected in parallel to handle the large current through the superconducting coil. The first system, which was published in the IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, consists of line-commutated 24-pulse converter, a thyristor-switched tap-changing transformer, and a thyristor-switched capacitor bank. The second system, which was accepted for publication in the IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, consists of a 12-pulse GTO (gate turn-off thyristor) converter and a thyristor-switched tap-changing transformer. The third system, which was submitted to the International Journal of Energy System, consists of a dc chopper and a voltage-source PWM (pulse width modulation) converter. The operational concept of each new system is verified through mathematical analyses and computer simulations. The dynamic interaction of each new system with the ac network and the superconducting coil is analyzed using a simulation model with EMTP (electro-magnetic transients program). The analysis results prove that each new system is feasible and realizable. Each system can regulate the active and reactive powers of the utility network rapidly and independently, and each offer a significant reduction of the system rating by reducing the reactive power demand in the converter. Feasible design for each new system was introduced using a modular design approach based on the 1000 MW/5000 MWH plant, incorporating commercially available components and proven technologies.

  9. A modern diagnostic approach for automobile systems condition monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selig, M.; Shi, Z.; Ball, A.; Schmidt, K.

    2012-05-01

    An important topic in automotive research and development is the area of active and passive safety systems. In general, it is grouped in active safety systems to prevent accidents and passive systems to reduce the impact of a crash. An example for an active system is ABS while a seat belt tensioner represents the group of passive systems. Current developments in the automotive industry try to link active with passive system components to enable a complete event sequence, beginning with the warning of the driver about a critical situation till the automatic emergency call after an accident. The cross-linking has an impact on the current diagnostic approach, which is described in this paper. Therefore, this contribution introduces a new diagnostic approach for automotive mechatronic systems. The concept is based on monitoring the messages which are exchanged via the automotive communication systems, e.g. the CAN bus. According to the authors' assumption, the messages on the bus are changing between faultless and faulty vehicle condition. The transmitted messages of the sensors and control units are different depending on the condition of the car. First experiments are carried and in addition, the hardware design of a suitable diagnostic interface is presented. Finally, first results will be presented and discussed.

  10. TEWI Evaluation for Household Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobue, Atsushi; Watanabe, Koichi

    In the present study, we have quantitatively evaluated the global warming impact by household refrigerator and air-conditioning systems on the basis of reliable TEWI information. In TEWI evaluation of household refrigerators, the percentage of the impact by refrigerant released to the atmosphere (direct effect) is less than 18.6% in TEWI. In case of room air-conditioners, however, the percentage of direct effect is less than 5.4% in TEWI. Therefore, it was confirmed that impact by CO2 released as a result of the energy consumed to drive the refrigeration or air-conditioning systems throughout their lifetime (indirect effect) is far larger than direct effect by the entire system. A reduction of indirect effect by energy saving is the most effective measure in reducing the global warming impact by refrigeration and air-conditioning systems, For a realization of the energy saving, not only the advanced improvement in energy efficiency by household appliance manufacturers but also the improvement of consumer's mind in selecting the systems and a way of using are concluded important.

  11. A Classification System for Peri-implant Diseases and Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Hector L; Norton, Michael R; Fiorellini, Joseph P

    2016-01-01

    Peri-implant bone levels are influenced by pathologic and nonpathologic conditions. The understanding of peri-implant disease has evolved over the past several decades, and the classification of peri-implantitis has been limited to descriptions of disease progression or those involving soft and/or hard tissues (peri-implant mucositis or peri-implantitis). However, no classification system has been established based on etiology. The objective of this study was to identify various etiologies for peri-implantitis and to establish a classification system based on the pathogenesis. The results indicate that the majority of bone loss was related to biofilm, followed by iatrogenic factors, exogenous irritants, absence of keratinized tissue, and extrinsic pathology. The proposed classification system will allow the clinician to properly diagnose peri-implant diseases in relation to etiology. These conditions may respond differently to applied therapies. PMID:27560674

  12. Kinetic modeling of petroleum formation in the Maracaibo Basin: Final report, Annex 12

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A.K.; Braun, R.L.; Sweeney, J.J.; Reynolds, J.G.; Vallejos, C.; Talukdar, S.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop and test improved kinetic models of petroleum generation and cracking, pore pressure buildup, and fluid expulsion. The work was performed jointly between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Research Organization of the Venezuelan National Petroleum Company under Annex 12 of an agreement between DOE and the Venezuelan Ministry of Energy and Mines. Laboratory experiments were conducted at both LLNL and INTEVEP to obtain the reaction rate and product composition information needed to develop chemical kinetic models. Experiments at INTEVEP included hydrous pyrolysis and characterization of oils by gas and liquid chromatography. Experiments at LLNL included programmed pyrolysis in open and self-purging reactors, sometimes including on-line gas analysis by tandem mass spectrometry, and characterization of oils by gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. The PMOD code was used to develop a detailed pyrolysis mechanism from the extensive laboratory data. This mechanism is able to predict yield of bitumen, oil, and gas as a function of time and temperature for such diverse laboratory conditions as hydrous pyrolysis and rapid, programmed, open pyrolysis. PMOD calculations were compared to geologic observations for 22 wells in the Maracaibo basin. When permeability parameters are chosen to match calculated pore pressures with measured present day values, the PMOD calculations indicate that organic maturation reactions contribute a significant fraction of the overpressure during oil generation and early oil cracking. Calculations agreed with observed geochemical maturity parameters of the source rock. 37 refs., 64 figs., 20 tabs.

  13. Talbot conditions, Talbot resonators, and first-order systems.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pousa, Carlos R; Flores-Arias, María Teresa; Bao, Carmen; Pérez, María Victoria; Gómez-Reino, Carlos

    2003-04-01

    A study of first-order Talbot resonators is presented. The general conditions for Talbot effect in ABCD systems are determined. These conditions are applied to the computation of the diffraction overlapping coefficients between array Gaussian emitters in a general first-order Talbot resonator. Relations on the ray-transfer matrix to generate the symmetric and the totally antisymmetric supermodes of the array are derived. These relations generalize the free-space, round-trip lengths of 1/2 and 1/4 of the Talbot distance. A new type of resonator based on a plano-convex gradient-index rod is proposed. PMID:12683489

  14. Beam-path conditioning for high-power laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, T.; Johnson, D.; Languirand, M.

    1990-01-01

    Heating of mirrors and windows by high-power radiation from a laser transmitter produces turbulent density gradients in the gas near the optical surfaces. If the gradients are left uncontrolled, the resulting phase errors reduce the intensity on the target and degrade the signal returned to a receiver. Beam path conditioning maximizes the efficiency of the optical system by alleviating thermal turbulence within the beam path. Keywords: High power radiation, Beam path, Optical surface, Laser beams, Reprints. (JHD)

  15. NMR relaxation in multipolar AX systems under spin locking conditions.

    PubMed

    Kaikkonen, A; Kowalewski, J

    1999-12-01

    A relaxation matrix has been calculated for a multipolar AX spin system under the on-resonance spin-locking condition. Auto- and cross-correlation terms between dipolar, quadrupolar, and CSA interactions are considered. It is shown that the spin-lock leads to many relaxation pathways being blocked, resulting in a considerably simplified relaxation network. The presence of spectral densities at zero frequency, associated with locked nuclei, allows efficient relaxation also in the absence of fast molecular motions. PMID:10579956

  16. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1993-09-21

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

  17. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.

    1993-01-01

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

  18. Periodontal disease and systemic conditions: a bidirectional relationship.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jemin; Amar, Salomon

    2006-09-01

    For decades, physicians and dentists have paid close attention to their own respective fields, specializing in medicine pertaining to the body and the oral cavity, respectively. However, recent findings have strongly suggested that oral health may be indicative of systemic health. Currently, this gap between allopathic medicine and dental medicine is quickly closing, due to significant findings supporting the association between periodontal disease and systemic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and osteoporosis. Significant effort has brought numerous advances in revealing the etiological and pathological links between this chronic inflammatory dental disease and these other conditions. Therefore, there is reason to hope that the strong evidence from these studies may guide researchers towards greatly improved treatment of periodontal infection that would also ameliorate these systemic illnesses. Hence, researchers must continue not only to uncover more information about the correlations between periodontal and systemic diseases but also to focus on positive associations that may result from treating periodontal disease as a means of ameliorating systemic diseases. PMID:16998613

  19. A knowledge based expert system for condition monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Selkirk, C.G.; Roberge, P.R.; Fisher, G.F.; Yeung, K.K.

    1994-12-31

    Condition monitoring (CM) is the focus of many maintenance philosophies around the world today. In the Canadian Forces (CF), CM has played an important role in the maintenance of aircraft systems since the introduction of spectrometric oil analysis (SOAP) over twenty years ago. Other techniques in use in the CF today include vibration analysis (VA), ferrography, and filter debris analysis (FDA). To improve the usefulness and utility gained from these CM techniques, work is currently underway to incorporate expert systems into them. An expert system for FDA is being developed which will aid filter debris analysts in identifying wear debris and wear level trends, and which will provide the analyst with reference examples in an attempt to standardize results. Once completed, this knowledge based expert system will provide a blueprint from which other CM expert systems can be created. Amalgamating these specific systems into a broad based global system will provide the CM analyst with a tool that will be able to correlate data and results from each of the techniques, thereby increasing the utility of each individual method of analysis. This paper will introduce FDA and then outline the development of the FDA expert system and future applications.

  20. Response of Simple, Model Systems to Extreme Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Rodney C.; Lang, Maik

    2015-07-30

    The focus of the research was on the application of high-pressure/high-temperature techniques, together with intense energetic ion beams, to the study of the behavior of simple oxide systems (e.g., SiO2, GeO2, CeO2, TiO2, HfO2, SnO2, ZnO and ZrO2) under extreme conditions. These simple stoichiometries provide unique model systems for the analysis of structural responses to pressure up to and above 1 Mbar, temperatures of up to several thousands of kelvin, and the extreme energy density generated by energetic heavy ions (tens of keV/atom). The investigations included systematic studies of radiation- and pressure-induced amorphization of high P-T polymorphs. By studying the response of simple stoichiometries that have multiple structural “outcomes”, we have established the basic knowledge required for the prediction of the response of more complex structures to extreme conditions. We especially focused on the amorphous state and characterized the different non-crystalline structure-types that result from the interplay of radiation and pressure. For such experiments, we made use of recent technological developments, such as the perforated diamond-anvil cell and in situ investigation using synchrotron x-ray sources. We have been particularly interested in using extreme pressures to alter the electronic structure of a solid prior to irradiation. We expected that the effects of modified band structure would be evident in the track structure and morphology, information which is much needed to describe theoretically the fundamental physics of track-formation. Finally, we investigated the behavior of different simple-oxide, composite nanomaterials (e.g., uncoated nanoparticles vs. core/shell systems) under coupled, extreme conditions. This provided insight into surface and boundary effects on phase stability under extreme conditions.

  1. Quadratic Measurement and Conditional State Preparation in an Optomechanical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brawley, George; Vanner, Michael; Bowen, Warwick; Schmid, Silvan; Boisen, Anja

    2014-03-01

    An important requirement in the study of quantum systems is the ability to measure non-linear observables at the level of quantum fluctuations. Such measurements enable the conditional preparation of highly non-classical states. Nonlinear measurement, although achieved in a variety of quantum systems including microwave cavity modes and optical fields, remains an outstanding problem in both electromechanical and optomechanical systems. To the best of our knowledge, previous experimental efforts to achieve nonlinear measurement of mechanical motion have not yielded strong coupling, nor the observation of quadratic mechanical motion. Here using a new technique reliant on the intrinsic nonlinearity of the optomechanical interaction, we experimentally observe for the first time a position squared (x2) measurement of the room-temperature Brownian motion of a nanomechanical oscillator. We utilize this measurement to conditionally prepare non-Gaussian bimodal states, which are the high temperature classical analogue of quantum macroscopic superposition states, or cat states. In the future with the aid of cryogenics and state-of-the-art optical cavities, our approach will provide a viable method of generating quantum superposition states of mechanical oscillators. This research was funded by the ARC Center of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems.

  2. Cooling System Using Natural Circulation for Air Conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okazaki, Takashi; Seshimo, Yu

    In this paper, Cooling systems with natural circulation loop of refrigerants are reviewed. The cooling system can largely reduce energy consumption of a cooling system for the telecommunication base site. The cooling system consists of two refrigeration units; vapor compression refrigeration unit and sub-cooling unit with a natural-circulation loop. The experiments and calculations were carried out to evaluate the cycle performance of natural circulation loop with HFCs and CO2. The experimental results showed that the cooling capacity of R410A is approximately 30% larger than that of R407C at the temperature difference of 20K and the cooling capacity of CO2 was approximately 4-13% larger than that of R410A under the two-phase condition. On the other hand, the cooling capacity of CO2 was approximately 11% smaller than that of R410A under the supercritical condition. The cooling capacity took a maximum value at an amount of refrigerant and lineally increased as the temperature difference increases and the slightly increased as the height difference. The air intake temperature profile in the inlet of the heat exchangers makes the reverse circulation under the supercritical state and the driving head difference for the reverse circulation depends on the density change to temperature under the supercritical state. Also, a new fan control method to convert the reverse circulation into the normal circulation was reviewed.

  3. Electrostatics of solvated systems in periodic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreussi, Oliviero; Marzari, Nicola

    2014-12-01

    Continuum solvation methods can provide an accurate and inexpensive embedding of quantum simulations in liquid or complex dielectric environments. Notwithstanding a long history and manifold applications to isolated systems in open boundary conditions, their extension to materials simulations, typically entailing periodic boundary conditions, is very recent, and special care is needed to address correctly the electrostatic terms. We discuss here how periodic boundary corrections developed for systems in vacuum should be modified to take into account solvent effects, using as a general framework the self-consistent continuum solvation model developed within plane-wave density-functional theory [O. Andreussi et al., J. Chem. Phys. 136, 064102 (2012), 10.1063/1.3676407]. A comprehensive discussion of real- and reciprocal-space corrective approaches is presented, together with an assessment of their ability to remove electrostatic interactions between periodic replicas. Numerical results for zero- and two-dimensional charged systems highlight the effectiveness of the different suggestions, and underline the importance of a proper treatment of electrostatic interactions in first-principles studies of charged systems in solution.

  4. High Technology Centrifugal Compressor for Commercial Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ruckes, John

    2006-04-15

    R&D Dynamics, Bloomfield, CT in partnership with the State of Connecticut has been developing a high technology, oil-free, energy-efficient centrifugal compressor called CENVA for commercial air conditioning systems under a program funded by the US Department of Energy. The CENVA compressor applies the foil bearing technology used in all modern aircraft, civil and military, air conditioning systems. The CENVA compressor will enhance the efficiency of water and air cooled chillers, packaged roof top units, and other air conditioning systems by providing an 18% reduction in energy consumption in the unit capacity range of 25 to 350 tons of refrigeration The technical approach for CENVA involved the design and development of a high-speed, oil-free foil gas bearing-supported two-stage centrifugal compressor, CENVA encompassed the following high technologies, which are not currently utilized in commercial air conditioning systems: Foil gas bearings operating in HFC-134a; Efficient centrifugal impellers and diffusers; High speed motors and drives; and System integration of above technologies. Extensive design, development and testing efforts were carried out. Significant accomplishments achieved under this program are: (1) A total of 26 builds and over 200 tests were successfully completed with successively improved designs; (2) Use of foil gas bearings in refrigerant R134a was successfully proven; (3) A high speed, high power permanent magnet motor was developed; (4) An encoder was used for signal feedback between motor and controller. Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, the compressor could not operate at higher speed and in turn at higher pressure. In order to alleviate this problem a unique sensorless controller was developed; (5) This controller has successfully been tested as stand alone; however, it has not yet been integrated and tested as a system; (6) The compressor successfully operated at water cooled condensing temperatures Due to temperature

  5. 76 FR 33809 - Amendment and Update to the Entry for an Individual Named in the Annex to Executive Order 13219...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... Amendment and Update to the Entry for an Individual Named in the Annex to Executive Order 13219, as Amended... an update to the entry of an individual on OFAC's list of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked... place of birth have been added to the SDN List entry. The individual was listed in the Annex...

  6. 22 CFR 121.2 - Interpretations of the U.S. Munitions List and the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex. 121.2 Section 121.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... Interpretations of the U.S. Munitions List and the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex. The following.... In addition, all the items listed in § 121.16 shall constitute all items on the United...

  7. 22 CFR 121.2 - Interpretations of the U.S. Munitions List and the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex. 121.2 Section 121.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... Interpretations of the U.S. Munitions List and the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex. The following.... In addition, all the items listed in § 121.16 shall constitute all items on the United...

  8. 22 CFR 121.2 - Interpretations of the U.S. Munitions List and the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex. 121.2 Section 121.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... Interpretations of the U.S. Munitions List and the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex. The following.... In addition, all the items listed in § 121.16 shall constitute all items on the United...

  9. 22 CFR 121.2 - Interpretations of the U.S. Munitions List and the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex. 121.2 Section 121.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE... Interpretations of the U.S. Munitions List and the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex. The following.... In addition, all the items listed in § 121.16 shall constitute all items on the United...

  10. 75 FR 20364 - Public Buildings Service; Key Largo Beacon Annex Site; Key Largo, FL; Transfer of Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Public Buildings Service; Key Largo Beacon Annex Site; Key Largo, FL; Transfer of Property..., identified as Key Largo Beacon Annex Site, Key Largo, FL to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department...

  11. Importance of Hydrogeological Conditions on Open-loop Geothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, D.; Bae, G.; Kim, S.; Lee, K.

    2013-12-01

    The open-loop geothermal system has been known as an eco-friendly, energy-saving, and cost-efficient alternative for the cooling and heating of buildings with directly using the relatively stable temperature of groundwater. Thus, hydrogeological properties of aquifer, such as hydraulic conductivity and storage, must be important in the system application. The study site is located near Han-river, Korea, and because of the well-developed alluvium it might be a typical site appropriate to this system requiring an amount of groundwater. In this study, the first objective of numerical experiments was to find the best distributions of pumping and injection wells suitable to the hydrogeological conditions of the site for the efficient and sustainable system operation. The aquifer has a gravel layer at 15m depth below the ground surface and the river and the agricultural field, which may be a potential contaminant source, are located at the west and east sides, respectively. Under the general conditions that the regional groundwater flows from the east to the river, the locally reversed well distribution, locating the pumping well at upgradient and the injection well at downgradient of the regional flow, was most sustainable. The gravel layer with high hydraulic conductivity caused a little drawdown despite of an amount of pumping and allowed to stably reinject the used groundwater in all the cases, but it provided a passage transferring the injected heat to the pumping well quickly, particularly in the cases locating the injection well at the upgradient. This thermal interference was more severe in the cases of the short distance between the wells. The high conductive layer is also a reason that the seasonal role conversion of wells for the aquifer thermal energy storage was ineffective in this site. Furthermore, the well distribution vertical to the regional groundwater flow was stable, but not best, and, thus, it may be a good choice in the conditions that the regional

  12. Conditional random matrix ensembles and the stability of dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, Paul; Rolando, Delphine M. Y.; MacLean, Adam L.; Stumpf, Michael P. H.

    2015-08-01

    Random matrix theory (RMT) has found applications throughout physics and applied mathematics, in subject areas as diverse as communications networks, population dynamics, neuroscience, and models of the banking system. Many of these analyses exploit elegant analytical results, particularly the circular law and its extensions. In order to apply these results, assumptions must be made about the distribution of matrix elements. Here we demonstrate that the choice of matrix distribution is crucial. In particular, adopting an unrealistic matrix distribution for the sake of analytical tractability is liable to lead to misleading conclusions. We focus on the application of RMT to the long-standing, and at times fractious, ‘diversity-stability debate’, which is concerned with establishing whether large complex systems are likely to be stable. Early work (and subsequent elaborations) brought RMT to bear on the debate by modelling the entries of a system’s Jacobian matrix as independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables. These analyses were successful in yielding general results that were not tied to any specific system, but relied upon a restrictive i.i.d. assumption. Other studies took an opposing approach, seeking to elucidate general principles of stability through the analysis of specific systems. Here we develop a statistical framework that reconciles these two contrasting approaches. We use a range of illustrative dynamical systems examples to demonstrate that: (i) stability probability cannot be summarily deduced from any single property of the system (e.g. its diversity); and (ii) our assessment of stability depends on adequately capturing the details of the systems analysed. Failing to condition on the structure of dynamical systems will skew our analysis and can, even for very small systems, result in an unnecessarily pessimistic diagnosis of their stability.

  13. Absorption and adsorption chillers applied to air conditioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuczyńska, Agnieszka; Szaflik, Władysław

    2010-07-01

    This work presents an application possibility of sorption refrigerators driven by low temperature fluid for air conditioning of buildings. Thermodynamic models were formulated and absorption LiBr-water chiller with 10 kW cooling power as well as adsorption chiller with silica gel bed were investigated. Both of them are using water for desorption process with temperature Tdes = 80 °C. Coefficient of performance (COP) for both cooling cycles was analyzed in the same conditions of the driving heat source, cooling water Tc = 25 °C and temperature in evaporator Tevap = 5 °C. In this study, the computer software EES was used to investigate the performance of absorption heat pump system and its behaviour in configuration with geothermal heat source.

  14. Digitally Programmable Analogue Circuits for Sensor Conditioning Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zatorre, Guillermo; Medrano, Nicolás; Sanz, María Teresa; Aldea, Concepción; Calvo, Belén; Celma, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    This work presents two current-mode integrated circuits designed for sensor signal preprocessing in embedded systems. The proposed circuits have been designed to provide good signal transfer and fulfill their function, while minimizing the load effects due to building complex conditioning architectures. The processing architecture based on the proposed building blocks can be reconfigured through digital programmability. Thus, sensor useful range can be expanded, changes in the sensor operation can be compensated for and furthermore, undesirable effects such as device mismatching and undesired physical magnitudes sensor sensibilities are reduced. The circuits were integrated using a 0.35 μm standard CMOS process. Experimental measurements, load effects and a study of two different tuning strategies are presented. From these results, system performance is tested in an application which entails extending the linear range of a magneto-resistive sensor. Circuit area, average power consumption and programmability features allow these circuits to be included in embedded sensing systems as a part of the analogue conditioning components. PMID:22412331

  15. Pulsed power conditioning system for the Magajoule laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mexmain, Jean-Marc; Rubin de Cervens, D.; Marret, Jean-Pierre; Roos, V.; Cassany, B.; Eyl, P.; Pere, P.; Havre, Sierra S.; Fauvel, J.; Mathieu, P.; Benin, P.; Callu, G.; Vincent, C.; Michalczyk, Pierre

    2003-07-01

    The CEA is responsible for the Megajoule Laser (LMJ) facility. This facility is a large Flashlamp pump laser (1.8 MJ optical output). CEA entered into a contract with THALES to carry out the pulsed power conditioning system for the Megajoule Laser. The pulsed power conditioning system has a modular design which makes the facility more flexible and safer. This complete primary storage is a 450 MJ energy capacitor bank composed of 270 modules of 1.6 MJ energy. Each module is a stand-alone capacitor bank equipped with twelve 100 kJ capacitors and its embedded control/monitor and diagnostic system which is connected by an optical Ethernet link to the Command Control Supervisor of the facility. In the first step of the LMJ program, called "Line Integration Laser" (LIL), one laser chain will be built. The capacitor bank used to drive the LIL is comprised of 10 modules. This paper describes the design of the modules and the results of testing. The overall electrical performance meets the requirements.

  16. Photoplethysmography system for blood pulsation detection in unloaded artery conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabovskis, A.; Marcinkevics, Z.; Rubenis, O.; Rubins, U.; Lusa, V.

    2012-06-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) is an optical method of blood pulsation recording and has been extensively studied for decades. Recently PPG is widely used in the medical equipment for patient monitoring and in laboratories for research and physiological studies. In spite of the technological progress in the field of medical equipment, there are no generally accepted standards for clinical PPG measurements up to date. One of the most important factors affecting PPG waveform is the contact pressure between tissue and PPG probe. The aim of the current study was to develop and evaluate a system for software-assisted PPG signal acquisition from the unloaded artery. Novel PPG waveform derived Optimal Pressure Parameter (OPP) has been proposed as the reliable indicator of unloaded artery condition. We affirm that PPG measurements provided in balanced transmural arterial pressure conditions might serve as a reference for the unification of contact manner optical plethysmography methods. It is a step forward towards the standardization of the PPG methodology, and showed that the maximal value of the OPP, obtained in the particular experimental trial, indicates the optimal PPG probe contact pressure at that moment. Our developed system has been validated in the experimental series and showed the possibility of determining the correct PPG contact pressure value with high repeatability. It is concluded that this system can provide the necessary feedback to perform reliable PPG signal acquisition from the unloaded conduit artery.

  17. Ground-Based Icing Condition Remote Sensing System Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Koenig, George G.

    2001-01-01

    This report documents the NASA Glenn Research Center activities to assess and down select remote sensing technologies for the purpose of developing a system capable of measuring icing condition hazards aloft. The information generated by such a remote sensing system is intended for use by the entire aviation community, including flight crews. air traffic controllers. airline dispatchers, and aviation weather forecasters. The remote sensing system must be capable of remotely measuring temperature and liquid water content (LWC), and indicating the presence of super-cooled large droplets (SLD). Technologies examined include Profiling Microwave Radiometer, Dual-Band Radar, Multi-Band Radar, Ka-Band Radar. Polarized Ka-Band Radar, and Multiple Field of View (MFOV) Lidar. The assessment of these systems took place primarily during the Mt. Washington Icing Sensors Project (MWISP) in April 1999 and the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS) from November 1999 to February 2000. A discussion of the various sensing technologies is included. The result of the assessment is that no one sensing technology can satisfy all of the stated project goals. Therefore a proposed system includes radiometry and Ka-band radar. A multilevel approach is proposed to allow the future selection of the fielded system based upon required capability and available funding. The most basic level system would be the least capable and least expensive. The next level would increase capability and cost, and the highest level would be the most capable and most expensive to field. The Level 1 system would consist of a Profiling Microwave Radiometer. The Level 2 system would add a Ka-Band Radar. The Level 3 system would add polarization to the Ka-Band Radar. All levels of the system would utilize hardware that is already under development by the U.S. Government. However, to meet the needs of the aviation community, all levels of the system will require further development. In addition to the proposed system

  18. The Thirty Meter Telescope Site Conditions Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, Warren; Travouillon, Tony

    2015-04-01

    We examine the experiences and ideas from operating observatories regarding the measurements of the characteristics of the atmosphere that must be gathered within the locality of the observatory in order to support safe, efficient and scientifically optimized observatory operations as well as commissioning, performance monitoring and support the scientific analysis of telescope observations. We describe the expected requirements for the measurement capabilities of the the TMT Site Conditions Monitoring System (SCMS) and discuss how these plans are being developed with input from staff at operating observatories and active observational astronomers.

  19. Wireless pilot monitoring system for extreme race conditions.

    PubMed

    Pino, Esteban J; Arias, Diego E; Aqueveque, Pablo; Melin, Pedro; Curtis, Dorothy W

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an assistive device to monitor car drivers under extreme conditions. In particular, this system is designed in preparation for the 2012 Atacama Solar Challenge to be held in the Chilean desert. Actual preliminary results show the feasibility of such a project including physiological and ambient sensors, real-time processing algorithms, wireless data transmission and a remote monitoring station. Implementation details and field results are shown along with a discussion of the main problems found in real-life telemetry monitoring. PMID:23367054

  20. Applying twisted boundary conditions for few-body nuclear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körber, Christopher; Luu, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    We describe and implement twisted boundary conditions for the deuteron and triton systems within finite volumes using the nuclear lattice EFT formalism. We investigate the finite-volume dependence of these systems with different twist angles. We demonstrate how various finite-volume information can be used to improve calculations of binding energies in such a framework. Our results suggests that with appropriate twisting of boundaries, infinite-volume binding energies can be reliably extracted from calculations using modest volume sizes with cubic length L ≈8 -14 fm. Of particular importance is our derivation and numerical verification of three-body analogs of "i-periodic" twist angles that eliminate the leading-order finite-volume effects to the three-body binding energy.

  1. Performance of Desiccant Particle Dispersion Type Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatano, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Koichi; Kojima, Hiromitsu

    An investigation of desiccant air conditioning system is performed to demonstrate its performance in a dispersed desiccant particle systems, based on its higher gas solid contacting efficiency and isothermal dehumidification. Particle dispersion is achieved using the risers of a circulating fluidized bed, CFB, or of a pneumatic conveyer. The risers used for dehumidification are 1390 mm in height and 22 mm in diameter. The former is used to evaluate the overall dehumidification performance and the latter is used to measure the axial humidity distribution under 0.88 m/s of a superficial air velocity. Based on the results of the overall performance by changing solid loading rates, Gs, from 0.4 kg/m2s up to 6 kg/m2s, desiccant particle dispersion shows higher performance in dehumidification, while axial humidity distribution shows very rapid adsorption rate in the entrance zone of the riser. Removal of adsorption heat accelerates dehumidification rate compared to the adiabatic process.

  2. The linking number in systems with Periodic Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotou, E.

    2015-11-01

    Periodic Boundary Conditions (PBC) are often used for the simulation of complex physical systems. Using the Gauss linking number, we define the periodic linking number as a measure of entanglement for two oriented curves in a system employing PBC. In the case of closed chains in PBC, the periodic linking number is an integer topological invariant that depends on a finite number of components in the periodic system. For open chains, the periodic linking number is an infinite series that accounts for all the topological interactions in the periodic system. In this paper we give a rigorous proof that the periodic linking number is defined for the infinite system, i.e., that it converges for one, two, and three PBC models. It gives a real number that varies continuously with the configuration and gives a global measure of the geometric complexity of the system of chains. Similarly, for a single oriented chain, we define the periodic self-linking number and prove that it also is defined for open chains. In addition, we define the cell periodic linking and self-linking numbers giving localizations of the periodic linking numbers. These can be used to give good estimates of the periodic linking numbers in infinite systems. We also define the local periodic linking number associated to chains in the immediate cell neighborhood of a chain in order to study local linking measures in contrast to the global linking measured by the periodic linking numbers. Finally, we study and compare these measures when applied to a PBC model of polyethylene melts.

  3. Contact zones and hydrothermal systems as analogues to repository conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Flexser, S.

    1984-10-01

    Radioactive waste isolation efforts in the US are currently focused on examining basalt, tuff, salt, and crystalline rock as candidate rock types to encompass waste repositories. As analogues to near-field conditions, the distributions of radio- and trace-elements have been examined across contacts between these rocks and dikes and stocks that have intruded them. The intensive study of the Stripa quartz monzonite has also offered the opportunity to observe the distribution of uranium and its daughters in groundwater and its relationship to U associated with fracture-filling and alteration minerals. Investigations of intrusive contact zones to date have included (1) a tertiary stock into Precambrian gneiss, (2) a stock into ash flow tuff, (3) a rhyodacite dike into Columbia River basalt, and (4) a kimberlite dike into salt. With respect to temperature and pressure, these contact zones may be considered "worst-case scenario" analogues. Results indicate that there has been no appreciable migration of radioelements from the more radioactive intrusives into the less radioactive country rocks, either in response to the intrusions or in the fracture-controlled hydrological systems that developed following emplacement. In many cases, the radioelements are locked up in accessory minerals, suggesting that artificial analogues to these would make ideal waste forms. Emphasis should now shift to examination of active hydrothermal systems, studying the distribution of key elements in water, fractures, and alteration minerals under pressure and temperature conditions most similar to those expected in the near-field environment of a repository. 14 refs.

  4. Self-powered sensing for mechanical system condition monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Robert X.; Kazmer, David O.; Zhang, Li; Theurer, Charles B.; Cui, Yong

    2004-07-01

    A self-powered wireless sensing module for the condition monitoring of mechanical systems and high energy manufacturing processes is described, with injection molding as a special application. The design and analysis of three constituent components in such a sensing module: an energy converter consisting of a piezoceramic stack, an energy regulator based on a pair of bipolar transistors, and a piezoelectric transmitter that transmits ultrasound signals proportional to the pressure within the injection mold, are presented in this paper. The energy extraction mechanism is investigated based on the interactions between the mechanical strain and the electric field developed within the piezoceramic stack. Analytical models for the energy modulator and signal transmitter are also established. Quantitative results are obtained that describe the energy flow among the three components and guide the parametric design of the three constituent components. Simulations and experimental studies have validated the functionality of each component. The models established can be used to subsequently optimize the design of the entire sensor module in terms of minimizing the energy requirement for the sensor and identifying the minimum level of signal intensity required to ensure successful detection of the signal by the signal receiver on the outside of the injection mold. The proposed self-powered sensing technique enables a new generation of sensors that can be employed for the condition monitoring and health diagnosis of a wide range of mechanical and civil systems that are characterized by high energy contents.

  5. Conditional independence in quantum many-body systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Isaac Hyun

    In this thesis, I will discuss how information-theoretic arguments can be used to produce sharp bounds in the studies of quantum many-body systems. The main advantage of this approach, as opposed to the conventional field-theoretic argument, is that it depends very little on the precise form of the Hamiltonian. The main idea behind this thesis lies on a number of results concerning the structure of quantum states that are conditionally independent. Depending on the application, some of these statements are generalized to quantum states that are approximately conditionally independent. These structures can be readily used in the studies of gapped quantum many-body systems, especially for the ones in two spatial dimensions. A number of rigorous results are derived, including (i) a universal upper bound for a maximal number of topologically protected states that is expressed in terms of the topological entanglement entropy, (ii) a first-order perturbation bound for the topological entanglement entropy that decays superpolynomially with the size of the subsystem, and (iii) a correlation bound between an arbitrary local operator and a topological operator constructed from a set of local reduced density matrices. I also introduce exactly solvable models supported on a three-dimensional lattice that can be used as a reliable quantum memory.

  6. A classification system for conditions causing condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Wolford, Larry M; Movahed, Reza; Perez, Daniel E

    2014-03-01

    A classification system was developed to place patients with condylar hyperplasia (CH) into categories based on histology, clinical and imaging characteristics, effects on the jaws and facial structures, and rate of occurrence. Four major categories were defined. CH type 1 is an accelerated and prolonged growth aberration of the "normal" mandibular condylar growth mechanism, causing a predominantly horizontal growth vector, resulting in prognathism that can occur bilaterally (CH type 1A) or unilaterally (CH type 1B). CH type 2 refers to enlargement of the mandibular condyle caused by an osteochondroma, resulting in predominantly unilateral vertical overgrowth and elongation of the mandible and face. One of the forms has predominantly a vertical growth vector and condylar enlargement, but without exophytic tumor extensions (type 2A), whereas the other primary form grows vertically but develops horizontal exophytic tumor growth off of the condyle (CH type 2B). CH type 3 includes other rare, benign tumors and CH type 4 includes malignant conditions that originate in the mandibular condyle causing enlargement. The order of classification is based on occurrence rates and type of pathology, where CH type 1A is the most commonly occurring form and CH type 4 is the rarest. This classification system for CH pathology should help the clinician understand the nature of the pathology, progression if untreated, recommended ages for surgical intervention to minimize adverse effects on subsequent facial growth and development in younger patients, and the surgical protocols to comprehensively and predictably treat these conditions. PMID:24388179

  7. Effects of system configuration and operating condition on MCFC system efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Byoung Sam; Koh, Joon-Ho; Lim, Hee Chun

    A process simulation model of an externally reformed molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) system is used to analyze quantitatively parametric effects on system efficiency. In order to verify the MCFC process simulation model, a 25 kW system is analyzed on the basis of experimental data and its calculated efficiency is found to be reasonable. The overall system efficiency of a high-temperature fuel cell system, especially a MCFC, cannot be increased without proper thermal integration between the heat recovery units and without additional power from auxiliary power generation units such as turbines. The results of the simulation show that the configuration of the unit operators in a given system has a great effect on system efficiency, while system size and operating conditions have slightly less effects. Based on the system configuration, the optimal operating conditions (including fuel, oxidant utilization, and recycle ratio) can be specified to maximize the system efficiency.

  8. Medical Signal-Conditioning and Data-Interface System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Jeffrey; Jacobus, charles; Booth, Scott; Suarez, Michael; Smith, Derek; Hartnagle, Jeffrey; LePrell, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    A general-purpose portable, wearable electronic signal-conditioning and data-interface system is being developed for medical applications. The system can acquire multiple physiological signals (e.g., electrocardiographic, electroencephalographic, and electromyographic signals) from sensors on the wearer s body, digitize those signals that are received in analog form, preprocess the resulting data, and transmit the data to one or more remote location(s) via a radiocommunication link and/or the Internet. The system includes a computer running data-object-oriented software that can be programmed to configure the system to accept almost any analog or digital input signals from medical devices. The computing hardware and software implement a general-purpose data-routing-and-encapsulation architecture that supports tagging of input data and routing the data in a standardized way through the Internet and other modern packet-switching networks to one or more computer(s) for review by physicians. The architecture supports multiple-site buffering of data for redundancy and reliability, and supports both real-time and slower-than-real-time collection, routing, and viewing of signal data. Routing and viewing stations support insertion of automated analysis routines to aid in encoding, analysis, viewing, and diagnosis.

  9. System-state and operating condition sensitive control method and apparatus for electric power delivery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, III, William Wesley (Inventor); Wilson, Thomas George (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a method and apparatus for determining a precise switching sequence for the power switching elements of electric power delivery systems of the on-off switching type and which enables extremely fast transient response, precise regulation and highly stable operation. The control utilizes the values of the power delivery system power handling network components, a desired output characteristic, a system timing parameter, and the externally imposed operating conditions to determine where steady state operations should be in order to yield desired output characteristics for the given system specifications. The actual state of the power delivery system is continuously monitored and compared to a state-space boundary which is derived from the desired equilibrium condition, and from the information obtained from this comparison, the system is moved to the desired equilibrium condition in one cycle of switching control. Since the controller continuously monitors the power delivery system's externally imposed operating conditions, a change in the conditions is immediately sensed and a new equilibrium condition is determined and achieved, again in a single cycle of switching control.

  10. Starting Conditions for Hydrothermal Systems Underneath Martian Craters: Hydrocode Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierazzo, E.; Artemieva, N. A.; Ivanov, B. A.

    2004-01-01

    Mars is the most Earth-like of the Solar System s planets, and the first place to look for any sign of present or past extraterrestrial life. Its surface shows many features indicative of the presence of surface and sub-surface water, while impact cratering and volcanism have provided temporary and local surface heat sources throughout Mars geologic history. Impact craters are widely used ubiquitous indicators for the presence of sub-surface water or ice on Mars. In particular, the presence of significant amounts of ground ice or water would cause impact-induced hydrothermal alteration at Martian impact sites. The realization that hydrothermal systems are possible sites for the origin and early evolution of life on Earth has given rise to the hypothesis that hydrothermal systems may have had the same role on Mars. Rough estimates of the heat generated in impact events have been based on scaling relations, or thermal data based on terrestrial impacts on crystalline basements. Preliminary studies also suggest that melt sheets and target uplift are equally important heat sources for the development of a hydrothermal system, while its lifetime depends on the volume and cooling rate of the heat source, as well as the permeability of the host rocks. We present initial results of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) simulations of impacts on Mars aimed at constraining the initial conditions for modeling the onset and evolution of a hydrothermal system on the red planet. Simulations of the early stages of impact cratering provide an estimate of the amount of shock melting and the pressure-temperature distribution in the target caused by various impacts on the Martian surface. Modeling of the late stage of crater collapse is necessary to characterize the final thermal state of the target, including crater uplift, and distribution of the heated target material (including the melt pool) and hot ejecta around the crater.

  11. Structural condition assessment and upgrades of FGD systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alsamsam, I.M.; Ridge, J.L.

    1995-09-01

    Since 1990, the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) has mandated emissions control of fossil-fired power plants. Upgrading an existing flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system has proven to be an effective means of reducing emissions to meet the CAAA requirements. It can also be a cost-effective means to reduce emissions beyond the established SO{sub 2} limits. Utilities will be able to capitalize on these situations and possibly generate revenue by trading SO{sub 2} credits. In addition to regulatory requirements, structural upgrades of an FGD system can lower operation and maintenance costs and reduce the risk of unit derates and unplanned outages. In today`s competitive power market, keeping a unit`s FGD system available and online is crucial as the earliest FGD installations approach their twentieth year of service. A structural condition assessment and upgrades program for an FGD island plays a leading role in meeting and exceeding regulatory requirements while achieving other utility goals. This paper draws from the authors` recent experiences to explore such a program and reveals the challenges it presents.

  12. Conditional-suicide containment system for bacteria which mineralize aromatics

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras, A.; Ramos, J.L. ); Molin, S. )

    1991-05-01

    A model conditional-suicide system to control genetically engineered microorganisms able to degrade substituted benzoates is reported. The system is based on two elements. One element consists of a fusion between the promoter of the Pseudomonas putide TOL plasmid-encoded meta-cleavage pathway operon (P{sub m}) and the lacI gene encoding Lac repressor plus sylS, coding for the positive regulator of P{sub m}. The other element carries a fusion between the P{sub tac} promoter and the gef gene, which encodes a killing function. In the absence of effectors, expression of the P{sub tac}::gef cassette is no longer prevented and a high rate of cell killing is observed. The substitution of XylS for XylSthr45, a mutant regulator with altered effector specificity and increased affinity for benzoates, allows the control of populations able to degrade a wider range of benzoates at micromolar substrate concentrations. Given the wide effector specificity of the key regulators, the wild-type and mutant ZylS proteins, the system should allow the control of populations able to metabolize benzoate; methyl-, dimethyl-, chloro-, dichloro-, ethyl-, and methoxybenzoates; salicylate; and methyl- and chlorosalicylates. A small population of genetically engineered microorganisms became Gef resistant; however, the mechanism of such survival remains unknown.

  13. The 1897 Petition against the Annexation of Hawaii. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    In 1893 the last monarch of Hawaii, Queen Lili'uokalani, was overthrown by a party of U.S. businessmen, who then imposed a provisional government. Soon after, U.S. President Benjamin Harrison submitted a treaty to annex the Hawaiian Islands to the U.S. Senate for ratification. In 1897, the treaty effort was blocked when the Hawaiian Patriotic…

  14. 77 FR 43741 - MARPOL Annex I Amendments; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). B...'' on April 9, 2012 (77 FR 21360) proposing to align Coast Guard regulations with recent amendments to... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 151, 155, 156, and 157 46 CFR Part 197 RIN 1625-AB57 MARPOL Annex...

  15. A&M. Hot cell annex (TAN633) interior under construction. Hot cells ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Hot cell annex (TAN-633) interior under construction. Hot cells and their doors are along concrete wall. Note side wall of pumice block. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. Date: October 28, 1957. INEEL negative no. 57-5335 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. Teaching American Diplomacy Using Primary Sources. The Annexation of the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zola, Jaye; Johnson, Jacquelyn S.

    In this high school U.S. government and U.S. history curriculum unit, students examine in depth the annexation of the Philippines. Detailed activities are provided to teach students about U.S. foreign policy, the growth of the United States as a world power, and expansion and colonization in the Pacific Ocean. The materials include informational…

  17. 38 CFR 17.192 - Approval of annexes and new facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., or relocation of a recognized home which is not on the same or contiguous grounds on which the parent facility is located. When a recognized State home establishes hospital care facilities which have not been... AFFAIRS MEDICAL Aid to States for Care of Veterans in State Homes § 17.192 Approval of annexes and...

  18. NSLS vacuum system operating experience conditioning and desorption yields

    SciTech Connect

    Halama, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    All straight sections in both the VUV and the X-Ray rings have been filled with various insertion devices, most of them fully operational. Beam lifetime in the VUV ring is limited by the Touschek effect to {approximately}100 minutes at 800 mA due to the small vertical beam size required by users. With no experiments running, X-Ray beam lifetime is >35 hours at 220 mA and is limited by beam gas scattering. During the past several years the U10 beam line was used to measure PSD yields from various metals to study their relative merits for light sources. These yields were also compared to those measured in X-Ray ring dipoles during initial commissioning when desorption was high. Despite the large differences in critical photon energies, agreement was quite good. Both rings are now fully conditioned and their pressures and lifetimes have reached equilibrium. Well established conditioning procedures are followed after every intervention into their vacuum systems.

  19. Least-squares solution of ill-conditioned systems. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branham, R. L., Jr.

    1980-11-01

    A singular-value analysis of normal equations from observations of minor planets 6 (Hebe), 7 (Iris), 8 (Flora), 9 (Metis), and 15 (Eunomia) is undertaken to determine corrections to a number of astronomical parameters, particularly the equinox correction for the FK4. In a previous investigation the test for small singular values was criticized because it resulted in discordant equinox determinations. Here it is shown that none of the tests employed by singular-value analysis leads to solutions superior to those given by classical least squares. It is concluded that singular-value analysis has legitimate uses in astronomy, but that it is misapplied when employed to estimate astronomical parameters in a well defined model. Also discussed is the question of whether it is preferable to reduce the equations of condition by orthogonal transformations rather than to form normal equations. Some suggestions are made regarding the desirability of planning observational programs in such a way that the observations do not lead to extremely ill-conditioned systems.

  20. System and method for conditioning a hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, Darrell M; Arnold, Richard; St. Pierre, James; Pendse, Hemant P; Ceckler, William H

    2013-12-17

    A system and method for hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate conditioning includes a first evaporator receives a hardwood mix extract and outputting a quantity of vapor and extract. A hydrolysis unit receives the extract, hyrolyzes and outputs to a lignin separation device, which separates and recovers a quantity of lignin. A neutralization device receives extract from the lignin separation device and a neutralizing agent, producing a mixture of solid precipitate and a fifth extract. The solid precipitate is removed from the fifth extract. A second evaporator removes a quantity of acid from the fifth extract in a vapor form. This vapor may be recycled to improve total acid recovery or discarded. A desalination device receives the diluted extract, separates out some of the acid and salt and outputs a desalinated solution.

  1. System and method for conditioning a hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, Darrell; Arnold, Richard; St. Pierre, James; Pendse, Hemant P.; Ceckler, William H.

    2015-06-30

    A system and method for hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate conditioning includes a first evaporator receives a hardwood mix extract and outputting a quantity of vapor and extract. A hydrolysis unit receives the extract, hydrolyzes and outputs to a lignin separation device, which separates and recovers a quantity of lignin. A neutralization device receives extract from the lignin separation device and a neutralizing agent, producing a mixture of solid precipitate and a fifth extract. The solid precipitate is removed from the fifth extract. A second evaporator removes a quantity of acid from the fifth extract in a vapor form. This vapor may be recycled to improve total acid recovery or discarded. A desalination device receives the diluted extract, separates out some of the acid and salt and outputs a desalinated solution.

  2. Real-time condition assessment of RAPTOR telescope systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, Chris; Taylor, Stuart; Wren, James; Farrar, Charles; Park, Gyuhae

    2010-11-30

    The RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response (RAPTOR) observatory network consists of several robotic astronomical telescopes primarily designed to search for astrophysical transients called a gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although intrinsically bright, GRBs are difficult to detect because of their short duration. Typically, they are first observed by satellites that then relay the coordinates of the GRB to a ground station which, in turn, distributes the coordinates over the internet so that ground based observers can perform follow-up observations. Typically the ground based observations begin after the GRB has ended and only residual emiSSion (the 'afterglow') is left. However, if the satellite relays the GRB coordinates quickly enough, a 'fast' robotic telescope on the ground may be able to catch the GRB in progress. The RAPTOR telescope system is one of only a few in the world to have accomplished this feat. In order to achieve these results, the RAPTOR telescopes must operate autonomously at a high duty-cycle and in peak operating condition. Currently the telescopes are maintained in an ad hoc manner, often in a run-to-failure mode. The RAPTOR project could benefit greatly from a structural health monitoring (SHM) system, especially as more complex units are added to the suite of telescopes. This paper will summarize preliminary results from an SHM study performed on one of the RAPTOR telescopes. Damage scenarios that are of concern and that have been previously observed are first summarized. Then a specific study of damage to the telescope drive mechanism is presented where the data acquisition system is first described. Next, damage detection algorithms are developed with LANL's new publically available software SHMTools and the results of this process are discussed in detail. The paper will conclude with a summary of future planned refinemenls of the RAPTOR SHM system.

  3. PBT assessment using the revised annex XIII of REACH: a comparison with other regulatory frameworks.

    PubMed

    Moermond, Caroline T A; Janssen, Martien P M; de Knecht, Joop A; Montforts, Mark H M M; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Zweers, Patrick G P C; Sijm, Dick T H M

    2012-04-01

    There is no uniform Persistent, Bioaccumulative, Toxic (PBT) or very Persistent, very Bioaccumulative (vPvB) assessment of chemicals in Europe, as the various regulatory frameworks use only limited or dissimilar PBT assessments, or none at all. The European REACH Regulation requires a PBT/vPvB assessment for all chemical substances that are produced within or imported into the EU in amounts exceeding 10 tonnes per year, using the criteria as described in REACH Annex XIII. However, not all substances on the EU market need to be screened according to these criteria under REACH. For a number of substances, such as those imported or produced in lower volumes, there is no REACH requirement, and for human and veterinary medicinal products, biocides, plant protection products, and food and feed additives, other EU legislation is in force to regulate their marketing and use. Compounds may also be screened for PBT properties within international agreements, such as the Oslo Paris Convention (OSPAR), the IMO Ballast Water Management Convention, the UNECE POP Protocol, and the UNEP Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), which all have their own set of PBT or POP criteria. This study compares the PBT/vPvB assessment under REACH with PBT or POP assessments performed within other regulatory frameworks. Attention is paid to the process of PBT/vPvB/POP identification and which legislative steps can be taken if the PBT/vPvB/POP status is assigned. In addition to the different PBT or POP criteria of the various frameworks, descriptions of these criteria and approaches for application of weight of evidence also vary. Some EU frameworks still refer to the criteria in the former Technical Guidance Documents (TGD) of 2003, which preceded REACH. Although differences between the old TGD criteria and those in the REACH Annex XIII are small, this does cause dissimilarities among the frameworks. The risk management follow-up of a PBT or vPvB identification, which may

  4. Data Management for Effective Condition Assessment of Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Condition assessment provides critical information for assessment of an asset’s physical condition, remaining useful service life, and long-term performance. This paper will describe data management issues integral to a successful condition assessment program. Key points will b...

  5. A remote condition monitoring system for wind-turbine based DG systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X.; Wang, G.; Cross, P.; Zhang, X.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, a remote condition monitoring system is proposed, which fundamentally consists of real-time monitoring modules on the plant side, a remote support centre and the communications between them. The paper addresses some of the key issues related on the monitoring system, including i) the implementation and configuration of a VPN connection, ii) an effective database system to be able to handle huge amount of monitoring data, and iii) efficient data mining techniques to convert raw data into useful information for plant assessment. The preliminary results have demonstrated that the proposed system is practically feasible and can be deployed to monitor the emerging new energy generation systems.

  6. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18-22 g/m³ to a range of 13.5-18.3 g/m³. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process. PMID:26580660

  7. Silicate-H2O Systems at High Pressure Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tailby, N.; Mavrogenes, J. A.; Hermann, J.; O'Neill, H. S.

    2008-12-01

    Since the discovery of the second critical endpoint (CP2) in the albite-water system, numerous attempts have been made to determine the pressure and temperature of this CP2 and the mutual solubilities within more complex systems. The P-T position of the CP2 has been estimated for many systems: SiO2 (<10 kb/900 °C, Newton and Manning, 2008); NaAlSi3O8 (15 kb/800 °C, Burnham and Davis, 1974; Shen and Keppler, 1997); Pelite (50 kb/1,000 °C, Schmidt et al., 2004), basalt (50 kb/ 1000 °C, Kessel et al., 2004), Peridotite (38 kb/1000 °C, Mibe et al., 2007). A number of experimental techniques have been used to determine phase relations and H2O solubility in experiments. These include in-situ experimental techniques (e.g., HYDAC; Shen and Keppler, 1997), fluid trap techniques (e.g., diamond traps; Stalder et al., 2000), and single crystal weight-loss techniques (e.g., SiO2-H2O techniques employed by Newton and Manning, 2008). None of these techniques is without difficulties, as H2O rich experiments need to overcome huge retrograde fluid solubilities upon quench in order to determine mutual solubilities at experimental conditions. We have developed a new technique to determine "rock"-H2O relationships at high-P conditions, with particular focus on the shape and locus of solvi in pressure temperature space. In this series of experiments, an oxygen fugacity buffer (Re-ReO2) and a sliding H-fugacity sensor (NiO-Ni-Pd mixture) are combined to monitor H2O activity over the entire range of pressure and temperature. Unlike other techniques, the use of sensor capsules does not require textural interpretation of experiments. H2O activity is related to oxygen and hydrogen fugacity by the reaction: H2O = H2 + ½O2 NiO-Ni-Pd mixtures were placed within a ZrO2 jacket and sealed within a welded 2.3 mm Pt capsule. This 2.3 mm Pt sensor capsule was then encased within a larger, thick walled 6 mm diameter Ag capsule. Pelite-H2O mixtures and oxygen buffers were held within this larger

  8. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18–22 g/m3 to a range of 13.5–18.3 g/m3. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process. PMID:26580660

  9. Ion Drive Propulsion MPP Power Conditioning System without Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maset, E.; Sanchis-Kilders, E.; Weinberg, A. H.; Ejea, J. Bta.; Ferreres, A.; Blanes, J. M.; Garrigos, A.; Carrasco, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    The research on selecting the Solar Array Regulator topology in case of Electrical Propulsion is still on going in future mission (Mercury orbit, Lunar Exploration, etc) and the power requirements in the range of 8kW up to 14kW will be increased. We will focus on BepiColombo mission, where solar electric propulsion (SEP) is used during the cruise period from Earth to Mercury. The Solar Array (SA) power increases with time and its associated propulsion unit has to take the maximum available power from the SA to use in the ion drive motor in order to reach Mercury within a reasonable time. Because the Ion Thrust is not required in eclipse, a Power System was designed that did not require a Battery and therefore a considerable mass could be saved. This paper describes a solution for the Mercury Transfer Module (MTM) Power Conditioning and Distribution Unit (PCDU) of the Solar Electric Propulsion Module (SEPM). The new conception is a Sequential Switching Shunt Maximum Power Regulator (S3MPR) consisting in a Sequential Switching Shunt Regulator (S3R), to keep the SA voltage at its Maximum Power Point (MPP) followed by a Boost regulator to produce a constant 100V to supply the Electronic Propulsion (EP). The PCU has been verified by means of testing on a scaled-down Power Subsystem of 1kW output power.

  10. Proposed annex to the ASTM Standard Guide E1676-95, bioaccumulation testing utilizing Eisenia foetida

    SciTech Connect

    Roper, J.; Simmers, J.; Lee, C.; Tatem, H.

    1995-12-31

    A detailed description of the method developed at the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) to determine sediment toxicity utilizing the earthworm, Eisenia foetida. This method has been used successfully in evaluating the target contaminants; metals, PAHs, and PCBs. This procedure is currently a proposed annex to the ASTM Standard Guide E1676-95: Conducting a Laboratory Soil Toxicity Test With The Lumbricid Earthworm, Eisenia foetida.

  11. Summary Article: IEA HPP Annex 36: Quality Installation / Quality Maintenance Sensitivity Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hourahan, Glenn; Domanski, Piotr; Baxter, Van D.

    2015-01-01

    The outcome from this Annex activity clearly identifies that poorly designed, installed, and/or maintained heat pumps operate inefficiently and waste considerable energy compared to their as-designed potential. Additionally, it is clear that small faults for a given field-observed practice are significant, that some attribute deviations (in various equipment applications and geographical locations) have a larger impact than others, and that multiple faults or deviations have a cumulative impact on heat pump performance.

  12. System accuracy of blood glucose monitoring systems: impact of use by patients and ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Christina; Haug, Cornelia; Heinemann, Lutz; Freckmann, Guido

    2013-10-01

    For self-monitoring of blood glucose by people with diabetes, the reliability of the measured blood glucose values is a prerequisite in order to ensure correct therapeutic decisions. Requirements for system accuracy are defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in the standard EN ISO 15197:2003. However, even a system with high analytical quality is not a guarantee for accurate and reliable measurement results. Under routine life conditions, blood glucose measurement results are affected by several factors. First, the act of performing measurements as well as the handling of the system may entail numerous possible error sources, such as traces of glucose-containing products on the fingertips, the use of deteriorated test strips, or the incorrect storage of test strips. Second, ambient and sampling conditions such as high altitude, partial pressure of oxygen, ambient temperature, and the use of alternate test sites can have an influence on measurement results. Therefore, the user-friendliness of a system and the quality of the manufacturer's labeling to reduce the risk of handling errors are also important aspects in ensuring reliable and accurate measurement results. In addition, the analytical performance of systems should be less prone to user errors and ambient conditions. Finally, people with diabetes must be aware of the information and instructions in the manufacturer's labeling and must be able to measure and interpret blood glucose results correctly. PMID:23883407

  13. USEPA Research on Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Municipal sanitary sewer collection systems play a critical role in protecting public health in our municipalities. They are designed to convey wastewater from their sources to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Collection systems consist of house service laterals, sewers, pu...

  14. Performance of a photovoltaically powered air-conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, Jr, E. C.; Millner, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    A vapor-compression air conditioner coupled directly to a photovoltaic array is discussed. Previous analyses of such a system are reviewed, and a development system designed to test the concept is described. Preliminary experiments indicate that the performance of this initial system falls considerably short of analytic expectations.

  15. Retrofitting Air Conditioning and Duct Systems in Hot, Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, Carl; Aldrich, Robb; Arena, Lois

    2012-07-01

    This technical report describes CARB's work with Clark County Community Resources Division in Las Vegas, Nevada, to optimize procedures for upgrading cooling systems on existing homes in the area to implement health, safety, and energy improvements. Detailed monitoring of five AC systems showed that three of the five systems met or exceeded air flow rate goals.

  16. System and method of vehicle operating condition management

    DOEpatents

    Sujan, Vivek A.; Vajapeyazula, Phani; Follen, Kenneth; Wu, An; Moffett, Barty L.

    2015-10-20

    A vehicle operating condition profile can be determined over a given route while also considering imposed constraints such as deviation from time targets, deviation from maximum governed speed limits, etc. Given current vehicle speed, engine state and transmission state, the present disclosure optimally manages the engine map and transmission to provide a recommended vehicle operating condition that optimizes fuel consumption in transitioning from one vehicle state to a target state. Exemplary embodiments provide for offline and online optimizations relative to fuel consumption. The benefit is increased freight efficiency in transporting cargo from source to destination by minimizing fuel consumption and maintaining drivability.

  17. Conditions of Flexibility: Securing a More Responsive Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    This report is the culmination of the "Flexible Pedagogies: Preparing for the Future" series of reports which have considered flexible learning from a range of perspectives. The report proposes fifteen conditions of flexibility to inject new thinking and new practices into an emerging new age. Flexible provision has the potential to…

  18. Condition Assessment Technologies for Water Transmission and Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program, this research was conducted to identify and characterize the state of the technology for structural condition assessment of drinking water transmission and distribution syst...

  19. Condition Assessment of Drinking Water Transmission and Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Condition assessment of water transmission and distribution mains is the collection of data and information through direct and/or indirect methods, followed by analysis of the data and information, to make a determination of the current and/or future structural, water quality, an...

  20. Condition Assessment Modeling for Distribution Systems Using Shared Frailty Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Condition Assessment (CA) modeling is drawing increasing interest as a methodology for managing drinking water infrastructure. This paper develops a Cox Proportional Hazard (PH)/shared frailty model and applies it to the problem of investment in the repair and replacement of dri...

  1. Expert system for predicting reaction conditions: the Michael reaction case.

    PubMed

    Marcou, G; Aires de Sousa, J; Latino, D A R S; de Luca, A; Horvath, D; Rietsch, V; Varnek, A

    2015-02-23

    A generic chemical transformation may often be achieved under various synthetic conditions. However, for any specific reagents, only one or a few among the reported synthetic protocols may be successful. For example, Michael β-addition reactions may proceed under different choices of solvent (e.g., hydrophobic, aprotic polar, protic) and catalyst (e.g., Brønsted acid, Lewis acid, Lewis base, etc.). Chemoinformatics methods could be efficiently used to establish a relationship between the reagent structures and the required reaction conditions, which would allow synthetic chemists to waste less time and resources in trying out various protocols in search for the appropriate one. In order to address this problem, a number of 2-classes classification models have been built on a set of 198 Michael reactions retrieved from literature. Trained models discriminate between processes that are compatible and respectively processes not feasible under a specific reaction condition option (feasible or not with a Lewis acid catalyst, feasible or not in hydrophobic solvent, etc.). Eight distinct models were built to decide the compatibility of a Michael addition process with each considered reaction condition option, while a ninth model was aimed to predict whether the assumed Michael addition is feasible at all. Different machine-learning methods (Support Vector Machine, Naive Bayes, and Random Forest) in combination with different types of descriptors (ISIDA fragments issued from Condensed Graphs of Reactions, MOLMAP, Electronic Effect Descriptors, and Chemistry Development Kit computed descriptors) have been used. Models have good predictive performance in 3-fold cross-validation done three times: balanced accuracy varies from 0.7 to 1. Developed models are available for the users at http://infochim.u-strasbg.fr/webserv/VSEngine.html . Eventually, these were challenged to predict feasibility conditions for ∼50 novel Michael reactions from the eNovalys database (originally

  2. Dynamic measurement of physical conditions in daily life by body area network sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, S.; Tanaka, T.; Takahashi, N.; Matsuda, Y.; Kariya, K.

    2010-07-01

    This paper shows the measurement system to monitor physical conditions dynamically in dairy life. The measurement system for physical conditions in motion must be wearable and wireless connected. Body area network sensing system (BANSS) is a kind of the system to realize the conditions. BANSS is the system constructed with host system and plural sensing nodes. Sensing node is constructed with sensors, analogue/digital convertor(ADC), peripheral interface component(PIC), memory and near field communication device(NFCD). The NFCD in this system is Zigbee. Zigbee is the most suitable to construct wireless network system easily. BANSS is not only the system to measure physical parameters. BANSS informs current physical conditions and advises to keep suitable physical strength. As an application of BANSS, the system managing heart rate in walking is shown. By using this system, users can exercise in condition of a constant physical strength.

  3. Development of high gradient magnetic separation system under dry condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Y.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2010-11-01

    The interfusion of impurities such as metallic wear debris has been a problem in the manufacturing process of foods, medicines, and industrial products. Gravity separation system and membrane separation system has been used widely for powder separation, however magnetic separation system is much efficient to separate magnetic particles. Magnetic separation system under wet process is used conventionally, however, it has some demerit such as necessity of drying treatment after separation and difficulty of running the system in the cold region and so on. Thus, magnetic separation under dry process is prospective as alternative method. In this paper, we developed high gradient magnetic separation system (HGMS) under dry process. In dry HGMS system, powder coagulation caused by particle interaction is considerable. Powder coagulation causes a blockage of magnetic filters and results in decrease of separation performance of dry HGMS system. In order to investigate the effect of powder coagulation on separation performance, we conducted experiments with two kinds of powdered materials whose cohesive properties are different.

  4. Balanced Flow Metering and Conditioning: Technology for Fluid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R.

    2006-01-01

    Revolutionary new technology that creates balanced conditions across the face of a multi-hole orifice plate has been developed, patented and exclusively licensed for commercialization. This balanced flow technology simultaneously measures mass flow rate, volumetric flow rate, and fluid density with little or no straight pipe run requirements. Initially, the balanced plate was a drop in replacement for a traditional orifice plate, but testing revealed substantially better performance as compared to the orifice plate such as, 10 times better accuracy, 2 times faster (shorter distance) pressure recovery, 15 times less acoustic noise energy generation, and 2.5 times less permanent pressure loss. During 2004 testing at MSFC, testing revealed several configurations of the balanced flow meter that match the accuracy of Venturi meters while having only slightly more permanent pressure loss. However, the balanced meter only requires a 0.25 inch plate and has no upstream or downstream straight pipe requirements. As a fluid conditioning device, the fluid usually reaches fully developed flow within 1 pipe diameter of the balanced conditioning plate. This paper will describe the basic balanced flow metering technology, provide performance details generated by testing to date and provide implementation details along with calculations required for differing degrees of flow metering accuracy.

  5. Environmental performance of wastewater reuse systems: impact of system boundaries and external conditions.

    PubMed

    Baresel, Christian; Dalgren, Lena; Almemark, Mats; Lazic, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater reclamation will be a significant part of future water management and the environmental assessment of various treatment systems to reuse wastewater has become an important research field. The secondary treatment process and sludge handling on-site are, especially, electricity demanding processes due to aeration, pumping, mixing, dewatering, etc. used for operation and are being identified as the main contributor for many environmental impacts. This study discusses how the environmental performance of reuse treatment systems may be influenced by surrounding conditions. This article illustrates and discusses the importance of factors commonly treated as externalities and as such not being included in optimization strategies of reuse systems, but that are necessary to environmentally assess wastewater reclamation systems. This is illustrated by two up-stream and downstream processes; electricity supply and the use of sludge as fertilizer commonly practiced in regions considered for wastewater reclamation. The study shows that external conditions can have a larger impact on the overall environmental performance of reuse treatment systems than internal optimizations could compensate for. These results imply that a more holistic environmental assessment of reuse schemes could provide less environmental impacts as externalities could be included in measures to reduce the overall impacts. PMID:27003080

  6. Analyses of ACPL thermal/fluid conditioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephen, L. A.; Usher, L. H.

    1976-01-01

    Results of engineering analyses are reported. Initial computations were made using a modified control transfer function where the systems performance was characterized parametrically using an analytical model. The analytical model was revised to represent the latest expansion chamber fluid manifold design, and systems performance predictions were made. Parameters which were independently varied in these computations are listed. Systems predictions which were used to characterize performance are primarily transient computer plots comparing the deviation between average chamber temperature and the chamber temperature requirement. Additional computer plots were prepared. Results of parametric computations with the latest fluid manifold design are included.

  7. 76 FR 58288 - International Maritime Organization Guidelines for Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems for Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Information on Services for Individuals with Disabilities For information... effective in reducing sulfur oxide emissions as the requirements of MARPOL Annex VI regulation 14. DATES... systems for marine engines to remove sulfur oxide emissions. Annex VI regulation 4 of the...

  8. A small scale hydroponics wastewater treatment system under Swedish conditions.

    PubMed

    Norström, A; Larsdotter, K; Gumaelius, L; la Cour Jansen, J; Dalhammar, G

    2003-01-01

    A treatment plant using conventional biological treatment combined with hydroponics and microalgae is constructed in a greenhouse in the area of Stockholm, Sweden. The treatment plant is built for research purposes and presently treats 0.559 m3 of domestic wastewater from the surrounding area per day. The system uses anoxic pre-denitrification followed by aerobic tanks for nitrification and plant growth. A microalgal step further reduces phosphorus, and a final sand filter polishes the water. During a three week period in July 2002 the treatment capacity of this system was evaluated with respect to removal of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrogen. 90% COD removal was obtained early in the system. Nitrification and denitrification was well established with total nitrogen reduction of 72%. Phosphorus was removed by 47% in the process. However, higher phosphorus removal values are expected as the microalgal step will be further developed. The results show that acceptable treatment can be achieved using this kind of system. Further optimisation of the system will lead to clean water as well as valuable plants to be harvested from the nutrient rich wastewater. PMID:14753532

  9. Development of a distributed vision system for industrial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Michael; Schiller, Arnulf; O'Leary, Paul; Fauster, Ewald; Schalk, Peter

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents a prototype system to monitor a hot glowing wire during the rolling process in quality relevant aspects. Therefore a measurement system based on image vision and a communication framework integrating distributed measurement nodes is introduced. As a technologically approach, machine vision is used to evaluate the wire quality parameters. Therefore an image processing algorithm, based on dual Grassmannian coordinates fitting parallel lines by singular value decomposition, is formulated. Furthermore a communication framework which implements anonymous tuplespace communication, a private network based on TCP/IP and a consequent Java implementation of all used components is presented. Additionally, industrial requirements such as realtime communication to IEC-61131 conform digital IO"s (Modbus TCP/IP protocol), the implementation of a watchdog pattern and the integration of multiple operating systems (LINUX, QNX and WINDOWS) are lined out. The deployment of such a framework to the real world problem statement of the wire rolling mill is presented.

  10. Compressor-fan unitary structure for air conditioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreiman, N.

    2015-08-01

    An extremely compact, therefore space saving unitary structure of short axial length is produced by radial integration of a revolving piston rotary compressor and an impeller of a centrifugal fan. The unitary structure employs single motor to run as the compressor so the airflow fan and eliminates duality of motors, related power supply and control elements. Novel revolving piston rotary compressor which provides possibility for such integration comprises the following: a suction gas delivery system which provides cooling of the motor and supplies refrigerant into the suction chamber under higher pressure (supercharged); a modified discharge system and lubricating oil supply system. Axial passages formed in the stationary crankshaft are used to supply discharge gas to a condenser, to return vaporized cooling agent from the evaporator to the suction cavity of the compressor, to pass a lubricant and to accommodate wiring supplying power to the unitary structure driver -external rotor electric motor.

  11. Combination of process and vibration data for improved condition monitoring of industrial systems working under variable operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Cárcel, C.; Jaramillo, V. H.; Mba, D.; Ottewill, J. R.; Cao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The detection and diagnosis of faults in industrial processes is a very active field of research due to the reduction in maintenance costs achieved by the implementation of process monitoring algorithms such as Principal Component Analysis, Partial Least Squares or more recently Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA). Typically the condition of rotating machinery is monitored separately using vibration analysis or other specific techniques. Conventional vibration-based condition monitoring techniques are based on the tracking of key features observed in the measured signal. Typically steady-state loading conditions are required to ensure consistency between measurements. In this paper, a technique based on merging process and vibration data is proposed with the objective of improving the detection of mechanical faults in industrial systems working under variable operating conditions. The capabilities of CVA for detection and diagnosis of faults were tested using experimental data acquired from a compressor test rig where different process faults were introduced. Results suggest that the combination of process and vibration data can effectively improve the detectability of mechanical faults in systems working under variable operating conditions.

  12. Temperature and Humidity Independent Control Research on Ground Source Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Wang, L. L.

    Taking green demonstration center building air conditioning system as an example, this paper presents the temperature and humidity independent control system combined with ground source heat pump system, emphasis on the design of dry terminal device system, fresh air system and ground source heat pump system.

  13. Conditions for monogamy of quantum correlations in multipartite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Asutosh

    2016-09-01

    Monogamy of quantum correlations is a vibrant area of research because of its potential applications in several areas in quantum information ranging from quantum cryptography to co-operative phenomena in many-body physics. In this paper, we investigate conditions under which monogamy is preserved for functions of quantum correlation measures. We prove that a monogamous measure remains monogamous on raising its power, and a non-monogamous measure remains non-monogamous on lowering its power. We also prove that monogamy of a convex quantum correlation measure for arbitrary multipartite pure quantum state leads to its monogamy for mixed states in the same Hilbert space. Monogamy of squared negativity for mixed states and that of entanglement of formation follow as corollaries of our results.

  14. Boundary conditions for star matter and other periodic fermionic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulminelli, F.; Furuta, T.; Juillet, O.; Leclercq, C.

    2011-12-01

    Bulk fermionic matter, as can be notably found in supernova matter and neutrons stars, is subject to correlations of infinite range due to the antisymmetrization of the N-body wave function, which cannot be explicitly accounted for in a practical simulation. This problem is usually addressed in condensed matter physics by means of the so-called twist averaged boundary condition method. A different ansatz based on the localized Wannier representation has been proposed in the context of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics. In this paper we work out the formal relation between the two approaches. We show that, while the two coincide when working with exact eigenstates of the N-body Hamiltonian, differences appear in the case of variational approaches, which are currently used for the description of stellar matter. Some model applications with fermionic molecular dynamics are shown.

  15. Demonstration and Evaluation of State-of-the-Art Wastewater Collection Systems Condition Assessment Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reliable information on pipe condition is needed to accurately estimate the remaining service life of wastewater collection system assets. Although inspections with conventional closed-circuit television (CCTV) have been the mainstay of pipeline condition assessment for decades,...

  16. Managing hazardous material conditions in wastewater collections systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, C.

    1994-12-31

    As modern industrial processes make greater and greater use of an ever increasing array of chemical substances the risk of these materials entering public sewer systems increases commensurately. Compounding this problem is the additional issue of a large population of single walled underground storage tanks now reaching the end of their safe-use lifespan while continuing in service. Tanks first put into underground service twenty to thirty years ago are now beginning to fail in ever increasing numbers releasing hazardous substances into the Vadose zone and ultimately into waste-water collection infrastructures. This paper, through the examination of a case study involving diesel fuel in a large, municipal waste-water collection system, offers a prototypical methodology for the management of such incidents.

  17. Initial Activation and Operation of the Power Conditioning System for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, M A; Kamm, R E; Fulkerson, E S; Hulsey, S D; Lao, N; Parrish, G L; Pendleton, D L; Petersen, D E; Polk, M; Tuck, J M; Ullery, G T; Moore, W B

    2003-08-20

    The NIF Power Conditioning System (PCS) resides in four Capacitor Bays, supplying energy to the Master and Power Amplifiers which reside in the two adjacent laser bays. Each capacitor bay will initially house 48 individual power conditioning modules, shown in Figure 2, with space reserved for expansion to 54 modules. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Power Conditioning System (PCS) is a modular capacitive energy storage system that will be capable of storing nearly 400 MJ of electrical energy and delivering that energy to the nearly 8000 flashlamps in the NIF laser. The first sixteen modules of the power conditioning system have been built, tested and installed. Activation of the first nine power conditioning modules has been completed and commissioning of the first ''bundle'' of laser beamlines has begun. This paper will provide an overview of the power conditioning system design and describe the status and results of initial testing and activation of the first ''bundle'' of power conditioning modules.

  18. Electric Fuel Pump Condition Monitor System Using Electricalsignature Analysis

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Howard D [Knoxville, TN; Cox, Daryl F [Knoxville, TN; Welch, Donald E [Oak Ridge, TN

    2005-09-13

    A pump diagnostic system and method comprising current sensing probes clamped on electrical motor leads of a pump for sensing only current signals on incoming motor power, a signal processor having a means for buffering and anti-aliasing current signals into a pump motor current signal, and a computer having a means for analyzing, displaying, and reporting motor current signatures from the motor current signal to determine pump health using integrated motor and pump diagnostic parameters.

  19. Can airborne fungal allergens pass through an air-conditioning system. [Aspergillus fumigatus

    SciTech Connect

    Elixmann, J.H. ); Linskens, H.F.; Schata, M.; Jorde, W. )

    1989-01-01

    Fungal spores, an important fraction of aeroplankton particles, can be filtered in an air-conditioning system, resulting in a drastic reduction of the spore count in the air-conditioned rooms. Nevertheless, using the EISA inhibition test against Aspergillus fumigatus, it was found that air samples from air-conditioned rooms show inhibition of the serum activity of a highly sensitized patient. There is evidence that airborne allergens can pass both coarse and fine filters of an air-conditioning system.

  20. Water-saving liquid-gas conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Christopher; Zhuang, Ye

    2014-01-14

    A method for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises contacting a process gas with a hygroscopic working fluid in order to remove a constituent from the process gas. A system for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises a hygroscopic working fluid comprising a component adapted to absorb or react with a constituent of a process gas, and a liquid-gas contactor for contacting the working fluid and the process gas, wherein the constituent is removed from the process gas within the liquid-gas contactor.

  1. Power conditioning system modelling for nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, Kenneth J.

    1993-11-01

    NASA LeRC is currently developing a Fortran based model of a complete nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicle that would be used for piloted and cargo missions to the Moon or Mars. The proposed vehicle design will use either a Brayton or K-Rankine power conversion cycle to drive a turbine coupled with a rotary alternator. Two thruster types are also being studied, ion and magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD). In support of this NEP model, Rocketdyne developed a power management and distribution (PMAD) subroutine that provides parametric outputs for selected alternator operating voltages and frequencies, thruster types, system power levels, and electronics coldplate temperatures. The end-to-end PMAD model described is based on the direct use of the alternator voltage and frequency for transmitting power to either ion or MPD thrusters. This low frequency transmission approach was compared with dc and high frequency ac designs, and determined to have the lowest mass, highest efficiency, highest reliability and lowest development costs. While its power quality is not as good as that provided by a high frequency system, it was considered adequate for both ion and MPD engine applications. The low frequency architecture will be used as the reference in future NEP PMAD studies.

  2. Power Conditioning System Modelling for Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Kenneth J.

    1993-01-01

    NASA LeRC is currently developing a Fortran based model of a complete nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicle that would be used for piloted and cargo missions to the Moon or Mars. The proposed vehicle design will use either a Brayton or K-Rankine power conversion cycle to drive a turbine coupled with a rotary alternator. Two thruster types are also being studied, ion and magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD). In support of this NEP model, Rocketdyne developed a power management and distribution (PMAD) subroutine that provides parametric outputs for selected alternator operating voltages and frequencies, thruster types, system power levels, and electronics coldplate temperatures. The end-to-end PMAD model described is based on the direct use of the alternator voltage and frequency for transmitting power to either ion or MPD thrusters. This low frequency transmission approach was compared with dc and high frequency ac designs, and determined to have the lowest mass, highest efficiency, highest reliability and lowest development costs. While its power quality is not as good as that provided by a high frequency system, it was considered adequate for both ion and MPD engine applications. The low frequency architecture will be used as the reference in future NEP PMAD studies.

  3. The conditions of chondrule formation, Part II: Open system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, Pia; Hezel, Dominik C.; Mucerschi, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We studied the texture of 256 chondrules in thin sections of 16 different carbonaceous (CV, CR, CO, CM, CH) and Rumuruti chondrites. In a conservative count ∼75% of all chondrules are mineralogically zoned, i.e. these chondrules have an olivine core, surrounded by a low-Ca pyroxene rim. A realistic estimate pushes the fraction of zoned chondrules to >90% of all chondrules. Mineralogically zoned chondrules are the dominant and typical chondrule type in carbonaceous and Rumuruti chondrites. The formation of the mineralogical zonation represents a fundamentally important process of chondrule formation. The classic typification of chondrules into PO, POP and PP might in fact represent different sections through mineralogically zoned chondrules. On average, the low-Ca pyroxene rims occupy 30 vol.% of the entire chondrule. The low-Ca pyroxene most probably formed by reaction of an olivine rich chondrule with SiO from the surrounding gas. This reaction adds 3-15 wt.% of material, mainly SiO2, to the chondrule. Chondrules were open systems and interacted substantially with the surrounding gas. This is in agreement with many previous studies on chondrule formation. This open system behaviour and the exchange of material with the surrounding gas can explain bulk chondrule compositional variations in a single meteorite and supports the findings from complementarity that chondrules and matrix formed from the same chemical reservoir.

  4. Systems, Methods and Apparatus for Position Sensor Digital Conditioning Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor); Dutton, Kenneth R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some implementations determine the amplitude of an amplitude modulated signal, modulated by the position of an object being sensed. In some aspects, the apparatus accepts an excitation signal and the amplitude modulated signal and divides the amplitude modulated by the excitation signal to produce an output signal that is proportional to the position of the object being sensed. In other aspects, the division is performed only when the excitation signal is non-zero, such as close to the peaks in the excitation signal. In other aspects, the excitation signal and amplitude modulated signal are degraded due to an air gap and the degraded signals are used to correct for amplitude fluctuations due to the air gap, and produce an output signal, tolerant of the air gaps, that is proportional to the position of the object being sensed.

  5. New Phases of Hydrogen-Bonded Systems at Extreme Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Manaa, M R; Goldman, N; Fried, L E

    2006-10-23

    We study the behavior of hydrogen-bonded systems under high-pressure and temperature. First principle calculations of formic acid under isotropic pressure up to 70 GPa reveal the existence of a polymerization phase at around 20 GPa, in support of recent IR, Raman, and XRD experiments. In this phase, covalent bonding develops between molecules of the same chain through symmetrization of hydrogen bonds. We also performed molecular dynamics simulations of water at pressures up to 115 GPa and 2000 K. Along this isotherm, we are able to define three different phases. We observe a molecular fluid phase with superionic diffusion of the hydrogens for pressure 34 GPa to 58 GPa. We report a transformation to a phase dominated by transient networks of symmetric O-H hydrogen bonds at 95-115 GPa. As in formic acid, the network can be attributed to the symmetrization of the hydrogen bond, similar to the ice VII to ice X transition.

  6. IEA Implementing Agreements and Annexes: A Guide for Building Technologies Program Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Meier, Alan; Runci, Paul J.

    2008-08-05

    This guide presents insights and guidance from DOE’s gathered through longstanding and extensive participation in IEA implementing agreements (IAs) and annexes. Even though DOE has been a key participant in international research activities through the IEA since the 1970s, the experience, knowledge, and institutional memory associated with these activities can be lost or forgotten easily as key DOE managers retire or leave the department. The guide seeks to assemble in a single reference some of the learning that has occurred through participation in IEA IAs as a guide for BTP managers currently responsible for IAs and for those who might consider entering into new IEA activities in the future.

  7. Final Report for Annex II--Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources In Saudi Arabia, 1998-2000

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.; Marion, W. F.; Al-Abbadi, N. M.; Mahfoodh, M.; Al-Otaibi, Z.

    2002-04-01

    The Final Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1998-2000 summarizes the accomplishment of work performed, results achieved, and products produced under Annex II, a project established under the Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of Renewable Energy Research and Development between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United States. The report covers work and accomplishments from January 1998 to December 2000. A previous progress report, Progress Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1993-1997, NREL/TP-560-29374, summarizes earlier work and technical transfer of information under the project. The work was performed in at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, at the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and at selected weather stations of the Saudi Meteorological and Environmental Protection Administration (MEPA).

  8. Indexes system of technological condition assessment of economic branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvashova, M. N.; Avramchikova, N. T.; Antamoshkin, A. N.

    2015-10-01

    The increased level of innovative production process, connected with the current trends, points out the necessity of economic diversification of the whole national economy as well as regional economies in order to increase competitiveness and stable development. Russian regional economies are characterized with local directive of development and innovative processes have evident local vector. Intensive development of Siberian regional economies, which depends on oil and mining industries, considerably falls behind the world indicators according to the GRP output per head. To improve the quality of economic space the authors have suggested a new scientific approach, which allows qualitative assessment inside the economic space of resource-based regions, based on principles of high technological modes development inside economic branches taking into account density, regular enterprise distribution and connectivity of commercial organizations as well as secures innovative development of regional economy and its competitiveness. In this context it is necessary to develop a modern system of indexes, characterizing the structure of economic branches in accordance with present technological modes and at the same time the dynamics of appropriate structural shifts in regional economies of this type.

  9. Open System Tribology and Influence of Weather Condition

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Yezhe; Bergseth, Ellen; Olofsson, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    The tribology of an open system at temperatures ranging between 3 °C and −35 °C, with and without snow, was investigated using a pin-on-disc tribometer mounted in a temperature-controlled environmental chamber. The relationship between the microstructure and ductility of the materials and the tribology at the contacting surfaces was investigated. The study shows that during continuous sliding, pressure causes snow particles to melt into a liquid-like layer, encouraging the generation of oxide flakes on the contact path. The friction coefficient and wear rate are dramatically reduced through an oxidative friction and wear mechanism. In the absence of snow, the tribological process is controlled by the low temperature brittleness of steel in the temperature range from 3 °C to −15 °C. At these temperatures, cracks are prone to form and extend on the worn surfaces, resulting in the spalling of bulk scraps, which are crushed into debris that increases the friction coefficient and wear rate due to strong abrasion. When the temperature falls to −25 °C, an ice layer condenses on the metal surfaces and relaxes the tribological process in the same way as the added snow particles, which significantly decreases the friction and wear. PMID:27573973

  10. Open System Tribology and Influence of Weather Condition.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Yezhe; Bergseth, Ellen; Olofsson, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    The tribology of an open system at temperatures ranging between 3 °C and -35 °C, with and without snow, was investigated using a pin-on-disc tribometer mounted in a temperature-controlled environmental chamber. The relationship between the microstructure and ductility of the materials and the tribology at the contacting surfaces was investigated. The study shows that during continuous sliding, pressure causes snow particles to melt into a liquid-like layer, encouraging the generation of oxide flakes on the contact path. The friction coefficient and wear rate are dramatically reduced through an oxidative friction and wear mechanism. In the absence of snow, the tribological process is controlled by the low temperature brittleness of steel in the temperature range from 3 °C to -15 °C. At these temperatures, cracks are prone to form and extend on the worn surfaces, resulting in the spalling of bulk scraps, which are crushed into debris that increases the friction coefficient and wear rate due to strong abrasion. When the temperature falls to -25 °C, an ice layer condenses on the metal surfaces and relaxes the tribological process in the same way as the added snow particles, which significantly decreases the friction and wear. PMID:27573973

  11. Microbial enhanced oil recovery research. Final report, Annex 5

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, M.M.; Gerogiou, G.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an engineering framework for the exploitation of microorganisms to enhance oil recovery. An order of magnitude analysis indicated that selective plugging and the production of biosurfactants are the two most likely mechanisms for the mobilization of oil in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The latter, biosurfactant production, is easier to control within a reservoir environment and was investigated in some detail. An extensive literature survey indicated that the bacterium Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 produces a very effective surface active agent capable of increasing the capillary number to values sufficiently low for oil mobilization. In addition, earlier studies had shown that growth of this bacterium and biosurfactant production occur under conditions that are typically encountered in MEOR, namely temperatures up to 55{degrees}C, lack of oxygen and salinities of up to 10% w/v. The chemical structure of the surfactant, its interfacial properties and its production by fermentation were characterized in some detail. In parallel, a set of experiments as conducted to measure the transport of Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 in sandpacks. It was shown that the determining parameters for cell transport in porous media are: cell size and degree of coagulation, presence of dispersants, injection velocity and cell concentration. The mechanisms of bacteria retention within the pores of the reservoir were analyzed based on heuristic arguments. A mathematical simulator of MEOR was developed using conservation equations in which the mechanisms of bacteria retention and the growth kinetics of the cells were incorporated. The predictions of the model agreed reasonably well with experimental results.

  12. 76 FR 10055 - Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Physical Condition Scoring Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ...This notice provides additional information to public housing agencies (PHAs) and members of the public about HUD's process for issuing scores under the physical condition indicator of the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS). This notice amends the current Physical Condition Scoring Process notice that was published on June 29, 2000, as corrected and updated by the Physical Condition......

  13. A digital computer simulation and study of a direct-energy-transfer power-conditioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, W. W., III; Owen, H. A., Jr.; Wilson, T. G.; Rodriguez, G. E.; Paulkovich, J.

    1974-01-01

    A digital computer simulation technique, which can be used to study such composite power-conditioning systems, was applied to a spacecraft direct-energy-transfer power-processing system. The results obtained duplicate actual system performance with considerable accuracy. The validity of the approach and its usefulness in studying various aspects of system performance such as steady-state characteristics and transient responses to severely varying operating conditions are demonstrated experimentally.

  14. Stability of switched linear discrete-time descriptor systems: a new commutation condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Guisheng; Xu, Xuping; Ho, Daniel W. C.

    2012-11-01

    In this article, we study stability of switched linear discrete-time descriptor systems. Under the assumption that all subsystems are stable and there is no impulse occurring at the switching instants, we establish a new pairwise commutation condition under which the switched system is stable. It turns out that the condition is a natural and important extension to the existing commutation conditions, and it can be applied in discretised continuous-time switched systems in a straightforward manner. Finally, we also show that when the proposed commutation condition holds, there exists a common quadratic Lyapunov function for the subsystems.

  15. Random countable alphabet conformal iterated function systems satisfying the transversality condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbański, Mariusz

    2016-03-01

    Dealing with with countable (finite and infinite alike) alphabet random conformal iterated function systems with overlaps, we formulate appropriate transversality conditions and then prove the relevant, in such a context, the Moran-Bowen formula which determines the Hausdorff dimension of random limit sets in dynamical terms. We also provide large classes of examples of such random systems satisfying the transversality condition.

  16. Novel electrical energy storage system based on reversible solid oxide cells: System design and operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, C. H.; Kazempoor, P.; Braun, R. J.

    2015-02-01

    Electrical energy storage (EES) is an important component of the future electric grid. Given that no other widely available technology meets all the EES requirements, reversible (or regenerative) solid oxide cells (ReSOCs) working in both fuel cell (power producing) and electrolysis (fuel producing) modes are envisioned as a technology capable of providing highly efficient and cost-effective EES. However, there are still many challenges and questions from cell materials development to system level operation of ReSOCs that should be addressed before widespread application. This paper presents a novel system based on ReSOCs that employ a thermal management strategy of promoting exothermic methanation within the ReSOC cell-stack to provide thermal energy for the endothermic steam/CO2 electrolysis reactions during charging mode (fuel producing). This approach also serves to enhance the energy density of the stored gases. Modeling and parametric analysis of an energy storage concept is performed using a physically based ReSOC stack model coupled with thermodynamic system component models. Results indicate that roundtrip efficiencies greater than 70% can be achieved at intermediate stack temperature (680 °C) and elevated stack pressure (20 bar). The optimal operating condition arises from a tradeoff between stack efficiency and auxiliary power requirements from balance of plant hardware.

  17. Adapting to health impacts of climate change: a study of UNFCCC Annex I parties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesnikowski, A. C.; Ford, J. D.; Berrang-Ford, L.; Paterson, J. A.; Barrera, M.; Heymann, S. J.

    2011-10-01

    Adapting to the health effects of climate change is one of the key challenges facing public health this century. Our knowledge of progress on adaptation, however, remains in its infancy. Using the Fifth National Communications of Annex I parties to the UNFCCC, 1912 initiatives are systematically identified and analyzed. 80% of the actions identified consist of groundwork (i.e. preparatory) action, with only 20% constituting tangible adaptations. No health vulnerability was recognized by all 38 Annex I countries. Furthermore, while all initiatives affect at least one health vulnerability, only 15% had an explicit human health component. Consideration for the special needs of vulnerable groups is uneven and underdeveloped. Climate change is directly motivating 71% of groundwork actions, and 61% of adaptation initiatives are being mainstreamed into existing institutions or programs. We conclude that the adaptation responses to the health risks of climate change remain piecemeal. Policymakers in the health sector must engage with stakeholders to implement adaptation that considers how climate change will impact the health of each segment of the population, particularly within those groups already considered most vulnerable to poor health outcomes.

  18. A condition on the spatial resolution of IR collimators for testing of thermal imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, Krzysztof; Lee, Hee Chul; Wrona, Wieslaw

    2000-05-01

    A precise condition on the spatial resolution of the IR collimator for testing thermal imaging systems is presented. The condition can be used even if only the spatial resolution of the IR collimator and that of the system under test, measured using popular definitions, are known. It is shown that when the condition is fulfilled, the thermal image degradation caused by the IR collimator is negligible.

  19. Low-cost micro condition monitoring system based on LabVIEW and SQL server

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhizhou; Guo, Yu; Fan, Yajun

    2013-03-01

    Due to most of the existing condition monitoring systems have a rather complicated structure and the high cost makes even big companies can only afford on a few key equipments, a developing scheme of low-cost micro condition monitoring system based on LabVIEW and SQL Server is proposed in this paper. The low-cost micro condition monitoring system can realize the effective monitoring to general machinery by full taking the advantages of LabVIEW and SQL Server respectively. The system supplements the existing condition monitoring systems to some extent. It affords good applicability and expanding ability, which make it suitable for the equipment management of enterprises for general equipment condition monitoring and health maintenance.

  20. Onboard power line conditioning system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Kajouke, Lateef A.; Perisic, Milun

    2016-06-14

    A power line quality conditioning system for a vehicle includes an onboard rechargeable direct current (DC) energy storage system and an onboard electrical system coupled to the energy storage system. The energy storage system provides DC energy to drive an electric traction motor of the vehicle. The electrical system operates in a charging mode such that alternating current (AC) energy from a power grid external to the vehicle is converted to DC energy to charge the DC energy storage system. The electrical system also operates in a vehicle-to-grid power conditioning mode such that DC energy from the DC energy storage system is converted to AC energy to condition an AC voltage of the power grid.

  1. Determination of the observation conditions of celestial bodies with the aid of the DISPO system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazakov, R. K.; Krivov, A. V.

    1984-01-01

    The interactive system for determining the observation conditions of celestial bodies is described. A system of programs was created containing a part of the DISPO Display Interative System of Orbit Planning. The system was used for calculating the observatiion characteristics of Halley's comet during its approach to Earth in 1985-86.

  2. 12 CFR 208.3 - Application and conditions for membership in the Federal Reserve System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application and conditions for membership in the Federal Reserve System. 208.3 Section 208.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MEMBERSHIP OF STATE BANKING INSTITUTIONS IN THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H) General Membership...

  3. 12 CFR 208.3 - Application and conditions for membership in the Federal Reserve System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application and conditions for membership in the Federal Reserve System. 208.3 Section 208.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MEMBERSHIP OF STATE BANKING INSTITUTIONS IN THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H) General Membership...

  4. Influence of changes in initial conditions for the simulation of dynamic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kotyrba, Martin

    2015-03-10

    Chaos theory is a field of study in mathematics, with applications in several disciplines including meteorology, sociology, physics, engineering, economics, biology, and philosophy. Chaos theory studies the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions—a paradigm popularly referred to as the butterfly effect. Small differences in initial conditions field widely diverging outcomes for such dynamical systems, rendering long-term prediction impossible in general. This happens even though these systems are deterministic, meaning that their future behavior is fully determined by their initial conditions, with no random elements involved. In this paperinfluence of changes in initial conditions will be presented for the simulation of Lorenz system.

  5. Detection and classification of alarm threshold violations in condition monitoring systems working in highly varying operational conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strączkiewicz, M.; Barszcz, T.; Jabłoński, A.

    2015-07-01

    All commonly used condition monitoring systems (CMS) enable defining alarm thresholds that enhance efficient surveillance and maintenance of dynamic state of machinery. The thresholds are imposed on the measured values such as vibration-based indicators, temperature, pressure, etc. For complex machinery such as wind turbine (WT) the total number of thresholds might be counted in hundreds multiplied by the number of operational states. All the parameters vary not only due to possible machinery malfunctions, but also due to changes in operating conditions and these changes are typically much stronger than the former ones. Very often, such a behavior may lead to hundreds of false alarms. Therefore, authors propose a novel approach based on parameterized description of the threshold violation. For this purpose the novelty and severity factors are introduced. The first parameter refers to the time of violation occurrence while the second one describes the impact of the indicator-increase to the entire machine. Such approach increases reliability of the CMS by providing the operator with the most useful information of the system events. The idea of the procedure is presented on a simulated data similar to those from a wind turbine.

  6. 78 FR 57323 - York River and the Naval Weapons Station Yorktown-Cheatham Annex, Yorktown, Virginia; Danger Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 York River and the Naval Weapons Station Yorktown... and the Naval Weapons Station Yorktown- Cheatham Annex, Yorktown, Virginia; danger zone. (a) The area... firing activities shall be conducted when the visibility is less that the maximum range of the...

  7. 33 CFR 334.285 - York River and the Naval Weapons Station Yorktown-Cheatham Annex, Yorktown, Virginia; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false York River and the Naval Weapons... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.285 York River and the Naval Weapons Station Yorktown-Cheatham Annex... less than the maximum range of the weapons being used at the facility or while a vessel is within...

  8. 78 FR 27982 - U.S. Flag Compliance With MARPOL Annex VI International Energy Efficiency (IEE) Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard U.S. Flag Compliance With MARPOL Annex VI International Energy Efficiency (IEE... issuance of an International Energy Efficiency Certificate and the preparation of a Ship Energy Efficiency... Energy Efficiency Design Index. These requirements apply to all U.S. flag ships 400 gross tonnage...

  9. 33 CFR 334.270 - York River adjacent to Cheatham Annex Depot, Naval Supply Center, Williamsburg, Va.; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false York River adjacent to Cheatham... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.270 York River adjacent to Cheatham Annex Depot, Naval Supply Center, Williamsburg, Va.; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of York River bounded as follows: Beginning at...

  10. 33 CFR 334.270 - York River adjacent to Cheatham Annex Depot, Naval Supply Center, Williamsburg, Va.; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false York River adjacent to Cheatham... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.270 York River adjacent to Cheatham Annex Depot, Naval Supply Center, Williamsburg, Va.; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of York River bounded as follows: Beginning at...

  11. Reducing plastic contamination of the marine environment under MARPOL Annex V: A model for recreational harbors and ports

    SciTech Connect

    Mudar, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    A case study was conducted during Summer, 1990, at the Nantucket Boat Basin, Massachusetts. The purpose of the study was to (1) determine the types and quantities of wastes generated by recreational boaters, particularly plastics and garbage regulated by MARPOL Annex V, (2) develop a model to assist recreational boating facilities to comply with the law and (3) reduce the impact of plastic contamination on the marine environment. An international law which came to force in December, 1988, MARPOL Annex V prohibits the disposal of plastics into the sea and stipulates ocean zones where garbage and other wastes may be disposed. A per capita rate of waste generation by recreational boaters was determined, which will enable recreational harbors and ports to estimate the waste management capacity necessary to meet the requirements of Annex V. In addition to determining the wastestream from the recreational boaters, boaters were surveyed to collect data about pertinent topics including awareness of MARPOL, waste types generated aboard vessels, waste management methods, and how marinas could assist boaters in meeting their waste management needs. As a result of the Boat Basin study, a planning model was developed to assist other recreational harbors and ports to meet the requirements of MARPOL Annex V. Major elements of the model include (1) information Transfer, (2) Waste Management Methods, and (3) the Role of Related Factors such as marina type, and waste characterization and quantification.

  12. 76 FR 19380 - Notice of Entry Into Effect of MARPOL Annex V Wider Caribbean Region Special Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... SA, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, in July 1991. The SA entered into force in... SECURITY Coast Guard Notice of Entry Into Effect of MARPOL Annex V Wider Caribbean Region Special Area... effect of discharge requirements from ships in the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) special area (SA)...

  13. 76 FR 8316 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Interaction of Systems and Structures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... systems that affect the structural capability of the airplane. The applicable airworthiness regulations do... are systems that may affect the airplane's structural performance, either directly or as a result of... conditions, and thereby affect its structural capability. These systems may also affect the...

  14. 47 CFR 76.1504 - Rates, terms and conditions for carriage on open video systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... open video systems. 76.1504 Section 76.1504 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Open Video Systems § 76.1504 Rates, terms and conditions for carriage on open video systems. (a) Reasonable rate principle....

  15. 47 CFR 76.1504 - Rates, terms and conditions for carriage on open video systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... open video systems. 76.1504 Section 76.1504 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Open Video Systems § 76.1504 Rates, terms and conditions for carriage on open video systems. (a) Reasonable rate principle....

  16. 47 CFR 76.1504 - Rates, terms and conditions for carriage on open video systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... open video systems. 76.1504 Section 76.1504 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Open Video Systems § 76.1504 Rates, terms and conditions for carriage on open video systems. (a) Reasonable rate principle....

  17. 47 CFR 76.1504 - Rates, terms and conditions for carriage on open video systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... open video systems. 76.1504 Section 76.1504 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Open Video Systems § 76.1504 Rates, terms and conditions for carriage on open video systems. (a) Reasonable rate principle....

  18. 78 FR 73993 - Special Conditions: Cessna Model 680 Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Cessna Model 680 Series airplanes. These airplanes will have a novel or unusual design feature associated with the architecture and connectivity capabilities of the airplanes' computer systems and networks. Connectivity to, or access by, external systems and networks may result in security vulnerabilities to the airplanes' systems. The proposed......

  19. Influence of measurement conditions and system parameters on accuracy of remote temperature measurement with dualspectral IR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    1996-04-01

    A theory of the influence of measurement conditions and system parameters on the accuracy of remote temperature measurements with dualspectral IR systems has been developed. An analysis of the influence of the disturbances of the measurement process caused by system noise, spectrally variable emissivity of the tested object, radiation reflected by the object, limited transmittance of the atmosphere, and radiation emitted by the filters and the optics on the accuracy of the dualspectral IR systems has been made using this theory. The results show that the accuracy definitively depends on the measurement conditions and the system parameters.

  20. Potential Evaluation of Solar Heat Assisted Desiccant Hybrid Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Thien Nha; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    The solar thermal driven desiccant dehumidification-absorption cooling hybrid system has superior advantage in hot-humid climate regions. The reasonable air processing of desiccant hybrid air conditioning system and the utility of clean and free energy make the system environment friendly and energy efficient. The study investigates the performance of the desiccant dehumidification air conditioning systems with solar thermal assistant. The investigation is performed for three cases which are combinations of solar thermal and absorption cooling systems with different heat supply temperature levels. Two solar thermal systems are used in the study: the flat plate collector (FPC) and the vacuum tube with compound parabolic concentrator (CPC). The single-effect and high energy efficient double-, triple-effect LiBr-water absorption cooling cycles are considered for cooling systems. COP of desiccant hybrid air conditioning systems are determined. The evaluation of these systems is subsequently performed. The single effect absorption cooling cycle combined with the flat plate collector solar system is found to be the most energy efficient air conditioning system.

  1. Modeling Validation and Control Analysis for Controlled Temperature and Humidity of Air Conditioning System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jing-Nang; Lin, Tsung-Min

    2014-01-01

    This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14°C, 0006 kgw/kgda in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system. PMID:25250390

  2. Feeding Behavior of Aplysia: A Model System for Comparing Cellular Mechanisms of Classical and Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural…

  3. The Response of Local School Systems in Georgia to Fiscal and Economic Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, James; Sjoquist, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The 2001 recession had a major effect on Georgia's fiscal condition. We explore how economic conditions affected state and local financing of K-12 education in Georgia. We find that the magnitude of postrecession cuts in state real revenue per student varied widely across the local school systems in Georgia. We then examine whether and how cuts in…

  4. 75 FR 27926 - Special Conditions: Dassault Aviation Falcon Model 2000EX; Autobraking System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Dassault Aviation Falcon Model 2000EX.... SUMMARY: These special conditions are issued for the Dassault Aviation Falcon Model 2000EX airplane. This... Certificate (TC) No. A50NM to install an automatic braking system on the Falcon Model 2000EX airplane. This...

  5. CCTV Data Management for Effective Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project objectives are: Research current state of condition assessment technology for wastewater collection systems; Evaluate performance and cost of innovative and advanced infrastructure monitoring technologies; Identify and evaluate innovative CCTV technologies; and Prepar...

  6. Use of the Abbe sine condition to quantify alignment aberrations in optical imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burge, James H.; Zhao, Chunyu; Lu, Sheng Huei

    2010-08-01

    Violation of Abbe's sine condition is well-known to cause coma in axisymmetric imaging systems, and generally any offense against the sine condition (OSC) will cause aberrations that have linear dependence on the field angle. A well-corrected imaging system must obey the Abbe sine condition. A misaligned optical system can have particular forms of the OSC which are evaluated here. The lowest order non-trivial effects of misalignment have quadratic pupil dependence which causes a combination of astigmatism and focus that have linear field dependence. Higher order terms can arise from complex systems, but the effects of misalignment are nearly always dominated by the lowest order effects which can be fully characterized by measuring images on axis and the on-axis offense against the sine condition. By understanding the form of the on-axis images and the OSC, the state of alignment can be determined.

  7. Contraindications to Athletic Participation. Cardiac, Respiratory, and Central Nervous System Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, James L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses contraindications to athletic participation, examining the cardiac, respiratory, and central nervous system conditions that warrant activity disqualification. Provides guidelines about when it is safe for individuals to participate, and discusses the physician's responsibility. (SM)

  8. Multisensor System for Isotemporal Measurements to Assess Indoor Climatic Conditions in Poultry Farms

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Eliseo; Guijarro, Enrique; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Balasch, Sebastián; Hospitaler, Antonio; Torres, Antonio G.

    2012-01-01

    The rearing of poultry for meat production (broilers) is an agricultural food industry with high relevance to the economy and development of some countries. Periodic episodes of extreme climatic conditions during the summer season can cause high mortality among birds, resulting in economic losses. In this context, ventilation systems within poultry houses play a critical role to ensure appropriate indoor climatic conditions. The objective of this study was to develop a multisensor system to evaluate the design of the ventilation system in broiler houses. A measurement system equipped with three types of sensors: air velocity, temperature and differential pressure was designed and built. The system consisted in a laptop, a data acquisition card, a multiplexor module and a set of 24 air temperature, 24 air velocity and two differential pressure sensors. The system was able to acquire up to a maximum of 128 signals simultaneously at 5 second intervals. The multisensor system was calibrated under laboratory conditions and it was then tested in field tests. Field tests were conducted in a commercial broiler farm under four different pressure and ventilation scenarios in two sections within the building. The calibration curves obtained under laboratory conditions showed similar regression coefficients among temperature, air velocity and pressure sensors and a high goodness fit (R2 = 0.99) with the reference. Under field test conditions, the multisensor system showed a high number of input signals from different locations with minimum internal delay in acquiring signals. The variation among air velocity sensors was not significant. The developed multisensor system was able to integrate calibrated sensors of temperature, air velocity and differential pressure and operated succesfully under different conditions in a mechanically-ventilated broiler farm. This system can be used to obtain quasi-instantaneous fields of the air velocity and temperature, as well as differential

  9. Flexible DCP interface. [signal conditioning system for use with Kansas environmental sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T. (Principal Investigator); Schimmelpfenning, H.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A user of an ERTS data collection system must supply the sensors and signal conditioning interface. The electronic interface must be compatible with the NASA-furnished data collection platform (DCP). A universal signal conditioning system for use with a wide range of environmental sensors is described. The interface is environmentally and electronically compatible with the DCP and has operated satisfactorily for a complete winter wheat growing season in Kansas.

  10. Experimental investigation on performance of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate heat pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Guiyin; Liu, Xu; Wu, Shuangmao

    2009-11-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe is conducted in this paper. The experimental system of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate heat pipe is set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure and the condensation pressure of refrigeration system, the refrigeration capacity and the COP (coefficient of performance) of the system, the IPF (ice packing factor) and the cool storage capacity in the cool storage tank during charging period, and the cool discharge rate and the cool discharge capacity in the cool storage tank, the outlet water temperature in the cool storage tank and the outlet air temperature in room unit during discharging period are investigated. The experimental results show that the ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe can stably work during charging and discharging period. This indicates that the ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe is well adapted to cool storage air-conditioning systems in building. (author)

  11. Energy Performance Comparison of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems for Multi-Family Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing

    2011-07-31

    The type of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system has a large impact on the heating and cooling energy consumption in multifamily residential buildings. This paper compares the energy performance of three HVAC systems: a direct expansion (DX) split system, a split air source heat pump (ASHP) system, and a closed-loop water source heat pump (WSHP) system with a boiler and an evaporative fluid cooler as the central heating and cooling source. All three systems use gas furnace for heating or heating backup. The comparison is made in a number of scenarios including different climate conditions, system operation schemes and applicable building codes. It is found that with the minimum code-compliant equipment efficiency, ASHP performs the best among all scenarios except in extremely code climates. WSHP tends to perform better than the split DX system in cold climates but worse in hot climates.

  12. The feasibility study of the waste heat air-conditioning system for automobile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Gui-Ping; Yuan, Xiu-Gan; Mei, Zhi-Guang

    1994-06-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of application of a solid-absorption system using ammonia and chlorides as working pair to automobile air-conditioning system is investigated. This system has the advantages of minimum environmental problem and utilizing waste heat from the automobile engine as thermal energy input. Analyses show that the main problem associated with the application of solid-absorption system is the size of the reactors. Techniques to solve this problem are discussed.

  13. Phase 2 Brayton/Rankine 10-ton gas-fired space-conditioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-07-01

    The technical accomplishments to date in the design, development, and demonstration program leading to commercialization of a 10 ton heat actuated space conditioning system for light commercialization of a 10 ton heat actuated space conditioning system for light commercial building applications are summarized. The system consists of a natural gas powered Brayton cycle engine and a Rankine cycle heat pump, combined in a single roof top package. The heat actuated space conditioning system provides more efficient use of natural gas and is intended as an all gas alternative to the electric heat pump. The system employs a subatmospheric natural gas fired heat pump. A centrifugal R-12 refrigerant compressor is driven directly from the Brayton engine rotating group through a hermetically sealed coupling. Unique features that offer high life cycle performance include a permanent magnet coupling, foil bearings, an atmospheric in-line combustor, and a high temperature recuperator.

  14. An Expert Fault Diagnosis System for Vehicle Air Conditioning Product Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. F.; Tee, B. T.; Khalil, S. N.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G. W. M.

    2015-09-01

    The paper describes the development of the vehicle air-conditioning fault diagnosis system in automotive industries with expert system shell. The main aim of the research is to diagnose the problem of new vehicle air-conditioning system development process and select the most suitable solution to the problems. In the vehicle air-conditioning manufacturing industry, process can be very costly where an expert and experience personnel needed in certain circumstances. The expert of in the industry will retire or resign from time to time. When the expert is absent, their experience and knowledge is difficult to retrieve or lost forever. Expert system is a convenient method to replace expert. By replacing the expert with expert system, the accuracy of the processes will be increased compared to the conventional way. Therefore, the quality of product services that are produced will be finer and better. The inputs for the fault diagnosis are based on design data and experience of the engineer.

  15. Adaptation and Diversification of an RNA Replication System under Initiation- or Termination-Impaired Translational Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mizuuchi, Ryo; Ichihashi, Norikazu; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2016-07-01

    Adaptation to various environments is a remarkable characteristic of life. Is this limited to extant complex living organisms, or is it also possible for a simpler self-replication system to adapt? In this study, we addressed this question by using a translation-coupled RNA replication system that comprised a reconstituted translation system and an RNA "genome" that encoded a replicase gene. We performed RNA replication reactions under four conditions, under which different components of translation were partly inhibited. We found that replication efficiency increased with the number of rounds of replication under all the tested conditions. The types of dominant mutations differed depending on the condition, thus indicating that this simple system adapted to different environments in different ways. This suggests that even a primitive self-replication system composed of a small number of genes on the early earth could have had the ability to adapt to various environments. PMID:27038303

  16. NASA Ames three-dimensional potential flow analyses system (POTFAN) boundary condition code (BCDN), version 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. E.; Medan, R. T.

    1977-01-01

    This segment of the POTFAN system is used to generate right hand sides (boundary conditions) of the system of equations associated with the flow field under consideration. These specified flow boundary conditions are encountered in the oblique derivative boundary value problem (boundary value problem of the third kind) and contain the Neumann boundary condition as a special case. Arbitrary angle of attack and/or sideslip and/or rotation rates may be specified, as well as an arbitrary, nonuniform external flow field and the influence of prescribed singularity distributions.

  17. A nonlinear singular eigenvalue problem for a linear system of ordinary differential equations with redundant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, A. A.; Yukhno, L. F.

    2016-07-01

    A nonlinear eigenvalue problem for a linear system of ordinary differential equations is examined on a semi-infinite interval. The problem is supplemented by nonlocal conditions specified by a Stieltjes integral. At infinity, the solution must be bounded. In addition to these basic conditions, the solution must satisfy certain redundant conditions, which are also nonlocal. A numerically stable method for solving such a singular overdetermined eigenvalue problem is proposed and analyzed. The essence of the method is that this overdetermined problem is replaced by an auxiliary problem consistent with all the above conditions.

  18. Wettability from Capillarity of CO2-Brine-Rock Systems at Reservoir Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Menhali, Ali; Niu, Ben; Krevor, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    The wettability of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of carbon sequestration in subsurface geological formations. Recent contact angle measurement studies have reported sensitivity in wetting behaviour of this system to pressure, temperature and brine salinity. We report results of an investigation into the impact of reservoir conditions on wetting through direct observations of their impact on the capillary strength of the system. Eight capillary pressure characteristic curves were measured using CO2 and brine in a single fired Berea sandstone at pressures (5 to 20 MPa), temperatures (25 to 50 °C) and ionic strengths (0 to 5 M kg-1 NaCl) representative of subsurface reservoirs. A ninth measurement using an N2-water system provided a benchmark for capillarity with a strongly water wet system. The semi-dynamic capillary pressure core flooding technique was used with in situ saturation monitoring. In all cases, the capillarity of the system, scaled by the interfacial tension, were equivalent to the N2-water system within measurement uncertainty. Thus reservoir conditions did not have a significant impact on the capillary strength of the CO2-brine system through a variation in wetting. Two steady-state relative permeability measurements with CO2 and brine and one with N2 and brine similarly show little variation between conditions, consistent with the observation that the CO2-brine-sandstone system is strongly water wetting and invariant across a wide range of reservoir conditions.

  19. An overview of crop growing condition monitoring in China agriculture remote sensing monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qing; Zhou, Qing-bo; Zhang, Li

    2009-07-01

    China is a large agricultural country. To understand the agricultural production condition timely and accurately is related to government decision-making, agricultural production management and the general public concern. China Agriculture Remote Sensing Monitoring System (CHARMS) can monitor crop acreage changes, crop growing condition, agriculture disaster (drought, floods, frost damage, pest etc.) and predict crop yield etc. quickly and timely. The basic principles, methods and regular operation of crop growing condition monitoring in CHARMS are introduced in detail in the paper. CHARMS can monitor crop growing condition of wheat, corn, cotton, soybean and paddy rice with MODIS data. An improved NDVI difference model was used in crop growing condition monitoring in CHARMS. Firstly, MODIS data of every day were received and processed, and the max NDVI values of every fifteen days of main crop were generated, then, in order to assessment a certain crop growing condition in certain period (every fifteen days, mostly), the system compare the remote sensing index data (NDVI) of a certain period with the data of the period in the history (last five year, mostly), the difference between NDVI can indicate the spatial difference of crop growing condition at a certain period. Moreover, Meteorological data of temperature, precipitation and sunshine etc. as well as the field investigation data of 200 network counties were used to modify the models parameters. Last, crop growing condition was assessment at four different scales of counties, provinces, main producing areas and nation and spatial distribution maps of crop growing condition were also created.

  20. Invariance of decay rate with respect to boundary conditions in thermoelastic Timoshenko systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, M. S.; Jorge Silva, M. A.; Ma, T. F.; Muñoz Rivera, J. E.

    2016-06-01

    This paper is mainly concerned with the polynomial stability of a thermoelastic Timoshenko system recently introduced by Almeida Júnior et al. (Z Angew Math Phys 65(6):1233-1249, 2014) that proved, in the general case when equal wave speeds are not assumed, different polynomial decay rates depending on the boundary conditions, namely, optimal rate {t^{-1/2}} for mixed Dirichlet-Neumann boundary condition and rate {t^{-1/4}} for full Dirichlet boundary condition. Here, our main achievement is to prove the same polynomial decay rate {t^{-1/2}} (corresponding to the optimal one) independently of the boundary conditions, which improves the existing literature on the subject. As a complementary result, we also prove that the system is exponentially stable under equal wave speeds assumption. The technique employed here can probably be applied to other kind of thermoelastic systems.

  1. Prevalence of Chronic Medical Conditions among Inmates in the Texas Prison System

    PubMed Central

    Baillargeon, Jacques G.; Pruitt, Sandi L.; Pulvino, John S.; Paar, David P.; Kelley, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Given the rapid growth and aging of the US prison population in recent years, the disease profile and health care needs of inmates portend to have far-reaching public health implications. Although numerous studies have examined infectious disease prevalence and treatment in incarcerated populations, little is known about the prevalence of non-infectious chronic medical conditions in US prison populations. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of selected non-infectious chronic medical conditions among inmates in the Texas prison system. The study population consisted of the total census of inmates who were incarcerated in the Texas Department of Criminal Justice for any duration from September 1, 2006 through August 31, 2007 (N = 234,031). Information on medical diagnoses was obtained from a system-wide electronic medical record system. Overall crude prevalence estimates for the selected conditions were as follows: hypertension, 18.8%; asthma, 5.4%; diabetes, 4.2%; ischemic heart disease, 1.7%; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 0.96%; and cerebrovascular disease, 0.23%. Nearly one quarter (24.5%) of the study population had at least one of the selected conditions. Except for asthma, crude prevalence estimates of the selected conditions increased monotonically with age. Nearly two thirds (64.6%) of inmates who were ≥55 years of age had at least one of the selected conditions. Except for diabetes, crude prevalence estimates for the selected conditions were lower among Hispanic inmates than among non-Hispanic White inmates and African American inmates. Although age-standardized prevalence estimates for the selected conditions did not appear to exceed age-standardized estimates from the US general population, a large number of inmates were affected by one or more of these conditions. As the prison population continues to grow and to age, the burden of these conditions on correctional and community health care systems can be expected to

  2. Performance evaluation of automated fingerprint identification systems for specific conditions observed in casework using simulated fingermarks.

    PubMed

    de Jongh, Arent; Rodriguez, Crystal M

    2012-07-01

    Few studies have been reported on the performance evaluation of automated fingerprint identification systems (AFIS) for fingermark-to-fingerprint comparisons. This paper aims to illustrate to fingerprint examiners the relevance of evaluating the AFIS performance under specific conditions by carrying out five types of performance tests. The conditions addressed are the number of minutiae assigned to a fingermark, manual and automatic assignment of the minutiae, the finger region from which the fingermark originates, the degree of distortion in the fingermark, and the difference in orientation between fingermarks and fingerprints. In these tests, the magnitude of the influence for each condition was quantified. The comparisons were performed using a research AFIS technology with simulated fingermarks. Simulated fingermarks provide a practical way to create fingermarks for specific conditions in large quantities. The results showed that each condition influences the performance significantly, emphasizing the relevance of developing, and applying performance tests for specific conditions. PMID:22458701

  3. Aircraft Abnormal Conditions Detection, Identification, and Evaluation Using Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Azzawi, Dia

    Abnormal flight conditions play a major role in aircraft accidents frequently causing loss of control. To ensure aircraft operation safety in all situations, intelligent system monitoring and adaptation must rely on accurately detecting the presence of abnormal conditions as soon as they take place, identifying their root cause(s), estimating their nature and severity, and predicting their impact on the flight envelope. Due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the aircraft system under abnormal conditions, these requirements are extremely difficult to satisfy using existing analytical and/or statistical approaches. Moreover, current methodologies have addressed only isolated classes of abnormal conditions and a reduced number of aircraft dynamic parameters within a limited region of the flight envelope. This research effort aims at developing an integrated and comprehensive framework for the aircraft abnormal conditions detection, identification, and evaluation based on the artificial immune systems paradigm, which has the capability to address the complexity and multidimensionality issues related to aircraft systems. Within the proposed framework, a novel algorithm was developed for the abnormal conditions detection problem and extended to the abnormal conditions identification and evaluation. The algorithm and its extensions were inspired from the functionality of the biological dendritic cells (an important part of the innate immune system) and their interaction with the different components of the adaptive immune system. Immunity-based methodologies for re-assessing the flight envelope at post-failure and predicting the impact of the abnormal conditions on the performance and handling qualities are also proposed and investigated in this study. The generality of the approach makes it applicable to any system. Data for artificial immune system development were collected from flight tests of a supersonic research aircraft within a motion-based flight

  4. 20 CFR 654.403 - Conditional access to the intrastate or interstate clearance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Conditional access to the intrastate or interstate clearance system. 654.403 Section 654.403 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Purpose and Applicability §...

  5. A laser Doppler system for the remote sensing of boundary layer winds in clear air conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, T. R.; Krause, M. C.; Craven, C. E.; Morrison, L. K.; Thomson, J. A. L.; Cliff, W. C.; Huffaker, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    The system discussed uses a laser Doppler radar in combination with a velocity azimuth display mode of scanning to determine the three-dimensional wind field in the atmospheric boundary layer. An attractive feature of this CW monostatic system is that the ambient aerosol provides a 'sufficient' scattering target to permit operation under clear air conditions. Spatial resolution is achieved by focusing.

  6. An ECG Lab Project for Teaching Signal Conditioning Systems in a Master's Degree in Mechatronic Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martín, Francisco Javier Ferrero; Martínez, Alberto López; Llopis, Marta Valledor; Rodriguez, Juan Carlos Campo; Viejo, Cecilio Blanco; Vershinin, Yuri A.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing technological progress in measurement systems triggered the development of an in­novative, hands-on teaching program to help students toward a fuller understanding of recent changes in the field. This paper presents a lab project that links theoretical principles with the practical issues of signal conditioning systems. This is…

  7. Operation of a phase locked loop system under distorted utility conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaura, V.; Blasko, V.

    1997-01-01

    Operation of a phase locked loop (PLL) system under distorted utility conditions is presented. A control model of the PLL system is developed and recommendations are made on tuning of this model specially for operation under common utility distortions as line notching, voltage unbalance/loss, frequency variations. The PLL is completely implemented in software without any filters. All analytical results are experimentally verified.

  8. Improving Students' Chinese Writing Abilities in Taiwan with the "Conditioned Writing System"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yuan-Chen; Lee, Wan-Chun; Huang, Tzu-Hua; Hsieh, Hsiao-Mei

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates students' performance while writing Chinese essays using an interactive online writing system. Participants include students from two seventh-grade classes of a junior high school in Taoyuan County, Taiwan. The experimental group uses the conditioned writing interactive online system, while the control group receives…

  9. LINKING ETA MODEL WITH THE COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODELING SYSTEM: OZONE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype surface ozone concentration forecasting model system for the Eastern U.S. has been developed. The model system is consisting of a regional meteorological and a regional air quality model. It demonstrated a strong prediction dependence on its ozone boundary conditions....

  10. Design of a test facility for gas-fired desiccant-based air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.A.; Steele, W.G.; Hodge, B.K.

    1996-12-31

    The design of a facility for testing desiccant-based air conditioning systems is presented. The determination of the performance parameters of desiccant systems is discussed including moisture removal capacity, latent and total cooling capacities, and efficiency indexes. The appropriate procedures and key measurements for determining these parameters are identified using uncertainty analysis.

  11. 76 FR 14795 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System Mode...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... December 13, 2010 (75 FR 77569). Only one comment was received. Clarification of Conditions That Should Be...; Electronic Flight Control System Mode Annunciation. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate...

  12. 30 CFR 260.111 - What conditions apply to the bidding systems that MMS uses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What conditions apply to the bidding systems that MMS uses? 260.111 Section 260.111 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF OIL AND GAS LEASING Bidding Systems General Provisions § 260.111...

  13. Application of the comparison principle to analysis of nonlinear systems. [using Lipschitz condition and differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunderson, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison principle based on a Kamke theorem and Lipschitz conditions is presented along with its possible applications and modifications. It is shown that the comparison lemma can be used in the study of such areas as classical stability theory, higher order trajectory derivatives, Liapunov functions, boundary value problems, approximate dynamic systems, linear and nonlinear systems, and bifurcation analysis.

  14. 78 FR 73995 - Special Conditions: Cessna Model 680 Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Cessna Model 680 series airplanes. These airplanes will have novel or unusual design features associated with connectivity of the passenger service computer systems to the airplane critical systems and data networks. The network architecture is composed of several connected networks including the following: 1. Flight-Safety related control and......

  15. Highly aligned lipid membrane systems in the physiologically relevant "excess water" condition.

    PubMed Central

    Katsaras, J

    1997-01-01

    The "excess water" condition in biologically relevant systems is met when a membrane mesophase coexists with excess bulk water. Further addition of water to such a system results in no change to any of the system's physical properties (e.g., transition temperature, repeat spacing, and structural mesophases). Moreover, because biological membranes are anisotropic systems, many of their properties are best studied using aligned samples. Although model membrane systems are routinely aligned, they have traditionally been hydrated with water vapor. It is well known that membranes exposed to water vapor at 100% humidity do not imbibe the same quantity of water as a sample in contact with liquid water. As such, membranes that have been hydrated with water vapor have physical properties different from those of membranes dispersed in water. Because of this shortcoming, aligned membranes have not been utilized to their full potential. Here we present a novel and simple method of aligning model membrane systems under conditions of excess water, which will make possible, for the first time, a variety of techniques (e.g., neutron and x-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron spin resonance, attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy, etc.) for studying such systems under physiologically relevant conditions. In addition, when dealing with samples of limited availability, the system allows for the conditions (buffer pH and ionic strength) to be altered without any effect on the sample's alignment. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:9414206

  16. Circulation within the primary system at TMI-2 with lowered coolant level and at atmospheric conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Baston, V.F.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Malinauskas, A.P.

    1985-06-01

    Experiments were performed with the Three Mile Island reactor coolant system open to the atmosphere and the coolant lowered to a level above the fuel (a condition required for defueling) to ascertain the extent of coolant mixing. A principal concern for coolant decontamination during defueling is the radionuclides released and their distribution within the primary system. Analyses of radionuclide, temperature, and dissolved oxygen data taken during these experiments confirm mixing in the primary system under forced coolant flow conditions with only minimal mixing occurring during static periods.

  17. NASA-Langley Research Center's Aircraft Condition Analysis and Management System Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Mark W.; Bailey, Roger M.; Jessup, Artie D.

    2004-01-01

    This document describes the hardware implementation design and architecture of Aeronautical Radio Incorporated (ARINC)'s Aircraft Condition Analysis and Management System (ACAMS), which was developed at NASA-Langley Research Center (LaRC) for use in its Airborne Research Integrated Experiments System (ARIES) Laboratory. This activity is part of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention (SAAP) project to develop safety-enabling technologies for aircraft and airborne systems. The fundamental intent of these technologies is to allow timely intervention or remediation to improve unsafe conditions before they become life threatening.

  18. Towards energy efficient operation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems via advanced supervisory control design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswiecinska, A.; Hibbs, J.; Zajic, I.; Burnham, K. J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents conceptual control solution for reliable and energy efficient operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used in large volume building applications, e.g. warehouse facilities or exhibition centres. Advanced two-level scalable control solution, designed to extend capabilities of the existing low-level control strategies via remote internet connection, is presented. The high-level, supervisory controller is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) architecture, which is the state-of-the-art for indoor climate control systems. The innovative approach benefits from using passive heating and cooling control strategies for reducing the HVAC system operational costs, while ensuring that required environmental conditions are met.

  19. Influence of Ventilation Ratio on Desiccant Air Conditioning System's Efficiency Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Thien Nha; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao; Hamamoto, Yoshinori

    Ventilation air is a concern for engineers since ventilated air controls indoor air contamination; additional ventilation, however, increases the energy consumption of buildings. The study investigates the energy efficiency performance of the desiccant dehumidification air conditioning system in the context of ventilation for a hot-humid climate such as summer in Japan. The investigation focuses on the variable ratio of ventilation air as required by the application of air conditioning system. The COP of the desiccant air conditioning system is determined. The evaluation is subsequently performed by comparing the desiccant based system with the conventional absorption cooling system and the vapor compression cooling system. Based on 12 desiccant rotor simulations, it is found that the desiccant regeneration temperature required varies between 47°C to 85°C as ventilation ratio increases from 0. 0 to 100%, and up to 52. 5°C as the ventilation ratio achieves 14%. The heat required for regenerating desiccant accounts for 55% and higher of the system's total heat consumption; the system is expected to be energy efficient by using wasted heat from the absorption chiller for desiccant regeneration; and its energy efficiency expands as the ratio of ventilation air rises above 15% compared with the conventional absorption cooling system. The energy efficiency also benefits as the ratio rises beyond 70% against the conventional vapor compression cooling system.

  20. Study on the Efficient Drive of a Desiccant Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jong-Soo; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Sunao

    This paper constructs the static simulation model of a desiccant air conditioning system and gives the guidelines for the efficient drive of the desiccant air conditioning system. The desiccant air conditioning system is composed of a desiccant wheel, a heat exchanger, two evaporative coolers and a heater. The process air and regeneration air are supplied to this system. The desiccant is Silica gel. In the simulation model, two-dimensional model in space is adopted for the desiccant wheel. As the simulation result, it is clarified that optimum outlet temperature of the regeneration air in the heater, rotational speed of the desiccant wheel, the rejected air flow rate of the regeneration air, the process and regeneration air flow rate that maximize COP exist. For example, in case that the regeneration temperature is 63°C and relative humidity is 55% maximum COP is about 0.62.

  1. Structural Conditions for Collaboration and Learning in Innovation Networks: Using an Innovation System Performance Lens to Analyse Agricultural Knowledge Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermans, Frans; Klerkx, Laurens; Roep, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We investigate how the structural conditions of eight different European agricultural innovation systems can facilitate or hinder collaboration and social learning in multidisciplinary innovation networks. Methodology: We have adapted the Innovation System Failure Matrix to investigate the main barriers and enablers eight countries…

  2. Total environmental warming impact (TEWI) calculations for alternative automative air-conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The Montreal Protocol phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has required manufacturers to develop refrigeration and air-conditioning systems that use refrigerants that can not damage stratospheric ozone. Most refrigeration industries have adapted their designs to use hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) or hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants; new automobile air- conditioning systems use HFC-134a. These industries are now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants on global warming. Automobile air-conditioning has three separate impacts on global warming; (1) the effects of refrigerant inadvertently released to the atmosphere from accidents, servicing, and leakage; (2) the efficiency of the cooling equipment (due to the emission of C0{sub 2} from burning fuel to power the system); and (3) the emission of C0{sub 2} from burning fuel to transport the system. The Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) is an index that should be used to compare the global warming effects of alternative air-conditioning systems because it includes these contributions from the refrigerant, cooling efficiency, and weight. This paper compares the TEWI of current air-conditioning systems using HFC-134a with that of transcritical vapor compression system using carbon dioxide and systems using flammable refrigerants with secondary heat transfer loops. Results are found to depend on both climate and projected efficiency of C0{sub 2}systems. Performance data on manufacturing prototype systems are needed to verify the potential reductions in TEWI. Extensive field testing is also required to determine the performance, reliability, and ``serviceability`` of each alternative to HFC-134a to establish whether the potential reduction of TEWI can be achieved in a viable consumer product.

  3. Consensus tracking of linear multi-agent systems under networked observability conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, Miao; Duan, Zhisheng; Wen, Guanghui

    2014-08-01

    This paper addresses the consensus tracking problem for both continuous- and discrete-time linear multi-agent systems with a dynamic leader under networked observability conditions. Among followers, the communication topology is assumed to be undirected and connected. Two networked observability conditions are introduced and discussed. The first one extends the traditional detectability condition for a single system, while the second one is a full rank condition, which is stronger than the first one. In the continuous-time case, two distributed observer-based protocols are designed under corresponding networked observability conditions, respectively. Specifically, the second protocol is an adaptive one, which has a better robustness performance than the first one. In the discrete-time case, a distributed observer-based protocol is presented under the full rank networked observability condition. It is found that under the networked observability conditions, consensus tracking can still be achieved even if there exists no follower being able to track the leader independently. Based on algebraic graph theory and Lyapunov stability theory, some sufficient conditions are derived for reaching consensus tracking. Finally, simulation examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of theoretical results.

  4. Potential emission savings from refrigeration and air conditioning systems by using low GWP refrigerants

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Beshr, Mohamed; Aute, Vikrant; Abdelaziz, Omar; Fricke, Brian; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2016-08-24

    Refrigeration and air conditioning systems have high, negative environmental impacts due to refrigerant charge leaks from the system and their corresponding high global warming potential. Thus, many efforts are in progress to obtain suitable low GWP alternative refrigerants and more environmentally friendly systems for the future. In addition, the system’s life cycle climate performance (LCCP) is a widespread metric proposed for the evaluation of the system’s environmental impact.

  5. Conditional statistical properties of the complex systems having long-duration memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhifu; Ou, Congjie; Lin, Bihong; Su, Guozhen; Chen, Jincan

    2014-09-01

    A new concept of the available force is proposed to investigate the performance of the complex systems having long-duration memory. Since the covariance of average velocity in double time interval and available force equals zero, it is possible to calculate the conditional probability distribution function (CPDF) within the systems. It is found that the asymmetric CPDF of the velocity between two adjacent time intervals can be derived from the symmetrical CPDF between the available force and the double time interval velocity. Two typical currency exchange databases, i.e., EUR/USD and GBP/USD, which collect the minutely opening exchange prices from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2011, are adopted as examples. It is found that the analytical CPDF needs only six parameters for an arbitrary system. By calculating the CPDF in the currency exchange databases, it is shown that the results are well fitted by our analytical expression. The analytical CPDF can also be used to calculate the conditional expectation and the conditional variance of velocity. Interestingly, the two databases show that the conditional expectation of the velocity between two adjacent time intervals is not monotonic, while the conditional variance tends to monotonic. All of these results are well described by our theory. It is worthwhile to note that the analytical CPDF is a general expression. It is valid not only for current exchange systems but also for any complex systems having long-duration memory.

  6. Robust Road Condition Detection System Using In-Vehicle Standard Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Castillo Aguilar, Juan Jesús; Cabrera Carrillo, Juan Antonio; Guerra Fernández, Antonio Jesús; Carabias Acosta, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The appearance of active safety systems, such as Anti-lock Braking System, Traction Control System, Stability Control System, etc., represents a major evolution in road safety. In the automotive sector, the term vehicle active safety systems refers to those whose goal is to help avoid a crash or to reduce the risk of having an accident. These systems safeguard us, being in continuous evolution and incorporating new capabilities continuously. In order for these systems and vehicles to work adequately, they need to know some fundamental information: the road condition on which the vehicle is circulating. This early road detection is intended to allow vehicle control systems to act faster and more suitably, thus obtaining a substantial advantage. In this work, we try to detect the road condition the vehicle is being driven on, using the standard sensors installed in commercial vehicles. Vehicle models were programmed in on-board systems to perform real-time estimations of the forces of contact between the wheel and road and the speed of the vehicle. Subsequently, a fuzzy logic block is used to obtain an index representing the road condition. Finally, an artificial neural network was used to provide the optimal slip for each surface. Simulations and experiments verified the proposed method. PMID:26703605

  7. Robust Road Condition Detection System Using In-Vehicle Standard Sensors.

    PubMed

    Castillo Aguilar, Juan Jesús; Cabrera Carrillo, Juan Antonio; Guerra Fernández, Antonio Jesús; Carabias Acosta, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The appearance of active safety systems, such as Anti-lock Braking System, Traction Control System, Stability Control System, etc., represents a major evolution in road safety. In the automotive sector, the term vehicle active safety systems refers to those whose goal is to help avoid a crash or to reduce the risk of having an accident. These systems safeguard us, being in continuous evolution and incorporating new capabilities continuously. In order for these systems and vehicles to work adequately, they need to know some fundamental information: the road condition on which the vehicle is circulating. This early road detection is intended to allow vehicle control systems to act faster and more suitably, thus obtaining a substantial advantage. In this work, we try to detect the road condition the vehicle is being driven on, using the standard sensors installed in commercial vehicles. Vehicle models were programmed in on-board systems to perform real-time estimations of the forces of contact between the wheel and road and the speed of the vehicle. Subsequently, a fuzzy logic block is used to obtain an index representing the road condition. Finally, an artificial neural network was used to provide the optimal slip for each surface. Simulations and experiments verified the proposed method. PMID:26703605

  8. Series-connected shaded modules to address partial shading conditions in SPV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareek, Smita; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-03-01

    With the progress of technology and reduced cost of PV cells, the PV systems are being installed in many countries, including India. Even though this method of power generation has sufficient potential but its effective utilization is still lacking. This is because the output power of PV cells depends on many factors like insolation, temperature, climate conditions prevailing nearby, aging, using modules from different technologies/manufacturers or partial shading conditions. Among these factors, partial shading causes major reduction in output power despite the size of PV systems. As a result, the produced power is lower than the expected value. The connection of modules to each other has great impact on output power if they are prone to partial shading conditions. In this paper, PV arrays are investigated under partial shading conditions. The results show that partial shading losses can be minimized by connecting shaded modules in series rather than in parallel.

  9. Precise Astronomical Azimuth Determination By Qdaedalus System to the Sun, Moon, and Planets in Daytime Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völgyesi, L.; Tóth, G.; Bürki, B.; Guillaume, S.

    2014-12-01

    The traditional method of astronomical azimuth determination involves measurements at night to stars (Polaris). QDAEDALUS, developed by the team of the Geodesy and Geodynamics Lab (GGL, led by Prof. M. Rothacher) of ETH Zürich is a unique system combining Total Stations and modern CCD technique. It provides precise astronomical azimuths within 15 minutes of observation time at night. Furthermore, observations in daytime conditions are a challenging requirement in practice of Astro-geodetic azimuth determination. In order to perform daylight measurements, the QDAEDALUS system has been improved by allowing precise azimuth measurements to Sun, Moon, and Planets in daylight conditions by expanding the processing software with precise solar, lunar, and planetary ephemerides. With such functionality the system has a unique capability to measure astronomical azimuths with an accuracy of 0.3-0.5 arcsecs in normal daylight conditions within 20 to 25 minutes of measurement time.

  10. Decoupling the Stationary Navier-Stokes-Darcy System with the Beavers-Joseph-Saffman Interface Condition

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cao, Yong; Chu, Yuchuan; He, Xiaoming; Wei, Mingzhen

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a domain decomposition method for the coupled stationary Navier-Stokes and Darcy equations with the Beavers-Joseph-Saffman interface condition in order to improve the efficiency of the finite element method. The physical interface conditions are directly utilized to construct the boundary conditions on the interface and then decouple the Navier-Stokes and Darcy equations. Newton iteration will be used to deal with the nonlinear systems. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the features of the proposed method.

  11. Pavement-management system for concrete roadways in Virginia. Phase 1. Condition ratings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Long, R.R.

    1988-04-01

    The report traces the development of a rating system for evaluating the service condition of Virginia's portland-cement concrete pavements. The service condition is assessed in terms of distress roughness, i.e., that portion of a pavement's poor-ride characteristics directly attributable to the occurrence of certain key distress types. Field surveys of the occurrence of these distresses provide the necessary data for estimating distress roughness through the use of prediction equations that have been established from the standard statistical analysis of pavement-section distress data and roughness measurements. Distress measurements and their corresponding ratings and a condition survey rating procedure are appended.

  12. Method and system for controlling a permanent magnet machine during fault conditions

    DOEpatents

    Krefta, Ronald John; Walters, James E.; Gunawan, Fani S.

    2004-05-25

    Method and system for controlling a permanent magnet machine driven by an inverter is provided. The method allows for monitoring a signal indicative of a fault condition. The method further allows for generating during the fault condition a respective signal configured to maintain a field weakening current even though electrical power from an energy source is absent during said fault condition. The level of the maintained field-weakening current enables the machine to operate in a safe mode so that the inverter is protected from excess voltage.

  13. Antenna gain of actively compensated free-space optical communication systems under strong turbulence conditions.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Juan C; Brown, David M; Young, David W

    2014-05-19

    Current Strehl ratio models for actively compensated free-space optical communications terminals do not accurately predict system performance under strong turbulence conditions as they are based on weak turbulence theory. For evaluation of compensated systems, we present an approach for simulating the Strehl ratio with both low-order (tip/tilt) and higher-order (adaptive optics) correction. Our simulation results are then compared to the published models and their range of turbulence validity is assessed. Finally, we propose a new Strehl ratio model and antenna gain equation that are valid for general turbulence conditions independent of the degree of compensation. PMID:24921373

  14. Impact of power conditioning on the life of nuclear plant auxiliary system equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, B.; Behera, A.K.; Beck, C.E.; Alsammarae, A.J.

    1996-06-01

    A program is presented for prolonging the useful life of major equipment used in the auxiliary distribution systems of nuclear generating plants, with a focus on power quality and power conditioning. Both reactive power compensation and control of power quality have a significant impact on the life of electrical equipment. Improvements result from reduced operating temperatures, from systematic load reduction in the distribution system, and from reductions in phase imbalances and harmonics. This paper focuses on the impact of power conditioning on the life of transformers, cables, breakers, motors, and solenoids.

  15. Hypersaline Microbial Systems of Sabkhas: Examples of Life's Survival in "Extreme" Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumbein, Wolfgang Elisabeth; Gorbushina, Anna A.; Holtkamp-Tacken, Elisabeth

    2004-12-01

    Life and living systems need several important factors to establish themselves and to have a continued tradition. In this article the nature of the borderline situation for microbial life under heavy salt stress is analyzed and discussed using the example of biofilms and microbial mats of sabkha systems of the Red Sea. Important factors ruling such environments are described, and include the following: (1) Microbial life is better suited for survival in extremely changing and only sporadically water-supplied environments than are larger organisms (including humans). (2) Microbial life shows extremely poikilophilic adaptation patterns to conditions that deviate significantly from conditions normal for life processes on Earth today. (3) Microbial life adapts itself to such extremely changing and only ephemerally supportive conditions by the capacity of extreme changes (a) in morphology (pleomorphy), (b) in metabolic patterns (poikilotrophy), (c) in survival strategies (poikilophily), and (d) by trapping and enclosing all necessary sources of energy matter in an inwardly oriented diffusive cycle. All this is achieved without any serious attempt at escaping from the extreme and extremely changing conditions. Furthermore, these salt swamp systems are geophysiological generators of energy and material reservoirs recycled over a geological time scale. Neither energy nor material is wasted for propagation by spore formation. This capacity is summarized as poikilophilic and poikilotroph behavior of biofilm or microbial mat communities in salt and irradiationstressed environmental conditions of the sabkha or salt desert type. We use mainly cyanobacteria as an example, although other bacteria and even eukaryotic fungi may exhibit the same potential of living and surviving under conditions usually not suitable for life on Earth. It may, however, be postulated that such poikilophilic organisms are the true candidates for life support and survival under conditions never recorded

  16. Hypersaline microbial systems of sabkhas: examples of life's survival in "extreme" conditions.

    PubMed

    Krumbein, Wolfgang Elisabeth; Gorbushina, Anna A; Holtkamp-Tacken, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    Life and living systems need several important factors to establish themselves and to have a continued tradition. In this article the nature of the borderline situation for microbial life under heavy salt stress is analyzed and discussed using the example of biofilms and microbial mats of sabkha systems of the Red Sea. Important factors ruling such environments are described, and include the following: (1) Microbial life is better suited for survival in extremely changing and only sporadically water-supplied environments than are larger organisms (including humans). (2) Microbial life shows extremely poikilophilic adaptation patterns to conditions that deviate significantly from conditions normal for life processes on Earth today. (3) Microbial life adapts itself to such extremely changing and only ephemerally supportive conditions by the capacity of extreme changes (a) in morphology (pleomorphy), (b) in metabolic patterns (poikilotrophy), (c) in survival strategies (poikilophily), and (d) by trapping and enclosing all necessary sources of energy matter in an inwardly oriented diffusive cycle. All this is achieved without any serious attempt at escaping from the extreme and extremely changing conditions. Furthermore, these salt swamp systems are geophysiological generators of energy and material reservoirs recycled over a geological time scale. Neither energy nor material is wasted for propagation by spore formation. This capacity is summarized as poikilophilic and poikilotroph behavior of biofilm or microbial mat communities in salt and irradiationstressed environmental conditions of the sabkha or salt desert type. We use mainly cyanobacteria as an example, although other bacteria and even eukaryotic fungi may exhibit the same potential of living and surviving under conditions usually not suitable for life on Earth. It may, however, be postulated that such poikilophilic organisms are the true candidates for life support and survival under conditions never recorded

  17. Modulation of cannabinoid signaling by hippocampal 5-HT4 serotonergic system in fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Farrahizadeh, Maryam; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-09-01

    Behavioral studies have suggested a key role for the cannabinoid system in the modulation of conditioned fear memory. Likewise, much of the literature has revealed that the serotonergic system affects Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction. A high level of functional overlap between the serotonin and cannabinoid systems has also been reported. To clarify the interaction between the hippocampal serotonin (5-HT4) receptor and the cannabinoid CB1 receptor in the acquisition of fear memory, the effects of 5-HT4 agents, arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA; CB1 receptor agonist), and the combined use of these drugs on fear learning were studied in a fear conditioning task in adult male NMRI mice. Pre-training intraperitoneal administration of ACPA (0.1 mg/kg) decreased the percentage of freezing time in both context- and tone-dependent fear conditions, suggesting impairment of the acquisition of fear memory. Pre-training, intra-hippocampal (CA1) microinjection of RS67333, a 5-HT4 receptor agonist, at doses of 0.1 and 0.2 or 0.2 µg/mouse impaired contextual and tone fear memory, respectively. A subthreshold dose of RS67333 (0.005 µg/mouse) did not alter the ACPA response in either condition. Moreover, intra-CA1 microinjection of RS23597 as a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist did not alter context-dependent fear memory acquisition, but it did impair tone-dependent fear memory acquisition. However, a subthreshold dose of the RS23597 (0.01 µg/mouse) potentiated ACPA-induced fear memory impairment in both conditions. Therefore, we suggest that the blockade of hippocampal 5-HT4 serotonergic system modulates cannabinoid signaling induced by the activation of CB1 receptors in conditioned fear. PMID:27296273

  18. Methods for locating ground faults and insulation degradation condition in energy conversion systems

    DOEpatents

    Agamy, Mohamed; Elasser, Ahmed; Galbraith, Anthony William; Harfman Todorovic, Maja

    2015-08-11

    Methods for determining a ground fault or insulation degradation condition within energy conversion systems are described. A method for determining a ground fault within an energy conversion system may include, in part, a comparison of baseline waveform of differential current to a waveform of differential current during operation for a plurality of DC current carrying conductors in an energy conversion system. A method for determining insulation degradation within an energy conversion system may include, in part, a comparison of baseline frequency spectra of differential current to a frequency spectra of differential current transient at start-up for a plurality of DC current carrying conductors in an energy conversion system. In one embodiment, the energy conversion system may be a photovoltaic system.

  19. System design and analysis of the trans-critical carbon-dioxide automotive air-conditioning system.

    PubMed

    Mu, Jing-Yang; Chen, Jiang-Ping; Chen, Zhi-Jiu

    2003-01-01

    As an environmentally harmless and feasible alternate refrigerant, CO2 has attracted worldwide attention, especially in the area of automobile air-conditioning (AAC). The thermal property of CO2 and its trans-critical refrigeration cycle is very different from that of the traditional CFC or HCFC system. The detailed process of CO2 system thermal cycle design and optimization is described in this paper. System prototype and performance test bench were developed to analyze the performance of the CO2 AAC system. PMID:12765284

  20. Condition Assessment and End-of-Life Prediction System for Electric Machines and Their Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Toliyat, Hamid A.

    2005-01-01

    An end-of-life prediction system developed for electric machines and their loads could be used in integrated vehicle health monitoring at NASA and in other government agencies. This system will provide on-line, real-time condition assessment and end-of-life prediction of electric machines (e.g., motors, generators) and/or their loads of mechanically coupled machinery (e.g., pumps, fans, compressors, turbines, conveyor belts, magnetic levitation trains, and others). In long-duration space flight, the ability to predict the lifetime of machinery could spell the difference between mission success or failure. Therefore, the system described here may be of inestimable value to the U.S. space program. The system will provide continuous monitoring for on-line condition assessment and end-of-life prediction as opposed to the current off-line diagnoses.

  1. Fiber Bragg grating microphone system for condition-based maintenance of industrial facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, D.; Olivero, M.; Perrone, G.; Vallan, A.

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a multipoint fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing system operating as a precision microphone. This instrument aims to become the best performing technology for condition-based maintenance (CBM) of critical elements, like ball bearings and cogwheels, embedded in industrial manufacturing machineries. The system architecture is based on the simple matched-laser principle, leading to a low-cost and high-sensitivity system, operating in time and wavelength multiplexing mode. Then, heavy signal processing is applied, providing an outstanding performance improvement of 59 dB in terms of signal-to-noise ratio. A demonstration of condition-based maintenance operation has been performed using standard models of ball bearing sound spectra. Compared to traditional microphones applied to CBM, the signal processing-powered FBG system provides remarkable advantages in terms of sensitivity and rejection of environment noise, providing an improvement of cost-effectiveness of CBM.

  2. Investigation on the choice of boundary conditions and shape functions for flexible multi-body system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ke-Qi; Liu, Jin-Yang

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this investigation is to examine the correctness and efficiency of the choice of boundary conditions when using assumed mode approach to simulate flexible multi-body systems. The displacement field due to deformation is approximated by the Rayleigh-Ritz assumed modes in floating frame of reference (FFR) formulation. The deformations obtained by the absolute nodal coordinate (ANC) formulation which are transformed by two sets of reference coordinates are introduced as a criterion to verify the accuracy of the simulation results by using the FFR formulation. The relationship between the deformations obtained from different boundary conditions is revealed. Numerical simulation examples demonstrate that the assumed modes with cantilevered-free, simply-supported and free-free boundary conditions without inclusion of rigid body modes are suitable for simulation of flexible multi-body system with large over all motion, and the same physical deformation can be obtained using those mode functions, differ only by a coordinate transformation. It is also shown that when using mode shapes with statically indeterminate boundary conditions, significant error may occur. Furthermore, the slider crank mechanism with rigid crank is accurate enough for investigating boundary condition problem of flexible multi-body system, which cost significant less simulating time. The project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (10872126) and the Research Fund of the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20100073110007).

  3. The Minitron system for growth of small plants under controlled environment conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akers, Carolyn P.; Akers, Stuart W.; Mitchell, Cary A.

    1985-01-01

    The design and operation of a system is described in which small plants can be grown under controlled environment conditions. Important features of this 'Minitron' system include precise control of temperature and CO2 concentration in a flowing atmosphere. Plants can be grown either hydroponically or in solid root support medium. For either culture method, nutrient solution or water is added from an external reservoir, altering neither atmospheric composition nor temperature equilibrium within a closed Minitron chamber.

  4. The microbiological quality of air improves when using air conditioning systems in cars

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Because of better comfort, air conditioning systems are a common feature in automobiles these days. However, its impact on the number of particles and microorganisms inside the vehicle - and by this its impact on the risk of an allergic reaction - is yet unknown. Methods Over a time period of 30 months, the quality of air was investigated in three different types of cars (VW Passat, VW Polo FSI, Seat Alhambra) that were all equipped with a automatic air conditioning system. Operation modes using fresh air from outside the car as well as circulating air from inside the car were examined. The total number of microorganisms and the number of mold spores were measured by impaction in a high flow air sampler. Particles of 0.5 to 5.0 μm diameter were counted by a laser particle counter device. Results Overall 32 occasions of sampling were performed. The concentration of microorganisms outside the cars was always higher than it was inside the cars. Few minutes after starting the air conditioning system the total number of microorganisms was reduced by 81.7%, the number of mold spores was reduced by 83.3%, and the number of particles was reduced by 87.8%. There were no significant differences neither between the types of cars nor between the types of operation mode of the air conditioning system (fresh air vs. circulating air). All parameters that were looked for in this study improved during utilization of the car's air conditioning system. Conclusions We believe that the risk of an allergic reaction will be reduced during use also. Nevertheless, we recommend regular maintenance of the system and replacement of older filters after defined changing intervals. PMID:20515449

  5. Custom uniform source system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balcom, John L.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose and scope of this final report is to provide information on the Custom Uniform Source System (CSTM-USS-4000). The report includes documentation and summaries of the results for the work performed under the contract. The Annex contain laboratory test findings, photographs, and drawings of the sphere system.

  6. Solar Absorption Refrigeration System for Air-Conditioning of a Classroom Building in Northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Tanmay; Varun; Kumar, Anoop

    2015-10-01

    Air-conditioning is a basic tool to provide human thermal comfort in a building space. The primary aim of the present work is to design an air-conditioning system based on vapour absorption cycle that utilizes a renewable energy source for its operation. The building under consideration is a classroom of dimensions 18.5 m × 13 m × 4.5 m located in Hamirpur district of Himachal Pradesh in India. For this purpose, cooling load of the building was calculated first by using cooling load temperature difference method to estimate cooling capacity of the air-conditioning system. Coefficient of performance of the refrigeration system was computed for various values of strong and weak solution concentration. In this work, a solar collector is also designed to provide required amount of heat energy by the absorption system. This heat energy is taken from solar energy which makes this system eco-friendly and sustainable. A computer program was written in MATLAB to calculate the design parameters. Results were obtained for various values of solution concentrations throughout the year. Cost analysis has also been carried out to compare absorption refrigeration system with conventional vapour compression cycle based air-conditioners.

  7. Impact of the electric compressor for automotive air conditioning system on fuel consumption and performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifli, A. A.; Dahlan, A. A.; Zulkifli, A. H.; Nasution, H.; Aziz, A. A.; Perang, M. R. M.; Jamil, H. M.; Misseri, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Air conditioning system is the biggest auxiliary load in a vehicle where the compressor consumed the largest. Problem with conventional compressor is the cooling capacity cannot be control directly to fulfill the demand of thermal load inside vehicle cabin. This study is conducted experimentally to analyze the difference of fuel usage and air conditioning performance between conventional compressor and electric compressor of the air conditioning system in automobile. The electric compressor is powered by the car battery in non-electric vehicle which the alternator will recharge the battery. The car is setup on a roller dynamometer and the vehicle speed is varied at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 110 km/h at cabin temperature of 25°C and internal heat load of 100 and 400 Watt. The results shows electric compressor has better fuel consumption and coefficient of performance compared to the conventional compressor.

  8. Influence of Microwaves on the Thermal Conditions of a "Polymer-Semiconductor-Composite" System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, V. G.; Kravchenko, E. V.

    2015-11-01

    A numerical analysis of the influence of microwaves on the thermal conditions of elements of electronic equipment (EE) has been carried out. Investigations have shown that the temperature field of the ″polymer-semiconductor-composite″ system under the action of microwaves is nonuniform. It has been established that under rather typical operating conditions with increasing electric field intensity there is a considerable increase (from 362 to 387 K) in the maximum temperature of the modeled object. Such a strong influence of microwaves on the thermal conditions of the ″polymer-semiconductor-composite″ system is comparable to the increase in the ambient temperature by 20 K or the increase in the heat release of the internal source by 30%.

  9. Pasture monitoring at a farm scale with the USDA-NRCS pasture condition score system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pasture Condition Score (PCS) system, developed by the USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), is an assessment tool for pastureland enrolled in conservation programs. Ten indicators of vegetation and soils status are rated on a 1 to 5 scale and summed to give an aggregate score, whi...

  10. APPLYING THE NRCS PASTURE CONDITION SCORE SYSTEM AT THE WHOLE-FARM SCALE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pasture Condition Score (PCS) system was developed by the USDA-NRCS as a monitoring and management tool. Ten key indicators (percent desirable plants, plant cover, plant diversity, plant residue, plant vigor, percent legume, uniformity of use, livestock concentration areas, soil compaction, and ...

  11. Development of an integration sensor and instrumentation system for measuring crop conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture requires reliable technology to acquire accurate information on crop conditions. Based on this information, the amount of fertilizers and pesticides for the site-specific crop management can be optimized. A ground-based integrated sensor and instrumentation system was developed...

  12. Entropy of conditional tomographic probability distributions for classical and quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man'ko, Margarita A.; Man'ko, Vladimir I.

    2013-06-01

    The possibility to describe hybrid systems containing classical and quantum subsystems by means of conditional tomographic probability distributions (tomograms) is discussed. Tomographic Shannon and Rényi entropies associated with the tomograms are studied, and new tomographic uncertainty relations are obtained.

  13. Environmental Control System Installer/Servicer (Residential Air Conditioning Mechanic). V-TECS Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Calvin F.; Benson, Robert T.

    This guide provides job relevant tasks, performance objectives, performance guides, resources, learning activitites, evaluation standards, and achievement testing in the occupation of environmental control system installer/servicer (residential air conditioning mechanic). It is designed to be used with any chosen teaching method. The course…

  14. Condition Assessment of Ferrous Water Transmission and Distribution Systems State of Technology Review Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This White Paper was developed to serve as the basis for discussion at a Technology Forum on Condition Assessment of Water Transmission and Distribution Systems that was held on September 9 and 10, 2008, at Edison, NJ. It was distributed to the Forum participants for review in a...

  15. Pre-Conditions, Benefits and Costs of Privatized Public Services: Lessons from the Dutch Educational System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Estelle

    The system in the Netherlands of "privatization," a government policy of financially supporting private schools and encouraging people to use them, depends on conditions in Dutch society that are conducive to a large nongovernment, nonprofit sector. These include cultural heterogeneity, coupled with the lack of a single dominant culture and class…

  16. 75 FR 38391 - Special Conditions: Boeing 757-200 With Enhanced Flight Vision System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ...) system modified to display forward- looking infrared (FLIR) imagery. The applicable airworthiness... turbofan engines, and has a maximum range of 3,900 nautical miles. The electronic infrared image displayed... atmospheric conditions and the strength of infrared energy emitted and/or reflected from the scene, the...

  17. 76 FR 10047 - Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Financial Condition Scoring Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ...This notice provides additional information to public housing agencies (PHAs) and members of the public about HUD's process for issuing scores under the financial condition indicator of the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS). This notice includes threshold values and associated scores for each financial subindicator derived from generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP)-based......

  18. V-TECS Guide for Automobile Air Conditioning and Electrical System Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Calvin F.; Benson, Robert T.

    This curriculum guide provides an outline for an eight-unit course to train automobile air conditioning and electrical system technicians. Each unit focuses on a duty that is composed of a number of performance objectives. For each objective, these materials are provided: a task, a standard of performance of task, source of standard, conditions…

  19. Colonization by Cladosporium spp. of painted metal surfaces associated with heating and air conditioning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Simmons, R. B.; Switzer, K. F.; Ajello, L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. hebarum colonized painted metal surfaces of covering panels and register vents of heating, air conditioning and ventilation systems. Hyphae penetrated the paint film and developed characteristic conidiophores and conidia. The colonies were tightly appressed to the metal surface and conidia were not readily detectable via standard air sampling procedures.

  20. Groundwater infiltration, surface water inflow and sewerage exfiltration considering hydrodynamic conditions in sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Karpf, Christian; Hoeft, Stefan; Scheffer, Claudia; Fuchs, Lothar; Krebs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sewer systems are closely interlinked with groundwater and surface water. Due to leaks and regular openings in the sewer system (e.g. combined sewer overflow structures with sometimes reverse pressure conditions), groundwater infiltration and surface water inflow as well as exfiltration of sewage take place and cannot be avoided. In the paper a new hydrodynamic sewer network modelling approach will be presented, which includes--besides precipitation--hydrographs of groundwater and surface water as essential boundary conditions. The concept of the modelling approach and the models to describe the infiltration, inflow and exfiltration fluxes are described. The model application to the sewerage system of the City of Dresden during a flood event with complex conditions shows that the processes of infiltration, exfiltration and surface water inflows can be described with a higher reliability and accuracy, showing that surface water inflow causes a pronounced system reaction. Further, according to the simulation results, a high sensitivity of exfiltration rates on the in-sewer water levels and a relatively low influence of the dynamic conditions on the infiltration rates were found. PMID:21902021

  1. Cost and Energy Savings Opportunities with Heating, Air Conditioning and Lighting Systems in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Electric Energy Association, New York, NY.

    Great potential exists for saving energy and operating costs with a wide variety of heat conservation systems. Two major electric services--space conditioning and lighting--afford cost and energy savings opportunities. These services are detailed in checklist fashion in this brochure, with the suggestions included under space conditioning…

  2. 76 FR 10528 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Systems Security Isolation or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... unusual design features associated with connectivity of the passenger domain computer systems to the... and network configuration may be used for, or interfaced with, a diverse set of functions, including... sources. Discussion of Proposed Special Conditions The proposed Model GVI integrated network...

  3. Experimental performance study of a proposed desiccant based air conditioning system.

    PubMed

    Bassuoni, M M

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation on the performance of a proposed hybrid desiccant based air conditioning system referred as HDBAC is introduced in this paper. HDBAC is mainly consisted of a liquid desiccant dehumidification unit integrated with a vapor compression system (VCS). The VCS unit has a cooling capacity of 5.27 kW and uses 134a as refrigerant. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution is used as the working desiccant material. HDBAC system is used to serve low sensible heat factor applications. The effect of different parameters such as, process air flow rate, desiccant solution flow rate, evaporator box and condenser box solution temperatures, strong solution concentration and regeneration temperature on the performance of the system is studied. The performance of the system is evaluated using some parameters such as: the coefficient of performance (COPa), specific moisture removal and energy saving percentage. A remarkable increase of about 54% in the coefficient of performance of the proposed system over VCS with reheat is achieved. A maximum overall energy saving of about 46% is observed which emphasizes the use of the proposed system as an energy efficient air conditioning system. PMID:25685475

  4. Low-thrust chemical propulsion system propellant expulsion and thermal conditioning study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merino, F.; Wakabayashi, I.; Pleasant, R. L.; Hill, M.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal conditioning systems for satisfying engine net positive suction pressure (NPSP) requirements, and propellant expulsion systems for achieving propellant dump during a return-to-launch site (RTLS) abort were studied for LH2/LO2 and LCH4/LO2 upper stage propellant combinations. A state-of-the-art thermal conditioning system employing helium injection beneath the liquid surface shows the lowest weight penalty for LO2 and LCH4. A technology system incorporating a thermal subcooler (heat exchanger) for engine NPSP results in the lowest weight penalty for the LH2 tank. A preliminary design of two state-of-the-art and two new technology systems indicates a weight penalty difference too small to warrant development of a LH2 thermal subcooler. Analysis results showed that the LH2/LO2 propellant expulsion system is optimized for maximum dump line diameters, whereas the LCH4/LO2 system is optimized for minimum dump line diameter (LCH4) and maximum dump line diameter (LO2). The primary uncertainty is the accurate determination of two-phase flow rates through the dump system; experimentation is not recommended because this uncertainty is not considered significant.

  5. Experimental performance study of a proposed desiccant based air conditioning system

    PubMed Central

    Bassuoni, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental investigation on the performance of a proposed hybrid desiccant based air conditioning system referred as HDBAC is introduced in this paper. HDBAC is mainly consisted of a liquid desiccant dehumidification unit integrated with a vapor compression system (VCS). The VCS unit has a cooling capacity of 5.27 kW and uses 134a as refrigerant. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution is used as the working desiccant material. HDBAC system is used to serve low sensible heat factor applications. The effect of different parameters such as, process air flow rate, desiccant solution flow rate, evaporator box and condenser box solution temperatures, strong solution concentration and regeneration temperature on the performance of the system is studied. The performance of the system is evaluated using some parameters such as: the coefficient of performance (COPa), specific moisture removal and energy saving percentage. A remarkable increase of about 54% in the coefficient of performance of the proposed system over VCS with reheat is achieved. A maximum overall energy saving of about 46% is observed which emphasizes the use of the proposed system as an energy efficient air conditioning system. PMID:25685475

  6. New Automotive Air Conditioning System Simulation Tool Developed in MATLAB/Simulink

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, T.; Chaney, L.; Meyer, J.

    2013-07-01

    Further improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency require accurate evaluation of the vehicle's transient total power requirement. When operated, the air conditioning (A/C) system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle; therefore, accurate evaluation of the load it places on the vehicle's engine and/or energy storage system is especially important. Vehicle simulation software, such as 'Autonomie,' has been used by OEMs to evaluate vehicles' energy performance. A transient A/C simulation tool incorporated into vehicle simulation models would also provide a tool for developing more efficient A/C systems through a thorough consideration of the transient A/C system performance. The dynamic system simulation software Matlab/Simulink was used to develop new and more efficient vehicle energy system controls. The various modeling methods used for the new simulation tool are described in detail. Comparison with measured data is provided to demonstrate the validity of the model.

  7. Legionella species colonization of water distribution systems, pools and air conditioning systems in cruise ships and ferries

    PubMed Central

    Goutziana, Georgia; Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Karanika, Maria; Kavagias, Antonios; Stathakis, Nikolaos E; Gourgoulianis, Kostantinos; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2008-01-01

    Background Legionnaires' disease continues to be a public health concern in passenger ships. This study was scheduled in order to investigate Legionella spp. colonization of water distribution systems (WDS), recreational pools, and air-conditioning systems on board ferries and cruise ships in an attempt to identify risk factors for Legionella spp. colonization associated with ship water systems and water characteristics. Methods Water systems of 21 ferries and 10 cruise ships including WDS, air conditioning systems and pools were investigated for the presence of Legionella spp. Results The 133 samples collected from the 10 cruise ships WDS, air conditioning systems and pools were negative for Legionella spp. Of the 21 ferries WDS examined, 14 (66.7%) were legionellae-positive. A total of 276 samples were collected from WDS and air conditioning systems. Legionella spp. was isolated from 37.8% of the hot water samples and 17.5% of the cold water samples. Of the total 96 positive isolates, 87 (90.6%) were L. pneumophila. Legionella spp. colonization was positively associated with ship age. The temperature of the hot water samples was negatively associated with colonization of L. pneumophila serogroup (sg) 1 and that of L. pneumophila sg 2 to 14. Increases in pH ≥7.8 and total plate count ≥400 CFU/L, correlated positively with the counts of L. pneumophila sg 2 to 14 and Legionella spp. respectively. Free chlorine of ≥0.2 mg/L inhibited colonization of Legionella spp. Conclusion WDS of ferries can be heavily colonized by Legionella spp. and may present a risk of Legionnaires' disease for passengers and crew members. Guidelines and advising of Legionnaires' disease prevention regarding ferries are needed, in particular for operators and crew members. PMID:19025638

  8. General Conditions for Proximity-Induced Odd-Frequency Superconductivity in Two-Dimensional Electronic Systems.

    PubMed

    Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss M; Balatsky, Alexander V; Rossi, E

    2016-06-24

    We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s-wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling exhibits odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Our results allow the identification of a new class of systems among van der Waals heterostructures in which odd-frequency superconductivity should be present. PMID:27391743

  9. Driver Drowsiness Warning System Using Visual Information for Both Diurnal and Nocturnal Illumination Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, MarcoJavier; Armingol, JoséMaría; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2010-12-01

    Every year, traffic accidents due to human errors cause increasing amounts of deaths and injuries globally. To help reduce the amount of fatalities, in the paper presented here, a new module for Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) which deals with automatic driver drowsiness detection based on visual information and Artificial Intelligence is presented. The aim of this system is to locate, track, and analyze both the drivers face and eyes to compute a drowsiness index, where this real-time system works under varying light conditions (diurnal and nocturnal driving). Examples of different images of drivers taken in a real vehicle are shown to validate the algorithms used.

  10. General Conditions for Proximity-Induced Odd-Frequency Superconductivity in Two-Dimensional Electronic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss M.; Balatsky, Alexander V.; Rossi, E.

    2016-06-01

    We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s -wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling exhibits odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Our results allow the identification of a new class of systems among van der Waals heterostructures in which odd-frequency superconductivity should be present.

  11. Fuzzy Based Decision Support System for Condition Assessment and Rating of Bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Voggu; Sasmal, Saptarshi; Karusala, Ramanjaneyulu

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a knowledge based decision support system has been developed to efficiently handle the issues such as distress diagnosis, assessment of damages and condition rating of existing bridges towards developing an exclusive and robust Bridge Management System (BMS) for sustainable bridges. The Knowledge Based Expert System (KBES) diagnoses the distresses and finds the cause of distress in the bridge by processing the data which are heuristic and combined with site inspection results, laboratory test results etc. The coupling of symbolic and numeric type of data has been successfully implemented in the expert system to strengthen its decision making process. Finally, the condition rating of the bridge is carried out using the assessment results obtained from the KBES and the information received from the bridge inspector. A systematic procedure has been developed using fuzzy mathematics for condition rating of bridges by combining the fuzzy weighted average and resolution identity technique. The proposed methodologies and the decision support system will facilitate in developing a robust and exclusive BMS for a network of bridges across the country and allow the bridge engineers and decision makers to carry out maintenance of bridges in a rational and systematic way.

  12. Is there a place for cardiovascular magnetic resonance conditional devices in systemic inflammatory diseases?

    PubMed

    Mavrogeni, Sophie I; Poulos, George; Sfikakis, Petros P; Kitas, George D; Kolovou, Genovefa; Theodorakis, George

    2016-06-01

    Rhythm disturbances and sudden cardiac death (SCD) are important manifestations of cardiac involvement in systemic inflammatory diseases (SID). The commonest events demanding the implantation of a device include ventricular tachycardia and atrioventricular block, mainly diagnosed in sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus and scleroderma. In SCD, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) identified areas of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in 71% and provided an arrhythmic substrate in 76%, while during the follow-up, the extent of LGE identified a subgroup at increased risk for future adverse events. CMR has been successfully used for detection of cardiac disease in SID, including myocarditis, coronary, microvascular and valvular disease. Additionally, SIDs have a higher probability to need MRI scanning of other organs, due to their systemic disease. These reasons support the necessity of an MRI conditional device in SIDs. A broad selection of devices, approved for the MRI environment under defined conditions allows the safe and accurate scanning of SID patients. PMID:26878099

  13. Development of a Ventilation and Air-conditioning System using Fixed Bed Desiccant Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Takahiko; Akisawa, Atsushi; Ueda, Yuki; Shindoh, Shinji; Godo, Masazumi; Takatsuka, Takeshi

    The study investigated fixed bed desiccant units for ventilation and air-conditioning. The role of the system is the dehumidification of the outdoor fresh air to be supplied to an air-conditioned room. Hence, the latent heat load of the air-conditioner in the room can be mitigated. The system consisted of two pairs of a desiccant unit and a heat storage unit. The microwave irradiation to the desiccant unit was examined as a candidate of the regeneration method of the system, and the performance of the microwave regeneration was compared with that of the hot air regeneration in terms of the supply air humidity ratio, outdoor air based COP, and the process air temperatures. The results revealed the effects of the switching time and the irradiation timing on the performance of the microwave irradiation.

  14. Uncertainty Relation and Quantitative Condition of Inversion Symmetry of Time in Many-particle System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, You-Gang Feng

    2005-03-01

    We proved that the uncertainty relation fits in with many-particle system and the equality of the relation corresponds to the thermodynamic equilibrium state, the inequality of the relation corresponds to the thermodynamic nonequilibrium state for any quantum system. The microscopic origin of the second law of thermodynamics is certainly resulted in the wave-particle duality of matter. A quantitative condition of inversion symmetry of time is obtained, which indicates the fluctuation of the system's energy Δ E controls the period of the inversion symmetry of time Δ t. Understanding and grasping of this quantitative condition will help us for genetic engineering projects, medical treatment, life science, food industry, archaeology and preserving of cultural objects and historical monuments, etc.

  15. Necessary conditions for the existence of additional first integrals for Hamiltonian systems with homogeneous potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, Andrzej J.; Przybylska, Maria; Yoshida, Haruo

    2012-02-01

    We consider a natural Hamiltonian system of n degrees of freedom with a homogeneous potential. We assume that the system admits 1 <= m < n independent and commuting first integrals F1, ... Fm. We give easily computable and effective necessary conditions for the existence of one additional first integral Fm+1 such that all integrals F1, ...Fm+1 are independent, pairwise commute and are meromorphic in a connected neighbourhood of a certain phase curve. These conditions are obtained from an analysis of the differential Galois group of variational equations along a particular solution of the system. We apply our result analysing the problem of the existence of one additional first integral for a homogeneous nonlinear lattice on a line.

  16. Design and optimization of the sine condition test for measuring misaligned optical systems.

    PubMed

    Lampen, Sara; Dubin, Matthew; Burge, James H

    2013-10-10

    By taking a new look at an old concept, we have shown in our previous work how the Abbe sine condition can be used to measure linearly field-dependent aberrations in order to verify the alignment of optical systems. In this paper, we expand on this method and discuss the design choices involved in implementing the sine condition test (SCTest). Specifically, we discuss the two illumination options for the test: point source with a grating or flat-panel display, and we discuss the tradeoffs of the two approaches. Additionally, experimental results are shown using a flat-panel display to measure linearly field-dependent aberrations. Last, we elaborate on how to implement the SCTest on more complex optical systems, such as a three-mirror anastigmat and a double Gauss imaging lens system. PMID:24217726

  17. Time dependent inflow-outflow boundary conditions for 2D acoustic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Willie R.; Myers, Michael K.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of the number and form of the required inflow-outflow boundary conditions for the full two-dimensional time-dependent nonlinear acoustic system in subsonic mean flow is performed. The explicit predictor-corrector method of MacCormack (1969) is used. The methodology is tested on both uniform and sheared mean flows with plane and nonplanar sources. Results show that the acoustic system requires three physical boundary conditions on the inflow and one on the outflow boundary. The most natural choice for the inflow boundary conditions is judged to be a specification of the vorticity, the normal acoustic impedance, and a pressure gradient-density gradient relationship normal to the boundary. Specification of the acoustic pressure at the outflow boundary along with these inflow boundary conditions is found to give consistent reliable results. A set of boundary conditions developed earlier, which were intended to be nonreflecting is tested using the current method and is shown to yield unstable results for nonplanar acoustic waves.

  18. Conditions for testing the corrosion rates of ceramics in coal gasification systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.P.; Nowok, J.W.

    1996-08-01

    Coal gasifier operating conditions and gas and ash compositions affect the corrosion rates of ceramics used for construction in three ways: (1) through direct corrosion of the materials, (2) by affecting the concentration and chemical form of the primary corrodents, and (3) by affecting the mass transport rate of the primary corrodents. To perform an accurate corrosion test on a system material, the researcher must include all relevant corrodents and simulate conditions in the gasifier as closely as possible. In this paper, the authors present suggestions for conditions to be used in such corrosion tests. Two main types of corrosion conditions are discussed: those existing in hot-gas cleanup systems where vapor and dry ash may contribute to corrosion and those experienced by high-temperature heat exchangers and refractories where the main corrodent will be coal ash slag. Only the fluidized-bed gasification systems such as the Sierra Pacific Power Company Pinon Pine Power Project system are proposing the use of ceramic filters for particulate cleanup. The gasifier is an air-blown 102-MWe unit employing a Westinghouse{trademark} ceramic particle filter system operating at as high as 1100{degrees}F at 300 psia. Expected gas compositions in the filter will be approximately 25% CO, 15% H{sub 2}, 5% CO{sub 2}, 5% H{sub 2}O, and 50% N{sub 2}. Vapor-phase sodium chloride concentrations are expected to be 10 to 100 times the levels in combustion systems at similar temperatures, but in general the concentrations of the minor primary and secondary corrodents are not well understood. Slag corrosiveness will depend on its composition as well as viscosity. For a laboratory test, the slag must be in a thermodynamically stable form before the beginning of the corrosion test to assure that no inappropriate reactions are allowed to occur. Ideally, the slag would be flowing, and the appropriate atmosphere must be used to assure realistic slag viscosity.

  19. Measured daylighting potential of a static optical louver system under real sun and sky conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Konis, Kyle; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2015-05-04

    Side-by-side comparisons were made over solstice-to-solstice changes in sun and sky conditions between an optical louver system (OLS) and a conventional Venetian blind set at a horizontal slat angle and located inboard of a south-facing, small-area, clerestory window in a full-scale office testbed. Daylight autonomy (DA), window luminance, and ceiling luminance uniformity were used to assess performance. The performance of both systems was found to have significant seasonal variation, where performance under clear sky conditions improved as maximum solar altitude angles transitioned from solstice to equinox. Although the OLS produced fewer hours per day of DA on average than the Venetian blind, the OLS never exceeded the designated 2000 cd/m2 threshold for window glare. In contrast, the Venetian blind was found to exceed the visual discomfort threshold over a large fraction of the day during equinox conditions. Notably, these peak periods of visual discomfort occurred during the best periods of daylighting performance. Luminance uniformity was analyzed using calibrated high dynamic range luminance images. Under clear sky conditions, the OLS was found to increase the luminance of the ceiling as well as produce a more uniform distribution. Furthermore, compared to conventional venetian blinds, the static optical sunlight redirecting system studied has the potential to significantly reduce the annual electrical lighting energy demand of a daylit space and improve the quality from the perspective of building occupants by consistently transmitting useful daylight while eliminating window glare.

  20. Measured daylighting potential of a static optical louver system under real sun and sky conditions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Konis, Kyle; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2015-05-04

    Side-by-side comparisons were made over solstice-to-solstice changes in sun and sky conditions between an optical louver system (OLS) and a conventional Venetian blind set at a horizontal slat angle and located inboard of a south-facing, small-area, clerestory window in a full-scale office testbed. Daylight autonomy (DA), window luminance, and ceiling luminance uniformity were used to assess performance. The performance of both systems was found to have significant seasonal variation, where performance under clear sky conditions improved as maximum solar altitude angles transitioned from solstice to equinox. Although the OLS produced fewer hours per day of DA on average than themore » Venetian blind, the OLS never exceeded the designated 2000 cd/m2 threshold for window glare. In contrast, the Venetian blind was found to exceed the visual discomfort threshold over a large fraction of the day during equinox conditions. Notably, these peak periods of visual discomfort occurred during the best periods of daylighting performance. Luminance uniformity was analyzed using calibrated high dynamic range luminance images. Under clear sky conditions, the OLS was found to increase the luminance of the ceiling as well as produce a more uniform distribution. Furthermore, compared to conventional venetian blinds, the static optical sunlight redirecting system studied has the potential to significantly reduce the annual electrical lighting energy demand of a daylit space and improve the quality from the perspective of building occupants by consistently transmitting useful daylight while eliminating window glare.« less

  1. ALmost EXact boundary conditions for transient Schrödinger-Poisson system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Lei; Pang, Gang; Tang, Shaoqiang; Arnold, Anton

    2016-05-01

    For the Schrödinger-Poisson system, we propose an ALmost EXact (ALEX) boundary condition to treat accurately the numerical boundaries. Being local in both space and time, the ALEX boundary conditions are demonstrated to be effective in suppressing spurious numerical reflections. Together with the Crank-Nicolson scheme, we simulate a resonant tunneling diode. The algorithm produces numerical results in excellent agreement with those in Mennemann et al. [1], yet at a much reduced complexity. Primary peaks in wave function profile appear as a consequence of quantum resonance, and should be considered in selecting the cut-off wave number for numerical simulations.

  2. Transient spatio-temporal dynamics of a diffusive plant-herbivore system with Neumann boundary conditions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fang; Wang, Lin; Watmough, James

    2016-12-01

    In many existing predator-prey or plant-herbivore models, the numerical response is assumed to be proportional to the functional response. In this paper, without such an assumption, we consider a diffusive plant-herbivore system with Neumann boundary conditions. Besides stability of spatially homogeneous steady states, we also derive conditions for the occurrence of Hopf bifurcation and steady-state bifurcation and provide geometrical methods to locate the bifurcation values. We numerically explore the complex transient spatio-temporal behaviours induced by these bifurcations. A large variety of different types of transient behaviours including oscillations in one or both of space and time are observed. PMID:27572052

  3. MR imaging of urgent inflammatory and infectious conditions affecting the soft tissues of the musculoskeletal system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Joseph S; Habib, Paula

    2009-07-01

    Soft tissue infections and inflammatory conditions of the musculoskeletal system are a group of disorders commonly seen by emergency room physicians and radiologists. Many of these entities can either be limb- or life-threatening. Magnetic resonance imaging is currently the best imaging modality to evaluate these conditions. In this review, the characteristic imaging findings of cellulitis, abscess formation, necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis, diabetic ischemic infarction, acute and exertional compartment syndromes, and rhabdomyolysis will be emphasized as well as imaging factors that can help to differentiate these disorders. PMID:19132424

  4. Modeling of the Human - Operator in a Complex System Functioning Under Extreme Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getzov, Peter; Hubenova, Zoia; Yordanov, Dimitar; Popov, Wiliam

    2013-12-01

    Problems, related to the explication of sophisticated control systems of objects, operating under extreme conditions, have been examined and the impact of the effectiveness of the operator's activity on the systems as a whole. The necessity of creation of complex simulation models, reflecting operator's activity, is discussed. Organizational and technical system of an unmanned aviation complex is described as a sophisticated ergatic system. Computer realization of main subsystems of algorithmic system of the man as a controlling system is implemented and specialized software for data processing and analysis is developed. An original computer model of a Man as a tracking system has been implemented. Model of unmanned complex for operators training and formation of a mental model in emergency situation, implemented in "matlab-simulink" environment, has been synthesized. As a unit of the control loop, the pilot (operator) is simplified viewed as an autocontrol system consisting of three main interconnected subsystems: sensitive organs (perception sensors); central nervous system; executive organs (muscles of the arms, legs, back). Theoretical-data model of prediction the level of operator's information load in ergatic systems is proposed. It allows the assessment and prediction of the effectiveness of a real working operator. Simulation model of operator's activity in takeoff based on the Petri nets has been synthesized.

  5. Prevention of Secondary Conditions in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Identification of Systems-Level Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Petrenko, Christie L. M.; Tahir, Naira; Mahoney, Erin C.; Chin, Nancy P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) impact 2 to 5 percent of the U.S. population and are associated with life-long cognitive and behavioral impairments. Individuals with FASD have high rates of secondary conditions, including mental health problems, school disruptions, and trouble with the law. This study focuses on systems-level barriers that contribute to secondary conditions and interfere with prevention and treatment. Methods Using a phenomenological methodology, semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with parents of children with FASD and service providers. Data were analyzed using a framework approach. Results Participants emphasized the pervasive lack of knowledge of FASD throughout multiple systems. This lack of knowledge contributes to multi-system barriers including delayed diagnosis, unavailability of services, and difficulty qualifying for, implementing, and maintaining services. Conclusions FASD is a major public health problem. Broad system changes using a public health approach are needed to increase awareness and understanding of FASD, improve access to diagnostic and therapeutic services, and create responsive institutional policies to prevent secondary conditions. These changes are essential to improve outcomes for individuals with FASD and their families and facilitate dissemination of empirically supported interventions. PMID:24178158

  6. Autonomous sensor-transponder RFID with supply energy conditioning for object navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoczylas, M.; Kamuda, K.; Jankowski-Mihułowicz, P.; Kalita, W.; Weglarski, Mariusz

    2014-08-01

    The properties of energy conditioning electrical circuits that are developed for powering additional functional blocks of autonomous RFID transponders working in the HF band have been analyzed and presented in the paper. The concept of autonomy is realized by implementing extra functions in the typical transponder. First of all, the autonomous system should harvest energy, e.g. from the electromagnetic field of read/write devices but also the possibility of gathering information about environment should be available, e.g. by measuring different kind of physical quantities. In such an electrical device, the crucial problem consists in energy conditioning because the output voltage-current characteristic of an front-end (antenna with matching and harvesting circuit) as well as the total and instantaneous power load generated by internal circuits are strongly dependent on a realized function but also on energy and communication conditions in the RFID interface. The properly designed solution should improve harvesting efficiency, current leakage of supply storage, matching between antenna and input circuits, in order to save energy and increase operating time in such a battery-free system. The authors present methods how to increase the autonomous operation time even at advanced measuring algorithms. The measuring system with wide spectrum of sensors dedicated for different quantities (physical, chemical, etc.) has also been presented. The results of model calculations and experimental verifications have been also discussed on the basis of investigations conducted in the unique laboratory stand of object navigation systems.

  7. EARLY DYNAMICAL EVOLUTION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM: PINNING DOWN THE INITIAL CONDITIONS OF THE NICE MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Konstantin; Brown, Michael E.

    2010-06-20

    In the recent years, the 'Nice' model of solar system formation has attained an unprecedented level of success in reproducing much of the observed orbital architecture of the solar system by evolving the planets to their current locations from a more compact configuration. Within the context of this model, the formation of the classical Kuiper Belt requires a phase during which the ice giants have a high eccentricity. An outstanding question of this model is the initial configuration from which the solar system started out. Recent work has shown that multi-resonant initial conditions can serve as good candidates, as they naturally prevent vigorous type-II migration. In this paper, we use analytical arguments, as well as self-consistent numerical N-body simulations to identify fully resonant initial conditions, whose dynamical evolution is characterized by an eccentric phase of the ice giants, as well as planetary scattering. We find a total of eight such initial conditions. Four of these primordial states are compatible with the canonical 'Nice' model, while the others imply slightly different evolutions. The results presented here should prove useful in further development of a comprehensive model for solar system formation.

  8. Use of Modal Sensitivity to Operating Conditions for Damping Control in Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Ning; Tuffner, Francis K.; Trudnowski, Daniel J.

    2011-01-04

    Small signal stability is an inherent characteristic of dynamic systems such as power systems. Pole positioning through power system stabilizers (PSS) is often used for improving damping in power systems. A well-designed PSS can be very effective in damping oscillations, especially local oscillations. However, designing PSSs for inter-area oscillations has been a very challenging task due to time-varying operating conditions affecting the characteristics of inter-area oscillations. This paper explores the sensitivity relationship between oscillations and operating conditions and employs the relationship to derive recommendations for operator’s actions to adjust operating conditions so as to improve damping. Low damping is usually considered to be a result of heavy power transfer in long distance. Studies in this paper show that this generally holds true while locations have significant impact on damping of oscillations. Therefore it is important to consider locations in deriving recommendations. This paper proposes the concept of relative modal sensitivity and presents the application of relative modal sensitivity to derive recommendations for operator’s action in damping control.

  9. Use of fuzzy inference system for condition monitoring of induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janier, Josefina B.; Zaim Zaharia, M. F.; Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abd.

    2012-09-01

    Three phase induction motors are commonly used in industry due to its robustness, simplicity of its construction and high reliability. The tasks performed by these motors grow increasingly complex because of modern industries hence there is a need to determine the faults. Early detection of faults will reduce an unscheduled machine downtime that can upset production deadlines and may cause heavy financial losses. This paper is focused in developing a computer based system using Fuzzy Inference system's membership function. An unusual increase in vibration of the motor could be an indicator of faulty condition hence the vibration of the motor of an induction motor was used as an input, whereas the output is the motor condition. An inference system of the Fuzzy Logic was created to classify the vibration characteristics of the motor which is called vibration analysis. The system classified the motor of the gas distribution pump condition as from 'acceptable' to 'monitor closely'. The early detection of unusual increase in vibration of the induction motor is an important part of a predictive maintenance for motor driven machinery.

  10. Definition of boundary and initial conditions in the analysis of saturated ground-water flow systems - An introduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franke, O. Lehn; Reilly, Thomas E.; Bennett, Gordon D.

    1987-01-01

    Accurate definition of boundary and initial conditions is an essential part of conceptualizing and modeling ground-water flow systems. This report describes the properties of the seven most common boundary conditions encountered in ground-water systems and discusses major aspects of their application. It also discusses the significance and specification of initial conditions and evaluates some common errors in applying this concept to ground-water-system models. An appendix is included that discusses what the solution of a differential equation represents and how the solution relates to the boundary conditions defining the specific problem. This report considers only boundary conditions that apply to saturated ground-water systems.

  11. Iterative Design and Usability Testing of the Imhere System for Managing Chronic Conditions and Disability

    PubMed Central

    FAIRMAN, ANDREA D.; YIH, ERIKA T.; MCCOY, DANIEL F.; LOPRESTI, EDMUND F.; MCCUE, MICHAEL P.; PARMANTO, BAMBANG; DICIANNO, BRAD E.

    2016-01-01

    A novel mobile health platform, Interactive Mobile Health and Rehabilitation (iMHere), is being developed to support wellness and self-management among people with chronic disabilities. The iMHere system currently includes a smartphone app with six modules for use by persons with disabilities and a web portal for use by medical and rehabilitation professionals or other support personnel. Our initial clinical research applying use of this system provides insight into the feasibility of employing iMHere in the development of self-management skills in young adults (ages 18–40 years) with spina bifida (SB) (Dicianno, Fairman, et al., 2015). This article describes the iterative design of the iMHere system including usability testing of both the app modules and clinician portal. Our pilot population of persons with SB fostered the creation of a system appropriate for people with a wide variety of functional abilities and needs. As a result, the system is appropriate for use by persons with various disabilities and chronic conditions, not only SB. In addition, the diversity of professionals and support personnel involved in the care of persons with SB also enabled the design and implementation of the iMHere system to meet the needs of an interdisciplinary team of providers who treat various conditions. The iMHere system has the potential to foster communication and collaboration among members of an interdisciplinary healthcare team, including individuals with chronic conditions and disabilities, for a client-centered approach to support self-management skills. PMID:27563387

  12. Iterative Design and Usability Testing of the Imhere System for Managing Chronic Conditions and Disability.

    PubMed

    Fairman, Andrea D; Yih, Erika T; McCoy, Daniel F; Lopresti, Edmund F; McCue, Michael P; Parmanto, Bambang; Dicianno, Brad E

    2016-01-01

    A novel mobile health platform, Interactive Mobile Health and Rehabilitation (iMHere), is being developed to support wellness and self-management among people with chronic disabilities. The iMHere system currently includes a smartphone app with six modules for use by persons with disabilities and a web portal for use by medical and rehabilitation professionals or other support personnel. Our initial clinical research applying use of this system provides insight into the feasibility of employing iMHere in the development of self-management skills in young adults (ages 18-40 years) with spina bifida (SB) (Dicianno, Fairman, et al., 2015). This article describes the iterative design of the iMHere system including usability testing of both the app modules and clinician portal. Our pilot population of persons with SB fostered the creation of a system appropriate for people with a wide variety of functional abilities and needs. As a result, the system is appropriate for use by persons with various disabilities and chronic conditions, not only SB. In addition, the diversity of professionals and support personnel involved in the care of persons with SB also enabled the design and implementation of the iMHere system to meet the needs of an interdisciplinary team of providers who treat various conditions. The iMHere system has the potential to foster communication and collaboration among members of an interdisciplinary healthcare team, including individuals with chronic conditions and disabilities, for a client-centered approach to support self-management skills. PMID:27563387

  13. Design and Realization of Rotating Machinery Conditions Monitoring System Based on Labview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qiyuan

    Nonlinear dynamic analysis of rotating machinery system has always been the hot spot of the rotational dynamics research. This article sets up a rotating machinery condition monitoring system to realize the measurement of system dynamic characteristic parameters based on NI(National Instruments) virtual instruments technology. The measurement of vibration signal of rotating machinery system is achieved by using NI company general data acquisition module of NI company. Meanwhile, by analyzing and processing the acquired data using Labview 2012, the dynamic characteristics, such as .the speed of the rotating machinery system, the axis trajectory, spectrum parameters, are attained. The measurement results show that the rotating machinery condition monitoring system based on Labview is easy to operate, easy to realize the function extension and maintenance, and that it can be used in the industrial engineering projects with rotation characteristics. Labview as the development tools used by virtual instrument function, is very powerful data acquisition software products support is one of the features of it, so using Labview programming and data acquisition is simple and convenient [1].

  14. System for measuring oxygen consumption rates of mammalian cells in static culture under hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Yuki; Miyahara, Hirotaka; Ota, Yuri; Tsuneda, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) of mammalian cells in hypoxic environments is essential for designing and developing a three-dimensional (3-D) cell culture system. However, OCR measurements under hypoxic conditions are infrequently reported in the literature. Here, we developed a system for measuring OCRs at low oxygen levels. The system injects nitrogen gas into the environment and measures the oxygen concentration by an optical oxygen microsensor that consumes no oxygen. The developed system was applied to HepG2 cells in static culture. Specifically, we measured the spatial profiles of the local dissolved oxygen concentration in the medium, then estimated the OCRs of the cells. The OCRs, and also the pericellular oxygen concentrations, decreased nonlinearly as the oxygen partial pressure in the environment decreased from 19% to 1%. The OCRs also depended on the culture period and the matrix used for coating the dish surface. Using this system, we can precisely estimate the OCRs of various cell types under environments that mimic 3-D culture conditions, contributing crucial data for an efficient 3-D culture system design. PMID:26558344

  15. Validity conditions of the hydrostatic approach for self-gravitating systems: a microcanonical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champion, M.; Alastuey, A.; Dauxois, T.; Ruffo, S.

    2014-06-01

    We consider a system of hard spheres with gravitational interactions in a stationary state described in terms of the microcanonical ensemble. We introduce a set of similar auxiliary systems with increasing sizes and numbers of particles. The masses and radii of the hard spheres of the auxiliary systems are rescaled in such a way that the usual extensive properties are maintained despite the long-range nature of the gravitational interactions, while the mass density and packing fractions are kept fixed. We show, within that scaling limit, that a local thermalization spontaneously emerges as a consequence of both extensive properties and the relative smallness of the fluctuations. The resulting mass density profile for the infinite system can be determined within a hydrostatic approach, where the gradient of the local hard-sphere pressure is balanced by the average gravitational field. The derivation sheds light on the mechanisms which ensure that the local equilibrium in the infinite system is entirely controlled by hard-core interactions, while gravitational interactions can be treated at the mean-field level. This allows us to determine the conditions under which the hydrostatic approach is also valid for the actual finite system of interest. We provide simple tests of such conditions for a few astrophysical examples.

  16. Photovoltaic module and array performance characterization methods for all system operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    This paper provides new test methods and analytical procedures for characterizing the electrical performance of photovoltaic modules and arrays. The methods use outdoor measurements to provide performance parameters both at standard reporting conditions and for all operating conditions encountered by typical photovoltaic systems. Improvements over previously used test methods are identified, and examples of the successful application of the methodology are provided for crystalline- and amorphous-silicon modules and arrays. This work provides an improved understanding of module and array performance characteristics, and perhaps most importantly, a straight- forward yet rigorous model for predicting array performance at all operating conditions. For the first time, the influences of solar irradiance, operating temperature, solar spectrum, solar angle-of- incidence, and temperature coefficients are all addressed in a practical way that will benefit both designers and users of photovoltaics.

  17. Defining biophysical reference conditions for dynamics river systems: an Alaskan example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pess, G. R.

    2008-12-01

    Defining reference conditions for dynamic river ecosystems is difficult for two reasons. First long-term, persistent anthropogenic influences such as land development, harvest of biological resources, and invasive species have resulted in degraded, reduced, and simplified ecological communities and associated habitats. Second, river systems that have not been altered through human disturbance rarely have a long-term dataset on ecological conditions. However there are exceptions which can help us define the dynamic nature of river ecosystems. One large-scale exception is the Wood River system in Bristol Bay, Alaska, where habitat and salmon populations have not been altered by anthropogenic influences such as land development, hatchery production, and invasive species. In addition, the one major anthropogenic disturbance, salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) harvest, has been quantified and regulated since its inception. First, we examined the variation in watershed and stream habitat characteristics across the Wood River system. We then compared these stream habitat characteristics with data that was collected in the 1950s. Lastly, we examined the correlation between pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), chum (O. keta), and Chinook (O. tshawytscha), and sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and habitat characteristics in the Wood River system using four decades of data on salmon. We found that specific habitat attributes such as stream channel wetted width, depth, cover type, and the proportion of spawnable area were similar to data collected in the 1950s. Greater stream habitat variation occurred among streams than over time. Salmon occurrence and abundance, however was more temporal and spatially variable. The occurrence of pink and chum salmon increased from the 1970's to the present in the Wood River system, while sockeye abundance has fluctuated with changes in ocean conditions. Pink, Chinook and chum salmon ranged from non-existent to episodic to abundantly perennial, while sockeye

  18. Compensated Row-Column Ultrasound Imaging System Using Fisher Tippett Multilayered Conditional Random Field Model

    PubMed Central

    Ben Daya, Ibrahim; Chen, Albert I. H.; Shafiee, Mohammad Javad; Wong, Alexander; Yeow, John T. W.

    2015-01-01

    3-D ultrasound imaging offers unique opportunities in the field of non destructive testing that cannot be easily found in A-mode and B-mode images. To acquire a 3-D ultrasound image without a mechanically moving transducer, a 2-D array can be used. The row column technique is preferred over a fully addressed 2-D array as it requires a significantly lower number of interconnections. Recent advances in 3-D row-column ultrasound imaging systems were largely focused on sensor design. However, these imaging systems face three intrinsic challenges that cannot be addressed by improving sensor design alone: speckle noise, sparsity of data in the imaged volume, and the spatially dependent point spread function of the imaging system. In this paper, we propose a compensated row-column ultrasound image reconstruction system using Fisher-Tippett multilayered conditional random field model. Tests carried out on both simulated and real row-column ultrasound images show the effectiveness of our proposed system as opposed to other published systems. Visual assessment of the results show our proposed system’s potential at preserving detail and reducing speckle. Quantitative analysis shows that our proposed system outperforms previously published systems when evaluated with metrics such as Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, Coefficient of Correlation, and Effective Number of Looks. These results show the potential of our proposed system as an effective tool for enhancing 3-D row-column imaging. PMID:26658577

  19. An efficient new automobile air-conditioning system based on CO{sub 2} vapor compression

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersen, J.

    1994-12-31

    A new, efficient, and environmentally safe automobile air-conditioning system based on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) vapor compression has been developed. Although working pressures and component design are different, the basic principles are similar to those of current chlorofluorocarbon/hydrofluorocarbon (CFC/HFC) units. With the construction and testing of a laboratory prototype, it has been documented that the new system is highly competitive with current CFC-12 and HFC-134a units in terms of efficiency, capacity, cost, weight, and dimensions. The CO{sub 2} concept thus offers a solution to the environmental problem associated with automobile air conditioning and eliminates all uncertainties with respect to possible unforeseen effects from new refrigerant compounds. Further advantages of the natural fluid CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant are: no need for recycling or recovery, low cost of fluid, excellent availability, well-known properties, and more compact machinery and components.

  20. Characterization of Francisella species isolated from the cooling water of an air conditioning system.

    PubMed

    Gu, Quan; Li, Xunde; Qu, Pinghua; Hou, Shuiping; Li, Juntao; Atwill, Edward R; Chen, Shouyi

    2015-01-01

    Strains of Francisella spp. were isolated from cooling water from an air conditioning system in Guangzhou, China. These strains are Gram negative, coccobacilli, non-motile, oxidase negative, catalase negative, esterase and lipid esterase positive. In addition, these bacteria grow on cysteine-supplemented media at 20 °C to 40 °C with an optimal growth temperature of 30 °C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belong to the genus Francisella. Biochemical tests and phylogenetic and BLAST analyses of 16S rRNA, rpoB and sdhA genes indicated that one strain was very similar to Francisella philomiragia and that the other strains were identical or highly similar to the Francisella guangzhouensis sp. nov. strain 08HL01032 we previously described. Biochemical and molecular characteristics of these strains demonstrated that multiple Francisella species exist in air conditioning systems. PMID:26413079

  1. Evaluation of need for ontologies to manage domain content for the Reportable Conditions Knowledge Management System

    PubMed Central

    Eilbeck, Karen L.; Lipstein, Julie; McGarvey, Sunanda; Staes, Catherine J.

    2014-01-01

    The Reportable Condition Knowledge Management System (RCKMS) is envisioned to be a single, comprehensive, authoritative, real-time portal to author, view and access computable information about reportable conditions. The system is designed for use by hospitals, laboratories, health information exchanges, and providers to meet public health reporting requirements. The RCKMS Knowledge Representation Workgroup was tasked to explore the need for ontologies to support RCKMS functionality. The workgroup reviewed relevant projects and defined criteria to evaluate candidate knowledge domain areas for ontology development. The use of ontologies is justified for this project to unify the semantics used to describe similar reportable events and concepts between different jurisdictions and over time, to aid data integration, and to manage large, unwieldy datasets that evolve, and are sometimes externally managed. PMID:25954354

  2. Dissecting the conditioned pecking response: an integrated system for the analysis of pecking response parameters.

    PubMed Central

    Bermejo, R; Houben, D; Zeigler, H P

    1994-01-01

    The conventional pecking response key, although an excellent transducer of response rate, can provide minimal information on the topography, coordination, or localization of conditioned pecking. We describe the hardware and software components of a system that, in addition to recording response rates, permits simultaneous "on-line" monitoring of head acceleration, jaw movement, terminal peck location, and duration of pecking response. Head movements are monitored with a miniature accelerometer, jaw movements with a magnetosensitive transducer, and peck location with modified touch screen technology. Initial experiments with the system suggest that it will be useful in studies of response differentiation, acquisition and maintenance of complex discriminations, and interaction of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli in the control of pecking response probability and response topography. PMID:8207357

  3. Sensor and actuator conditioning for multiscale measurement systems on example of confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyda, W.; Zimmermann, J.; Burla, A.; Regin, J.; Osten, W.; Sawodny, O.; Westkämper, E.

    2009-06-01

    Multi-scale measurement systems utilise multiple sensors which differ in resolution and measurement field to pursue an active exploration strategy. The different sensor scales are linked by indicator algorithms for further measurement initiation. A major advantage of this strategy is a reduction of the conflict between resolution, time and field. This reduction is achieved by task specific conditioning of sensors, indicator algorithms and actuators using suitable uncertainty models. This contribution is focused on uncertainty models of sensors and actuators using the example of a prototype multi-scale measurement system. The influence of the sensor parameters, object characteristics and measurement conditions on the measurement reliability is investigated exemplary for the middle-scale sensor, a confocal microscope.

  4. Volatile organic compounds associated with microbial growth in automobile air conditioning systems.

    PubMed

    Rose, L J; Simmons, R B; Crow, S A; Ahearn, D G

    2000-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds from Penicillium viridicatum and Methylobacterium mesophilicum growing on laboratory media and on component materials of automobile air conditioners were analyzed with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. P. viridicatum produced compounds such as 4-methyl thiazole, terpenes and alcohols, whereas M. mesophilicum produced dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, and chlorophenol with growth on laboratory media. In comparison with laboratory media, fewer volatiles were detected from colonized foam insulation materials. Biofilms of M. mesophilicum on aluminum evaporator components produced mainly dimethyl disulfide. These biofilms, after inoculation with P. viridicatum, produced offensive smelling alcohols and esters such as 2-methyl propanol, 3-penten-2-ol, and the ethyl ester of butanoic acid. The moisture and substrates innate to the automobile air conditioning systems provided an environment suitable for microbial biofilm development and odor production. Reduction of retained moisture in the air conditioning system coupled with use of less susceptible or antimicrobial substrates are advised for remediation of the noxious odors. PMID:10915209

  5. Novel approach to characterize and compare the performance of night vision systems in representative illumination conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Nathalie; Vallières, Alexandre; St-Germain, Daniel; Potvin, Simon; Dupuis, Michel; Bouchard, Jean-Claude; Villemaire, André; Bérubé, Martin; Breton, Mélanie; Gagné, Guillaume

    2016-05-01

    A novel approach is used to characterize and compare the performance of night vision systems in conditions more representative of night operation in terms of spectral content. Its main advantage compared to standard testing methodologies is that it provides a fast and efficient way for untrained observers to compare night vision system performances with realistic illumination spectra. The testing methodology relies on a custom tumbling-E target and on a new LED-based illumination source that better emulates night sky spectral irradiances from deep overcast starlight to quarter-moon conditions. In this paper, we describe the setup and we demonstrate that the novel approach can be an efficient method to characterize among others night vision goggles (NVG) performances with a small error on the photogenerated electrons compared to the STANAG 4351 procedure.

  6. A Recursive Multiscale Correlation-Averaging Algorithm for an Automated Distributed Road Condition Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Ndoye, Mandoye; Barker, Alan M; Krogmeier, James; Bullock, Darcy

    2011-01-01

    A signal processing approach is proposed to jointly filter and fuse spatially indexed measurements captured from many vehicles. It is assumed that these measurements are influenced by both sensor noise and measurement indexing uncertainties. Measurements from low-cost vehicle-mounted sensors (e.g., accelerometers and Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers) are properly combined to produce higher quality road roughness data for cost-effective road surface condition monitoring. The proposed algorithms are recursively implemented and thus require only moderate computational power and memory space. These algorithms are important for future road management systems, which will use on-road vehicles as a distributed network of sensing probes gathering spatially indexed measurements for condition monitoring, in addition to other applications, such as environmental sensing and/or traffic monitoring. Our method and the related signal processing algorithms have been successfully tested using field data.

  7. Linear stable unity-feedback system - Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability under nonlinear plant perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desoer, C. A.; Kabuli, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors consider a linear (not necessarily time-invariant) stable unity-feedback system, where the plant and the compensator have normalized right-coprime factorizations. They study two cases of nonlinear plant perturbations (additive and feedback), with four subcases resulting from: (1) allowing exogenous input to Delta P or not; 2) allowing the observation of the output of Delta P or not. The plant perturbation Delta P is not required to be stable. Using the factorization approach, the authors obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for all cases in terms of two pairs of nonlinear pseudostate maps. Simple physical considerations explain the form of these necessary and sufficient conditions. Finally, the authors obtain the characterization of all perturbations Delta P for which the perturbed system remains stable.

  8. Instability conditions for some periodic BGK waves in the Vlasov-Poisson system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankavich, Stephen; Allen, Robert

    2014-12-01

    A one-dimensional, collisionless plasma given by the Vlasov-Poisson system is considered and the stability properties of periodic steady state solutions known as Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) waves are investigated. Sufficient conditions are determined under which BGK waves are linearly unstable under perturbations that share the same period as the equilibria. It is also shown that such solutions cannot support a monotonically decreasing particle distribution function.

  9. Application information on typical hygrometers used in heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, J.Y.; Snyder, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    Hygrometer selection information is provided for application in heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A general review of hygrometer literature has been provided and the most commonly used ones for HVAC are discussed. Typical hygrometer parameters are listed to indicate the type of performance that can be expected. Laboratory test results of self-regulating, salt-phase transition hygrometers are presented and discussed in detail.

  10. Development of a system to measure local measurement conditions around textile electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Saim; Oliveira, Joana; Roethlingshoefer, Lisa; Leonhard, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    The three main influence factors on the interface between textile electrode an skin are: temperature, contact pressure and relative humidity. This paper presents first results of a prototype, which measures these local measurement conditions around textile electrodes. The wearable prototype is a data acquisition system based on a microcontroller with a flexible sensor sleeve. Validation measurements included variation of ambient temperature, contact pressures and sleeve material. Results show a good correlation with data found in literature. PMID:21096676

  11. Modulation of cannabinoid signaling by amygdala α2-adrenergic system in fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Zamanparvar, Majid; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-03-01

    The noradrenergic system plays a critical role in the modulation of emotional state, primarily related to anxiety, arousal, and stress. Growing evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system mediates stress responses and emotional homeostasis, in part, by targeting noradrenergic circuits. In addition, there is an interaction between the cannabinoid and noradrenergic system that has significant functional and behavioral implications. Considering the importance of these systems in forming memories for fearful events, we have investigated the involvement of basolateral amygdala (BLA) α2-adrenoceptors on ACPA (as selective cannabinoid CB1 agonist)-induced inhibition of the acquisition of contextual and auditory conditioned fear. A contextual and auditory fear conditioning apparatus for assess fear memory in adult male NMRI mice was used. Pre-training, intraperitoneal administration of ACPA decreased the percentage freezing time in contextual (at doses of 0.05 and 0.1mg/kg) and auditory (at dose of 0.1 mg/kg) in the fear conditioning task, indicating memory acquisition deficit. The same result was observed with intra-BLA microinjection of clonidine (0.001-0.5 μg/mouse, for both memories), as α2-adrenoceptor agonist and yohimbine (at doses of 0.005 and 0.05 for contextual and at dose of 0.05 μg/mouse for auditory fear memory), as α2-adrenoceptor antagonist. In addition, intra-BLA microinjection of clonidine (0.0005 μg/mouse) did not alter ACPA response in both conditions, while the same dose of yohimbine potentiated ACPA response at the lower dose on contextual fear memory. It is concluded that BLA α2-adrenergic receptors may be involved in context- but not tone-dependent fear memory impairment induced by activation of CB1 receptors. PMID:26698395

  12. Morphological analysis of galvanized coating applied under vibrowave process system conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, V. A.; Ivanov, V. V.; Fedorov, V. P.

    2016-04-01

    The article presents the morphological research results of galvanized coating applied to the metal surface in the course of mechanical and chemical synthesis realized under vibrowave process system conditions. The paper reveals the specifics of the coating morphology, its activating role in free-moving indentors formed under the impact of low-frequency vibrations and its positive influence on the operational performance of the part surface layer. The advantages of this galvanized coating application method are presented in comparison with conventional methods.

  13. Recomposing a fragmented literature: how conditional and relational arguments engage different neural systems for deductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Prado, Jérôme; Van Der Henst, Jean-Baptiste; Noveck, Ira A

    2010-07-01

    Deductive reasoning is traditionally viewed as a unitary process involving either rule-based or visuo-spatial mechanisms. However, there is a disagreement in the neuroimaging literature on whether the data support one alternative over the other. Here we test the hypothesis that discrepancies in the literature result from the reasoning materials themselves. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measure brain activity of participants while they integrate the premises of conditional arguments (primarily Modus Tollens: If P then Q; not-Q) and Relational Syllogisms (i.e., linear arguments of the sort P is to the left of Q; Q is to the left of R). We find that reasoning with Modus Tollens activates the left inferior frontal gyrus to a greater extent than the Relational Syllogisms. In contrast, the Relational Syllogisms engage the right temporo-parieto-occipital junction more than conditional arguments. This suggests that conditional reasoning relies more on so-called syntactic processes than relational reasoning, while relational reasoning may rely on visuo-spatial processes and mental imagery more than conditional reasoning. This investigative approach, together with its results, clarifies some apparently inconsistent findings in this literature by showing that the nature of the logical argument, whether it is relational or conditional, determines which neural system is engaged. PMID:20302951

  14. Effects from magnetic boundary conditions in superconducting-magnetic proximity systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Thomas E.; Bill, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    A superconductor-magnetic proximity system displays singlet-triplet pair correlations in the magnetization as a function of inhomogeneities of the magnetic profile. We discuss how the magnetic boundary conditions affects differently the curvature and winding number of rotating magnetizations in the three commonly used structures to generate long range triplet components: an exchange spring, a helical structure and a misaligned magnetic multilayer. We conclude that the choice of the system is dictated by the goal one wishes to achieve in designing a spintronic device but note that only the exchange spring presently offers an experimentally realizable magnetic profile that is tunable.

  15. A ground test program to support condition monitoring of a spacecraft attitude control propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Douglas J.; Lester, Robert W.; Baroth, Edmund C.; Coleman, Arthur L.

    1991-01-01

    The Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission involves seven years of flight from 0.6 to 4.57 Astronomical Units (AU), followed by about 915 days of maneuvering around a comet. Ground testing will characterize the very critical attitude control system thrusters' fuel consumption and performance for all anticipated fuel temperatures over thruster life. The ground test program characterization will support flight condition monitoring. A commercial software application hosted on a commercial microcomputer will control ground test operations and data acquisition using a newly designed thrust stand. The data acquisition and control system uses a graphics-based language and features a visual interface to integrate data acquisition and control.

  16. Method of Power System Suistanable Development Optimization in Liberalized Market Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcik, M.; Oleinikova, I.; Krishans, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The paper is focused on the development of the Baltic Sea region taking into account the new EU energy policy. The authors elucidate the current situation and the power system infrastructure projects of the region. For the economic analysis and optimization of the development plans a method is proposed that takes into account the outlooks for upcoming 20-50 years and the initial information uncertainty. The method makes possible estimation of the technically-economic state, including market conditions, for a given power system.

  17. Hydrologic budgets of regional aquifer systems of the United States for predevelopment and development conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, Richard H.

    1997-01-01

    Ground-water budgets are presented in this report for 14 regionally extensive aquifer systems; pumpage from 11 of these systems provided from 40 to 50 percent of the ground water withdrawn in the United States during the 1970's and 1980's. The budgets are based on simulation results from computer-based models developed as part of the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Most of the models cover large areas (30,000-300,000 square miles) and generally are constructed with coarse-mesh finite-difference grids designed to simulate regional ground-water flow. The groundwater budgets derived from these models generally do not include local flow that enters and exits regional aquifers after traveling only a few miles or flow in overlying surficial aquifers. Budgets are presented for predevelopment and recent pumping conditions for most of the aquifer systems.

  18. Improved stability conditions for uncertain neutral-type systems with time-varying delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yu; Feng, Zhiguang; Sun, Guanghui

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates the robust stability problem for a class of uncertain neutral-type delayed systems. The systems under consideration contain parameter uncertainties and time-varying delays. We aim at designing less conservative robust stability criteria for such systems. A new second-order reciprocally convex inequality is first proposed in order to deal with double integral terms. Then, by constructing a new Lyapunov- Krasovskii functional and employing the improved Wirtinger-based integral inequality and the reciprocally convex combination approaches, novel stability criteria are obtained. Moreover, the stability conditions for standard time-delay system are obtained as by-product results. Comparisons in three numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of our results.

  19. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility process water conditioning system design description

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Process Water Conditioning (PWC) System. The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the PWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  20. Multiple electron transfer systems in oxygen reducing biocathodes revealed by different conditions of aeration/agitation.

    PubMed

    Rimboud, Mickaël; Bergel, Alain; Erable, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Oxygen reducing biocathodes were formed at -0.2V/SCE (+0.04V/SHE) from compost leachate. Depending on whether aeration was implemented or not, two different redox systems responsible for the electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction were evidenced. System I was observed at low potential (-0.03V/SHE) on cyclic voltammetries (CVs). It appeared during the early formation of the biocathode (few hours) and resisted the hydrodynamic conditions induced by the aeration. System II was observed at higher potential on CV (+0.46V/SHE); it required a longer lag time (up to 10days) and quiescent conditions to produce an electrochemical signal. The hydrodynamic effects produced by the forced aeration led to its extinction. From their different behaviors and examples in the literature, system I was identified as being a membrane-bound cytochrome-related molecule, while system II was identified as a soluble redox mediator excreted by the biofilm. This study highlighted the importance of controlling the local hydrodynamics to design efficient oxygen reducing biocathodes able to operate at high potential. PMID:27035588

  1. Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump Chiller for Air-Conditioning and Hot Water Supply Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Mita, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tadashi; Hoshino, Norimasa; Kimura, Yoshihisa

    In Part 1 of this study, the performance characteristics of a 457kW gas engine-driven heat pump (GHP) chiller have been obtained from a simulation model analysis for both cooling and heating modes and it has been found that the part-load characteristics of the GHP chiller are fairly well. On the back of Part 1, a computer simulation program has been developed for the evaluation of GHP chiller systems to compare with the other types of heat source systems for air-conditioning and hot water supply applications. The simulation program can be used to estimate annual energy consumption, annual CO2 emission, etc. of the systems with the data of monthly and hourly thermal loads on various buildings, outdoor air conditions, and characteristics of various components comprising the systems. By applying this to some cases of medium-scale hotel, office, shop, and hospital buildings, it has been found that the GHP chiller systems have advantages particularly in the cases of hotels and hospitals where a lot of hot water demand exists. It has also been found that the combination of a GHP chiller and a direct-fired absorption water chiller boiler (hot and chilled water generator) appears promising.

  2. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system for high temperature performance testing of VHTR fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Demkowicz; David V. Laug; Dawn M. Scates; Edward L. Reber; Lyle G. Roybal; John B. Walter; Jason M. Harp; Robert N. Morris

    2012-10-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation of TRISO-coated particle fuel specimens was recently completed and represents the most successful such irradiation in US history, reaching peak burnups of greater than 19% FIMA with zero failures out of 300,000 particles. An extensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) campaign will be conducted on the AGR-1 fuel in order to characterize the irradiated fuel properties, assess the in-pile fuel performance in terms of coating integrity and fission metals release, and determine the fission product retention behavior during high temperature safety testing. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000 degrees C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, and Eu), iodine, and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system and the associated fission gas monitoring system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  3. Chaotic dynamics of one-dimensional systems with periodic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Miller, Bruce N.

    2014-12-01

    We provide appropriate tools for the analysis of dynamics and chaos for one-dimensional systems with periodic boundary conditions. Our approach allows for the investigation of the dependence of the largest Lyapunov exponent on various initial conditions of the system. The method employs an effective approach for defining the phase-space distance appropriate for systems with periodic boundaries and allows for an unambiguous test-orbit rescaling in the phase space required to calculate the Lyapunov exponents. We elucidate our technique by applying it to investigate the chaotic dynamics of a one-dimensional plasma with periodic boundaries. Exact analytic expressions are derived for the electric field and potential using Ewald sums, thereby making it possible to follow the time evolution of the plasma in simulations without any special treatment of the boundary. By employing a set of event-driven algorithms, we calculate the largest Lyapunov exponent, the radial distribution function, and the pressure by following the evolution of the system in phase space without resorting to numerical manipulation of the equations of motion. Simulation results are presented and analyzed for the one-dimensional plasma with a view to examining the dynamical and chaotic behavior exhibited by small and large versions of the system.

  4. Liquid Methane/Liquid Oxygen Propellant Conditioning Feed System (PCFS) Test Rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skaff, A.; Grasl, S.; Nguyen, C.; Hockenberry S.; Schubert, J.; Arrington, L.; Vasek, T.

    2008-01-01

    As part of their Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) program, NASA has embarked upon an effort to develop chemical rocket engines which utilize non-toxic, cryogenic propellants such as liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4). This effort includes the development and testing of a 100 lbf Reaction Control Engine (RCE) that will be used to evaluate the performance of a LO2/LCH4 rocket engine over a broad range of propellant temperatures and pressures. This testing will take place at NASA-Glenn Research Center's (GRC) Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) test facility in Cleveland, OH, and is currently scheduled to begin in late 2008. While the initial tests will be performed at sea level, follow-on testing will be performed at NASA-GRC's Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS) for altitude testing. In support of these tests, Sierra Lobo, Inc. (SLI) has designed, developed, and fabricated two separate portable propellant feed systems under the Propellant Conditioning and Feed System (PCFS) task: one system for LCH4, and one for LO2. These systems will be capable of supplying propellants over a large range of conditions from highly densified to several hundred pounds per square inch (psi) saturated. This paper presents the details of the PCFS design and explores the full capability of these propellant feed systems.

  5. Field study of the impact of a desktop task/ambient conditioning system in office buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, F.S.; Carter, T.G.; Baughman, A.V.; Arens, E.A.

    1998-10-01

    A field study was carried out to assess the impact of installing a desktop task/ambient conditioning (TAC) system at 42 selected workstations within three San Francisco office buildings occupied by a large financial institution. In this study, field measurements, including subjective surveys and physical monitoring, were performed both before and after the TAC system installation to evaluate the impact of the TAC system on occupant satisfaction and thermal comfort, as well as the thermal environments within the office buildings. For comparative purposes within each building, a control group, consisting of workers who did not receive a desktop TAC unit, was studied concurrently. During the follow-up field tests, performed three months after the TAC system installation, measurements were repeated under three different room temperature setpoint conditions (normal, set-up, and set-down) to investigate the ability of the occupants to use the desktop TAC units to control their local environment in response to a wider range of ambient temperatures. Survey results show that among the six building assessment categories investigated, installation of the desktop TAC system provided the largest increases in overall occupant satisfaction for thermal quality, acoustical quality, and air quality.

  6. Automatic detection system for cough sounds as a symptom of abnormal health condition.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sung-Hwan; Hashimoto, Takeo; Hatano, Shigeko

    2009-07-01

    The problem of attending to the health of the aged who live alone has became an important issue in developed countries. One way of solving the problem is to check their health condition by a remote-monitoring technique and support them with well-timed treatment. The purpose of this study is to develop an automatic system that can monitor a health condition in real time using acoustical information and detect an abnormal symptom. In this study, cough sound was chosen as a representative acoustical symptom of abnormal health conditions. For the development of the system distinguishing a cough sound from other environmental sounds, a hybrid model was proposed that consists of an artificial neural network (ANN) model and a hidden Markov model (HMM). The ANN model used energy cepstral coefficients obtained by filter banks based on human auditory characteristics as input parameters representing a spectral feature of a sound signal. Subsequently, an output of this ANN model and a filtered envelope of the signal were used for making an input sequence for the HMM that deals with the temporal variation of the sound signal. Compared with the conventional HMM using Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, the proposed hybrid model improved recognition rates on low SNR from 5 dB down to -10 dB. Finally, a preliminary prototype of the automatic detection system was simply illustrated. PMID:19273017

  7. Measurement of thermal regain in duct systems located in partially conditioned buffer spaces. Informal report

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.W.

    1994-07-01

    Thermal losses from duct systems have been shown to be a significant fraction of the heat or cooling energy delivered by the space-conditioning equipment. However, when the ducts are located in a partially conditioned buffer space such as a basement, a portion of these losses are effectively regained through system interactions with the building. This paper presents two methods of measuring this regain effect. One is based on the relative thermal resistances between the conditioned space and the buffer space, on the one hand, and between the buffer space and the outside, on the other. The second method is based on a measured drop in the buffer-space temperature when steps are taken to reduce the duct losses. The second method is compared with results of an extensive research project that are published in a major professional society handbook. The thermal regain fraction using the drop in basement temperature was found to be 0.68, while that obtained from an analysis of the system performance data, without using the basement temperature, was 0.59.

  8. Systemic psychotherapy with families where someone has an autism spectrum condition

    PubMed Central

    Helps, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Families play an important role in facilitating the development and well-being of children with autism spectrum conditions. OBJECTIVES: After setting the scene with a clinical example, and providing a brief discussion of the current thinking about the aetiology of Autism spectrum conditions, this paper provides a review of the literature regarding the practice of systemic psychotherapy with families in which a child has an autism spectrum condition (ASC). METHODS: A search of databases and journals revealed a large number of opinion papers regarding how family therapists might work with families of children with ASCs and a smaller number of papers that describe or explore actual clinical practice. RESULTS: Pilot studies using qualitative methods and practice-based evidence in the form of descriptions of clinical work offer a solid footing on which to develop systemic practice to help families where a person has an ASC. CONCLUSION: Given the multifactorial nature of the aetiology of ASCs it is suggested that systemic interventions have the potential to influence changes at multiple levels of functioning for the child and the family. PMID:27030899

  9. An efficient recursive least square-based condition monitoring approach for a rail vehicle suspension system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. Y.; Alfi, S.; Bruni, S.

    2016-06-01

    A model-based condition monitoring strategy for the railway vehicle suspension is proposed in this paper. This approach is based on recursive least square (RLS) algorithm focusing on the deterministic 'input-output' model. RLS has Kalman filtering feature and is able to identify the unknown parameters from a noisy dynamic system by memorising the correlation properties of variables. The identification of suspension parameter is achieved by machine learning of the relationship between excitation and response in a vehicle dynamic system. A fault detection method for the vertical primary suspension is illustrated as an instance of this condition monitoring scheme. Simulation results from the rail vehicle dynamics software 'ADTreS' are utilised as 'virtual measurements' considering a trailer car of Italian ETR500 high-speed train. The field test data from an E464 locomotive are also employed to validate the feasibility of this strategy for the real application. Results of the parameter identification performed indicate that estimated suspension parameters are consistent or approximate with the reference values. These results provide the supporting evidence that this fault diagnosis technique is capable of paving the way for the future vehicle condition monitoring system.

  10. Condition assessment of the Los Alamos National Laboratory radioactive liquid waste collection system.

    SciTech Connect

    Edgemon, G. L.; Moss, W. D.; Worland, V. P.

    2004-01-01

    The radioactive liquid waste collection system (RLWCS) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANE) is a site-wide double-encased piping system installed in 1982 that allows radioactive liquid waste (RLW) producing facilities to gravity drain their waste to the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility (RLWTF) through a system of underground high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipes and vaults. The RLWCS stretches approximately four miles and typically receives approximately 10,000 gallons of RLW per day for treatment at the RLWTF. Uncertainty of the current condition of the RLWCS was recently identified as a potential risk to the future continued availability of the RLW treatment function. A condition assessment was performed in April 2004 to evaluate the risks and estimate the remaining useful life of the existing RLWCS. Several representative and 'worst-case' RLWCS primary piping sections and their associated inspection vaults were selected for direct visual assessment, remote borescopic examination, and in-situ durometer testing. This field investigation combined with an RLWCS materials compatibility review showed that the primary piping of the RLWCS is in relatively good condition, with only a few noteworthy areas of degradation.

  11. Thermodynamic model of a thermal storage air conditioning system with dynamic behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, E; Wen, SY; Shi, L; da Silva, AK

    2013-12-01

    A thermodynamic model was developed to predict transient behavior of a thermal storage system, using phase change materials (PCMs), for a novel electric vehicle climate conditioning application. The main objectives of the paper are to consider the system's dynamic behavior, such as a dynamic air flow rate into the vehicle's cabin, and to characterize the transient heat transfer process between the thermal storage unit and the vehicle's cabin, while still maintaining accurate solution to the complex phase change heat transfer. The system studied consists of a heat transfer fluid circulating between either of the on-board hot and cold thermal storage units, which we refer to as thermal batteries, and a liquid-air heat exchanger that provides heat exchange with the incoming air to the vehicle cabin. Each thermal battery is a shell-and-tube configuration where a heat transfer fluid flows through parallel tubes, which are surrounded by PCM within a larger shell. The system model incorporates computationally inexpensive semianalytic solution to the conjugated laminar forced convection and phase change problem within the battery and accounts for airside heat exchange using the Number of Transfer Units (NTUs) method for the liquid-air heat exchanger. Using this approach, we are able to obtain an accurate solution to the complex heat transfer problem within the battery while also incorporating the impact of the airside heat transfer on the overall system performance. The implemented model was benchmarked against a numerical study for a melting process and against full system experimental data for solidification using paraffin wax as the PCM. Through modeling, we demonstrate the importance of capturing the airside heat exchange impact on system performance, and we investigate system response to dynamic operating conditions, e.g., air recirculation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Telemedical systems for home monitoring of patients with chronic conditions in rural environment.

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Marcin; Surtel, Wojciech; Wójcik, Waldemar; Masiak, Jolanta; Dzida, Grzegorz; Horoch, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements and possible implementations of a telemedical system. The idea of remote patient monitoring is a point of interest for researchers in Poland, and is also in high demand in fields such as diabetology, cardiology, and geriatrics, among others. Aging society, medical care costs and many other factors make remote patient care a promising idea for the future. For each and every condition, a specialized type of sensor must be used to allow specific measurements to be performed. Moreover, a local data storage and communication device must be provided for the sensor to be able to relay data to the station. A smart phone can be used perform such tasks. By implementing such remote diagnostic systems it is possible to collect, process, store and present vital medical data that can be used immediately to perform diagnosis, or later as reference for expert systems. The 'Borboleta' and 'SaguiSaúde' systems already implemented can serve as a base for system analysis. The systems provide necessary functions and can be used as reference. Many factors contribute to the success of the telemedical system, such as ease of access, scalability, safety, platform independence, and many others. For easier implementation and clarity, the system should be divided into independent layers, which will also make it easier to modify and integrate into other medical systems. Making the system easy to use for patients, medical staff, administrators and data managers makes the task of system design especially challenging. One must decide which information is necessary for each type of user and provide them clearly and in an orderly fashion. PMID:24738518

  13. Condition Management of Marine Lube Oil and the Role of Intelligent Sensor Systems in Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, M.; Baglee, D.

    2012-05-01

    Failures in marine diesel engines can be costly and can cause extreme inconvenience when they result in ships becoming stranded. Lubricating oil is a crucial component in maintaining engine reliability and so monitoring its condition is essential. Furthermore the lubricating oil offers early indication of various other engine faults. Current approaches to oil-based condition monitoring involve samples being sent for land based testing which involves considerable delay during which the situation could deteriorate further. Furthermore there is a substantial risk of contamination. The POSSEIDON project aimed to address this by developing a system involving real-time condition monitoring sensors observing the properties of the lubricating oil. Novel sensors were developed which address the specific issues associated with the marine environment. Furthermore, to complement the sensor system outputs, specific monitoring and diagnosis software has been developed to support the operation of onboard personnel with specific advice. On-line management of engine and lubricant condition aboard the ship may thus be achieved. In this paper we will describe the progress achieved in this area by the recently completed POSSEIDON project, outline the opportunities for ongoing development in this area and describe the roadmap for future development. The Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) paradigm will be applied to identify critical aspects of oil condition and prioritize parameters for measurement. The critical issues for development of the prototype unit into a viable commercial unit will be discussed including hardware design constraints, sensor miniaturization and display optimization. Issues such onboard connectivity, ship to shore communications will also be addressed.

  14. Robotic system for i.v. antineoplastic drug preparation: description and preliminary evaluation under simulated conditions.

    PubMed

    Cote, D D; Torchia, M G

    1989-11-01

    A robotic system for preparing doses of i.v. antineoplastic drugs is described, and measurements made with the system are compared for accuracy and reproducibility with those made by pharmacists and technicians. System hardware consists of a robotic arm, a 16-bit microcomputer, a bar-code reader, a voice synthesizer, and an electronic balance. The software includes a menu-driven main program, executable files for each robotic activity, and an interface to allow control to pass between the program and the files. The program has routines for matching the software to the hardware; for entering information about the patient, the name of the drug ordered, and the dose; for checking the dose; for selecting the number and size of the vials to be used; for specifying the manipulations of the robotic arm; for printing labels; and for maintaining records. The robot fills an order by getting and placing a vial, inserting a needle into it and withdrawing the drug, weighing the vial, agitating the container to dissolve its contents, reading a bar code, placing a syringe in a syringe manipulator, and getting an i.v. container and injecting the drug into it. Detection of any errors by a series of self-checks arrests execution of an order. No significant differences in accuracy and precision were found between the robotic system and humans performing the same tasks under simulated conditions. The robotic system required less time than humans and eliminated the possibility of direct human contact with the i.v. admixture. Under simulated conditions, a robotic system developed to assist in the preparation of i.v. antineoplastic drugs was as accurate as a manual system and was more time efficient. PMID:2589345

  15. Development of a measurement system for the online inspection of microstructured surfaces in harsh industrial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas; Langmann, Benjamin; Reithmeier, Eduard

    2014-05-01

    Microscopic imaging techniques are usually applied for the inspection of microstructured surfaces. These techniques require clean measurement conditions. Soilings, e.g. dust or splashing liquids, can disturb the measurement process or even damage instruments. Since these soilings occur in the majority of manufacturing processes, microscopic inspection usually must be carried out in a separate laboratory. We present a measurement system which allows for a microscopic inspection and a 3D reconstruction of microstructured surfaces in harsh industrial conditions. The measurement system also enables precise positioning, e.g. of a grinding wheel, with an accuracy of 5 μm. The main component of the measurement system is a CCD camera with a high-magnification telecentric lens. By means of this camera it is even possible to measure structures with dimensions in the range of 30 to 50 μm. The camera and the lens are integrated into a waterproof and dustproof enclosure. The inspection window of the enclosure has an air curtain which serves as a splash guard. The workpiece illumination is crucial in order to obtain good measurement results. The measuring system includes high-power LEDs which are integrated in a waterproof enclosure. The measurement system also includes a laser with a specially designed lens system to form an extremely narrow light section on the workpiece surface. It is possible to obtain a line width of 25 μm. This line and the camera with the high-magnification telecentric lens are used to perform a laser triangulation of the microstructured surface. This paper describes the system as well as the development and evaluation of the software for the automatic positioning of the workpiece and the automatic three-dimensional surface analysis.

  16. Development of a wireless bridge monitoring system for condition assessment using hybrid techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Matthew J.; Fuchs, Michael P.; Gangone, Michael V.; Janoyan, Kerop D.

    2007-04-01

    The introduction and development of wireless sensor network technology has resulted in rapid growth within the field of structural health monitoring (SHM), as the dramatic cable costs associated with instrumentation of large civil structures is potentially alleviated. Traditionally, condition assessment of bridge structures is accomplished through the use of either vibration measurements or strain sensing. One approach is through quantifying dynamic characteristics and mode shapes developed through the use of relatively dense arrays of accelerometers. Another widely utilized method of condition assessment is bridge load rating, which is enabled through the use of strain sensors. The Wireless Sensor Solution (WSS) developed specifically for diagnostic bridge monitoring provides a hybrid system that interfaces with both accelerometers and strain sensors to facilitate vibration-based bridge evaluation as well as load rating and static analysis on a universal platform. This paper presents the development and testing of a wireless bridge monitoring system designed within the Laboratory for Intelligent Infrastructure and Transportation Technologies (LIITT) at Clarkson University. The system interfaces with low-cost MEMS accelerometers using custom signal conditioning for amplification and filtering tailored to the spectrum of typical bridge vibrations, specifically from ambient excitation. Additionally, a signal conditioning and high resolution ADC interface is provided for strain gauge sensors. To permit compensation for the influence of temperature, thermistor-based temperature sensing is also enabled. In addition to the hardware description, this paper presents features of the software applications and host interface developed for flexible, user-friendly in-network control of and acquisition from the sensor nodes. The architecture of the software radio protocol is also discussed along with results of field deployments including relatively large-scale networks and

  17. Dynamic Performance of Maximum Power Point Trackers in TEG Systems Under Rapidly Changing Temperature Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, E. A.; Sera, D.; Mathe, L.; Schaltz, E.; Rosendahl, L.

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is widely discussed and equipment has been built that can perform such analysis. One method is often used to perform such characterization: constant temperature with variable thermal power input. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods for TEG systems are mostly tested under steady-state conditions for different constant input temperatures. However, for most TEG applications, the input temperature gradient changes, exposing the MPPT to variable tracking conditions. An example is the exhaust pipe on hybrid vehicles, for which, because of the intermittent operation of the internal combustion engine, the TEG and its MPPT controller are exposed to a cyclic temperature profile. Furthermore, there are no guidelines on how fast the MPPT must be under such dynamic conditions. In the work discussed in this paper, temperature gradients for TEG integrated in several applications were evaluated; the results showed temperature variation up to 5°C/s for TEG systems. Electrical characterization of a calcium-manganese oxide TEG was performed at steady-state for different input temperatures and a maximum temperature of 401°C. By using electrical data from characterization of the oxide module, a solar array simulator was emulated to perform as a TEG. A trapezoidal temperature profile with different gradients was used on the TEG simulator to evaluate the dynamic MPPT efficiency. It is known that the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm may have difficulty accurately tracking under rapidly changing conditions. To solve this problem, a compromise must be found between the magnitude of the increment and the sampling frequency of the control algorithm. The standard P&O performance was evaluated experimentally by using different temperature gradients for different MPPT sampling frequencies, and efficiency values are provided for all cases. The results showed that a tracking speed of 2.5 Hz can be successfully implemented on a TEG

  18. Definition of boundary and initial conditions in the analysis of saturated ground-water flow systems; an introduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franke, O.L.; Reilly, T.E.; Bennett, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    Accurate definition of boundary and initial conditions is an essential part of conceptualizing and modeling ground-water flow systems. This report explains the properties of the seven most common boundary conditions encountered in ground-water systems and discusses major aspects of their application. It also discusses the significance and specification of initial conditions and evaluates some common errors in applying this concept to ground-water system models. (USGS)

  19. Study on an Efficient Dehumidifying Air-conditioning System utilizing Phase Change of Intermediate Pressure Refrigerant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Kensaku; Inaba, Hideo

    The present study has proven a new dehumidifying system that aimed to reduce the sensible heat factor(SHF) of cooling process without using additional heat to relieve the internationally indicated conflict between energy saving and dehumidification necessary for keeping adequate indoor air quality (IAQ). In this system, we used intermediate pressure refrigerant in a vapor compression refrigerating cycle as heat transfer medium of a characteristic heat exchanger to precool the process air entering into an evaporator as well as to reheat the process air leaving from the evaporator. By this system, the present results achieved higher moisture removal and consequently higher efficiency of dehumidifying process. In addition to this fact, since this system has capability of integration into air-conditioning apparatus(HVAC system), it will be able to work for wide range of cooling load by variable SHF function. In the present paper, technical information, experimental results, and simulation results which assumed to apply this system into HVAC system are reported.

  20. Turbulent Drag Reduction with Surfactant Additives — Basic Research and Application to an Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Y.; Li, F. C.; Yu, B.; Wei, J. J.

    It is well known that a small amount of chemicals such as water-soluble polymers or surfactants dramatically suppresses turbulence when they are added to liquid flow at large Reynolds number. In the last two decades, the application of surfactants to heat transportation systems such as district heating and cooling systems has attracted much interest among researchers. It has been revealed that 70% of the pumping power used to drive hot water in primary pipelines or district heating systems was saved by adding only a few hundred ppm of surfactant into the circulating water. The technological achievement requires a new design strategy for pipeline networks and heat exchangers to handle the drag reducing liquid flow. In the case of a Newtonian fluid such as water or air, the knowledge for designing fluid systems has been accumulated and the accuracy of numerical prediction is sufficient. On the other hand, the design system for surfactant solutions is not mature because drag-reducing flow phenomena are much more complicated than for Newtonian flow, for example, the friction factor for a surfactant solution depends not only on Reynolds number but also pipe diameter. In order to provide a design strategy for heat transportation systems using surfactant additives, we are now carrying out both experimental and numerical studies for surfactant solutions. In this lecture, experimental and numerical studies on the turbulence structure in drag reducing flow will be introduced. The result of an application study relating to the air conditioning system will be also shown.

  1. In Search of Concomitant Alterations of Dopaminergic and Neurotensinergic Systems in Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina; Antonelli, Marta C

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present article is to review experimental evidence which suggest joint involvement of both the dopaminergic and neurotensinergic systems in stress conditions. At present, the concept of stress refers to an environmental demand exceeding the normal regulatory ability of an organism, particularly during unpredictable and uncontrollable situations. Chronic stress yields devastating effects including cognitive and working memory dysfunctions, for which neurotransmission mediated by the catecholamines dopamine and noradrenaline is crucial. Catecholamine synthesis depends on the rate-limiting enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase, whose expression is associated with working memory and the response to chronic stress. Neurotensin is a tridecapeptide widely distributed in the nervous system, at both central and peripheral levels, which behaves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. It mediates diverse biological actions including reward, locomotion, pain modulation and stress. Neurotensin and its high affinity NTS1 receptor are densely localized in areas that process emotion (amygdala nucleus), cognition (such as hippocampal nuclei and cortical areas) and the response to stress (hypothalamic nucleus). Experimental evidence indicates a crosstalk between the dopaminergic and the neurotensinergic systems either from an anatomical or a biochemical point of view. It is suggested that a concomitant alteration of dopaminergic and neurotensinergic systems takes place in diverse stress conditions. PMID:26869038

  2. Evaluation of Power Conditioning Architectures for Energy Production Enhancement in Thermoelectric Generator Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hongfei; Sun, Kai; Chen, Min; Xing, Yan

    2014-06-01

    A large-scale thermoelectric generator (TEG) system has an unbalanced temperature distribution among the TEG modules, which leads to power mismatch among the modules and decreases the power output of the TEG system. To maximize the power output and minimize the power conversion loss, a centralized-distributed hybrid power conditioning architecture is presented, analyzed, and evaluated for a TEG system. The novel architecture is a combination of a conventional centralized architecture and a fully distributed architecture. By using the proposed architecture, most of the harvested power is processed by the centralized stage while only the mismatched power among the TEG modules is processed by the distributed stages. As a result, accurate and distributed maximum-power-point tracking (MPPT) for each TEG module and single-stage power conversion between the modules and load can be achieved. It offers the benefit of implementing high MPPT efficiency and high conversion efficiency simultaneously. A 50-W TEG system composed of two TEG modules is built and tested. Experimental results show that the proposed hybrid power conditioning architecture generates up to 5% more energy for a temperature difference between the two modules of only 10°C.

  3. The auxin-inducible degradation (AID) system enables versatile conditional protein depletion in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangyu; Ward, Jordan D; Cheng, Ze; Dernburg, Abby F

    2015-12-15

    Experimental manipulation of protein abundance in living cells or organisms is an essential strategy for investigation of biological regulatory mechanisms. Whereas powerful techniques for protein expression have been developed in Caenorhabditis elegans, existing tools for conditional disruption of protein function are far more limited. To address this, we have adapted the auxin-inducible degradation (AID) system discovered in plants to enable conditional protein depletion in C. elegans. We report that expression of a modified Arabidopsis TIR1 F-box protein mediates robust auxin-dependent depletion of degron-tagged targets. We document the effectiveness of this system for depletion of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in diverse somatic and germline tissues throughout development. Target proteins were depleted in as little as 20-30 min, and their expression could be re-established upon auxin removal. We have engineered strains expressing TIR1 under the control of various promoter and 3' UTR sequences to drive tissue-specific or temporally regulated expression. The degron tag can be efficiently introduced by CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing. We have harnessed this system to explore the roles of dynamically expressed nuclear hormone receptors in molting, and to analyze meiosis-specific roles for proteins required for germ line proliferation. Together, our results demonstrate that the AID system provides a powerful new tool for spatiotemporal regulation and analysis of protein function in a metazoan model organism. PMID:26552885

  4. The auxin-inducible degradation (AID) system enables versatile conditional protein depletion in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liangyu; Ward, Jordan D.; Cheng, Ze; Dernburg, Abby F.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental manipulation of protein abundance in living cells or organisms is an essential strategy for investigation of biological regulatory mechanisms. Whereas powerful techniques for protein expression have been developed in Caenorhabditis elegans, existing tools for conditional disruption of protein function are far more limited. To address this, we have adapted the auxin-inducible degradation (AID) system discovered in plants to enable conditional protein depletion in C. elegans. We report that expression of a modified Arabidopsis TIR1 F-box protein mediates robust auxin-dependent depletion of degron-tagged targets. We document the effectiveness of this system for depletion of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in diverse somatic and germline tissues throughout development. Target proteins were depleted in as little as 20-30 min, and their expression could be re-established upon auxin removal. We have engineered strains expressing TIR1 under the control of various promoter and 3′ UTR sequences to drive tissue-specific or temporally regulated expression. The degron tag can be efficiently introduced by CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing. We have harnessed this system to explore the roles of dynamically expressed nuclear hormone receptors in molting, and to analyze meiosis-specific roles for proteins required for germ line proliferation. Together, our results demonstrate that the AID system provides a powerful new tool for spatiotemporal regulation and analysis of protein function in a metazoan model organism. PMID:26552885

  5. Evaluation of solid-state camera systems in varying illumination conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laitinen, Jyrki; Saviaro, Jani; Ailisto, Heikki J.

    2001-06-01

    We propose a practical method for the expeditious determination of the performance of imaging CCD and CMOS camera systems. Special attention is paid to the operation of these devices in varying illumination conditions, which is typical to many surveillance and consumer electronics applications. One emerging application utilizing imaging sensors in variable illumination conditions is the third generation mobile phone, which will deliver wirelessly pictures, graphics, and video. In our method, determination of the system performance is based on the imaging of a calibrated gray scale test chart as a function of illuminance. At each level of illumination the system response is characterized by a signal to random noise figure. The signal is calculated as the difference of the system response to the lightest and darkest areas of the gray scale. The random noise is measured as the standard deviation of the gray values in a difference of two successive images of the test pattern. The proposed method is applied in three exemplary cases: (1) comparison of inexpensive CCD and CMOS cameras, (2) analysis of the effect of wireless image transmission, and (3) comparison of the effects of automatic and manual gain controls.

  6. Some effects of adverse weather conditions on performance of airplane antiskid braking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.; Mccarty, J. L.; Tanner, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The performance of current antiskid braking systems operating under adverse weather conditions was analyzed in an effort to both identify the causes of locked-wheel skids which sometimes occur when the runway is slippery and to find possible solutions to this operational problem. This analysis was made possible by the quantitative test data provided by recently completed landing research programs using fully instrumented flight test airplanes and was further supported by tests performed at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility. The antiskid system logic for brake control and for both touchdown and locked-wheel protection is described and its response behavior in adverse weather is discussed in detail with the aid of available data. The analysis indicates that the operational performance of the antiskid logic circuits is highly dependent upon wheel spin-up acceleration and can be adversely affected by certain pilot braking inputs when accelerations are low. Normal antiskid performance is assured if the tire-to-runway traction is sufficient to provide high wheel spin-up accelerations or if the system is provided a continuous, accurate ground speed reference. The design of antiskid systems is complicated by the necessity for tradeoffs between tire braking and cornering capabilities, both of which are necessary to provide safe operations in the presence of cross winds, particularly under slippery runway conditions.

  7. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wetter, Michael

    2009-06-17

    This paper presents a freely available Modelica library for building heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. The library is based on the Modelica.Fluid library. It has been developed to support research and development of integrated building energy and control systems. The primary applications are controls design, energy analysis and model-based operation. The library contains dynamic and steady-state component models that are applicable for analyzing fast transients when designing control algorithms and for conducting annual simulations when assessing energy performance. For most models, dimensional analysis is used to compute the performance for operating points that differ from nominal conditions. This allows parameterizing models in the absence of detailed geometrical information which is often impractical to obtain during the conceptual design phase of building systems. In the first part of this paper, the library architecture and the main classes are described. In the second part, an example is presented in which we implemented a model of a hydronic heating system with thermostatic radiator valves and thermal energy storage.

  8. Scattering noise estimation of range-gated imaging system in turbid condition.

    PubMed

    Tan, ChingSeong; Seet, Gerald; Sluzek, Andrzej; Wang, Xin; Yuen, Chai Tong; Fam, Chen Yep; Wong, Hin Yong

    2010-09-27

    The range-gated imaging systems are reliable underwater imaging system with the capability to minimize backscattering effect from turbid media. The tail-gating technique has been developed to fine tune the signal to backscattering ratio and hence improve the gated image quality. However, the tail-gating technique has limited image quality enhancement in high turbidity levels. In this paper, we developed a numerical model of range-gated underwater imaging system for near target in turbid medium. The simulation results matched the experimental work favorably. Further investigation using this numerical model shows that the multiple scattering components of the backscattering noise dominate for propagation length larger than 4.2 Attenuation Length (AL). This has limited the enhancement of tail-gating technique in high turbidity conditions. PMID:20941011

  9. Air-condition Control System of Weaving Workshop Based on LabVIEW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jian

    The project of air-condition measurement and control system based on LabVIEW is put forward for the sake of controlling effectively the environmental targets in the weaving workshop. In this project, which is based on the virtual instrument technology and in which LabVIEW development platform by NI is adopted, the system is constructed on the basis of the virtual instrument technology. It is composed of the upper PC, central control nodes based on CC2530, sensor nodes, sensor modules and executive device. Fuzzy control algorithm is employed to achieve the accuracy control of the temperature and humidity. A user-friendly man-machine interaction interface is designed with virtual instrument technology at the core of the software. It is shown by experiments that the measurement and control system can run stably and reliably and meet the functional requirements for controlling the weaving workshop.

  10. Condition-based diagnosis of mechatronic systems using a fractional calculus approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Carvajal, Ricardo Enrique; Flávio de Melo, Leonimer; Maurício Rosário, João; Tenreiro Machado, J. A.

    2016-07-01

    While fractional calculus (FC) is as old as integer calculus, its application has been mainly restricted to mathematics. However, many real systems are better described using FC equations than with integer models. FC is a suitable tool for describing systems characterised by their fractal nature, long-term memory and chaotic behaviour. It is a promising methodology for failure analysis and modelling, since the behaviour of a failing system depends on factors that increase the model's complexity. This paper explores the proficiency of FC in modelling complex behaviour by tuning only a few parameters. This work proposes a novel two-step strategy for diagnosis, first modelling common failure conditions and, second, by comparing these models with real machine signals and using the difference to feed a computational classifier. Our proposal is validated using an electrical motor coupled with a mechanical gear reducer.

  11. High throughput screening of particle conditioning operations: I. System design and method development.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Aaron; Huffman, Ben; Godavarti, Ranga; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel; Coffman, Jonathan; Sunasara, Khurram; Mukhopadhyay, Tarit

    2015-08-01

    The biotech industry is under increasing pressure to decrease both time to market and development costs. Simultaneously, regulators are expecting increased process understanding. High throughput process development (HTPD) employs small volumes, parallel processing, and high throughput analytics to reduce development costs and speed the development of novel therapeutics. As such, HTPD is increasingly viewed as integral to improving developmental productivity and deepening process understanding. Particle conditioning steps such as precipitation and flocculation may be used to aid the recovery and purification of biological products. In this first part of two articles, we describe an ultra scale-down system (USD) for high throughput particle conditioning (HTPC) composed of off-the-shelf components. The apparatus is comprised of a temperature-controlled microplate with magnetically driven stirrers and integrated with a Tecan liquid handling robot. With this system, 96 individual reaction conditions can be evaluated in parallel, including downstream centrifugal clarification. A comprehensive suite of high throughput analytics enables measurement of product titer, product quality, impurity clearance, clarification efficiency, and particle characterization. HTPC at the 1 mL scale was evaluated with fermentation broth containing a vaccine polysaccharide. The response profile was compared with the Pilot-scale performance of a non-geometrically similar, 3 L reactor. An engineering characterization of the reactors and scale-up context examines theoretical considerations for comparing this USD system with larger scale stirred reactors. In the second paper, we will explore application of this system to industrially relevant vaccines and test different scale-up heuristics. PMID:25728932

  12. Specific characteristics of the aviary housing system affect plumage condition, mortality and production in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Heerkens, Jasper L T; Delezie, Evelyne; Kempen, Ine; Zoons, Johan; Ampe, Bart; Rodenburg, T Bas; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2015-09-01

    Feather pecking and high mortality levels are significant welfare problems in non-cage housing systems for laying hens. The aim of this study was to identify husbandry-related risk factors for feather damage, mortality, and egg laying performance in laying hens housed in the multi-tier non-cage housing systems known as aviaries. Factors tested included type of system flooring, degree of red mite infestation, and access to free-range areas. Information on housing characteristics, management, and performance in Belgian aviaries (N=47 flocks) were obtained from a questionnaire, farm records, and farm visits. Plumage condition and pecking wounds were scored in 50 randomly selected 60-week-old hens per flock. Associations between plumage condition, wounds, performance, mortality, and possible risk factors were investigated using a linear model with a stepwise model selection procedure. Many flocks exhibited a poor plumage condition and a high prevalence of wounds, with considerable variation between flocks. Better plumage condition was found in wire mesh aviaries (P<0.001), in aviaries with no red mite infestation (P=0.004), and in free-range systems (P=0.011) compared to plastic slatted aviaries, in houses with red mite infestations, and those without a free-range area. Furthermore, hens in aviaries with wire mesh flooring had fewer wounds on the back (P=0.006) and vent (P=0.009), reduced mortality (P=0.003), and a better laying performance (P=0.013) as compared to hens in aviaries with plastic slatted flooring. Flocks with better feather cover had lower levels of mortality (P<0.001). Red mite infestations were more common in plastic slatted aviaries (P=0.043). Other risk factors associated with plumage condition were genotype, number of diet changes, and the presence of nest perches. Wire mesh flooring in particular seems to have several health, welfare, and performance benefits in comparison to plastic slats, possibly related to decreased feather pecking, better

  13. Municipal sludge characteristic changes under different aerating condition in a deep-shaft aeration system.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jiaqing; Wang, Xiaochang C; Shu, Wei; He, Teng; Liu, Yanzheng

    2016-01-01

    A pilot-scale municipal sewage sludge deep-shaft aeration system was implemented in Lanzhou, Gansu Province of China. The reactor depth was 60 m with a diameter of 1.0 m and the sludge to be treated came from a wastewater plant in Lanzhou. In order to obtain the optimum operation conditions, analysis was conducted on the transformations of the volatile suspended solids (VSS), temperature, pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and pathogens in the deep-shaft reactor under different aeration conditions. Attention was paid to how operating conditions affected the removal efficiency of the VSS and the reaction temperature. As a result, higher volatile solids removal was gained at higher temperature, and the temperature could reach 50.8°C for a complete inactivation of bacteria in the first reaction zone when the deep-shaft aeration system was run for about 18 days. The sludge aeration rate was observed as 1.5 to 1.8 L/(h·L sludge) which enabled the volatile solids removal rate to reach 40.1%. The degradation of VSS occurred under a micro-oxygen environment, and the lowest ORP was found to be -256 mV in the digestive process. Not only aerobic bacteria but also anaerobic and facultative bacteria performed their functions in the reactor. PMID:27054720

  14. Vibro-acoustic characterization of flexible hose in CO2 car air conditioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelini, F.; Bergami, A.; Martarelli, M.; Tomasini, E. P.

    2008-06-01

    Following the EU directive 2006/40/EC proscribing from 2011 that refrigerant fluids must have a global warming potential not higher than 150, it will not be allowed anymore to employ the current R134a on car air conditioning systems. Maflow s.p.a (automotive hose maker) is developing products for each possible new refrigerant. This paper is focused on hoses for CO2 refrigerants operating in the worst conditions because of the high pressures and temperatures at which they are working (with R134a the high pressure is 18 bar and low pressure is 3 bar; with CO2 the high pressure is 100 bar and low pressure is 35 bar). Therefore the noise emission control of the CO2 air conditioning systems is very important. The aim of this study is to develop a standard measurement method for the vibro - acoustic characterization of High Pressure (HP - Shark F4) and Low Pressure (LP - ULEV) hoses to reduce noise emission and raise car passenger comfort; in particular deep research on high pressure hose. The method is based on the measurement of the vibration level of the hoses in a standard test bench by means of a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) and its acoustic emission by a sound intensity probe.

  15. Conditional-sampling spectrograph detection system for fluorescence measurements of individual airborne biological particles.

    PubMed

    Nachman, P; Chen, G; Pinnick, R G; Hill, S C; Chang, R K; Mayo, M W; Fernandez, G L

    1996-03-01

    We report the design and operation of a prototype conditional-sampling spectrograph detection system that can record the fluorescence spectra of individual, micrometer-sized aerosols as they traverse an intense 488-nm intracavity laser beam. The instrument's image-intensified CCD detector is gated by elastic scattering or by undispersed fluorescence from particles that enter the spectrograph's field of view. It records spectra only from particles with preselected scattering-fluorescence levels (a fiber-optic-photomultiplier subsystem provides the gating signal). This conditional-sampling procedure reduces data-handling rates and increases the signal-to-noise ratio by restricting the system's exposures to brief periods when aerosols traverse the beam. We demonstrate these advantages by reliably capturing spectra from individual fluorescent microspheres dispersed in an airstream. The conditional-sampling procedure also permits some discrimination among different types of particles, so that spectra may be recorded from the few interesting particles present in a cloud of background aerosol. We demonstrate such discrimination by measuring spectra from selected fluorescent microspheres in a mixture of two types of microspheres, and from bacterial spores in a mixture of spores and nonfluorescent kaolin particles. PMID:21085216

  16. Quasiperiodic attractors, Borel summability and the Bryuno condition for strongly dissipative systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, Guido; Bartuccelli, Michele V.; Deane, Jonathan H. B.

    2006-07-01

    We consider a class of ordinary differential equations describing one-dimensional analytic systems with a quasiperiodic forcing term and in the presence of damping. In the limit of large damping, under some generic nondegeneracy condition on the force, there are quasiperiodic solutions which have the same frequency vector as the forcing term. We prove that such solutions are Borel summable at the origin when the frequency vector is either any one-dimensional number or a two-dimensional vector such that the ratio of its components is an irrational number of constant type. In the first case the proof given simplifies that provided in a previous work of ours. We also show that in any dimension d, for the existence of a quasiperiodic solution with the same frequency vector as the forcing term, the standard Diophantine condition can be weakened into the Bryuno condition. In all cases, under a suitable positivity condition, the quasiperiodic solution is proved to describe a local attractor.

  17. Development of a Multi-Sensor System for Road Condition Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miraliakbari, A.; Hahn, M.; Maas, H.-G.

    2014-11-01

    We present a concept for a vehicle based road condition mapping system using infrared spectrometers, high resolution RGB cameras and a laser scanner. Infrared spectrometry is employed to monitor the deterioration of the surface material and pavement condition, in particular by aging. High resolution RGB imaging enables automatic asphalt crack detection and provides base images for spectrometry spots. Laser scanning aims at the detection of geometrical road irregularities and pavement failures such as potholes and ruts. These three major recordings contribute to the analysis of the pavements condition. All mapping sensors are synchronised with a navigation sensor to collect geo-referenced data. The concept of road condition mapping relies on a separate analysis of the different sensor data which are related to road sections. Processing results like the percentage of the road section area related to cracks, pot holes, ruts etc. are merged to achieve an assessment for the road section. The processes for assessing deterioration from the spectrometer data, the detection of ruts from the laser data and cracks from the images are discussed in detail and outlined with some experiments.

  18. Development of a Ventilation and Air-conditioning System using Fixed Bed Desiccant Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Takahiko; Akisawa, Atsushi; Shindoh, Shinji; Masazumi, Godo; Takeshi, Takatsuka; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Mori, Hideo

    The study investigated fixed bed desiccant units for ventilation and air-conditioning. The system mainly dehumidifies the outdoor fresh air to be supplied to an air-conditioned room. Hence, the airconditioning load of the air-conditioner in the room can be mitigated. Several adsorbents were compared from the viewpoints of humidity ratio at the outlet of the desiccant unit, dehumidified quantity per unit volume, and dehumidified quantity per unit adsorbent mass. The performance of the desiccant unit was predicted by simulation which was validated by comparison with experiment. The results revealed the most suitable adsorbent to reduce the desiccant unit size. It was also found that the humidity ratio at the outlet of the desiccant unit could be lowered by shortening the dimensionless switching time.

  19. Operational Condition and Superfinishing Effect on High-Speed Helical Gearing System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, R.; Kilmain, C.; Ehinger, R.

    2007-01-01

    An experimental effort has been conducted on an aerospace-quality helical gear train to investigate the thermal behavior of the gear system. Oil inlet temperature was varied from 160 to 250 F. Also, the test gears were run in both an as-ground condition and after isotropic superfinishing (ISF) condition. In-depth temperature measurements were made across the face width and at the axial end of the gear mesh. Supply power measurements were made at varying speeds and loads up to 5000 hp and 15000 rpm (pitch line velocity to 24000 feet per minute). Test results from the parametric studies and the superfinishing process are presented. The tests indicated that superfinishing offered no improvement in performance due to the high lubricant film thickness generated by the extremely high pitch line velocity that the majority of the tests were conducted. Increasing lubricant inlet temperature had the most dramatic effect on performance improvement.

  20. AN UPDATE ON THE STATUS OF THE NIF POWER CONDITIONING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P A; Hulsey, S; Ullery, G T; Petersen, D E; Pendleton, D L; Ollis, C W; Newton, M A; Harwell, T; Cordoza, D; Hadovski, L

    2007-09-06

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Power Conditioning System provides the pulsed excitation required to drive flashlamps in the laser's optical amplifiers. Modular in design, each of the 192 Main Energy Storage Modules (MESMs) stores up to 2.2 MJ of electrical energy in its capacitor bank before delivering the energy to 20 pairs of flashlamps in a 400 {micro}s pulse (10% power points). The peak current of each MESM discharge is 0.5 MA. Production, installation, commissioning and operation of the NIF Power Conditioning continue to progress rapidly, with the goals of completing accelerated production and commissioning by early 2008, while maintaining an aggressive operation schedule. To date, more than 97% of the required modules have been assembled, shipped and installed in the facility, representing more that 380 MJ of stored energy available for driving NIF flashlamps. The MESMs have displayed outstanding reliability during daily, multiple-shift operations.

  1. Comprehensive Assessment of Influence of Enhanced Component in Vapor Compression Air Conditioning System on Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinomiya, Naruaki; Nishimura, Nobuya; Iyota, Hiroyuki

    System performance prediction model for air-cooled air conditioner has been developed, and influences of Grooved tubes on performance of air conditioners with R410A were quantitatively investigated. Calculated results with simulation model correspond approximately to measured results by the authors and other researchers. After that, performances of air conditioners with grooved tubes were predicted. Results show that condensation heat transfer coefficients decrease with the rise of air conditioning load rate, and boiling heat transfer coefficients increase with the rise of air conditioning load rate. On the other hand, pressure drops increase 1.2-1.4 times in evaporator. Then, COPs of air conditioners with the grooved tube are 1.16 times higher than COP of air-conditioners with the smooth tube.

  2. Fusing human knowledge with neural networks in machine condition monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, David G.; Penman, J.

    1995-04-01

    There is currently much interest in the application of artificial neural network (ANN) technology to the field of on-line machine condition monitoring (CM) for complex electro- mechanical systems. In this paper the authors discuss, with the help of an industrial case study, a few of the difficulties inherent in the application of neural network based condition monitoring. A method of overcoming these difficulties by utilizing a combination of human knowledge, encoded using techniques borrowed from fuzzy logic, Kohonen neural networks, and statistical K-means clustering has been constructed. The methodology is discussed in the paper by means of a direct comparison between this new approach and a purely neural approach. An analysis of other situations where this approach would be applicable is also presented and the paper discusses other current research work in the area of hybrid AI technologies which should assist further with the alleviation of the problems under consideration.

  3. Systemic mifepristone blocks reconsolidation of cue-conditioned fear; propranolol prevents this effect.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Roger K; Milad, Mohammed R; Igoe, Sarah A; Vangel, Mark G; Orr, Scott P; Tsareva, Alina; Gamache, Karine; Nader, Karim

    2011-08-01

    Reducing reconsolidation of reactivated traumatic memories may offer a novel pharmacological treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Preclinical research is needed to identify candidate drugs. We evaluated the ability of postreactivation mifepristone (RU38486, a glucocorticoid antagonist), alone and in combination with propranolol (a beta-adrenergic blocker), both given systemically, to reduce cue-conditioned fear in rats. On Day 1, a 30-s tone conditioned stimulus (CS) was paired with an electric shock unconditioned stimulus (US). On Day 2, the CS was presented without the US (reactivation), and the freezing conditioned response (CR) was measured. This was immediately followed by subcutaneous injection of vehicle, mifepristone 30 mg/kg, propranolol 10 mg/kg, or both. On Day 3, the CR was again measured as a test of postreactivation long-term memory (PR-LTM). On Day 10, the CR was again measured to evaluate spontaneous recovery. On Day 11, the US was presented alone (reinstatement). On Day 12, the CR was again measured. A fifth group received mifepristone without the CS presentation (nonreactivation) on Day 2. A sixth group was tested four hours after the Day 2 mifepristone injection to measure postreactivation short-term memory. Postreactivation, but not nonreactivation, mifepristone produced a decrement in the CR that did not undergo spontaneous recovery and underwent only modest reinstatement. Mifepristone did not exert its effect when administered concurrently with propranolol. Postreactivation mifepristone did not impair short-term memory. Systemic mifepristone blocks the reconsolidation of cue-conditioned fear in rats. Concurrent administration of propranolol prevents this effect. Postreactivation mifepristone may be a promising treatment for PTSD, but not necessarily in combination with propranolol. PMID:21688892

  4. Validation and Verification of Future Integrated Safety-Critical Systems Operating under Off-Nominal Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents and reducing them will require a holistic integrated intervention capability. Future onboard integrated system technologies developed for preventing loss of vehicle control accidents must be able to assure safe operation under the associated off-nominal conditions. The transition of these technologies into the commercial fleet will require their extensive validation and verification (V and V) and ultimate certification. The V and V of complex integrated systems poses major nontrivial technical challenges particularly for safety-critical operation under highly off-nominal conditions associated with aircraft loss-of-control events. This paper summarizes the V and V problem and presents a proposed process that could be applied to complex integrated safety-critical systems developed for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents. A summary of recent research accomplishments in this effort is also provided.

  5. Dynamic analysis of hydrodynamic behavior of a flatfish cage system under wave conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yong; Guan, Chang-tao; Wan, Rong; Huang, Bin; Li, Jiao

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a simulation model based on the finite element method. The method is used to analyze the motion response and mooring line tension of the flatfish cage system in waves. The cage system consists of top frames, netting, mooring lines, bottom frames, and floats. A series of scaled physical model tests in regular waves are conducted to verify the numerical model. The comparison results show that the simulated and the experimental results agree well under the wave conditions, and the maximum pitch of the bottom frame with two orientations is about 12°. The motion process of the whole cage system in the wave can be described with the computer visualized technology. Then, the mooring line tensions and the motion of the bottom frame with three kinds of weight are calculated under different wave conditions. According to the numerical results, the differences in mooring line tensions of flatfish cages with three weight modes are indistinct. The maximum pitch of the bottom frame decreases with the increase of the bottom weight.

  6. Analytical study of a gas-fired adsorptive air-conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Poyelle, F.; Guilleminot, J.J.; Meunier, F.

    1996-11-01

    Adsorptive air conditioning represents a potential alternative to chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) systems. But to compete with other systems, adsorption systems must exhibit sufficient figures of merit and energetic densities. An analytical study to predict the overall heat transfer coefficient in an adsorber has been conducted and is presented here. This study, based on a method-of-moment analysis, shows the influence of three parameters limiting the heat transfer in adsorbent beds. Heat transfer in adsorbent beds has been intensified. Using new consolidated materials, the machine utilizes two uniform temperature adsorbent beds in a cycle that incorporates both heat and mass recovery. It uses a zeolite-water pair. It is designed to produce 3 kW of cooling. Expected cooling performances are 300 W/kg of adsorbent with a coefficient of performance (COP) close to 0.8 and a cycle time of 20 minutes. The thermal conditions used to test the cycle are: the heater, 220 C; the cooler, 40 C; and the evaporation temperature, 3 C.

  7. Self-Calibrating and Remote Programmable Signal Conditioning Amplifier System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Hallberg, Carl G. (Inventor); Simpson, Howard J., III (Inventor); Thayer, Stephen W. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A self-calibrating, remote programmable signal conditioning amplifier system employs information read from a memory attached to a measurement transducer for automatic calibration. The signal conditioning amplifier is self-calibrated on a continuous basis through use of a dual input path arrangement, with each path containing a multiplexer and a programmable amplifier. A digital signal processor controls operation of the system such that a transducer signal is applied to one of the input paths, while one or more calibration signals are applied to the second input path. Once the second path is calibrated, the digital signal processor switches the transducer signal to the second path. and then calibrates the first path. This process is continually repeated so that each path is calibrated on an essentially continuous basis. Dual output paths are also employed which are calibrated in the same manner. The digital signal processor also allows the implementation of a variety of digital filters which are either programmed into the system or downloaded by an operator, and performs up to eighth order linearization.

  8. 45 CFR 310.25 - What conditions apply to acquisitions of Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED TRIBAL IV-D SYSTEMS AND OFFICE AUTOMATION Funding for Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and Office Automation § 310.25 What conditions apply...

  9. 45 CFR 310.25 - What conditions apply to acquisitions of Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED TRIBAL IV-D SYSTEMS AND OFFICE AUTOMATION Funding for Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and Office Automation § 310.25 What conditions apply...

  10. 45 CFR 310.25 - What conditions apply to acquisitions of Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED TRIBAL IV-D SYSTEMS AND OFFICE AUTOMATION Funding for Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and Office Automation § 310.25 What conditions apply...

  11. 45 CFR 310.25 - What conditions apply to acquisitions of Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED TRIBAL IV-D SYSTEMS AND OFFICE AUTOMATION Funding for Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and Office Automation § 310.25 What conditions apply...

  12. 45 CFR 310.25 - What conditions apply to acquisitions of Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED TRIBAL IV-D SYSTEMS AND OFFICE AUTOMATION Funding for Computerized Tribal IV-D Systems and Office Automation § 310.25 What conditions apply...

  13. Hydraulic Implications to Upper Basin Stream Systems From Changing Climatic Conditions in the Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwell, K.; Burns, R. G.

    2005-12-01

    Projected climate changes in the Sierra Nevada of northern California may result in more variability in winter storm patterns and an increase in the frequency and magnitude of extreme precipitation events. Changing rain and snow patterns will alter the timing and amount of runoff in the streams that drain the west slope of the Sierra Nevada and will have bearing on water resource management strategies that rely on that runoff. These runoff changes will in turn challenge existing threshold conditions for channel stability, bank erosion, and hill slope stability. Increased sediment loads will impact existing water-routing infrastructure. Hydraulic conditions from several streams that drain the west slope of the Sierra Nevada in the American River drainage basin were measured to assess threshold changes in response to variable discharges. We reconstructed flow conditions from 1997 (early 1997 storms brought widespread flooding to the central and northern Sierra Nevada and peak flows at many gage sites in the region were the largest recorded during historical time) and 2005 in these channels (representing extreme and typical flow conditions) and then looked at changes to cross-sectional areas, flow velocities, channel shear stresses and sediment sizes since 1998 (earliest available sediment data). Initial insights suggest increases to runoff/discharge will likely produce pulses of mobilized coarser materials (resulting from greater channel shear stresses) that may take several years to transport through stream systems, and channel areas that are geologically weak (unconsolidated or weathered surface materials) may be susceptible to substantial erosion. These conditions will likely impact water-routing infrastructure in the upper basins (pipelines, pumps, and turbines) that manage water flow in the Sierra Nevada for much of northern California.

  14. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of a rotor-bearing-seal system under two loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hui; Li, Hui; Niu, Heqiang; Song, Rongze; Wen, Bangchun

    2013-11-01

    The operating speed of the rotating machinery often exceeds the second or even higher order critical speeds to pursue higher efficiency. Thus, how to restrain the higher order mode instability caused by the nonlinear oil-film force and seal force at high speed as far as possible has become more and more important. In this study, a lumped mass model of a rotor-bearing-seal system considering the gyroscopic effect is established. The graphite self-lubricating bearing and the sliding bearing are simulated by a spring-damping model and a nonlinear oil-film force model based on the assumption of short bearings, respectively. The seal is simulated by Muszynska nonlinear seal force model. Effects of the seal force and oil-film force on the first and second mode instabilities are investigated under two loading conditions which are determined by API Standard 617 (Axial and Centrifugal Compressors and Expander-compressors for Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Industry Services, Seventh Edition). The research focuses on the effects of exciting force forms and their magnitudes on the first and second mode whips in a rotor-bearing-seal system by using the spectrum cascades, vibration waveforms, orbits and Poincaré maps. The first and second mode instability laws are compared by including and excluding the seal effect in a rotor system with single-diameter shaft and two same discs. Meanwhile, the instability laws are also verified in a rotor system with multi-diameter shaft and two different discs. The results show that the second loading condition (out-of-phase unbalances of two discs) and the nonlinear seal force can mainly restrain the first mode instability and have slight effects on the second mode instability. This study may contribute to a further understanding about the higher order mode instability of such a rotor system with fluid-induced forces from the oil-film bearings and seals.

  15. Research on long-range laser active imaging system applied in adverse weather conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Zhi-gang; Liu, Meng-de; Yang, Li; Kabanov, V. V.; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Jie; Chu, Shi-bo; Yang, Jun-xian; Zhou, Yang

    2013-09-01

    A low-light level night vision device or thermal infrared imager belonging to passive imaging system is generally used in daily target detection and identification. But in adverse weather conditions of dark of night, poor atmospheric transmission characteristics or strong backscattering (fog, dust, rain, snow, etc.), even the most sensitive low-light level night vision could not provide enough image resolution for detecting and identifying targets, and the thermal infrared imager is also limited by low temperature contrast. A long-range laser active imaging system, in combination with high-power semiconductor pulsed lasers with collimation technology, receiving objective lens of large diameter, long focal length and narrow viewing angle, high-gain image intensifier CCD (ICCD) camera and range-gated synchronization control technology, is developed for long distance target detection and high resolution imaging in adverse weather conditions. The system composition and operating principle are introduced. The extremely powerful and efficient illuminators with collimation technology are able to deliver uniform beams, which are essential for illuminating targets at a distance and generating high-quality images. The particular receiving objective lens, ICCD camera and range-gated synchronization control technology could reduce strong backscattering signal and improve imaging signal-to-noise ratio. The laboratory and outfield experiments have been done to validate imaging effect and imaging quality. The results show that the minimum resolution is about 3-5cm, 10cm, and greater than 20 cm for target far from 1100m, 4700m, and 6700m respectively in dark of night. Furthermore, the minimum resolution could reach to 10cm and 20cm for target far from 2500m and 4800m respectively and the image is too blurred to accurately identify the target when observing the target far from 7200m in rainy condition.

  16. Talaromyces rubrifaciens, a new species discovered from heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi; Lu, Xiaohong; Bi, Wu; Liu, Fan; Gao, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    A new Talaromyces species, T. rubrifaciens, was isolated from supply air outlets of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in three kinds of public building in Beijing and Nanjing, China. Morphologically it exhibits many characters of section Trachyspermi but is distinguished from other species of this section by restricted growth and broad and strictly biverticillate conidiophores. Phylogenetic analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer rDNA (ITS), β-tubulin (BenA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase second largest subunit (RPB2) genes reveal that T. rubrifaciens is a distinct species in section Trachyspermi. PMID:27055570

  17. Coupled-rearrangement-channels calculation of the three-body system under the absorbing boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, M.; Otani, R.; Ito, M.; Kamimura, M.

    2016-05-01

    We formulate the method of the absorbing boundary condition (ABC) in the coupled-rearrangement-channels variational method (CRCMV) for the three-body problem. In the present study, we handle the simple three-boson system, and the absorbing potential is introduced in the Jacobi coordinate in the individual rearrangement channels. The resonance parameters and the strength of the monopole breakup are compared with the complex scaling method (CSM). We have found that the CRCVM + ABC method nicely works in the threebody problem with the rearrangement channels.

  18. Hydrogen-control systems for severe LWR accident conditions - a state-of-technology report

    SciTech Connect

    Hilliard, R K; Postma, A K; Jeppson, D W

    1983-03-01

    This report reviews the current state of technology regarding hydrogen safety issues in light water reactor plants. Topics considered in this report relate to control systems and include combustion prevention, controlled combustion, minimization of combustion effects, combination of control concepts, and post-accident disposal. A companion report addresses hydrogen generation, distribution, and combustion. The objectives of the study were to identify the key safety issues related to hydrogen produced under severe accident conditions, to describe the state of technology for each issue, and to point out ongoing programs aimed at resolving the open issues.

  19. Condition concern: an innovative response system for enhancing hospitalized patient care and safety.

    PubMed

    Baird, Sylvia K; Turbin, Lynn Bobel

    2011-01-01

    Patient safety is rapidly becoming everyone's responsibility. Bedside clinicians, physicians, and ancillary and administrative staff are well aware of their roles in patient safety, but patients and their families are becoming increasingly knowledgeable about potential safety issues related to hospitalization. This article describes how a Midwestern regional health care system enhances safety for its hospitalized patients through a program called "Condition Concern," designed to provide patients and their families/friends with a quick, convenient method for reporting unattended care concerns. The program's structure is described along with postimplementation findings to date. PMID:21233769

  20. Design and experimental investigation of an ejector in an air-conditioning and refrigeration system

    SciTech Connect

    AL-Khalidy, N.; Zayonia, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the conservation of energy in a refrigerant ejector refrigerating machine using heat driven from the concentrator collectors. The working refrigerant was R-113. The design of an ejector operating in an air-conditioning and refrigerating system with a low thermal source (70 C to 100 C) is presented. The influence of three major parameters--boiler, condenser, and evaporator temperature--on ejector efficiency is discussed. Experimental results show that the condenser temperature is the major influence at a low evaporator temperature. The maximum ejector efficiency was 31%.

  1. Description of Atmospheric Conditions at the Pierre Auger Observatory using the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U., ICN /Santiago de Compostela U.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric conditions at the site of a cosmic ray observatory must be known for reconstructing observed extensive air showers. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) is a global atmospheric model predicated on meteorological measurements and numerical weather predictions. GDAS provides altitude-dependent profiles of the main state variables of the atmosphere like temperature, pressure, and humidity. The original data and their application to the air shower reconstruction of the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. By comparisons with radiosonde and weather station measurements obtained on-site in Malargue and averaged monthly models, the utility of the GDAS data is shown.

  2. Numerical Simulation of HIWC Conditions with the Terminal Area Simulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Switzer, George F.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional, numerical simulation of a mesoconvective system is conducted in order to better understand conditions associated with High Ice Water Content (HIWC) and its threat to aviation safety. Although peak local values of ice water content may occur early in the storm lifetime, large areas of high concentrations expand with time and persist even when the storm tops begin to warm. The storm canopy which contains HIWC, has low radar reflectivity factor and is fed by an ensemble of regenerating thermal pulses.

  3. Effective Wettability Measurements of CO2-Brine-Sandstone System at Different Reservoir Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Menhali, Ali; Krevor, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    The wetting properties of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of CO2 injection processes. The wettability of a system controls the flow and trapping efficiency during the storage of CO2 in geological formations as well as the efficiency of enhanced oil recovery operations. Despite its utility in EOR and the continued development of CCS, little is currently known about the wetting properties of the CO2-brine system on reservoir rocks, and no investigations have been performed assessing the impact of these properties on CO2 flooding for CO2 storage or EOR. The wetting properties of multiphase fluid systems in porous media have major impacts on the multiphase flow properties such as the capillary pressure and relative permeability. While recent studies have shown CO2 to generally act as a non-wetting phase in siliciclastic rocks, some observations report that the contact angle varies with pressure, temperature and water salinity. Additionally, there is a wide range of reported contact angles for this system, from strongly to weakly water-wet. In the case of some minerals, intermediate wet contact angles have been observed. Uncertainty with regard to the wetting properties of CO2-brine systems is currently one of the remaining major unresolved issues with regards to reservoir management of CO2 storage. In this study, we make semi-dynamic capillary pressure measurements of supercritical CO2 and brine at reservoir conditions to observe shifts in the wetting properties. We utilize a novel core analysis technique recently developed by Pini et al in 2012 to evaluate a core-scale effective contact angle. Carbon dioxide is injected at constant flow rate into a core that is initially fully saturated with water, while maintaining a constant outlet pressure. In this scenario, the pressure drop across the core corresponds to the capillary pressure at the inlet face of the core. When compared with mercury intrusion capillary pressure measurements

  4. Distributing LHC application software and conditions databases using the CernVM file system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomer, Jakob; Aguado-Sánchez, Carlos; Buncic, Predrag; Harutyunyan, Artem

    2011-12-01

    The CernVM File System (CernVM-FS) is a read-only file system designed to deliver high energy physics (HEP) experiment analysis software onto virtual machines and Grid worker nodes in a fast, scalable, and reliable way. CernVM-FS decouples the underlying operating system from the experiment denned software stack. Files and file metadata are aggressively cached and downloaded on demand. By designing the file system specifically to the use case of HEP software repositories and experiment conditions data, several typically hard problems for (distributed) file systems can be solved in an elegant way. For the distribution of files, we use a standard HTTP transport, which allows exploitation of a variety of web caches, including commercial content delivery networks. We ensure data authenticity and integrity over possibly untrusted caches and connections while keeping all distributed data cacheable. On the small scale, we developed an experimental extension that allows multiple CernVM-FS instances in a computing cluster to discover each other and to share their file caches.

  5. Using Acid Number as a Leading Indicator of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Cartlidge; Hans Schellhase

    2003-07-31

    number (TAN), which includes both mineral acids and organic acids, is therefore a useful indicator which can be used to monitor the condition of the system in order to perform remedial maintenance, when required, to prevent system failure. The critical TAN value is the acid level at which remedial action should be taken to prevent the onset of rapid acid formation which can result in system failure. The level of 0.05 mg KOH/g of oil was established for CFC/mineral oil systems based on analysis of 700 used lubricants from operating systems and failed units. There is no consensus within the refrigeration industry as to the critical TAN value for HFC/POE systems, however, the value will be higher than the CFC/mineral oil systems critical TAN value because of the much weaker organic acids produced from POE. A similar study of used POE lubricants should be performed to establish a critical TAN limit for POE systems. Titrimetric analysis per ASTM procedures is the most commonly used method to determine TAN values in lubricants in the refrigeration industry and other industries dealing with lubricating oils. For field measurements, acid test kits are often used since they provide rapid, semi-quantitative TAN results.

  6. LiCl dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, S.M.

    1980-06-03

    This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system. 4 figs.

  7. Analysis of bidirectional PWM converter for application of residential solar air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.S.; Choe, G.H.; Yu, G.J.; Song, J.S.

    1994-12-31

    In the conventional solar air conditioning system the diode rectifier is used to build up DC link voltage from ac utility source. The diode rectifier is simple and cheap but the reverse of power flow cannot be made. It can derate the utilization of solar cell and also there have occurred the problems of low power factor and plentiful harmonics at the ac input side. Hence in addition to peak power cutting in summer, some advantages can be obtained by adopting the PWM converter to the solar air conditioner. As a result, obtained are the characteristics of the PWM converter such as low distorted current waveform, unity power factor. Also the proposed system is verified by examining the dynamics to step load change and also power reversal testing.

  8. Control of root system architecture by DEEPER ROOTING 1 increases rice yield under drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Uga, Yusaku; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Satoshi; Rane, Jagadish; Ishitani, Manabu; Hara, Naho; Kitomi, Yuka; Inukai, Yoshiaki; Ono, Kazuko; Kanno, Noriko; Inoue, Haruhiko; Takehisa, Hinako; Motoyama, Ritsuko; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takai, Toshiyuki; Okuno, Kazutoshi; Yano, Masahiro

    2013-09-01

    The genetic improvement of drought resistance is essential for stable and adequate crop production in drought-prone areas. Here we demonstrate that alteration of root system architecture improves drought avoidance through the cloning and characterization of DEEPER ROOTING 1 (DRO1), a rice quantitative trait locus controlling root growth angle. DRO1 is negatively regulated by auxin and is involved in cell elongation in the root tip that causes asymmetric root growth and downward bending of the root in response to gravity. Higher expression of DRO1 increases the root growth angle, whereby roots grow in a more downward direction. Introducing DRO1 into a shallow-rooting rice cultivar by backcrossing enabled the resulting line to avoid drought by increasing deep rooting, which maintained high yield performance under drought conditions relative to the recipient cultivar. Our experiments suggest that control of root system architecture will contribute to drought avoidance in crops. PMID:23913002

  9. Novel Indications for Benzodiazepine Antagonist Flumazenil in GABA Mediated Pathological Conditions of the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Hulse, Gary; Kelty, Erin; Hood, Sean; Norman, Amanda; Basso, Maria Rita; Reece, Albert Stuart

    2015-01-01

    This review paper discusses the central role of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in diverse physiological systems and functions and the therapeutic potential of the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil (Ro 15- 1788) for a wide range of disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). Our group and others have studied the potential of flumazenil as a treatment for benzodiazepine dependence. A small but growing body of research has indicated that flumazenil may also have clinical application in CNS disorders such as Parkinson's disease, idiopathic hypersomnia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Despite this body of research the therapeutic potential of flumazenil remains poorly understood and largely unrealized. The purpose of this paper is not to provide an exhaustive review of all possible therapeutic applications for flumazenil but rather to stimulate research interest, and discussion of the exciting therapeutic potential of this drug for a range of chronic debilitating conditions. PMID:26088116

  10. Cascade Reverse Osmosis Air Conditioning System: Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Absorption Osmosis Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Battelle is developing a new air conditioning system that uses a cascade reverse osmosis (RO)-based absorption cycle. Analyses show that this new cycle can be as much as 60% more efficient than vapor compression, which is used in 90% of air conditioners. Traditional vapor-compression systems use polluting liquids for a cooling effect. Absorption cycles use benign refrigerants such as water, which is absorbed in a salt solution and pumped as liquid—replacing compression of vapor. The refrigerant is subsequently separated from absorbing salt using heat for re-use in the cooling cycle. Battelle is replacing thermal separation of refrigerant with a more efficient reverse osmosis process. Research has shown that the cycle is possible, but further investment will be needed to reduce the number of cascade reverse osmosis stages and therefore cost.

  11. LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Ko, Suk M.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

  12. Use Conditions and Efficiency Measurements of DC Power Optimizers for Photovoltaic Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, C.; MacAlpine, S.

    2013-10-01

    No consensus standard exists for estimating annual conversion efficiency of DC-DC converters or power optimizers in photovoltaic (PV) applications. The performance benefits of PV power electronics including per-panel DC-DC converters depend in large part on the operating conditions of the PV system, along with the performance characteristics of the power optimizer itself. This work presents acase study of three system configurations that take advantage of the capabilities of DC power optimizers. Measured conversion efficiencies of DC-DC converters are applied to these scenarios to determine the annual weighted operating efficiency. A simplified general method of reporting weighted efficiency is given, based on the California Energy Commission's CEC efficiency rating and severalinput / output voltage ratios. Efficiency measurements of commercial power optimizer products are presented using the new performance metric, along with a description of the limitations of the approach.

  13. Tracer dispersion simulation in low wind speed conditions with a new 2D Langevin equation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anfossi, D.; Alessandrini, S.; Trini Castelli, S.; Ferrero, E.; Oettl, D.; Degrazia, G.

    The simulation of atmospheric dispersion in low wind speed conditions (LW) is still recognised as a challenge for modellers. Recently, a new system of two coupled Langevin equations that explicitly accounts for meandering has been proposed. It is based on the study of turbulence and dispersion properties in LW. The new system was implemented in the Lagrangian stochastic particle models LAMBDA and GRAL. In this paper we present simulations with this new approach applying it to the tracer experiments carried out in LW by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL, USA) in 1974 and by the Graz University of Technology and CNR-Torino near Graz in 2003. To assess the improvement obtained with the present model with respect to previous models not taking into account the meandering effect, the simulations for the INEL experiments were also performed with the old version of LAMBDA. The results of the comparisons clearly indicate that the new approach improves the simulation results.

  14. System and method for conditioning intake air to an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Sellnau, Mark C.

    2015-08-04

    A system for conditioning the intake air to an internal combustion engine includes a means to boost the pressure of the intake air to the engine and a liquid cooled charge air cooler disposed between the output of the boost means and the charge air intake of the engine. Valves in the coolant system can be actuated so as to define a first configuration in which engine cooling is performed by coolant circulating in a first coolant loop at one temperature, and charge air cooling is performed by coolant flowing in a second coolant loop at a lower temperature. The valves can be actuated so as to define a second configuration in which coolant that has flowed through the engine can be routed through the charge air cooler. The temperature of intake air to the engine can be controlled over a wide range of engine operation.

  15. Study and Development of an Air Conditioning System Operating on a Magnetic Heat Pump Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pao-Lien

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the design of a laboratory scale demonstration prototype of an air conditioning system operating on a magnetic heat pump cycle. Design parameters were selected through studies performed by a Kennedy Space Center (KSC) System Simulation Computer Model. The heat pump consists of a rotor turning through four magnetic fields that are created by permanent magnets. Gadolinium was selected as the working material for this demonstration prototype. The rotor was designed to be constructed of flat parallel disks of gadolinium with very little space in between. The rotor rotates in an aluminum housing. The laboratory scale demonstration prototype is designed to provide a theoretical Carnot Cycle efficiency of 62 percent and a Coefficient of Performance of 16.55.

  16. Conditions for Using Stimulated Photon Echo to Record and Reproduce Information in Three-Level Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefediev, L. A.; Nizamova, E. I.

    2016-01-01

    The conditions for observing photon echo signals in crystals with excitation and detection in different resonant transitions with a single common energy level are studied. Uncorrelated inhomogeneous broadening in different resonance transitions is shown to influence the formation of stimulated photon echo in three-level systems. Lowering the sample temperature makes it possible to increase the relaxation time, which is used in experiments for observing photon echo. Uncorrelated inhomogeneous broadening in different resonance transitions is temperature independent and affects the intensity of the response at low temperatures, as well. Observation of stimulated photon echo in solid three-level samples requires a correct choice of the time interval between the first and second exciting pulses, but is not related to the magnitude of the irreversible transverse relaxation of the system.

  17. 42 CFR 412.505 - Conditions for payment under the prospective payment system for long-term care hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conditions for payment under the prospective... & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.505 Conditions...

  18. An Investigation to Resolve the Interaction Between Fuel Cell, Power Conditioning System and Application Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Sudip K. Mazumder

    2005-12-31

    Development of high-performance and durable solidoxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and a SOFC power-generating system requires knowledge of the feedback effects from the power-conditioning electronics and from application-electrical-power circuits that may pass through or excite the power-electronics subsystem (PES). Therefore, it is important to develop analytical models and methodologies, which can be used to investigate and mitigate the effects of the electrical feedbacks from the PES and the application loads (ALs) on the reliability and performance of SOFC systems for stationary and non-stationary applications. However, any such attempt to resolve the electrical impacts of the PES on the SOFC would be incomplete unless one utilizes a comprehensive analysis, which takes into account the interactions of SOFC, PES, balance-of-plant system (BOPS), and ALs as a whole. SOFCs respond quickly to changes in load and exhibit high part- and full-load efficiencies due to its rapid electrochemistry, which is not true for the thermal and mechanical time constants of the BOPS, where load-following time constants are, typically, several orders of magnitude higher. This dichotomy can affect the lifetime and durability of the SOFCSs and limit the applicability of SOFC systems for load-varying stationary and transportation applications. Furthermore, without validated analytical models and investigative design and optimization methodologies, realizations of cost-effective, reliable, and optimal PESs (and power-management controls), in particular, and SOFC systems, in general, are difficult. On the whole, the research effort can lead to (a) cost-constrained optimal PES design for high-performance SOFCS and high energy efficiency and power density, (b) effective SOFC power-system design, analyses, and optimization, and (c) controllers and modulation schemes for mitigation of electrical impacts and wider-stability margin and enhanced system efficiency.

  19. Unique, low-energy air-conditioning system using naturally-frozen ice

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, D.L.; Masoero, M.; Socolow, R.H.; Taylor, T.B.

    1981-01-01

    An effective low-energy-consumption air-conditioning system, using naturally-frozen ice as the heat sink, has been successfully demonstrated. During the summer of 1980, a test building at Princeton University was cooled using ice frozen during the previous winter. The ice is produced outdoors by spraying water into winter air, and stored until summer in an excavated reservoir under an insulating blanket. During the air-conditioning season, melt water from the bottom of the lined, ice-filled reservoir is pumped through a conventional water-to-air heat exchanger within the conditioned space, to provide air cooling and dehumidification. The water warmed in the exchange is returned to the reservoir, to be recooled to 0/sup 0/C by the remaining ice. This approach not only significantly reduces the total energy required to produce a given cooling effect relative to other means in current use, but also shifts the time of major energy use away from the electric utility's summer load peak period.

  20. Development of High Speed Inverter Rotary Compressor for the Air-conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Seoung-Min; Yang, Eun-soo; Shin, Jin-Ung; Park, Joon-Hong; Lee, Se-Dong; Ha, Jong-Hun; Son, Young-Boo; Lee, Byeong-Chul

    2015-08-01

    In order to meet the various operating loads of an air-conditioning system, an inverter compressor with a wide operational range is necessary. One of the ways to achieve a wide operation range is to drive a small capacity compressor at high speed. Moreover, it is possible to maximize the efficiency in part-load operation condition close to actual operating conditions and to reduce the cost by compact design of a small capacity compressor. In addition, the shortage of maximum capacity, due to the small rated capacity, is covered through high speed operation. However, in general, if the compressor operates at high speed, problems occurs such as reduced efficiency due to friction, increased noise, increased amount of oil discharge and decreased durability of the main components. In order to solve these problems the following have been investigated: optimized dimension parameters of the compression chamber, enhanced shaft design and the structure for the reduction of oil discharge and noise at high speed operation. Finally the high speed inverter rotary compressor with high efficiency and more compact size has been developed as compared with the conventional rotary compressor.