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Sample records for condom failure examining

  1. HIV Transmission among Men Who Have Sex with Men due to Condom Failure

    PubMed Central

    Remis, Robert S.; Alary, Michel; Liu, Juan; Kaul, Rupert; Palmer, Robert W. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite preventive efforts, HIV incidence remains high among men who have sex with men (MSM) in industrialized countries. Condoms are an important element in prevention but, given the high frequency of condom use and their imperfect effectiveness, a substantial number and proportion of HIV transmissions may occur despite condoms. We developed a model to examine this hypothesis. Methods We used estimates of annual prevalent and incident HIV infections for MSM in Ontario. For HIV-negative men, we applied frequencies of sexual episodes and per-contact HIV transmission risks of receptive and insertive anal sex with and without a condom and oral sex without a condom. We factored in the proportion of HIV-infected partners receiving antiretroviral therapy and its impact in reducing transmissibility. We used Monte-Carlo simulation to determine the plausible range for the proportion of HIV transmissions for each sexual practice. Results Among Ontario MSM in 2009, an estimated 92,963 HIV-negative men had 1,184,343 episodes of anal sex with a condom and 117,133 anal sex acts without a condom with an HIV-positive partner. Of the 693 new HIV infections, 51% were through anal sex with a condom, 33% anal sex without a condom and 16% oral sex. For anal sex with a condom, the 95% confidence limits were 17% and 77%. Conclusions The proportion of HIV infections related to condom failure appears substantial and higher than previously thought. That 51% of transmissions occur despite condom use may be conservative (i.e. low) since we used a relatively high estimate (87.1%) for condom effectiveness. If condom effectiveness were closer to 70%, a value estimated from a recent CDC study, the number and proportion of HIV transmissions occurring despite condom use would be much higher. Therefore, while condom use should continue to be promoted and enhanced, this alone is unlikely to stem the tide of HIV infection among MSM. PMID:25211493

  2. Feasibility of local condom production examined.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Despite Africa being the world region worst affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, there is only 1 condom manufacturer on the continent, in Johannesburg. Hundreds of millions of condoms are donated and imported annually. For example, 500 million units were donated in 1996, of which 212 million came from the US Agency for International Development. A recently released study commissioned by the European Union's HIV/AIDS Program for Developing Countries determined that it would be technically viable to manufacture condoms in not only South Africa, but also in Mauritius, Cote d'Ivoire, and Kenya. All that is required is a factory, work force, water, and electricity, with the raw materials to be imported from Malaysia or Thailand regardless of where the factory is located. The financial returns of such an operation would depend upon the cost of labor, the type of factory and its output, and market demand. Benefits would include employment creation, potential exports, and foreign exchange savings. A typical condom plant, operating 24 hours a day with 2 production lines, can produce 160 million condom units per year. However, should such a factory be built and put into operation, managers must ensure that any condoms produced are of high quality. PMID:12295121

  3. Condom

    MedlinePlus

    ... sizes, textures, and colors. How Much Does It Cost? Condoms are the least expensive and most available ... control — other than abstinence, of course. Male condoms cost about $0.50 to $1 each and are ...

  4. Failure to embrace the barrier/condom use message.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Ron; Snook, William D; Hoff, Gerald L; Cai, Jinwen; Russell, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the consistency of barrier/condom use among men who have sex with men in the Kansas City metropolitan area. The authors sought to determine if barrier/condom usage patterns were associated with the type of sex act and whether it was insertive or receptive, HIV testing frequency, and number of sexual partners. Data were extracted from a 2003 community health assessment of the gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered community in the metropolitan area. The health assessment instrument was anonymous, self-administered, and distributed at events in that community. Responses from 623 men indicated that consistent use of a barrier/condom was low regardless of the sex act. There was no relationship between barrier/condom usage patterns and HIV testing frequency for any sex act or the number of sex partners, with the exception of anal intercourse. The authors concluded that a different approach is needed to translate the barrier/condom use message into a behavioral response. PMID:16849086

  5. Factors Contributing to the Failure to Use Condoms among Students in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbulo, Lazarous; Newman, Ian M.; Shell, Duane F.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored factors that may predict condom use among college and high school students in Zambia. Using the Social Cognitive Theory, this study examined the relationship of drinking behaviors, alcohol-sexual expectations, education level, and religion to condom use among 961 students. The results of the study show that condom use was low…

  6. Do intentions predict condom use? Meta-analysis and examination of six moderator variables.

    PubMed

    Sheeran, P; Orbell, S

    1998-06-01

    This study used meta-analysis to quantify the relationship between intentions and behaviour in prospective studies of condom use. The effects of six moderator variables were also examined: sexual orientation, gender, sample age, time interval, intention versus expectation and condom use with 'steady' versus 'casual' partners. Literature searches revealed 28 hypotheses based on a total sample of 2532 which could be included in the review. Overall, there was a medium to strong sample-weighted average correlation between intentions and condom use (r+ = .44), and this correlation was similar to the effect sizes obtained in previous reviews. There were too few studies of gay men to permit meaningful comparison of effect sizes between homosexual versus heterosexual samples. Gender and measurement of intention did not moderate the intention-behaviour relationship. However, shorter time intervals, older samples and condom use with 'steady' rather than 'casual' partners were each associated with stronger correlations between intentions and condom use. Factors which might explain the significant effects of moderator variables are discussed and implications of the study for future research on intention-behaviour consistency are outlined. PMID:9639864

  7. Condoms - male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... infections.) Latex rubber Polyurethane Condoms are the only method of birth control for men that are not ...

  8. A qualitative examination of men's condom use attitudes and resistance: "it's just part of the game".

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Schraufnagel, Trevor J; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Gilmore, Amanda K; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the variability in young heterosexual men's perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of condom use in their casual sexual relationships. Because men who perceive greater disadvantages of condom use may be more likely to resist using them, we also explored the tactics that men employ to avoid using condoms. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted with single men who have sex with women (n = 60), aged 21-35 years, all of whom reported using condoms inconsistently. Transcripts were analyzed using a framework analysis approach. As expected, participants reported advantages and disadvantages to condom use that pertained to the likelihood and quality of sex, physical sensations during intercourse, and the risk of sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies. Within each of these topics, however, participants' appraisals of the relative pros and cons of condom use varied considerably. Additionally, participants reported that men use a wide range of condom use resistance tactics, including seduction, deception, and condom sabotage, and that the use of these tactics was viewed as normative behavior for men their age. These findings suggest that the effectiveness of sexual health prevention efforts could be enhanced by increasing young men's motivations to use condoms and by targeting social norms regarding condom use resistance. Additionally, the issue of men's condom use resistance clearly merits increased empirical investigation and intervention attention. PMID:23912776

  9. Failure to Use and Sustain Male Condom Usage: Lessons Learned from a Prospective Study among Men Attending STI Clinic in Pune, India

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Seema; Deshpande, Swapna; Bembalkar, Shilpa; Kharat, Mahesh; Parkhe, Aparna; Brahme, Radhika G.; Paranjape, Ramesh; Bollinger, Robert C.; Mehendale, Sanjay M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sustained or consistent use of condoms by men remains a challenge. A study was carried out to identify factors associated with failure to use condoms consistently by men attending STD clinics in Pune, India. Method Among 14137 STI clinic attendees, 8360 HIV sero-negative men were enrolled in a cohort study. The changes in condom usage behavior were studied among 1284 men who returned for first scheduled quarterly follow up, 309 reported consistent condom use at the time of enrollment in the cohort. Data pertaining to heterosexual men practicing high risk behavior were analyzed to identify factors associated with change in condom use behavior using logistic regression model. Demographic, behavioral and biological factors observed to be associated with condom use were fitted in five Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals to identify independent predictors of failure to sustain condom use behavior. Results The univariate analysis showed that men who were 30 years or older in age (p = 0.002) and those who did not have contact female sex worker (FSW) were more likely to fail to sustain consistent condom use. However both these factors did not show significant association in multivariable analysis. Marital status and contact with Hijra (eunuch) in lifetime were associated with failure to change in their condom use behavior [AOR 0.33 (CI 0.13–0.82; p = 0.017)]. During the follow up of 2 years, 61 events (15.5 per 100 person years, 95% CI 12.3–19.5 years) of ‘failure of condom use’ were recorded despite counseling. Older age, contact with non CSW partner and presence of genital ulcer disease / discharge syndrome were significant predictors of failure to sustain condom use. Discussion Married monogamous older men, who report contact with sex worker and present with genital ulcer disease are at risk of failure to use condom after first exposure to voluntary HIV counseling and testing. This is a

  10. Always, Never, or Sometimes: Examining Variation in Condom-Use Decision Making Among Black Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, LaRon E.; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Kearney, Margaret H.; Dozier, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose in this study was to describe Black adolescent mothers’ decisions regarding condom use and non-use with their male sex partners, including their children’s fathers. Research on partner type and condom use has been insufficiently focused on understanding the specific influence that the biological father of the baby has on condom use among adolescent mothers. We conducted five focus groups and three interviews with 31 predominantly African-American mothers. We found that their decisions to use condoms always, never, or sometimes were based on partner type and on emotional and relationship factors. The “baby daddy” was the only partner with whom they never used condoms. HIV/STI prevention interventions for adolescent mothers must address risk taking with their children’s biological fathers. PMID:21633960

  11. Always, never, or sometimes: examining variation in condom-use decision making among Black adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Nelson, LaRon E; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Kearney, Margaret H; Dozier, Ann

    2011-08-01

    Our purpose in this study was to describe Black adolescent mothers' decisions regarding condom use and non-use with their male sex partners, including their children's fathers. Research on partner type and condom use has been insufficiently focused on understanding the specific influence that the biological father of the baby has on condom use among adolescent mothers. We conducted five focus groups and three interviews with 31 predominantly African-American mothers. We found that their decisions to use condoms always, never, or sometimes were based on partner type and on emotional and relationship factors. The "baby daddy" was the only partner with whom they never used condoms. HIV/STI prevention interventions for adolescent mothers must address risk taking with their children's biological fathers. PMID:21633960

  12. Understanding Failure of Condom Use Intention among Adolescents: Completing an Intensive Preventive Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Laurie J.; Karasz, Alison; Hamilton, Adaoha

    2007-01-01

    Although interventions based on cognitive theories can reduce rates of unsafe sexual behavior in adolescents, effect sizes remain small. This study was a qualitative investigation of inner-city adolescents' intentions to use condoms following participation in an intensive safer sex program. In-depth interviews with 26 adolescents were analyzed…

  13. Examining Delay Discounting of Condom-Protected Sex Among Men Who Have Sex with Men Using Crowdsourcing Technology.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Evan S; Johnson, Patrick S; Johnson, Matthew W

    2015-09-01

    Some men who have sex with men (MSM) have unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in situations that put them at risk for HIV infection despite having the knowledge and skills to avoid these risks. The present study examined the potential role of delay discounting in sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM. Participants (n = 108) completed the Sexual Discounting Task and a questionnaire regarding UAI and other variables associated with HIV risk (e.g., age, socioeconomic status, substance use, psychiatric problems). MSM discounted the value of condom-protected anal intercourse in a manner that was orderly, hyperbolic, and sensitive to partner characteristics that likely influence realworld decisions about using condoms. Steeper discounting was associated with UAI, and other factors related to sexual HIV risk among MSM, including young age, socioeconomic disadvantage, substance use, sex under the influence of substances, and depression). Delay discounting is likely a critical, but underappreciated facet of HIV risk among MSM. PMID:26066395

  14. Action-specific Cognitions of Planned and Preparatory Behaviors of Condom Use among Dutch Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Gerjo

    2008-01-01

    Many adolescents fail to use condoms, even when they are motivated to do so. An important reason for their failure to use condoms is that they do not prepare themselves for potential sexual encounters. The present study examined the circumstances under which Dutch adolescents were likely to prepare themselves for condom use (buying and carrying). In a sample of 399 secondary school students, including students with and without sexual experience, it was found that intended condom use was not sufficient to ensure that adolescents plan and prepare for condom use. It was found that having the goal of condom use did not necessarily result in preparatory behavior, such as condom buying and condom carrying. The data showed that action-specific social-cognitive factors of preparatory behavior explained preparatory behavior, beyond the decision to use condoms. This suggests that interventions aimed at promoting condom use should focus not only on condom use itself, but should also motivate and encourage adolescents to buy and carry condoms. PMID:18193348

  15. Condom Semiotics: Meaning and Condom Use in Rural Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavory, Iddo; Swidler, Ann

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the widespread resistance to condom use in sub-Saharan Africa by describing the major semiotic axes that organize how people talk about condoms and condom use. These axes include the "sweetness" of sex, trust and love between sexual partners, and assessments of risk and danger. Using data from rural Malawi, we show that…

  16. Condoms - male

    MedlinePlus

    ... PREGNANCY? If the sperm contained in a male's semen reach a woman's vagina, pregnancy may occur. Condoms ... receptacle) on the end of it (to collect semen), place the condom against the top of the ...

  17. Condom rating.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, E

    1999-01-01

    Consumer Reports reveals that out of 30 different non-polyurethane condoms that underwent airburst testing, only Trojan Plus 2 Spermicidal and Durex Pure Protection Spermicidally Lubricated failed. Condoms labeled as "extra strength" performed no better than those labeled as "thin," and vending machine condoms performed as well as others. Condoms are also less effective for anal sex than vaginal intercourse, and expiration dates should be checked. PMID:11366798

  18. Examining the applicability of the IMB model in predicting condom use among sexually active secondary school students in Mbarara, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Korchmaros, Josephine; Kiwanuka, Julius; Bangsberg, David R; Bull, Sheana

    2013-03-01

    The applicability of the IMB model in predicting condom use was tested among 390 sexually active secondary school students in Mbarara, Uganda. Adolescents across five secondary schools completed a self-report survey about their health and sexual experiences. Based upon results from structural equation modeling, the IMB model partially predicts condom use. Condom use was directly predicted by HIV prevention information and behavioral skills regarding having and using condoms. It was indirectly predicted (through behavioral skills regarding having and using condoms) by behavioral intentions regarding using condoms and talking to one's partner about safer sex. Aspects of one's first sexual experience (i.e., age at first sex, having discussed using condoms with first sex partner, willingness at first sex) were strongly influential in predicting current condom use; this was especially true for discussing condoms with one's first sex partner. Findings highlight the importance of providing clear and comprehensive condom use training in HIV prevention programs aimed at Ugandan adolescents. They also underscore the importance of targeting abstinent youth before they become sexually active to positively affect their HIV preventive behavior at their first sexual experience. PMID:22350827

  19. Examining the applicability of the IMB model in predicting condom use among sexually active secondary school students in Mbarara, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Ybarra, Michele L.; Korchmaros, Josephine; Kiwanuka, Julius; Bangsberg, David R.; Bull, Sheana

    2012-01-01

    We tested the applicability of the IMB model in predicting condom use among sexually active secondary school students in Mbarara, Uganda. Three hundred and ninety adolescents across five secondary schools completed a self-report survey about their health and sexual experiences. Based upon results from structural equation modeling, the IMB model partially predicts condom use. Condom use was directly predicted by HIV prevention information and behavioral skills regarding having and using condoms. It was indirectly predicted (through behavioral skills regarding having and using condoms) by behavioral intentions regarding using condoms and talking to one‘s partner about safer sex. Aspects of one‘s first sexual experience (i.e., age at first sex, having discussed using condoms with first sex partner, willingness at first sex) are hugely influential of current condom use; this is especially true for discussing condoms with one‘s first partner. Findings highlight the importance of providing clear and comprehensive condom use training in HIV prevention programs aimed at Ugandan adolescents. They also underscore the importance of targeting abstinent youth before they become sexually active to positively affect their HIV preventive behavior at their first sexual experience. PMID:22350827

  20. Condom negotiation strategies as a mediator of the relationship between self-efficacy and condom use.

    PubMed

    French, Sabine Elizabeth; Holland, Kathryn J

    2013-01-01

    College students are a group at high risk of sexually transmitted infections due to inconsistent condom use and engaging in other risky sexual behaviors. This study examined whether condom use self-efficacy predicted the use of condom negotiation strategies (i.e., condom influence strategies) and whether condom influence strategies mediated the relationship between condom use self-efficacy and condom use within this population, as well as whether gender moderated the mediation model. Results showed a strong relationship between condom use self-efficacy and condom influence strategies. Additionally, condom influence strategies completely mediated the relationship between condom use self-efficacy and condom use. Although condom use self-efficacy was related to condom use, the ability to use condom negotiation strategies was the most important factor predicting condom use. The mediation model held across genders, except for the condom influence strategy withholding sex, where it was not significant for men. For women, condom use self-efficacy promoted the use of a very assertive negotiation strategy, withholding sex, and was consequently related to increased condom use. Overall, using assertive condom negotiation strategies (e.g., withholding sex and direct request) were found to be the most important aspects of increasing condom use for both women and men. Implications and suggestions for prevention programming are discussed. PMID:22126308

  1. Female condom becomes available nationwide.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Between May 1993 and August 1994, only family planning and sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics had the female condom available. The manufacturer is using a print and educational campaign to market the female condom. The print campaigns provide a toll-free number for consumers and health care providers. The educational component consists of community outreach programs for public health, family planning clinics, and university health centers. The single-use soft polyurethane sheath has a flexible ring at the closed end, which is used to insert the condom and holds it over the cervix. A flexible ring is at the outer end; it holds the condom over the labia. The female condom is prelubricated and comes with a bottle of lubricant. Adding extra lubricant on the penis or the inside of the condom can prevent invagination of the outer ring, the penis entering the vagina instead of the condom, or the condom riding the penis. The 1-year failure rate is 25% for average use and 5.1% for perfect use. Correct and consistent use determines the female condom's ability to protect against STDs and HIV. The female condom helps women protect themselves against pregnancy and STDs/HIV when their male partner refuses to use a latex condom. Since it is visible outside the vagina, some women might still find it difficult to negotiate its use. Drawbacks of the female condom are that it is cumbersome and challenges our traditional gender roles and ideas about sexuality. Education addressing how women feel about themselves, their sexuality, and their relationships is needed to increase female condom use and acceptance. Some couples prefer the female condom over the male condom because it is roomier and because the polyurethane creates a better sensation than latex. PMID:12288570

  2. Choosing condoms.

    PubMed

    Billow, J A

    1992-09-01

    Condoms for men are currently the most effective of the nonprescription contraceptive methods. They are readily available, simple to use, and relatively inexpensive, and they are not associated with major adverse effects. If used both properly and consistently, condoms can significantly reduce the risk of transmission of HIV and other STDs. The protection offered by the latex condom may be increased by the concurrent use of a vaginal foam or cream containing nonoxynol 9. The practicing pharmacist should know about the variety of condoms available, be able to explain their correct use to maximize effectiveness, and compare condom use with other types of contraceptives. The practitioner should be available to answer patrons' questions and provide counseling on contraceptives and "safe sex" practices. PMID:1442556

  3. Female condoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... female condoms at most drugstores, STI clinics, and family planning clinics. You need to plan to have a ... Jensen JT, Mishell DR. Family planning: contraception, ... Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  4. The condom conundrum: barriers to condom use among commercial sex workers in Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Varga, C A

    1997-03-01

    We examined socio-cultural and economic determinants of condom use among 100 female South African commercial sex workers. The symbolism and dynamics of condom use between sex workers and their clientele were explored. These issues were also investigated when sex workers negotiated sex with their personal partners. An additional focus was the extent to which HIV/AIDS influences women's condom use in these situations. Results demonstrate considerable contrast between factors influencing condom use in professional versus private sex situations. With clients, practical issues such as financial strain were the major obstacles to condom use. With personal sex partners, sex workers avoided condoms due to their negative symbolism. Condoms were seen as suggestive of filth, disease, infidelity, and mistrust. HIV/AIDS awareness had minimal impact on condom use. HIV/AIDS was viewed as a remote threat, overridden by immediate practical and emotional concerns. The intervention implications of condom symbolism and differential barriers to condom use are discussed. PMID:10214405

  5. Acceptability of male condom: An Indian scenario

    PubMed Central

    Donta, Balaiah; Begum, Shahina; Naik, D.D.

    2014-01-01

    The National Family Planning Programme of India had introduced condom as one of the family planning methods in the late1960s. Condom was promoted as a family planning method through social marketing since its inception. With the increasing prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS, condom was also promoted as a dual method for protection against both unintended pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted infections. Despite efforts at various levels, the overall use of condom among couples in India is low. Here we present literature review of studies to understand the condom acceptability among couples in India. Specifically, the paper assesses research and programmes that have been carried out to increase the use of condom among couples; determinants of condom use; reason for not using condom; and perception versus experience of condom failure. The reported problems related to condom use included non acceptance by partner, perceived ineffectiveness, less comfort, lack of sexual satisfaction, husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety, and not available at that instant. The role of media in the promotion of condom use was indicated as an important way to increase awareness and use. Multiple strategies would help in acceptance of male condom. PMID:25673537

  6. Acceptability of male condom: an Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Donta, Balaiah; Begum, Shahina; Naik, D D

    2014-11-01

    The National Family Planning Programme of India had introduced condom as one of the family planning methods in the late 1960s. Condom was promoted as a family planning method through social marketing since its inception. With the increasing prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS, condom was also promoted as a dual method for protection against both unintended pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted infections. Despite efforts at various levels, the overall use of condom among couples in India is low. Here we present literature review of studies to understand the condom acceptability among couples in India. Specifically, the paper assesses research and programmes that have been carried out to increase the use of condom among couples; determinants of condom use; reason for not using condom; and perception versus experience of condom failure. The reported problems related to condom use included non acceptance by partner, perceived ineffectiveness, less comfort, lack of sexual satisfaction, husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety, and not available at that instant. The role of media in the promotion of condom use was indicated as an important way to increase awareness and use. Multiple strategies would help in acceptance of male condom. PMID:25673537

  7. Outdated condoms.

    PubMed

    1999-06-25

    Prosecutors in four California jurisdictions filed a suit against the Rite Aid drug store chain for violating State health and safety codes by selling condoms past their expiration dates. The products have expiration dates because they may lose their effectiveness over time. The suit asks for monetary damages and an injunction barring the chain from continuing to sell merchandise outdated merchandise. PMID:11367292

  8. Examining the Theory of Planned Behavior Applied to Condom Use: The Effect-Indicator vs. Causal-Indicator Models

    PubMed Central

    Carmack, Chakema C.; Lewis-Moss, Rhonda K.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated whether a causal-indicator model or an effect-indicator model of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) is more suitable for predicting behavioral intention and for which behaviors. No previous studies have evaluated this question using the same sample and same behavior. In this study, African American adolescents ages 12–17 participating in risk reduction classes were assessed on their initial attitudes, norms, perceived control, and intention regarding condom use. Second-order structural equation modeling indicated that the effect-indicator model exhibited superior fit above the causal-indicator model. Furthermore, modeling the behavioral antecedents in a causal way may not be as accurate due to the underlying uni-dimensional nature of attitudes, subjective norms, and control. The TPB was not disconfirmed as a suitable model for African American adolescents’ regarding condom use. Prevention programs may benefit by focusing on adolescent behavior change with regard to the global components in order to influence more specific concepts of these social cognitions. Editors’ Strategic Implications: Despite limitations including correlational data, this study yields implications for prevention programming and, more broadly, an important theoretical elaboration on effect-indicator and causal-indicator models of the TPB. PMID:19949867

  9. A Qualitative Examination of Men’s Condom Use Attitudes and Resistance: “It’s Just a Part of the Game”

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the variability in young heterosexual men’s perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of condom use in their casual sexual relationships. Because men who perceive greater disadvantages of condom use may be more likely to resist using them, we also explored the tactics that men employ to avoid using condoms. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted with single men who have sex with women (n = 60), aged 21 to 35, all of whom reported using condoms inconsistently. Transcripts were analyzed using a framework analysis approach. As expected, participants reported advantages and disadvantages to condom use that pertained to the likelihood and quality of sex, physical sensations during intercourse, and the risk of STIs and unwanted pregnancies. Within each of these topics, however, participants’ appraisals of the relative pros and cons of condom use varied considerably. Additionally, participants reported that men use a wide range of condom use resistance tactics - including seduction, deception, and condom sabotage – and that the use of these tactics is viewed as normative behavior for men their age. These findings suggest that the effectiveness of sexual health prevention efforts could be enhanced by increasing young men’s motivations to use condoms and by targeting social norms regarding condom use resistance. Additionally, the issue of men’s condom use resistance clearly merits increased empirical investigation and intervention attention. PMID:23912776

  10. Alcohol intoxication and condom use self-efficacy effects on women's condom use intentions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N Tatiana; Eakins, Danielle; Danube, Cinnamon L; George, William H; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R

    2014-01-01

    Although research has consistently demonstrated that condom use self-efficacy significantly predicts condom use, there has been little investigation of whether acute alcohol intoxication moderates this relationship. Because alcohol intoxication is often associated with increased sexual risk taking, further examination of such moderating effects is warranted. Using a community sample of young heterosexual women (n=436) with a history of heavy episodic drinking, this alcohol administration experiment examined the effects of intoxication and condom use self-efficacy on women's condom negotiation and future condom use intentions. After a questionnaire session, alcohol condition (control, .10% target peak BAL) was experimentally manipulated between subjects. Participants then read and responded to a hypothetical risky sexual decision-making scenario. SEM analyses revealed that alcohol intoxication directly decreased women's intentions to use condoms in the future. Women with greater condom use self-efficacy had stronger intentions to engage in condom negotiation; however, this effect was moderated by intoxication. Specifically, the association between condom use self-efficacy and condom negotiation intentions was stronger for intoxicated women than for sober women. These novel findings regarding the synergistic effects of alcohol intoxication and condom use self-efficacy support continued prevention efforts aimed at strengthening women's condom use self-efficacy, which may reduce even those sexual risk decisions made during states of intoxication. PMID:24129265

  11. Depressive Symptoms and Heart Failure: Examining the Sociodemographic Variables

    PubMed Central

    Pressler, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in depressive symptoms among a sample of heart failure outpatients by examining sociodemographic and clinical variables: sex, race, marital status, living arrangement/status, heart failure severity, and age. The most frequently reported depressive symptoms were also examined. Design A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. Setting Patients were enrolled in a larger research study from 5 clinics in the Midwest (1 adult primary care medicine clinic, 1 heart clinic, and 3 heart failure clinics). Sample The sample included 150 patients with mean age of 61.3 years; 88 (59%) were men, and 62 (41%) were women; 47 (31%) were African American, 101 (67%) were white, and 2 (2%) were Asian patients. Forty-seven percent of the patient sample were New York Heart Association class III. Approximately half (51%) of the patient sample were married. Methods The Patient Health Questionnaire 8 was used to measure depressive symptoms. Heart failure severity was assessed using the New York Heart Association classification. Findings Patients with class III and IV had significantly more depressive symptoms than patients with class I and II (P < .0001). Age was negatively correlated with depressive symptoms scores (P < .0002). There were no significant differences in depressive symptoms among the variables of sex, race, marital status, or living arrangement. The most frequently reported depressive symptom was “feeling tired/no energy.” Conclusions The findings from this study may contribute to the development of a broader knowledge base regarding depressive symptoms and its correlates in heart failure and may be used as a foundation for further research. PMID:19395890

  12. Condoms in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Sarah E., Ed.; Smith, Mark D., Ed.

    This book contains six papers on condom availability programs in the public schools. "Executive Summary" (Stryker, Samuels, and Smith) looks at the consequences of unprotected sex, adolescent condom use, condom promotion and availability, the role of schools, sex education in schools, how school condom programs work, distribution mechanisms,…

  13. Understanding heterosexual condom use among homeless men.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Ewing, Brett; Wertheimer, Samuel

    2013-06-01

    This study uses an event-based approach to examine individual, relationship, and contextual correlates of heterosexual condom use among homeless men. Structured interviews were conducted with a predominantly African American sample of 305 men recruited from meal lines in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Men reported on their most recent heterosexual event involving vaginal or anal intercourse. Adjusting for demographic characteristics only, condom use was more likely when men had higher condom use self-efficacy, greater HIV knowledge, or talked to their partner about condoms prior to sex. Condom use was less likely when men held more negative attitudes towards condoms, the partner was considered to be a primary/serious partner, hard drug use preceded sex, or sex occurred in a public setting. Condom attitudes, self-efficacy, partner type, and communication were the strongest predictors of condom use in a multivariate model that included all of the above-mentioned factors. Associations of unprotected sex with hard drug use prior to sex and having sex in public settings could be accounted for by lower condom self-efficacy and/or less positive condom attitudes among men having sex under these conditions. Results suggest that it may be promising to adapt existing, evidence-based IMB interventions for delivery in non-traditional settings that are frequented by men experiencing homelessness to achieve HIV risk reduction and thus reduce a significant point of disparity for the largely African American population of homeless men. PMID:22392155

  14. Multiple condom use and decreased condom breakage and slippage in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rugpao, S; Beyrer, C; Tovanabutra, S; Natpratan, C; Nelson, K E; Celentano, D D; Khamboonruang, C

    1997-02-01

    There is compelling evidence that male condoms effectively prevent transmission of sexual pathogens, including HIV-1. Condom breakage and slippage reduce this effect. We measured rates of condom slippage and breakage during heterosexual commercial sex in northern Thailand. Of 7,594 condoms examined in 4,734 client visits (5,040 sex acts), breakage was noted in 1.8% of single condom use (49.3% of acts), as compared with 0.2% with two condoms (49% of sex acts), and no breaks with more than two condoms (1.2% of sex acts). These breakage rates declined from 5.9% in a similar 1992 study in which 2.8% of sex acts were with more than one condom used at a time. Slippage occurred in only 0.1% of sex acts. Case-control analysis indicated that multiple clients, younger aged clients, sex after midnight, and high intensity (rough) sex were associated with condom breaks. The decline in breakage may be attributable to greater expertise in condom use by sex workers and clients, in response to the successful Thai national "100% Condom Campaign." Use of more than one condom during sex has been initiated by sex workers and their clients, a community response to condom promotion messages and fears of HIV infection. These data demonstrate the potential of condom use for high efficacy in reducing exposure to HIV-1 and other STDs. If condom use in commercial sex remains high, HIV incidence may decline among Thai men. PMID:9052727

  15. [Is today's condom better than its reputation?].

    PubMed

    Döring, G K

    1980-01-31

    In a statistical sample of 500 unwanted pregnancies surprisingly the share of women whose partners used a condom was not higher than the share of IUP-users (considering the relative frequency of use of both methods). This result was the motivation to investigate once more the use of the condom. After a short description of the history, the production, and the testing methods a discussion follows of the frequency of its use. In many countries the frequency of using the condom lies between that of hormonal oral contraceptives and the IUP. Today the reliability of the condom is higher than described in medical textbooks. In statistics of the seventies the failure rate is no more than 3 unwanted pregnancies in 100 years of usage. Harmful side effects or contraindications are not known. Therefore in cases of incompatibility or refusion of hormonal oral contraceptives reflections of the doctor on useful alternative methods of contraception should include the recommendation of the condom. PMID:6988315

  16. What teenagers and young adults have to say about condoms and using condoms.

    PubMed

    Patient, D R; Orr, N M

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of teenagers and young adults on condoms and condom use. By using two focus group sessions, 88 teenagers and young adults from South Africa were interviewed about their attitudes towards using condoms. The findings indicated that issues of image outweigh issues of risks in these groups. In obtaining condoms, these young adults did not trust free condoms and usually preferred anonymous points of purchase such as vending machines, which were also accessible at sites where they gathered for entertainment and socializing. In addition, the types of condoms available in the market were found to be unsuitable for these groups. Complaints on the color and size were noted, as well as the label of using condoms as boring and clinical. Lastly, to overcome the antipathy of using condoms, the paper suggests the following: development of black condoms, change of clinic and pharmacy staff attitude towards condom purchase, accessible distribution of condoms, and presentation of the product in such a way that it focuses on the fun aspect and less upon the clinical aspects. PMID:12295849

  17. [The condom: a badly known method in 1995].

    PubMed

    Janaud, A

    1996-02-01

    The only contraceptive product that remained legal under French legislation of 1920 was the condom, which kept its place in the market because of its efficacy against venereal disease. Legislation of November 1987 governs manufacture, importation, marketing, and free distribution of condoms in France. Condoms sold in France must meet specific conditions for size, form, strength, packaging, and labeling. With 110 million units distributed in 1992, France represents 3.9% of the world market. The 61 approved brands of condoms are all imported. Only natural latex condoms are currently approved. Measures to increase condom use in France for AIDS prevention may focus on increasing accessibility or increasing acceptability. During the 1980s the principal factors limiting condom use were reported to be interference with sensation, interruption of coitus, the association of condoms with prostitution, and the negative attitude of physicians. The increased use of oral contraceptives, which largely replaced condoms in France, allowed men to disengage themselves from contraception. The decline of condom use has probably increased the difficulty of its reacceptance. Condoms are used primarily by young persons and those with multiple partners, but even in these groups usage should be increased. The efficacy of condoms must be evaluated in different ways. Condoms are impermeable to sperm and apparently to the AIDS virus, although apparently some smaller viruses are not barred. Neither the efficacy in vivo of spermicides used with condoms nor the greater efficacy of condoms with reservoirs have been demonstrated. Failure rates for condoms are very difficult to evaluate and depend greatly on motivation. Two recent studies of couples with one HIV seropositive and one seronegative partner indicate that systematic and correct condom use prevents HIV transmission. PMID:12320462

  18. Kids and Condoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1991-01-01

    Faced with an alarming number of adolescents at risk for developing AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, school systems are tackling the controversial issue of making condoms available in schools. Three Canadian districts have installed condom machines. (MLF)

  19. Safety and acceptability of a baggy latex condom.

    PubMed

    Macaluso, M; Blackwell, R; Carr, B; Meinzen-Derr, J; Montgomery, M; Roark, M; Lynch, M; Stringer, E M

    2000-03-01

    A total of 104 couples participated in a randomized crossover trial to compare a new baggy condom with a straight-shaft condom produced by the same manufacturer. Participants completed a coital log after using each condom. All couples used five condoms of each type. Among 102 couples who did not report major deviations from the protocol, the breakage rate was eight of 510 (1.6%) for the baggy condom, and six of 510 (1.2%) for the standard condom (rate difference, RD = 0. 4%, 95% confidence interval of the RD, CI = -1.0%; +1.8%). Slippage was reported in 50 baggy condom logs and in 58 standard condom logs; the slippage rate was 50 of 510 (9.8%) for the baggy condom, and 58 of 510 (11.4%) for the standard condom (RD = -1.6%, 95% CI = -5.4%; +2.2%). Slippage was most often partial (<1 inch) and may not indicate condom failure. Severe slippage rates were 11 of 510 (2.2%) for the baggy condom, and 18 of 510 (3.5%) for the standard condom (RD = -1.4%, 95% CI = -3.4%; +0.7%). The findings support the conclusion that the two condoms are equivalent with respect to breakage and slippage. The participants appeared to prefer the baggy condom, suggesting that the new product may be more acceptable to the public than the traditional straight-shaft condoms, and may be easier to use consistently over long time periods. PMID:10827336

  20. Perceptions of Sexual Intent: The Impact of Condom Possession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynie, Michaela; Schuller, Regina A.; Couperthwaite, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    This study examined whether knowing that a victim of a sexual assault was carrying a condom influenced perceptions of her sexual intention and subsequent judgments of the sexual assault. Participants (N = 165) read a vignette describing a date that culminated in an alleged sexual assault. Condom possession (carrying a condom, not carrying a…

  1. Condom Availability in Schools: A Guide for Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret Pruitt; And Others

    This guide for condom availability programs provides information on how to build support for school-based condom availability programs. Chapter One explains why such a program is important. It examines behaviors and risks of sexually active adolescents, presents strategies for risk reduction, and discusses condom availability and use. Chapter Two…

  2. Use of the "NYC Condom" among people who use drugs.

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, Don C; McKnight, Courtney; Arasteh, Kamyar; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Perlman, David; Hagan, Holly; Cooper, Hannah L F

    2014-06-01

    We assessed awareness and use of the "NYC Condom" among persons who use heroin and cocaine in New York City. The NYC Condom distribution program is the largest free condom distribution program in the USA, with over 30 million condoms distributed per year. It includes a condom social marketing program for a specific brand, the NYC Condom with its own packaging and advertising. People who use heroin and cocaine are at relatively high risk for HIV infection and are an important target population for the program. In order to assess awareness of the NYC Condom, structured interviews and blood testing for HIV, HSV-2, and sexually transmitted infections (STI) were conducted among entrants to the Beth Israel Medical Center drug detoxification and methadone treatment programs. Participants were asked about drug use, sexual risk behaviors, and awareness and use of the NYC Condom. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between use of NYC Condoms and consistent condom use with primary and casual sexual partners. A total of 970 subjects were recruited between February 2011 and December 2012. Subjects were primarily African-American and Hispanic, with a mean age of 43. Fifty-five percent of subjects reported being sexually active with primary sexual partners, and 25 % reported being sexually active with a casual partner for the 6 months prior to the interview. Sixty-five percent of subjects had heard of the NYC Condom, 48 % of those who had heard of the condom had used it, and 58 % of those who had ever used it were currently using it (in the previous 6 months). In multivariable regression analyses, current use of NYC Condoms was strongly associated with consistent condom use with primary sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.99, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.85-8.58) and consistent condom use with casual sexual partners (AOR = 4.48, 95 % CI 1.49-13.42). In terms of market share, 38 % of subjects consistently using

  3. Condom use errors and problems in a national sample of young Croatian adults.

    PubMed

    Baćak, Valerio; Stulhofer, Aleksandar

    2012-08-01

    In this study, we examined the correlates of condom use errors and problems in a population-based study conducted in 2010 among young Croatian adults aged 18-25 years. Out of a total sample of 1,005 participants, 679 reported condom use in the preceding year. The analyses focused on four outcomes: condom breakage, condom slippage, condom-related erection loss, and delayed condom application. Eighteen percent of participants experienced breakage, 13% reported slippage, 17% reported erection loss, and 34% applied a condom after intercourse started. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the correlates of these condom use errors and problems. Condom breakage was less likely to be reported by women and older participants. The odds of breakage were increased for participants who reported being under the influence of drugs during sex and who reported other condom use errors and problems in the past year. Condom slippage was more likely to occur among younger participants and those who reported condom breakage and delayed condom application. Condom-related erection loss was positively associated with a higher number of sexual partners in the preceding year, condom breakage, and a higher score on the Anti-Erotic Obstacles to Condom Use Scale. Odds of delayed condom application were increased for participants who experienced condom breakage and for those who consumed alcohol before sex in the past year. Having used a condom at first sex significantly reduced the odds of applying a condom after intercourse started. In comparison to non-habitual condom users, habitual users were found less likely to report any of the assessed condom use errors and problems. Improving condom use skills remains an important task in Croatia, which is currently hampered by the absence of evidence-based sex education in schools. PMID:21882054

  4. Condom use increasing.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    Condom use is central to the prevention of AIDS among people at risk for contracting HIV. As such, condom use is increasing dramatically even though many men say that they do not like using them. Condom sales through social marketing campaigns have increased dramatically in some countries, where tens of millions of condoms are sold annually. For example, during the period 1991-96, annual social marketing sales increased about five-fold in Ethiopia to 21 million, and nine-fold in Brazil to 27 million. These sales reflect the success of condom social marketing campaigns in making condoms accessible and largely affordable. There is also a greater general awareness of AIDS than there used to be, and communication campaigns have shown that condoms are an effective solution. More condoms still need to be used in the ongoing struggle against HIV/AIDS. The author discusses the factors which affect the limited acceptance of condoms, condom use outside of marriage, social marketing, and family planning programs. PMID:12293530

  5. Condom Use: Slippage, Breakage, and Steps for Proper Use among Adolescents in Alternative School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Karin K.; Franks, Heather M.; Glassman, Jill R.; Stanoff, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI), and pregnancy prevention programs often focus on consistent and correct condom use. Research on adolescents' experience using condoms, including condom slippage/breakage, is limited. This exploratory study examines proper condom use and the…

  6. Time to talk condoms.

    PubMed

    Piotrow, P T; Rinehart, W

    1991-09-01

    A great deal of avoided if political and religious leaders, educators, health care providers and the mass media would band together in an effort to promote condom use. Condoms use protects against unwanted pregnancies, STDs and AIDS. Yet, public discussions on condom use are rate. In the US, political leaders avoid mentioning the topic, and television networks severely restrict the airing of public service announcements for condoms. Worldwide, an estimated 100 billion acts of sexual intercourse take place every year. A recent report indicates that it would take a modest 13 billion condoms a year to protect everyone who is at risk of contracting AIDS and other STDs, and risk of having an unwanted pregnancy. Currently, worldwide production of condoms stands at about 6 billion a year. Furthermore, condom makers have the capacity to increase production by some 2 billion, and could add new capacity in about 2 years. Many believe that marketing condoms is a difficult enterprise, since men often report that condoms reduce pleasure, cause embarrassment, or are not available when needed. The challenge for markets, then, is to create demand. This is especially true in the US, where prime-time advertising and the use of popular entertainment, such as soap operas, could promote condoms as both safe and satisfying. In the developing world, the challenge is to make condoms widely available and affordable. Some changes have taken place since 1981, when AIDS first came into the spotlight. In the US, people now discuss the topic of STDs more openly. But an all-out effort to promote condom use has not yet begun. PMID:12284290

  7. Condom Fact Sheet in Brief

    MedlinePlus

    ... HIV) transmission. However, condom use cannot provide absolute protection against any STD. The most reliable ways to ... properties of condoms, and the anatomic coverage or protection provided by condoms. Laboratory studies have shown that ...

  8. Examination of pump failure data in the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Casada, D.

    1996-12-01

    There are several elements that are critical to any program which is used to optimize the availability and reliability of process equipment. Perhaps the most important elements are routine monitoring and predictive maintenance elements. In order to optimize equipment monitoring and predictive maintenance, it is necessary to fundamentally and thoroughly understand the principal failure modes for the equipment and the effectiveness of alternative monitoring methods. While these observations are general in nature, they are certainly true for the {open_quotes}heart{close_quotes} of fluid systems - pumps. In recent years, particularly within the last decade, the capabilities and ease of use of previously existing pump diagnostic technologies, such as vibration monitoring and oil analysis, have improved dramatically. Newer technologies, such as thermal imaging, have been found effective at detecting certain undesirable or degraded conditions, such as misalignment and overheated bearings or packing. The ASME Code and NRC regulatory requirements have been, like essentially all similar code and regulatory bodies, conservative in their adoption or endorsement of newer technologies. The requirements prescribed by the Code and endorsed by the NRC have, in their essence, changed only minimally over more than a dozen years. As a follow-on to studies of check valve failure experience in the nuclear industry that have proven useful in identifying the effectiveness of alternative monitoring methods, a study of nuclear industry pump failure data has been conducted. The results of this study, conducted for the NRC by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are presented. The historical effectiveness of both regulatory required and voluntarily implemented pump monitoring programs are shown. The distribution of pump failures by application, affected area, and level of significance are indicated. Apparent strengths and weaknesses of alternative monitoring methods are discussed.

  9. Cultural Factors and Program Implications: HIV/AIDS Interventions and Condom Use among Latinos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeakley, Anna M.; Gant, Larry M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the failure to use condoms among U.S. Latino populations and identifies six "myths" related to traditional cultural values and gender roles, and associations between condoms and prostitution, infidelity, and disease, that prevent condom use in these populations. Suggests ways that programs can address these myths in HIV prevention…

  10. Factors associated with condom use among young adult ecstasy users

    PubMed Central

    Elifson, Kirk W.; Sterk, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This paper examines the prevalence of and the factors associated with condom use in a sample of 283 young adult ecstasy users. Methods The study, which relied upon targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping, took place between 2002 and 2004. It entailed conducting two-hour-long, face-to-face interviews in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. Results Condom use was inconsistent; only 35.2% of all sex acts were protected. Using multiple regression, five factors were related to condom use: race (Caucasians used condoms less than other groups), income (lower income = greater condom use), relationship status (persons involved in relationships reported less condom use than those who were not “involved”), multiple sex partners (multiple sex partners = more condom use), and condom use self-efficacy (higher efficacy level = more condom use). Conclusions Condom use rates were not optimal in this population. In particular, targeted interventions are needed for Caucasian ecstasy users. Intervention efforts ought to address relationship (in)fidelity as it pertains to engaging in safer sex practices, especially among persons involved in relationships. Intervention efforts also need to work to increase condom use self-efficacy. PMID:20517633

  11. Relationship Dynamics and Consistency of Condom Use among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.; Flanigan, Christine M.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2011-01-01

    Context Research on teen condom use often focuses on the influence of parents, peers, and environmental factors. Although most sexually active teens have sex within dating relationships, we know little about how the characteristics of dating relationships are associated with consistent condom use. Methods Data on 269 teens in Wave 1 of the Toledo Adolescent Relationship Study who had sex in their most recent relationships were analyzed to examine how qualities of their relationship are associated with condom use. We present odds ratios based on logistic regression models predicting consistent condom use. Results Drawing on the analytic sample of teens who had sex with their dating partner, relationship qualities were significantly related to consistent condom use. Both negative relationship dynamics (conflict, control, mistrust, jealousy, perceived partner inferiority) and positive qualities (love, enmeshment, salience, self-disclosure) were associated with consistent condom use (OR .65–.89). Similar to prior studies, demographic asymmetries (age, race, neighborhood) were not related to consistent condom use. Relationship duration was negatively associated with consistent condom use (OR .98–.99), but the effect of duration was explained by feelings of relationship importance. The role of relationship qualities was similar for males and females. Conclusions Although the relationship processes associated with consistent condom use are complex, such processes appeared to be more strongly associated with consistent condom use than were sociodemographic characteristics. The findings suggested programs should focus on relationship qualities and dynamics, recognizing that both negative and positive relationship features were associated with consistent condom use. PMID:19740237

  12. Condom availability for adolescents.

    PubMed

    1996-06-01

    Although abstinence should be stressed as the certain way to prevent STDs and pregnancy, sexually active teens, male and female, must nonetheless be taught to use condoms properly, effectively, and consistently. The latex condom should be made widely available to young people. Ideally, young persons should have access to education and counseling when contraception is dispensed. However, condoms should be made easily available without any requirement for education. Condoms should be available not only through families, medical facilities, and commercial channels, but also through other appropriate and informed persons, without cost if possible, at sites where adolescents congregate. These sites may include schools, clubs, and other youth-serving agencies. A clear message from the medical community supporting condom use will enhance compliance. PMID:8803728

  13. Overcoming denial and increasing the intention to use condoms through the induction of hypocrisy.

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, E; Fried, C; Stone, J

    1991-01-01

    Feelings of hypocrisy were induced in college students to increase condom use. Hypocrisy was created by making subjects mindful of their past failure to use condoms and then having them persuade others about the importance of condoms for AIDS prevention. The induction of hypocrisy decreased denial and led to greater intent to improve condom use relative to the control conditions. The implications of these findings for AIDS prevention are discussed. PMID:1746661

  14. Do condom characteristics influence use?

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    Loss of sensation, inability to maintain an erection, discomfort, and interruption of foreplay are some of the major reasons why people do not use condoms. Research has found that condom users prefer lubricated condoms, because they can reduce the level of discomfort and make condoms easier to use. In accordance with these findings, most condoms are now pre-lubricated. While changes in condom shape and thickness may also heighten users' satisfaction with condoms, research has generally found that different materials, widths, and latex formulations have little effect upon consumer preference. Limited research suggests that many men prefer comparatively thin condoms, but more research is needed. Men who evaluated a latex condom which fits loosely over the tip of the penis reported enjoying the experimental condom at least as much as they did the standard condom. Men involved in two studies comparing the use of latex and polyurethane condoms reported that while the latex condom was easier to put on, the penis was more often constricted than it was in the polyurethane device. Both men and women reported a higher degree of condom breakage and stretching out of shape with the polyurethane condom, but comparatively less sexual stimulation with the latex condom. One polyurethane condom, the Avanti, is currently available in the US and 4 European countries. PMID:12293532

  15. Differences in correlates of condom use between young adults and adults attending sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Amanda R; Blood, Emily A; Crosby, Richard A; Shrier, Lydia A

    2015-07-01

    Despite developmental differences between young adults and adults, studies of condom use have not typically considered young adults as a distinct age group. This study sought to examine how condom use and its correlates differed between high-risk young adults and adults. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic patients (n = 763) reported STI history, contraception, negative condom attitudes, fear of partner reaction to condom use and risky behaviours. Past 3-month condom use was examined as unprotected vaginal sex (UVS) acts, proportional condom use and consistent condom use. Regression models tested associations of age group and potential correlates with each condom use outcome. Interaction models tested whether associations differed by age group. Proportional condom use was greater in young adults than adults (mean 0.55 vs. 0.47); UVS and consistent condom use were similar between age groups. Young adults with a recent STI reported less condom use, whereas for older adults, a distant STI was associated with less condom use, compared to others in their age groups. Negative condom attitudes were more strongly linked to UVS acts for younger versus older adults. STI prevention efforts for younger adults may be improved by intensifying counselling about condom use immediately following STI diagnosis and targeting negative condom attitudes. PMID:25070945

  16. 38 CFR 3.655 - Failure to report for Department of Veterans Affairs examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Failure to report for... Adjustments and Resumptions § 3.655 Failure to report for Department of Veterans Affairs examination. (a... a current VA examination or reexamination and a claimant, without good cause, fails to report...

  17. Female condom uptake and acceptability in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Napierala, Sue; Kang, Mi-Suk; Chipato, Tsungai; Padian, Nancy; van der Straten, Ariane

    2008-04-01

    As the first phase of a two-phase prospective cohort study to assess the acceptability of the diaphragm as a potential HIV/STI prevention method, we conducted a 2-month prospective study and examined the effect of a male and female condom intervention on female condom (FC) use among 379 sexually active women in Harare, Zimbabwe. Reported use of FC increased from 1.1% at baseline to 70.6% at 2-month follow-up. Predictors of FC uptake immediately following the intervention included interest in using FC, liking FC better than male condoms, and believing one could use them more consistently than male condoms. Women reported 28.8% of sex acts protected by FC in the 2 weeks prior to last study visit. Though FC may not be the preferred method for the majority of women, with access, proper education, and promotion they may be a valuable option for some Zimbabwean women. PMID:18433318

  18. Condom negotiation strategy use and effectiveness among college students.

    PubMed

    Holland, Kathryn J; French, Sabine Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    College students may engage in risky sexual behaviors, such as inconsistent condom use, which increase their risk of sexually transmitted infections. This study examined the association between six condom influence strategies (CIS) and reported condom use among a diverse group of college students. Differences in CIS and condom use were examined by gender, race or ethnicity, and relationship status (casual, monogamous, or no current relationship). The study also used a cluster analysis to investigate how the CIS were used relative to one another, and how patterns of CIS use were related to condom use. Results showed interesting differences in CIS use by gender, race or ethnicity, and relationship status. Four patterns of CIS usage emerged, and results suggested that using all CIS frequently and using more assertive CIS may be particularly important for increased condom use. Men reported more condom use than women overall, but results indicated that using CIS were especially vital for increasing condom use for women. Surprisingly, there were no differences in condom use found for race or ethnicity and relationship type. Programs aimed at increasing students' condom use could benefit from promoting and practicing CIS, and recognizing potential differences among demographic groups. PMID:21732866

  19. Examining Productive Failure, Productive Success, Unproductive Failure, and Unproductive Success in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapur, Manu

    2016-01-01

    Learning and performance are not always commensurable. Conditions that maximize performance in the initial learning may not maximize learning in the longer term. I exploit this incommensurability to theoretically and empirically interrogate four possibilities for design: productive success, productive failure, unproductive success, and…

  20. Attitudes toward condoms as AIDS prophylaxis in homosexual men: dimensions and measurement.

    PubMed

    Ross, M W

    1988-01-01

    Increases in condom use among homosexually active men are crucial to containing the spread of AIDS. The present study examined the components of attitudes and beliefs toward condom use in homosexual and bisexual men using a modified version of Brown's Attitude toward condoms scale. Factor analysis revealed 5 clear dimensions: viewing condoms as unreliable and unerotic; as protection from infection; as unavailable when needed; as interrupting sex; and viewing condoms as a responsibility and being comfortable with condom use. 5 subscales constructed from these dimensions differentiated significantly between homosexual men who used condoms frequently and infrequently or never. 4 of the subscales (except Protection form Infection subscale) differentiated frequency of oral condom use; only the Responsibility and Comfort with Condom Use subscale differentiated frequency of anal condom use. The Homosexual Attitudes toward Condom use scale demonstrates that: dimensions of beliefs and attitudes toward condom use in homosexually active men differ substantially from those in heterosexual individuals; a reliable and valid scale for measuring such attitudes now exists; factors influencing condom use in this population differ for oral and anal intercourse; and this scale enables further research on determinants of condom use, and effects of modifying attitudes toward condom use in homosexually active men to be carried out. PMID:12316332

  1. An assessment of burst strength distribution data for monitoring quality of condom stocks in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Free, M J; Hutchings, J; Lubis, F; Natakusumah, R

    1986-03-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted on condoms to examine the changes that occur over time in indicators of condom burst strength, and to determine the relationship between laboratory-assessed condom burst strength and breakage during use in a developing country setting. Three groups of unaged condoms purchased directly from the manufacturer were used: one group exposed to UV light for 10 hours; one group exposed for five hours; and one group unexposed. A sample of each of these groups was tested according to ISO condom air burst test protocols. The remaining condoms were individually packaged in coded polyethylene bags for shipment to the developing country study site. Also used in the study was a group of condoms that had been aged for over 40 months under field conditions in a tropical climate; a sample from this group was tested by the ISO air burst test protocol and the remainder distributed to the study site. One-hundred-thirty Indonesian urban males participated in the double-blind study. Volunteers were not relying on the condom for contraceptive purposes. Each volunteer was given one individually packaged untreated condom, one condom from each treatment group, and four condoms aged in the field. Study participants were instructed to return all used condoms. Each condom that was returned after use was examined for breakage, and the unbroken condoms were subjected to an air inflation test to determine volume and pressure at burst. A comparison of the air burst volume data for a sample of unused and used condoms from the same treatment group indicates that most of the condoms that broke during use had air burst volumes below 11 liters. Therefore, a significant downward shift in the burst strength distribution as measured in the laboratory is likely to result in an increased breakage rate during use. A Condom Deterioration Index calculated from regular periodic testing of stored condom stocks is a convenient and sensitive means of monitoring trends in the

  2. Methodologies for examining problem solving success and failure.

    PubMed

    DeCaro, Marci S; Wieth, Mareike; Beilock, Sian L

    2007-05-01

    When designing research to examine the variables underlying creative thinking and problem solving success, one must not only consider (a) the demands of the task being performed, but (b) the characteristics of the individual performing the task and (c) the constraints of the skill execution environment. In the current paper we describe methodologies that allow one to effectively study creative thinking by capturing interactions among the individual, task, and problem solving situation. In doing so, we demonstrate that the relation between executive functioning and problem solving success is not always as straightforward as one might initially believe. PMID:17434416

  3. Promoting the female condom.

    PubMed

    Cornman, H

    1997-01-01

    AIDS is spreading most rapidly among women, who often cannot negotiate the use of a male condom with reluctant partners. Recent findings from 6 countries, however, indicate that women can draw upon peer support to help them negotiate female condom use with reluctant partners. These findings come from Family Health International's (FHI) AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's introduction of the female condom to women through peer support groups in Kenya and Brazil, and the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS' (UNAIDS) coordinated studies in Costa Rica, Indonesia, Mexico, and Senegal on sexual negotiation, women's empowerment, and the female condom, also using group education sessions. The US Agency for International Development recently committed $100,000 toward the purchase of 150,000 female condoms for operations research and familiarization in countries where officials have not been exposed to the method. More than 130 participants from 19 countries attended FHI's May 1-2, 1997, conference on the female condom convened in Arlington, Virginia. PMID:12292734

  4. Elements of condom use decision-making among MSM in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Siegler, Aaron J.; de Voux, Alex; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Baral, Stefan D.; Winskell, Kate; Kose, Zamakayise; Wirtz, Andrea L.; Stephenson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    South African men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk for HIV infection, and male condoms are fundamental to HIV prevention programs. We explored condom use experiences through in-depth interviews with 34 MSM in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, South Africa. For data analysis, we generated a codebook and used the constant comparison method. Condom use reinforcing elements included use of alternative sexual strategies, having a high level of self-worth that was linked to protective behaviors, and use of ready-made condom negotiation scripts. Elements inhibiting condom use included perceiving substantial declines in sexual pleasure/performance, experiences of condom failure (possibly related to petroleum-based lubricant), and being in trusted relationships. Our findings suggest nuanced HIV prevention approaches such as bolstering condom negotiation skills based on successful tactics already in use. Further research is needed to address how to mitigate perceptions and experiences that condoms negatively impact sexual pleasure and performance. PMID:24935692

  5. Correlates of condom coupon redemption among urban sexually transmitted disease clinic patients.

    PubMed

    Witte, S; el-Bassel, N; Krishnan, S; Schilling, R; Bidassie, B

    1999-01-01

    This study expands upon coupon distribution strategies used to measure male condom acquisition in HIV/AIDS prevention by incorporating both female and male condoms and examining factors related to coupon redemption among urban STD clinic patients. PMID:9949697

  6. The moderating effect of sexual pressure on young urban women's condom use.

    PubMed

    Gakumo, C Ann; Moneyham, Linda D; Enah, Comfort C; Childs, Gwendolyn D

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether women's experiences of sexual pressure moderated the relationship between sexual empowerment determinants and condom use in a sample of 100 high-risk women, ages 19-25. Five sexual empowerment determinants of condom use were identified from the literature: HIV knowledge, self-esteem, condom self-efficacy, positive attitudes toward condom use, and condom negotiation skills. Linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that positive attitudes toward condom use and condom negotiation skills were significant predictors of condom use. These relationships, however, were moderated by sexual pressure. Findings indicate that women's experiences with sexual pressure have the potential to decrease the likelihood of condom use, even though other sexually protective behaviors may be exhibited. PMID:22033977

  7. Condoms: Past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Marfatia, Y S; Pandya, Ipsa; Mehta, Kajal

    2015-01-01

    Though many methods of prevention of STI/HIV are available, condoms remain of utmost importance. They have gone a long way from the oiled silk paper used by the Chinese and the hard sheaths made of tortoise- shell used by the Japanese to the latex condoms of today. The breakthrough came when the rubber vulcanization process was invented by Charles Goodyear and eventually the first rubber condom was made. The condom offers maximum protection( more than 90%) against HIV, Hepatitis B virus and N.Gonorrhoea. They also offer protection in scenarios when alternate sexual practices are adapted. The female condom in the only female driven contraceptive method available today. Graphene and Nano lubricated condoms are new in the market and others in futuristic approach may include wearable technology/Technology driven condom and invisible Condoms. Both Correct and Consistent use of condoms needs to be promoted for HIV/STI prevention. PMID:26692603

  8. Condoms: Past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Marfatia, Y. S.; Pandya, Ipsa; Mehta, Kajal

    2015-01-01

    Though many methods of prevention of STI/HIV are available, condoms remain of utmost importance. They have gone a long way from the oiled silk paper used by the Chinese and the hard sheaths made of tortoise- shell used by the Japanese to the latex condoms of today. The breakthrough came when the rubber vulcanization process was invented by Charles Goodyear and eventually the first rubber condom was made. The condom offers maximum protection( more than 90%) against HIV, Hepatitis B virus and N.Gonorrhoea. They also offer protection in scenarios when alternate sexual practices are adapted. The female condom in the only female driven contraceptive method available today. Graphene and Nano lubricated condoms are new in the market and others in futuristic approach may include wearable technology/Technology driven condom and invisible Condoms. Both Correct and Consistent use of condoms needs to be promoted for HIV/STI prevention. PMID:26692603

  9. Condom use within marriage: a neglected HIV intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed M.; Cleland, John; Shah, Iqbal H.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the contraceptive effectiveness of condoms versus oral contraceptive pills and estimate the reproductive consequences of a major shift from pill to condom use. METHODS: Secondary analysis was performed on nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of women in 16 developing countries. FINDINGS: In the 16 countries, the median per cent of married couples currently using condoms was 2%, compared with 13% for the pill. Condom users reported a higher 12-month failure and higher method-related discontinuation rates than pill users (9% and 44% vs 6% and 30%, respectively). Condom users were more likely to report subsequent abortion following failure (21% vs 14%), and also more likely to switch rapidly to another method (76% vs 58%). The reproductive consequences, in terms of abortion and unwanted births, of a hypothetical reversal of the relative prevalence of condom and pill were estimated to be minor. The main reason for this unexpected result is that the majority of abortions and unwanted births arise from non-use of any contraceptive method. CONCLUSION: A massive shift from the more effective oral contraceptive pills to the less effective condom would not jeopardize policy goals of reducing abortions and unwanted births. However, such a shift would potentially have an added benefit of preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, especially in countries with generalized HIV epidemics. PMID:15112006

  10. Safety, functionality and acceptability of a prototype polyurethane condom.

    PubMed

    Farr, G; Katz, V; Spivey, S K; Amatya, R; Warren, M; Oliver, R

    1997-12-01

    Male condoms made from synthetic materials offer an alternative to latex condoms that may be more acceptable to users, thereby potentially resulting in more protected acts of intercourse. A prospective, noncomparative clinical study was conducted to evaluate the safety of using certain polyurethane materials to make condoms. Fifty-one healthy, contracepting, mutually monogamous couples were recruited between June 30 and November 24, 1993 to use a prototype roll-on polyurethane condom developed by Family Health International. Couples were to use the condoms for 10 consecutive acts of vaginal intercourse over a 4-week period. Baseline and postexposure genital examinations, including colposcopy for female participants, were performed. Fifty couples completed the study requirements and 517 acts of intercourse occurred using the condoms. Two adverse events were reported: irritation of introitus in a female participant and a small irritated erythematous lesion on a male participant's penis. Neither event was considered to be serious and both were resolved without treatment. Breakage and slippage rates were similar to those reported for latex condoms. These results suggest that polyurethane condoms represent a safe, functional and acceptable alternative to latex condoms. PMID:9404553

  11. Accidental condom inhalation.

    PubMed

    Arya, C L; Gupta, Rajnish; Arora, V K

    2004-01-01

    A 27-year-old lady presented with persistent cough, sputum and fever for the preceding six months. Inspite of trials with antibiotics and anti-tuberculosis treatment for the preceeding four months, her symptoms did not improve. A subsequent chest radiograph showed non-homogeneous collapse-consolidation of right upper lobe. Videobronchoscopy revealed an inverted bag like structure in right upper lobe bronchus and rigid bronchoscopic removal with biopsy forceps confirmed the presence of a condom. Detailed retrospective history also confirmed accidental inhalation of the condom during fellatio. PMID:14870871

  12. Perceptions about HIV and Condoms and Consistent Condom Use among Male Clients of Commercial Sex Workers in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Rotrease; Morisky, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Because consistent condom use is an effective strategy in the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and HIV transmission, it is important to examine social cognitive influences of consistent condom use not only among female sex workers (FSWs) but also among their male clients, for whom less is known. Because little is known about how HIV…

  13. Perceptions about HIV and condoms and consistent condom use among male clients of commercial sex workers in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Regan, Rotrease; Morisky, Donald E

    2013-04-01

    Because consistent condom use is an effective strategy in the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and HIV transmission, it is important to examine social cognitive influences of consistent condom use not only among female sex workers (FSWs) but also among their male clients, for whom less is known. Because little is known about how HIV knowledge and condom attitudes affect condom use among male clients of FSWs in the Philippines, the main objective was to determine what characteristics (age, education, HIV knowledge, marital status) as well as attributes taken from protection motivation theory (perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, response efficacy) are significantly associated with consistent condom use among male clients of FSWs. Logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of using condoms consistently with an FSW are 13% higher for those with more years of education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.23), higher versus lower perception of severity of HIV/AIDS (AOR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.04, 3.73), and had a higher score for response efficacy of condoms (AOR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.27). Future HIV/AIDS prevention interventions that address condom use among male clients should promote educational attainment and focus on awareness of the enduring negative health consequences of acquiring HIV/AIDS, as well as cultivate positive attitudes toward the efficacy of condom use, using creative social marketing strategies. PMID:22773598

  14. Predictors of Condom Use Self-Efficacy in an Ethnically Diverse University Sample

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Melissa A.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2010-01-01

    A multitude of factors influence condom use self-efficacy, including age, gender, ethnicity, condom use attitudes and barriers, sexual experience, and partner characteristics. The current study integrated past research by evaluating these factors in a large, ethnically diverse university sample of women and men (N = 665). The role of gender on condom use and sexuality variables was assessed across ethnic groups. Hierarchical linear regressions were then calculated to explain levels of condom use self-efficacy using the hypothesized sexual predictors in nonvirgin, sexually active, and recent condom use subsamples. Predictors explained 18–45% of variance in condom use self-efficacy. Findings suggest that a few key variables accounted for the majority of variance in condom use self-efficacy: condom use attitudes, condom use barriers, satisfaction with sexual communication, anticipated number of sexual partners, one-time sexual encounters, and ethnic identity. Significant gender differences emerged in condom use self-efficacy, condom use attitudes, and condom use behaviors. Ethnic differences were found in range of sexual experience and sexual partner characteristics. It is recommended that future studies examining sexual risk behavior incorporate the diverse sexual factors that affect condom use self-efficacy. PMID:16804746

  15. Correlates of Condom Use Among Somali and Ethiopian Immigrants in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Nasser B; Davis, Sharon; Tomaka, Joe

    2016-10-01

    The study examined correlates of consistent condom use in steady heterosexual relationships among Somali and Ethiopian immigrants in Minnesota. Study participants (n = 205) responded to questions on attitudes, social norms, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, behavioral intention, and self-reported male condom use. Participants were neither for, nor against using condoms, and the same was true for social influence and self-efficacy; however, reported moderately favorable attitude toward condom use and little difficulties in using condoms. Self-efficacy emerged as the factor with the strongest direct influence on behavioral intention to use condoms. In turn, behavioral intention was a significant predictor of self-reported condom use. Increasing male condom use self-efficacy among Somali and Ethiopian immigrants is suggested as a main component of public health intervention seeking to curb the spread of HIV and other STIs in Minnesota. PMID:26153624

  16. Superthin plastic condom gets thicker.

    PubMed

    1997-04-01

    Following an investigation of the Avanti condom, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allowed the manufacturer to replace the original thin polyurethane condom with a thicker version. London International Group made the switch in May 1996 but has not changed the packaging except to add a sticker on recent boxes that alerts customers that the condom is only approved for latex-sensitive users. Avanti was introduced in 1994 as a thinner, stronger, and more sensitive alternative to latex condoms. However, expectations that the product would revolutionize the condom market were not met, in part because of safety concerns. Although Avanti was approved by the FDA in 1991, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) ordered the company to develop a thicker condom, after further studies showed that its breakage rate was four times higher than that of latex condoms. The FDA allowed the thin version to be sold, however, because it was the only latex-free, HIV-impermeable condom available. Labeling on the condom noted that it was recommended only for latex-sensitive customers. Avanti grew in popularity until customers began complaining of frequent breakage. The thinner condom was then discontinued and replaced with the thicker version. FDA official Lillian Yin said a recall of the thinner condom was not necessary. PMID:11364143

  17. Interaction of condom design and user techniques and condom acceptability.

    PubMed

    Gerofi, J; Deniaud, F; Friel, P

    1995-10-01

    In 1991, the source of public sector condom supplies in an African country changed from USAID to WHO. Following a complaint, the two types of condoms were sampled and compared. Laboratory tests indicated that the new-style condoms were of adequate quality, but a number of differences were noted between the two types. Complaints that the condoms were short and broke frequently could not be reconciled with measurements. Lubricant quantities on the WHO-supplied condoms were found to be lower than on the USAID condoms, but still within the range found on the commercial market. Also, the WHO condoms were marginally narrower and thicker. WHO asked the authors to conduct field interviews to seek reasons for the reported problems. These revealed that the relative dissatisfaction with the WHO condoms was largely confined to a group of sex workers in a follow-up programme conducted by two educators funded by a European agency. The instructions for use being given by the educators magnified the risk of incorrect application of the condom. Design changes to the WHO condoms (regarding lubricant, size and thickness) were subsequently made to minimise the chance of wrong use. PMID:8605780

  18. Condom brands, perceptions of condom efficacy and HIV prevention among university students in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mulwo, Abraham Kiprop; Tomaselli, Keyan G; Dalrymple, Lynn

    2009-09-01

    University students form an important constituency in interventions against HIV and AIDS. The majority of university students are between ages 18 and 30 years, which, according to recent surveys, is the age category at the highest risk of HIV infection. Even though there is currently no comprehensive statistical data on the HIV prevalence at South African institutions of higher learning, a number of studies have noted increasing AIDS-related deaths and sicknesses among students. This highlights the need for effective intervention against HIV infections within this community. Condom use remains the most effective intervention against HIV infection within sexually active populations. This paper examines perceptions of public-sector condoms and their impact on condom use among university students, based on the findings of research conducted at three universities in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Study findings indicate that public-sector condoms are perceived as ineffective, smelly and even 'infectious' and are widely seen to be of lower status as compared to the commercial brands. These perceptions were found to influence condom use as some students preferred to engage in unprotected sex rather than use public-sector condoms. The paper highlights the need for communication programmes to demystify the misconceptions surrounding public-sector condoms and to provide reassurance of the quality of such condoms. PMID:25864546

  19. Depression Vulnerable and Nonvulnerable Smokers after a Failure Experience: Examining Cognitive Self-Regulation and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Walter D.; Beevers, Christopher G.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study extended previous tests of cognitive priming theories of depression by examining cognitive self-regulatory, motivational, and affective functioning of depression-vulnerable and nonvulnerable individuals after a failure experience. Participants were enrolled in a clinic-based smoking cessation program that consisted of seven group…

  20. 38 CFR 3.655 - Failure to report for Department of Veterans Affairs examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Failure to report for Department of Veterans Affairs examination. 3.655 Section 3.655 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity...

  1. 38 CFR 3.655 - Failure to report for Department of Veterans Affairs examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Failure to report for Department of Veterans Affairs examination. 3.655 Section 3.655 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity...

  2. 38 CFR 3.655 - Failure to report for Department of Veterans Affairs examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Failure to report for Department of Veterans Affairs examination. 3.655 Section 3.655 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity...

  3. 38 CFR 3.655 - Failure to report for Department of Veterans Affairs examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Failure to report for Department of Veterans Affairs examination. 3.655 Section 3.655 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Adjustments and Resumptions §...

  4. Condom use behaviours and correlates of use in the Botswana Defence Force.

    PubMed

    Tran, Bonnie Robin; Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Ditsela, Mooketsi; Vaida, Florin; Phetogo, Robert; Kelapile, David; Chambers, Christina; Haubrich, Richard; Shaffer, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Preventing HIV infection is a priority for militaries. HIV prevention research is needed to monitor existing programme, identify areas for modification, and develop new interventions. Correct and consistent condom use is highly effective against HIV. However, use among soldiers is lower than ideal. This study describes condom use behaviours and examines correlates of use in the Botswana Defence Force (BDF). Analyses were based on 211 male BDF personnel, aged 18-30, who completed a cross-sectional survey that collected baseline data for an intervention study. Results showed that 51% of participants reported always using condoms, 35% used condoms most times, and 14% used condoms occasionally/never. Condom use varied by partner type and was typically higher with casual partners in comparison to regular partners. After adjustment for age and marital status, factors associated with lower condom use included excessive alcohol use, perception that using condoms reduce sexual pleasure, and having a trusted partner. However, higher levels of HIV knowledge and reports of being circumcised were protective against lower condom use. HIV interventions aimed at increasing condom use in the BDF should address condom perceptions, alcohol abuse, and issues of trust. Innovative ways to increase condom use in this population should also be explored. PMID:23970609

  5. Brief report on the effect of providing single versus assorted brand name condoms to hospital patients: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, James L; Christensen, Carol J; Cagle, Henry H; Homan, Chriss E

    2001-01-01

    Objectives This study examined condom acquisition by persons in a hospital setting when single versus assorted brand name condoms were provided. Methods Condom receptacles were placed in exam rooms of two clinics. During Phase 1, a single brand name was provided; for Phase 2, assorted brand names were added. Number of condoms taken was recorded for each phase. Results For one clinic there was nearly a two-fold increase in number of condoms taken (Phase 1 to Phase 2); for the second clinic there was negligible difference in number of condoms taken. Conclusions The provision of assorted brand name condoms, over a single brand name, can serve to increase condom acquisition. Locations of condoms and target population characteristics are related factors. PMID:11446904

  6. Individual, Interpersonal, and Structural Power: Associations With Condom Use in a Sample of Young Adult Latinos.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Lynissa R; Harvey, S Marie; Warren, Jocelyn T

    2016-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 480 sexually active Latino young adults from four rural counties in Oregon. We examined relationships between three levels of power (individual, interpersonal, and structural) and consistent condom use. Condom use self-efficacy and sexual decision-making, examples of individual and interpersonal measures of power, respectively, were associated with increased odds of consistent condom use among both men and women. Among men only, increasing relationship control, an interpersonal measure of power, was associated with lower odds of consistent condom use. Among women only, increasing medical mistrust, a structural measure of power, was associated with increased odds of consistent condom use. PMID:25868753

  7. Condoms and Coca-Cola.

    PubMed

    Townsend, S

    1992-01-01

    Social marketing entails promoting the appropriate and quality product to be sold in the right places at the right price. Even though mass media advertisement of condoms is forbid in Zaire, condoms have been effectively promoted and sold in the country using alternate approaches. 8 million units of the condom, Prudence, were sold in 1990, and Prudence has become the generic name for condoms in the Zaire. Noting that Coca-Cola, beer, and cigarettes may be purchased virtually ubiquitously, commercial outlets and local traders were enlisted to sell condoms at reduced prices on the market. Reduced price sales are possible since donor and government agencies provide the condoms to wholesalers and merchants free of charge. The successful social marketing of condoms expands condom availability to a greater segment of a country's population while recovering some public sector costs and shifting health care away from the public sector. Condoms are especially promoted to high risk groups such as commercial sex workers and their clients in Zaire. Similar programs have been inspired in 10 African countries including Cameroon and Burundi, as well as in Brazil, Haiti, and India. Prevention programs in Latin America and Asia will benefit from these program experiences in Africa. In closing, the article notes the need for an adequate and predictable commodity supply in attaining effective social marketing. Marked program success may, however, lead to sustainability problems. PMID:12284777

  8. The taking of free condoms in a drug abuse treatment clinic: the effects of location and posters.

    PubMed

    Amass, L; Bickel, W K; Higgins, S T; Budney, A J; Foerg, F E

    1993-10-01

    Drug abuse treatment programs can help reduce high-risk sexual behavior in drug users by promoting condom use. This study examined the influence of distribution location and poster prompts on the taking of free condoms in a drug abuse treatment clinic. Over 6 months, condoms were available alternately, with and without poster prompts, in the clinic's private restroom or public waiting area. Overall, 381% more condoms were taken from the restroom. The presence of poster prompts did not affect condom taking. These results suggest that distribution location is a critical factor in promoting condom taking in public clinic. PMID:8214242

  9. The Condom Conundrum: Apply Peer Pressure, Not Latex, against Casual Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delattre, Edwin J.

    1992-01-01

    If saving lives were our only moral concern, distributing condoms in schools is not the best way to proceed. Abstinence has greater life-saving power than any piece of latex. School condom distribution promotes casual, promiscuous sex, ignores this contraceptive's failure rate, and runs counter to sound educational policy. Deferred gratification…

  10. Improving the effectiveness of condom advertising: a research note.

    PubMed

    Alden, D L; Crowley, A E

    1995-01-01

    A limited number of studies have examined ways that health promotion messages about condoms can be improved, leading to increased purchase and use. This study tests alternative message structures as a potential avenue to improving condom advertising. As hypothesized, two-sided messages (positive and negative information about the product category) result in more positive attitudes toward the advertisement and the brand than do one-sided messages (positive information only about the product category). The study's implications for health care marketers interested in developing more effective advertising for condoms and other health care products are discussed. PMID:10143887

  11. The Condom Conundrum: Condom Availability Promotes Health, Saves Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret Pruitt

    1992-01-01

    Most adults would agree that the AIDS threat has reached crisis proportions and that strong measures are required to control the spread of HIV among adolescents. Although abstinence offers the best protection, teens exposed to risks must protect themselves with knowledge, skills, and access to latex condoms. High school condom distribution is…

  12. College Students and Condom Attitude: Validation of the Multi-Factor Attitude toward Condoms Scale (MFACS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollub, Ariane V.; Reece, Michael; Herbenick, Debby; Hensel, Devon J.; Middlestadt, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Sexually transmitted infections and the human immunodeficiency virus incidence rates remain high among college-aged individuals. This study examined the validity and reliability of the Multi-Factor Attitude toward Condoms Scale (MFACS). Participants: Participants were recruited from a large midwestern university during February and…

  13. The story of the condom.

    PubMed

    Khan, Fahd; Mukhtar, Saheel; Dickinson, Ian K; Sriprasad, Seshadri

    2013-01-01

    Condoms have been a subject of curiosity throughout history. The idea of safer sex has been explored in ancient and modern history, and has been used to prevent venereal diseases. We conducted a historical and medical review of condoms using primary and secondary sources as well as using the RSM library and the internet. These resources show that the first use of a condom was that of King Minos of Crete. Pasiphae, his wife, employed a goat's bladder in the vagina so that King Minos would not be able to harm her as his semen was said to contain "scorpions and serpents" that killed his mistresses. To Egyptians, condom-like glans caps were dyed in different colours to distinguish between different classes of people and to protect themselves against bilharzia. The Ancient Romans used the bladders of animals to protect the woman; they were worn not to prevent pregnancy but to prevent contraction of venereal diseases. Charles Goodyear, the inventor, utilized vulcanization, the process of transforming rubber into malleable structures, to produce latex condoms. The greater use of condoms all over the world in the 20(th) and 21(st) centuries has been related to HIV. This account of the use of condoms demonstrates how a primitive idea turned into an object that is used globally with a forecast estimated at 18 billion condoms to be used in 2015 alone. PMID:23671357

  14. The story of the condom

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Fahd; Mukhtar, Saheel; Dickinson, Ian K.; Sriprasad, Seshadri

    2013-01-01

    Condoms have been a subject of curiosity throughout history. The idea of safer sex has been explored in ancient and modern history, and has been used to prevent venereal diseases. We conducted a historical and medical review of condoms using primary and secondary sources as well as using the RSM library and the internet. These resources show that the first use of a condom was that of King Minos of Crete. Pasiphae, his wife, employed a goat's bladder in the vagina so that King Minos would not be able to harm her as his semen was said to contain “scorpions and serpents” that killed his mistresses. To Egyptians, condom-like glans caps were dyed in different colours to distinguish between different classes of people and to protect themselves against bilharzia. The Ancient Romans used the bladders of animals to protect the woman; they were worn not to prevent pregnancy but to prevent contraction of venereal diseases. Charles Goodyear, the inventor, utilized vulcanization, the process of transforming rubber into malleable structures, to produce latex condoms. The greater use of condoms all over the world in the 20th and 21st centuries has been related to HIV. This account of the use of condoms demonstrates how a primitive idea turned into an object that is used globally with a forecast estimated at 18 billion condoms to be used in 2015 alone. PMID:23671357

  15. Sexual practices and psychosocial correlates of current condom use among Chinese gay men in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi-yan; Tang, Catherine So-kum

    2004-04-01

    This study examined sexual practices, condom use, and psychosocial correlates of condom use in a convenience sample of 187 Chinese gay men in Hong Kong. Among those who were sexually active and answered the item on condom use (n = 164), 22% never used condoms, 39% were inconsistent condom users, and 39% used condoms every time they engaged in sexual activities in the past 6 months. Compared to inconsistent and noncondom users, consistent condom users had more positive feelings toward condom use, perceived greater vulnerability to STD/AIDS infections, showed greater self-acceptance and disclosure of their homosexual sexual orientation, were more involved with local gay communities, endorsed more favorable attitudes toward coming out, and had a lower level of perceived discrimination because of their homosexual sexual orientation. The two groups did not differ significantly on perceived partner reaction to condom use. Results of a logistic regression analysis showed that positive feelings toward condom use were the most salient correlate of consistent condom use. PMID:15146148

  16. Condom characteristics: the perceptions and preferences of men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Grady, W R; Klepinger, D H; Billy, J O; Tanfer, K

    1993-01-01

    Perceptions regarding the consequences of condom use, as well as preferred characteristics of condoms, are examined in a nationally representative sample of 3,321 men aged 20-39. The psychological and interpersonal effect most often cited is that using a condom "shows that you are a concerned and caring person." This is particularly the case among black men and men who are young and have low educational attainments. However, the same men usually agree that using a condom sends unwanted messages to one's partner--for example, that doing so "makes your partner think that you have AIDS" and "shows that you think that your partner has AIDS." In contrast, white men and those who are highly educated tend to cite embarrassment when buying condoms as a frequent consequence of condom use. The device-related consequences cited most often, particularly among black, unmarried, young and poorly educated men, are that using a condom results in reduced sensation, that one must be careful during sex or the condom may break and that one must withdraw quickly after sex or the condom may come off. When purchasing condoms, most men look for those that are easy to put on, have the right amount of lubrication and stay on; these preferences are particularly prevalent among black men. Few men identify color, ribbing and partner's preference for condom type as important. PMID:8285937

  17. Consistent condom use with different types of partners: evidence from two Nigerian surveys.

    PubMed

    Van Rossem, R; Meekers, D; Akinyemi, Z

    2001-06-01

    HIV prevalence in Nigeria is increasing rapidly. Increased condom use is the most viable solution to slow down or reverse this trend. This article uses data from two waves of a nation-wide survey, each with over 5,000 respondents, to examine factors that influence consistency of condom use with various types of partners. The results show that while the overall level of consistent condom use has remained low, reported consistent condom use with occasional partners and commercial sex workers exceeds 60%. There is also some evidence of an increasing trend in consistent condom use, even after controlling for differences in sample composition and other factors. The most important factors affecting consistency of condom use are awareness that condoms are effective at preventing HIV and that they are effective at preventing unwanted pregnancy, concern about unwanted pregnancy, and concern about HIV. Although concern about unwanted pregnancy has a strong effect on consistency of condom use with stable partners, concern about HIV infection has a strong effect on consistency of condom use with nonstable partners. The results suggest that HIV prevention programs need to do more than provide education about the modes of transmission and the ways to prevent infection. Improving the effectiveness of HIV prevention programs is likely to require focusing more explicitly on people's personal risk perception and condom efficacy. Focusing on these topics may further accelerate the observed positive trend in condom use. PMID:11459361

  18. Condom Use by Hispanic and African American Teens and Young Adults Who Use Hormonal Contraception: Implications for HIV Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roye, Carol F.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relationship between young Hispanic and African American womens' hormonal contraceptive use and condom use. Surveys of women at an inner-city health clinic investigated demographics, contraceptive practices, sexual behavior, condom use, and communication skills. Hormonal contraceptive use related to decreased condom use. Discussion…

  19. Examination of cadmium safety rod thermal test specimens and failure mechanism evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.K.; Peacock, H.B.; Iyer, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    The reactor safety rods may be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level has dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Accordingly, an experimental cadmium safety rod testing subtask was established as part of a task to address the response of reactor core components to this accident. Companion reports describe the experiments and a structural evaluation (finite element analysis) of the safety rod. This report deals primarily with the examination of the test specimens, evaluation of possible failure mechanisms, and confirmatory separate effects experiments. It is concluded that the failures observed in the cadmium safety rod thermal tests which occurred at low temperature (T < 600{degrees}C) with slow thermal ramp rates (slow cladding strain rates) resulted from localized dissolution of the stainless steel cladding by the cadmium/aluminum solution and subsequent ductility exhaustion and rupture. The slow thermal ramp rate is believed to be the root cause for the failures; specifically, the slow ramp rate led to localized cladding shear deformation which ruptured the protective oxide film on the cladding inner surface and allowed dissolution to initiate. The test results and proposed failure mechanism support the conclusion that the rods would not fail below 500{degrees}C even at slow ramp rates. The safety rod thermal test specimen failures which occurred at high temperature (T > 800{degrees}C) with fast thermal ramp rates are concluded to be mechanical in nature without significant environmental degradation. Based on these tests, tasks were initiated to design and manufacture B{sub 4}C safety rods to replace the cadmium safety rods. The B{sub 4}C safety rods have been manufactured at this time and it is currently planned to charge them to the reactor in the near future. 60 refs.

  20. Examination of the damage and failure response of tantalum and copper under varied shock loading conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Bronkhorst, Curt A; Dennis - Koller, Darcie; Cerreta, Ellen K; Gray Ill, George T; Bourne, Neil

    2010-12-16

    A number of plate impact experiments have been conducted on high purity polycrystalline tantalum and copper samples using graded flyer plate configurations to alter the loading profile. These experiments are designed in a way so that a broad range of damage regimes are probed. The results show that the nucleation of damage primarily occurs at the grain boundaries of the materials. This affords us the opportunity to propose a porosity damage nucleation criterion which begins to account for the length scales of the microstructure (grain size distribution) and the mechanical response of the grain boundary regions (failure stress distribution). This is done in the context of a G-T-N type model for the ductile damage and failure response of both the materials examined. The role of micro-inertial effects on the porosity growth process is also considered.

  1. Depression vulnerable and nonvulnerable smokers after a failure experience: examining cognitive self-regulation and motivation.

    PubMed

    Scott, Walter D; Beevers, Christopher G; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2008-07-01

    The present study extended previous tests of cognitive priming theories of depression by examining cognitive self-regulatory, motivational, and affective functioning of depression-vulnerable and nonvulnerable individuals after a failure experience. Participants were enrolled in a clinic-based smoking cessation program that consisted of seven group meetings. Major findings show that compared to the nonvulnerable group, depression-vulnerable individuals were less motivated to quit and experienced more negative affect, but only after a failure to quit smoking. However, after controlling for actual smoking rate, depression-vulnerable individuals did not evaluate their success any more negatively, nor did they indicate lower self-efficacy for quitting. Results are discussed in terms of cognitive self-regulatory and affect temperament models of motivation and depression. PMID:18094227

  2. Summary of Post Irradiation Examination Results of the AFIP-6 Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Robinson; Daniel M. Wachs; Francine Rice; Danielle Perez

    2011-10-01

    The AFIP-6 test assembly was irradiated for one cycle in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory. The experiment was designed to test two monolithic fuel plates at power and burn-ups which bounded the operating conditions of both ATR and HFIR driver fuel. Both plates contain a solid U-Mo fuel foil with a zirconium diffusion barrier between 6061-aluminum cladding plates bonded by hot isostatic pressing. The experiment was designed with an orifice to restrict the coolant flow in order to obtain prototypic coolant temperature conditions. While these coolant temperatures were obtained, flow restriction resulted in low heat transfer coefficients and the failure of the fuel plates. The results from the post irradiation examinations and some observations of the failure mechanisms are outlined herein.

  3. Predicting condom use attitudes, norms, and control beliefs in Hispanic problem behavior youth: the effects of family functioning and parent-adolescent communication about sex on condom use.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-08-01

    Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent-adolescent communication about sex, and condom use attitudes, norms, and control beliefs as depicted by the theory of planned behavior have an effect on condom use behaviors, the combination of the two factors has received minimal attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of family functioning on condom use intentions and behaviors through communication about sex and condom use attitudes, parental norms, and control beliefs. A cross-sectional study of 171 predominately male (73.1%) sexually active Hispanic problem behavior adolescents (mean age = 14.88 years) was conducted. Structural equation modeling was used to test the study hypothesis. Findings largely support the overall model and suggest that family functioning had an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex, condom use attitudes, and control beliefs. Family functioning, however, did not have an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex and parental norms. Implications for prevention science and future research are discussed. PMID:22561377

  4. Predicting Condom Use Attitudes, Norms, and Control Beliefs in Hispanic Problem Behavior Youth: The Effects of Family Functioning and Parent–Adolescent Communication About Sex on Condom Use

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent–adolescent communication about sex, and condom use attitudes, norms, and control beliefs as depicted by the theory of planned behavior have an effect on condom use behaviors, the combination of the two factors has received minimal attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of family functioning on condom use intentions and behaviors through communication about sex and condom use attitudes, parental norms, and control beliefs. A cross-sectional study of 171 predominately male (73.1%) sexually active Hispanic problem behavior adolescents (mean age = 14.88 years) was conducted. Structural equation modeling was used to test the study hypothesis. Findings largely support the overall model and suggest that family functioning had an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex, condom use attitudes, and control beliefs. Family functioning, however, did not have an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex and parental norms. Implications for prevention science and future research are discussed. PMID:22561377

  5. Condom availability in schools: the need for improved program evaluations.

    PubMed Central

    Stryker, J; Samuels, S E; Smith, M D

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This article examines the impact of contentious local debates on the design and implementation of school-based condom availability programs. METHODS. Information about condom availability in schools was reviewed by 50 leading educators and health officials at a 1992 forum held in Menlo Park, Calif. RESULTS. Few existing condom availability programs were designed to yield definitive data on sexual risk-taking behavior or other measures of program effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS. In the debate over school-based condom availability programs, as in many aspects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention programs, scientific, moral, and political concerns overlap. Behavioral research into the potential effectiveness of such programs can help inform debates about fundamental values concerning sexual decision making and privacy, family integrity and parental autonomy, and public health. PMID:7998627

  6. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    PubMed

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads. PMID:12345946

  7. Another condom uproar in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Musoke, D

    1991-11-01

    A campaign to promote safe sex through the use of condoms has sparked a heated controversy in Uganda, as influential religious leaders have come out in opposition to a practice which they fear will lead to sexual promiscuity. The campaign, backed by the Ugandan government, is designed to halt the rapidly spreading AIDS epidemic. With 20,000 AIDS cases as of June 1991, Uganda leads all African countries in the number of reported cases. Additionally, it is estimated that some 7 million of the country's 17 million inhabitants are HIV-positive. This alarming situation forced President Yoweri Museveni to reverse his stance and come out in favor of the condom campaign. The campaign is being launched by the Ugandan pharmaceutical firm Armtrades Ltd with financial and technical support from USAID and the Ugandan government. The condom campaign, however, has aroused strong opposition from the religious community. Angered by advertisements advising Ugandans to "love carefully" by wearing condoms, Catholic Archbishop Emmanuel Wamala urged his followers in August to reject condoms, calling then an insult to the dignity of man. Following Wamala's lead, other top churchmen came out in opposition to the condom campaign at a recent AIDS prevention leadership conference. One of the clergymen present at the conference told Health Minister James Makumbi that the condom campaign will make young people indulge in uncontrolled sexual immorality. Moslem clerics have also stated their opposition to condoms, fearing sexual promiscuity. But the religious community itself has come under criticism for their opposition to condoms. Stressing that lives are at stake, the popular weekly Topic recently cautioned churchmen that this is not the time to engage in academic and moralistic debates. PMID:12285102

  8. Microstructural examination of high temperature creep failure of Zircaloy-2 cladding in irradiated PHWR fuel pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Prerna; Sah, D. N.; Kumar, Sunil; Anantharaman, S.

    2012-10-01

    Cladding samples taken from the ballooned region of the irradiated Zircaloy-2 cladded PHWR fuel pins which failed during isothermal heating tests carried out at 800-900 °C were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The examination of samples from the fuel pin tested at 900 °C showed an intergranular mode of failure in the cladding due to formation of cracks, cavities and zirconium hydride precipitates on the grain boundaries in the cladding material. A thin hard α-Zr(O) layer was observed on outer surface due to dissolution of the oxide layer formed during reactor operation. Grain boundary sliding was identified to be the main mode of creep deformation of Zircaloy-2 at 900 °C. Examination of the cladding tested at 800 °C showed absence of cracks or cavities in the deformed material and no localisation of hydrides was observed at the grain boundaries. The failure of the cladding occurred after necking followed by extensive wall thinning of the cladding tube.

  9. Sri Lanka drops leading condom.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Sri Lanka's Family Planning Association has stopped selling its Preethi Regular condom, the backbone of its social marketing program for nearly a decade. Last year nearly 7 times as many Preethi condoms were sold as all other brands combined. The decision was reported to be caused by budget constraints following the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) new policy of limiting the number of Preethi Regular condoms supplied to Sri Lanka. IPPF's Asian Regional Officer reported that the Preethi condom is a costly product, and that as many as needed of a US Agency for International Development (USAID) supplied product will be sent to Sri Lanka. The Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) program has devised a new sales strategy, based partly on the introduction of a high-priced condom to fill the gap left by the discontinuation of the Preethi Regular. The new Preethi Gold condom is expected to help the project become more financially self-reliant while taing advantage of Preethi's marketplace popularity. Preethi Gold is manufactured by the Malaysia Rubber Company and costs the project US $4.85/gross. It is sold for US $.14 for 3, about 3 times the price of a Preethi Regular. The project is also pushing the Panther condom, donated to IPPF by USAID. 2 Panther condoms sell for about 3.6U, about the cost of Preethi Regulars. The project also sells Moonbeam, Rough Rider, and Stimula condoms, the latter 2 at full commercial prices. A smooth transfer of demand from Preethi to Panther had been desired, but by the end of 1983 some retailers were hesitating to make the product switch because some Preethi Regulars were still available. Total condom sales in 1983 were down by nearly 590,000 from the approximately 6,860,000 sold in 1982. Total condom sales for the 1st quarter of 1984 were slightly over 1,218,000 pieces, compared to about 1,547,000 for the same quarter in 1983, a decline of 21%. The Family Planning Association is gearing up to reverse the downward trend

  10. Stages of Consistent Condom Use, Partner Intimacy, Condom Use Attitude, and Self-Efficacy in African-American Crack Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Pallonen, Unto E.; Timpson, Sandra C.; Ross, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how condom use attitude, self-efficacy, and partner intimacy related to five stages of consistent condom use. Interview data were collected from sexually active, heterosexual, African-American crack cocaine smokers (N = 366). Dependent measures assessed both the participants’ own responses and their perceptions about their last sex partner’s own personal condom use attitude and participants’ condom use self-efficacy expectations. Partner intimacy was assessed both as a continuous attitudinal and as a discrete relationship measure. Less than 10% were classified as consistent condom users. Two thirds of inconsistent users were in the Precontemplation (PC) stage. The contemplation (C) and preparation (P) stages were equal among the remainder of the inconsistent condom users. Higher partner intimacy reduced modestly readiness for consistent condom use. The stage but not the intimacy group was related to the condom use attitudes and self-efficacy measures. Last partners’ perceived own negative attitudes were significantly related to the stages of consistent condom use and was especially low in the action (A) and maintenance (M) stages. Participants’ own negative attitudes were unrelated to the stages. Of the self-efficacy measures, both participants’ performance and situational condom use self-efficacies increased significantly after the PC stage and were highest in the P, A, and M stages. However, situational self-efficacy accounted for most of performance self-efficacy variance. In sum, consistent condom use was rare. A partner’s attitudes and the participants’ own situational self-efficacy expectations, rather than intimacy, determined the readiness to adopt consistent condom use. PMID:18574684

  11. Predicting Condom Use Attitudes, Norms, and Control Beliefs in Hispanic Problem Behavior Youth: The Effects of Family Functioning and Parent-Adolescent Communication about Sex on Condom Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent-adolescent…

  12. Assertive communication in condom negotiation: Insights from late adolescent couples’ subjective ratings of self and partner

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Amy; Leonard, Noelle R.; Ritchie, Amanda S.; Gwadz, Marya V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Assertive communication has been associated with higher levels of condom use among youth using self-report survey methodology. The purpose of this study was to examine the subjective ratings of assertiveness among young, romantically-involved couples in the context of a condom negotiation task. Methods Using an innovative video-recall procedure, 32 couples (64 youth) engaged in a videotaped condom negotiation task and then rated self and partners’ level of assertiveness. Both individual ratings of assertiveness and couple-level assertiveness were assessed using dyadic hierarchical linear modeling. Results Individuals’ assertiveness was positively associated with condom use. Unexpectedly, the overall level of assertiveness in couples showed a curvilinear association with condom use. Very high and very low assertiveness was associated with lower condom use, while moderate levels of assertiveness were associated with higher condom use. Conclusions Moderate levels of assertiveness during condom negotiation may facilitate condom use in young couples. Increasing condom use among romantic partners may require developing interventions that strengthen youths’ ability to engage in assertive communication strategies that balance emotional intimacy with self-advocacy. PMID:25937470

  13. The Causal Effects of Relational Security and Insecurity on Condom Use Attitudes and Acquisition Behavior.

    PubMed

    Sakaluk, John Kitchener; Gillath, Omri

    2016-02-01

    Research on attachment and condom use has been limited to correlational studies of self-report measures, yielding inconsistent results. Here, we examined the causal effects of attachment priming on self-reported condom use attitudes and an observational measure of condom acquisition behavior. In three experiments, participants were exposed to one of three attachment primes (security, anxiety, or avoidance) or a control prime. For Study 1, participants in the security and anxiety conditions preferred condom non-use to a greater extent, compared to participants in the avoidance condition. This effect was replicated in Study 2, and was mediated by perceptions of sexual health threat. In Study 3, the effect of security priming on condom acquisition behavior was eliminated through the use of a framing manipulation, though the effect of primed attachment on condom use attitudes was not significant. A meta-analysis, however, revealed that the predicted effects of attachment priming were consistent across the three studies, supporting the role of attachment in evaluations of condom use. Priming attachment security or anxiety leads participants to perceive their sexual partners as less of a sexual health threat, resulting in a devaluation of condom use. Primed security also reduced condom acquisition behavior, though this negative effect eliminated by framing condoms as protecting a partner's sexual health. Overall, these studies suggest that relational factors, such as attachment, require greater consideration when studying sexual health and designing interventions. PMID:26566898

  14. "Do You Know What You're Doing?" College Students' Experiences with Male Condoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarber, William L.; Graham, Cynthia A.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Crosby, Richard A.; Butler, Scott M.; Hartzell, Rose M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although quantitative assessment of male condom use errors and problems has received increased research attention, few studies have qualitatively examined this sexual health behavior. Purpose: This study examined problems of male condom use as experienced by college men and women at a large, public Midwestern university. Methods:…

  15. Correlates of condom use among female prostitutes and tourist clients in Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, L; Ford, K; Fajans, P; Wirawan, D N

    1997-04-01

    This study examines the commercial sex activity of both tourist client and local prostitute groups in the host country of Indonesia. The study provides a profile of social and behavioural characteristics of foreign tourist men and Indonesian women engaging in commercial sex, using cross-sectional data gathered in the tourist resort town of Kuta, Bali. Univariate statistical analysis and multiple logistic regression are used to assess psychosocial and other factors associated with consistent condom use in commercial sex encounters, drawing from the Health Belief model and social cognitive theory. Results from both respondent groups indicate that condom use is high between tourist clients and female Indonesian sex workers, although not 100% consistent. Beliefs about condom efficacy and effects on pleasure, as well as susceptibility to STD infection were related to condom use for female sex workers. Beliefs about condoms being too much trouble, and self-efficacy were related to condom use for tourist clients. PMID:9135632

  16. Barriers to condom purchasing: Effects of product positioning on reactions to condoms.

    PubMed

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Glasford, Demis E; Marsh, Kerry L; Lust, Sarah A

    2006-12-01

    Correct and consistent condom use has been promoted as a method to prevent sexually transmitted infections including HIV. Yet research has repeatedly shown that people fail to use condoms consistently. One influence on the pervasive lack of condom use that has received relatively little attention is the context in which consumers are exposed to condoms (i.e., how condoms are displayed in retail settings). In this paper we present two studies explored variations in condom shelf placement and its effects on people's condom attitudes and acquisition. Study 1 explored the shelf placement of condoms in 59 retail outlets in Connecticut, USA and found that condoms were typically located in areas of high visibility (e.g., next to the pharmacy counter) and on shelves adjacent to feminine hygiene and disease treatment products. In Study 2, 120 heterosexual undergraduate students at the University of Connecticut were randomly assigned to evaluate condoms adjacent to sensual, positive, neutral, or negative products and found that overall men reported more positive attitudes and acquired more condoms when exposed to condoms in a sensual context compared to women in the same condition. Among women, condom attitudes were more positive in the context of neutral products; condom acquisition was strongest for women exposed to condoms in the positive aisles. These results suggest a gender-specific approach to condom promotion. Implications of these studies for HIV prevention, public health, and condom marketing strategies are discussed. PMID:16962220

  17. Closing the condom KAP gap.

    PubMed

    Roberto, E L

    1977-01-01

    A number of program strategies have been suggested to close the gap between knowledge and awareness of family planning, and its practice. Most focus on the interim between awareness and usage. This article presents data to support the argument that the problem lies in the awareness stage. Its assumption is that the quality of the awareness is important. As opposed to the survey method of determining awareness, the author proposes the "Focus Group Discussion." As illustration, he presents results of a study using this method, on awareness about condoms, undertaken as part of a Population Center Foundation Condom Distribution Project, in 1975. Its purpose was to identify the more important attitudes toward condoms among married couples, the factors which motivate the couples to use or reject them, and the meanings associated with condoms and how these influence the time, manner, and reasons for rejecting or accepting them. 4 group discussions were carried out, with 8 or 10 married male and female respondents, age 18-35, with at least 2 children, of middle and lower class, and all having at least heard of condoms. Discussions were taped and subjected to content analysis. The 7 major findings are: 1) Quality of awareness depends on experience with use. 2) Experience with use does not guarantee positive quality awareness -- some regular users were still ignorant of some aspects of condom use. 3) Respondents perceive positive aspects of condoms, which should be reinforced. 4) Most of the negative qualities perceived by respondents were imaginary, but can be combatted by the positive statements of users. 5) Filipino men respond to their wives' reactions and project an image of sexual prowess, both possibly damaging to the reputation of condoms; communicators and educators must address the wives equally with their husbands. 6) Buying condoms is embarrassing: studies are needed on how this can be overcome at the places of purchase. 7) Brand awareness is low: only 3 or 4 out

  18. Associations of sexually transmitted infections with condom problems among young men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian; Ryan, Daniel T; Garofalo, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are disproportionately infected with STIs. Condom use is the most widely available means of preventing the transmission of STIs, but effectiveness depends on correct use. Condom errors, such as using an oil-based lubricant, have been associated with condom failures, such as breakage. Little research has been done on the impact of condom problems on the likelihood of contracting an STI. Methods Data came from Crew 450, a longitudinal study of HIV risk among YMSM (N = 450). All self-report data were collected using computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) technology and clinical testing was done for gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and HIV. Results Nearly all participants made at least one error, with high rates of using oil based lubricant and incomplete use. No differences were found in rates of condom problems during anal sex with a man versus vaginal sex with a woman. Black YMSM reported significantly higher use of oil based lubricants than White and Hispanic YMSM, an error significantly associated with HIV status (AOR = 2.60; 95% CI: 1.04 – 6.51). Participants who reported a condom failure were significantly more likely to have a STI (AOR=3.27; 95% CI: 1.31 – 8.12). Conclusions YMSM report high rates of condom problems, and condom failures were significantly associated with STIs after controlling for unprotected sex. Educational programs are needed to enhance correct condom use among YMSM. Further research is needed on the role of oil based lubricants in explaining racial disparities in STIs and HIV. PMID:24922101

  19. Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior Regarding Condom Use in Urban Black Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Michele D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined male adolescent behavior, attitudes, and knowledge concerning condom use. Findings from 241 sexually active black adolescent males revealed that factors associated with condom use included higher grade level, having 2 or more sexual partners in past 6 months, communication about contraception with sexual partner, desire for sexually…

  20. Adolescents' Self-Efficacy to Communicate about Sex: Its Role in Condom Attitudes, Commitment, and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Kropp, Rhonda Y.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether and how self-efficacy to communicate with parents and peers about sex relate to sexually experienced adolescent males' and females' (N = 144, 112) condom attitudes, intentions, and use. Results showed that males who reported greater self-efficacy to communicate with parents used condoms more frequently; and both males…

  1. Correlates of Condom Use among Male High School Students in Nairobi, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabiru, Caroline W.; Orpinas, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Background: Correct and consistent condom use is an effective strategy to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study examines sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychosocial characteristics of 3 groups of adolescent males: consistent, sporadic, and non-condom users. Methods: The sample consisted of 931 sexually…

  2. Condom Use in College: Students' Self-Protection against HIV. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekin, Bonnie J.; And Others

    This study examined condom use by college students and factors associated with consistent condom use. It is based on a survey of 212 sexually active residential students at a major eastern doctoral granting institution conducted in the spring of 1994. The survey found that a substantial number of sexually active students were engaging in behaviors…

  3. Sexual Relationship Power, Intimate Partner Violence, and Condom Use among Minority Urban Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who…

  4. Condom and Other Contraceptive Use among a Random Sample of Female Adolescents: A Snapshot in Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimley, Diane M.; Lee, Patricia A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the sexual practices of 235 females aged 15 to 19 years and their readiness to use specific contraceptive methods. Results indicate that, despite the availability of newer contraceptive methods, most sexually active adolescents were least resistant to using condoms, perceiving the male condom as an acceptable preventative both for…

  5. Predicting Intentions to Use Condoms Using Gender, Sexual Experience, and the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Daniel; Goggin, Kathy; Gerkovich, Mary; Metcalf, Kimberly; Kennedy, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    This study examined condom use intentions among a large diverse group of African American adolescents and provides useful information to assist in the development of effective HIV prevention interventions. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), we explored which constructs are important in shaping intentions to use condoms for younger versus…

  6. Parent-Adolescent Discussions about Sex and Condoms: Impact on Peer Influences of Sexual Risk Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Daniel J.; Miller, Kim S.

    2000-01-01

    Examined how parent-adolescent communication about initiating sex and using condoms influenced the relationship between peer norms and behavior among African American and Hispanic adolescents. Found that peer norms were more strongly related to behavior among adolescents who had not discussed sex or condoms. Communication was also related to teens…

  7. HIV Prevention and Social Desirability: Husband-Wife Discrepancies in Reports of Condom Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordero-Coma, Julia; Breen, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Greater use of condoms within marriage would help limit the spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Using data from the Malawi Diffusion and Ideational Change Project (MDICP), the authors examined the influence that the fidelity norm and the traditional association between marriage and reproduction have on condom use with a spouse. The sample…

  8. Changes in Condom Use Over Time Among Female Sex Workers and Their Male Noncommercial Partners and Clients.

    PubMed

    Tracas, Ashley; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Artamonova, Irina; Rangel, M Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Ulibarri, Monica D

    2016-08-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) often report inconsistent condom use with clients and noncommercial male partners, yet changes in condom use with various partner types during participation in observation studies remains underexplored. This longitudinal study of 214 FSWs and their male, noncommercial partners in the Mexico-U.S. border region, where HIV prevalence among FSWs continues to be high, utilized negative binomial regressions to examine changes in condom use with intimate partners and clients (regular and nonregular) over 24 months. Condom use decreased over time among couples in Ciudad Juarez, but there was no change in condom use among couples in Tijuana. FSWs' condom use with regular and nonregular clients significantly increased over time, which is consistent with previous research finding behavioral changes when participating in observational studies. Findings suggest the need for continued efforts to promote condom use among FSWs and their noncommercial male partners in addition to clients. PMID:27427926

  9. The Effectiveness of a Female Condom Intervention on Women's Use of Condoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardwick, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated a female condom promotion intervention for socioeconomically disadvantaged women at high risk for sexually transmitted diseases and HIV who had never used female condoms. Pre- and postintervention surveys indicated that providing education and counseling, along with unlimited quantities of male condoms, female condoms, and water-based…

  10. Barriers to Condom Use among High Risk Men Who Have Sex with Men in Uganda: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Musinguzi, Geofrey; Bastiaens, Hilde; Matovu, Joseph K. B.; Nuwaha, Fred; Mujisha, Geoffrey; Kiguli, Juliet; Arinaitwe, Jim; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Wanyenze, Rhoda K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Unprotected sexual intercourse is a major risk factor for HIV transmission. Men who have sex with men (MSM) face challenges in accessing HIV prevention services, including condoms. However, there is limited in-depth assessment and documentation of the barriers to condom use among MSM in sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we examine the barriers to condom use among MSM in Uganda. Methods The data for this study were extracted from a larger qualitative study conducted among 85 self-identified adult (>18 years) MSM in 11 districts in Uganda between July and December 2013. Data on sexual behaviours and access and barriers to condom use were collected using semi-structured interviews. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. This paper presents an analysis of data for 33 MSM who did not use condoms at last sex, with a focus on barriers to condom use. Analysis was conducted using the content analysis approach. Results Six major barriers to condom use were identified: Difficulties with using condoms, access challenges, lack of knowledge and misinformation about condom use, partner and relationship related issues, financial incentives and socio-economic vulnerability, and alcohol consumption. Conclusion The findings suggest that several reasons account for lack of condom use among high-risk MSM. The findings are valuable to inform interventions needed to increase condom use among MSM. PMID:26172374

  11. Condom negotiation across different relationship types by young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Maher, Lisa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Couture, Marie-Claude; Kien, Serey Phal; Stein, Ellen; Bates, Anna Juong; Sansothy, Neth; Page, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Cambodia's 100% Condom Use Programme is credited with an increase in consistent condom use in commercial sexual interactions and a decrease in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). There has been little improvement in condom use between FSWs and non-commercial partners, prompting calls for more innovative approaches to increasing condom use in these relationships. To understand why condoms are used or not used in sexual interactions involving FSWs, we examined condom negotiation across different types of relationships. We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with young (15 to 29 years) women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh. There was an important interplay between the meanings of condom use and the meanings of women's relationships. Commercial relationships were characterised as inherently risky and necessitated condom use. Despite a similar lack of sexual fidelity, sweetheart relationships were rarely construed as risky and typically did not involve condom use. Husbands and wives constructed their sexual interactions with each other differently, making agreement on condom use difficult. The lack of improvement in condom use in FSWs' non-commercial sexual relationships needs to be understood in relation to both sex work and the broader Cambodian sexual culture within which these relationships are embedded. PMID:23432108

  12. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5330 Female condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and...

  13. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5330 Female condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and...

  14. Predictors of condom use among Mexican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Carmen; Villarruel, Antonia M; Zhou, Yan; Gallegos, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Mexican adolescents continue to be at increased risk for HIV infection due to inconsistent condom use. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of condom use intentions and condom use among Mexican adolescents who participated in a randomized control trial designed to test a sexual-risk reduction intervention. Data from sexually active adolescents 17 to 21 years (n = 157) of age who were assigned to the control group were analyzed 48 months post intervention. Regression analysis showed that positive attitudes toward condoms, subjective norms, and control beliefs significantly explained intention to use condoms (R2 = .75, p < .001). Attitudes toward condoms (beta = .67, p <.001), technical skills (beta = .13, p = .01), and condom use self-efficacy (beta = .24, p < .001) were significant predictors of condom use intention. Compared to those who inconsistently used condoms, adolescents who used condoms consistently had greater intention to use condoms and greater impulse control. Findings suggest that attitudes and control beliefs should be further explored with Mexican adolescents in order to support consistent condom use. PMID:20949835

  15. Predictors of Condom Use Among Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Carmen; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Zhou, Yan; Gallegos, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Mexican adolescents continue to be at increased risk for HIV infection due to inconsistent condom use. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of condom use intentions and condom use among Mexican adolescents who participated in a randomized control trial designed to test a sexual-risk reduction intervention. Data from sexually active adolescents 17 to 21 years (n = 157) of age who were assigned to the control group were analyzed 48 months post intervention. Regression analysis showed that positive attitudes toward condoms, subjective norms, and control beliefs significantly explained intention to use condoms (R2 = .75, p < .001). Attitudes toward condoms (β = .67, p < .001), technical skills (β = .13, p = .01), and condom use self-efficacy (β = .24, p < .001) were significant predictors of condom use intention. Compared to those who inconsistently used condoms, adolescents who used condoms consistently had greater intention to use condoms and greater impulse control. Findings suggest that attitudes and control beliefs should be further explored with Mexican adolescents in order to support consistent condom use. PMID:20949835

  16. Condoms hitch lift with truckers.

    PubMed

    Kilimwiko, L

    1991-09-01

    This article reports on the efforts being made in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania and other road stops in central Tanzania to provide condoms to long-haul drivers and the women who serve on-the-road-companionship. The Truck Driver's AIDS Intervention Project (TDAIP) in collaboration with the African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF) and Tanzania's National AIDS Control Program (NACP) are working to protect these 2 at risk populations. Along the 1000 km Tanzania/Zambia highway, gasoline pump attendants offer drivers condoms. Prostitutes at these stops also offer condoms. There are meter long stickers with "condoms prevent AIDs" available. The message from the NACP regional office is that those at risk, such as truck drivers, are unlikely to attend rallies, or hear radio message when behind the wheel. Research has shown that men are more receptive to messages given in a work setting. Barmaids at 5 of the most frequented truckstops have been trained as peer health educators. Their job is to sensitize the men to the dangers of AIDs. An operating example is given of the barmaid serving drinks, and when approached, replies with the messages of how protection can be accomplished. One partner only is recommended, and if this is not possible, then one should avoid assuming "labda huyu hana ukimwi" (hopefully this one is AIDs free). There is no safe sex. The peer educators are trained in AIDs prevention and communication skills, and are paid a monthly wage. 725,000 condoms and 250,000 pieces of educational literature were distributed by TDAIP at these 5 truckstops in the 1st 6 months of 1990. Several drawbacks to this effort have occurred. It is difficult to sustain the distribution system outside a medical setting, and it is difficult to effectively monitor and support peer educators spread out across the country. One barmaid observed that those seeking condoms were primarily from outside Tanzania: Zambia, Malawi, Zaire, Rwanda, and Burundi, where better information about the

  17. "Condoms are the standard, right?": Exploratory study of the reasons for using condoms by Black American emerging adult women.

    PubMed

    Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Oberle, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Condoms are considered a highly effective form of sexually transmitted infection prevention for heterosexual sex. Black American women (BAW) have been and are at elevated risk for heterosexual exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because they have been and continue to be less likely to negotiate condom use with a partner that supports them financially. However, BAW who have made tremendous educational gains may still encounter challenges regarding the distribution of power that can affect condom use and negotiation. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the reasons that highly educated, emerging, adult BAW reported for using condoms. One hundred twenty-seven emerging adult BAW (ages 18-29 years) completed a mixed-methods online survey during the spring of 2013 (January-May). Approximately 80% of the women were in college or college graduates. They had a high rate of previous HIV testing (68.5%). Through the use of an interpretive paradigm and grounded theory, three themes emerged regarding the reasons that the participants in this sample used condoms as their primary form of protection: (1) the reliable "standard," (2) pregnancy prevention, and (3) cost effective and "easily accessible." Findings are discussed in terms of their public health significance for this seemingly lower-risk population. PMID:26327468

  18. Condoms: still the most popular contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Silverstone, T

    1997-01-01

    Condoms can be used as a barrier contraceptive and/or to protect against many sexually-transmitted diseases. They are easy to buy and use and free from medical risk. Carefully used, and used in conjunction with a spermicide, condoms have similar reliability to IUDs, progesterone-only pills and the diaphragm. The condom must be put on before the penis touches the vaginal area. The penis should not touch the vaginal area after the condom has been taken off. Oil-based products, eg baby oil, massage oil, lipstick, petroleum jelly, suntan oil, can damage the condom. If a lubricant is required, use one that is water-based. PMID:9348972

  19. Condom Use among Sterilized and Non-sterilized Women in County Jail and Residential Treatment Centers

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, Sandi L.; von Sternberg, Kirk; Velasquez, Mary M.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose While sterilized women do not need condoms for pregnancy prevention, they may still be at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Previous studies have shown that sterilized women have lower rates of condom use but have not controlled for the nested multilevel structure of data in which individual women have multiple partners with different STI risk factors. We address this limitation by testing the association of condom use and tubal ligation using multilevel analysis. Methods Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of sterilized and non-sterilized women aged 18–44 in substance abuse treatment centers or county jail. Multilevel random intercept logistic models examined the association of tubal ligation and any condom use in the 30 days prior to entry and controlled for individual- and partner- level correlates. Findings Of 484 pre-menopausal respondents without hysterectomy, 194 (40.1%) reported tubal ligation. Overall, 48.3% of all women reported any condom use. In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, sterilized women were less likely to report any condom use. Women were least likely to use condoms with their main partners and more likely to use condoms with other partners and partners with whom they trade sex for drugs or money. Women were also more likely to use condoms with partners they believed to be HIV positive. Conclusion In these high-risk settings, we found a high prevalence of women reporting tubal ligation and lower odds of condom use among these women. Condom use interventions targeting sterilized women in these settings are needed. PMID:20880718

  20. Social marketing: making condoms available to communities. An interview with Duncan Earle.

    PubMed

    1994-05-01

    This document presents an interview in which AIDSCAP private-sector officer Duncan Earle discusses how condom social marketing contributes to AIDS prevention efforts. Condom social marketing uses commercial marketing techniques to promote condom use by making them more accessible and affordable. Thus, condoms are sold where people can purchase them without embarrassment (often by street hawkers) or where they may be needed in impulsive situations (in bars, hotels, and nightclubs). Social marketing relies on such marketing techniques as identifying wholesalers, assisting wholesalers with sales, creating point-of-purchase advertising, and developing attractive packaging. Prices are based on rough formulas derived from per capita gross national product and the prices people are willing to pay for such products as matches, cigarettes, candy, and aspirin. Quality is assured if the condoms are obtained through the US Agency for International Development's procurement system. Samples of condoms obtained from other sources are submitted for quality testing. The success of social marketing programs can be determined by examining sales and resupply. Cost effectiveness is determined by the cost of delivering 100 condoms (1 couple-year of protection). While social marketing would be more cost effective without expenditures on advertising, it would be less effective overall. Some barriers that must be overcome to market condoms include laws outlawing the sale or advertising of condoms, duties and customs' surcharges on imported condoms (which, in some cases, increase the cost 33%), and religious objections to contraception. As well as selling condoms, social marketing programs educate people about AIDS using any kind of media available. PMID:12345907

  1. Correlates of condom use among female sex workers in The Gambia: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Ashley L; Lei, Esther L; Ketende, Sosthenes C; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Mason, Krystal; Ceesay, Nuha; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou Maria; Loum, Jaegan; Papworth, Erin; Baral, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined correlates of condom use among 248 female sex workers (FSW) in The Gambia. Methods. Between July and August 2011, FSW in The Gambia who were older than 16 years of age, the age of consent in The Gambia, were recruited for the study using venue-based sampling and snowball sampling, beginning with seeds who were established clients with the Network of AIDS Services Organizations. To be eligible, FSW must have reported selling sex for money, favors, or goods in the past 12 months. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine associations and the relative odds of the independent variables with condom use. Four different condom use dependent variables were used: consistent condom use in the past six months during vaginal or anal sex with all clients and partners; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with new clients; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with nonpaying partners (including boyfriends, husbands, or casual sexual partners); and condom use at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner. Results. Many FSW (67.34%, n = 167) reported it was not at all difficult to negotiate condom use with clients in all applicable situations, and these FSW were more likely to report consistent condom use with all clients and partners in the past 6 months (aOR 3.47, 95% CI [1.70-7.07]) compared to those perceiving any difficulty in condom negotiation. In addition, FSW were more likely to report using condoms in the past month with new clients (aOR 8.04, 95% CI [2.11-30.65]) and in the past month with nonpaying partners (aOR 2.93, 95% CI [1.09-7.89]) if they had been tested for HIV in the past year. Women who bought all their condoms were less likely than those who received all of their condoms for free (aOR 0.38, 95% CI [0.15-0.97]) to have used a condom at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner. Conclusions. HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI

  2. The Philippines: HIV/AIDS, condoms, and human rights.

    PubMed

    2004-08-01

    Influential leaders are increasingly attacking condoms through HIV-prevention programs that focus on sexual abstinence and marital fidelity. In May 2004 Human Rights Watch (HRW) released a report that examines the impact of these policies in the Philippines, the largest Roman Catholic country in Asia and a major recipient of US HIV/AIDS funding. PMID:15540338

  3. AIDS and the marketing of condoms.

    PubMed

    Boone, L E; Kurtz, D L

    1988-01-01

    The condom market has undergone unprecedented change in the 1980's and will continue to see its markets, advertising strategies, and sales grow and change in ways never before imagined. In the past, condoms were viewed as unmentionable products that were marketed only at men between 18 and 35 and sold only in gas station restrooms and bus stations. But today women account for and estimated 40-50% of condom sales and after a Supreme Court ruling in 1977, condoms are now sold in front of the counter, not behind it. Further, the AIDS epidemic which has afflicted 40,000 U.S. citizens between 19811 and 1988 has served as an impetus to growth and diversification of the condom market. The new legitimacy of the condom combined with new entries into the market by other manufacturers has resulted in growth and segmentation in the condom market. PMID:10292529

  4. Correlates of Condom Use Intentions and Behaviors Among a Community-Based Sample of Latino Men in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Jillian T.

    2006-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has disproportionately affected Latino communities. The majority of research addressing HIV risk behaviors within this population has focused on women. However, men who have sex with women (MSW) are a population increasingly becoming infected with HIV and heterosexual contact is the primary source of HIV transmission among Latinos diagnosed with AIDS. It has been assumed that because men are likely to control condom use, relationship factors are less likely to influence safer sex behavior among men. However, because condom use is an interdependent behavior, understanding factors that predict safer sex behavior among MSW is critical. This study examined the influence of multiple factors on condom use behavior in a community-based sample of young Latino men. Data from 191 Latino men who completed baseline interviews for an intervention were analyzed to examine the association of background, intrapersonal and relationship factors with intentions to use condoms and condom use in the past three months. Findings from multivariate analyses indicated that more positive attitudes toward condoms, stronger partner condom norms and greater participation in decision-making about condom use were significantly associated with both condom use and condom use intentions. Additionally, men reporting lower expectations of negative partner reactions to condom requests were more likely to use condoms, and condom use intentions were higher among men reporting more health protective communication in the relationship. Findings suggest that interventions to prevent HIV need to include men as well as women and address the role of relationship factors and dynamics in safer sex practices. PMID:16845495

  5. Theories of reasoned action and planned behavior as models of condom use: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, D; Johnson, B T; Fishbein, M; Muellerleile, P A

    2001-01-01

    To examine how well the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior predict condom use, the authors synthesized 96 data sets (N = 22,594) containing associations between the models' key variables. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action's predictions, (a) condom use was related to intentions (weighted mean r. = .45), (b) intentions were based on attitudes (r. = .58) and subjective norms (r. = .39), and (c) attitudes were associated with behavioral beliefs (r. = .56) and norms were associated with normative beliefs (r. = .46). Consistent with the theory of planned behavior's predictions, perceived behavioral control was related to condom use intentions (r. = .45) and condom use (r. = .25), but in contrast to the theory, it did not contribute significantly to condom use. The strength of these associations, however, was influenced by the consideration of past behavior. Implications of these results for HIV prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:11271752

  6. “It’s a Different Condom, Let’s See How It Works”: Young Men’s Reactions to and Experiences of Female Condom Use During an Intervention Trial in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Masvawure, Tsitsi B.; Mantell, Joanne E.; Mabude, Zonke; Ngoloyi, Claudia; Milford, Cecilia; Beksinska, Mags; Smit, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Although male partner cooperation is often essential for successful use of the female condom, only a few studies have directly assessed men’s experiences of using the device. We examined barriers to and facilitators of female condom use via qualitative in-depth interviews with 38 young men (18 to 28 years) in South Africa whose partners, all university students, were enrolled in a female condom intervention trial. In all, 21 men used the female condom; the remaining 17 did not attempt use. The main facilitators to female condom use were convenience of use for men, curiosity to see how female condoms compared to male condoms, enhanced sexual sensation, and perceptions of better safety and comfort of the device compared to male condoms. The main barriers were men’s limited familiarity with the device, insertion difficulties, and men’s concerns about loss of control over sexual encounters. We recommend that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and condom promotion programs around the world target men directly for education on female condoms and that they also work with couples jointly around issues of safer-sex communication and negotiation. PMID:24053638

  7. Condom Use at Last Sex as a Proxy for Other Measures of Condom Use: Is It Good Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younge, Sinead N.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard F.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Rose, Eve

    2008-01-01

    Condom use at last sex is a widely used indicator in sexual behavior research; however, there is little empirical research validating this indicator. This study examined whether a single-event recall period (the last time coitus occurred) was consistent with longer recall periods (14 days and 60 days) for a sample of African American adolescent…

  8. Individual, interpersonal, and community predictors of consistent condom use among Taiwanese university students.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Chien

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the predictive value of individual, interpersonal, and community factors for consistent condom use among university students in Taiwan. The analytic sample for this cross-sectional study comprised 105 sexually active students, a subgroup of the respondents in a survey on university students in mid-Taiwan, with a mean age of 21, and 51.4% being female. The outcome variable was assessed as the proportion of times a condom was used in sex with steady sex partners. Risky sex appeared less related to having multiple sex partners (8.57%) than with inconsistent condom use (71.4%). Hierarchical regression analysis showed that 47.4% of variance in the outcome variable could be explained by AIDS knowledge, class adjustment, perception of good friends' condom use, and discussion of condom use with good friends. This study found that predictors across different levels may work in combination to influence students' condom use. Enhancing HIV/AIDS knowledge, improving class adjustment, facilitating peer norm of condom use may work in combination to increase students' condom use. PMID:26477524

  9. The NYC Condom: use and acceptability of New York City's branded condom.

    PubMed

    Burke, Ryan C; Wilson, Juliet; Bernstein, Kyle T; Grosskopf, Nicholas; Murrill, Christopher; Cutler, Blayne; Sweeney, Monica; Begier, Elizabeth M

    2009-12-01

    We assessed awareness and experience with the NYC Condom via surveys at 7 public events targeting priority condom distribution populations during 2007. Most respondents (76%) were aware of NYC Condoms. Of those that had obtained them, 69% had used them. Most (80%) wanted alternative condoms offered for free: 22% wanted ultra-thin, 18% extra-strength, and 14% larger-size. Six months after the NYC Condom launch, we found high levels of awareness and use. Because many wanted alternative condoms, the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene began distributing the 3 most-requested alternatives. PMID:19834001

  10. Peer norms and consistent condom use with female sex workers among male clients in Sichuan province, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl; Luan, Rongsheng; Nelson, Kenrad

    2010-08-01

    Despite their crucial role in HIV infection and transmission, commercial sex male clients (CSMCs) are rarely studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between peer norms and consistent condom use with female sex workers (FSWs) among CSMCs in Sichuan province, China. Male clients with peers who had paid for sex (n = 562) were recruited by local health workers through snowball sampling. Measures of peer norms included 1) descriptive norms which were evaluated by perceptions of peer's condom attitudes and behaviors with FSWs; 2) injunctive norms which were assessed by the perceived peer approval of using condoms with FSWs; and 3) communication of HIV-related topics with peers. The outcome was consistent condom use with FSWs. Results of multivariate logistic regression models revealed that consistent condom use with FSWs was significantly more likely among male clients who perceived more pro-condom descriptive and injunctive norms among their peer groups. In addition, the pattern of commercial sex visits moderated the relations between peer norms and consistent condom use with FSWs. More peer approval of condom use and more HIV-related communication were significantly associated with consistent condom use among clients who visited FSWs with friends but not among those who visited FSWs alone. The findings suggest that social activities surrounding commercial sex visits may provide an entry point for HIV prevention intervention with men who patronize FSWs and that such efforts should tap into existing dynamics of social interaction to promote pro-condom norms. PMID:20541859

  11. Condoms in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2012-03-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is the region with the world's highest rates of HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs), yet numerous studies show that condom use is generally rare. This suggests a need for a better understanding of how condoms fit within sexual practices and relationships in SSA. This paper seeks to address this need by reviewing research published between the late 1980s and 2011 on use and factors influencing use of male condoms in SSA. What is evident from this research is that condom use involves complex social and interpersonal dynamics, with structural and cultural conditions exerting an influence through framing social cognitions and setting boundaries on autonomy that make the apparently irrational choice of eschewing condoms a rational decision. The influences of poverty; relationships with parents, peers and partners; limited, insufficient or absent information especially in rural areas and among men who have sex with men; gender and sexual norms, and the dynamics of gendered power; and beliefs and attitudes about HIV, condoms and sexuality all have been shown to work against condom use for a large proportion of Africa's people. However, promising results are shown in trends towards increased condom use among single women in numerous countries, increasing acceptance and use of condoms among some university students, successes in producing potentially sustainable condom use resulting from select interventions, and resistance to succumbing to the dominant gender-power dynamics and structural-cultural impediments that women in groups have mobilised. PMID:22348634

  12. [Electrophysiological examinations (ABR and DPOAE) of hearing organ in hemodialysed patients suffering from chronic renal failure].

    PubMed

    Gierek, Tatiana; Markowski, Jarosław; Kokot, Franciszek; Paluch, Jarosław; Wiecek, Andrzej; Klimek, Dariusz

    2002-01-01

    Deterioration of function of hearing organ is one of the most important clinical problem in uremic patients with chronic renal failure. The present study aimed to assess the function of hearing organ using the brainstem auditory evoked responses (ABR), impedance audiometry and distortion product otoacoustic emission cochlear function (DPOAE) in 31 haemodialysed patients with chronic renal failure (16 females and 15 males, mean age 43.0 years). The control group consisted of 15 healthy subjects. The latency of the waves I, III, V and I-V interpeak in evoked response audiometry were significantly longer in the patients with CRF (chronic renal failure) compared to the control group. Measurement of DPOAE showed decrease of DPOAE level in patients suffering from CRF. A influence of single hemodialysis and treatment of hemodialysis by 6 months on ABR latencies and DPOAE values were not observed. PMID:12094644

  13. Examining the Causes of Memory Strength Variability: Recollection, Attention Failure, or Encoding Variability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, Joshua D.; Aly, Mariam; Wang, Wei-Chun; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    A prominent finding in recognition memory is that studied items are associated with more variability in memory strength than new items. Here, we test 3 competing theories for why this occurs--the "encoding variability," "attention failure", and "recollection" accounts. Distinguishing among these theories is critical…

  14. Coping with Achievement-Related Failure: An Examination of Conversations between Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altermatt, Ellen Rydell; Broady, Elizabeth F.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has identified ways in which parents and teachers contribute to learned helpless responses to failure, but little is known about the role that interactions with peers might play. In this study, the conversations of fourth- through sixth- grade children and their friends were observed after children experienced an achievement-related…

  15. [Examination of safety improvement by failure record analysis that uses reliability engineering].

    PubMed

    Kato, Kyoichi; Sato, Hisaya; Abe, Yoshihisa; Ishimori, Yoshiyuki; Hirano, Hiroshi; Higashimura, Kyoji; Amauchi, Hiroshi; Yanakita, Takashi; Kikuchi, Kei; Nakazawa, Yasuo

    2010-08-20

    How the maintenance checks of the medical treatment system, including start of work check and the ending check, was effective for preventive maintenance and the safety improvement was verified. In this research, date on the failure of devices in multiple facilities was collected, and the data of the trouble repair record was analyzed by the technique of reliability engineering. An analysis of data on the system (8 general systems, 6 Angio systems, 11 CT systems, 8 MRI systems, 8 RI systems, and the radiation therapy system 9) used in eight hospitals was performed. The data collection period assumed nine months from April to December 2008. Seven items were analyzed. (1) Mean time between failures (MTBF) (2) Mean time to repair (MTTR) (3) Mean down time (MDT) (4) Number found by check in morning (5) Failure generation time according to modality. The classification of the breakdowns per device, the incidence, and the tendency could be understood by introducing reliability engineering. Analysis, evaluation, and feedback on the failure generation history are useful to keep downtime to a minimum and to ensure safety. PMID:20953108

  16. Perceived social approval and condom use with casual partners among youth in urban Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV prevention programs targeting youth often emphasize the role of peers, and assume that youths will model their behavior after their peers'. We challenge this view; we argue that adopting a given behavior requires social approval, and that youths do not necessarily turn to peers for such approval. This study analyzes survey data on youths in urban Cameroon to 1) identify which type of persons youths look to for social approval, and 2) establish how important social approval by these persons is for condom use among youths. Methods We analyzed data from three survey waves (2000, 2002, and 2003) of a reproductive health survey conducted among urban Cameroonian youth (aged 15-24). Only respondents who reported having at least one casual partner in the past year were retained for the analysis. Bivariate analyses and structural equation modeling were used to examine relationships among perceived social approval, attitudes towards condoms and condom use. Results The data show that only 3% of youths named their friends as people whose opinion they valued, while 93% mentioned family members. The perceived approval of condom use by these persons had a significant positive effect on the frequency of condom use among youths. The frequency of condom use was also affected by the respondents' attitudes toward condom use, the range of persons with whom they discussed reproductive health matters, whether they were enrolled in school, socioeconomic status, their self-efficacy, perceived severity of AIDS, risk perception and sexual risk behavior. The perceived social approval of condom use and the respondents' own condom attitudes were correlated. Conclusions Our analysis demonstrates that perceived social approval facilitates the adoption of condom use among urban Cameroonian youth. However, youths tend to value the opinions of family members much more than the opinions of their peers. These results suggest that interventions targeting youths should not focus

  17. Randomized crossover trial comparing the eZ.on plastic condom and a latex condom.

    PubMed

    Cook, L; Nanda, K; Taylor, D

    2001-01-01

    This randomized crossover trial compared the breakage and slippage rates, safety, and acceptability of the recently developed polyurethane bi-directional eZ.on condom with a marketed latex condom. Three hundred sixty couples were asked to use 4 eZ.on condoms and 4 latex condoms. Like several other non-latex condoms tested to date, the eZ.on condom had a higher clinical breakage rate than its latex comparator, while the slippage rates were similar. The clinical breakage rate for the eZ.on condom was 5.6%, compared with 0.9% for the latex condom (difference = 4.76%, with upper 95% confidence bound on the difference = 6.26%). Thus, based on an a priori definition of a 2% clinically acceptable difference, the study failed to conclude equivalence relative to clinical breakage. The complete slippage rate for eZ.on was 1.6%; compared to 0.7% for latex (difference = 0.87%, with upper 95% confidence bound = 1.55%). Thus, based on an a priori definition of a 2% difference we concluded equivalence relative to complete slippage. The safety profile of the eZ.on condom was good and similar to the latex condom. The eZ.on was also found to be easier to don and remove than the latex condom. Although no overall preference existed for either condom, nearly 30%women and men strongly preferred the eZ.on condom to the latex condom. The eZ.on condom may be an acceptable alternative for couples unable or unwilling to use latex condoms. PMID:11257245

  18. Special report: the truth about condoms. Will your clients want the plastic condom?

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    A recently developed polyurethane condom, Avanti, is available in the Western US market and should be available nationwide by April 1995. The plastic condoms are as strong as latex condoms, yet more sensitive due to their comparatively looser fit and the better ability of polyurethane to transmit body heat. They have no odor, are colorless, nonallergenic, do not break down over time, and can be used with any lubricant. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), however, is not sure whether plastic condoms for men will block the transmission of HIV. Labeling on Avanti packages will alert potential users to this FDA concern. Another nonlatex condom, Tactylon, is awaiting FDA approval, but may never make it to market because of the manufacturer's fears that the restrictive labeling demanded by the FDA will hurt consumer demand. Family Health International (FHI) is working on two designs for plastic condoms. One condom is unrolled onto the penis in similar fashion to standard latex condoms, while the second condom is designed to be pulled onto the penis like a sock is pulled onto a foot. 70% of 137 couples in one FHI study rated the experimental condom between average and excellent in comfort and ease of use. All seven couples in a second study reported that the new condom was easy to put on and the material was sensitive and comfortable. Although findings from these recent studies suggest that consumers will like the new condoms, past experience with condoms and first impressions of the new condom will be very important in consumer acceptance. The polyurethane condoms will probably be more expensive to consumers than latex condoms. PMID:12319321

  19. Gender Differences and Condom-Associated Embarrassment in the Acquisition of Purchased versus Free Condoms among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Brandy; Ickes, Melinda J.; Mark, Kristen P.

    2016-01-01

    Condoms are not used consistently among sexually active college students, indicating a need to understand condom acquisition patterns. This study describes purchased and free acquisition of condoms, factors influencing purchased condom acquisition, and condom-associated embarrassment among college students. A random sample of students at a public…

  20. Sex work venue and condom use among female sex workers in Senggigi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Safika, Iko; Levy, Judith A; Johnson, Timothy P

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the structural influence of sex work venues on condom use among female sex workers in the Senggigi area of Lombok, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design employing ethnographic observation, structured interviews and hierarchical linear modelling was used to examine condom use among female sex workers who solicited clients at three types of sex work venues: (1) freelance locations, (2) brothels and (3) entertainment places (karaoke bars and massage parlours). The sample consisted of 115 women 'nested' within 16 sex work venues drawn from the three venue types. Rate (39%) of condom use varied across sex work venues. Perceived management style, HIV/AIDS-related policies and risk-reduction services differed by venue, but this variation did not explain differences in condom use. At the individual level, higher condom use was associated with female sex workers having ever been married. At the client level, condoms were more likely to be used with foreign rather than domestic/local Indonesian clients. Low rates of condom use among Indonesian female sex workers during commercial sex suggests the need for increased HIV-prevention efforts that acknowledge sex worker characteristics and relationships with clients that place them at risk. Future research into the effects of social context on HIV risk should also be considered. PMID:23472595

  1. Sex Work Venue and Condom Use among Female Sex Workers in Senggigi, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Safika, Iko; Levy, Judith A.; Johnson, Timothy P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the structural influence of sex work venues on condom use among female sex workers in the Senggigi area of Lombok, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design employing ethnographic observation, structured interviews and hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine condom use among female sex workers who solicited clients at three types of sex work venues: freelance, brothels, and entertainment places (karaoke bars and massage parlours). The sample consisted of 115 women “nested” within 16 sex work venues drawn from the three venue types. Rate (39%) of condom use varied across sex work venues. Perceived management style, HIV/AIDS-related policies, and risk-reduction services differed by venue, but this variation did not explain differences in condom use. At the individual level, higher condom use was associated with female sex workers having ever been married. At the client level, condoms were more likely to be used with foreign rather than domestic/local Indonesian clients. Low rates of condom use among Indonesian female sex workers during commercial sex suggests the need for increased HIV prevention efforts that acknowledge sex worker characteristics and relationships with clients that place them at risk. Future research into the effects of social context on HIV risk should also be considered. PMID:23472595

  2. Rubber soul: the condom makes a comeback.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, R

    1986-03-01

    The condom serves a metaphor for sex in the age of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)--a passage between celibacy and danger. Although perhaps not the contraceptive method of choice under more normal conditions, the condom can significantly reduce the risk of AIDS contagion and enhance people's chances of staying alive. Despite the negative image the condom gained in the sexual revolution, when women were expected to take responsibility for contraception, condom sales are currently soaring. The San Francisco AIDS Foundation is about to produce its own condom under the brand name Play Safe and gay publications are endeavoring to eroticize the device. Used carefully, condoms can be highly effective; however, some studies have recorded a 4-10% pregnancy rate among couples who use them carelessly. Public health experts are now advising all sexually active individuals who have sexual relations with a new partner to use condoms. Preventive efforts have been hindered by bans on condom advertising and the prohibition of pictorial representations of the anogenital area in safe sex literature. The effectiveness of condoms in anal sex is unmeasured but can be increased by use of a water-based lubricant containing Nonoxynol-9. PMID:12281000

  3. Increased condom use needed to fight AIDS.

    PubMed

    Worldwide, at least 33 million people are infected with HIV, another 14 million have died, and approximately 16,000 people are newly infected each day, 60% of whom are women. An estimated 6-9 billion condoms are currently used throughout the world each year. However, a report from the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health has determined that the level of condom use must be increased to 24 billion units annually in order to check the spread of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. An estimated 71% of total condom need is among sexually active unmarried men, while the rest of the need is among married men who have extramarital affairs and by married couples. Condoms should be made accessible to all at subsidized prices and provided not only through health clinics and retail shops, but also in hotels, bars, grocery stores, and vending machines. New efforts are needed to make condoms more accessible, including lowering their cost, effectively promoting their use, and overcoming the many social and personal obstacles to their use, especially in developing countries where the impact of AIDS is the most severe. Special programs should target specific groups, including youth, unmarried men, and prostitutes, while condom promotion should also aim to improve the image of condoms by portraying them as fun, reliable, and important. Finally, political and religious leaders should speak out in favor of condom use, while the mass media should openly discuss condoms. PMID:12295207

  4. Minority College Women's Views on Condom Negotiation.

    PubMed

    McLaurin-Jones, TyWanda; Lashley, Maudry-Beverly; Marshall, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    This study utilized quantitative and qualitative methods to (1) investigate the relationship between frequency of condom use and negotiation strategies and (2) evaluate experiences with condom negotiations among sexually active, heterosexual, African American college women. One hundred female students from a Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) completed a questionnaire that included the Condom Influence Strategies Scale (CIS) and participated in a focus group. An ANOVA was conducted to compare differences between never, inconsistent, and consistent condom users. Consistent condom users scored higher than never users on the "withholding sex" subscale of the CIS (4.88 vs. 3.55; p < 0.001) as well as endorsed items more strongly on the "direct request" subscale of the CIS (4.63 vs. 3.82, p < 0.05) than never users. A thematic analysis of open discussions identified overarching themes. Similarly, refusing sex and/or having direct communications with partner emerged as primary strategies. Threats to negotiation included deciding the "right timing" of discussion and having a previous history of sexual intercourse without a condom with their partner. Other key concepts that contribute to condom negotiation are the views that condoms are a male's responsibility and stigma of women who carry condoms. PMID:26703642

  5. A Condom Skill Scale: Assessing Condom Skills among Female Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farris, Coreen A.; Fenaughty, Andrea M.; Lindemann, Dana F.

    2003-01-01

    Describe the development and properties of a scale measuring demonstrated condom use skill using a sample of 261 drug-using women. Analysis of scale scores revealed high levels of condom skill among the population. Preliminary analysis suggests that the Condom Skill Scale is a potentially valid and reliable instrument, and may have application as…

  6. The catastrophic failures of plants hydraulic network examined trough an model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bienaimé, Diane; Marmottant, Philippe; Brodribb, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Plants live a dangerous game: they have to facilitate water transport in their xylem conduits while minimizing the consequence of hydraulic failure. Indeed, as water flows under negative pressure inside these conduits, cavitation bubbles can spontaneously occur. The failure dynamics of this hydraulic network is poorly studied, while it has important ecological and bioengineering implications. Here, by using dark-field transmission microscopy, we were able to directly visualize the spreading of cavitation bubbles within leaves, where the xylem conduits form a 2D and transparent network. We observe the surprising fact that the probability of cavitation increases in larger veins, where the majority of water flows. Next, in order to understand the physical mechanism of nucleation and propagation, we built artificial networks of channels made in hydrogel, where evaporation generates negative pressures. We find the hydraulic failure follows two stages: first a sudden bubble nucleation relaxing to the elastic stored of the system, and then a slow expansion driven by the flow of water in the surrounding medium. Channel constrictions slow the propagation of the bubble, similarly to the small valves that connect plants conduits. P.M. acknowledges support from the University of Tasmania for a visiting scholar grant.

  7. 20 CFR 220.52 - Failure to appear at a consultative examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... not have good reason for failing or refusing to take part in a consultative examination or test which... reason for failing or refusing to take part in a consultative examination or test which the Board... his or her treating physician not to take an examination or test. In some cases, the Board may be...

  8. 20 CFR 220.52 - Failure to appear at a consultative examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... not have good reason for failing or refusing to take part in a consultative examination or test which... reason for failing or refusing to take part in a consultative examination or test which the Board... his or her treating physician not to take an examination or test. In some cases, the Board may be...

  9. 20 CFR 220.52 - Failure to appear at a consultative examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... not have good reason for failing or refusing to take part in a consultative examination or test which... reason for failing or refusing to take part in a consultative examination or test which the Board... his or her treating physician not to take an examination or test. In some cases, the Board may be...

  10. AIDS public service announcements: effects of fear and repetition on predictors of condom use.

    PubMed

    Treise, D; Weigold, M F

    2001-01-01

    An experiment examined the effects of varying levels of fear and message repetition in a radio public service announcement (PSA) on attitudes toward and intentions to use condoms. Predictions were derived from the Theory of Reasoned Action and Fazio's accessibility model. Results suggest that repetition and fear have important effects on intentions to use condoms and attitudes toward using condoms, even after accounting for inputs specified by the Theory of Reasoned Action In addition, frequency affected the relative weights of attitudinal versus normative effects on intentions, suggesting that PSAs may be able to affect attitudes and intentions through spontaneous attitude activation as described by Fazio (1990). PMID:11968298

  11. The marketing of the condom.

    PubMed

    Lagman, J T

    1975-12-01

    The Commercial Contraceptive Marketing Program was developed by the Population Center Foundation in the Philippines to increase participatio n of private commercial firms in promotion and distribution of nonclinical contraceptives. The program was started to eliminate ignorance concerning contraceptive methods, to increase contraceptive acceptance, and to decrease dropouts from the program. It is hoped that all 200,000 sari-sari stores in the Philippines will eventually become involved in marketing contraceptives. This will free government personnel for the work of extending family planning services to the rural areas. The history of the development of a plan for commercial marketing of condoms in the Philippines is discussed. PMID:12307759

  12. To use or not to use: a stage-based approach to understanding condom use among homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S; Ober, Allison; Ryan, Gery; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett; Wenzel, Suzanne L

    2014-01-01

    This study used a stage-based approach to understand condom use behavior in a representative sample of 309 sexually active homeless youth recruited from shelters, drop-in centers, and street sites in Los Angeles County. Focusing on the youth's most recent sexual event, the three stages of condom use examined were: (1) whether the partners decided prior to the event about using condoms; (2) whether a condom was available at the event; and (3) whether a condom was used at the event. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify attitudinal, relationship, and contextual correlates of each of these three stages. Deciding ahead of time about condom use was associated with being Hispanic, level of education, condom attitudes, and various relationship characteristics (e.g., partner type, monogamy, relationship abuse), with the nature of these associations varying depending on the type of decision (i.e., deciding to use, deciding to not use). Condom availability was more likely to be reported by males, if the event was described as being special in some way, or if the event lacked privacy. Condom use was more likely among youth with more positive condom attitudes and among youth who decide ahead of time to use a condom, but less likely among those in monogamous relationships or when hard drugs were used prior to sex. Whether sexual intercourse is protected or unprotected is the end result of a series of decisions and actions by sexual partners. Results from this study illustrate how condom use can be better understood by unpacking the stages and identifying influential factors at each stage. Each stage may, in and of itself, be an important target for intervention with homeless youth. PMID:24099462

  13. Sexual behavior, psychosocial and knowledge differences between consistent, inconsistent and non-users of condoms: a study of female bar and hotel workers in Moshi, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tassiopoulos, Katherine K; Seage, George R; Sam, Noel E; Ao, Trong T H; Masenga, Elisante J; Hughes, Michael D; Kapiga, Saidi H

    2006-07-01

    Understanding psychosocial, sexual behavior and knowledge differences between never, inconsistent and consistent condom users can improve interventions to increase condom use in resource-poor countries, but they have not been adequately studied. We examined these differences in a cohort of 961 female hotel and bar workers in Moshi, Tanzania. Forty-nine percent of women reported no condom use; 39% reported inconsistent use, and 12% reported consistent use. Women with multiple sexual partners in the past five years were less likely to be consistent rather than inconsistent users as were women who had ever exchanged sex for gifts or money. Inconsistent users had higher condom knowledge and higher perceived acceptability of condom use than did never users, but they did not differ from consistent users by these factors. There are important differences between women by level of condom use. These findings can help inform interventions to increase condom use. PMID:16752083

  14. Systematic assessment of condom use measurement in evaluation of HIV prevention interventions: need for standardization of measures

    PubMed Central

    Fonner, Virginia A.; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; O’Reilly, Kevin R.; Sweat, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    When evaluating HIV prevention interventions, condom use is a common outcome measure used to assess changes in HIV-related behaviors; however, no widely accepted standards exist for its measurement. Using systematic review data on HIV prevention interventions conducted in low- and middle-income countries, we examined trends in condom use measurement since 1990. We abstracted data from standardized forms on six dimensions of condom use: partner type, temporal period, measurement scale, consistency, controlling for abstinence, and type of sex. Of 215 studies reviewed, 109 studies (51%) measured condom use as a primary outcome. Outcomes were stratified by partner type in 47 studies (43%). Assessing condom use at last sex was the most common measurement. Consistency of condom use was assessed in 47 studies (43%). Developing and utilizing standards for condom use measurement would increase comparability of findings across studies and benefit HIV prevention research. Recommendations include measuring condom use at last sex, frequency of condom use, and number of protected sex acts in studies evaluating the efficacy of behavioral interventions on sexual risk behavior. PMID:24197972

  15. Predictors of condom-use among young never-married males in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyediran, Kolawole Azeez; Feyisetan, Oluwadaisi Isaac; Akpan, Toyin

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the factors that influence condom-use among young never-married males in Nigeria. Such information can help improve the design of a prevention programme for young never-married, especially, males to reduce their vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS transmission. Data were derived from the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). Analysis of data was restricted to 827 males aged 15-24 years, who had never married or lived together with a woman. Both descriptive and analytical methods were used for assessing the net effects of socioeconomic factors on condom-use. The analysis used logistic regression models for determining the predictors of sexual behaviour and condom-use among young never-married males in Nigeria. About 43% of the study population was sexually experienced, and the use of a condom remained low. One in five reported the use of a condom at sexual debut. Level of education, place of residence in childhood, urban/rural region, religious affiliation, economic status index, and exposure to mass media were associated with sexual experience and use of protective measures. Economic status index and mass-media exposure were associated with the use of a condom by the respondents during their last sex encounter. About two-fifths (43%) of the young unmarried Nigerian men were sexually experienced but the condom-use remained low, thus making this sub-group of Nigerian population highly vulnerable to STIs, including HIV/AIDS. PMID:21766563

  16. Predictors of Condom-use among Young Never-married Males in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Feyisetan, Oluwadaisi Isaac; Akpan, Toyin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the factors that influence condom-use among young never-married males in Nigeria. Such information can help improve the design of a prevention programme for young never-married, especially, males to reduce their vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS transmission. Data were derived from the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). Analysis of data was restricted to 827 males aged 15-24 years, who had never married or lived together with a woman. Both descriptive and analytical methods were used for assessing the net effects of socioeconomic factors on condom-use. The analysis used logistic regression models for determining the predictors of sexual behaviour and condom-use among young never-married males in Nigeria. About 43% of the study population was sexually experienced, and the use of a condom remained low. One in five reported the use of a condom at sexual debut. Level of education, place of residence in childhood, urban/rural region, religious affiliation, economic status index, and exposure to mass media were associated with sexual experience and use of protective measures. Economic status index and mass-media exposure were associated with the use of a condom by the respondents during their last sex encounter. About two-fifths (43%) of the young unmarried Nigerian men were sexually experienced but the condom-use remained low, thus making this sub-group of Nigerian population highly vulnerable to STIs, including HIV/AIDS. PMID:21766563

  17. Spectroscopic imaging based approach for condom identification in condom contaminated fingermarks.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Robert; Wolstenholme, Rosalind; Ferguson, Leesa Susanne; Sammon, Chris; Mader, Kerstin; Claude, Emmanuelle; Blackledge, Robert D; Clench, Malcolm R; Francese, Simona

    2013-05-01

    Sexual offenders are increasingly reported to use condoms while committing the crime, mainly to prevent the transfer of DNA evidence. Although condoms are often removed from the crime scene, vaginal swabs can be taken from the victim to prove the presence of condom lubricants and therefore evidence of corpus delicti. However, late reporting to the police and the tendency of the victim to wash immediately after the crime, may compromise the detection of condom lubricants. Recently we showed that Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation MS Imaging (MALDI MSI) of condom contaminated fingermarks enables images of the fingermark ridge pattern to be obtained simultaneously with the detection of the condom lubricant for two condom brands, thus becoming a potential alternative way to link the assailant to the crime. Building on the value of this information, it would be advantageous to identify the condom brand used during the sexual assault. Here we show the development of a multidisciplinary spectroscopic approach, including MALDI MSI, MS/MS, Raman microscopy and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, applied to a range of condom brands/types. The techniques have complementary features and provide complementary information to retrieve a "condom brand spectroscopic fingerprint". Unique spectroscopic profiles would greatly aid in the screening and identification of the condom, thus adding intelligence to the case under investigation. PMID:23486747

  18. Examination of the potential association of stress with morbidity and mortality outcomes in patient with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Rebecca; Tovar, Elizabeth; Bailey, Alison; Lennie, Terry A; Randall, David C; Moser, Debra K

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The high mortality and morbidity rates associated with heart failure are still not well explained. A few psychosocial factors have been studied and explain some of this risk, but other factors, like stress, remain largely unexplored in heart failure. This study aimed to (1) examine the association of stress with 6-month cardiac event-free survival, (2) examine the relationship of stress with salivary cortisol, and (3) examine the association of salivary cortisol level with 6-month cardiac event-free survival. Method: A total of 81 heart failure patients participated. Stress was measured using the brief Perceived Stress Scale. Cortisol was measured from unstimulated whole expectorated saliva. Cox regression analyses were used to determine whether stress predicted event-free survival, and if salivary cortisol predicted event-free survival. Linear and multiple regressions were used to determine the association of stress with salivary cortisol. Results: Stress was not a significant predictor of event-free survival in heart failure (heart rate = 1.06; 95% confidence interval = 0.95–1.81; p = 0.32). Salivary cortisol was a significant predictor of event-free survival in the unadjusted model (heart rate = 2.30; 95% confidence interval = 0.99–5.927; p = 0.05), but not in the adjusted model. Stress (β 1.06; 95% confidence interval = 0.95–1.18; p = 0.32) was not a significant predictor of salivary cortisol level. Conclusion: Stress is a complex phenomenon, and our measure of stress may not have captured it well. Alternatively, the physical stressors acting in heart failure produce levels of neurohormonal activation that mask the effects of psychosocial stressors or an indirect association of stress with outcomes that is mediated through another construct. Future studies are needed to investigate stress in patients with heart failure to provide definitive answers. PMID:26246898

  19. Women's beliefs concerning condom acquisition and use.

    PubMed

    Libbus, K

    1995-10-01

    Condoms are a time-honored and reliable method of protection against pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. However, their use, and thus their effectiveness, is determined by individual behavior. The purpose of this paper is to report attitudes and salient beliefs related to condom use in a sample of adult women. The study used Ajzen and Fishbein's Theory of Planned Behavior to identify modal, salient beliefs regarding condom acquisition and use as intentional behaviors. The study sample consisted of 58 community women who reported using condoms for contraceptive purposes within the last five years. In face-to-face, audiotaped interviews, open-ended questions were used to solicit beliefs regarding condom acquisition and use. All subject narratives were content-analyzed for recurrent themes. Women cited accessibility and effectiveness in preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases as both advantages and as factors contributing to the ease of acquisition and use. Disadvantages and factors that might deter condom acquisition and use included embarrassment, objections by male partner, and effect on spontaneity. Overall, subjects exhibited accurate knowledge regarding the benefits of condom acquisition and use. However, it is possible that expressed negative beliefs could take precedence in decision-making and reduce the probability of consistent condom use. PMID:7479543

  20. Condom Use: A Culture of Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Measor, Lynda

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the resistance young men show towards consistent condom use. It is based on data generated by peer research that offer information about the distaste young men express about condoms, but also emphasise some of the physical difficulties that young men can experience when using them, which they are less willing to express. The…

  1. Examination of a Rock Failure Criterion Based on Circumferential Tensile Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, , Y.; Kiyama, , T.; Ishijima, Y.; Kodama, J.

    Uniaxial compression, triaxial compression and Brazialian tests were conducted on several kinds of rock, with particular attention directed to the principal tensile strain. In this paper we aim to clarify the effects of the experimental environment-such as confining pressure, loading rate, water content and anisotropy-on the critical tensile strain, i.e., the measured principal tensile strain at peak load.It was determined that the chain-type extensometer is a most suitable method for measuring the critical tensile strain in uniaxial compression tests. It is also shown that the paper-based strain gage, whose effective length is less than or equal to a tenth of the specimen's diameter and glued on with a rubber-type adhesive, can be effectively used in the Brazilian tests.The effect of confining pressure PC on the critical tensile strain ɛTC in the brittle failure region was between -0.02 × 10-10 Pa-1 and 0.77 × 10-10 Pa-1. This pressure sensitivity is small compared to the critical tensile strain values of around -0.5 × 10-2. The strain rate sensitivities ∂ɛTC/∂{log(d|ɛ|/dt)} were observed in the same way as the strength constants in other failure criteria. They were found to be from -0.10 × 10-3 to -0.52 × 10-3 per order of magnitude in strain rate in the triaxial tests. The average magnitude of the critical tensile strain ɛTC increased due to the presence of water by 4% to 20% for some rocks, and decreased by 22% for sandstone. It can at least be said that the critical tensile strain is less sensitive to water content than the uniaxial compressive strength under the experimental conditions reported here. An obvious anisotropy was observed in the P-wave velocity and in the uniaxial compressive strength of Pombetsu sandstone. It was not observed, however, in the critical tensile strain, although the data do show some variation.A "tensile strain criterion" was proposed, based on the above experimental results. This criterion signifies that stress begins

  2. Failure to detect an unusual obstruction in a reinforced endotracheal tube with fiberoptic examination.

    PubMed

    Paul, Matthias; Dueck, Michael; Kampe, Sandra; Petzke, Frank

    2003-09-01

    Obstruction of an endotracheal tube (ETT) is a potentially life-threatening event. We report an unusual obstruction of a reinforced ETT. The valve-like obstruction was caused by a partial detachment of the inner coating from the embedded spiral of the ETT. It led to an increase in inspiratory airway pressure, failure to detect end-expiratory CO(2), and generated a wheezing sound in forced expiration. Fiberoptic inspection, which is a recommended procedure for a suspected ETT-obstruction, failed to identify this detachment. Exchanging the defective ETT immediately resolved the critical clinical situation. The detachment was most likely caused by re-autoclavation of the ETT, which was a specified single-use product. PMID:12933428

  3. Bias in Self-Reported Condom Use: Association Between Over-Reported Condom Use and Syphilis in a Three-Site Study in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjie; Morisky, Donald E; Lin, Xinqin; Ma, Erjian; Jiang, Baofa; Yin, Yueping

    2016-06-01

    This study examined over-reporting bias in self-reported condom use and assessed its association with syphilis. A survey was conducted among 1245 female sex workers (FSWs) in three cities in China. Respondent's over-reported condom use was defined as reporting no unprotected sex for the past 24 h but testing positive for prostate specific antigen. The proportion of prevalent syphilis and active syphilis was 23 and 10 % respectively among FSWs. The proportion of over-reported condom use with sex clients only was 27-45 % among the three study sites. The proportion of over-reported condom use with all sex partners (clients, husbands, or boyfriends) was 26-46 %. FSWs who had active or prevalent syphilis were more likely to over report condom use. Self-reported condom use may not be a valid tool to measure the efficacy of HIV/STI intervention because the bias is associated with the outcome measure, i.e., syphilis. PMID:26696262

  4. From awareness to adoption: the effect of AIDS education and condom social marketing on condom use in Tanzania (1993-1996).

    PubMed

    Eloundou-Enyegue, Parfait M; Meekers, Dominique; Calvès, Anne Emmanuèle

    2005-05-01

    This paper uses retrospective event-history data covering a four-year period to examine the timing of exposure to HIV/AIDS education and social marketing condom promotion campaigns, relative to the timing of changes in sexual risk behaviour in Tanzania. Analysis of the event-history data shows that the process of exposure to AIDS education messages and exposure to brand advertising for Salama brand condoms was very different. While exposure to AIDS education was early and gradual, exposure to Salama brand condoms started later, but was much more rapid. After one year of advertising, over half of the target population had been reached by the Salama advertising campaign, mostly through newspapers, radio and television. During the study period, condom use increased from 15% at the beginning of 1993 to 42% at the end of 1996. Increases in condom use were driven both by men who became sexually active, and by men who were not yet protected, or not fully protected. The results further show that it is uncommon for men who adopted condom use to return to more risky behaviour, which suggests that behaviour change in the study population is permanent. PMID:15906883

  5. Adolescent Sexual Health Communication and Condom Use: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Widman, Laura; Noar, Seth M.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Francis, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Objective Condom use is critical for the health of sexually active adolescents, and yet many adolescents fail to use condoms consistently. One interpersonal factor that may be key to condom use is sexual communication between sexual partners; however, the association between communication and condom use has varied considerably in prior studies of youth. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the growing body of research linking adolescents’ sexual communication to condom use, and to examine several moderators of this association. Methods A total of 41 independent effect sizes from 34 studies with 15,046 adolescent participants (Mage=16.8, age range=12–23) were meta-analyzed. Results Results revealed a weighted mean effect size of the sexual communication-condom use relationship of r = .24, which was statistically heterogeneous (Q=618.86, p<.001, I2 =93.54). Effect sizes did not differ significantly by gender, age, recruitment setting, country of study, or condom measurement timeframe; however, communication topic and communication format were statistically significant moderators (p<.001). Larger effect sizes were found for communication about condom use (r = .34) than communication about sexual history (r = .15) or general safer sex topics (r = .14). Effect sizes were also larger for communication behavior formats (r = .27) and self-efficacy formats (r = .28), than for fear/concern (r = .18), future intention (r = .15), or communication comfort (r = −.15) formats. Conclusions Results highlight the urgency of emphasizing communication skills, particularly about condom use, in HIV/STI prevention work for youth. Implications for the future study of sexual communication are discussed. PMID:25133828

  6. Factors affecting men's liking of condoms they have used.

    PubMed

    Smith, A M; Jolley, D; Hocking, J; Benton, K; Gerofi, J

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact on men's liking for the condoms they use of a range of factors including demographic variables and variables that describe men's experience of using particular condoms. One hundred and ninety-four men used 3765 condoms for which they provided a liking rating. The condoms were manufactured to one of 2 published standards and the study employed a double-blind crossover design. Sixty-one per cent of condoms were rated favourably, 31% were rated neutrally and the remainder (8%) unfavourably. Men rated condoms less favourably if they were experienced as too loose, too tight, too short, if difficulty was experienced applying the condom, if the condom slipped partially or completely down the penis or if the condom broke. Men rated more highly condoms which were experienced as well lubricated throughout use. Men with larger penises rated condoms less favourably and, of all the variables considered, ejaculating in the condom was the variable which had the largest positive impact. Men's liking for the condoms they use is influenced by a range of factors. However, given that most of the factors associated with men liking condoms less are those that can be addressed through better condom design and manufacture, the opportunity exists to enhance men's experience of condom use and hence help reduce resistance to the adoption of consistent condom use. PMID:12035780

  7. Four Radical Panaceas for Reversing Mass Failure in Certificate English Language Examinations in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasasi, Khabyr Alowonle; Amadi, Gloria U.

    2015-01-01

    Given the present-day perspectives of Nigerians to the imperatives of qualitative education in the lives of youths, quite a lot of Nigerians have strongly bemoaned and condemned the recurrent woeful performances of students in Certificate examinations. Many research works have therefore concerned themselves with solving the problems of mass…

  8. Identifying Students at Risk for Failure on the Licensing Examination for Registered Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Susan J.; Orr, Scott P.

    A method was developed for identifying students who may be at high risk for failing the State Board Licensing Examination (SBE) for registered nurses. The subjects used in developing prediction equations included 50 students who graduated from the nursing program at Saint Joseph's College (SJC) in North Windham (Maine) during the years 1983-84.…

  9. The effect of exposure to a condom script on attitudes toward condoms.

    PubMed

    Kyes, K B; Brown, I S; Pollack, R H

    1991-01-01

    The effect of reading an erotic script that described condom placement on attitudes toward condom use was investigated in 102 male and 108 female US university students. It was hypothesized that, when integrated into an erotic script, condom use would become viewed as a pleasurable activity rather than just a means of avoiding pregnancy or disease. Controls received identical scripts except that the use of condoms was omitted or received no stories. Subjects who read the erotic accounts exhibited a positive change from pretest to posttest in attitudes toward condom use, but there was no difference in this outcome between condom story and no-condom erotic story conditions. In women, but not men, a high level of arousal induced by the script was associated with negative attitudes toward condoms, suggesting that males and females may require different reading materials. Given the finding, at least in women, of an inverse relationship between explicit eroticism/sexual arousal and condom attitude scores, a 2nd experiment involving less explicit stories written by college students was conducted. Here, 100 men and 100 women students received erotic stories that either featured or did not include condom use. Again, males who read stories incorporating condom placement held more positive attitudes toward condom use than same-sex controls, but women were not affected by the manipulation. For women, a positive attitude toward condom use was associated only with history of sexual activity. Helpful would be the preparation of erotic scripts that appeal to both sexes given the demonstrated effectiveness of this social learning technique with the male subjects in both experiments. PMID:12317687

  10. Comparative evaluation of three Tactylon(TM) condoms and a latex condom during vaginal intercourse: breakage and slippage.

    PubMed

    Callahan, M; Mauck, C; Taylor, D; Frezieres, R; Walsh, T; Martens, M

    2000-03-01

    This study compared breakage and slippage rates of three male condom styles made of Tactylon(TM), a synthetic elastomer, to those of a marketed latex condom during vaginal intercourse. Safety and acceptability outcomes were also assessed. This two-center, prospective, crossover study enrolled 443 couples. Each couple was randomly assigned to use three condoms of each type in one of 24 use sequences. Couples completed questionnaires after using each condom, all of one condom type, and all four condom types. The percentage and standard error (SE, in parentheses) of latex condoms with clinical breakage was 0.86% (0.295). Percentages for Tactylon condoms were not equivalent to the latex study condom, ranging from 3.50% to 4.17%. The percentage and SE of latex condoms with complete slippage was 1.11% (0.328). Percentages for Tactylon condoms were equivalent to those for latex, ranging from 0.70% to 1.31%. The Low-Modulus Tactylon condom was the most preferred. Fewer medical events were reported with the Tactylon condoms than with the latex condom. It was concluded that Tactylon condoms were equivalent to the latex condom in terms of slippage but not breakage. However, safety and acceptability seemed to be better for Tactylon condoms. This may improve consistency of use and may attract new users. PMID:10827335

  11. Between tradition and change: condom use with primary sexual partners among Mexican migrants.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Hoyos, Ramiro; Torres-Lopez, Teresa; Pineda-Lucatero, Alicia; Navarro-Nuñez, Carlos; Fosados, Raquel; Valente, Thomas W

    2008-07-01

    The frequency of male Mexico-US migration has been associated with increased HIV risk for sexual partners awaiting their return in Mexico. This study examined the association between sexual partner characteristics and condom use among a sample of 354 male migrants from two Mexican municipalities. Migrants were interviewed about their past year's sex practices. Results indicated that migrants were more likely to use condoms with their non-spousal partners, partners with less education than the migrant, and partners with higher employment status. Condom use was greater among younger migrants and residents of the more densely populated municipality. Findings suggest the coexistence of a traditional cultural orientation that does not support condom use and another one that does provided the sex partner is formally employed. Prevention programs must strengthen the structural conditions fostering greater equality between the sexes and adapt their approaches for different population density, age and partner types. PMID:18389360

  12. Protective Parenting, Relationship Power Equity, and Condom Use Among Rural African American Emerging Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Simons, Leslie G.; Chen, Yifu; Burwell, Stephanie; Brody, Gene H.

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections disproportionately affect African Americans, particularly young women. The influence of a set of interrelated protective parenting processes—instrumental and emotional support, sexual risk communication, and encouragement of goals for employment or education—on emerging adult women was examined. Parenting was hypothesized to affect consistent condom use through its association with women’s reports of power equity in their intimate relationships. Hypotheses were tested with 135 sexually active women 18 to 21 years of age living in rural southern communities. Structural equation modeling indicated that (a) parenting processes predicted women’s self-reported relationship power equity and consistent condom use, and (b) relationship power equity predicted consistent condom use. Limited support emerged for a mediational role of relationship power equity in explaining the influence of parenting on consistent condom use. Parental involvement and young women’s establishment of personal control in their intimate relationships are important goals for sexual risk reduction programs. PMID:23729949

  13. An Expanded Model of the Temporal Stability of Condom Use Intentions: Gender-Specific Predictors among High-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Schmiege, Sarah J.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescents involved with the criminal justice system are at particularly high-risk for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and sexually transmitted infections. Purpose The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine gender-specific models of condom use, incorporating temporal stability of intentions. Methods Adolescents on probation (N=728) were recruited to complete longitudinal surveys including measures of Theory of Planned Behavior and gender-specific constructs, relationship length, and condom use. Results Gender-specific models of condom use behavior suggested by previous research were mostly replicated. For young women, the effect of baseline intentions on subsequent condom use behavior was stronger when intentions were either stable or increasing. For young men, more stable, increasing intentions were directly associated with more condom use. There was preliminary evidence to suggest an association between temporal stability of intentions and decreasing condom use in stable relationships. Conclusions Intervention efforts should be tailored by gender and aim to forestall decreasing intentions and condom use over time by addressing difficulties in maintaining condom use. PMID:21347619

  14. Is cost a structural barrier preventing men who have sex with men accessing condoms? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ubrihien, Ashley; Davies, Stephen C; Driscoll, Tim

    2016-11-01

    A systematic review was undertaken to determine whether cost is a structural barrier preventing men who have sex with men (MSM) accessing condoms. Studies were examined from a range of countries where condoms have been distributed free to particular populations and also those where condoms were available at a cost to the individual. The study inclusion criteria were: published between January 1990 and September 2014 inclusive; published in any language, discussed cost as a barrier to condom use, discussed cost barriers to MSM accessing condoms and included a measure of outcome. Articles were systematically extracted from MEDLINE, Embase, PyschINFO and Informat using the five search terms; Male Homosexuality, Access, Cost, Cost and Cost analysis, Condoms. Sixty-four articles were initially identified and 11 included in the final review. The included studies used cost-utility analysis, qualitative, cross-sectional, cohort or randomised control trial design. Large-scale free distribution programmes and smaller targeted programmes showed positive correlations in reducing the burden of disease from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections through eliminating the issue of cost. Decreasing the cost of condoms, and providing them for no cost, appears to increase their utilisation amongst MSM and possibly reduce the burden from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Inequality and stigma remain important barriers to MSM accessing and using condoms particularly in the developing world. PMID:27240970

  15. As AID condom prices climb, so do calls for more condom sources.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    USAID is the world's largest distributer of condoms with over 800 million condoms distributed in 1990, the most recent year figures are available. However, this year's order is 300 million smaller because AID will no longer be supplying Bangladesh or Pakistan. This, combined with inflation has caused the price to rise 16% or from $4.51/100-$5.35/100. Bangladesh will not longer be supplied because the European Community will provide condoms as part of a new 5 year plan from the World Bank. Pakistan will no longer be supplied because US law forbids foreign aid to countries that refuse to sign the United Nations Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. The UNFPA distributed 98.5 million condoms last year. The WHO Global Program on AIDS supplied 140 million in 1989 and 30 million in 1990. The International Planned Parenthood Federation distributed 15 million condoms in 1990. Unlike AID, the other organizations can buy their condoms from any manufacture that meets the new international condom standard set up with the help of the WHO. AID must buy condoms manufactured in the US in accordance with US law. AID does however get a much better price for IUDs, oral contraceptive and Norplant. As a result AID is trying to work with other organizations in an attempt to maximize the amount of contraceptives available world wide for family planning. Since other groups are not restricted by the same rules, they could provide condoms, while AID could use its price advantage to supply other methods. PMID:12317127

  16. 21 CFR 884.5300 - Condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...: Labeling for Natural Rubber Latex Condoms Classified Under 21 CFR 884.5300” will serve as the special... transmitted infections). The device may also be used to collect semen to aid in the diagnosis of...

  17. 21 CFR 884.5300 - Condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...: Labeling for Natural Rubber Latex Condoms Classified Under 21 CFR 884.5300” will serve as the special... transmitted infections). The device may also be used to collect semen to aid in the diagnosis of...

  18. 21 CFR 884.5300 - Condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: Labeling for Natural Rubber Latex Condoms Classified Under 21 CFR 884.5300” will serve as the special... transmitted infections). The device may also be used to collect semen to aid in the diagnosis of...

  19. 21 CFR 884.5300 - Condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...: Labeling for Natural Rubber Latex Condoms Classified Under 21 CFR 884.5300” will serve as the special... transmitted infections). The device may also be used to collect semen to aid in the diagnosis of...

  20. 21 CFR 884.5300 - Condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...: Labeling for Natural Rubber Latex Condoms Classified Under 21 CFR 884.5300” will serve as the special... transmitted infections). The device may also be used to collect semen to aid in the diagnosis of...

  1. Talking to Your Partner about Condoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... at the top of your (or your partner's) penis. This gets rid of trapped air, which can ... Remove the condom immediately after ejaculation, before the penis softens. You or your partner should hold the ...

  2. The Role of Condom Use Self-Efficacy on Intended and Actual Condom Use Among University Students in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Osafo, Joseph; Doku, Paul N

    2016-02-01

    Little attention has been paid to the dimensions that help to predict and understand condom use among university students within an African context. A cross-sectional study involving 518 university students in Accra, Ghana was conducted to determine how the Condom Use self-Efficacy Scale-Ghana (CUSES-G) can predict both actual condom use and future condom use. Of all the participants, 84% were sexually active but less than half of the sample (48%) reported to have used condom during their last sexual intercourse. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that components of the Condom Use Self-Efficacy Scale (CUESE-G) such as appropriation, assertiveness, pleasure and intoxication, and STDs predicted condom use and condom use intentions. Behavioural change campaigns targeting university students should encourage condom use self-efficacy, as this would strengthen condom use, which is economically cheap and practically effective means of preventing STIs including HIV. PMID:26233713

  3. Body Dissatisfaction and Condom Use Self-Efficacy: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Blashill, Aaron J.; Safren, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    The consistent use of condoms is the most effective behavior for reducing the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and condom use self-efficacy has been shown to be a key construct related to condom use. However, the examination of modifiable psychosocial and behavioral correlates of condom use self-efficacy is lacking. Recent investigations have highlighted the association of body dissatisfaction with condom use self-efficacy, and the current study conducted a meta-analysis on all available data addressing this relationship. Eleven individual effect-size parameters from nine studies yielded a total sample of 2,495 men and women participants. A random-effects model revealed an average effect-size of r = −0.25, Cohen’s d = −0.52, which is moderate in strength. As body dissatisfaction increases, ones’ self-efficacy regarding the use of condoms diminishes. Integrating interventions to decrease body dissatisfaction and sexual risk behaviors may prove to be an effective strategy to decrease STIs. PMID:25462884

  4. Biological validation of self-reported condom use among sex workers in Guinea.

    PubMed

    Aho, Joséphine; Koushik, Anita; Diakité, Soumaïla Laye; Loua, Kovana Marcel; Nguyen, Vinh-Kim; Rashed, Sélim

    2010-12-01

    Self-reported condom use may be prone to social desirability bias. Our aim was to assess the validity of self-reported condom use in a population of female sex workers using prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a gold standard biomarker of recent unprotected vaginal intercourse. We collected data on 223 sex-workers in Conakry, Guinea in order to assess the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported condom use as well as to examine the predictors of discordance between self-report and PSA presence. PSA was detected in 38.4% of samples. Sensitivity of self-reported condom use was 14.6% and its specificity was 94.7%. Self-perceived high risk of HIV infection was the only significant independent predictor of misreported condom use. PSA could be useful to validate self-reported condom use in surveys and to allow a better understanding of factors associated with social desirability in sexual behaviour reporting. PMID:19680799

  5. Relationships Between Marijuana Dependence and Condom Use Intentions and Behavior Among Justice-Involved Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell Hooper, Ann E.; Thayer, Rachel E.; Magnan, Renee E.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the relationships among marijuana dependence, a theoretical model of condom use intentions, and subsequent condom use behavior in justice-involved adolescents. Participants completed baseline measures of prior sexual and substance use behavior. Of the original 720 participants, 649 (90.13 %) completed follow-up measures 6 months later. There were high levels of marijuana use (58.7 % met criteria for dependence) and risky sexual behavior among participants. Baseline model constructs were associated with condom use intentions, and intentions were a significant predictor of condom use at follow-up. Marijuana dependence did not significantly influence the relationships between model constructs, nor did it moderate the relationship of model constructs with subsequent condom use. Findings suggest that the theoretical model of condom use intentions is equally valid regardless of marijuana dependence status, suggesting that interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior among both marijuana dependent and non-dependent justice-involved adolescents can be appropriately based on the model. PMID:23370834

  6. Condom use and intimacy among Tajik male migrants and their regular female partners in Moscow.

    PubMed

    Zabrocki, Christopher; Polutnik, Chloe; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Shoakova, Farzona; Bahromov, Mahbat; Weine, Stevan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined condom use and intimacy among Tajik male migrants and their regular female partners in Moscow, Russia. This study included a survey of 400 Tajik male labour migrants and longitudinal ethnographic interviews with 30 of the surveyed male migrants and 30 of their regular female partners. of the surveyed male migrants, 351 (88%) reported having a regular female partner in Moscow. Findings demonstrated that the migrants' and regular partners' intentions to use condoms diminished with increased intimacy, yet each party perceived intimacy differently. Migrants' intimacy with regular partners was determined by their familiarity and the perceived sexual cleanliness of their partner. Migrants believed that Muslim women were cleaner than Orthodox Christian women and reported using condoms more frequently with Orthodox Christian regular partners. Regular partners reported determining intimacy based on the perceived commitment of the male migrant. When perceived commitment faced a crisis, intimacy declined and regular partners renegotiated condom use. The association between intimacy and condom use suggests that HIV-prevention programmes should aim to help male migrants and female regular partners to dissociate their approaches to condom use from their perceptions of intimacy. PMID:25033817

  7. Condom Use and Intimacy among Tajik Male Migrants and their Regular Female Partners in Moscow

    PubMed Central

    Polutnik, Chloe; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Shoakova, Farzona; Bahromov, Mahbat; Weine, Stevan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined condom use and intimacy among Tajik male migrants and their regular female partners in Moscow, Russia. This study included a survey of 400 Tajik male labour migrants; and longitudinal ethnographic interviews with 30 of the surveyed male migrants and 30 of their regular female partners. 351 (88%) of the surveyed male migrants reported having a regular female partner in Moscow. Findings demonstrated that the migrants’ and regular partners’ intentions to use condoms diminished with increased intimacy, yet each party perceived intimacy differently. Migrants’ intimacy with regular partners was determined by their familiarity and perceived sexual cleanliness of their partner. Migrants believed that Muslim women were cleaner than Orthodox Christian women and reported using condoms more frequently with Orthodox Christian regular partners. Regular partners reported determining intimacy based on the perceived commitment of the male migrant. When perceived commitment faced a crisis, intimacy declined, and regular partners renegotiated condom use. The association between intimacy and condom use suggests that HIV prevention programmes should aim to help male migrants and female regular partners to dissociate their approaches to condom use from their perceptions of intimacy. PMID:25033817

  8. Do alcohol and marijuana use decrease the probability of condom use for college women?

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jennifer L; Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and marijuana use are thought to increase sexual risk taking, but event-level studies conflict in their findings and often depend on reports from a limited number of people or on a limited number of sexual events per person. With event-level data from 1,856 sexual intercourse events provided by 297 college women (M age = 18 years; 71% White), we used multilevel modeling to examine associations between alcohol and marijuana use and condom use as well as interactions involving sexual partner type and alcohol-sexual risk expectancies. Controlling for alternative contraception use, partner type, regular levels of substance use, impulsivity and sensation seeking, and demographics, women were no more or less likely to use condoms during events involving drinking or heavy episodic drinking than during those without drinking. However, for drinking events, there was a negative association between number of drinks consumed and condom use; in addition, women with stronger alcohol-sexual risk expectancies were marginally less likely to use condoms when drinking. Although there was no main effect of marijuana use on condom use, these data suggest marijuana use with established romantic partners may increase risk of unprotected sex. Intervention efforts should target expectancies and emphasize the dose-response relationship of drinks to condom use. PMID:24164105

  9. Condoms, HIV and the Roman Catholic Church.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Carrara, Sabina; Filippi, Valentina; Brosens, Ivo

    2011-06-01

    For decades, the Roman Catholic Church opposed use of condoms to prevent spread of sexually transmitted infections (STI) because of their contraceptive effect. In 2009, Pope Benedict XVI said that widespread use of condoms could worsen the situation, a position rejected as 'unscientific'. Recently, however the Pontiff stated that because the Church considers acts of prostitution and homosexuality to be gravely immoral and disordered, in such specific cases use of a condom might become an initial step in the direction of a moralization leading to an assumption of responsibility and a new awareness of the meaning of sexuality. In doing so, he reaffirmed his belief that condoms cannot solve the problem of STI spread, stressing the Church's position that modern societies no longer see sexuality as an 'expression of love, but only as a sort of drug that people administer to themselves'. The new Papal position has been widely applauded, but made conservative Catholics unhappy. A dialogue with the Church now seems possible: Does concentrating on condoms hinder the effectiveness of other strategies? What are the respective roles of condoms and other approaches to prevent infection spread? Does a special situation exist in Africa requiring specific and focused interventions? PMID:21507723

  10. South Africa plays down faulty condom scare.

    PubMed

    1999-01-11

    South Africa has one of the highest rates of HIV infection in the world, with 3 million of the country's total population of approximately 40 million estimated to be currently infected with HIV. With 1500 people in South Africa contracting HIV every day, it is projected that more than 25% of the country's population will be infected with HIV by 2010. However, despite the current state of affairs regarding HIV/AIDS in South Africa and the extremely high level of HIV prevalence projected for the future, South Africans don't buy condoms. Free distribution, began in 1992, accounts for 90-95% of all condom use in the country. South Africa's Department of Health distributed more than 140 million free condoms in 1998, although as many as 1 million were defective. In an attempt to quell the resultant public uproar over the distribution of sub-standard condoms, a senior HIV/AIDS specialist with the Department of Health assures the population that from April 1, 1999, South Africa will adhere to the same standards as the World Health Organization, and all procurements will have been batch-by-batch tested. This specialist also stated that only one brand of condom, supplied by a manufacturer in India, was found to be defective and was immediately withdrawn. Assertions that other batches imported from China were also sub-standard were false. The Department of Health plans to sponsor a National Condom Week leading up to Valentine's Day on February 14, 1999, to promote condoms and their correct use. PMID:12294480

  11. Personal and partner measures in stages of consistent condom use among African American heterosexual crack cocaine smokers

    PubMed Central

    PALLONEN, U. E.; WILLIAMS, M. L.; TIMPSON, S. C.; BOWEN, A.; ROSS, M. W.

    2010-01-01

    Participants’ personal condom use measures and those of their last sex partner’s were examined in five stages of change for consistent condom use among 449 urban sexually active, heterosexual, African–American crack smokers. The measures included participants’ personal and their last sex partner’s perceived responsibility, personal and perceived negative attitudes, and participants’ self-efficacy to use condoms. The relationships between the measures and the stages were examined using analyses of variance and multivariate logistic regression. Over 90% of participants did not use condoms, consistently. Two-thirds of the inconsistent users were in the precontemplation stage. The rest were equally divided between the contemplation and preparation stages. Personal responsibility outperformed other measures in initial intention to become a regular condom user; partner’s perceived responsibility dominated continued intention and actual consistent condom use. Negative attitudes and self-efficacies had strong relationships to the stages of consistent condom use in univariate analyses but these relationships became substantially weaker when the responsibility, attitude, and self-efficacy concepts were entered simultaneously into multivariate analyses. PMID:18293131

  12. Correlates of condom-associated erection problems in young, heterosexual men: condom fit, self-efficacy, perceptions, and motivations.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Stephanie A; Hill, Brandon J; Crosby, Richard A; Janssen, Erick

    2014-01-01

    Questionnaire data from 479 heterosexual men 18-24 years old were analyzed for correlates of CAEP during application (CAEP-Application) and CAEP during penile-vaginal intercourse (CAEP-PVI). Potential correlates were self-efficacy (condom application, product selection, and maintaining arousal), condom perceptions (condom worry/distraction, negative condom perceptions, concerns about application speed), condom fit, and motivation to use condoms. We conclude that (1) experiencing CAEP may become a repeating cycle, both affecting and being affected by, worry and distraction related to losing erections and maintaining arousal while using a condom (2) poorly fitting condoms may contribute to CAEP, and (3) CAEP may decrease motivation to use condoms. PMID:23404098

  13. Unwanted unprotected sex: condom coercion by male partners and self-silencing of condom negotiation among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Teitelman, Anne M; Tennille, Julie; Bohinski, Julia M; Jemmott, Loretta S; Jemmott, John B

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study used the theory of reasoned action and the theory of gender and power to guide elicitation of partner-related impediments to condom use among 64 adolescent girls living in poor urban areas with high rates of HIV and partner abuse. About 53% indicated that they had experienced unwanted, unprotected vaginal sex and 25% indicated that they were unable to discuss condom use with a partner. Novel qualitative findings related to condom coercion, condom sabotage, and self-silencing of condom negotiation are discussed in the context of connecting partner abuse to interpersonal control over condom use. Implications for intervention design are discussed. PMID:21822072

  14. It Takes Two: The Role of Partner Ethnicity and Age Characteristics on Condom Negotiations of Heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Amy G.; Barnhart, James E.

    2006-01-01

    To date, limited attention is paid to how partners influence the condom negotiation process. This study examined whether partner ethnicity and age were associated with condom negotiations (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect) in heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American college women. Results from 181 women…

  15. Determinants of condom use intentions of university students in Ghana: an application of the theory of reasoned action.

    PubMed

    Bosompra, K

    2001-04-01

    The study examined the applicability of the Theory of Reasoned Action to the study of condom use intentions of students at a university in southern Ghana. The data supported the model, explaining 33% of the variance in students' condom use intentions. Subjective norms and the perceived disadvantages of condom use were significant determinants of intention, with the former being more important. Respondents who intended to use condoms consistently ("intenders") and those with no such intentions ("non-intenders") were equally motivated to comply with the wishes of their significant referents (sexual partners, close friends, parents and medical doctors). The critical difference was that "intenders" consistently held a stronger belief than "non-intenders" that their significant referents approved of condom use. Significantly, whereas "intenders" believed that their sexual partners would approve of condom use, the "non-intenders" held the contrary belief that their partners would disapprove of such behavior. This suggests that AIDS education interventions targeting a similar audience like the university students in this study should shift their foci away from individuals alone and instead, focus simultaneously on individuals, their sexual partners and their broader social networks in order to enhance perceptions of peer acceptance of condom use. PMID:11266049

  16. Latex rubber condoms: predicting and extending shelf life.

    PubMed

    Free, M J; Srisamang, V; Vail, J; Mercer, D; Kotz, R; Marlowe, D E

    1996-04-01

    Condoms from five manufacturers were subjected to controlled exposures of heat, humidity, and air and to different natural environments in five countries. Under aerobic conditions (condoms in permeable packages or unpackaged), stress properties declined. The relationship between rate of decline as a function of temperature was quadratic. Under oxygen-restricted conditions (foil-wrapped packages) at average storage temperatures of 30 degrees C and lower, strain properties declined with little or no significant change in stress properties. The effect is to cause condoms to become stiffer; high-breakage rates in use have been correlated with product stiffening. A new rationale for accelerated-aging tests to predict condom shelf stability is suggested, including a test to control the trend of condoms to stiffen. Silicone lubricant, impermeable packaging, and inclusion of antioxidants in the condom formulation can prevent or minimize aerobic breakdown of latex condoms. Specifying low-modulus condoms can prevent excessive stiffening. PMID:8706440

  17. Prevalence and Contexts of Inconsistent Condom Use Among Heterosexual Men and Women Living with HIV in India: Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A.; Shunmugam, Murali

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This investigation examined sexual behaviors among heterosexual persons living with HIV (PLHIV) in India. Study participants (mostly married) were interviewed during August to November 2006 in five Indian states using a quantitative survey (n = 100 men and 100 women), eight focus groups (n = 58 participants), and in-depth interviews (n = 31). One third of men and one fourth of women reported inconsistent condom use with regular sexual partners. Facilitators of condom use with regular partners included a feeling of personal responsibility to protect the health of the partner, desire to prevent acquisition and/or transmission of sexually transmitted infections, and the belief that condoms are needed for antiretroviral therapy to be effective. Barriers to consistent condom use with regular partners included the belief that condoms are unnecessary in HIV-positive seroconcordant relationships; lack of sexual satisfaction with condoms; the desire to have a child; husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety; fear that disclosure of HIV status will bring marital discord and family shame; and inadequate counseling by health care providers. Positive prevention programs should include counseling about benefits of safer sex in HIV-positive seroconcordant relationships, counseling about integrating condom use with sexual satisfaction and intimacy, condom use self-efficacy and negotiation skills-building, family planning counseling, mental health and alcohol dependence treatment, and counseling and skills-building about disclosure. Health care providers must be trained to provide these services. Furthermore, efforts are needed to promote tolerance for family planning choices made by couples and to counter the stigma associated with HIV/AIDS and condoms in the broader society. PMID:20095889

  18. Factors Associated with Parent Support for Condom Education and Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AugsJoost, Brett; Jerman, Petra; Deardorff, Julianna; Harley, Kim; Constantine, Norman A.

    2014-01-01

    Expanding condom-related knowledge and skills and reducing barriers to condom use have the potential to help reduce pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among youth. These goals are sometimes addressed through condom education and availability (CEA) programs as part of sexuality education in school. Parents are a key constituency in…

  19. Prototypical Images in Condom Scripts among AIDS-Bereaved Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Warren A.; Rubin, Rachel M.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five HIV-negative late adolescents (13 women and 12 men) who had lost a parent to AIDS generated vignettes in which the characters were deciding whether to use a condom (condom scripts). Two clinically trained judges rated the interpersonal tone of the condom scripts on 17 semantic differential scales. Three other clinically trained raters…

  20. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal lubricant is a sheath which completely covers the penis with a closely fitting membrane with a...

  1. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal lubricant is a sheath which completely covers the penis with a closely fitting membrane with a...

  2. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal lubricant is a sheath which completely covers the penis with a closely fitting membrane with a...

  3. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal lubricant is a sheath which completely covers the penis with a closely fitting membrane with a...

  4. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal lubricant is a sheath which completely covers the penis with a closely fitting membrane with a...

  5. Condom use among Hispanic men with secondary female sexual partners.

    PubMed Central

    Marin, B V; Gomez, C A; Tschann, J M

    1993-01-01

    Greater understanding of psychosocial predictors of the use of condoms among Hispanics is needed in prevention efforts related to the human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted disease epidemics among Hispanics in the United States. A telephone survey was carried out in nine States that have large populations of Hispanics, using a stratified clustered random digit dialing sampling strategy. The survey yielded interviews with 968 Hispanic men ages 18-49 years. Of them, 361 (37.8 percent) reported at least one secondary female sexual partner in the 12 months prior to the interview. Predictors were identified of condom use by those men with their secondary sex partners. Key predictors of the subjects' condom use with secondary partners included carrying condoms; self-efficacy, or a measure of the subject's perceived ability to use condoms under difficult circumstances; positive attitude toward condom use; having friends who used condoms; and lack of symptoms of depression in the week before the interview (R2 = 0.35). Significant predictors of condom carrying were being comfortable in sexual situations, positive attitude toward condom use, and self-efficacy to use condoms. Less acculturated men had more positive attitudes toward condom use and carried them more than did more acculturated men. The researchers found encouraging levels of condom use with secondary sexual partners among Hispanic men with multiple partners.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8265759

  6. Habitual condom use across partner type and sexual position among younger gay and bisexual men: findings from New Zealand HIV behavioural surveillance 2006–2011

    PubMed Central

    Lachowsky, N J; Dewey, C E; Dickson, N P; Saxton, P J W; Hughes, A J; Milhausen, R R; Summerlee, A J S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Our objectives were to investigate demographic and behavioural factors associated with condom use and to examine how habitual condom use was across partner types and sexual positions among younger men who have sex with men (YMSM), aged 16–29, surveyed in New Zealand. Methods We analysed the 2006–2011 national HIV behavioural surveillance data from YMSM who reported anal intercourse in four scenarios of partner type and sexual position: casual insertive, casual receptive, regular insertive and regular receptive. For each, respondents’ condom use was classified as frequent (always/almost always) or otherwise, with associated factors identified with multivariate mixed-effect logistic regression. Habitual condom use across scenarios was examined using a latent variable technique that estimated the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results Frequent condom use was reported for 63.6% of 5153 scenarios reported from 2412 YMSM. Frequent use increased from boyfriend to fuckbuddy to casual partners. Infrequent use was associated with online recruitment, Pacific ethnicity, less education, HIV positivity, sex with women, having ≥20 sexual partners versus 1 and reporting insertive and receptive sexual positions. Frequent condom use was associated with having two to five sexual partners versus one and shorter regular partnerships. The ICC=0.865 indicated highly habitual patterns of use; habitual infrequent condom use was most prevalent with regular partners (53.3%) and habitual frequent condom use was most prevalent with casual partners (70.2%) and for either sexual position (50.5% and 49.1%). Conclusions Habitual condom use among YMSM highlights the value of early, engaging and sustained condom promotion. Public health should provide better and more compelling condom education, training and promotion for YMSM. PMID:25605969

  7. Everyday exposure to benevolent sexism and condom use among college women.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Caroline C; Zucker, Alyssa N

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors related to condom use is critical in reducing the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially for women, who are disproportionately affected by many STIs. Extant work has shown that perceived sexism is one such factor associated with lower levels of condom use among women, but has yet to explore whether benevolent sexism in particular-a subtle form of sexism that often goes unnoticed and increases cognitions and behaviors consistent with traditional female gender roles (e.g., sexual submissiveness)-relates negatively to this safer-sex practice. The present research tested this possibility and, in addition, examined whether relational sex motives, which reflect a desire to engage in sex as a means to foster partners' sexual satisfaction, mediated the relation between benevolent sexism and condom use. During the spring of 2011, female college students (N = 158) reported how often they experienced benevolent sexism in their daily lives and, 2 weeks later, their relational sex motives and condom use. Supporting hypotheses results indicated that greater exposure to benevolent sexism was associated significantly with lower condom use, and that relational sex motives mediated this relationship. We discuss implications for women's well-being, including ways to promote safer sex in the face of sexism. PMID:25794197

  8. Depression, Abuse, Relationship Power and Condom Use by Pregnant and Postpartum Women with Substance Abuse History.

    PubMed

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Beck-Sagué, Consuelo; Attonito, Jennifer M; Saxena, Anshul; Stein, Judith A

    2016-02-01

    Substance-abusing pregnant and postpartum women are less likely to maintain consistent condom use and drug and alcohol abstinence, which is particularly concerning in high HIV-prevalence areas. Data from 224 pregnant and postpartum women in substance abuse treatment were analyzed to examine effects of history of substance use, child abuse, and mental health problems on current substance use and condom-use barriers. Mediators were depression, relationship power and social support. Most participants (72.9 %) evidenced current depression. Less social support (-0.17, p < 0.05) and relationship power (-0.48, p < 0.001), and greater depression (-0.16, p < 0.05) predicted more condom-use barriers. History of mental health problems predicted condom-use barriers, mediated by recent depression and relationship power (0.15, p < 0.001). These findings suggest depression and diminished relationship power limit highest-risk women's ability to negotiate condom use and abstain from substance use, increasing their risk of acute HIV infection and vertical transmission. PMID:26319131

  9. Cultural adaptation of the Condom Use Self Efficacy Scale (CUSES) in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of self-reports of sexual behaviours is vital to the evaluation of HIV prevention and family planning interventions. This investigation was to determine the cross-cultural suitability of the Condom Use Self Efficacy Scale (CUSES) originally developed for American adolescents and young adults by examining the structure and psychometric properties. Method A self-administered cross-sectional survey of a convenient sample of 511 participants from a private university in Ghana with mean age 21.59 years. Result A Principal Component Analysis with varimax rotation identified a 14 item scale with four reliable factors labelled Appropriation (Cronbach alpha = .85), Assertive (Cronbach alpha = .90), Pleasure and Intoxicant (Cronbach alpha = .83), and STDs (Cronbach alpha = .81) that altogether explained 73.72% of the total variance. The scale correlated well with a measure of condom use at past sexual encounter (r = .73), indicating evidence of construct and discriminatory validity. The factor loadings were similar to the original CUSES scale but not identical suggesting relevant cultural variations. Conclusion The 14 item scale (CUSES-G) is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing condom use self efficacy. It is culturally appropriate for use among Ghanaian youth to gauge actual condom use and to evaluate interventions meant to increase condom use. Finally, the study cautioned researchers against the use of the original CUSES without validation in African settings and contexts. PMID:20433724

  10. Why do men often not use condoms in their relationships with casual sexual partners in Uganda?

    PubMed

    Rutakumwa, Rwamahe; Mbonye, Martin; Kiwanuka, Thadeus; Bagiire, Daniel; Seeley, Janet

    2015-01-01

    With a focus on Uganda, this paper examines men's condom use in sexual relationships with casual partners and what this might tell us about men's vulnerability to HIV-infection. We carried out repeat interviews with 31 men attending a clinic serving women at high risk for HIV infection and their partners in Kampala. We found that the experience of condom-less sex in the men's youth, itself the outcome of a restrictive home environment, was perceived as influencing later unsafe sexual behaviour. Peer pressure encouraged men to have multiple partners. Alcohol negatively affected condom use. Men often opted not to use a condom with women they thought looked healthy, particularly if they had had sex with the same woman before. Some men who were HIV-positive said they saw little point in using condoms since they were already infected. A concerted effort is required to reach men, like those in our study, to halt HIV and the transmission of other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:26158527

  11. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical correlates of inconsistent condom use in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples.

    PubMed

    Buchacz, K; van der Straten, A; Saul, J; Shiboski, S C; Gomez, C A; Padian, N

    2001-11-01

    We examined sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics associated with inconsistent condom use in a cross-sectional analysis of 145 sexually active HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples who participated in the California Partners Study II. All couples were aware of their HIV-serodiscordant status. Forty-five percent of couples reported having had unprotected vaginal or anal sex in the previous 6 months. In the multivariate couple-level analyses, factors independently associated with inconsistent (i.e., <100%) condom use in the previous 6 months included lower educational level, unemployment, African-American ethnicity, and practice of anal sex by the couple. Injection drug use was associated with inconsistent condom use among couples with younger HIV-infected partners. In addition, couples with HIV-infected partners who had higher CD4 cell counts and couples in which the HIV-infected male partner ever had sex with a man were more likely to use condoms inconsistently. Consistency of condom use did not depend on the gender of the HIV-infected partner or duration of sexual relationship. The findings suggest that many HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples remain at high risk of HIV transmission and may benefit not only from behavioral interventions but also from structural interventions aimed at improving their social and economic conditions. PMID:11694839

  12. Condom Access: Associations with Consistent Condom Use among Female Sex Workers in Two Northern Border Cities of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Fátima A.; Pollini, Robin A.; Zúñiga, María Luisa; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Martínez, Gustavo A.; Valles-Medina, Ana M.; Sirotin, Nicole; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether condom access is associated with consistent condom use among FSWs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, between 2004 and 2006 we administered a questionnaire to 924 FSWs who reported unprotected sex with a client in the past two months. Of these women, 43% reported consistent (“often” or “always”) condom use; 74% said condoms were available; and 38% reported having access to free condoms. In a logistic regression, factors positively associated with consistent condom use were condom availability (AdjOR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.32–3.03), condom affordability (AdjOR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.25–2.38) and self–efficacy (AdjOR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.54–3.04). Factors inversely associated with consistent condom use included poor financial status (AdjOR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.47–0.90), methamphetamine use (AdjOR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.40–0.83), alcohol use (AdjOR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49–0.96), and recent injection drug use (AdjOR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.39–0.97). While increased condom availability may improve condom use among FSWs in general, interventions to broaden condom use among lower-income and drug-using FSWs are critically needed. PMID:20973665

  13. Condom Use among Latino College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurman, Tilly; Borzekowski, Dina L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that Latinos, the largest racial/ethnic minority group in the United States, are disproportionately affected by HIV and AIDS. College health professionals, therefore, should understand current sexual behaviors and risk factors among Latino youth. The authors assessed students' condom use at their most recent sexual…

  14. The context of condom use among young adults in the Philippines: Implications for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Lucea, Marguerite B.; Hindin, Michelle J.; Gultiano, Socorro; Kub, Joan; Rose, Linda

    2012-01-01

    We examine current perceptions and constraints surrounding condom use among young adults in the Philippines to garner a deeper contextual understanding of this aspect of HIV prevention within Filipino society. Through thematic analysis of focus group data, we found three broad themes, all of which included societal and individual barriers to using condoms. The findings may provide insight for similar settings that have strong religious influences on society. To strengthen HIV prevention efforts in such settings, we suggest that the development of strategies to address these constraints in the cultural setting and promote sexual health of young adults is essential. PMID:23394323

  15. AIDS, sex and condoms: African healers and the reinvention of tradition in Zaire.

    PubMed

    Schoepf, B G

    1992-05-01

    Condoms offer considerable protection against sexual transmission of AIDS. Yet many Africans who are at risk of infection reject condoms as "unnatural." Data from Zaire have been used to examine this culturally constructed category in relation to sexuality, procreation, gender roles, class formation and international health and development policy. Much more than a simple transfer of biomedical technology is involved. Condom use with regular partners raises issues of cultural politics at many levels. "Traditional" African healers represent important social networks with considerable authority in poor urban communities. They are able to reinterpret cultural categories and endow behavior with new meanings. Action-research in Kinshasa was used to explore roles that healers might play in promoting change to safer sex practices. PMID:1297899

  16. Predictors of Condom Use Behaviors Based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among Female Sex Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Hubei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinzhu; Song, Fujian; Ren, Shuhua; Wang, Yan; Wang, Liang; Liu, Wei; Wan, Ying; Xu, Hong; Zhou, Tao; Hu, Tian; Bazzano, Lydia; Sun, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV infection related to commercial sexual contact is a serious public health issue in China. The objectives of the present study are to explore the predictors of condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in China and examine the relationship between Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in two cities (Wuhan and Suizhou) in Hubei Province, China, between July 2009 and June 2010. A total of 427 FSWs were recruited through mediators from the ‘low-tier’ entertainment establishments. Data were obtained by self-administered questionnaires. Structural equation models were constructed to examine the association. We collected 363 valid questionnaires. Within the context of HBM, perceived severity of HIV mediated through perceived benefits of condom use had a weak effect on condom use (r = 0.07). Perceived benefits and perceived barriers were proximate determinants of condom use (r = 0.23 and r = −0.62, respectively). Self-efficacy had a direct effect on perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, which was indirectly associated with condom use behaviors (r = 0.36). Conclusions/Significance The HBM provides a useful framework for investigating predictors of condom use behaviors among FSWs. Future HIV prevention interventions should focus on increasing perceived benefits of condom use, reducing barriers to condoms use, and improving self-efficacy among FSWs. PMID:23185355

  17. Intimate partner violence and consistent condom use among drug-using heterosexual women in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Victoria; Nandi, Vijay; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David; Ompad, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the associations of relationship factors, partner violence, relationship power, and condom-use related factors with condom use with a main male partner among drug-using women. Over two visits, 244 heterosexual drug-using women completed a cross-sectional survey. Multivariate logistic regression models indicated that women who expected positive outcomes and perceived lower condom-use barriers were more likely to report condom use with their intimate partners. The findings suggest that future interventions aiming at reducing HIV risk among drug-using women should focus on women’s subjective appraisals of risks based on key relationship factors in addition to the occurrence of partner violence. PMID:20437300

  18. ‘It's Not What You Said, It's How You Said It’: Perceptions of Condom Proposers by Gender and Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Heather; Bryan, Angela D.

    2010-01-01

    We examined effects of proposer gender and condom negotiation strategy on perceptions of condom proposers in undergraduates in the southwestern regions of the US. Using a video manipulation (N=150), a female proposer was evaluated no more harshly than a male proposer, and was evaluated more positively in some ways. In a vignette manipulation (N=193) a female proposer using an Eroticization negotiation strategy (compared to Refusal of sex or Explanation of consequences) was seen as more exciting and likely to engage in sex. Surprisingly, women were harsher judges than men of a female condom proposer using an Eroticization strategy. Greater attention should be paid to the nature of condom negotiation within the framework of the sexual script. PMID:20544008

  19. Reasons for Non-use of Condoms among Men-who-have-Sex-with-Men: A Comparison of Receptive and Insertive Role-in-Sex and Online and Offline Meeting Venue

    PubMed Central

    Ostergren, Jenny E.; Rosser, B.R. Simon; Horvath, Keith J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined reasons for non-use of condoms among an online survey sample of 462 non-condom using MSM to 1) identify major domains, themes and categories encompassing reasons for non-use of condoms, and 2) examine whether reasons varied by role-in-sex (insertive or receptive) and meeting venue (online or offline). A thematic analysis was completed on participant responses to an open-ended question about reasons for non-condom use. Preference for not using condoms and contextual factors were the top two reasons given for not using condoms, followed by a reasoned judgment based on risk assessment, relationship status and interpersonal communication. No major differences were found between men who reported non-condom use at last receptive and insertive anal intercourse. By contrast when meeting online, men were more likely to report reasons for non-condom use that corresponded to individual preference and mutual agreement not to use condoms. When meeting offline, men were more likely to cite reasons related to context and relationships. In developing HIV prevention interventions for this population, researchers should address both venues separately, as reasons why men engage in non-use of condoms appear to differ. PMID:20967649

  20. NYC condom use and satisfaction and demand for alternative condom products in New York City sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    PubMed

    Burke, Ryan C; Wilson, Juliet; Kowalski, Alexis; Murrill, Christopher; Cutler, Blayne; Sweeney, Monica; Begier, Elizabeth M

    2011-08-01

    In 2007, via a high-profile media campaign, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) introduced the "NYC Condom," the first specially packaged condom unique to a municipality. We conducted a survey to measure NYC Condom awareness of and experience with NYC Condoms and demand for alternative male condoms to be distributed by the DOHMH. Trained interviewers administered short, in-person surveys at five DOHMH-operated sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Spring 2008. We systematically sampled eligible patients: NYC residents aged ≥18 years waiting to see a physician. We approached 539; 532 agreed to be screened (98.7% response rate); 462 completed the survey and provided NYC zip codes. Most respondents were male (56%), non-Hispanic black (64%), aged 18-24 years (43%) or 25-44 years (45%), employed (65%), and had a high school degree/general equivalency diploma or less (53%). Of those surveyed, 86% were aware of the NYC Condom, and 81% of those who obtained the condoms used them. NYC Condom users were more likely to have four or more sexual partners in the past 12 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-3.8), use condoms frequently (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3-3.6), and name an alternative condom for distribution (AOR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3-3.9). The most frequently requested condom types respondents wanted DOHMH to provide were larger size (28%), ultra thin/extra sensitive (21%), and extra strength (16%). We found high rates of NYC Condom use. NYC Condom users reported more sexual partners than others, suggesting the condom initiative successfully reached higher-risk persons within the STD clinic population. Study results document the condom social marketing campaign's success. PMID:21792691

  1. Condom Use among Heterosexual Immigrant Latino Men in the Southeastern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipper, Emily; Rhodes, Scott D.; Lindstrom, Kristen; Bloom, Fred R.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Montano, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). We examined correlates of condom use among adult heterosexual Latino men who are members of a large multicounty soccer league in rural North Carolina. Of 222 participants, the mean (plus or minus SD) age…

  2. Demographic Correlates of Constant Condom Use among Sex Workers in Tangail, Dhaka, Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eva, Nilufar Akter; Munakata, Tsunetsugu; Onuoha, Francis N.

    2007-01-01

    Consistent condom use, particularly by promiscuous individuals, is a major safeguard against sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. This study examines some demographic factors that may affect such use among Bangladeshi female commercial sex workers at a brothel in Tangail (n = 196; mean age = 23.44 years), and the streets of Dhaka (n…

  3. Hispanic adults' beliefs, attitudes, and intentions regarding the female condom.

    PubMed

    Bogart, L M; Cecil, H; Pinkerton, S D

    2000-04-01

    The present study used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1985) augmented by AIDS knowledge to investigate factors influencing intentions of Hispanic adults to use the female condom. A total of 146 persons (75 women and 71 men; mean age, 27 years) recruited from community-based organizations completed an anonymous survey regarding intentions to use the female condom with their main sex partner. The TPB model had greater predictive utility for women's, than for men's, female condom use intentions. For men, attitudes and norms did not predict female condom use intentions, but greater AIDS knowledge was related to lower intentions to use the female condom, above and beyond the TPB constructs. Perceived behavioral control, operationalized as self-efficacy, significantly increased the predictive utility of the TPB model for women's female condom use intentions but not for men's. Behavior change strategies to increase female condom use are discussed in light of these findings. PMID:10833679

  4. Acceptability of condom promotion and distribution among 10–19 year-old adolescents in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural districts, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The HIV/AIDS pandemic remains a leading challenge for global health. Although condoms are acknowledged for their key role on preventing HIV transmission, low and inappropriate use of condoms persists in Tanzania and elsewhere in Africa. This study assesses factors affecting acceptability of condom promotion and distribution among adolescents in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural districts of Tanzania. Methods Data were collected in 2011 as part of a larger cross-sectional survey on condom use among 10–19 year-olds in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural districts of Tanzania using a structured questionnaire. Associations between acceptability of condom promotion and distribution and each of the explanatory variables were tested using Chi Square. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine independent predictors of the acceptability of condom promotion and distribution using STATA (11) statistical software at 5% significance level. Results Mean age of the 1,327 adolescent participants (50.5% being males) was 13.5 years (SD = 1.4). Acceptance of condom promotion and distribution was found among 37% (35% in Mpwapwa and 39% in Mbeya rural) of the adolescents. Being sexually active and aged 15–19 was the strongest predictor of the acceptability of condom promotion and distribution (OR = 7.78, 95% CI 4.65-12.99). Others were; not agreeing that a condom is effective in preventing transmissions of STIs including HIV (OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.20-0.56), being a resident of Mbeya rural district (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.28-2.19), feeling comfortable being seen by parents/guardians holding/buying condoms (OR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.40-3.46) and living with a guardian (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.08-2.04). Conclusion Acceptability of condom promotion and distribution among adolescents in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural is low. Effect of sexual activity on the acceptability of condom promotion and distribution is age-dependent and was the strongest. Feeling comfortable being

  5. Malaysian made condoms sold locally as well as exported.

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Malaysia, famous for its natural rubber, is also producing condoms made from local rubber. About 40,000 gross of condoms a month are being produced by a factory with about 30 female workers. 30-40% of the production is exported to Europe, Middle East, Asia, Japan, Singapore and South America. The size of the condoms conform to international standards, 49 mm and 52 mm. As there is a greater demand for the 52 mm. condoms overseas, the company produces more of this than the 49 mm. condoms. In April 1975, the Standard Institution and Industrial Research of Malaysia gave its quality control approval to a condom which can hold 5 gallons of water and with thickness varying from 0.03 mm, 0.06 mm. and 0.05-0.07 mm. A 10% tax/piece and a 5% surtax are imposed on imported condoms to protect the local industry from foreign competition. Local condoms are sold tax-free. Pink and black colored condoms appear to be popular among consumers. Although complaints are few, 1 in 10,000 users may suffer from allergic problems because of the silicone oil treatment of the condoms. Another local condom factory which uses Malaysian rubber for condom manufacture is located in Klang, approximately 24 miles from Kuala Lumpur; the factory has 25 workers producing 12,000 gross of lubricated and non-lubricated condoms for local consumption only. There is increasing evidence that condoms are increasing in popularity in Malaysia and that the average consumer is now being more selective in choosing contraceptive methods. PMID:12278237

  6. Factors predictive of adolescents' intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms.

    PubMed

    Craig, D M; Wade, K E; Allison, K R; Irving, H M; Williams, J I; Hlibka, C M

    2000-01-01

    Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1988) as a conceptual framework, 705 secondary school students were surveyed to identify their intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that the theory explained between 23.5% and 45.8% of the variance in intentions. Variables external to the model such as past use, age, and ethnicity exhibited some independent effects. Attitudes were consistently predictive of intentions to use condoms, pills, and condoms in combination with pills for both male and female students. However, there were differences by gender in the degree to which subjective norms and perceived behavioural control predicted intentions. The findings suggest that programs should focus on: creation of positive attitudes regarding birth control pills and condoms; targeting important social influences, particularly regarding males' use of condoms; and developing strategies to increase students' control over the use of condoms. PMID:11089290

  7. The Relationship Between Initial Physical Examination Findings and Failure on Objective Validity Testing During Neuropsychological Evaluation After Pediatric Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Provance, Aaron J.; Terhune, E. Bailey; Cooley, Christine; Carry, Patrick M.; Connery, Amy K.; Engelman, Glenn H.; Kirkwood, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The symptomatology after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is complex as symptoms are subjective and nonspecific. It is important to differentiate symptoms as neurologically based or caused by noninjury factors. Symptom exaggeration has been found to influence postinjury presentation, and objective validity tests are used to help differentiate these cases. This study examines how concussed patients seen for initial medical workup may present with noncredible effort during follow-up neuropsychological examination and identifies physical findings during evaluation that best predict noncredible performance. Hypothesis: A portion of pediatric patients will demonstrate noncredible effort during neuropsychological testing after mTBI, predicted by failure of certain vestibular and cognitive tests during initial examination. Study Design: Retrospective cohort. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: Participants (n = 80) underwent evaluation by a sports medicine physician ≤3 months from injury, were subsequently seen for a neuropsychological examination, and completed the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT). Variables included results of a mental status examination (orientation), serial 7s examination, Romberg test, and heel-to-toe walking test. The primary outcome variable of interest was pass/fail of the MSVT. Results: Of the participants, 51% were male and 49% were female. Eighteen of 80 (23%) failed the MSVT. Based on univariable logistic regression analysis, the outcomes of the Romberg test (P = 0.0037) and heel-to-toe walking test(P = 0.0066) were identified as significant independent predictors of MSVT failure. In a multivariable model, outcome of Romberg test was the only significant predictor of MSVT failure. The probability of MSVT failure was 66.7% (95% CI, 33.3% to 88.9%) when a subject failed the Romberg test. Conclusion: A meaningful percentage of pediatric subjects present evidence of noncredible performance during neuropsychological examination

  8. Factors Associated With Condom Breakage During Anal Intercourse: A Cross-Sectional Study of Men Who Have Sex With Men Recruited in an Online Survey

    PubMed Central

    Khosropour, Christine M; Prater, Adam B; Rosenberg, Eli S; Siegler, Aaron J; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2016-01-01

    Background Within the United States, HIV affects men who have sex with men (MSM) disproportionally compared to the general population. In 2011, MSM represented nearly two-thirds of all new HIV infections while representing less than 2% of the US male population. Condoms continue to be the foundation of many HIV prevention programs; however, the failure rate of condoms during anal intercourse among MSM is estimated to be 0.5% to 8%, and condom breakages leave those affected at high risk for HIV transmission. Objective Estimate the frequency of condom breakage and associated demographic and behavioral factors during last act of anal intercourse using data from a national online HIV prevention survey of MSM. Methods From March 19 to April 16, 2009, data were collected on 9005 MSM through an online survey of US MSM recruited through a social networking site. Using multivariable logistic regression and controlling for several demographic and sexual risk behaviors, we estimated odds ratios of the association between condom breakage and several risk factors. Results In the study, 8063 participants reported having at least one male sexual partner in the last 12 months. The median age of participants was 21 years (range 18-65). More than two-thirds (68.2%, 5498/8063) reported anal intercourse during last sex and 16.90% (927/5498) reported using a condom during last anal intercourse act. Condom breakage was reported by 4.4% (28/635) participants who engaged in receptive anal intercourse and 3.5% (16/459) participants who engaged in insertive anal intercourse, with an overall failure rate of 4.0% (95% CI 3.2%-6.0%). Age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] per 5 years: 0.53 (95% CI 0.30-0.94), number of male sex partners (aOR per 5 sex partners: 1.03 (95% CI 1.00-1.08), and being high or buzzed during sex with a casual sex partner (aOR: 3.14, 95% CI 1.02-9.60) were associated with condom breakage. Conclusions Our results indicate condom breakage is an important problem for MSM that may

  9. Television station acceptance of AIDS prevention PSAs and condom advertisements.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, A M; Wicks, J L

    1998-01-01

    AIDS is a fatal, though preventable disease with more than 56,000 new cases reported in 1996 alone. Condom advertisements and AIDS public service announcements (AIDS PSAs) can help prevent the spread of AIDS, but these AIDS PSAs often contain controversial subject matter and are thus rejected for broadcast by television stations. It is for this reason why a large-scale national mail survey was conducted. The survey, which examined the impact of personal ethical considerations of television station management on AIDS acceptance decisions in the US, was based on five hypothetical questions. It used questionnaires mailed to television station managers. Responses were received from 364 stations, yielding a 40.63% response rate. Significant results were found related to the impact of personal ethical concerns of television managers on AIDS acceptance decision. Most stations were unlikely to accept condom or safe sex advertisements but were more likely to accept generic AIDS messages. These findings pose a dilemma for public health officials, which include the high cost of television advertisements and the difficulty in choosing a creative execution type. The most effective approach would be to appeal to sales managers to run the advertisements since they are important for the community and serve the public interest. PMID:12295801

  10. Geospatial analysis of condom availability and accessibility in urban Malawi.

    PubMed

    Shacham, Enbal; Thornton, Rebecca; Godlonton, Susan; Murphy, Ryan; Gilliland, Jake

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence of HIV in sub-Saharan African countries persists at alarming rates. There are currently four promoted methods to prevent HIV infection: adherence to antiretroviral therapy, male circumcision, pre-exposure prophylaxis and use of condoms. This study aimed to assess the availability and accessibility of one of the prevention efforts, condoms, in Kawale, Lilongwe, Malawi. A total of 220 potential condom-selling establishments were surveyed in 2012. Data were collected with store owners or staff and locations were geocoded to assess store density. Descriptive analyses were conducted. Of those audited, 96 stores sold condoms, 13 of which distributed free condoms. The stores were most often small shops and located in markets or trading centres. Condoms were most often found at the back of the store in an open space. There were approximately 1.2 stores per ¼ mile; 44% of the businesses in the study region carried condoms. This one method of prevention exhibited multiple barriers in this region: few stores sold condoms, high costs, condom locations within stores and limited availability. The limited accessibility is likely to influence social norms surrounding condom use. Future research should incorporate assessing norms and addressing barriers to uptake of HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25681262