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Sample records for condom failure examining

  1. HIV Transmission among Men Who Have Sex with Men due to Condom Failure

    PubMed Central

    Remis, Robert S.; Alary, Michel; Liu, Juan; Kaul, Rupert; Palmer, Robert W. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite preventive efforts, HIV incidence remains high among men who have sex with men (MSM) in industrialized countries. Condoms are an important element in prevention but, given the high frequency of condom use and their imperfect effectiveness, a substantial number and proportion of HIV transmissions may occur despite condoms. We developed a model to examine this hypothesis. Methods We used estimates of annual prevalent and incident HIV infections for MSM in Ontario. For HIV-negative men, we applied frequencies of sexual episodes and per-contact HIV transmission risks of receptive and insertive anal sex with and without a condom and oral sex without a condom. We factored in the proportion of HIV-infected partners receiving antiretroviral therapy and its impact in reducing transmissibility. We used Monte-Carlo simulation to determine the plausible range for the proportion of HIV transmissions for each sexual practice. Results Among Ontario MSM in 2009, an estimated 92,963 HIV-negative men had 1,184,343 episodes of anal sex with a condom and 117,133 anal sex acts without a condom with an HIV-positive partner. Of the 693 new HIV infections, 51% were through anal sex with a condom, 33% anal sex without a condom and 16% oral sex. For anal sex with a condom, the 95% confidence limits were 17% and 77%. Conclusions The proportion of HIV infections related to condom failure appears substantial and higher than previously thought. That 51% of transmissions occur despite condom use may be conservative (i.e. low) since we used a relatively high estimate (87.1%) for condom effectiveness. If condom effectiveness were closer to 70%, a value estimated from a recent CDC study, the number and proportion of HIV transmissions occurring despite condom use would be much higher. Therefore, while condom use should continue to be promoted and enhanced, this alone is unlikely to stem the tide of HIV infection among MSM. PMID:25211493

  2. Feasibility of local condom production examined.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Despite Africa being the world region worst affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, there is only 1 condom manufacturer on the continent, in Johannesburg. Hundreds of millions of condoms are donated and imported annually. For example, 500 million units were donated in 1996, of which 212 million came from the US Agency for International Development. A recently released study commissioned by the European Union's HIV/AIDS Program for Developing Countries determined that it would be technically viable to manufacture condoms in not only South Africa, but also in Mauritius, Cote d'Ivoire, and Kenya. All that is required is a factory, work force, water, and electricity, with the raw materials to be imported from Malaysia or Thailand regardless of where the factory is located. The financial returns of such an operation would depend upon the cost of labor, the type of factory and its output, and market demand. Benefits would include employment creation, potential exports, and foreign exchange savings. A typical condom plant, operating 24 hours a day with 2 production lines, can produce 160 million condom units per year. However, should such a factory be built and put into operation, managers must ensure that any condoms produced are of high quality. PMID:12295121

  3. Condom

    MedlinePlus

    ... sizes, textures, and colors. How Much Does It Cost? Condoms are the least expensive and most available ... control — other than abstinence, of course. Male condoms cost about $0.50 to $1 each and are ...

  4. Failure to embrace the barrier/condom use message.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Ron; Snook, William D; Hoff, Gerald L; Cai, Jinwen; Russell, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the consistency of barrier/condom use among men who have sex with men in the Kansas City metropolitan area. The authors sought to determine if barrier/condom usage patterns were associated with the type of sex act and whether it was insertive or receptive, HIV testing frequency, and number of sexual partners. Data were extracted from a 2003 community health assessment of the gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered community in the metropolitan area. The health assessment instrument was anonymous, self-administered, and distributed at events in that community. Responses from 623 men indicated that consistent use of a barrier/condom was low regardless of the sex act. There was no relationship between barrier/condom usage patterns and HIV testing frequency for any sex act or the number of sex partners, with the exception of anal intercourse. The authors concluded that a different approach is needed to translate the barrier/condom use message into a behavioral response. PMID:16849086

  5. Factors Contributing to the Failure to Use Condoms among Students in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbulo, Lazarous; Newman, Ian M.; Shell, Duane F.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored factors that may predict condom use among college and high school students in Zambia. Using the Social Cognitive Theory, this study examined the relationship of drinking behaviors, alcohol-sexual expectations, education level, and religion to condom use among 961 students. The results of the study show that condom use was low…

  6. Do intentions predict condom use? Meta-analysis and examination of six moderator variables.

    PubMed

    Sheeran, P; Orbell, S

    1998-06-01

    This study used meta-analysis to quantify the relationship between intentions and behaviour in prospective studies of condom use. The effects of six moderator variables were also examined: sexual orientation, gender, sample age, time interval, intention versus expectation and condom use with 'steady' versus 'casual' partners. Literature searches revealed 28 hypotheses based on a total sample of 2532 which could be included in the review. Overall, there was a medium to strong sample-weighted average correlation between intentions and condom use (r+ = .44), and this correlation was similar to the effect sizes obtained in previous reviews. There were too few studies of gay men to permit meaningful comparison of effect sizes between homosexual versus heterosexual samples. Gender and measurement of intention did not moderate the intention-behaviour relationship. However, shorter time intervals, older samples and condom use with 'steady' rather than 'casual' partners were each associated with stronger correlations between intentions and condom use. Factors which might explain the significant effects of moderator variables are discussed and implications of the study for future research on intention-behaviour consistency are outlined. PMID:9639864

  7. Condoms - male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... infections.) Latex rubber Polyurethane Condoms are the only method of birth control for men that are not ...

  8. A qualitative examination of men's condom use attitudes and resistance: "it's just part of the game".

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Schraufnagel, Trevor J; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Gilmore, Amanda K; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the variability in young heterosexual men's perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of condom use in their casual sexual relationships. Because men who perceive greater disadvantages of condom use may be more likely to resist using them, we also explored the tactics that men employ to avoid using condoms. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted with single men who have sex with women (n = 60), aged 21-35 years, all of whom reported using condoms inconsistently. Transcripts were analyzed using a framework analysis approach. As expected, participants reported advantages and disadvantages to condom use that pertained to the likelihood and quality of sex, physical sensations during intercourse, and the risk of sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies. Within each of these topics, however, participants' appraisals of the relative pros and cons of condom use varied considerably. Additionally, participants reported that men use a wide range of condom use resistance tactics, including seduction, deception, and condom sabotage, and that the use of these tactics was viewed as normative behavior for men their age. These findings suggest that the effectiveness of sexual health prevention efforts could be enhanced by increasing young men's motivations to use condoms and by targeting social norms regarding condom use resistance. Additionally, the issue of men's condom use resistance clearly merits increased empirical investigation and intervention attention. PMID:23912776

  9. Failure to Use and Sustain Male Condom Usage: Lessons Learned from a Prospective Study among Men Attending STI Clinic in Pune, India

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Seema; Deshpande, Swapna; Bembalkar, Shilpa; Kharat, Mahesh; Parkhe, Aparna; Brahme, Radhika G.; Paranjape, Ramesh; Bollinger, Robert C.; Mehendale, Sanjay M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sustained or consistent use of condoms by men remains a challenge. A study was carried out to identify factors associated with failure to use condoms consistently by men attending STD clinics in Pune, India. Method Among 14137 STI clinic attendees, 8360 HIV sero-negative men were enrolled in a cohort study. The changes in condom usage behavior were studied among 1284 men who returned for first scheduled quarterly follow up, 309 reported consistent condom use at the time of enrollment in the cohort. Data pertaining to heterosexual men practicing high risk behavior were analyzed to identify factors associated with change in condom use behavior using logistic regression model. Demographic, behavioral and biological factors observed to be associated with condom use were fitted in five Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals to identify independent predictors of failure to sustain condom use behavior. Results The univariate analysis showed that men who were 30 years or older in age (p = 0.002) and those who did not have contact female sex worker (FSW) were more likely to fail to sustain consistent condom use. However both these factors did not show significant association in multivariable analysis. Marital status and contact with Hijra (eunuch) in lifetime were associated with failure to change in their condom use behavior [AOR 0.33 (CI 0.13–0.82; p = 0.017)]. During the follow up of 2 years, 61 events (15.5 per 100 person years, 95% CI 12.3–19.5 years) of ‘failure of condom use’ were recorded despite counseling. Older age, contact with non CSW partner and presence of genital ulcer disease / discharge syndrome were significant predictors of failure to sustain condom use. Discussion Married monogamous older men, who report contact with sex worker and present with genital ulcer disease are at risk of failure to use condom after first exposure to voluntary HIV counseling and testing. This is a

  10. Always, never, or sometimes: examining variation in condom-use decision making among Black adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Nelson, LaRon E; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Kearney, Margaret H; Dozier, Ann

    2011-08-01

    Our purpose in this study was to describe Black adolescent mothers' decisions regarding condom use and non-use with their male sex partners, including their children's fathers. Research on partner type and condom use has been insufficiently focused on understanding the specific influence that the biological father of the baby has on condom use among adolescent mothers. We conducted five focus groups and three interviews with 31 predominantly African-American mothers. We found that their decisions to use condoms always, never, or sometimes were based on partner type and on emotional and relationship factors. The "baby daddy" was the only partner with whom they never used condoms. HIV/STI prevention interventions for adolescent mothers must address risk taking with their children's biological fathers. PMID:21633960

  11. Always, Never, or Sometimes: Examining Variation in Condom-Use Decision Making Among Black Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, LaRon E.; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Kearney, Margaret H.; Dozier, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose in this study was to describe Black adolescent mothers’ decisions regarding condom use and non-use with their male sex partners, including their children’s fathers. Research on partner type and condom use has been insufficiently focused on understanding the specific influence that the biological father of the baby has on condom use among adolescent mothers. We conducted five focus groups and three interviews with 31 predominantly African-American mothers. We found that their decisions to use condoms always, never, or sometimes were based on partner type and on emotional and relationship factors. The “baby daddy” was the only partner with whom they never used condoms. HIV/STI prevention interventions for adolescent mothers must address risk taking with their children’s biological fathers. PMID:21633960

  12. Understanding Failure of Condom Use Intention among Adolescents: Completing an Intensive Preventive Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Laurie J.; Karasz, Alison; Hamilton, Adaoha

    2007-01-01

    Although interventions based on cognitive theories can reduce rates of unsafe sexual behavior in adolescents, effect sizes remain small. This study was a qualitative investigation of inner-city adolescents' intentions to use condoms following participation in an intensive safer sex program. In-depth interviews with 26 adolescents were analyzed…

  13. Examining Delay Discounting of Condom-Protected Sex Among Men Who Have Sex with Men Using Crowdsourcing Technology.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Evan S; Johnson, Patrick S; Johnson, Matthew W

    2015-09-01

    Some men who have sex with men (MSM) have unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in situations that put them at risk for HIV infection despite having the knowledge and skills to avoid these risks. The present study examined the potential role of delay discounting in sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM. Participants (n = 108) completed the Sexual Discounting Task and a questionnaire regarding UAI and other variables associated with HIV risk (e.g., age, socioeconomic status, substance use, psychiatric problems). MSM discounted the value of condom-protected anal intercourse in a manner that was orderly, hyperbolic, and sensitive to partner characteristics that likely influence realworld decisions about using condoms. Steeper discounting was associated with UAI, and other factors related to sexual HIV risk among MSM, including young age, socioeconomic disadvantage, substance use, sex under the influence of substances, and depression). Delay discounting is likely a critical, but underappreciated facet of HIV risk among MSM. PMID:26066395

  14. Action-specific Cognitions of Planned and Preparatory Behaviors of Condom Use among Dutch Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Gerjo

    2008-01-01

    Many adolescents fail to use condoms, even when they are motivated to do so. An important reason for their failure to use condoms is that they do not prepare themselves for potential sexual encounters. The present study examined the circumstances under which Dutch adolescents were likely to prepare themselves for condom use (buying and carrying). In a sample of 399 secondary school students, including students with and without sexual experience, it was found that intended condom use was not sufficient to ensure that adolescents plan and prepare for condom use. It was found that having the goal of condom use did not necessarily result in preparatory behavior, such as condom buying and condom carrying. The data showed that action-specific social-cognitive factors of preparatory behavior explained preparatory behavior, beyond the decision to use condoms. This suggests that interventions aimed at promoting condom use should focus not only on condom use itself, but should also motivate and encourage adolescents to buy and carry condoms. PMID:18193348

  15. Condom Semiotics: Meaning and Condom Use in Rural Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavory, Iddo; Swidler, Ann

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the widespread resistance to condom use in sub-Saharan Africa by describing the major semiotic axes that organize how people talk about condoms and condom use. These axes include the "sweetness" of sex, trust and love between sexual partners, and assessments of risk and danger. Using data from rural Malawi, we show that…

  16. Condoms - male

    MedlinePlus

    ... PREGNANCY? If the sperm contained in a male's semen reach a woman's vagina, pregnancy may occur. Condoms ... receptacle) on the end of it (to collect semen), place the condom against the top of the ...

  17. Condom rating.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, E

    1999-01-01

    Consumer Reports reveals that out of 30 different non-polyurethane condoms that underwent airburst testing, only Trojan Plus 2 Spermicidal and Durex Pure Protection Spermicidally Lubricated failed. Condoms labeled as "extra strength" performed no better than those labeled as "thin," and vending machine condoms performed as well as others. Condoms are also less effective for anal sex than vaginal intercourse, and expiration dates should be checked. PMID:11366798

  18. Examining the applicability of the IMB model in predicting condom use among sexually active secondary school students in Mbarara, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Korchmaros, Josephine; Kiwanuka, Julius; Bangsberg, David R; Bull, Sheana

    2013-03-01

    The applicability of the IMB model in predicting condom use was tested among 390 sexually active secondary school students in Mbarara, Uganda. Adolescents across five secondary schools completed a self-report survey about their health and sexual experiences. Based upon results from structural equation modeling, the IMB model partially predicts condom use. Condom use was directly predicted by HIV prevention information and behavioral skills regarding having and using condoms. It was indirectly predicted (through behavioral skills regarding having and using condoms) by behavioral intentions regarding using condoms and talking to one's partner about safer sex. Aspects of one's first sexual experience (i.e., age at first sex, having discussed using condoms with first sex partner, willingness at first sex) were strongly influential in predicting current condom use; this was especially true for discussing condoms with one's first sex partner. Findings highlight the importance of providing clear and comprehensive condom use training in HIV prevention programs aimed at Ugandan adolescents. They also underscore the importance of targeting abstinent youth before they become sexually active to positively affect their HIV preventive behavior at their first sexual experience. PMID:22350827

  19. Examining the applicability of the IMB model in predicting condom use among sexually active secondary school students in Mbarara, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Ybarra, Michele L.; Korchmaros, Josephine; Kiwanuka, Julius; Bangsberg, David R.; Bull, Sheana

    2012-01-01

    We tested the applicability of the IMB model in predicting condom use among sexually active secondary school students in Mbarara, Uganda. Three hundred and ninety adolescents across five secondary schools completed a self-report survey about their health and sexual experiences. Based upon results from structural equation modeling, the IMB model partially predicts condom use. Condom use was directly predicted by HIV prevention information and behavioral skills regarding having and using condoms. It was indirectly predicted (through behavioral skills regarding having and using condoms) by behavioral intentions regarding using condoms and talking to one‘s partner about safer sex. Aspects of one‘s first sexual experience (i.e., age at first sex, having discussed using condoms with first sex partner, willingness at first sex) are hugely influential of current condom use; this is especially true for discussing condoms with one‘s first partner. Findings highlight the importance of providing clear and comprehensive condom use training in HIV prevention programs aimed at Ugandan adolescents. They also underscore the importance of targeting abstinent youth before they become sexually active to positively affect their HIV preventive behavior at their first sexual experience. PMID:22350827

  20. Condom negotiation strategies as a mediator of the relationship between self-efficacy and condom use.

    PubMed

    French, Sabine Elizabeth; Holland, Kathryn J

    2013-01-01

    College students are a group at high risk of sexually transmitted infections due to inconsistent condom use and engaging in other risky sexual behaviors. This study examined whether condom use self-efficacy predicted the use of condom negotiation strategies (i.e., condom influence strategies) and whether condom influence strategies mediated the relationship between condom use self-efficacy and condom use within this population, as well as whether gender moderated the mediation model. Results showed a strong relationship between condom use self-efficacy and condom influence strategies. Additionally, condom influence strategies completely mediated the relationship between condom use self-efficacy and condom use. Although condom use self-efficacy was related to condom use, the ability to use condom negotiation strategies was the most important factor predicting condom use. The mediation model held across genders, except for the condom influence strategy withholding sex, where it was not significant for men. For women, condom use self-efficacy promoted the use of a very assertive negotiation strategy, withholding sex, and was consequently related to increased condom use. Overall, using assertive condom negotiation strategies (e.g., withholding sex and direct request) were found to be the most important aspects of increasing condom use for both women and men. Implications and suggestions for prevention programming are discussed. PMID:22126308

  1. Female condom becomes available nationwide.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Between May 1993 and August 1994, only family planning and sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics had the female condom available. The manufacturer is using a print and educational campaign to market the female condom. The print campaigns provide a toll-free number for consumers and health care providers. The educational component consists of community outreach programs for public health, family planning clinics, and university health centers. The single-use soft polyurethane sheath has a flexible ring at the closed end, which is used to insert the condom and holds it over the cervix. A flexible ring is at the outer end; it holds the condom over the labia. The female condom is prelubricated and comes with a bottle of lubricant. Adding extra lubricant on the penis or the inside of the condom can prevent invagination of the outer ring, the penis entering the vagina instead of the condom, or the condom riding the penis. The 1-year failure rate is 25% for average use and 5.1% for perfect use. Correct and consistent use determines the female condom's ability to protect against STDs and HIV. The female condom helps women protect themselves against pregnancy and STDs/HIV when their male partner refuses to use a latex condom. Since it is visible outside the vagina, some women might still find it difficult to negotiate its use. Drawbacks of the female condom are that it is cumbersome and challenges our traditional gender roles and ideas about sexuality. Education addressing how women feel about themselves, their sexuality, and their relationships is needed to increase female condom use and acceptance. Some couples prefer the female condom over the male condom because it is roomier and because the polyurethane creates a better sensation than latex. PMID:12288570

  2. Choosing condoms.

    PubMed

    Billow, J A

    1992-09-01

    Condoms for men are currently the most effective of the nonprescription contraceptive methods. They are readily available, simple to use, and relatively inexpensive, and they are not associated with major adverse effects. If used both properly and consistently, condoms can significantly reduce the risk of transmission of HIV and other STDs. The protection offered by the latex condom may be increased by the concurrent use of a vaginal foam or cream containing nonoxynol 9. The practicing pharmacist should know about the variety of condoms available, be able to explain their correct use to maximize effectiveness, and compare condom use with other types of contraceptives. The practitioner should be available to answer patrons' questions and provide counseling on contraceptives and "safe sex" practices. PMID:1442556

  3. Female condoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... female condoms at most drugstores, STI clinics, and family planning clinics. You need to plan to have a ... Jensen JT, Mishell DR. Family planning: contraception, ... Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  4. The condom conundrum: barriers to condom use among commercial sex workers in Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Varga, C A

    1997-03-01

    We examined socio-cultural and economic determinants of condom use among 100 female South African commercial sex workers. The symbolism and dynamics of condom use between sex workers and their clientele were explored. These issues were also investigated when sex workers negotiated sex with their personal partners. An additional focus was the extent to which HIV/AIDS influences women's condom use in these situations. Results demonstrate considerable contrast between factors influencing condom use in professional versus private sex situations. With clients, practical issues such as financial strain were the major obstacles to condom use. With personal sex partners, sex workers avoided condoms due to their negative symbolism. Condoms were seen as suggestive of filth, disease, infidelity, and mistrust. HIV/AIDS awareness had minimal impact on condom use. HIV/AIDS was viewed as a remote threat, overridden by immediate practical and emotional concerns. The intervention implications of condom symbolism and differential barriers to condom use are discussed. PMID:10214405

  5. Acceptability of male condom: An Indian scenario

    PubMed Central

    Donta, Balaiah; Begum, Shahina; Naik, D.D.

    2014-01-01

    The National Family Planning Programme of India had introduced condom as one of the family planning methods in the late1960s. Condom was promoted as a family planning method through social marketing since its inception. With the increasing prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS, condom was also promoted as a dual method for protection against both unintended pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted infections. Despite efforts at various levels, the overall use of condom among couples in India is low. Here we present literature review of studies to understand the condom acceptability among couples in India. Specifically, the paper assesses research and programmes that have been carried out to increase the use of condom among couples; determinants of condom use; reason for not using condom; and perception versus experience of condom failure. The reported problems related to condom use included non acceptance by partner, perceived ineffectiveness, less comfort, lack of sexual satisfaction, husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety, and not available at that instant. The role of media in the promotion of condom use was indicated as an important way to increase awareness and use. Multiple strategies would help in acceptance of male condom. PMID:25673537

  6. Acceptability of male condom: an Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Donta, Balaiah; Begum, Shahina; Naik, D D

    2014-11-01

    The National Family Planning Programme of India had introduced condom as one of the family planning methods in the late 1960s. Condom was promoted as a family planning method through social marketing since its inception. With the increasing prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS, condom was also promoted as a dual method for protection against both unintended pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted infections. Despite efforts at various levels, the overall use of condom among couples in India is low. Here we present literature review of studies to understand the condom acceptability among couples in India. Specifically, the paper assesses research and programmes that have been carried out to increase the use of condom among couples; determinants of condom use; reason for not using condom; and perception versus experience of condom failure. The reported problems related to condom use included non acceptance by partner, perceived ineffectiveness, less comfort, lack of sexual satisfaction, husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety, and not available at that instant. The role of media in the promotion of condom use was indicated as an important way to increase awareness and use. Multiple strategies would help in acceptance of male condom. PMID:25673537

  7. Outdated condoms.

    PubMed

    1999-06-25

    Prosecutors in four California jurisdictions filed a suit against the Rite Aid drug store chain for violating State health and safety codes by selling condoms past their expiration dates. The products have expiration dates because they may lose their effectiveness over time. The suit asks for monetary damages and an injunction barring the chain from continuing to sell merchandise outdated merchandise. PMID:11367292

  8. Examining the Theory of Planned Behavior Applied to Condom Use: The Effect-Indicator vs. Causal-Indicator Models

    PubMed Central

    Carmack, Chakema C.; Lewis-Moss, Rhonda K.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated whether a causal-indicator model or an effect-indicator model of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) is more suitable for predicting behavioral intention and for which behaviors. No previous studies have evaluated this question using the same sample and same behavior. In this study, African American adolescents ages 12–17 participating in risk reduction classes were assessed on their initial attitudes, norms, perceived control, and intention regarding condom use. Second-order structural equation modeling indicated that the effect-indicator model exhibited superior fit above the causal-indicator model. Furthermore, modeling the behavioral antecedents in a causal way may not be as accurate due to the underlying uni-dimensional nature of attitudes, subjective norms, and control. The TPB was not disconfirmed as a suitable model for African American adolescents’ regarding condom use. Prevention programs may benefit by focusing on adolescent behavior change with regard to the global components in order to influence more specific concepts of these social cognitions. Editors’ Strategic Implications: Despite limitations including correlational data, this study yields implications for prevention programming and, more broadly, an important theoretical elaboration on effect-indicator and causal-indicator models of the TPB. PMID:19949867

  9. A Qualitative Examination of Men’s Condom Use Attitudes and Resistance: “It’s Just a Part of the Game”

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the variability in young heterosexual men’s perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of condom use in their casual sexual relationships. Because men who perceive greater disadvantages of condom use may be more likely to resist using them, we also explored the tactics that men employ to avoid using condoms. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted with single men who have sex with women (n = 60), aged 21 to 35, all of whom reported using condoms inconsistently. Transcripts were analyzed using a framework analysis approach. As expected, participants reported advantages and disadvantages to condom use that pertained to the likelihood and quality of sex, physical sensations during intercourse, and the risk of STIs and unwanted pregnancies. Within each of these topics, however, participants’ appraisals of the relative pros and cons of condom use varied considerably. Additionally, participants reported that men use a wide range of condom use resistance tactics - including seduction, deception, and condom sabotage – and that the use of these tactics is viewed as normative behavior for men their age. These findings suggest that the effectiveness of sexual health prevention efforts could be enhanced by increasing young men’s motivations to use condoms and by targeting social norms regarding condom use resistance. Additionally, the issue of men’s condom use resistance clearly merits increased empirical investigation and intervention attention. PMID:23912776

  10. Alcohol intoxication and condom use self-efficacy effects on women's condom use intentions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N Tatiana; Eakins, Danielle; Danube, Cinnamon L; George, William H; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R

    2014-01-01

    Although research has consistently demonstrated that condom use self-efficacy significantly predicts condom use, there has been little investigation of whether acute alcohol intoxication moderates this relationship. Because alcohol intoxication is often associated with increased sexual risk taking, further examination of such moderating effects is warranted. Using a community sample of young heterosexual women (n=436) with a history of heavy episodic drinking, this alcohol administration experiment examined the effects of intoxication and condom use self-efficacy on women's condom negotiation and future condom use intentions. After a questionnaire session, alcohol condition (control, .10% target peak BAL) was experimentally manipulated between subjects. Participants then read and responded to a hypothetical risky sexual decision-making scenario. SEM analyses revealed that alcohol intoxication directly decreased women's intentions to use condoms in the future. Women with greater condom use self-efficacy had stronger intentions to engage in condom negotiation; however, this effect was moderated by intoxication. Specifically, the association between condom use self-efficacy and condom negotiation intentions was stronger for intoxicated women than for sober women. These novel findings regarding the synergistic effects of alcohol intoxication and condom use self-efficacy support continued prevention efforts aimed at strengthening women's condom use self-efficacy, which may reduce even those sexual risk decisions made during states of intoxication. PMID:24129265

  11. Depressive Symptoms and Heart Failure: Examining the Sociodemographic Variables

    PubMed Central

    Pressler, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in depressive symptoms among a sample of heart failure outpatients by examining sociodemographic and clinical variables: sex, race, marital status, living arrangement/status, heart failure severity, and age. The most frequently reported depressive symptoms were also examined. Design A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. Setting Patients were enrolled in a larger research study from 5 clinics in the Midwest (1 adult primary care medicine clinic, 1 heart clinic, and 3 heart failure clinics). Sample The sample included 150 patients with mean age of 61.3 years; 88 (59%) were men, and 62 (41%) were women; 47 (31%) were African American, 101 (67%) were white, and 2 (2%) were Asian patients. Forty-seven percent of the patient sample were New York Heart Association class III. Approximately half (51%) of the patient sample were married. Methods The Patient Health Questionnaire 8 was used to measure depressive symptoms. Heart failure severity was assessed using the New York Heart Association classification. Findings Patients with class III and IV had significantly more depressive symptoms than patients with class I and II (P < .0001). Age was negatively correlated with depressive symptoms scores (P < .0002). There were no significant differences in depressive symptoms among the variables of sex, race, marital status, or living arrangement. The most frequently reported depressive symptom was “feeling tired/no energy.” Conclusions The findings from this study may contribute to the development of a broader knowledge base regarding depressive symptoms and its correlates in heart failure and may be used as a foundation for further research. PMID:19395890

  12. Condoms in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Sarah E., Ed.; Smith, Mark D., Ed.

    This book contains six papers on condom availability programs in the public schools. "Executive Summary" (Stryker, Samuels, and Smith) looks at the consequences of unprotected sex, adolescent condom use, condom promotion and availability, the role of schools, sex education in schools, how school condom programs work, distribution mechanisms,…

  13. Understanding heterosexual condom use among homeless men.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Ewing, Brett; Wertheimer, Samuel

    2013-06-01

    This study uses an event-based approach to examine individual, relationship, and contextual correlates of heterosexual condom use among homeless men. Structured interviews were conducted with a predominantly African American sample of 305 men recruited from meal lines in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Men reported on their most recent heterosexual event involving vaginal or anal intercourse. Adjusting for demographic characteristics only, condom use was more likely when men had higher condom use self-efficacy, greater HIV knowledge, or talked to their partner about condoms prior to sex. Condom use was less likely when men held more negative attitudes towards condoms, the partner was considered to be a primary/serious partner, hard drug use preceded sex, or sex occurred in a public setting. Condom attitudes, self-efficacy, partner type, and communication were the strongest predictors of condom use in a multivariate model that included all of the above-mentioned factors. Associations of unprotected sex with hard drug use prior to sex and having sex in public settings could be accounted for by lower condom self-efficacy and/or less positive condom attitudes among men having sex under these conditions. Results suggest that it may be promising to adapt existing, evidence-based IMB interventions for delivery in non-traditional settings that are frequented by men experiencing homelessness to achieve HIV risk reduction and thus reduce a significant point of disparity for the largely African American population of homeless men. PMID:22392155

  14. Multiple condom use and decreased condom breakage and slippage in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rugpao, S; Beyrer, C; Tovanabutra, S; Natpratan, C; Nelson, K E; Celentano, D D; Khamboonruang, C

    1997-02-01

    There is compelling evidence that male condoms effectively prevent transmission of sexual pathogens, including HIV-1. Condom breakage and slippage reduce this effect. We measured rates of condom slippage and breakage during heterosexual commercial sex in northern Thailand. Of 7,594 condoms examined in 4,734 client visits (5,040 sex acts), breakage was noted in 1.8% of single condom use (49.3% of acts), as compared with 0.2% with two condoms (49% of sex acts), and no breaks with more than two condoms (1.2% of sex acts). These breakage rates declined from 5.9% in a similar 1992 study in which 2.8% of sex acts were with more than one condom used at a time. Slippage occurred in only 0.1% of sex acts. Case-control analysis indicated that multiple clients, younger aged clients, sex after midnight, and high intensity (rough) sex were associated with condom breaks. The decline in breakage may be attributable to greater expertise in condom use by sex workers and clients, in response to the successful Thai national "100% Condom Campaign." Use of more than one condom during sex has been initiated by sex workers and their clients, a community response to condom promotion messages and fears of HIV infection. These data demonstrate the potential of condom use for high efficacy in reducing exposure to HIV-1 and other STDs. If condom use in commercial sex remains high, HIV incidence may decline among Thai men. PMID:9052727

  15. [Is today's condom better than its reputation?].

    PubMed

    Döring, G K

    1980-01-31

    In a statistical sample of 500 unwanted pregnancies surprisingly the share of women whose partners used a condom was not higher than the share of IUP-users (considering the relative frequency of use of both methods). This result was the motivation to investigate once more the use of the condom. After a short description of the history, the production, and the testing methods a discussion follows of the frequency of its use. In many countries the frequency of using the condom lies between that of hormonal oral contraceptives and the IUP. Today the reliability of the condom is higher than described in medical textbooks. In statistics of the seventies the failure rate is no more than 3 unwanted pregnancies in 100 years of usage. Harmful side effects or contraindications are not known. Therefore in cases of incompatibility or refusion of hormonal oral contraceptives reflections of the doctor on useful alternative methods of contraception should include the recommendation of the condom. PMID:6988315

  16. What teenagers and young adults have to say about condoms and using condoms.

    PubMed

    Patient, D R; Orr, N M

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of teenagers and young adults on condoms and condom use. By using two focus group sessions, 88 teenagers and young adults from South Africa were interviewed about their attitudes towards using condoms. The findings indicated that issues of image outweigh issues of risks in these groups. In obtaining condoms, these young adults did not trust free condoms and usually preferred anonymous points of purchase such as vending machines, which were also accessible at sites where they gathered for entertainment and socializing. In addition, the types of condoms available in the market were found to be unsuitable for these groups. Complaints on the color and size were noted, as well as the label of using condoms as boring and clinical. Lastly, to overcome the antipathy of using condoms, the paper suggests the following: development of black condoms, change of clinic and pharmacy staff attitude towards condom purchase, accessible distribution of condoms, and presentation of the product in such a way that it focuses on the fun aspect and less upon the clinical aspects. PMID:12295849

  17. [The condom: a badly known method in 1995].

    PubMed

    Janaud, A

    1996-02-01

    The only contraceptive product that remained legal under French legislation of 1920 was the condom, which kept its place in the market because of its efficacy against venereal disease. Legislation of November 1987 governs manufacture, importation, marketing, and free distribution of condoms in France. Condoms sold in France must meet specific conditions for size, form, strength, packaging, and labeling. With 110 million units distributed in 1992, France represents 3.9% of the world market. The 61 approved brands of condoms are all imported. Only natural latex condoms are currently approved. Measures to increase condom use in France for AIDS prevention may focus on increasing accessibility or increasing acceptability. During the 1980s the principal factors limiting condom use were reported to be interference with sensation, interruption of coitus, the association of condoms with prostitution, and the negative attitude of physicians. The increased use of oral contraceptives, which largely replaced condoms in France, allowed men to disengage themselves from contraception. The decline of condom use has probably increased the difficulty of its reacceptance. Condoms are used primarily by young persons and those with multiple partners, but even in these groups usage should be increased. The efficacy of condoms must be evaluated in different ways. Condoms are impermeable to sperm and apparently to the AIDS virus, although apparently some smaller viruses are not barred. Neither the efficacy in vivo of spermicides used with condoms nor the greater efficacy of condoms with reservoirs have been demonstrated. Failure rates for condoms are very difficult to evaluate and depend greatly on motivation. Two recent studies of couples with one HIV seropositive and one seronegative partner indicate that systematic and correct condom use prevents HIV transmission. PMID:12320462

  18. Kids and Condoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1991-01-01

    Faced with an alarming number of adolescents at risk for developing AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, school systems are tackling the controversial issue of making condoms available in schools. Three Canadian districts have installed condom machines. (MLF)

  19. Safety and acceptability of a baggy latex condom.

    PubMed

    Macaluso, M; Blackwell, R; Carr, B; Meinzen-Derr, J; Montgomery, M; Roark, M; Lynch, M; Stringer, E M

    2000-03-01

    A total of 104 couples participated in a randomized crossover trial to compare a new baggy condom with a straight-shaft condom produced by the same manufacturer. Participants completed a coital log after using each condom. All couples used five condoms of each type. Among 102 couples who did not report major deviations from the protocol, the breakage rate was eight of 510 (1.6%) for the baggy condom, and six of 510 (1.2%) for the standard condom (rate difference, RD = 0. 4%, 95% confidence interval of the RD, CI = -1.0%; +1.8%). Slippage was reported in 50 baggy condom logs and in 58 standard condom logs; the slippage rate was 50 of 510 (9.8%) for the baggy condom, and 58 of 510 (11.4%) for the standard condom (RD = -1.6%, 95% CI = -5.4%; +2.2%). Slippage was most often partial (<1 inch) and may not indicate condom failure. Severe slippage rates were 11 of 510 (2.2%) for the baggy condom, and 18 of 510 (3.5%) for the standard condom (RD = -1.4%, 95% CI = -3.4%; +0.7%). The findings support the conclusion that the two condoms are equivalent with respect to breakage and slippage. The participants appeared to prefer the baggy condom, suggesting that the new product may be more acceptable to the public than the traditional straight-shaft condoms, and may be easier to use consistently over long time periods. PMID:10827336

  20. Condom Availability in Schools: A Guide for Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret Pruitt; And Others

    This guide for condom availability programs provides information on how to build support for school-based condom availability programs. Chapter One explains why such a program is important. It examines behaviors and risks of sexually active adolescents, presents strategies for risk reduction, and discusses condom availability and use. Chapter Two…

  1. Perceptions of Sexual Intent: The Impact of Condom Possession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynie, Michaela; Schuller, Regina A.; Couperthwaite, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    This study examined whether knowing that a victim of a sexual assault was carrying a condom influenced perceptions of her sexual intention and subsequent judgments of the sexual assault. Participants (N = 165) read a vignette describing a date that culminated in an alleged sexual assault. Condom possession (carrying a condom, not carrying a…

  2. Use of the "NYC Condom" among people who use drugs.

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, Don C; McKnight, Courtney; Arasteh, Kamyar; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Perlman, David; Hagan, Holly; Cooper, Hannah L F

    2014-06-01

    We assessed awareness and use of the "NYC Condom" among persons who use heroin and cocaine in New York City. The NYC Condom distribution program is the largest free condom distribution program in the USA, with over 30 million condoms distributed per year. It includes a condom social marketing program for a specific brand, the NYC Condom with its own packaging and advertising. People who use heroin and cocaine are at relatively high risk for HIV infection and are an important target population for the program. In order to assess awareness of the NYC Condom, structured interviews and blood testing for HIV, HSV-2, and sexually transmitted infections (STI) were conducted among entrants to the Beth Israel Medical Center drug detoxification and methadone treatment programs. Participants were asked about drug use, sexual risk behaviors, and awareness and use of the NYC Condom. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between use of NYC Condoms and consistent condom use with primary and casual sexual partners. A total of 970 subjects were recruited between February 2011 and December 2012. Subjects were primarily African-American and Hispanic, with a mean age of 43. Fifty-five percent of subjects reported being sexually active with primary sexual partners, and 25 % reported being sexually active with a casual partner for the 6 months prior to the interview. Sixty-five percent of subjects had heard of the NYC Condom, 48 % of those who had heard of the condom had used it, and 58 % of those who had ever used it were currently using it (in the previous 6 months). In multivariable regression analyses, current use of NYC Condoms was strongly associated with consistent condom use with primary sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.99, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.85-8.58) and consistent condom use with casual sexual partners (AOR = 4.48, 95 % CI 1.49-13.42). In terms of market share, 38 % of subjects consistently using

  3. Condom use errors and problems in a national sample of young Croatian adults.

    PubMed

    Baćak, Valerio; Stulhofer, Aleksandar

    2012-08-01

    In this study, we examined the correlates of condom use errors and problems in a population-based study conducted in 2010 among young Croatian adults aged 18-25 years. Out of a total sample of 1,005 participants, 679 reported condom use in the preceding year. The analyses focused on four outcomes: condom breakage, condom slippage, condom-related erection loss, and delayed condom application. Eighteen percent of participants experienced breakage, 13% reported slippage, 17% reported erection loss, and 34% applied a condom after intercourse started. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the correlates of these condom use errors and problems. Condom breakage was less likely to be reported by women and older participants. The odds of breakage were increased for participants who reported being under the influence of drugs during sex and who reported other condom use errors and problems in the past year. Condom slippage was more likely to occur among younger participants and those who reported condom breakage and delayed condom application. Condom-related erection loss was positively associated with a higher number of sexual partners in the preceding year, condom breakage, and a higher score on the Anti-Erotic Obstacles to Condom Use Scale. Odds of delayed condom application were increased for participants who experienced condom breakage and for those who consumed alcohol before sex in the past year. Having used a condom at first sex significantly reduced the odds of applying a condom after intercourse started. In comparison to non-habitual condom users, habitual users were found less likely to report any of the assessed condom use errors and problems. Improving condom use skills remains an important task in Croatia, which is currently hampered by the absence of evidence-based sex education in schools. PMID:21882054

  4. Condom use increasing.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    Condom use is central to the prevention of AIDS among people at risk for contracting HIV. As such, condom use is increasing dramatically even though many men say that they do not like using them. Condom sales through social marketing campaigns have increased dramatically in some countries, where tens of millions of condoms are sold annually. For example, during the period 1991-96, annual social marketing sales increased about five-fold in Ethiopia to 21 million, and nine-fold in Brazil to 27 million. These sales reflect the success of condom social marketing campaigns in making condoms accessible and largely affordable. There is also a greater general awareness of AIDS than there used to be, and communication campaigns have shown that condoms are an effective solution. More condoms still need to be used in the ongoing struggle against HIV/AIDS. The author discusses the factors which affect the limited acceptance of condoms, condom use outside of marriage, social marketing, and family planning programs. PMID:12293530

  5. Condom Use: Slippage, Breakage, and Steps for Proper Use among Adolescents in Alternative School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Karin K.; Franks, Heather M.; Glassman, Jill R.; Stanoff, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI), and pregnancy prevention programs often focus on consistent and correct condom use. Research on adolescents' experience using condoms, including condom slippage/breakage, is limited. This exploratory study examines proper condom use and the…

  6. Time to talk condoms.

    PubMed

    Piotrow, P T; Rinehart, W

    1991-09-01

    A great deal of avoided if political and religious leaders, educators, health care providers and the mass media would band together in an effort to promote condom use. Condoms use protects against unwanted pregnancies, STDs and AIDS. Yet, public discussions on condom use are rate. In the US, political leaders avoid mentioning the topic, and television networks severely restrict the airing of public service announcements for condoms. Worldwide, an estimated 100 billion acts of sexual intercourse take place every year. A recent report indicates that it would take a modest 13 billion condoms a year to protect everyone who is at risk of contracting AIDS and other STDs, and risk of having an unwanted pregnancy. Currently, worldwide production of condoms stands at about 6 billion a year. Furthermore, condom makers have the capacity to increase production by some 2 billion, and could add new capacity in about 2 years. Many believe that marketing condoms is a difficult enterprise, since men often report that condoms reduce pleasure, cause embarrassment, or are not available when needed. The challenge for markets, then, is to create demand. This is especially true in the US, where prime-time advertising and the use of popular entertainment, such as soap operas, could promote condoms as both safe and satisfying. In the developing world, the challenge is to make condoms widely available and affordable. Some changes have taken place since 1981, when AIDS first came into the spotlight. In the US, people now discuss the topic of STDs more openly. But an all-out effort to promote condom use has not yet begun. PMID:12284290

  7. Condom Fact Sheet in Brief

    MedlinePlus

    ... HIV) transmission. However, condom use cannot provide absolute protection against any STD. The most reliable ways to ... properties of condoms, and the anatomic coverage or protection provided by condoms. Laboratory studies have shown that ...

  8. Examination of pump failure data in the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Casada, D.

    1996-12-01

    There are several elements that are critical to any program which is used to optimize the availability and reliability of process equipment. Perhaps the most important elements are routine monitoring and predictive maintenance elements. In order to optimize equipment monitoring and predictive maintenance, it is necessary to fundamentally and thoroughly understand the principal failure modes for the equipment and the effectiveness of alternative monitoring methods. While these observations are general in nature, they are certainly true for the {open_quotes}heart{close_quotes} of fluid systems - pumps. In recent years, particularly within the last decade, the capabilities and ease of use of previously existing pump diagnostic technologies, such as vibration monitoring and oil analysis, have improved dramatically. Newer technologies, such as thermal imaging, have been found effective at detecting certain undesirable or degraded conditions, such as misalignment and overheated bearings or packing. The ASME Code and NRC regulatory requirements have been, like essentially all similar code and regulatory bodies, conservative in their adoption or endorsement of newer technologies. The requirements prescribed by the Code and endorsed by the NRC have, in their essence, changed only minimally over more than a dozen years. As a follow-on to studies of check valve failure experience in the nuclear industry that have proven useful in identifying the effectiveness of alternative monitoring methods, a study of nuclear industry pump failure data has been conducted. The results of this study, conducted for the NRC by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are presented. The historical effectiveness of both regulatory required and voluntarily implemented pump monitoring programs are shown. The distribution of pump failures by application, affected area, and level of significance are indicated. Apparent strengths and weaknesses of alternative monitoring methods are discussed.

  9. Cultural Factors and Program Implications: HIV/AIDS Interventions and Condom Use among Latinos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeakley, Anna M.; Gant, Larry M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the failure to use condoms among U.S. Latino populations and identifies six "myths" related to traditional cultural values and gender roles, and associations between condoms and prostitution, infidelity, and disease, that prevent condom use in these populations. Suggests ways that programs can address these myths in HIV prevention…

  10. Factors associated with condom use among young adult ecstasy users

    PubMed Central

    Elifson, Kirk W.; Sterk, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This paper examines the prevalence of and the factors associated with condom use in a sample of 283 young adult ecstasy users. Methods The study, which relied upon targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping, took place between 2002 and 2004. It entailed conducting two-hour-long, face-to-face interviews in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. Results Condom use was inconsistent; only 35.2% of all sex acts were protected. Using multiple regression, five factors were related to condom use: race (Caucasians used condoms less than other groups), income (lower income = greater condom use), relationship status (persons involved in relationships reported less condom use than those who were not “involved”), multiple sex partners (multiple sex partners = more condom use), and condom use self-efficacy (higher efficacy level = more condom use). Conclusions Condom use rates were not optimal in this population. In particular, targeted interventions are needed for Caucasian ecstasy users. Intervention efforts ought to address relationship (in)fidelity as it pertains to engaging in safer sex practices, especially among persons involved in relationships. Intervention efforts also need to work to increase condom use self-efficacy. PMID:20517633

  11. Relationship Dynamics and Consistency of Condom Use among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.; Flanigan, Christine M.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2011-01-01

    Context Research on teen condom use often focuses on the influence of parents, peers, and environmental factors. Although most sexually active teens have sex within dating relationships, we know little about how the characteristics of dating relationships are associated with consistent condom use. Methods Data on 269 teens in Wave 1 of the Toledo Adolescent Relationship Study who had sex in their most recent relationships were analyzed to examine how qualities of their relationship are associated with condom use. We present odds ratios based on logistic regression models predicting consistent condom use. Results Drawing on the analytic sample of teens who had sex with their dating partner, relationship qualities were significantly related to consistent condom use. Both negative relationship dynamics (conflict, control, mistrust, jealousy, perceived partner inferiority) and positive qualities (love, enmeshment, salience, self-disclosure) were associated with consistent condom use (OR .65–.89). Similar to prior studies, demographic asymmetries (age, race, neighborhood) were not related to consistent condom use. Relationship duration was negatively associated with consistent condom use (OR .98–.99), but the effect of duration was explained by feelings of relationship importance. The role of relationship qualities was similar for males and females. Conclusions Although the relationship processes associated with consistent condom use are complex, such processes appeared to be more strongly associated with consistent condom use than were sociodemographic characteristics. The findings suggested programs should focus on relationship qualities and dynamics, recognizing that both negative and positive relationship features were associated with consistent condom use. PMID:19740237

  12. Condom availability for adolescents.

    PubMed

    1996-06-01

    Although abstinence should be stressed as the certain way to prevent STDs and pregnancy, sexually active teens, male and female, must nonetheless be taught to use condoms properly, effectively, and consistently. The latex condom should be made widely available to young people. Ideally, young persons should have access to education and counseling when contraception is dispensed. However, condoms should be made easily available without any requirement for education. Condoms should be available not only through families, medical facilities, and commercial channels, but also through other appropriate and informed persons, without cost if possible, at sites where adolescents congregate. These sites may include schools, clubs, and other youth-serving agencies. A clear message from the medical community supporting condom use will enhance compliance. PMID:8803728

  13. Overcoming denial and increasing the intention to use condoms through the induction of hypocrisy.

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, E; Fried, C; Stone, J

    1991-01-01

    Feelings of hypocrisy were induced in college students to increase condom use. Hypocrisy was created by making subjects mindful of their past failure to use condoms and then having them persuade others about the importance of condoms for AIDS prevention. The induction of hypocrisy decreased denial and led to greater intent to improve condom use relative to the control conditions. The implications of these findings for AIDS prevention are discussed. PMID:1746661

  14. Do condom characteristics influence use?

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    Loss of sensation, inability to maintain an erection, discomfort, and interruption of foreplay are some of the major reasons why people do not use condoms. Research has found that condom users prefer lubricated condoms, because they can reduce the level of discomfort and make condoms easier to use. In accordance with these findings, most condoms are now pre-lubricated. While changes in condom shape and thickness may also heighten users' satisfaction with condoms, research has generally found that different materials, widths, and latex formulations have little effect upon consumer preference. Limited research suggests that many men prefer comparatively thin condoms, but more research is needed. Men who evaluated a latex condom which fits loosely over the tip of the penis reported enjoying the experimental condom at least as much as they did the standard condom. Men involved in two studies comparing the use of latex and polyurethane condoms reported that while the latex condom was easier to put on, the penis was more often constricted than it was in the polyurethane device. Both men and women reported a higher degree of condom breakage and stretching out of shape with the polyurethane condom, but comparatively less sexual stimulation with the latex condom. One polyurethane condom, the Avanti, is currently available in the US and 4 European countries. PMID:12293532

  15. Differences in correlates of condom use between young adults and adults attending sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Amanda R; Blood, Emily A; Crosby, Richard A; Shrier, Lydia A

    2015-07-01

    Despite developmental differences between young adults and adults, studies of condom use have not typically considered young adults as a distinct age group. This study sought to examine how condom use and its correlates differed between high-risk young adults and adults. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic patients (n = 763) reported STI history, contraception, negative condom attitudes, fear of partner reaction to condom use and risky behaviours. Past 3-month condom use was examined as unprotected vaginal sex (UVS) acts, proportional condom use and consistent condom use. Regression models tested associations of age group and potential correlates with each condom use outcome. Interaction models tested whether associations differed by age group. Proportional condom use was greater in young adults than adults (mean 0.55 vs. 0.47); UVS and consistent condom use were similar between age groups. Young adults with a recent STI reported less condom use, whereas for older adults, a distant STI was associated with less condom use, compared to others in their age groups. Negative condom attitudes were more strongly linked to UVS acts for younger versus older adults. STI prevention efforts for younger adults may be improved by intensifying counselling about condom use immediately following STI diagnosis and targeting negative condom attitudes. PMID:25070945

  16. 38 CFR 3.655 - Failure to report for Department of Veterans Affairs examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Failure to report for... Adjustments and Resumptions § 3.655 Failure to report for Department of Veterans Affairs examination. (a... a current VA examination or reexamination and a claimant, without good cause, fails to report...

  17. Female condom uptake and acceptability in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Napierala, Sue; Kang, Mi-Suk; Chipato, Tsungai; Padian, Nancy; van der Straten, Ariane

    2008-04-01

    As the first phase of a two-phase prospective cohort study to assess the acceptability of the diaphragm as a potential HIV/STI prevention method, we conducted a 2-month prospective study and examined the effect of a male and female condom intervention on female condom (FC) use among 379 sexually active women in Harare, Zimbabwe. Reported use of FC increased from 1.1% at baseline to 70.6% at 2-month follow-up. Predictors of FC uptake immediately following the intervention included interest in using FC, liking FC better than male condoms, and believing one could use them more consistently than male condoms. Women reported 28.8% of sex acts protected by FC in the 2 weeks prior to last study visit. Though FC may not be the preferred method for the majority of women, with access, proper education, and promotion they may be a valuable option for some Zimbabwean women. PMID:18433318

  18. Condom negotiation strategy use and effectiveness among college students.

    PubMed

    Holland, Kathryn J; French, Sabine Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    College students may engage in risky sexual behaviors, such as inconsistent condom use, which increase their risk of sexually transmitted infections. This study examined the association between six condom influence strategies (CIS) and reported condom use among a diverse group of college students. Differences in CIS and condom use were examined by gender, race or ethnicity, and relationship status (casual, monogamous, or no current relationship). The study also used a cluster analysis to investigate how the CIS were used relative to one another, and how patterns of CIS use were related to condom use. Results showed interesting differences in CIS use by gender, race or ethnicity, and relationship status. Four patterns of CIS usage emerged, and results suggested that using all CIS frequently and using more assertive CIS may be particularly important for increased condom use. Men reported more condom use than women overall, but results indicated that using CIS were especially vital for increasing condom use for women. Surprisingly, there were no differences in condom use found for race or ethnicity and relationship type. Programs aimed at increasing students' condom use could benefit from promoting and practicing CIS, and recognizing potential differences among demographic groups. PMID:21732866

  19. Examining Productive Failure, Productive Success, Unproductive Failure, and Unproductive Success in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapur, Manu

    2016-01-01

    Learning and performance are not always commensurable. Conditions that maximize performance in the initial learning may not maximize learning in the longer term. I exploit this incommensurability to theoretically and empirically interrogate four possibilities for design: productive success, productive failure, unproductive success, and…

  20. Attitudes toward condoms as AIDS prophylaxis in homosexual men: dimensions and measurement.

    PubMed

    Ross, M W

    1988-01-01

    Increases in condom use among homosexually active men are crucial to containing the spread of AIDS. The present study examined the components of attitudes and beliefs toward condom use in homosexual and bisexual men using a modified version of Brown's Attitude toward condoms scale. Factor analysis revealed 5 clear dimensions: viewing condoms as unreliable and unerotic; as protection from infection; as unavailable when needed; as interrupting sex; and viewing condoms as a responsibility and being comfortable with condom use. 5 subscales constructed from these dimensions differentiated significantly between homosexual men who used condoms frequently and infrequently or never. 4 of the subscales (except Protection form Infection subscale) differentiated frequency of oral condom use; only the Responsibility and Comfort with Condom Use subscale differentiated frequency of anal condom use. The Homosexual Attitudes toward Condom use scale demonstrates that: dimensions of beliefs and attitudes toward condom use in homosexually active men differ substantially from those in heterosexual individuals; a reliable and valid scale for measuring such attitudes now exists; factors influencing condom use in this population differ for oral and anal intercourse; and this scale enables further research on determinants of condom use, and effects of modifying attitudes toward condom use in homosexually active men to be carried out. PMID:12316332

  1. An assessment of burst strength distribution data for monitoring quality of condom stocks in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Free, M J; Hutchings, J; Lubis, F; Natakusumah, R

    1986-03-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted on condoms to examine the changes that occur over time in indicators of condom burst strength, and to determine the relationship between laboratory-assessed condom burst strength and breakage during use in a developing country setting. Three groups of unaged condoms purchased directly from the manufacturer were used: one group exposed to UV light for 10 hours; one group exposed for five hours; and one group unexposed. A sample of each of these groups was tested according to ISO condom air burst test protocols. The remaining condoms were individually packaged in coded polyethylene bags for shipment to the developing country study site. Also used in the study was a group of condoms that had been aged for over 40 months under field conditions in a tropical climate; a sample from this group was tested by the ISO air burst test protocol and the remainder distributed to the study site. One-hundred-thirty Indonesian urban males participated in the double-blind study. Volunteers were not relying on the condom for contraceptive purposes. Each volunteer was given one individually packaged untreated condom, one condom from each treatment group, and four condoms aged in the field. Study participants were instructed to return all used condoms. Each condom that was returned after use was examined for breakage, and the unbroken condoms were subjected to an air inflation test to determine volume and pressure at burst. A comparison of the air burst volume data for a sample of unused and used condoms from the same treatment group indicates that most of the condoms that broke during use had air burst volumes below 11 liters. Therefore, a significant downward shift in the burst strength distribution as measured in the laboratory is likely to result in an increased breakage rate during use. A Condom Deterioration Index calculated from regular periodic testing of stored condom stocks is a convenient and sensitive means of monitoring trends in the

  2. Methodologies for examining problem solving success and failure.

    PubMed

    DeCaro, Marci S; Wieth, Mareike; Beilock, Sian L

    2007-05-01

    When designing research to examine the variables underlying creative thinking and problem solving success, one must not only consider (a) the demands of the task being performed, but (b) the characteristics of the individual performing the task and (c) the constraints of the skill execution environment. In the current paper we describe methodologies that allow one to effectively study creative thinking by capturing interactions among the individual, task, and problem solving situation. In doing so, we demonstrate that the relation between executive functioning and problem solving success is not always as straightforward as one might initially believe. PMID:17434416

  3. Promoting the female condom.

    PubMed

    Cornman, H

    1997-01-01

    AIDS is spreading most rapidly among women, who often cannot negotiate the use of a male condom with reluctant partners. Recent findings from 6 countries, however, indicate that women can draw upon peer support to help them negotiate female condom use with reluctant partners. These findings come from Family Health International's (FHI) AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's introduction of the female condom to women through peer support groups in Kenya and Brazil, and the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS' (UNAIDS) coordinated studies in Costa Rica, Indonesia, Mexico, and Senegal on sexual negotiation, women's empowerment, and the female condom, also using group education sessions. The US Agency for International Development recently committed $100,000 toward the purchase of 150,000 female condoms for operations research and familiarization in countries where officials have not been exposed to the method. More than 130 participants from 19 countries attended FHI's May 1-2, 1997, conference on the female condom convened in Arlington, Virginia. PMID:12292734

  4. Elements of condom use decision-making among MSM in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Siegler, Aaron J.; de Voux, Alex; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Baral, Stefan D.; Winskell, Kate; Kose, Zamakayise; Wirtz, Andrea L.; Stephenson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    South African men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk for HIV infection, and male condoms are fundamental to HIV prevention programs. We explored condom use experiences through in-depth interviews with 34 MSM in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, South Africa. For data analysis, we generated a codebook and used the constant comparison method. Condom use reinforcing elements included use of alternative sexual strategies, having a high level of self-worth that was linked to protective behaviors, and use of ready-made condom negotiation scripts. Elements inhibiting condom use included perceiving substantial declines in sexual pleasure/performance, experiences of condom failure (possibly related to petroleum-based lubricant), and being in trusted relationships. Our findings suggest nuanced HIV prevention approaches such as bolstering condom negotiation skills based on successful tactics already in use. Further research is needed to address how to mitigate perceptions and experiences that condoms negatively impact sexual pleasure and performance. PMID:24935692

  5. Correlates of condom coupon redemption among urban sexually transmitted disease clinic patients.

    PubMed

    Witte, S; el-Bassel, N; Krishnan, S; Schilling, R; Bidassie, B

    1999-01-01

    This study expands upon coupon distribution strategies used to measure male condom acquisition in HIV/AIDS prevention by incorporating both female and male condoms and examining factors related to coupon redemption among urban STD clinic patients. PMID:9949697

  6. The moderating effect of sexual pressure on young urban women's condom use.

    PubMed

    Gakumo, C Ann; Moneyham, Linda D; Enah, Comfort C; Childs, Gwendolyn D

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether women's experiences of sexual pressure moderated the relationship between sexual empowerment determinants and condom use in a sample of 100 high-risk women, ages 19-25. Five sexual empowerment determinants of condom use were identified from the literature: HIV knowledge, self-esteem, condom self-efficacy, positive attitudes toward condom use, and condom negotiation skills. Linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that positive attitudes toward condom use and condom negotiation skills were significant predictors of condom use. These relationships, however, were moderated by sexual pressure. Findings indicate that women's experiences with sexual pressure have the potential to decrease the likelihood of condom use, even though other sexually protective behaviors may be exhibited. PMID:22033977

  7. Condoms: Past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Marfatia, Y S; Pandya, Ipsa; Mehta, Kajal

    2015-01-01

    Though many methods of prevention of STI/HIV are available, condoms remain of utmost importance. They have gone a long way from the oiled silk paper used by the Chinese and the hard sheaths made of tortoise- shell used by the Japanese to the latex condoms of today. The breakthrough came when the rubber vulcanization process was invented by Charles Goodyear and eventually the first rubber condom was made. The condom offers maximum protection( more than 90%) against HIV, Hepatitis B virus and N.Gonorrhoea. They also offer protection in scenarios when alternate sexual practices are adapted. The female condom in the only female driven contraceptive method available today. Graphene and Nano lubricated condoms are new in the market and others in futuristic approach may include wearable technology/Technology driven condom and invisible Condoms. Both Correct and Consistent use of condoms needs to be promoted for HIV/STI prevention. PMID:26692603

  8. Condoms: Past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Marfatia, Y. S.; Pandya, Ipsa; Mehta, Kajal

    2015-01-01

    Though many methods of prevention of STI/HIV are available, condoms remain of utmost importance. They have gone a long way from the oiled silk paper used by the Chinese and the hard sheaths made of tortoise- shell used by the Japanese to the latex condoms of today. The breakthrough came when the rubber vulcanization process was invented by Charles Goodyear and eventually the first rubber condom was made. The condom offers maximum protection( more than 90%) against HIV, Hepatitis B virus and N.Gonorrhoea. They also offer protection in scenarios when alternate sexual practices are adapted. The female condom in the only female driven contraceptive method available today. Graphene and Nano lubricated condoms are new in the market and others in futuristic approach may include wearable technology/Technology driven condom and invisible Condoms. Both Correct and Consistent use of condoms needs to be promoted for HIV/STI prevention. PMID:26692603

  9. Condom use within marriage: a neglected HIV intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed M.; Cleland, John; Shah, Iqbal H.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the contraceptive effectiveness of condoms versus oral contraceptive pills and estimate the reproductive consequences of a major shift from pill to condom use. METHODS: Secondary analysis was performed on nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of women in 16 developing countries. FINDINGS: In the 16 countries, the median per cent of married couples currently using condoms was 2%, compared with 13% for the pill. Condom users reported a higher 12-month failure and higher method-related discontinuation rates than pill users (9% and 44% vs 6% and 30%, respectively). Condom users were more likely to report subsequent abortion following failure (21% vs 14%), and also more likely to switch rapidly to another method (76% vs 58%). The reproductive consequences, in terms of abortion and unwanted births, of a hypothetical reversal of the relative prevalence of condom and pill were estimated to be minor. The main reason for this unexpected result is that the majority of abortions and unwanted births arise from non-use of any contraceptive method. CONCLUSION: A massive shift from the more effective oral contraceptive pills to the less effective condom would not jeopardize policy goals of reducing abortions and unwanted births. However, such a shift would potentially have an added benefit of preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, especially in countries with generalized HIV epidemics. PMID:15112006

  10. Safety, functionality and acceptability of a prototype polyurethane condom.

    PubMed

    Farr, G; Katz, V; Spivey, S K; Amatya, R; Warren, M; Oliver, R

    1997-12-01

    Male condoms made from synthetic materials offer an alternative to latex condoms that may be more acceptable to users, thereby potentially resulting in more protected acts of intercourse. A prospective, noncomparative clinical study was conducted to evaluate the safety of using certain polyurethane materials to make condoms. Fifty-one healthy, contracepting, mutually monogamous couples were recruited between June 30 and November 24, 1993 to use a prototype roll-on polyurethane condom developed by Family Health International. Couples were to use the condoms for 10 consecutive acts of vaginal intercourse over a 4-week period. Baseline and postexposure genital examinations, including colposcopy for female participants, were performed. Fifty couples completed the study requirements and 517 acts of intercourse occurred using the condoms. Two adverse events were reported: irritation of introitus in a female participant and a small irritated erythematous lesion on a male participant's penis. Neither event was considered to be serious and both were resolved without treatment. Breakage and slippage rates were similar to those reported for latex condoms. These results suggest that polyurethane condoms represent a safe, functional and acceptable alternative to latex condoms. PMID:9404553

  11. Accidental condom inhalation.

    PubMed

    Arya, C L; Gupta, Rajnish; Arora, V K

    2004-01-01

    A 27-year-old lady presented with persistent cough, sputum and fever for the preceding six months. Inspite of trials with antibiotics and anti-tuberculosis treatment for the preceeding four months, her symptoms did not improve. A subsequent chest radiograph showed non-homogeneous collapse-consolidation of right upper lobe. Videobronchoscopy revealed an inverted bag like structure in right upper lobe bronchus and rigid bronchoscopic removal with biopsy forceps confirmed the presence of a condom. Detailed retrospective history also confirmed accidental inhalation of the condom during fellatio. PMID:14870871

  12. Perceptions about HIV and Condoms and Consistent Condom Use among Male Clients of Commercial Sex Workers in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Rotrease; Morisky, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Because consistent condom use is an effective strategy in the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and HIV transmission, it is important to examine social cognitive influences of consistent condom use not only among female sex workers (FSWs) but also among their male clients, for whom less is known. Because little is known about how HIV…

  13. Perceptions about HIV and condoms and consistent condom use among male clients of commercial sex workers in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Regan, Rotrease; Morisky, Donald E

    2013-04-01

    Because consistent condom use is an effective strategy in the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and HIV transmission, it is important to examine social cognitive influences of consistent condom use not only among female sex workers (FSWs) but also among their male clients, for whom less is known. Because little is known about how HIV knowledge and condom attitudes affect condom use among male clients of FSWs in the Philippines, the main objective was to determine what characteristics (age, education, HIV knowledge, marital status) as well as attributes taken from protection motivation theory (perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, response efficacy) are significantly associated with consistent condom use among male clients of FSWs. Logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of using condoms consistently with an FSW are 13% higher for those with more years of education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.23), higher versus lower perception of severity of HIV/AIDS (AOR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.04, 3.73), and had a higher score for response efficacy of condoms (AOR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.27). Future HIV/AIDS prevention interventions that address condom use among male clients should promote educational attainment and focus on awareness of the enduring negative health consequences of acquiring HIV/AIDS, as well as cultivate positive attitudes toward the efficacy of condom use, using creative social marketing strategies. PMID:22773598

  14. Predictors of Condom Use Self-Efficacy in an Ethnically Diverse University Sample

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Melissa A.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2010-01-01

    A multitude of factors influence condom use self-efficacy, including age, gender, ethnicity, condom use attitudes and barriers, sexual experience, and partner characteristics. The current study integrated past research by evaluating these factors in a large, ethnically diverse university sample of women and men (N = 665). The role of gender on condom use and sexuality variables was assessed across ethnic groups. Hierarchical linear regressions were then calculated to explain levels of condom use self-efficacy using the hypothesized sexual predictors in nonvirgin, sexually active, and recent condom use subsamples. Predictors explained 18–45% of variance in condom use self-efficacy. Findings suggest that a few key variables accounted for the majority of variance in condom use self-efficacy: condom use attitudes, condom use barriers, satisfaction with sexual communication, anticipated number of sexual partners, one-time sexual encounters, and ethnic identity. Significant gender differences emerged in condom use self-efficacy, condom use attitudes, and condom use behaviors. Ethnic differences were found in range of sexual experience and sexual partner characteristics. It is recommended that future studies examining sexual risk behavior incorporate the diverse sexual factors that affect condom use self-efficacy. PMID:16804746

  15. Correlates of Condom Use Among Somali and Ethiopian Immigrants in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Nasser B; Davis, Sharon; Tomaka, Joe

    2016-10-01

    The study examined correlates of consistent condom use in steady heterosexual relationships among Somali and Ethiopian immigrants in Minnesota. Study participants (n = 205) responded to questions on attitudes, social norms, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, behavioral intention, and self-reported male condom use. Participants were neither for, nor against using condoms, and the same was true for social influence and self-efficacy; however, reported moderately favorable attitude toward condom use and little difficulties in using condoms. Self-efficacy emerged as the factor with the strongest direct influence on behavioral intention to use condoms. In turn, behavioral intention was a significant predictor of self-reported condom use. Increasing male condom use self-efficacy among Somali and Ethiopian immigrants is suggested as a main component of public health intervention seeking to curb the spread of HIV and other STIs in Minnesota. PMID:26153624

  16. Superthin plastic condom gets thicker.

    PubMed

    1997-04-01

    Following an investigation of the Avanti condom, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allowed the manufacturer to replace the original thin polyurethane condom with a thicker version. London International Group made the switch in May 1996 but has not changed the packaging except to add a sticker on recent boxes that alerts customers that the condom is only approved for latex-sensitive users. Avanti was introduced in 1994 as a thinner, stronger, and more sensitive alternative to latex condoms. However, expectations that the product would revolutionize the condom market were not met, in part because of safety concerns. Although Avanti was approved by the FDA in 1991, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) ordered the company to develop a thicker condom, after further studies showed that its breakage rate was four times higher than that of latex condoms. The FDA allowed the thin version to be sold, however, because it was the only latex-free, HIV-impermeable condom available. Labeling on the condom noted that it was recommended only for latex-sensitive customers. Avanti grew in popularity until customers began complaining of frequent breakage. The thinner condom was then discontinued and replaced with the thicker version. FDA official Lillian Yin said a recall of the thinner condom was not necessary. PMID:11364143

  17. Interaction of condom design and user techniques and condom acceptability.

    PubMed

    Gerofi, J; Deniaud, F; Friel, P

    1995-10-01

    In 1991, the source of public sector condom supplies in an African country changed from USAID to WHO. Following a complaint, the two types of condoms were sampled and compared. Laboratory tests indicated that the new-style condoms were of adequate quality, but a number of differences were noted between the two types. Complaints that the condoms were short and broke frequently could not be reconciled with measurements. Lubricant quantities on the WHO-supplied condoms were found to be lower than on the USAID condoms, but still within the range found on the commercial market. Also, the WHO condoms were marginally narrower and thicker. WHO asked the authors to conduct field interviews to seek reasons for the reported problems. These revealed that the relative dissatisfaction with the WHO condoms was largely confined to a group of sex workers in a follow-up programme conducted by two educators funded by a European agency. The instructions for use being given by the educators magnified the risk of incorrect application of the condom. Design changes to the WHO condoms (regarding lubricant, size and thickness) were subsequently made to minimise the chance of wrong use. PMID:8605780

  18. Condom brands, perceptions of condom efficacy and HIV prevention among university students in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mulwo, Abraham Kiprop; Tomaselli, Keyan G; Dalrymple, Lynn

    2009-09-01

    University students form an important constituency in interventions against HIV and AIDS. The majority of university students are between ages 18 and 30 years, which, according to recent surveys, is the age category at the highest risk of HIV infection. Even though there is currently no comprehensive statistical data on the HIV prevalence at South African institutions of higher learning, a number of studies have noted increasing AIDS-related deaths and sicknesses among students. This highlights the need for effective intervention against HIV infections within this community. Condom use remains the most effective intervention against HIV infection within sexually active populations. This paper examines perceptions of public-sector condoms and their impact on condom use among university students, based on the findings of research conducted at three universities in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Study findings indicate that public-sector condoms are perceived as ineffective, smelly and even 'infectious' and are widely seen to be of lower status as compared to the commercial brands. These perceptions were found to influence condom use as some students preferred to engage in unprotected sex rather than use public-sector condoms. The paper highlights the need for communication programmes to demystify the misconceptions surrounding public-sector condoms and to provide reassurance of the quality of such condoms. PMID:25864546

  19. 38 CFR 3.655 - Failure to report for Department of Veterans Affairs examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Failure to report for Department of Veterans Affairs examination. 3.655 Section 3.655 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Adjustments and Resumptions §...

  20. Depression Vulnerable and Nonvulnerable Smokers after a Failure Experience: Examining Cognitive Self-Regulation and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Walter D.; Beevers, Christopher G.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study extended previous tests of cognitive priming theories of depression by examining cognitive self-regulatory, motivational, and affective functioning of depression-vulnerable and nonvulnerable individuals after a failure experience. Participants were enrolled in a clinic-based smoking cessation program that consisted of seven group…

  1. 38 CFR 3.655 - Failure to report for Department of Veterans Affairs examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Failure to report for Department of Veterans Affairs examination. 3.655 Section 3.655 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity...

  2. 38 CFR 3.655 - Failure to report for Department of Veterans Affairs examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Failure to report for Department of Veterans Affairs examination. 3.655 Section 3.655 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity...

  3. 38 CFR 3.655 - Failure to report for Department of Veterans Affairs examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Failure to report for Department of Veterans Affairs examination. 3.655 Section 3.655 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity...

  4. Condom use behaviours and correlates of use in the Botswana Defence Force.

    PubMed

    Tran, Bonnie Robin; Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Ditsela, Mooketsi; Vaida, Florin; Phetogo, Robert; Kelapile, David; Chambers, Christina; Haubrich, Richard; Shaffer, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Preventing HIV infection is a priority for militaries. HIV prevention research is needed to monitor existing programme, identify areas for modification, and develop new interventions. Correct and consistent condom use is highly effective against HIV. However, use among soldiers is lower than ideal. This study describes condom use behaviours and examines correlates of use in the Botswana Defence Force (BDF). Analyses were based on 211 male BDF personnel, aged 18-30, who completed a cross-sectional survey that collected baseline data for an intervention study. Results showed that 51% of participants reported always using condoms, 35% used condoms most times, and 14% used condoms occasionally/never. Condom use varied by partner type and was typically higher with casual partners in comparison to regular partners. After adjustment for age and marital status, factors associated with lower condom use included excessive alcohol use, perception that using condoms reduce sexual pleasure, and having a trusted partner. However, higher levels of HIV knowledge and reports of being circumcised were protective against lower condom use. HIV interventions aimed at increasing condom use in the BDF should address condom perceptions, alcohol abuse, and issues of trust. Innovative ways to increase condom use in this population should also be explored. PMID:23970609

  5. Brief report on the effect of providing single versus assorted brand name condoms to hospital patients: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, James L; Christensen, Carol J; Cagle, Henry H; Homan, Chriss E

    2001-01-01

    Objectives This study examined condom acquisition by persons in a hospital setting when single versus assorted brand name condoms were provided. Methods Condom receptacles were placed in exam rooms of two clinics. During Phase 1, a single brand name was provided; for Phase 2, assorted brand names were added. Number of condoms taken was recorded for each phase. Results For one clinic there was nearly a two-fold increase in number of condoms taken (Phase 1 to Phase 2); for the second clinic there was negligible difference in number of condoms taken. Conclusions The provision of assorted brand name condoms, over a single brand name, can serve to increase condom acquisition. Locations of condoms and target population characteristics are related factors. PMID:11446904

  6. Individual, Interpersonal, and Structural Power: Associations With Condom Use in a Sample of Young Adult Latinos.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Lynissa R; Harvey, S Marie; Warren, Jocelyn T

    2016-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 480 sexually active Latino young adults from four rural counties in Oregon. We examined relationships between three levels of power (individual, interpersonal, and structural) and consistent condom use. Condom use self-efficacy and sexual decision-making, examples of individual and interpersonal measures of power, respectively, were associated with increased odds of consistent condom use among both men and women. Among men only, increasing relationship control, an interpersonal measure of power, was associated with lower odds of consistent condom use. Among women only, increasing medical mistrust, a structural measure of power, was associated with increased odds of consistent condom use. PMID:25868753

  7. Condoms and Coca-Cola.

    PubMed

    Townsend, S

    1992-01-01

    Social marketing entails promoting the appropriate and quality product to be sold in the right places at the right price. Even though mass media advertisement of condoms is forbid in Zaire, condoms have been effectively promoted and sold in the country using alternate approaches. 8 million units of the condom, Prudence, were sold in 1990, and Prudence has become the generic name for condoms in the Zaire. Noting that Coca-Cola, beer, and cigarettes may be purchased virtually ubiquitously, commercial outlets and local traders were enlisted to sell condoms at reduced prices on the market. Reduced price sales are possible since donor and government agencies provide the condoms to wholesalers and merchants free of charge. The successful social marketing of condoms expands condom availability to a greater segment of a country's population while recovering some public sector costs and shifting health care away from the public sector. Condoms are especially promoted to high risk groups such as commercial sex workers and their clients in Zaire. Similar programs have been inspired in 10 African countries including Cameroon and Burundi, as well as in Brazil, Haiti, and India. Prevention programs in Latin America and Asia will benefit from these program experiences in Africa. In closing, the article notes the need for an adequate and predictable commodity supply in attaining effective social marketing. Marked program success may, however, lead to sustainability problems. PMID:12284777

  8. The taking of free condoms in a drug abuse treatment clinic: the effects of location and posters.

    PubMed

    Amass, L; Bickel, W K; Higgins, S T; Budney, A J; Foerg, F E

    1993-10-01

    Drug abuse treatment programs can help reduce high-risk sexual behavior in drug users by promoting condom use. This study examined the influence of distribution location and poster prompts on the taking of free condoms in a drug abuse treatment clinic. Over 6 months, condoms were available alternately, with and without poster prompts, in the clinic's private restroom or public waiting area. Overall, 381% more condoms were taken from the restroom. The presence of poster prompts did not affect condom taking. These results suggest that distribution location is a critical factor in promoting condom taking in public clinic. PMID:8214242

  9. The Condom Conundrum: Apply Peer Pressure, Not Latex, against Casual Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delattre, Edwin J.

    1992-01-01

    If saving lives were our only moral concern, distributing condoms in schools is not the best way to proceed. Abstinence has greater life-saving power than any piece of latex. School condom distribution promotes casual, promiscuous sex, ignores this contraceptive's failure rate, and runs counter to sound educational policy. Deferred gratification…

  10. Improving the effectiveness of condom advertising: a research note.

    PubMed

    Alden, D L; Crowley, A E

    1995-01-01

    A limited number of studies have examined ways that health promotion messages about condoms can be improved, leading to increased purchase and use. This study tests alternative message structures as a potential avenue to improving condom advertising. As hypothesized, two-sided messages (positive and negative information about the product category) result in more positive attitudes toward the advertisement and the brand than do one-sided messages (positive information only about the product category). The study's implications for health care marketers interested in developing more effective advertising for condoms and other health care products are discussed. PMID:10143887

  11. The Condom Conundrum: Condom Availability Promotes Health, Saves Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret Pruitt

    1992-01-01

    Most adults would agree that the AIDS threat has reached crisis proportions and that strong measures are required to control the spread of HIV among adolescents. Although abstinence offers the best protection, teens exposed to risks must protect themselves with knowledge, skills, and access to latex condoms. High school condom distribution is…

  12. College Students and Condom Attitude: Validation of the Multi-Factor Attitude toward Condoms Scale (MFACS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollub, Ariane V.; Reece, Michael; Herbenick, Debby; Hensel, Devon J.; Middlestadt, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Sexually transmitted infections and the human immunodeficiency virus incidence rates remain high among college-aged individuals. This study examined the validity and reliability of the Multi-Factor Attitude toward Condoms Scale (MFACS). Participants: Participants were recruited from a large midwestern university during February and…

  13. The story of the condom.

    PubMed

    Khan, Fahd; Mukhtar, Saheel; Dickinson, Ian K; Sriprasad, Seshadri

    2013-01-01

    Condoms have been a subject of curiosity throughout history. The idea of safer sex has been explored in ancient and modern history, and has been used to prevent venereal diseases. We conducted a historical and medical review of condoms using primary and secondary sources as well as using the RSM library and the internet. These resources show that the first use of a condom was that of King Minos of Crete. Pasiphae, his wife, employed a goat's bladder in the vagina so that King Minos would not be able to harm her as his semen was said to contain "scorpions and serpents" that killed his mistresses. To Egyptians, condom-like glans caps were dyed in different colours to distinguish between different classes of people and to protect themselves against bilharzia. The Ancient Romans used the bladders of animals to protect the woman; they were worn not to prevent pregnancy but to prevent contraction of venereal diseases. Charles Goodyear, the inventor, utilized vulcanization, the process of transforming rubber into malleable structures, to produce latex condoms. The greater use of condoms all over the world in the 20(th) and 21(st) centuries has been related to HIV. This account of the use of condoms demonstrates how a primitive idea turned into an object that is used globally with a forecast estimated at 18 billion condoms to be used in 2015 alone. PMID:23671357

  14. The story of the condom

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Fahd; Mukhtar, Saheel; Dickinson, Ian K.; Sriprasad, Seshadri

    2013-01-01

    Condoms have been a subject of curiosity throughout history. The idea of safer sex has been explored in ancient and modern history, and has been used to prevent venereal diseases. We conducted a historical and medical review of condoms using primary and secondary sources as well as using the RSM library and the internet. These resources show that the first use of a condom was that of King Minos of Crete. Pasiphae, his wife, employed a goat's bladder in the vagina so that King Minos would not be able to harm her as his semen was said to contain “scorpions and serpents” that killed his mistresses. To Egyptians, condom-like glans caps were dyed in different colours to distinguish between different classes of people and to protect themselves against bilharzia. The Ancient Romans used the bladders of animals to protect the woman; they were worn not to prevent pregnancy but to prevent contraction of venereal diseases. Charles Goodyear, the inventor, utilized vulcanization, the process of transforming rubber into malleable structures, to produce latex condoms. The greater use of condoms all over the world in the 20th and 21st centuries has been related to HIV. This account of the use of condoms demonstrates how a primitive idea turned into an object that is used globally with a forecast estimated at 18 billion condoms to be used in 2015 alone. PMID:23671357

  15. Condom characteristics: the perceptions and preferences of men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Grady, W R; Klepinger, D H; Billy, J O; Tanfer, K

    1993-01-01

    Perceptions regarding the consequences of condom use, as well as preferred characteristics of condoms, are examined in a nationally representative sample of 3,321 men aged 20-39. The psychological and interpersonal effect most often cited is that using a condom "shows that you are a concerned and caring person." This is particularly the case among black men and men who are young and have low educational attainments. However, the same men usually agree that using a condom sends unwanted messages to one's partner--for example, that doing so "makes your partner think that you have AIDS" and "shows that you think that your partner has AIDS." In contrast, white men and those who are highly educated tend to cite embarrassment when buying condoms as a frequent consequence of condom use. The device-related consequences cited most often, particularly among black, unmarried, young and poorly educated men, are that using a condom results in reduced sensation, that one must be careful during sex or the condom may break and that one must withdraw quickly after sex or the condom may come off. When purchasing condoms, most men look for those that are easy to put on, have the right amount of lubrication and stay on; these preferences are particularly prevalent among black men. Few men identify color, ribbing and partner's preference for condom type as important. PMID:8285937

  16. Sexual practices and psychosocial correlates of current condom use among Chinese gay men in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi-yan; Tang, Catherine So-kum

    2004-04-01

    This study examined sexual practices, condom use, and psychosocial correlates of condom use in a convenience sample of 187 Chinese gay men in Hong Kong. Among those who were sexually active and answered the item on condom use (n = 164), 22% never used condoms, 39% were inconsistent condom users, and 39% used condoms every time they engaged in sexual activities in the past 6 months. Compared to inconsistent and noncondom users, consistent condom users had more positive feelings toward condom use, perceived greater vulnerability to STD/AIDS infections, showed greater self-acceptance and disclosure of their homosexual sexual orientation, were more involved with local gay communities, endorsed more favorable attitudes toward coming out, and had a lower level of perceived discrimination because of their homosexual sexual orientation. The two groups did not differ significantly on perceived partner reaction to condom use. Results of a logistic regression analysis showed that positive feelings toward condom use were the most salient correlate of consistent condom use. PMID:15146148

  17. Consistent condom use with different types of partners: evidence from two Nigerian surveys.

    PubMed

    Van Rossem, R; Meekers, D; Akinyemi, Z

    2001-06-01

    HIV prevalence in Nigeria is increasing rapidly. Increased condom use is the most viable solution to slow down or reverse this trend. This article uses data from two waves of a nation-wide survey, each with over 5,000 respondents, to examine factors that influence consistency of condom use with various types of partners. The results show that while the overall level of consistent condom use has remained low, reported consistent condom use with occasional partners and commercial sex workers exceeds 60%. There is also some evidence of an increasing trend in consistent condom use, even after controlling for differences in sample composition and other factors. The most important factors affecting consistency of condom use are awareness that condoms are effective at preventing HIV and that they are effective at preventing unwanted pregnancy, concern about unwanted pregnancy, and concern about HIV. Although concern about unwanted pregnancy has a strong effect on consistency of condom use with stable partners, concern about HIV infection has a strong effect on consistency of condom use with nonstable partners. The results suggest that HIV prevention programs need to do more than provide education about the modes of transmission and the ways to prevent infection. Improving the effectiveness of HIV prevention programs is likely to require focusing more explicitly on people's personal risk perception and condom efficacy. Focusing on these topics may further accelerate the observed positive trend in condom use. PMID:11459361

  18. Condom Use by Hispanic and African American Teens and Young Adults Who Use Hormonal Contraception: Implications for HIV Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roye, Carol F.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relationship between young Hispanic and African American womens' hormonal contraceptive use and condom use. Surveys of women at an inner-city health clinic investigated demographics, contraceptive practices, sexual behavior, condom use, and communication skills. Hormonal contraceptive use related to decreased condom use. Discussion…

  19. Examination of cadmium safety rod thermal test specimens and failure mechanism evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.K.; Peacock, H.B.; Iyer, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    The reactor safety rods may be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level has dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Accordingly, an experimental cadmium safety rod testing subtask was established as part of a task to address the response of reactor core components to this accident. Companion reports describe the experiments and a structural evaluation (finite element analysis) of the safety rod. This report deals primarily with the examination of the test specimens, evaluation of possible failure mechanisms, and confirmatory separate effects experiments. It is concluded that the failures observed in the cadmium safety rod thermal tests which occurred at low temperature (T < 600{degrees}C) with slow thermal ramp rates (slow cladding strain rates) resulted from localized dissolution of the stainless steel cladding by the cadmium/aluminum solution and subsequent ductility exhaustion and rupture. The slow thermal ramp rate is believed to be the root cause for the failures; specifically, the slow ramp rate led to localized cladding shear deformation which ruptured the protective oxide film on the cladding inner surface and allowed dissolution to initiate. The test results and proposed failure mechanism support the conclusion that the rods would not fail below 500{degrees}C even at slow ramp rates. The safety rod thermal test specimen failures which occurred at high temperature (T > 800{degrees}C) with fast thermal ramp rates are concluded to be mechanical in nature without significant environmental degradation. Based on these tests, tasks were initiated to design and manufacture B{sub 4}C safety rods to replace the cadmium safety rods. The B{sub 4}C safety rods have been manufactured at this time and it is currently planned to charge them to the reactor in the near future. 60 refs.

  20. Depression vulnerable and nonvulnerable smokers after a failure experience: examining cognitive self-regulation and motivation.

    PubMed

    Scott, Walter D; Beevers, Christopher G; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2008-07-01

    The present study extended previous tests of cognitive priming theories of depression by examining cognitive self-regulatory, motivational, and affective functioning of depression-vulnerable and nonvulnerable individuals after a failure experience. Participants were enrolled in a clinic-based smoking cessation program that consisted of seven group meetings. Major findings show that compared to the nonvulnerable group, depression-vulnerable individuals were less motivated to quit and experienced more negative affect, but only after a failure to quit smoking. However, after controlling for actual smoking rate, depression-vulnerable individuals did not evaluate their success any more negatively, nor did they indicate lower self-efficacy for quitting. Results are discussed in terms of cognitive self-regulatory and affect temperament models of motivation and depression. PMID:18094227

  1. Summary of Post Irradiation Examination Results of the AFIP-6 Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Robinson; Daniel M. Wachs; Francine Rice; Danielle Perez

    2011-10-01

    The AFIP-6 test assembly was irradiated for one cycle in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory. The experiment was designed to test two monolithic fuel plates at power and burn-ups which bounded the operating conditions of both ATR and HFIR driver fuel. Both plates contain a solid U-Mo fuel foil with a zirconium diffusion barrier between 6061-aluminum cladding plates bonded by hot isostatic pressing. The experiment was designed with an orifice to restrict the coolant flow in order to obtain prototypic coolant temperature conditions. While these coolant temperatures were obtained, flow restriction resulted in low heat transfer coefficients and the failure of the fuel plates. The results from the post irradiation examinations and some observations of the failure mechanisms are outlined herein.

  2. Examination of the damage and failure response of tantalum and copper under varied shock loading conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Bronkhorst, Curt A; Dennis - Koller, Darcie; Cerreta, Ellen K; Gray Ill, George T; Bourne, Neil

    2010-12-16

    A number of plate impact experiments have been conducted on high purity polycrystalline tantalum and copper samples using graded flyer plate configurations to alter the loading profile. These experiments are designed in a way so that a broad range of damage regimes are probed. The results show that the nucleation of damage primarily occurs at the grain boundaries of the materials. This affords us the opportunity to propose a porosity damage nucleation criterion which begins to account for the length scales of the microstructure (grain size distribution) and the mechanical response of the grain boundary regions (failure stress distribution). This is done in the context of a G-T-N type model for the ductile damage and failure response of both the materials examined. The role of micro-inertial effects on the porosity growth process is also considered.

  3. Predicting condom use attitudes, norms, and control beliefs in Hispanic problem behavior youth: the effects of family functioning and parent-adolescent communication about sex on condom use.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-08-01

    Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent-adolescent communication about sex, and condom use attitudes, norms, and control beliefs as depicted by the theory of planned behavior have an effect on condom use behaviors, the combination of the two factors has received minimal attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of family functioning on condom use intentions and behaviors through communication about sex and condom use attitudes, parental norms, and control beliefs. A cross-sectional study of 171 predominately male (73.1%) sexually active Hispanic problem behavior adolescents (mean age = 14.88 years) was conducted. Structural equation modeling was used to test the study hypothesis. Findings largely support the overall model and suggest that family functioning had an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex, condom use attitudes, and control beliefs. Family functioning, however, did not have an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex and parental norms. Implications for prevention science and future research are discussed. PMID:22561377

  4. Predicting Condom Use Attitudes, Norms, and Control Beliefs in Hispanic Problem Behavior Youth: The Effects of Family Functioning and Parent–Adolescent Communication About Sex on Condom Use

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent–adolescent communication about sex, and condom use attitudes, norms, and control beliefs as depicted by the theory of planned behavior have an effect on condom use behaviors, the combination of the two factors has received minimal attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of family functioning on condom use intentions and behaviors through communication about sex and condom use attitudes, parental norms, and control beliefs. A cross-sectional study of 171 predominately male (73.1%) sexually active Hispanic problem behavior adolescents (mean age = 14.88 years) was conducted. Structural equation modeling was used to test the study hypothesis. Findings largely support the overall model and suggest that family functioning had an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex, condom use attitudes, and control beliefs. Family functioning, however, did not have an indirect effect on condom use intention and behavior through communication about sex and parental norms. Implications for prevention science and future research are discussed. PMID:22561377

  5. Condom availability in schools: the need for improved program evaluations.

    PubMed Central

    Stryker, J; Samuels, S E; Smith, M D

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This article examines the impact of contentious local debates on the design and implementation of school-based condom availability programs. METHODS. Information about condom availability in schools was reviewed by 50 leading educators and health officials at a 1992 forum held in Menlo Park, Calif. RESULTS. Few existing condom availability programs were designed to yield definitive data on sexual risk-taking behavior or other measures of program effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS. In the debate over school-based condom availability programs, as in many aspects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention programs, scientific, moral, and political concerns overlap. Behavioral research into the potential effectiveness of such programs can help inform debates about fundamental values concerning sexual decision making and privacy, family integrity and parental autonomy, and public health. PMID:7998627

  6. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    PubMed

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads. PMID:12345946

  7. Another condom uproar in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Musoke, D

    1991-11-01

    A campaign to promote safe sex through the use of condoms has sparked a heated controversy in Uganda, as influential religious leaders have come out in opposition to a practice which they fear will lead to sexual promiscuity. The campaign, backed by the Ugandan government, is designed to halt the rapidly spreading AIDS epidemic. With 20,000 AIDS cases as of June 1991, Uganda leads all African countries in the number of reported cases. Additionally, it is estimated that some 7 million of the country's 17 million inhabitants are HIV-positive. This alarming situation forced President Yoweri Museveni to reverse his stance and come out in favor of the condom campaign. The campaign is being launched by the Ugandan pharmaceutical firm Armtrades Ltd with financial and technical support from USAID and the Ugandan government. The condom campaign, however, has aroused strong opposition from the religious community. Angered by advertisements advising Ugandans to "love carefully" by wearing condoms, Catholic Archbishop Emmanuel Wamala urged his followers in August to reject condoms, calling then an insult to the dignity of man. Following Wamala's lead, other top churchmen came out in opposition to the condom campaign at a recent AIDS prevention leadership conference. One of the clergymen present at the conference told Health Minister James Makumbi that the condom campaign will make young people indulge in uncontrolled sexual immorality. Moslem clerics have also stated their opposition to condoms, fearing sexual promiscuity. But the religious community itself has come under criticism for their opposition to condoms. Stressing that lives are at stake, the popular weekly Topic recently cautioned churchmen that this is not the time to engage in academic and moralistic debates. PMID:12285102

  8. Microstructural examination of high temperature creep failure of Zircaloy-2 cladding in irradiated PHWR fuel pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Prerna; Sah, D. N.; Kumar, Sunil; Anantharaman, S.

    2012-10-01

    Cladding samples taken from the ballooned region of the irradiated Zircaloy-2 cladded PHWR fuel pins which failed during isothermal heating tests carried out at 800-900 °C were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The examination of samples from the fuel pin tested at 900 °C showed an intergranular mode of failure in the cladding due to formation of cracks, cavities and zirconium hydride precipitates on the grain boundaries in the cladding material. A thin hard α-Zr(O) layer was observed on outer surface due to dissolution of the oxide layer formed during reactor operation. Grain boundary sliding was identified to be the main mode of creep deformation of Zircaloy-2 at 900 °C. Examination of the cladding tested at 800 °C showed absence of cracks or cavities in the deformed material and no localisation of hydrides was observed at the grain boundaries. The failure of the cladding occurred after necking followed by extensive wall thinning of the cladding tube.

  9. Sri Lanka drops leading condom.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Sri Lanka's Family Planning Association has stopped selling its Preethi Regular condom, the backbone of its social marketing program for nearly a decade. Last year nearly 7 times as many Preethi condoms were sold as all other brands combined. The decision was reported to be caused by budget constraints following the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) new policy of limiting the number of Preethi Regular condoms supplied to Sri Lanka. IPPF's Asian Regional Officer reported that the Preethi condom is a costly product, and that as many as needed of a US Agency for International Development (USAID) supplied product will be sent to Sri Lanka. The Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) program has devised a new sales strategy, based partly on the introduction of a high-priced condom to fill the gap left by the discontinuation of the Preethi Regular. The new Preethi Gold condom is expected to help the project become more financially self-reliant while taing advantage of Preethi's marketplace popularity. Preethi Gold is manufactured by the Malaysia Rubber Company and costs the project US $4.85/gross. It is sold for US $.14 for 3, about 3 times the price of a Preethi Regular. The project is also pushing the Panther condom, donated to IPPF by USAID. 2 Panther condoms sell for about 3.6U, about the cost of Preethi Regulars. The project also sells Moonbeam, Rough Rider, and Stimula condoms, the latter 2 at full commercial prices. A smooth transfer of demand from Preethi to Panther had been desired, but by the end of 1983 some retailers were hesitating to make the product switch because some Preethi Regulars were still available. Total condom sales in 1983 were down by nearly 590,000 from the approximately 6,860,000 sold in 1982. Total condom sales for the 1st quarter of 1984 were slightly over 1,218,000 pieces, compared to about 1,547,000 for the same quarter in 1983, a decline of 21%. The Family Planning Association is gearing up to reverse the downward trend

  10. Stages of Consistent Condom Use, Partner Intimacy, Condom Use Attitude, and Self-Efficacy in African-American Crack Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Pallonen, Unto E.; Timpson, Sandra C.; Ross, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how condom use attitude, self-efficacy, and partner intimacy related to five stages of consistent condom use. Interview data were collected from sexually active, heterosexual, African-American crack cocaine smokers (N = 366). Dependent measures assessed both the participants’ own responses and their perceptions about their last sex partner’s own personal condom use attitude and participants’ condom use self-efficacy expectations. Partner intimacy was assessed both as a continuous attitudinal and as a discrete relationship measure. Less than 10% were classified as consistent condom users. Two thirds of inconsistent users were in the Precontemplation (PC) stage. The contemplation (C) and preparation (P) stages were equal among the remainder of the inconsistent condom users. Higher partner intimacy reduced modestly readiness for consistent condom use. The stage but not the intimacy group was related to the condom use attitudes and self-efficacy measures. Last partners’ perceived own negative attitudes were significantly related to the stages of consistent condom use and was especially low in the action (A) and maintenance (M) stages. Participants’ own negative attitudes were unrelated to the stages. Of the self-efficacy measures, both participants’ performance and situational condom use self-efficacies increased significantly after the PC stage and were highest in the P, A, and M stages. However, situational self-efficacy accounted for most of performance self-efficacy variance. In sum, consistent condom use was rare. A partner’s attitudes and the participants’ own situational self-efficacy expectations, rather than intimacy, determined the readiness to adopt consistent condom use. PMID:18574684

  11. Predicting Condom Use Attitudes, Norms, and Control Beliefs in Hispanic Problem Behavior Youth: The Effects of Family Functioning and Parent-Adolescent Communication about Sex on Condom Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Shandey; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Freitas, Derek; Arzon, Margaret; Jimenez, Giselle Leon; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Hispanic problem behavior youth are at an increased risk of engaging in HIV risk behaviors, including low condom use. However, relatively little research has examined factors that affect condom use in this population. Although research indicates that family processes, such as higher levels of family functioning and open parent-adolescent…

  12. The Causal Effects of Relational Security and Insecurity on Condom Use Attitudes and Acquisition Behavior.

    PubMed

    Sakaluk, John Kitchener; Gillath, Omri

    2016-02-01

    Research on attachment and condom use has been limited to correlational studies of self-report measures, yielding inconsistent results. Here, we examined the causal effects of attachment priming on self-reported condom use attitudes and an observational measure of condom acquisition behavior. In three experiments, participants were exposed to one of three attachment primes (security, anxiety, or avoidance) or a control prime. For Study 1, participants in the security and anxiety conditions preferred condom non-use to a greater extent, compared to participants in the avoidance condition. This effect was replicated in Study 2, and was mediated by perceptions of sexual health threat. In Study 3, the effect of security priming on condom acquisition behavior was eliminated through the use of a framing manipulation, though the effect of primed attachment on condom use attitudes was not significant. A meta-analysis, however, revealed that the predicted effects of attachment priming were consistent across the three studies, supporting the role of attachment in evaluations of condom use. Priming attachment security or anxiety leads participants to perceive their sexual partners as less of a sexual health threat, resulting in a devaluation of condom use. Primed security also reduced condom acquisition behavior, though this negative effect eliminated by framing condoms as protecting a partner's sexual health. Overall, these studies suggest that relational factors, such as attachment, require greater consideration when studying sexual health and designing interventions. PMID:26566898

  13. Assertive communication in condom negotiation: Insights from late adolescent couples’ subjective ratings of self and partner

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Amy; Leonard, Noelle R.; Ritchie, Amanda S.; Gwadz, Marya V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Assertive communication has been associated with higher levels of condom use among youth using self-report survey methodology. The purpose of this study was to examine the subjective ratings of assertiveness among young, romantically-involved couples in the context of a condom negotiation task. Methods Using an innovative video-recall procedure, 32 couples (64 youth) engaged in a videotaped condom negotiation task and then rated self and partners’ level of assertiveness. Both individual ratings of assertiveness and couple-level assertiveness were assessed using dyadic hierarchical linear modeling. Results Individuals’ assertiveness was positively associated with condom use. Unexpectedly, the overall level of assertiveness in couples showed a curvilinear association with condom use. Very high and very low assertiveness was associated with lower condom use, while moderate levels of assertiveness were associated with higher condom use. Conclusions Moderate levels of assertiveness during condom negotiation may facilitate condom use in young couples. Increasing condom use among romantic partners may require developing interventions that strengthen youths’ ability to engage in assertive communication strategies that balance emotional intimacy with self-advocacy. PMID:25937470

  14. "Do You Know What You're Doing?" College Students' Experiences with Male Condoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarber, William L.; Graham, Cynthia A.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Crosby, Richard A.; Butler, Scott M.; Hartzell, Rose M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although quantitative assessment of male condom use errors and problems has received increased research attention, few studies have qualitatively examined this sexual health behavior. Purpose: This study examined problems of male condom use as experienced by college men and women at a large, public Midwestern university. Methods:…

  15. Correlates of condom use among female prostitutes and tourist clients in Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, L; Ford, K; Fajans, P; Wirawan, D N

    1997-04-01

    This study examines the commercial sex activity of both tourist client and local prostitute groups in the host country of Indonesia. The study provides a profile of social and behavioural characteristics of foreign tourist men and Indonesian women engaging in commercial sex, using cross-sectional data gathered in the tourist resort town of Kuta, Bali. Univariate statistical analysis and multiple logistic regression are used to assess psychosocial and other factors associated with consistent condom use in commercial sex encounters, drawing from the Health Belief model and social cognitive theory. Results from both respondent groups indicate that condom use is high between tourist clients and female Indonesian sex workers, although not 100% consistent. Beliefs about condom efficacy and effects on pleasure, as well as susceptibility to STD infection were related to condom use for female sex workers. Beliefs about condoms being too much trouble, and self-efficacy were related to condom use for tourist clients. PMID:9135632

  16. Barriers to condom purchasing: Effects of product positioning on reactions to condoms.

    PubMed

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Glasford, Demis E; Marsh, Kerry L; Lust, Sarah A

    2006-12-01

    Correct and consistent condom use has been promoted as a method to prevent sexually transmitted infections including HIV. Yet research has repeatedly shown that people fail to use condoms consistently. One influence on the pervasive lack of condom use that has received relatively little attention is the context in which consumers are exposed to condoms (i.e., how condoms are displayed in retail settings). In this paper we present two studies explored variations in condom shelf placement and its effects on people's condom attitudes and acquisition. Study 1 explored the shelf placement of condoms in 59 retail outlets in Connecticut, USA and found that condoms were typically located in areas of high visibility (e.g., next to the pharmacy counter) and on shelves adjacent to feminine hygiene and disease treatment products. In Study 2, 120 heterosexual undergraduate students at the University of Connecticut were randomly assigned to evaluate condoms adjacent to sensual, positive, neutral, or negative products and found that overall men reported more positive attitudes and acquired more condoms when exposed to condoms in a sensual context compared to women in the same condition. Among women, condom attitudes were more positive in the context of neutral products; condom acquisition was strongest for women exposed to condoms in the positive aisles. These results suggest a gender-specific approach to condom promotion. Implications of these studies for HIV prevention, public health, and condom marketing strategies are discussed. PMID:16962220

  17. Closing the condom KAP gap.

    PubMed

    Roberto, E L

    1977-01-01

    A number of program strategies have been suggested to close the gap between knowledge and awareness of family planning, and its practice. Most focus on the interim between awareness and usage. This article presents data to support the argument that the problem lies in the awareness stage. Its assumption is that the quality of the awareness is important. As opposed to the survey method of determining awareness, the author proposes the "Focus Group Discussion." As illustration, he presents results of a study using this method, on awareness about condoms, undertaken as part of a Population Center Foundation Condom Distribution Project, in 1975. Its purpose was to identify the more important attitudes toward condoms among married couples, the factors which motivate the couples to use or reject them, and the meanings associated with condoms and how these influence the time, manner, and reasons for rejecting or accepting them. 4 group discussions were carried out, with 8 or 10 married male and female respondents, age 18-35, with at least 2 children, of middle and lower class, and all having at least heard of condoms. Discussions were taped and subjected to content analysis. The 7 major findings are: 1) Quality of awareness depends on experience with use. 2) Experience with use does not guarantee positive quality awareness -- some regular users were still ignorant of some aspects of condom use. 3) Respondents perceive positive aspects of condoms, which should be reinforced. 4) Most of the negative qualities perceived by respondents were imaginary, but can be combatted by the positive statements of users. 5) Filipino men respond to their wives' reactions and project an image of sexual prowess, both possibly damaging to the reputation of condoms; communicators and educators must address the wives equally with their husbands. 6) Buying condoms is embarrassing: studies are needed on how this can be overcome at the places of purchase. 7) Brand awareness is low: only 3 or 4 out

  18. Associations of sexually transmitted infections with condom problems among young men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian; Ryan, Daniel T; Garofalo, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are disproportionately infected with STIs. Condom use is the most widely available means of preventing the transmission of STIs, but effectiveness depends on correct use. Condom errors, such as using an oil-based lubricant, have been associated with condom failures, such as breakage. Little research has been done on the impact of condom problems on the likelihood of contracting an STI. Methods Data came from Crew 450, a longitudinal study of HIV risk among YMSM (N = 450). All self-report data were collected using computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) technology and clinical testing was done for gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and HIV. Results Nearly all participants made at least one error, with high rates of using oil based lubricant and incomplete use. No differences were found in rates of condom problems during anal sex with a man versus vaginal sex with a woman. Black YMSM reported significantly higher use of oil based lubricants than White and Hispanic YMSM, an error significantly associated with HIV status (AOR = 2.60; 95% CI: 1.04 – 6.51). Participants who reported a condom failure were significantly more likely to have a STI (AOR=3.27; 95% CI: 1.31 – 8.12). Conclusions YMSM report high rates of condom problems, and condom failures were significantly associated with STIs after controlling for unprotected sex. Educational programs are needed to enhance correct condom use among YMSM. Further research is needed on the role of oil based lubricants in explaining racial disparities in STIs and HIV. PMID:24922101

  19. Condom and Other Contraceptive Use among a Random Sample of Female Adolescents: A Snapshot in Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimley, Diane M.; Lee, Patricia A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the sexual practices of 235 females aged 15 to 19 years and their readiness to use specific contraceptive methods. Results indicate that, despite the availability of newer contraceptive methods, most sexually active adolescents were least resistant to using condoms, perceiving the male condom as an acceptable preventative both for…

  20. Condom Use in College: Students' Self-Protection against HIV. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekin, Bonnie J.; And Others

    This study examined condom use by college students and factors associated with consistent condom use. It is based on a survey of 212 sexually active residential students at a major eastern doctoral granting institution conducted in the spring of 1994. The survey found that a substantial number of sexually active students were engaging in behaviors…

  1. Predicting Intentions to Use Condoms Using Gender, Sexual Experience, and the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Daniel; Goggin, Kathy; Gerkovich, Mary; Metcalf, Kimberly; Kennedy, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    This study examined condom use intentions among a large diverse group of African American adolescents and provides useful information to assist in the development of effective HIV prevention interventions. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), we explored which constructs are important in shaping intentions to use condoms for younger versus…

  2. Adolescents' Self-Efficacy to Communicate about Sex: Its Role in Condom Attitudes, Commitment, and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Kropp, Rhonda Y.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether and how self-efficacy to communicate with parents and peers about sex relate to sexually experienced adolescent males' and females' (N = 144, 112) condom attitudes, intentions, and use. Results showed that males who reported greater self-efficacy to communicate with parents used condoms more frequently; and both males…

  3. Correlates of Condom Use among Male High School Students in Nairobi, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabiru, Caroline W.; Orpinas, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Background: Correct and consistent condom use is an effective strategy to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study examines sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychosocial characteristics of 3 groups of adolescent males: consistent, sporadic, and non-condom users. Methods: The sample consisted of 931 sexually…

  4. Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior Regarding Condom Use in Urban Black Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Michele D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined male adolescent behavior, attitudes, and knowledge concerning condom use. Findings from 241 sexually active black adolescent males revealed that factors associated with condom use included higher grade level, having 2 or more sexual partners in past 6 months, communication about contraception with sexual partner, desire for sexually…

  5. Sexual Relationship Power, Intimate Partner Violence, and Condom Use among Minority Urban Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who…

  6. Parent-Adolescent Discussions about Sex and Condoms: Impact on Peer Influences of Sexual Risk Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Daniel J.; Miller, Kim S.

    2000-01-01

    Examined how parent-adolescent communication about initiating sex and using condoms influenced the relationship between peer norms and behavior among African American and Hispanic adolescents. Found that peer norms were more strongly related to behavior among adolescents who had not discussed sex or condoms. Communication was also related to teens…

  7. HIV Prevention and Social Desirability: Husband-Wife Discrepancies in Reports of Condom Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordero-Coma, Julia; Breen, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Greater use of condoms within marriage would help limit the spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Using data from the Malawi Diffusion and Ideational Change Project (MDICP), the authors examined the influence that the fidelity norm and the traditional association between marriage and reproduction have on condom use with a spouse. The sample…

  8. Changes in Condom Use Over Time Among Female Sex Workers and Their Male Noncommercial Partners and Clients.

    PubMed

    Tracas, Ashley; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Artamonova, Irina; Rangel, M Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Ulibarri, Monica D

    2016-08-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) often report inconsistent condom use with clients and noncommercial male partners, yet changes in condom use with various partner types during participation in observation studies remains underexplored. This longitudinal study of 214 FSWs and their male, noncommercial partners in the Mexico-U.S. border region, where HIV prevalence among FSWs continues to be high, utilized negative binomial regressions to examine changes in condom use with intimate partners and clients (regular and nonregular) over 24 months. Condom use decreased over time among couples in Ciudad Juarez, but there was no change in condom use among couples in Tijuana. FSWs' condom use with regular and nonregular clients significantly increased over time, which is consistent with previous research finding behavioral changes when participating in observational studies. Findings suggest the need for continued efforts to promote condom use among FSWs and their noncommercial male partners in addition to clients. PMID:27427926

  9. The Effectiveness of a Female Condom Intervention on Women's Use of Condoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardwick, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated a female condom promotion intervention for socioeconomically disadvantaged women at high risk for sexually transmitted diseases and HIV who had never used female condoms. Pre- and postintervention surveys indicated that providing education and counseling, along with unlimited quantities of male condoms, female condoms, and water-based…

  10. Barriers to Condom Use among High Risk Men Who Have Sex with Men in Uganda: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Musinguzi, Geofrey; Bastiaens, Hilde; Matovu, Joseph K. B.; Nuwaha, Fred; Mujisha, Geoffrey; Kiguli, Juliet; Arinaitwe, Jim; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Wanyenze, Rhoda K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Unprotected sexual intercourse is a major risk factor for HIV transmission. Men who have sex with men (MSM) face challenges in accessing HIV prevention services, including condoms. However, there is limited in-depth assessment and documentation of the barriers to condom use among MSM in sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we examine the barriers to condom use among MSM in Uganda. Methods The data for this study were extracted from a larger qualitative study conducted among 85 self-identified adult (>18 years) MSM in 11 districts in Uganda between July and December 2013. Data on sexual behaviours and access and barriers to condom use were collected using semi-structured interviews. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. This paper presents an analysis of data for 33 MSM who did not use condoms at last sex, with a focus on barriers to condom use. Analysis was conducted using the content analysis approach. Results Six major barriers to condom use were identified: Difficulties with using condoms, access challenges, lack of knowledge and misinformation about condom use, partner and relationship related issues, financial incentives and socio-economic vulnerability, and alcohol consumption. Conclusion The findings suggest that several reasons account for lack of condom use among high-risk MSM. The findings are valuable to inform interventions needed to increase condom use among MSM. PMID:26172374

  11. Condom negotiation across different relationship types by young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Maher, Lisa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Couture, Marie-Claude; Kien, Serey Phal; Stein, Ellen; Bates, Anna Juong; Sansothy, Neth; Page, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Cambodia's 100% Condom Use Programme is credited with an increase in consistent condom use in commercial sexual interactions and a decrease in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). There has been little improvement in condom use between FSWs and non-commercial partners, prompting calls for more innovative approaches to increasing condom use in these relationships. To understand why condoms are used or not used in sexual interactions involving FSWs, we examined condom negotiation across different types of relationships. We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with young (15 to 29 years) women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh. There was an important interplay between the meanings of condom use and the meanings of women's relationships. Commercial relationships were characterised as inherently risky and necessitated condom use. Despite a similar lack of sexual fidelity, sweetheart relationships were rarely construed as risky and typically did not involve condom use. Husbands and wives constructed their sexual interactions with each other differently, making agreement on condom use difficult. The lack of improvement in condom use in FSWs' non-commercial sexual relationships needs to be understood in relation to both sex work and the broader Cambodian sexual culture within which these relationships are embedded. PMID:23432108

  12. Predictors of condom use among Mexican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Carmen; Villarruel, Antonia M; Zhou, Yan; Gallegos, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Mexican adolescents continue to be at increased risk for HIV infection due to inconsistent condom use. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of condom use intentions and condom use among Mexican adolescents who participated in a randomized control trial designed to test a sexual-risk reduction intervention. Data from sexually active adolescents 17 to 21 years (n = 157) of age who were assigned to the control group were analyzed 48 months post intervention. Regression analysis showed that positive attitudes toward condoms, subjective norms, and control beliefs significantly explained intention to use condoms (R2 = .75, p < .001). Attitudes toward condoms (beta = .67, p <.001), technical skills (beta = .13, p = .01), and condom use self-efficacy (beta = .24, p < .001) were significant predictors of condom use intention. Compared to those who inconsistently used condoms, adolescents who used condoms consistently had greater intention to use condoms and greater impulse control. Findings suggest that attitudes and control beliefs should be further explored with Mexican adolescents in order to support consistent condom use. PMID:20949835

  13. Predictors of Condom Use Among Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Carmen; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Zhou, Yan; Gallegos, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Mexican adolescents continue to be at increased risk for HIV infection due to inconsistent condom use. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of condom use intentions and condom use among Mexican adolescents who participated in a randomized control trial designed to test a sexual-risk reduction intervention. Data from sexually active adolescents 17 to 21 years (n = 157) of age who were assigned to the control group were analyzed 48 months post intervention. Regression analysis showed that positive attitudes toward condoms, subjective norms, and control beliefs significantly explained intention to use condoms (R2 = .75, p < .001). Attitudes toward condoms (β = .67, p < .001), technical skills (β = .13, p = .01), and condom use self-efficacy (β = .24, p < .001) were significant predictors of condom use intention. Compared to those who inconsistently used condoms, adolescents who used condoms consistently had greater intention to use condoms and greater impulse control. Findings suggest that attitudes and control beliefs should be further explored with Mexican adolescents in order to support consistent condom use. PMID:20949835

  14. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5330 Female condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and...

  15. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5330 Female condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and...

  16. Condoms hitch lift with truckers.

    PubMed

    Kilimwiko, L

    1991-09-01

    This article reports on the efforts being made in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania and other road stops in central Tanzania to provide condoms to long-haul drivers and the women who serve on-the-road-companionship. The Truck Driver's AIDS Intervention Project (TDAIP) in collaboration with the African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF) and Tanzania's National AIDS Control Program (NACP) are working to protect these 2 at risk populations. Along the 1000 km Tanzania/Zambia highway, gasoline pump attendants offer drivers condoms. Prostitutes at these stops also offer condoms. There are meter long stickers with "condoms prevent AIDs" available. The message from the NACP regional office is that those at risk, such as truck drivers, are unlikely to attend rallies, or hear radio message when behind the wheel. Research has shown that men are more receptive to messages given in a work setting. Barmaids at 5 of the most frequented truckstops have been trained as peer health educators. Their job is to sensitize the men to the dangers of AIDs. An operating example is given of the barmaid serving drinks, and when approached, replies with the messages of how protection can be accomplished. One partner only is recommended, and if this is not possible, then one should avoid assuming "labda huyu hana ukimwi" (hopefully this one is AIDs free). There is no safe sex. The peer educators are trained in AIDs prevention and communication skills, and are paid a monthly wage. 725,000 condoms and 250,000 pieces of educational literature were distributed by TDAIP at these 5 truckstops in the 1st 6 months of 1990. Several drawbacks to this effort have occurred. It is difficult to sustain the distribution system outside a medical setting, and it is difficult to effectively monitor and support peer educators spread out across the country. One barmaid observed that those seeking condoms were primarily from outside Tanzania: Zambia, Malawi, Zaire, Rwanda, and Burundi, where better information about the

  17. "Condoms are the standard, right?": Exploratory study of the reasons for using condoms by Black American emerging adult women.

    PubMed

    Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Oberle, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Condoms are considered a highly effective form of sexually transmitted infection prevention for heterosexual sex. Black American women (BAW) have been and are at elevated risk for heterosexual exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because they have been and continue to be less likely to negotiate condom use with a partner that supports them financially. However, BAW who have made tremendous educational gains may still encounter challenges regarding the distribution of power that can affect condom use and negotiation. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the reasons that highly educated, emerging, adult BAW reported for using condoms. One hundred twenty-seven emerging adult BAW (ages 18-29 years) completed a mixed-methods online survey during the spring of 2013 (January-May). Approximately 80% of the women were in college or college graduates. They had a high rate of previous HIV testing (68.5%). Through the use of an interpretive paradigm and grounded theory, three themes emerged regarding the reasons that the participants in this sample used condoms as their primary form of protection: (1) the reliable "standard," (2) pregnancy prevention, and (3) cost effective and "easily accessible." Findings are discussed in terms of their public health significance for this seemingly lower-risk population. PMID:26327468

  18. Condoms: still the most popular contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Silverstone, T

    1997-01-01

    Condoms can be used as a barrier contraceptive and/or to protect against many sexually-transmitted diseases. They are easy to buy and use and free from medical risk. Carefully used, and used in conjunction with a spermicide, condoms have similar reliability to IUDs, progesterone-only pills and the diaphragm. The condom must be put on before the penis touches the vaginal area. The penis should not touch the vaginal area after the condom has been taken off. Oil-based products, eg baby oil, massage oil, lipstick, petroleum jelly, suntan oil, can damage the condom. If a lubricant is required, use one that is water-based. PMID:9348972

  19. Condom Use among Sterilized and Non-sterilized Women in County Jail and Residential Treatment Centers

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, Sandi L.; von Sternberg, Kirk; Velasquez, Mary M.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose While sterilized women do not need condoms for pregnancy prevention, they may still be at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Previous studies have shown that sterilized women have lower rates of condom use but have not controlled for the nested multilevel structure of data in which individual women have multiple partners with different STI risk factors. We address this limitation by testing the association of condom use and tubal ligation using multilevel analysis. Methods Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of sterilized and non-sterilized women aged 18–44 in substance abuse treatment centers or county jail. Multilevel random intercept logistic models examined the association of tubal ligation and any condom use in the 30 days prior to entry and controlled for individual- and partner- level correlates. Findings Of 484 pre-menopausal respondents without hysterectomy, 194 (40.1%) reported tubal ligation. Overall, 48.3% of all women reported any condom use. In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, sterilized women were less likely to report any condom use. Women were least likely to use condoms with their main partners and more likely to use condoms with other partners and partners with whom they trade sex for drugs or money. Women were also more likely to use condoms with partners they believed to be HIV positive. Conclusion In these high-risk settings, we found a high prevalence of women reporting tubal ligation and lower odds of condom use among these women. Condom use interventions targeting sterilized women in these settings are needed. PMID:20880718

  20. Social marketing: making condoms available to communities. An interview with Duncan Earle.

    PubMed

    1994-05-01

    This document presents an interview in which AIDSCAP private-sector officer Duncan Earle discusses how condom social marketing contributes to AIDS prevention efforts. Condom social marketing uses commercial marketing techniques to promote condom use by making them more accessible and affordable. Thus, condoms are sold where people can purchase them without embarrassment (often by street hawkers) or where they may be needed in impulsive situations (in bars, hotels, and nightclubs). Social marketing relies on such marketing techniques as identifying wholesalers, assisting wholesalers with sales, creating point-of-purchase advertising, and developing attractive packaging. Prices are based on rough formulas derived from per capita gross national product and the prices people are willing to pay for such products as matches, cigarettes, candy, and aspirin. Quality is assured if the condoms are obtained through the US Agency for International Development's procurement system. Samples of condoms obtained from other sources are submitted for quality testing. The success of social marketing programs can be determined by examining sales and resupply. Cost effectiveness is determined by the cost of delivering 100 condoms (1 couple-year of protection). While social marketing would be more cost effective without expenditures on advertising, it would be less effective overall. Some barriers that must be overcome to market condoms include laws outlawing the sale or advertising of condoms, duties and customs' surcharges on imported condoms (which, in some cases, increase the cost 33%), and religious objections to contraception. As well as selling condoms, social marketing programs educate people about AIDS using any kind of media available. PMID:12345907

  1. Correlates of condom use among female sex workers in The Gambia: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Ashley L; Lei, Esther L; Ketende, Sosthenes C; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Mason, Krystal; Ceesay, Nuha; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou Maria; Loum, Jaegan; Papworth, Erin; Baral, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined correlates of condom use among 248 female sex workers (FSW) in The Gambia. Methods. Between July and August 2011, FSW in The Gambia who were older than 16 years of age, the age of consent in The Gambia, were recruited for the study using venue-based sampling and snowball sampling, beginning with seeds who were established clients with the Network of AIDS Services Organizations. To be eligible, FSW must have reported selling sex for money, favors, or goods in the past 12 months. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine associations and the relative odds of the independent variables with condom use. Four different condom use dependent variables were used: consistent condom use in the past six months during vaginal or anal sex with all clients and partners; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with new clients; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with nonpaying partners (including boyfriends, husbands, or casual sexual partners); and condom use at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner. Results. Many FSW (67.34%, n = 167) reported it was not at all difficult to negotiate condom use with clients in all applicable situations, and these FSW were more likely to report consistent condom use with all clients and partners in the past 6 months (aOR 3.47, 95% CI [1.70-7.07]) compared to those perceiving any difficulty in condom negotiation. In addition, FSW were more likely to report using condoms in the past month with new clients (aOR 8.04, 95% CI [2.11-30.65]) and in the past month with nonpaying partners (aOR 2.93, 95% CI [1.09-7.89]) if they had been tested for HIV in the past year. Women who bought all their condoms were less likely than those who received all of their condoms for free (aOR 0.38, 95% CI [0.15-0.97]) to have used a condom at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner. Conclusions. HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI

  2. AIDS and the marketing of condoms.

    PubMed

    Boone, L E; Kurtz, D L

    1988-01-01

    The condom market has undergone unprecedented change in the 1980's and will continue to see its markets, advertising strategies, and sales grow and change in ways never before imagined. In the past, condoms were viewed as unmentionable products that were marketed only at men between 18 and 35 and sold only in gas station restrooms and bus stations. But today women account for and estimated 40-50% of condom sales and after a Supreme Court ruling in 1977, condoms are now sold in front of the counter, not behind it. Further, the AIDS epidemic which has afflicted 40,000 U.S. citizens between 19811 and 1988 has served as an impetus to growth and diversification of the condom market. The new legitimacy of the condom combined with new entries into the market by other manufacturers has resulted in growth and segmentation in the condom market. PMID:10292529

  3. The Philippines: HIV/AIDS, condoms, and human rights.

    PubMed

    2004-08-01

    Influential leaders are increasingly attacking condoms through HIV-prevention programs that focus on sexual abstinence and marital fidelity. In May 2004 Human Rights Watch (HRW) released a report that examines the impact of these policies in the Philippines, the largest Roman Catholic country in Asia and a major recipient of US HIV/AIDS funding. PMID:15540338

  4. Correlates of Condom Use Intentions and Behaviors Among a Community-Based Sample of Latino Men in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Jillian T.

    2006-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has disproportionately affected Latino communities. The majority of research addressing HIV risk behaviors within this population has focused on women. However, men who have sex with women (MSW) are a population increasingly becoming infected with HIV and heterosexual contact is the primary source of HIV transmission among Latinos diagnosed with AIDS. It has been assumed that because men are likely to control condom use, relationship factors are less likely to influence safer sex behavior among men. However, because condom use is an interdependent behavior, understanding factors that predict safer sex behavior among MSW is critical. This study examined the influence of multiple factors on condom use behavior in a community-based sample of young Latino men. Data from 191 Latino men who completed baseline interviews for an intervention were analyzed to examine the association of background, intrapersonal and relationship factors with intentions to use condoms and condom use in the past three months. Findings from multivariate analyses indicated that more positive attitudes toward condoms, stronger partner condom norms and greater participation in decision-making about condom use were significantly associated with both condom use and condom use intentions. Additionally, men reporting lower expectations of negative partner reactions to condom requests were more likely to use condoms, and condom use intentions were higher among men reporting more health protective communication in the relationship. Findings suggest that interventions to prevent HIV need to include men as well as women and address the role of relationship factors and dynamics in safer sex practices. PMID:16845495

  5. Theories of reasoned action and planned behavior as models of condom use: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, D; Johnson, B T; Fishbein, M; Muellerleile, P A

    2001-01-01

    To examine how well the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior predict condom use, the authors synthesized 96 data sets (N = 22,594) containing associations between the models' key variables. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action's predictions, (a) condom use was related to intentions (weighted mean r. = .45), (b) intentions were based on attitudes (r. = .58) and subjective norms (r. = .39), and (c) attitudes were associated with behavioral beliefs (r. = .56) and norms were associated with normative beliefs (r. = .46). Consistent with the theory of planned behavior's predictions, perceived behavioral control was related to condom use intentions (r. = .45) and condom use (r. = .25), but in contrast to the theory, it did not contribute significantly to condom use. The strength of these associations, however, was influenced by the consideration of past behavior. Implications of these results for HIV prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:11271752

  6. “It’s a Different Condom, Let’s See How It Works”: Young Men’s Reactions to and Experiences of Female Condom Use During an Intervention Trial in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Masvawure, Tsitsi B.; Mantell, Joanne E.; Mabude, Zonke; Ngoloyi, Claudia; Milford, Cecilia; Beksinska, Mags; Smit, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Although male partner cooperation is often essential for successful use of the female condom, only a few studies have directly assessed men’s experiences of using the device. We examined barriers to and facilitators of female condom use via qualitative in-depth interviews with 38 young men (18 to 28 years) in South Africa whose partners, all university students, were enrolled in a female condom intervention trial. In all, 21 men used the female condom; the remaining 17 did not attempt use. The main facilitators to female condom use were convenience of use for men, curiosity to see how female condoms compared to male condoms, enhanced sexual sensation, and perceptions of better safety and comfort of the device compared to male condoms. The main barriers were men’s limited familiarity with the device, insertion difficulties, and men’s concerns about loss of control over sexual encounters. We recommend that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and condom promotion programs around the world target men directly for education on female condoms and that they also work with couples jointly around issues of safer-sex communication and negotiation. PMID:24053638

  7. Condom Use at Last Sex as a Proxy for Other Measures of Condom Use: Is It Good Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younge, Sinead N.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard F.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Rose, Eve

    2008-01-01

    Condom use at last sex is a widely used indicator in sexual behavior research; however, there is little empirical research validating this indicator. This study examined whether a single-event recall period (the last time coitus occurred) was consistent with longer recall periods (14 days and 60 days) for a sample of African American adolescent…

  8. Individual, interpersonal, and community predictors of consistent condom use among Taiwanese university students.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Chien

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the predictive value of individual, interpersonal, and community factors for consistent condom use among university students in Taiwan. The analytic sample for this cross-sectional study comprised 105 sexually active students, a subgroup of the respondents in a survey on university students in mid-Taiwan, with a mean age of 21, and 51.4% being female. The outcome variable was assessed as the proportion of times a condom was used in sex with steady sex partners. Risky sex appeared less related to having multiple sex partners (8.57%) than with inconsistent condom use (71.4%). Hierarchical regression analysis showed that 47.4% of variance in the outcome variable could be explained by AIDS knowledge, class adjustment, perception of good friends' condom use, and discussion of condom use with good friends. This study found that predictors across different levels may work in combination to influence students' condom use. Enhancing HIV/AIDS knowledge, improving class adjustment, facilitating peer norm of condom use may work in combination to increase students' condom use. PMID:26477524

  9. The NYC Condom: use and acceptability of New York City's branded condom.

    PubMed

    Burke, Ryan C; Wilson, Juliet; Bernstein, Kyle T; Grosskopf, Nicholas; Murrill, Christopher; Cutler, Blayne; Sweeney, Monica; Begier, Elizabeth M

    2009-12-01

    We assessed awareness and experience with the NYC Condom via surveys at 7 public events targeting priority condom distribution populations during 2007. Most respondents (76%) were aware of NYC Condoms. Of those that had obtained them, 69% had used them. Most (80%) wanted alternative condoms offered for free: 22% wanted ultra-thin, 18% extra-strength, and 14% larger-size. Six months after the NYC Condom launch, we found high levels of awareness and use. Because many wanted alternative condoms, the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene began distributing the 3 most-requested alternatives. PMID:19834001

  10. Peer norms and consistent condom use with female sex workers among male clients in Sichuan province, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl; Luan, Rongsheng; Nelson, Kenrad

    2010-08-01

    Despite their crucial role in HIV infection and transmission, commercial sex male clients (CSMCs) are rarely studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between peer norms and consistent condom use with female sex workers (FSWs) among CSMCs in Sichuan province, China. Male clients with peers who had paid for sex (n = 562) were recruited by local health workers through snowball sampling. Measures of peer norms included 1) descriptive norms which were evaluated by perceptions of peer's condom attitudes and behaviors with FSWs; 2) injunctive norms which were assessed by the perceived peer approval of using condoms with FSWs; and 3) communication of HIV-related topics with peers. The outcome was consistent condom use with FSWs. Results of multivariate logistic regression models revealed that consistent condom use with FSWs was significantly more likely among male clients who perceived more pro-condom descriptive and injunctive norms among their peer groups. In addition, the pattern of commercial sex visits moderated the relations between peer norms and consistent condom use with FSWs. More peer approval of condom use and more HIV-related communication were significantly associated with consistent condom use among clients who visited FSWs with friends but not among those who visited FSWs alone. The findings suggest that social activities surrounding commercial sex visits may provide an entry point for HIV prevention intervention with men who patronize FSWs and that such efforts should tap into existing dynamics of social interaction to promote pro-condom norms. PMID:20541859

  11. Condoms in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2012-03-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is the region with the world's highest rates of HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs), yet numerous studies show that condom use is generally rare. This suggests a need for a better understanding of how condoms fit within sexual practices and relationships in SSA. This paper seeks to address this need by reviewing research published between the late 1980s and 2011 on use and factors influencing use of male condoms in SSA. What is evident from this research is that condom use involves complex social and interpersonal dynamics, with structural and cultural conditions exerting an influence through framing social cognitions and setting boundaries on autonomy that make the apparently irrational choice of eschewing condoms a rational decision. The influences of poverty; relationships with parents, peers and partners; limited, insufficient or absent information especially in rural areas and among men who have sex with men; gender and sexual norms, and the dynamics of gendered power; and beliefs and attitudes about HIV, condoms and sexuality all have been shown to work against condom use for a large proportion of Africa's people. However, promising results are shown in trends towards increased condom use among single women in numerous countries, increasing acceptance and use of condoms among some university students, successes in producing potentially sustainable condom use resulting from select interventions, and resistance to succumbing to the dominant gender-power dynamics and structural-cultural impediments that women in groups have mobilised. PMID:22348634

  12. [Electrophysiological examinations (ABR and DPOAE) of hearing organ in hemodialysed patients suffering from chronic renal failure].

    PubMed

    Gierek, Tatiana; Markowski, Jarosław; Kokot, Franciszek; Paluch, Jarosław; Wiecek, Andrzej; Klimek, Dariusz

    2002-01-01

    Deterioration of function of hearing organ is one of the most important clinical problem in uremic patients with chronic renal failure. The present study aimed to assess the function of hearing organ using the brainstem auditory evoked responses (ABR), impedance audiometry and distortion product otoacoustic emission cochlear function (DPOAE) in 31 haemodialysed patients with chronic renal failure (16 females and 15 males, mean age 43.0 years). The control group consisted of 15 healthy subjects. The latency of the waves I, III, V and I-V interpeak in evoked response audiometry were significantly longer in the patients with CRF (chronic renal failure) compared to the control group. Measurement of DPOAE showed decrease of DPOAE level in patients suffering from CRF. A influence of single hemodialysis and treatment of hemodialysis by 6 months on ABR latencies and DPOAE values were not observed. PMID:12094644

  13. Examining the Causes of Memory Strength Variability: Recollection, Attention Failure, or Encoding Variability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, Joshua D.; Aly, Mariam; Wang, Wei-Chun; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    A prominent finding in recognition memory is that studied items are associated with more variability in memory strength than new items. Here, we test 3 competing theories for why this occurs--the "encoding variability," "attention failure", and "recollection" accounts. Distinguishing among these theories is critical…

  14. Coping with Achievement-Related Failure: An Examination of Conversations between Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altermatt, Ellen Rydell; Broady, Elizabeth F.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has identified ways in which parents and teachers contribute to learned helpless responses to failure, but little is known about the role that interactions with peers might play. In this study, the conversations of fourth- through sixth- grade children and their friends were observed after children experienced an achievement-related…

  15. [Examination of safety improvement by failure record analysis that uses reliability engineering].

    PubMed

    Kato, Kyoichi; Sato, Hisaya; Abe, Yoshihisa; Ishimori, Yoshiyuki; Hirano, Hiroshi; Higashimura, Kyoji; Amauchi, Hiroshi; Yanakita, Takashi; Kikuchi, Kei; Nakazawa, Yasuo

    2010-08-20

    How the maintenance checks of the medical treatment system, including start of work check and the ending check, was effective for preventive maintenance and the safety improvement was verified. In this research, date on the failure of devices in multiple facilities was collected, and the data of the trouble repair record was analyzed by the technique of reliability engineering. An analysis of data on the system (8 general systems, 6 Angio systems, 11 CT systems, 8 MRI systems, 8 RI systems, and the radiation therapy system 9) used in eight hospitals was performed. The data collection period assumed nine months from April to December 2008. Seven items were analyzed. (1) Mean time between failures (MTBF) (2) Mean time to repair (MTTR) (3) Mean down time (MDT) (4) Number found by check in morning (5) Failure generation time according to modality. The classification of the breakdowns per device, the incidence, and the tendency could be understood by introducing reliability engineering. Analysis, evaluation, and feedback on the failure generation history are useful to keep downtime to a minimum and to ensure safety. PMID:20953108

  16. Perceived social approval and condom use with casual partners among youth in urban Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV prevention programs targeting youth often emphasize the role of peers, and assume that youths will model their behavior after their peers'. We challenge this view; we argue that adopting a given behavior requires social approval, and that youths do not necessarily turn to peers for such approval. This study analyzes survey data on youths in urban Cameroon to 1) identify which type of persons youths look to for social approval, and 2) establish how important social approval by these persons is for condom use among youths. Methods We analyzed data from three survey waves (2000, 2002, and 2003) of a reproductive health survey conducted among urban Cameroonian youth (aged 15-24). Only respondents who reported having at least one casual partner in the past year were retained for the analysis. Bivariate analyses and structural equation modeling were used to examine relationships among perceived social approval, attitudes towards condoms and condom use. Results The data show that only 3% of youths named their friends as people whose opinion they valued, while 93% mentioned family members. The perceived approval of condom use by these persons had a significant positive effect on the frequency of condom use among youths. The frequency of condom use was also affected by the respondents' attitudes toward condom use, the range of persons with whom they discussed reproductive health matters, whether they were enrolled in school, socioeconomic status, their self-efficacy, perceived severity of AIDS, risk perception and sexual risk behavior. The perceived social approval of condom use and the respondents' own condom attitudes were correlated. Conclusions Our analysis demonstrates that perceived social approval facilitates the adoption of condom use among urban Cameroonian youth. However, youths tend to value the opinions of family members much more than the opinions of their peers. These results suggest that interventions targeting youths should not focus

  17. Randomized crossover trial comparing the eZ.on plastic condom and a latex condom.

    PubMed

    Cook, L; Nanda, K; Taylor, D

    2001-01-01

    This randomized crossover trial compared the breakage and slippage rates, safety, and acceptability of the recently developed polyurethane bi-directional eZ.on condom with a marketed latex condom. Three hundred sixty couples were asked to use 4 eZ.on condoms and 4 latex condoms. Like several other non-latex condoms tested to date, the eZ.on condom had a higher clinical breakage rate than its latex comparator, while the slippage rates were similar. The clinical breakage rate for the eZ.on condom was 5.6%, compared with 0.9% for the latex condom (difference = 4.76%, with upper 95% confidence bound on the difference = 6.26%). Thus, based on an a priori definition of a 2% clinically acceptable difference, the study failed to conclude equivalence relative to clinical breakage. The complete slippage rate for eZ.on was 1.6%; compared to 0.7% for latex (difference = 0.87%, with upper 95% confidence bound = 1.55%). Thus, based on an a priori definition of a 2% difference we concluded equivalence relative to complete slippage. The safety profile of the eZ.on condom was good and similar to the latex condom. The eZ.on was also found to be easier to don and remove than the latex condom. Although no overall preference existed for either condom, nearly 30%women and men strongly preferred the eZ.on condom to the latex condom. The eZ.on condom may be an acceptable alternative for couples unable or unwilling to use latex condoms. PMID:11257245

  18. Special report: the truth about condoms. Will your clients want the plastic condom?

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    A recently developed polyurethane condom, Avanti, is available in the Western US market and should be available nationwide by April 1995. The plastic condoms are as strong as latex condoms, yet more sensitive due to their comparatively looser fit and the better ability of polyurethane to transmit body heat. They have no odor, are colorless, nonallergenic, do not break down over time, and can be used with any lubricant. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), however, is not sure whether plastic condoms for men will block the transmission of HIV. Labeling on Avanti packages will alert potential users to this FDA concern. Another nonlatex condom, Tactylon, is awaiting FDA approval, but may never make it to market because of the manufacturer's fears that the restrictive labeling demanded by the FDA will hurt consumer demand. Family Health International (FHI) is working on two designs for plastic condoms. One condom is unrolled onto the penis in similar fashion to standard latex condoms, while the second condom is designed to be pulled onto the penis like a sock is pulled onto a foot. 70% of 137 couples in one FHI study rated the experimental condom between average and excellent in comfort and ease of use. All seven couples in a second study reported that the new condom was easy to put on and the material was sensitive and comfortable. Although findings from these recent studies suggest that consumers will like the new condoms, past experience with condoms and first impressions of the new condom will be very important in consumer acceptance. The polyurethane condoms will probably be more expensive to consumers than latex condoms. PMID:12319321

  19. Gender Differences and Condom-Associated Embarrassment in the Acquisition of Purchased versus Free Condoms among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Brandy; Ickes, Melinda J.; Mark, Kristen P.

    2016-01-01

    Condoms are not used consistently among sexually active college students, indicating a need to understand condom acquisition patterns. This study describes purchased and free acquisition of condoms, factors influencing purchased condom acquisition, and condom-associated embarrassment among college students. A random sample of students at a public…

  20. Increased condom use needed to fight AIDS.

    PubMed

    Worldwide, at least 33 million people are infected with HIV, another 14 million have died, and approximately 16,000 people are newly infected each day, 60% of whom are women. An estimated 6-9 billion condoms are currently used throughout the world each year. However, a report from the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health has determined that the level of condom use must be increased to 24 billion units annually in order to check the spread of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. An estimated 71% of total condom need is among sexually active unmarried men, while the rest of the need is among married men who have extramarital affairs and by married couples. Condoms should be made accessible to all at subsidized prices and provided not only through health clinics and retail shops, but also in hotels, bars, grocery stores, and vending machines. New efforts are needed to make condoms more accessible, including lowering their cost, effectively promoting their use, and overcoming the many social and personal obstacles to their use, especially in developing countries where the impact of AIDS is the most severe. Special programs should target specific groups, including youth, unmarried men, and prostitutes, while condom promotion should also aim to improve the image of condoms by portraying them as fun, reliable, and important. Finally, political and religious leaders should speak out in favor of condom use, while the mass media should openly discuss condoms. PMID:12295207

  1. Minority College Women's Views on Condom Negotiation.

    PubMed

    McLaurin-Jones, TyWanda; Lashley, Maudry-Beverly; Marshall, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    This study utilized quantitative and qualitative methods to (1) investigate the relationship between frequency of condom use and negotiation strategies and (2) evaluate experiences with condom negotiations among sexually active, heterosexual, African American college women. One hundred female students from a Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) completed a questionnaire that included the Condom Influence Strategies Scale (CIS) and participated in a focus group. An ANOVA was conducted to compare differences between never, inconsistent, and consistent condom users. Consistent condom users scored higher than never users on the "withholding sex" subscale of the CIS (4.88 vs. 3.55; p < 0.001) as well as endorsed items more strongly on the "direct request" subscale of the CIS (4.63 vs. 3.82, p < 0.05) than never users. A thematic analysis of open discussions identified overarching themes. Similarly, refusing sex and/or having direct communications with partner emerged as primary strategies. Threats to negotiation included deciding the "right timing" of discussion and having a previous history of sexual intercourse without a condom with their partner. Other key concepts that contribute to condom negotiation are the views that condoms are a male's responsibility and stigma of women who carry condoms. PMID:26703642

  2. Rubber soul: the condom makes a comeback.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, R

    1986-03-01

    The condom serves a metaphor for sex in the age of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)--a passage between celibacy and danger. Although perhaps not the contraceptive method of choice under more normal conditions, the condom can significantly reduce the risk of AIDS contagion and enhance people's chances of staying alive. Despite the negative image the condom gained in the sexual revolution, when women were expected to take responsibility for contraception, condom sales are currently soaring. The San Francisco AIDS Foundation is about to produce its own condom under the brand name Play Safe and gay publications are endeavoring to eroticize the device. Used carefully, condoms can be highly effective; however, some studies have recorded a 4-10% pregnancy rate among couples who use them carelessly. Public health experts are now advising all sexually active individuals who have sexual relations with a new partner to use condoms. Preventive efforts have been hindered by bans on condom advertising and the prohibition of pictorial representations of the anogenital area in safe sex literature. The effectiveness of condoms in anal sex is unmeasured but can be increased by use of a water-based lubricant containing Nonoxynol-9. PMID:12281000

  3. Sex work venue and condom use among female sex workers in Senggigi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Safika, Iko; Levy, Judith A; Johnson, Timothy P

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the structural influence of sex work venues on condom use among female sex workers in the Senggigi area of Lombok, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design employing ethnographic observation, structured interviews and hierarchical linear modelling was used to examine condom use among female sex workers who solicited clients at three types of sex work venues: (1) freelance locations, (2) brothels and (3) entertainment places (karaoke bars and massage parlours). The sample consisted of 115 women 'nested' within 16 sex work venues drawn from the three venue types. Rate (39%) of condom use varied across sex work venues. Perceived management style, HIV/AIDS-related policies and risk-reduction services differed by venue, but this variation did not explain differences in condom use. At the individual level, higher condom use was associated with female sex workers having ever been married. At the client level, condoms were more likely to be used with foreign rather than domestic/local Indonesian clients. Low rates of condom use among Indonesian female sex workers during commercial sex suggests the need for increased HIV-prevention efforts that acknowledge sex worker characteristics and relationships with clients that place them at risk. Future research into the effects of social context on HIV risk should also be considered. PMID:23472595

  4. Sex Work Venue and Condom Use among Female Sex Workers in Senggigi, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Safika, Iko; Levy, Judith A.; Johnson, Timothy P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the structural influence of sex work venues on condom use among female sex workers in the Senggigi area of Lombok, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design employing ethnographic observation, structured interviews and hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine condom use among female sex workers who solicited clients at three types of sex work venues: freelance, brothels, and entertainment places (karaoke bars and massage parlours). The sample consisted of 115 women “nested” within 16 sex work venues drawn from the three venue types. Rate (39%) of condom use varied across sex work venues. Perceived management style, HIV/AIDS-related policies, and risk-reduction services differed by venue, but this variation did not explain differences in condom use. At the individual level, higher condom use was associated with female sex workers having ever been married. At the client level, condoms were more likely to be used with foreign rather than domestic/local Indonesian clients. Low rates of condom use among Indonesian female sex workers during commercial sex suggests the need for increased HIV prevention efforts that acknowledge sex worker characteristics and relationships with clients that place them at risk. Future research into the effects of social context on HIV risk should also be considered. PMID:23472595

  5. A Condom Skill Scale: Assessing Condom Skills among Female Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farris, Coreen A.; Fenaughty, Andrea M.; Lindemann, Dana F.

    2003-01-01

    Describe the development and properties of a scale measuring demonstrated condom use skill using a sample of 261 drug-using women. Analysis of scale scores revealed high levels of condom skill among the population. Preliminary analysis suggests that the Condom Skill Scale is a potentially valid and reliable instrument, and may have application as…

  6. The catastrophic failures of plants hydraulic network examined trough an model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bienaimé, Diane; Marmottant, Philippe; Brodribb, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Plants live a dangerous game: they have to facilitate water transport in their xylem conduits while minimizing the consequence of hydraulic failure. Indeed, as water flows under negative pressure inside these conduits, cavitation bubbles can spontaneously occur. The failure dynamics of this hydraulic network is poorly studied, while it has important ecological and bioengineering implications. Here, by using dark-field transmission microscopy, we were able to directly visualize the spreading of cavitation bubbles within leaves, where the xylem conduits form a 2D and transparent network. We observe the surprising fact that the probability of cavitation increases in larger veins, where the majority of water flows. Next, in order to understand the physical mechanism of nucleation and propagation, we built artificial networks of channels made in hydrogel, where evaporation generates negative pressures. We find the hydraulic failure follows two stages: first a sudden bubble nucleation relaxing to the elastic stored of the system, and then a slow expansion driven by the flow of water in the surrounding medium. Channel constrictions slow the propagation of the bubble, similarly to the small valves that connect plants conduits. P.M. acknowledges support from the University of Tasmania for a visiting scholar grant.

  7. 20 CFR 220.52 - Failure to appear at a consultative examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... not have good reason for failing or refusing to take part in a consultative examination or test which... reason for failing or refusing to take part in a consultative examination or test which the Board... his or her treating physician not to take an examination or test. In some cases, the Board may be...

  8. 20 CFR 220.52 - Failure to appear at a consultative examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... not have good reason for failing or refusing to take part in a consultative examination or test which... reason for failing or refusing to take part in a consultative examination or test which the Board... his or her treating physician not to take an examination or test. In some cases, the Board may be...

  9. 20 CFR 220.52 - Failure to appear at a consultative examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... not have good reason for failing or refusing to take part in a consultative examination or test which... reason for failing or refusing to take part in a consultative examination or test which the Board... his or her treating physician not to take an examination or test. In some cases, the Board may be...

  10. AIDS public service announcements: effects of fear and repetition on predictors of condom use.

    PubMed

    Treise, D; Weigold, M F

    2001-01-01

    An experiment examined the effects of varying levels of fear and message repetition in a radio public service announcement (PSA) on attitudes toward and intentions to use condoms. Predictions were derived from the Theory of Reasoned Action and Fazio's accessibility model. Results suggest that repetition and fear have important effects on intentions to use condoms and attitudes toward using condoms, even after accounting for inputs specified by the Theory of Reasoned Action In addition, frequency affected the relative weights of attitudinal versus normative effects on intentions, suggesting that PSAs may be able to affect attitudes and intentions through spontaneous attitude activation as described by Fazio (1990). PMID:11968298

  11. The marketing of the condom.

    PubMed

    Lagman, J T

    1975-12-01

    The Commercial Contraceptive Marketing Program was developed by the Population Center Foundation in the Philippines to increase participatio n of private commercial firms in promotion and distribution of nonclinical contraceptives. The program was started to eliminate ignorance concerning contraceptive methods, to increase contraceptive acceptance, and to decrease dropouts from the program. It is hoped that all 200,000 sari-sari stores in the Philippines will eventually become involved in marketing contraceptives. This will free government personnel for the work of extending family planning services to the rural areas. The history of the development of a plan for commercial marketing of condoms in the Philippines is discussed. PMID:12307759

  12. To use or not to use: a stage-based approach to understanding condom use among homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S; Ober, Allison; Ryan, Gery; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett; Wenzel, Suzanne L

    2014-01-01

    This study used a stage-based approach to understand condom use behavior in a representative sample of 309 sexually active homeless youth recruited from shelters, drop-in centers, and street sites in Los Angeles County. Focusing on the youth's most recent sexual event, the three stages of condom use examined were: (1) whether the partners decided prior to the event about using condoms; (2) whether a condom was available at the event; and (3) whether a condom was used at the event. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify attitudinal, relationship, and contextual correlates of each of these three stages. Deciding ahead of time about condom use was associated with being Hispanic, level of education, condom attitudes, and various relationship characteristics (e.g., partner type, monogamy, relationship abuse), with the nature of these associations varying depending on the type of decision (i.e., deciding to use, deciding to not use). Condom availability was more likely to be reported by males, if the event was described as being special in some way, or if the event lacked privacy. Condom use was more likely among youth with more positive condom attitudes and among youth who decide ahead of time to use a condom, but less likely among those in monogamous relationships or when hard drugs were used prior to sex. Whether sexual intercourse is protected or unprotected is the end result of a series of decisions and actions by sexual partners. Results from this study illustrate how condom use can be better understood by unpacking the stages and identifying influential factors at each stage. Each stage may, in and of itself, be an important target for intervention with homeless youth. PMID:24099462

  13. Sexual behavior, psychosocial and knowledge differences between consistent, inconsistent and non-users of condoms: a study of female bar and hotel workers in Moshi, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tassiopoulos, Katherine K; Seage, George R; Sam, Noel E; Ao, Trong T H; Masenga, Elisante J; Hughes, Michael D; Kapiga, Saidi H

    2006-07-01

    Understanding psychosocial, sexual behavior and knowledge differences between never, inconsistent and consistent condom users can improve interventions to increase condom use in resource-poor countries, but they have not been adequately studied. We examined these differences in a cohort of 961 female hotel and bar workers in Moshi, Tanzania. Forty-nine percent of women reported no condom use; 39% reported inconsistent use, and 12% reported consistent use. Women with multiple sexual partners in the past five years were less likely to be consistent rather than inconsistent users as were women who had ever exchanged sex for gifts or money. Inconsistent users had higher condom knowledge and higher perceived acceptability of condom use than did never users, but they did not differ from consistent users by these factors. There are important differences between women by level of condom use. These findings can help inform interventions to increase condom use. PMID:16752083

  14. Systematic assessment of condom use measurement in evaluation of HIV prevention interventions: need for standardization of measures

    PubMed Central

    Fonner, Virginia A.; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; O’Reilly, Kevin R.; Sweat, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    When evaluating HIV prevention interventions, condom use is a common outcome measure used to assess changes in HIV-related behaviors; however, no widely accepted standards exist for its measurement. Using systematic review data on HIV prevention interventions conducted in low- and middle-income countries, we examined trends in condom use measurement since 1990. We abstracted data from standardized forms on six dimensions of condom use: partner type, temporal period, measurement scale, consistency, controlling for abstinence, and type of sex. Of 215 studies reviewed, 109 studies (51%) measured condom use as a primary outcome. Outcomes were stratified by partner type in 47 studies (43%). Assessing condom use at last sex was the most common measurement. Consistency of condom use was assessed in 47 studies (43%). Developing and utilizing standards for condom use measurement would increase comparability of findings across studies and benefit HIV prevention research. Recommendations include measuring condom use at last sex, frequency of condom use, and number of protected sex acts in studies evaluating the efficacy of behavioral interventions on sexual risk behavior. PMID:24197972

  15. Predictors of condom-use among young never-married males in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyediran, Kolawole Azeez; Feyisetan, Oluwadaisi Isaac; Akpan, Toyin

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the factors that influence condom-use among young never-married males in Nigeria. Such information can help improve the design of a prevention programme for young never-married, especially, males to reduce their vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS transmission. Data were derived from the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). Analysis of data was restricted to 827 males aged 15-24 years, who had never married or lived together with a woman. Both descriptive and analytical methods were used for assessing the net effects of socioeconomic factors on condom-use. The analysis used logistic regression models for determining the predictors of sexual behaviour and condom-use among young never-married males in Nigeria. About 43% of the study population was sexually experienced, and the use of a condom remained low. One in five reported the use of a condom at sexual debut. Level of education, place of residence in childhood, urban/rural region, religious affiliation, economic status index, and exposure to mass media were associated with sexual experience and use of protective measures. Economic status index and mass-media exposure were associated with the use of a condom by the respondents during their last sex encounter. About two-fifths (43%) of the young unmarried Nigerian men were sexually experienced but the condom-use remained low, thus making this sub-group of Nigerian population highly vulnerable to STIs, including HIV/AIDS. PMID:21766563

  16. Predictors of Condom-use among Young Never-married Males in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Feyisetan, Oluwadaisi Isaac; Akpan, Toyin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the factors that influence condom-use among young never-married males in Nigeria. Such information can help improve the design of a prevention programme for young never-married, especially, males to reduce their vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS transmission. Data were derived from the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). Analysis of data was restricted to 827 males aged 15-24 years, who had never married or lived together with a woman. Both descriptive and analytical methods were used for assessing the net effects of socioeconomic factors on condom-use. The analysis used logistic regression models for determining the predictors of sexual behaviour and condom-use among young never-married males in Nigeria. About 43% of the study population was sexually experienced, and the use of a condom remained low. One in five reported the use of a condom at sexual debut. Level of education, place of residence in childhood, urban/rural region, religious affiliation, economic status index, and exposure to mass media were associated with sexual experience and use of protective measures. Economic status index and mass-media exposure were associated with the use of a condom by the respondents during their last sex encounter. About two-fifths (43%) of the young unmarried Nigerian men were sexually experienced but the condom-use remained low, thus making this sub-group of Nigerian population highly vulnerable to STIs, including HIV/AIDS. PMID:21766563

  17. Spectroscopic imaging based approach for condom identification in condom contaminated fingermarks.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Robert; Wolstenholme, Rosalind; Ferguson, Leesa Susanne; Sammon, Chris; Mader, Kerstin; Claude, Emmanuelle; Blackledge, Robert D; Clench, Malcolm R; Francese, Simona

    2013-05-01

    Sexual offenders are increasingly reported to use condoms while committing the crime, mainly to prevent the transfer of DNA evidence. Although condoms are often removed from the crime scene, vaginal swabs can be taken from the victim to prove the presence of condom lubricants and therefore evidence of corpus delicti. However, late reporting to the police and the tendency of the victim to wash immediately after the crime, may compromise the detection of condom lubricants. Recently we showed that Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation MS Imaging (MALDI MSI) of condom contaminated fingermarks enables images of the fingermark ridge pattern to be obtained simultaneously with the detection of the condom lubricant for two condom brands, thus becoming a potential alternative way to link the assailant to the crime. Building on the value of this information, it would be advantageous to identify the condom brand used during the sexual assault. Here we show the development of a multidisciplinary spectroscopic approach, including MALDI MSI, MS/MS, Raman microscopy and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, applied to a range of condom brands/types. The techniques have complementary features and provide complementary information to retrieve a "condom brand spectroscopic fingerprint". Unique spectroscopic profiles would greatly aid in the screening and identification of the condom, thus adding intelligence to the case under investigation. PMID:23486747

  18. Women's beliefs concerning condom acquisition and use.

    PubMed

    Libbus, K

    1995-10-01

    Condoms are a time-honored and reliable method of protection against pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. However, their use, and thus their effectiveness, is determined by individual behavior. The purpose of this paper is to report attitudes and salient beliefs related to condom use in a sample of adult women. The study used Ajzen and Fishbein's Theory of Planned Behavior to identify modal, salient beliefs regarding condom acquisition and use as intentional behaviors. The study sample consisted of 58 community women who reported using condoms for contraceptive purposes within the last five years. In face-to-face, audiotaped interviews, open-ended questions were used to solicit beliefs regarding condom acquisition and use. All subject narratives were content-analyzed for recurrent themes. Women cited accessibility and effectiveness in preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases as both advantages and as factors contributing to the ease of acquisition and use. Disadvantages and factors that might deter condom acquisition and use included embarrassment, objections by male partner, and effect on spontaneity. Overall, subjects exhibited accurate knowledge regarding the benefits of condom acquisition and use. However, it is possible that expressed negative beliefs could take precedence in decision-making and reduce the probability of consistent condom use. PMID:7479543

  19. Condom Use: A Culture of Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Measor, Lynda

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the resistance young men show towards consistent condom use. It is based on data generated by peer research that offer information about the distaste young men express about condoms, but also emphasise some of the physical difficulties that young men can experience when using them, which they are less willing to express. The…

  20. Examination of the potential association of stress with morbidity and mortality outcomes in patient with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Rebecca; Tovar, Elizabeth; Bailey, Alison; Lennie, Terry A; Randall, David C; Moser, Debra K

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The high mortality and morbidity rates associated with heart failure are still not well explained. A few psychosocial factors have been studied and explain some of this risk, but other factors, like stress, remain largely unexplored in heart failure. This study aimed to (1) examine the association of stress with 6-month cardiac event-free survival, (2) examine the relationship of stress with salivary cortisol, and (3) examine the association of salivary cortisol level with 6-month cardiac event-free survival. Method: A total of 81 heart failure patients participated. Stress was measured using the brief Perceived Stress Scale. Cortisol was measured from unstimulated whole expectorated saliva. Cox regression analyses were used to determine whether stress predicted event-free survival, and if salivary cortisol predicted event-free survival. Linear and multiple regressions were used to determine the association of stress with salivary cortisol. Results: Stress was not a significant predictor of event-free survival in heart failure (heart rate = 1.06; 95% confidence interval = 0.95–1.81; p = 0.32). Salivary cortisol was a significant predictor of event-free survival in the unadjusted model (heart rate = 2.30; 95% confidence interval = 0.99–5.927; p = 0.05), but not in the adjusted model. Stress (β 1.06; 95% confidence interval = 0.95–1.18; p = 0.32) was not a significant predictor of salivary cortisol level. Conclusion: Stress is a complex phenomenon, and our measure of stress may not have captured it well. Alternatively, the physical stressors acting in heart failure produce levels of neurohormonal activation that mask the effects of psychosocial stressors or an indirect association of stress with outcomes that is mediated through another construct. Future studies are needed to investigate stress in patients with heart failure to provide definitive answers. PMID:26246898

  1. Examination of a Rock Failure Criterion Based on Circumferential Tensile Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, , Y.; Kiyama, , T.; Ishijima, Y.; Kodama, J.

    Uniaxial compression, triaxial compression and Brazialian tests were conducted on several kinds of rock, with particular attention directed to the principal tensile strain. In this paper we aim to clarify the effects of the experimental environment-such as confining pressure, loading rate, water content and anisotropy-on the critical tensile strain, i.e., the measured principal tensile strain at peak load.It was determined that the chain-type extensometer is a most suitable method for measuring the critical tensile strain in uniaxial compression tests. It is also shown that the paper-based strain gage, whose effective length is less than or equal to a tenth of the specimen's diameter and glued on with a rubber-type adhesive, can be effectively used in the Brazilian tests.The effect of confining pressure PC on the critical tensile strain ɛTC in the brittle failure region was between -0.02 × 10-10 Pa-1 and 0.77 × 10-10 Pa-1. This pressure sensitivity is small compared to the critical tensile strain values of around -0.5 × 10-2. The strain rate sensitivities ∂ɛTC/∂{log(d|ɛ|/dt)} were observed in the same way as the strength constants in other failure criteria. They were found to be from -0.10 × 10-3 to -0.52 × 10-3 per order of magnitude in strain rate in the triaxial tests. The average magnitude of the critical tensile strain ɛTC increased due to the presence of water by 4% to 20% for some rocks, and decreased by 22% for sandstone. It can at least be said that the critical tensile strain is less sensitive to water content than the uniaxial compressive strength under the experimental conditions reported here. An obvious anisotropy was observed in the P-wave velocity and in the uniaxial compressive strength of Pombetsu sandstone. It was not observed, however, in the critical tensile strain, although the data do show some variation.A "tensile strain criterion" was proposed, based on the above experimental results. This criterion signifies that stress begins

  2. From awareness to adoption: the effect of AIDS education and condom social marketing on condom use in Tanzania (1993-1996).

    PubMed

    Eloundou-Enyegue, Parfait M; Meekers, Dominique; Calvès, Anne Emmanuèle

    2005-05-01

    This paper uses retrospective event-history data covering a four-year period to examine the timing of exposure to HIV/AIDS education and social marketing condom promotion campaigns, relative to the timing of changes in sexual risk behaviour in Tanzania. Analysis of the event-history data shows that the process of exposure to AIDS education messages and exposure to brand advertising for Salama brand condoms was very different. While exposure to AIDS education was early and gradual, exposure to Salama brand condoms started later, but was much more rapid. After one year of advertising, over half of the target population had been reached by the Salama advertising campaign, mostly through newspapers, radio and television. During the study period, condom use increased from 15% at the beginning of 1993 to 42% at the end of 1996. Increases in condom use were driven both by men who became sexually active, and by men who were not yet protected, or not fully protected. The results further show that it is uncommon for men who adopted condom use to return to more risky behaviour, which suggests that behaviour change in the study population is permanent. PMID:15906883

  3. Bias in Self-Reported Condom Use: Association Between Over-Reported Condom Use and Syphilis in a Three-Site Study in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjie; Morisky, Donald E; Lin, Xinqin; Ma, Erjian; Jiang, Baofa; Yin, Yueping

    2016-06-01

    This study examined over-reporting bias in self-reported condom use and assessed its association with syphilis. A survey was conducted among 1245 female sex workers (FSWs) in three cities in China. Respondent's over-reported condom use was defined as reporting no unprotected sex for the past 24 h but testing positive for prostate specific antigen. The proportion of prevalent syphilis and active syphilis was 23 and 10 % respectively among FSWs. The proportion of over-reported condom use with sex clients only was 27-45 % among the three study sites. The proportion of over-reported condom use with all sex partners (clients, husbands, or boyfriends) was 26-46 %. FSWs who had active or prevalent syphilis were more likely to over report condom use. Self-reported condom use may not be a valid tool to measure the efficacy of HIV/STI intervention because the bias is associated with the outcome measure, i.e., syphilis. PMID:26696262

  4. Failure to detect an unusual obstruction in a reinforced endotracheal tube with fiberoptic examination.

    PubMed

    Paul, Matthias; Dueck, Michael; Kampe, Sandra; Petzke, Frank

    2003-09-01

    Obstruction of an endotracheal tube (ETT) is a potentially life-threatening event. We report an unusual obstruction of a reinforced ETT. The valve-like obstruction was caused by a partial detachment of the inner coating from the embedded spiral of the ETT. It led to an increase in inspiratory airway pressure, failure to detect end-expiratory CO(2), and generated a wheezing sound in forced expiration. Fiberoptic inspection, which is a recommended procedure for a suspected ETT-obstruction, failed to identify this detachment. Exchanging the defective ETT immediately resolved the critical clinical situation. The detachment was most likely caused by re-autoclavation of the ETT, which was a specified single-use product. PMID:12933428

  5. Adolescent Sexual Health Communication and Condom Use: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Widman, Laura; Noar, Seth M.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Francis, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Objective Condom use is critical for the health of sexually active adolescents, and yet many adolescents fail to use condoms consistently. One interpersonal factor that may be key to condom use is sexual communication between sexual partners; however, the association between communication and condom use has varied considerably in prior studies of youth. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the growing body of research linking adolescents’ sexual communication to condom use, and to examine several moderators of this association. Methods A total of 41 independent effect sizes from 34 studies with 15,046 adolescent participants (Mage=16.8, age range=12–23) were meta-analyzed. Results Results revealed a weighted mean effect size of the sexual communication-condom use relationship of r = .24, which was statistically heterogeneous (Q=618.86, p<.001, I2 =93.54). Effect sizes did not differ significantly by gender, age, recruitment setting, country of study, or condom measurement timeframe; however, communication topic and communication format were statistically significant moderators (p<.001). Larger effect sizes were found for communication about condom use (r = .34) than communication about sexual history (r = .15) or general safer sex topics (r = .14). Effect sizes were also larger for communication behavior formats (r = .27) and self-efficacy formats (r = .28), than for fear/concern (r = .18), future intention (r = .15), or communication comfort (r = −.15) formats. Conclusions Results highlight the urgency of emphasizing communication skills, particularly about condom use, in HIV/STI prevention work for youth. Implications for the future study of sexual communication are discussed. PMID:25133828

  6. Factors affecting men's liking of condoms they have used.

    PubMed

    Smith, A M; Jolley, D; Hocking, J; Benton, K; Gerofi, J

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact on men's liking for the condoms they use of a range of factors including demographic variables and variables that describe men's experience of using particular condoms. One hundred and ninety-four men used 3765 condoms for which they provided a liking rating. The condoms were manufactured to one of 2 published standards and the study employed a double-blind crossover design. Sixty-one per cent of condoms were rated favourably, 31% were rated neutrally and the remainder (8%) unfavourably. Men rated condoms less favourably if they were experienced as too loose, too tight, too short, if difficulty was experienced applying the condom, if the condom slipped partially or completely down the penis or if the condom broke. Men rated more highly condoms which were experienced as well lubricated throughout use. Men with larger penises rated condoms less favourably and, of all the variables considered, ejaculating in the condom was the variable which had the largest positive impact. Men's liking for the condoms they use is influenced by a range of factors. However, given that most of the factors associated with men liking condoms less are those that can be addressed through better condom design and manufacture, the opportunity exists to enhance men's experience of condom use and hence help reduce resistance to the adoption of consistent condom use. PMID:12035780

  7. Four Radical Panaceas for Reversing Mass Failure in Certificate English Language Examinations in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasasi, Khabyr Alowonle; Amadi, Gloria U.

    2015-01-01

    Given the present-day perspectives of Nigerians to the imperatives of qualitative education in the lives of youths, quite a lot of Nigerians have strongly bemoaned and condemned the recurrent woeful performances of students in Certificate examinations. Many research works have therefore concerned themselves with solving the problems of mass…

  8. Identifying Students at Risk for Failure on the Licensing Examination for Registered Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Susan J.; Orr, Scott P.

    A method was developed for identifying students who may be at high risk for failing the State Board Licensing Examination (SBE) for registered nurses. The subjects used in developing prediction equations included 50 students who graduated from the nursing program at Saint Joseph's College (SJC) in North Windham (Maine) during the years 1983-84.…

  9. The effect of exposure to a condom script on attitudes toward condoms.

    PubMed

    Kyes, K B; Brown, I S; Pollack, R H

    1991-01-01

    The effect of reading an erotic script that described condom placement on attitudes toward condom use was investigated in 102 male and 108 female US university students. It was hypothesized that, when integrated into an erotic script, condom use would become viewed as a pleasurable activity rather than just a means of avoiding pregnancy or disease. Controls received identical scripts except that the use of condoms was omitted or received no stories. Subjects who read the erotic accounts exhibited a positive change from pretest to posttest in attitudes toward condom use, but there was no difference in this outcome between condom story and no-condom erotic story conditions. In women, but not men, a high level of arousal induced by the script was associated with negative attitudes toward condoms, suggesting that males and females may require different reading materials. Given the finding, at least in women, of an inverse relationship between explicit eroticism/sexual arousal and condom attitude scores, a 2nd experiment involving less explicit stories written by college students was conducted. Here, 100 men and 100 women students received erotic stories that either featured or did not include condom use. Again, males who read stories incorporating condom placement held more positive attitudes toward condom use than same-sex controls, but women were not affected by the manipulation. For women, a positive attitude toward condom use was associated only with history of sexual activity. Helpful would be the preparation of erotic scripts that appeal to both sexes given the demonstrated effectiveness of this social learning technique with the male subjects in both experiments. PMID:12317687

  10. Comparative evaluation of three Tactylon(TM) condoms and a latex condom during vaginal intercourse: breakage and slippage.

    PubMed

    Callahan, M; Mauck, C; Taylor, D; Frezieres, R; Walsh, T; Martens, M

    2000-03-01

    This study compared breakage and slippage rates of three male condom styles made of Tactylon(TM), a synthetic elastomer, to those of a marketed latex condom during vaginal intercourse. Safety and acceptability outcomes were also assessed. This two-center, prospective, crossover study enrolled 443 couples. Each couple was randomly assigned to use three condoms of each type in one of 24 use sequences. Couples completed questionnaires after using each condom, all of one condom type, and all four condom types. The percentage and standard error (SE, in parentheses) of latex condoms with clinical breakage was 0.86% (0.295). Percentages for Tactylon condoms were not equivalent to the latex study condom, ranging from 3.50% to 4.17%. The percentage and SE of latex condoms with complete slippage was 1.11% (0.328). Percentages for Tactylon condoms were equivalent to those for latex, ranging from 0.70% to 1.31%. The Low-Modulus Tactylon condom was the most preferred. Fewer medical events were reported with the Tactylon condoms than with the latex condom. It was concluded that Tactylon condoms were equivalent to the latex condom in terms of slippage but not breakage. However, safety and acceptability seemed to be better for Tactylon condoms. This may improve consistency of use and may attract new users. PMID:10827335

  11. Between tradition and change: condom use with primary sexual partners among Mexican migrants.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Hoyos, Ramiro; Torres-Lopez, Teresa; Pineda-Lucatero, Alicia; Navarro-Nuñez, Carlos; Fosados, Raquel; Valente, Thomas W

    2008-07-01

    The frequency of male Mexico-US migration has been associated with increased HIV risk for sexual partners awaiting their return in Mexico. This study examined the association between sexual partner characteristics and condom use among a sample of 354 male migrants from two Mexican municipalities. Migrants were interviewed about their past year's sex practices. Results indicated that migrants were more likely to use condoms with their non-spousal partners, partners with less education than the migrant, and partners with higher employment status. Condom use was greater among younger migrants and residents of the more densely populated municipality. Findings suggest the coexistence of a traditional cultural orientation that does not support condom use and another one that does provided the sex partner is formally employed. Prevention programs must strengthen the structural conditions fostering greater equality between the sexes and adapt their approaches for different population density, age and partner types. PMID:18389360

  12. Protective Parenting, Relationship Power Equity, and Condom Use Among Rural African American Emerging Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Simons, Leslie G.; Chen, Yifu; Burwell, Stephanie; Brody, Gene H.

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections disproportionately affect African Americans, particularly young women. The influence of a set of interrelated protective parenting processes—instrumental and emotional support, sexual risk communication, and encouragement of goals for employment or education—on emerging adult women was examined. Parenting was hypothesized to affect consistent condom use through its association with women’s reports of power equity in their intimate relationships. Hypotheses were tested with 135 sexually active women 18 to 21 years of age living in rural southern communities. Structural equation modeling indicated that (a) parenting processes predicted women’s self-reported relationship power equity and consistent condom use, and (b) relationship power equity predicted consistent condom use. Limited support emerged for a mediational role of relationship power equity in explaining the influence of parenting on consistent condom use. Parental involvement and young women’s establishment of personal control in their intimate relationships are important goals for sexual risk reduction programs. PMID:23729949

  13. An Expanded Model of the Temporal Stability of Condom Use Intentions: Gender-Specific Predictors among High-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Schmiege, Sarah J.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescents involved with the criminal justice system are at particularly high-risk for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and sexually transmitted infections. Purpose The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine gender-specific models of condom use, incorporating temporal stability of intentions. Methods Adolescents on probation (N=728) were recruited to complete longitudinal surveys including measures of Theory of Planned Behavior and gender-specific constructs, relationship length, and condom use. Results Gender-specific models of condom use behavior suggested by previous research were mostly replicated. For young women, the effect of baseline intentions on subsequent condom use behavior was stronger when intentions were either stable or increasing. For young men, more stable, increasing intentions were directly associated with more condom use. There was preliminary evidence to suggest an association between temporal stability of intentions and decreasing condom use in stable relationships. Conclusions Intervention efforts should be tailored by gender and aim to forestall decreasing intentions and condom use over time by addressing difficulties in maintaining condom use. PMID:21347619

  14. Is cost a structural barrier preventing men who have sex with men accessing condoms? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ubrihien, Ashley; Davies, Stephen C; Driscoll, Tim

    2016-11-01

    A systematic review was undertaken to determine whether cost is a structural barrier preventing men who have sex with men (MSM) accessing condoms. Studies were examined from a range of countries where condoms have been distributed free to particular populations and also those where condoms were available at a cost to the individual. The study inclusion criteria were: published between January 1990 and September 2014 inclusive; published in any language, discussed cost as a barrier to condom use, discussed cost barriers to MSM accessing condoms and included a measure of outcome. Articles were systematically extracted from MEDLINE, Embase, PyschINFO and Informat using the five search terms; Male Homosexuality, Access, Cost, Cost and Cost analysis, Condoms. Sixty-four articles were initially identified and 11 included in the final review. The included studies used cost-utility analysis, qualitative, cross-sectional, cohort or randomised control trial design. Large-scale free distribution programmes and smaller targeted programmes showed positive correlations in reducing the burden of disease from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections through eliminating the issue of cost. Decreasing the cost of condoms, and providing them for no cost, appears to increase their utilisation amongst MSM and possibly reduce the burden from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Inequality and stigma remain important barriers to MSM accessing and using condoms particularly in the developing world. PMID:27240970

  15. As AID condom prices climb, so do calls for more condom sources.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    USAID is the world's largest distributer of condoms with over 800 million condoms distributed in 1990, the most recent year figures are available. However, this year's order is 300 million smaller because AID will no longer be supplying Bangladesh or Pakistan. This, combined with inflation has caused the price to rise 16% or from $4.51/100-$5.35/100. Bangladesh will not longer be supplied because the European Community will provide condoms as part of a new 5 year plan from the World Bank. Pakistan will no longer be supplied because US law forbids foreign aid to countries that refuse to sign the United Nations Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. The UNFPA distributed 98.5 million condoms last year. The WHO Global Program on AIDS supplied 140 million in 1989 and 30 million in 1990. The International Planned Parenthood Federation distributed 15 million condoms in 1990. Unlike AID, the other organizations can buy their condoms from any manufacture that meets the new international condom standard set up with the help of the WHO. AID must buy condoms manufactured in the US in accordance with US law. AID does however get a much better price for IUDs, oral contraceptive and Norplant. As a result AID is trying to work with other organizations in an attempt to maximize the amount of contraceptives available world wide for family planning. Since other groups are not restricted by the same rules, they could provide condoms, while AID could use its price advantage to supply other methods. PMID:12317127

  16. 21 CFR 884.5300 - Condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...: Labeling for Natural Rubber Latex Condoms Classified Under 21 CFR 884.5300” will serve as the special... transmitted infections). The device may also be used to collect semen to aid in the diagnosis of...

  17. 21 CFR 884.5300 - Condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...: Labeling for Natural Rubber Latex Condoms Classified Under 21 CFR 884.5300” will serve as the special... transmitted infections). The device may also be used to collect semen to aid in the diagnosis of...

  18. 21 CFR 884.5300 - Condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: Labeling for Natural Rubber Latex Condoms Classified Under 21 CFR 884.5300” will serve as the special... transmitted infections). The device may also be used to collect semen to aid in the diagnosis of...

  19. 21 CFR 884.5300 - Condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...: Labeling for Natural Rubber Latex Condoms Classified Under 21 CFR 884.5300” will serve as the special... transmitted infections). The device may also be used to collect semen to aid in the diagnosis of...

  20. 21 CFR 884.5300 - Condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...: Labeling for Natural Rubber Latex Condoms Classified Under 21 CFR 884.5300” will serve as the special... transmitted infections). The device may also be used to collect semen to aid in the diagnosis of...

  1. Talking to Your Partner about Condoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... at the top of your (or your partner's) penis. This gets rid of trapped air, which can ... Remove the condom immediately after ejaculation, before the penis softens. You or your partner should hold the ...

  2. The Role of Condom Use Self-Efficacy on Intended and Actual Condom Use Among University Students in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Osafo, Joseph; Doku, Paul N

    2016-02-01

    Little attention has been paid to the dimensions that help to predict and understand condom use among university students within an African context. A cross-sectional study involving 518 university students in Accra, Ghana was conducted to determine how the Condom Use self-Efficacy Scale-Ghana (CUSES-G) can predict both actual condom use and future condom use. Of all the participants, 84% were sexually active but less than half of the sample (48%) reported to have used condom during their last sexual intercourse. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that components of the Condom Use Self-Efficacy Scale (CUESE-G) such as appropriation, assertiveness, pleasure and intoxication, and STDs predicted condom use and condom use intentions. Behavioural change campaigns targeting university students should encourage condom use self-efficacy, as this would strengthen condom use, which is economically cheap and practically effective means of preventing STIs including HIV. PMID:26233713

  3. Relationships Between Marijuana Dependence and Condom Use Intentions and Behavior Among Justice-Involved Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell Hooper, Ann E.; Thayer, Rachel E.; Magnan, Renee E.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the relationships among marijuana dependence, a theoretical model of condom use intentions, and subsequent condom use behavior in justice-involved adolescents. Participants completed baseline measures of prior sexual and substance use behavior. Of the original 720 participants, 649 (90.13 %) completed follow-up measures 6 months later. There were high levels of marijuana use (58.7 % met criteria for dependence) and risky sexual behavior among participants. Baseline model constructs were associated with condom use intentions, and intentions were a significant predictor of condom use at follow-up. Marijuana dependence did not significantly influence the relationships between model constructs, nor did it moderate the relationship of model constructs with subsequent condom use. Findings suggest that the theoretical model of condom use intentions is equally valid regardless of marijuana dependence status, suggesting that interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior among both marijuana dependent and non-dependent justice-involved adolescents can be appropriately based on the model. PMID:23370834

  4. Body Dissatisfaction and Condom Use Self-Efficacy: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Blashill, Aaron J.; Safren, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    The consistent use of condoms is the most effective behavior for reducing the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and condom use self-efficacy has been shown to be a key construct related to condom use. However, the examination of modifiable psychosocial and behavioral correlates of condom use self-efficacy is lacking. Recent investigations have highlighted the association of body dissatisfaction with condom use self-efficacy, and the current study conducted a meta-analysis on all available data addressing this relationship. Eleven individual effect-size parameters from nine studies yielded a total sample of 2,495 men and women participants. A random-effects model revealed an average effect-size of r = −0.25, Cohen’s d = −0.52, which is moderate in strength. As body dissatisfaction increases, ones’ self-efficacy regarding the use of condoms diminishes. Integrating interventions to decrease body dissatisfaction and sexual risk behaviors may prove to be an effective strategy to decrease STIs. PMID:25462884

  5. Biological validation of self-reported condom use among sex workers in Guinea.

    PubMed

    Aho, Joséphine; Koushik, Anita; Diakité, Soumaïla Laye; Loua, Kovana Marcel; Nguyen, Vinh-Kim; Rashed, Sélim

    2010-12-01

    Self-reported condom use may be prone to social desirability bias. Our aim was to assess the validity of self-reported condom use in a population of female sex workers using prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a gold standard biomarker of recent unprotected vaginal intercourse. We collected data on 223 sex-workers in Conakry, Guinea in order to assess the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported condom use as well as to examine the predictors of discordance between self-report and PSA presence. PSA was detected in 38.4% of samples. Sensitivity of self-reported condom use was 14.6% and its specificity was 94.7%. Self-perceived high risk of HIV infection was the only significant independent predictor of misreported condom use. PSA could be useful to validate self-reported condom use in surveys and to allow a better understanding of factors associated with social desirability in sexual behaviour reporting. PMID:19680799

  6. Condom Use and Intimacy among Tajik Male Migrants and their Regular Female Partners in Moscow

    PubMed Central

    Polutnik, Chloe; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Shoakova, Farzona; Bahromov, Mahbat; Weine, Stevan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined condom use and intimacy among Tajik male migrants and their regular female partners in Moscow, Russia. This study included a survey of 400 Tajik male labour migrants; and longitudinal ethnographic interviews with 30 of the surveyed male migrants and 30 of their regular female partners. 351 (88%) of the surveyed male migrants reported having a regular female partner in Moscow. Findings demonstrated that the migrants’ and regular partners’ intentions to use condoms diminished with increased intimacy, yet each party perceived intimacy differently. Migrants’ intimacy with regular partners was determined by their familiarity and perceived sexual cleanliness of their partner. Migrants believed that Muslim women were cleaner than Orthodox Christian women and reported using condoms more frequently with Orthodox Christian regular partners. Regular partners reported determining intimacy based on the perceived commitment of the male migrant. When perceived commitment faced a crisis, intimacy declined, and regular partners renegotiated condom use. The association between intimacy and condom use suggests that HIV prevention programmes should aim to help male migrants and female regular partners to dissociate their approaches to condom use from their perceptions of intimacy. PMID:25033817

  7. Condom use and intimacy among Tajik male migrants and their regular female partners in Moscow.

    PubMed

    Zabrocki, Christopher; Polutnik, Chloe; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Shoakova, Farzona; Bahromov, Mahbat; Weine, Stevan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined condom use and intimacy among Tajik male migrants and their regular female partners in Moscow, Russia. This study included a survey of 400 Tajik male labour migrants and longitudinal ethnographic interviews with 30 of the surveyed male migrants and 30 of their regular female partners. of the surveyed male migrants, 351 (88%) reported having a regular female partner in Moscow. Findings demonstrated that the migrants' and regular partners' intentions to use condoms diminished with increased intimacy, yet each party perceived intimacy differently. Migrants' intimacy with regular partners was determined by their familiarity and the perceived sexual cleanliness of their partner. Migrants believed that Muslim women were cleaner than Orthodox Christian women and reported using condoms more frequently with Orthodox Christian regular partners. Regular partners reported determining intimacy based on the perceived commitment of the male migrant. When perceived commitment faced a crisis, intimacy declined and regular partners renegotiated condom use. The association between intimacy and condom use suggests that HIV-prevention programmes should aim to help male migrants and female regular partners to dissociate their approaches to condom use from their perceptions of intimacy. PMID:25033817

  8. Do alcohol and marijuana use decrease the probability of condom use for college women?

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jennifer L; Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and marijuana use are thought to increase sexual risk taking, but event-level studies conflict in their findings and often depend on reports from a limited number of people or on a limited number of sexual events per person. With event-level data from 1,856 sexual intercourse events provided by 297 college women (M age = 18 years; 71% White), we used multilevel modeling to examine associations between alcohol and marijuana use and condom use as well as interactions involving sexual partner type and alcohol-sexual risk expectancies. Controlling for alternative contraception use, partner type, regular levels of substance use, impulsivity and sensation seeking, and demographics, women were no more or less likely to use condoms during events involving drinking or heavy episodic drinking than during those without drinking. However, for drinking events, there was a negative association between number of drinks consumed and condom use; in addition, women with stronger alcohol-sexual risk expectancies were marginally less likely to use condoms when drinking. Although there was no main effect of marijuana use on condom use, these data suggest marijuana use with established romantic partners may increase risk of unprotected sex. Intervention efforts should target expectancies and emphasize the dose-response relationship of drinks to condom use. PMID:24164105

  9. Condoms, HIV and the Roman Catholic Church.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Carrara, Sabina; Filippi, Valentina; Brosens, Ivo

    2011-06-01

    For decades, the Roman Catholic Church opposed use of condoms to prevent spread of sexually transmitted infections (STI) because of their contraceptive effect. In 2009, Pope Benedict XVI said that widespread use of condoms could worsen the situation, a position rejected as 'unscientific'. Recently, however the Pontiff stated that because the Church considers acts of prostitution and homosexuality to be gravely immoral and disordered, in such specific cases use of a condom might become an initial step in the direction of a moralization leading to an assumption of responsibility and a new awareness of the meaning of sexuality. In doing so, he reaffirmed his belief that condoms cannot solve the problem of STI spread, stressing the Church's position that modern societies no longer see sexuality as an 'expression of love, but only as a sort of drug that people administer to themselves'. The new Papal position has been widely applauded, but made conservative Catholics unhappy. A dialogue with the Church now seems possible: Does concentrating on condoms hinder the effectiveness of other strategies? What are the respective roles of condoms and other approaches to prevent infection spread? Does a special situation exist in Africa requiring specific and focused interventions? PMID:21507723

  10. South Africa plays down faulty condom scare.

    PubMed

    1999-01-11

    South Africa has one of the highest rates of HIV infection in the world, with 3 million of the country's total population of approximately 40 million estimated to be currently infected with HIV. With 1500 people in South Africa contracting HIV every day, it is projected that more than 25% of the country's population will be infected with HIV by 2010. However, despite the current state of affairs regarding HIV/AIDS in South Africa and the extremely high level of HIV prevalence projected for the future, South Africans don't buy condoms. Free distribution, began in 1992, accounts for 90-95% of all condom use in the country. South Africa's Department of Health distributed more than 140 million free condoms in 1998, although as many as 1 million were defective. In an attempt to quell the resultant public uproar over the distribution of sub-standard condoms, a senior HIV/AIDS specialist with the Department of Health assures the population that from April 1, 1999, South Africa will adhere to the same standards as the World Health Organization, and all procurements will have been batch-by-batch tested. This specialist also stated that only one brand of condom, supplied by a manufacturer in India, was found to be defective and was immediately withdrawn. Assertions that other batches imported from China were also sub-standard were false. The Department of Health plans to sponsor a National Condom Week leading up to Valentine's Day on February 14, 1999, to promote condoms and their correct use. PMID:12294480

  11. Personal and partner measures in stages of consistent condom use among African American heterosexual crack cocaine smokers

    PubMed Central

    PALLONEN, U. E.; WILLIAMS, M. L.; TIMPSON, S. C.; BOWEN, A.; ROSS, M. W.

    2010-01-01

    Participants’ personal condom use measures and those of their last sex partner’s were examined in five stages of change for consistent condom use among 449 urban sexually active, heterosexual, African–American crack smokers. The measures included participants’ personal and their last sex partner’s perceived responsibility, personal and perceived negative attitudes, and participants’ self-efficacy to use condoms. The relationships between the measures and the stages were examined using analyses of variance and multivariate logistic regression. Over 90% of participants did not use condoms, consistently. Two-thirds of the inconsistent users were in the precontemplation stage. The rest were equally divided between the contemplation and preparation stages. Personal responsibility outperformed other measures in initial intention to become a regular condom user; partner’s perceived responsibility dominated continued intention and actual consistent condom use. Negative attitudes and self-efficacies had strong relationships to the stages of consistent condom use in univariate analyses but these relationships became substantially weaker when the responsibility, attitude, and self-efficacy concepts were entered simultaneously into multivariate analyses. PMID:18293131

  12. Correlates of condom-associated erection problems in young, heterosexual men: condom fit, self-efficacy, perceptions, and motivations.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Stephanie A; Hill, Brandon J; Crosby, Richard A; Janssen, Erick

    2014-01-01

    Questionnaire data from 479 heterosexual men 18-24 years old were analyzed for correlates of CAEP during application (CAEP-Application) and CAEP during penile-vaginal intercourse (CAEP-PVI). Potential correlates were self-efficacy (condom application, product selection, and maintaining arousal), condom perceptions (condom worry/distraction, negative condom perceptions, concerns about application speed), condom fit, and motivation to use condoms. We conclude that (1) experiencing CAEP may become a repeating cycle, both affecting and being affected by, worry and distraction related to losing erections and maintaining arousal while using a condom (2) poorly fitting condoms may contribute to CAEP, and (3) CAEP may decrease motivation to use condoms. PMID:23404098

  13. Unwanted unprotected sex: condom coercion by male partners and self-silencing of condom negotiation among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Teitelman, Anne M; Tennille, Julie; Bohinski, Julia M; Jemmott, Loretta S; Jemmott, John B

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study used the theory of reasoned action and the theory of gender and power to guide elicitation of partner-related impediments to condom use among 64 adolescent girls living in poor urban areas with high rates of HIV and partner abuse. About 53% indicated that they had experienced unwanted, unprotected vaginal sex and 25% indicated that they were unable to discuss condom use with a partner. Novel qualitative findings related to condom coercion, condom sabotage, and self-silencing of condom negotiation are discussed in the context of connecting partner abuse to interpersonal control over condom use. Implications for intervention design are discussed. PMID:21822072

  14. It Takes Two: The Role of Partner Ethnicity and Age Characteristics on Condom Negotiations of Heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Amy G.; Barnhart, James E.

    2006-01-01

    To date, limited attention is paid to how partners influence the condom negotiation process. This study examined whether partner ethnicity and age were associated with condom negotiations (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect) in heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American college women. Results from 181 women…

  15. Determinants of condom use intentions of university students in Ghana: an application of the theory of reasoned action.

    PubMed

    Bosompra, K

    2001-04-01

    The study examined the applicability of the Theory of Reasoned Action to the study of condom use intentions of students at a university in southern Ghana. The data supported the model, explaining 33% of the variance in students' condom use intentions. Subjective norms and the perceived disadvantages of condom use were significant determinants of intention, with the former being more important. Respondents who intended to use condoms consistently ("intenders") and those with no such intentions ("non-intenders") were equally motivated to comply with the wishes of their significant referents (sexual partners, close friends, parents and medical doctors). The critical difference was that "intenders" consistently held a stronger belief than "non-intenders" that their significant referents approved of condom use. Significantly, whereas "intenders" believed that their sexual partners would approve of condom use, the "non-intenders" held the contrary belief that their partners would disapprove of such behavior. This suggests that AIDS education interventions targeting a similar audience like the university students in this study should shift their foci away from individuals alone and instead, focus simultaneously on individuals, their sexual partners and their broader social networks in order to enhance perceptions of peer acceptance of condom use. PMID:11266049

  16. Latex rubber condoms: predicting and extending shelf life.

    PubMed

    Free, M J; Srisamang, V; Vail, J; Mercer, D; Kotz, R; Marlowe, D E

    1996-04-01

    Condoms from five manufacturers were subjected to controlled exposures of heat, humidity, and air and to different natural environments in five countries. Under aerobic conditions (condoms in permeable packages or unpackaged), stress properties declined. The relationship between rate of decline as a function of temperature was quadratic. Under oxygen-restricted conditions (foil-wrapped packages) at average storage temperatures of 30 degrees C and lower, strain properties declined with little or no significant change in stress properties. The effect is to cause condoms to become stiffer; high-breakage rates in use have been correlated with product stiffening. A new rationale for accelerated-aging tests to predict condom shelf stability is suggested, including a test to control the trend of condoms to stiffen. Silicone lubricant, impermeable packaging, and inclusion of antioxidants in the condom formulation can prevent or minimize aerobic breakdown of latex condoms. Specifying low-modulus condoms can prevent excessive stiffening. PMID:8706440

  17. Prevalence and Contexts of Inconsistent Condom Use Among Heterosexual Men and Women Living with HIV in India: Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A.; Shunmugam, Murali

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This investigation examined sexual behaviors among heterosexual persons living with HIV (PLHIV) in India. Study participants (mostly married) were interviewed during August to November 2006 in five Indian states using a quantitative survey (n = 100 men and 100 women), eight focus groups (n = 58 participants), and in-depth interviews (n = 31). One third of men and one fourth of women reported inconsistent condom use with regular sexual partners. Facilitators of condom use with regular partners included a feeling of personal responsibility to protect the health of the partner, desire to prevent acquisition and/or transmission of sexually transmitted infections, and the belief that condoms are needed for antiretroviral therapy to be effective. Barriers to consistent condom use with regular partners included the belief that condoms are unnecessary in HIV-positive seroconcordant relationships; lack of sexual satisfaction with condoms; the desire to have a child; husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety; fear that disclosure of HIV status will bring marital discord and family shame; and inadequate counseling by health care providers. Positive prevention programs should include counseling about benefits of safer sex in HIV-positive seroconcordant relationships, counseling about integrating condom use with sexual satisfaction and intimacy, condom use self-efficacy and negotiation skills-building, family planning counseling, mental health and alcohol dependence treatment, and counseling and skills-building about disclosure. Health care providers must be trained to provide these services. Furthermore, efforts are needed to promote tolerance for family planning choices made by couples and to counter the stigma associated with HIV/AIDS and condoms in the broader society. PMID:20095889

  18. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal lubricant is a sheath which completely covers the penis with a closely fitting membrane with a...

  19. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal lubricant is a sheath which completely covers the penis with a closely fitting membrane with a...

  20. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal lubricant is a sheath which completely covers the penis with a closely fitting membrane with a...

  1. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal lubricant is a sheath which completely covers the penis with a closely fitting membrane with a...

  2. 21 CFR 884.5310 - Condom with spermicidal lubricant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Condom with spermicidal lubricant. 884.5310... Devices § 884.5310 Condom with spermicidal lubricant. (a) Identification. A condom with spermicidal lubricant is a sheath which completely covers the penis with a closely fitting membrane with a...

  3. Factors Associated with Parent Support for Condom Education and Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AugsJoost, Brett; Jerman, Petra; Deardorff, Julianna; Harley, Kim; Constantine, Norman A.

    2014-01-01

    Expanding condom-related knowledge and skills and reducing barriers to condom use have the potential to help reduce pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among youth. These goals are sometimes addressed through condom education and availability (CEA) programs as part of sexuality education in school. Parents are a key constituency in…

  4. Prototypical Images in Condom Scripts among AIDS-Bereaved Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Warren A.; Rubin, Rachel M.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five HIV-negative late adolescents (13 women and 12 men) who had lost a parent to AIDS generated vignettes in which the characters were deciding whether to use a condom (condom scripts). Two clinically trained judges rated the interpersonal tone of the condom scripts on 17 semantic differential scales. Three other clinically trained raters…

  5. Condom use among Hispanic men with secondary female sexual partners.

    PubMed Central

    Marin, B V; Gomez, C A; Tschann, J M

    1993-01-01

    Greater understanding of psychosocial predictors of the use of condoms among Hispanics is needed in prevention efforts related to the human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted disease epidemics among Hispanics in the United States. A telephone survey was carried out in nine States that have large populations of Hispanics, using a stratified clustered random digit dialing sampling strategy. The survey yielded interviews with 968 Hispanic men ages 18-49 years. Of them, 361 (37.8 percent) reported at least one secondary female sexual partner in the 12 months prior to the interview. Predictors were identified of condom use by those men with their secondary sex partners. Key predictors of the subjects' condom use with secondary partners included carrying condoms; self-efficacy, or a measure of the subject's perceived ability to use condoms under difficult circumstances; positive attitude toward condom use; having friends who used condoms; and lack of symptoms of depression in the week before the interview (R2 = 0.35). Significant predictors of condom carrying were being comfortable in sexual situations, positive attitude toward condom use, and self-efficacy to use condoms. Less acculturated men had more positive attitudes toward condom use and carried them more than did more acculturated men. The researchers found encouraging levels of condom use with secondary sexual partners among Hispanic men with multiple partners.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8265759

  6. Habitual condom use across partner type and sexual position among younger gay and bisexual men: findings from New Zealand HIV behavioural surveillance 2006–2011

    PubMed Central

    Lachowsky, N J; Dewey, C E; Dickson, N P; Saxton, P J W; Hughes, A J; Milhausen, R R; Summerlee, A J S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Our objectives were to investigate demographic and behavioural factors associated with condom use and to examine how habitual condom use was across partner types and sexual positions among younger men who have sex with men (YMSM), aged 16–29, surveyed in New Zealand. Methods We analysed the 2006–2011 national HIV behavioural surveillance data from YMSM who reported anal intercourse in four scenarios of partner type and sexual position: casual insertive, casual receptive, regular insertive and regular receptive. For each, respondents’ condom use was classified as frequent (always/almost always) or otherwise, with associated factors identified with multivariate mixed-effect logistic regression. Habitual condom use across scenarios was examined using a latent variable technique that estimated the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results Frequent condom use was reported for 63.6% of 5153 scenarios reported from 2412 YMSM. Frequent use increased from boyfriend to fuckbuddy to casual partners. Infrequent use was associated with online recruitment, Pacific ethnicity, less education, HIV positivity, sex with women, having ≥20 sexual partners versus 1 and reporting insertive and receptive sexual positions. Frequent condom use was associated with having two to five sexual partners versus one and shorter regular partnerships. The ICC=0.865 indicated highly habitual patterns of use; habitual infrequent condom use was most prevalent with regular partners (53.3%) and habitual frequent condom use was most prevalent with casual partners (70.2%) and for either sexual position (50.5% and 49.1%). Conclusions Habitual condom use among YMSM highlights the value of early, engaging and sustained condom promotion. Public health should provide better and more compelling condom education, training and promotion for YMSM. PMID:25605969

  7. Depression, Abuse, Relationship Power and Condom Use by Pregnant and Postpartum Women with Substance Abuse History.

    PubMed

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Beck-Sagué, Consuelo; Attonito, Jennifer M; Saxena, Anshul; Stein, Judith A

    2016-02-01

    Substance-abusing pregnant and postpartum women are less likely to maintain consistent condom use and drug and alcohol abstinence, which is particularly concerning in high HIV-prevalence areas. Data from 224 pregnant and postpartum women in substance abuse treatment were analyzed to examine effects of history of substance use, child abuse, and mental health problems on current substance use and condom-use barriers. Mediators were depression, relationship power and social support. Most participants (72.9 %) evidenced current depression. Less social support (-0.17, p < 0.05) and relationship power (-0.48, p < 0.001), and greater depression (-0.16, p < 0.05) predicted more condom-use barriers. History of mental health problems predicted condom-use barriers, mediated by recent depression and relationship power (0.15, p < 0.001). These findings suggest depression and diminished relationship power limit highest-risk women's ability to negotiate condom use and abstain from substance use, increasing their risk of acute HIV infection and vertical transmission. PMID:26319131

  8. Cultural adaptation of the Condom Use Self Efficacy Scale (CUSES) in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of self-reports of sexual behaviours is vital to the evaluation of HIV prevention and family planning interventions. This investigation was to determine the cross-cultural suitability of the Condom Use Self Efficacy Scale (CUSES) originally developed for American adolescents and young adults by examining the structure and psychometric properties. Method A self-administered cross-sectional survey of a convenient sample of 511 participants from a private university in Ghana with mean age 21.59 years. Result A Principal Component Analysis with varimax rotation identified a 14 item scale with four reliable factors labelled Appropriation (Cronbach alpha = .85), Assertive (Cronbach alpha = .90), Pleasure and Intoxicant (Cronbach alpha = .83), and STDs (Cronbach alpha = .81) that altogether explained 73.72% of the total variance. The scale correlated well with a measure of condom use at past sexual encounter (r = .73), indicating evidence of construct and discriminatory validity. The factor loadings were similar to the original CUSES scale but not identical suggesting relevant cultural variations. Conclusion The 14 item scale (CUSES-G) is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing condom use self efficacy. It is culturally appropriate for use among Ghanaian youth to gauge actual condom use and to evaluate interventions meant to increase condom use. Finally, the study cautioned researchers against the use of the original CUSES without validation in African settings and contexts. PMID:20433724

  9. Why do men often not use condoms in their relationships with casual sexual partners in Uganda?

    PubMed

    Rutakumwa, Rwamahe; Mbonye, Martin; Kiwanuka, Thadeus; Bagiire, Daniel; Seeley, Janet

    2015-01-01

    With a focus on Uganda, this paper examines men's condom use in sexual relationships with casual partners and what this might tell us about men's vulnerability to HIV-infection. We carried out repeat interviews with 31 men attending a clinic serving women at high risk for HIV infection and their partners in Kampala. We found that the experience of condom-less sex in the men's youth, itself the outcome of a restrictive home environment, was perceived as influencing later unsafe sexual behaviour. Peer pressure encouraged men to have multiple partners. Alcohol negatively affected condom use. Men often opted not to use a condom with women they thought looked healthy, particularly if they had had sex with the same woman before. Some men who were HIV-positive said they saw little point in using condoms since they were already infected. A concerted effort is required to reach men, like those in our study, to halt HIV and the transmission of other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:26158527

  10. Everyday exposure to benevolent sexism and condom use among college women.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Caroline C; Zucker, Alyssa N

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors related to condom use is critical in reducing the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially for women, who are disproportionately affected by many STIs. Extant work has shown that perceived sexism is one such factor associated with lower levels of condom use among women, but has yet to explore whether benevolent sexism in particular-a subtle form of sexism that often goes unnoticed and increases cognitions and behaviors consistent with traditional female gender roles (e.g., sexual submissiveness)-relates negatively to this safer-sex practice. The present research tested this possibility and, in addition, examined whether relational sex motives, which reflect a desire to engage in sex as a means to foster partners' sexual satisfaction, mediated the relation between benevolent sexism and condom use. During the spring of 2011, female college students (N = 158) reported how often they experienced benevolent sexism in their daily lives and, 2 weeks later, their relational sex motives and condom use. Supporting hypotheses results indicated that greater exposure to benevolent sexism was associated significantly with lower condom use, and that relational sex motives mediated this relationship. We discuss implications for women's well-being, including ways to promote safer sex in the face of sexism. PMID:25794197

  11. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical correlates of inconsistent condom use in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples.

    PubMed

    Buchacz, K; van der Straten, A; Saul, J; Shiboski, S C; Gomez, C A; Padian, N

    2001-11-01

    We examined sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics associated with inconsistent condom use in a cross-sectional analysis of 145 sexually active HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples who participated in the California Partners Study II. All couples were aware of their HIV-serodiscordant status. Forty-five percent of couples reported having had unprotected vaginal or anal sex in the previous 6 months. In the multivariate couple-level analyses, factors independently associated with inconsistent (i.e., <100%) condom use in the previous 6 months included lower educational level, unemployment, African-American ethnicity, and practice of anal sex by the couple. Injection drug use was associated with inconsistent condom use among couples with younger HIV-infected partners. In addition, couples with HIV-infected partners who had higher CD4 cell counts and couples in which the HIV-infected male partner ever had sex with a man were more likely to use condoms inconsistently. Consistency of condom use did not depend on the gender of the HIV-infected partner or duration of sexual relationship. The findings suggest that many HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples remain at high risk of HIV transmission and may benefit not only from behavioral interventions but also from structural interventions aimed at improving their social and economic conditions. PMID:11694839

  12. Condom Access: Associations with Consistent Condom Use among Female Sex Workers in Two Northern Border Cities of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Fátima A.; Pollini, Robin A.; Zúñiga, María Luisa; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Martínez, Gustavo A.; Valles-Medina, Ana M.; Sirotin, Nicole; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether condom access is associated with consistent condom use among FSWs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, between 2004 and 2006 we administered a questionnaire to 924 FSWs who reported unprotected sex with a client in the past two months. Of these women, 43% reported consistent (“often” or “always”) condom use; 74% said condoms were available; and 38% reported having access to free condoms. In a logistic regression, factors positively associated with consistent condom use were condom availability (AdjOR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.32–3.03), condom affordability (AdjOR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.25–2.38) and self–efficacy (AdjOR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.54–3.04). Factors inversely associated with consistent condom use included poor financial status (AdjOR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.47–0.90), methamphetamine use (AdjOR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.40–0.83), alcohol use (AdjOR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49–0.96), and recent injection drug use (AdjOR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.39–0.97). While increased condom availability may improve condom use among FSWs in general, interventions to broaden condom use among lower-income and drug-using FSWs are critically needed. PMID:20973665

  13. Condom Use among Latino College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurman, Tilly; Borzekowski, Dina L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that Latinos, the largest racial/ethnic minority group in the United States, are disproportionately affected by HIV and AIDS. College health professionals, therefore, should understand current sexual behaviors and risk factors among Latino youth. The authors assessed students' condom use at their most recent sexual…

  14. The context of condom use among young adults in the Philippines: Implications for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Lucea, Marguerite B.; Hindin, Michelle J.; Gultiano, Socorro; Kub, Joan; Rose, Linda

    2012-01-01

    We examine current perceptions and constraints surrounding condom use among young adults in the Philippines to garner a deeper contextual understanding of this aspect of HIV prevention within Filipino society. Through thematic analysis of focus group data, we found three broad themes, all of which included societal and individual barriers to using condoms. The findings may provide insight for similar settings that have strong religious influences on society. To strengthen HIV prevention efforts in such settings, we suggest that the development of strategies to address these constraints in the cultural setting and promote sexual health of young adults is essential. PMID:23394323

  15. AIDS, sex and condoms: African healers and the reinvention of tradition in Zaire.

    PubMed

    Schoepf, B G

    1992-05-01

    Condoms offer considerable protection against sexual transmission of AIDS. Yet many Africans who are at risk of infection reject condoms as "unnatural." Data from Zaire have been used to examine this culturally constructed category in relation to sexuality, procreation, gender roles, class formation and international health and development policy. Much more than a simple transfer of biomedical technology is involved. Condom use with regular partners raises issues of cultural politics at many levels. "Traditional" African healers represent important social networks with considerable authority in poor urban communities. They are able to reinterpret cultural categories and endow behavior with new meanings. Action-research in Kinshasa was used to explore roles that healers might play in promoting change to safer sex practices. PMID:1297899

  16. Predictors of Condom Use Behaviors Based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among Female Sex Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Hubei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinzhu; Song, Fujian; Ren, Shuhua; Wang, Yan; Wang, Liang; Liu, Wei; Wan, Ying; Xu, Hong; Zhou, Tao; Hu, Tian; Bazzano, Lydia; Sun, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV infection related to commercial sexual contact is a serious public health issue in China. The objectives of the present study are to explore the predictors of condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in China and examine the relationship between Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in two cities (Wuhan and Suizhou) in Hubei Province, China, between July 2009 and June 2010. A total of 427 FSWs were recruited through mediators from the ‘low-tier’ entertainment establishments. Data were obtained by self-administered questionnaires. Structural equation models were constructed to examine the association. We collected 363 valid questionnaires. Within the context of HBM, perceived severity of HIV mediated through perceived benefits of condom use had a weak effect on condom use (r = 0.07). Perceived benefits and perceived barriers were proximate determinants of condom use (r = 0.23 and r = −0.62, respectively). Self-efficacy had a direct effect on perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, which was indirectly associated with condom use behaviors (r = 0.36). Conclusions/Significance The HBM provides a useful framework for investigating predictors of condom use behaviors among FSWs. Future HIV prevention interventions should focus on increasing perceived benefits of condom use, reducing barriers to condoms use, and improving self-efficacy among FSWs. PMID:23185355

  17. ‘It's Not What You Said, It's How You Said It’: Perceptions of Condom Proposers by Gender and Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Heather; Bryan, Angela D.

    2010-01-01

    We examined effects of proposer gender and condom negotiation strategy on perceptions of condom proposers in undergraduates in the southwestern regions of the US. Using a video manipulation (N=150), a female proposer was evaluated no more harshly than a male proposer, and was evaluated more positively in some ways. In a vignette manipulation (N=193) a female proposer using an Eroticization negotiation strategy (compared to Refusal of sex or Explanation of consequences) was seen as more exciting and likely to engage in sex. Surprisingly, women were harsher judges than men of a female condom proposer using an Eroticization strategy. Greater attention should be paid to the nature of condom negotiation within the framework of the sexual script. PMID:20544008

  18. Intimate partner violence and consistent condom use among drug-using heterosexual women in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Victoria; Nandi, Vijay; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David; Ompad, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the associations of relationship factors, partner violence, relationship power, and condom-use related factors with condom use with a main male partner among drug-using women. Over two visits, 244 heterosexual drug-using women completed a cross-sectional survey. Multivariate logistic regression models indicated that women who expected positive outcomes and perceived lower condom-use barriers were more likely to report condom use with their intimate partners. The findings suggest that future interventions aiming at reducing HIV risk among drug-using women should focus on women’s subjective appraisals of risks based on key relationship factors in addition to the occurrence of partner violence. PMID:20437300

  19. Reasons for Non-use of Condoms among Men-who-have-Sex-with-Men: A Comparison of Receptive and Insertive Role-in-Sex and Online and Offline Meeting Venue

    PubMed Central

    Ostergren, Jenny E.; Rosser, B.R. Simon; Horvath, Keith J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined reasons for non-use of condoms among an online survey sample of 462 non-condom using MSM to 1) identify major domains, themes and categories encompassing reasons for non-use of condoms, and 2) examine whether reasons varied by role-in-sex (insertive or receptive) and meeting venue (online or offline). A thematic analysis was completed on participant responses to an open-ended question about reasons for non-condom use. Preference for not using condoms and contextual factors were the top two reasons given for not using condoms, followed by a reasoned judgment based on risk assessment, relationship status and interpersonal communication. No major differences were found between men who reported non-condom use at last receptive and insertive anal intercourse. By contrast when meeting online, men were more likely to report reasons for non-condom use that corresponded to individual preference and mutual agreement not to use condoms. When meeting offline, men were more likely to cite reasons related to context and relationships. In developing HIV prevention interventions for this population, researchers should address both venues separately, as reasons why men engage in non-use of condoms appear to differ. PMID:20967649

  20. NYC condom use and satisfaction and demand for alternative condom products in New York City sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    PubMed

    Burke, Ryan C; Wilson, Juliet; Kowalski, Alexis; Murrill, Christopher; Cutler, Blayne; Sweeney, Monica; Begier, Elizabeth M

    2011-08-01

    In 2007, via a high-profile media campaign, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) introduced the "NYC Condom," the first specially packaged condom unique to a municipality. We conducted a survey to measure NYC Condom awareness of and experience with NYC Condoms and demand for alternative male condoms to be distributed by the DOHMH. Trained interviewers administered short, in-person surveys at five DOHMH-operated sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Spring 2008. We systematically sampled eligible patients: NYC residents aged ≥18 years waiting to see a physician. We approached 539; 532 agreed to be screened (98.7% response rate); 462 completed the survey and provided NYC zip codes. Most respondents were male (56%), non-Hispanic black (64%), aged 18-24 years (43%) or 25-44 years (45%), employed (65%), and had a high school degree/general equivalency diploma or less (53%). Of those surveyed, 86% were aware of the NYC Condom, and 81% of those who obtained the condoms used them. NYC Condom users were more likely to have four or more sexual partners in the past 12 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-3.8), use condoms frequently (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3-3.6), and name an alternative condom for distribution (AOR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3-3.9). The most frequently requested condom types respondents wanted DOHMH to provide were larger size (28%), ultra thin/extra sensitive (21%), and extra strength (16%). We found high rates of NYC Condom use. NYC Condom users reported more sexual partners than others, suggesting the condom initiative successfully reached higher-risk persons within the STD clinic population. Study results document the condom social marketing campaign's success. PMID:21792691

  1. Hispanic adults' beliefs, attitudes, and intentions regarding the female condom.

    PubMed

    Bogart, L M; Cecil, H; Pinkerton, S D

    2000-04-01

    The present study used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1985) augmented by AIDS knowledge to investigate factors influencing intentions of Hispanic adults to use the female condom. A total of 146 persons (75 women and 71 men; mean age, 27 years) recruited from community-based organizations completed an anonymous survey regarding intentions to use the female condom with their main sex partner. The TPB model had greater predictive utility for women's, than for men's, female condom use intentions. For men, attitudes and norms did not predict female condom use intentions, but greater AIDS knowledge was related to lower intentions to use the female condom, above and beyond the TPB constructs. Perceived behavioral control, operationalized as self-efficacy, significantly increased the predictive utility of the TPB model for women's female condom use intentions but not for men's. Behavior change strategies to increase female condom use are discussed in light of these findings. PMID:10833679

  2. Condom Use among Heterosexual Immigrant Latino Men in the Southeastern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipper, Emily; Rhodes, Scott D.; Lindstrom, Kristen; Bloom, Fred R.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Montano, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). We examined correlates of condom use among adult heterosexual Latino men who are members of a large multicounty soccer league in rural North Carolina. Of 222 participants, the mean (plus or minus SD) age…

  3. Demographic Correlates of Constant Condom Use among Sex Workers in Tangail, Dhaka, Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eva, Nilufar Akter; Munakata, Tsunetsugu; Onuoha, Francis N.

    2007-01-01

    Consistent condom use, particularly by promiscuous individuals, is a major safeguard against sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. This study examines some demographic factors that may affect such use among Bangladeshi female commercial sex workers at a brothel in Tangail (n = 196; mean age = 23.44 years), and the streets of Dhaka (n…

  4. Acceptability of condom promotion and distribution among 10–19 year-old adolescents in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural districts, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The HIV/AIDS pandemic remains a leading challenge for global health. Although condoms are acknowledged for their key role on preventing HIV transmission, low and inappropriate use of condoms persists in Tanzania and elsewhere in Africa. This study assesses factors affecting acceptability of condom promotion and distribution among adolescents in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural districts of Tanzania. Methods Data were collected in 2011 as part of a larger cross-sectional survey on condom use among 10–19 year-olds in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural districts of Tanzania using a structured questionnaire. Associations between acceptability of condom promotion and distribution and each of the explanatory variables were tested using Chi Square. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine independent predictors of the acceptability of condom promotion and distribution using STATA (11) statistical software at 5% significance level. Results Mean age of the 1,327 adolescent participants (50.5% being males) was 13.5 years (SD = 1.4). Acceptance of condom promotion and distribution was found among 37% (35% in Mpwapwa and 39% in Mbeya rural) of the adolescents. Being sexually active and aged 15–19 was the strongest predictor of the acceptability of condom promotion and distribution (OR = 7.78, 95% CI 4.65-12.99). Others were; not agreeing that a condom is effective in preventing transmissions of STIs including HIV (OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.20-0.56), being a resident of Mbeya rural district (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.28-2.19), feeling comfortable being seen by parents/guardians holding/buying condoms (OR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.40-3.46) and living with a guardian (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.08-2.04). Conclusion Acceptability of condom promotion and distribution among adolescents in Mpwapwa and Mbeya rural is low. Effect of sexual activity on the acceptability of condom promotion and distribution is age-dependent and was the strongest. Feeling comfortable being

  5. Malaysian made condoms sold locally as well as exported.

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Malaysia, famous for its natural rubber, is also producing condoms made from local rubber. About 40,000 gross of condoms a month are being produced by a factory with about 30 female workers. 30-40% of the production is exported to Europe, Middle East, Asia, Japan, Singapore and South America. The size of the condoms conform to international standards, 49 mm and 52 mm. As there is a greater demand for the 52 mm. condoms overseas, the company produces more of this than the 49 mm. condoms. In April 1975, the Standard Institution and Industrial Research of Malaysia gave its quality control approval to a condom which can hold 5 gallons of water and with thickness varying from 0.03 mm, 0.06 mm. and 0.05-0.07 mm. A 10% tax/piece and a 5% surtax are imposed on imported condoms to protect the local industry from foreign competition. Local condoms are sold tax-free. Pink and black colored condoms appear to be popular among consumers. Although complaints are few, 1 in 10,000 users may suffer from allergic problems because of the silicone oil treatment of the condoms. Another local condom factory which uses Malaysian rubber for condom manufacture is located in Klang, approximately 24 miles from Kuala Lumpur; the factory has 25 workers producing 12,000 gross of lubricated and non-lubricated condoms for local consumption only. There is increasing evidence that condoms are increasing in popularity in Malaysia and that the average consumer is now being more selective in choosing contraceptive methods. PMID:12278237

  6. Factors predictive of adolescents' intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms.

    PubMed

    Craig, D M; Wade, K E; Allison, K R; Irving, H M; Williams, J I; Hlibka, C M

    2000-01-01

    Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1988) as a conceptual framework, 705 secondary school students were surveyed to identify their intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that the theory explained between 23.5% and 45.8% of the variance in intentions. Variables external to the model such as past use, age, and ethnicity exhibited some independent effects. Attitudes were consistently predictive of intentions to use condoms, pills, and condoms in combination with pills for both male and female students. However, there were differences by gender in the degree to which subjective norms and perceived behavioural control predicted intentions. The findings suggest that programs should focus on: creation of positive attitudes regarding birth control pills and condoms; targeting important social influences, particularly regarding males' use of condoms; and developing strategies to increase students' control over the use of condoms. PMID:11089290

  7. The Relationship Between Initial Physical Examination Findings and Failure on Objective Validity Testing During Neuropsychological Evaluation After Pediatric Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Provance, Aaron J.; Terhune, E. Bailey; Cooley, Christine; Carry, Patrick M.; Connery, Amy K.; Engelman, Glenn H.; Kirkwood, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The symptomatology after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is complex as symptoms are subjective and nonspecific. It is important to differentiate symptoms as neurologically based or caused by noninjury factors. Symptom exaggeration has been found to influence postinjury presentation, and objective validity tests are used to help differentiate these cases. This study examines how concussed patients seen for initial medical workup may present with noncredible effort during follow-up neuropsychological examination and identifies physical findings during evaluation that best predict noncredible performance. Hypothesis: A portion of pediatric patients will demonstrate noncredible effort during neuropsychological testing after mTBI, predicted by failure of certain vestibular and cognitive tests during initial examination. Study Design: Retrospective cohort. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: Participants (n = 80) underwent evaluation by a sports medicine physician ≤3 months from injury, were subsequently seen for a neuropsychological examination, and completed the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT). Variables included results of a mental status examination (orientation), serial 7s examination, Romberg test, and heel-to-toe walking test. The primary outcome variable of interest was pass/fail of the MSVT. Results: Of the participants, 51% were male and 49% were female. Eighteen of 80 (23%) failed the MSVT. Based on univariable logistic regression analysis, the outcomes of the Romberg test (P = 0.0037) and heel-to-toe walking test(P = 0.0066) were identified as significant independent predictors of MSVT failure. In a multivariable model, outcome of Romberg test was the only significant predictor of MSVT failure. The probability of MSVT failure was 66.7% (95% CI, 33.3% to 88.9%) when a subject failed the Romberg test. Conclusion: A meaningful percentage of pediatric subjects present evidence of noncredible performance during neuropsychological examination

  8. Factors Associated With Condom Breakage During Anal Intercourse: A Cross-Sectional Study of Men Who Have Sex With Men Recruited in an Online Survey

    PubMed Central

    Khosropour, Christine M; Prater, Adam B; Rosenberg, Eli S; Siegler, Aaron J; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2016-01-01

    Background Within the United States, HIV affects men who have sex with men (MSM) disproportionally compared to the general population. In 2011, MSM represented nearly two-thirds of all new HIV infections while representing less than 2% of the US male population. Condoms continue to be the foundation of many HIV prevention programs; however, the failure rate of condoms during anal intercourse among MSM is estimated to be 0.5% to 8%, and condom breakages leave those affected at high risk for HIV transmission. Objective Estimate the frequency of condom breakage and associated demographic and behavioral factors during last act of anal intercourse using data from a national online HIV prevention survey of MSM. Methods From March 19 to April 16, 2009, data were collected on 9005 MSM through an online survey of US MSM recruited through a social networking site. Using multivariable logistic regression and controlling for several demographic and sexual risk behaviors, we estimated odds ratios of the association between condom breakage and several risk factors. Results In the study, 8063 participants reported having at least one male sexual partner in the last 12 months. The median age of participants was 21 years (range 18-65). More than two-thirds (68.2%, 5498/8063) reported anal intercourse during last sex and 16.90% (927/5498) reported using a condom during last anal intercourse act. Condom breakage was reported by 4.4% (28/635) participants who engaged in receptive anal intercourse and 3.5% (16/459) participants who engaged in insertive anal intercourse, with an overall failure rate of 4.0% (95% CI 3.2%-6.0%). Age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] per 5 years: 0.53 (95% CI 0.30-0.94), number of male sex partners (aOR per 5 sex partners: 1.03 (95% CI 1.00-1.08), and being high or buzzed during sex with a casual sex partner (aOR: 3.14, 95% CI 1.02-9.60) were associated with condom breakage. Conclusions Our results indicate condom breakage is an important problem for MSM that may

  9. Television station acceptance of AIDS prevention PSAs and condom advertisements.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, A M; Wicks, J L

    1998-01-01

    AIDS is a fatal, though preventable disease with more than 56,000 new cases reported in 1996 alone. Condom advertisements and AIDS public service announcements (AIDS PSAs) can help prevent the spread of AIDS, but these AIDS PSAs often contain controversial subject matter and are thus rejected for broadcast by television stations. It is for this reason why a large-scale national mail survey was conducted. The survey, which examined the impact of personal ethical considerations of television station management on AIDS acceptance decisions in the US, was based on five hypothetical questions. It used questionnaires mailed to television station managers. Responses were received from 364 stations, yielding a 40.63% response rate. Significant results were found related to the impact of personal ethical concerns of television managers on AIDS acceptance decision. Most stations were unlikely to accept condom or safe sex advertisements but were more likely to accept generic AIDS messages. These findings pose a dilemma for public health officials, which include the high cost of television advertisements and the difficulty in choosing a creative execution type. The most effective approach would be to appeal to sales managers to run the advertisements since they are important for the community and serve the public interest. PMID:12295801

  10. Geospatial analysis of condom availability and accessibility in urban Malawi.

    PubMed

    Shacham, Enbal; Thornton, Rebecca; Godlonton, Susan; Murphy, Ryan; Gilliland, Jake

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence of HIV in sub-Saharan African countries persists at alarming rates. There are currently four promoted methods to prevent HIV infection: adherence to antiretroviral therapy, male circumcision, pre-exposure prophylaxis and use of condoms. This study aimed to assess the availability and accessibility of one of the prevention efforts, condoms, in Kawale, Lilongwe, Malawi. A total of 220 potential condom-selling establishments were surveyed in 2012. Data were collected with store owners or staff and locations were geocoded to assess store density. Descriptive analyses were conducted. Of those audited, 96 stores sold condoms, 13 of which distributed free condoms. The stores were most often small shops and located in markets or trading centres. Condoms were most often found at the back of the store in an open space. There were approximately 1.2 stores per ¼ mile; 44% of the businesses in the study region carried condoms. This one method of prevention exhibited multiple barriers in this region: few stores sold condoms, high costs, condom locations within stores and limited availability. The limited accessibility is likely to influence social norms surrounding condom use. Future research should incorporate assessing norms and addressing barriers to uptake of HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25681262

  11. Young men's condom use resistance tactics: a latent profile analysis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Schraufnagel, Trevor J; Kajumulo, Kelly F

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that many men have used a variety of tactics to avoid using condoms when having sex with women. Guided by previous work demonstrating that men's use of coercive condom resistance tactics was predicted by negative attitudes toward women, inconsistent condom use, multiple partners, and sexual sensation seeking, the current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to determine whether similar constructs were associated with a variety of resistance tactics. A community sample of 313 moderate-drinking men participated, of whom 80% reported employing at least one condom use resistance tactic since adolescence. The LPA revealed three classes of men. In general, men with the least negative beliefs about women, low levels of sexual sensation seeking and impulsivity, and positive beliefs about condoms (Condom Positive/Low Hostility) reported less use of resistance tactics than men with moderate sexual sensation seeking and impulsivity, negative beliefs about condoms, and moderate (Condom Negative/Moderate Hostility) or high (Condom Negative/High Hostility) negative attitudes about women. The classes also differed in terms of their sexual behaviors. This study demonstrated that sexual risk behavior interventions should not only address the tactics through which men resist using condoms but also tailor these efforts to men's individual characteristics. PMID:23548069

  12. Stages of Change, Decisional Balance, and Self-Efficacy in Condom Use Among Rural African-American Stimulant Users

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Patricia B.; Booth, Brenda M.; Feldman, Zachary; Stewart, Katharine E.

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study (a) examined the stages of change (SOC) for condom use with primary and casual partners among rural heterosexual African American stimulant users, (b) identified gender differences in variables associated with SOC, and (c) assessed the association of SOC with decisional balance and self-efficacy. Seventy-two participants completed the study. SOC with a primary partner was much lower than SOC with a casual partner, indicating more consistent condom use with casual partners. Significant gender differences existed in decisional balance for condom use for both primary (p = 0.02) and casual partners (p = 0.03), with women having higher decisional balance scores than men. Women also reported higher self-efficacy scores for condom use with casual partners than men. In regression models, age, decisional balance, and self-efficacy were significantly associated with SOC for condom use with a primary partner; however, only self-efficacy was significantly associated with SOC with casual partners. The findings provide support for the development of interventions that promote the advantages of and increase self-efficacy for condom use. PMID:19887285

  13. Social and Structural Factors Associated with Consistent Condom Use Among Female Entertainment Workers Trading Sex in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Morisky, Donald E.; Hernandez, Laufred I.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examined socio-structural factors of consistent condom use among female entertainment workers at high risk for acquiring HIV in Metro Manila, Quezon City, Philippines. Entertainers, aged 18 and over, from 25 establishments (spa/saunas, night clubs, karaoke bars), who traded sex during the previous 6 months, underwent cross-sectional surveys. The 143 entertainers (42% not always using condoms, 58% always using condoms) had median age (23), duration in sex work (7 months), education (9 years), and 29% were married/had live-in boyfriends. In a logistic multiple regression model, social-structural vs. individual factors were associated with inconsistent condom use: being forced/deceived into sex work, less manager contact, less STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals, not following a co-workers’ condom use advice, and an interaction between establishment type and alcohol use with establishment guests. Interventions should consider the effects of physical (force/deception into work), social (peer, manager influence), and policy (STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals) environments on consistent condom use. PMID:22223297

  14. Correlates of self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Tyson; Wagner, Karla D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Ompad, Danielle C; Chavarin, Claudia V; Patterson, Thomas L

    2014-05-01

    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico engage in high levels of unprotected sex. While behavioral change theories posit that self-efficacy predicts condom use, correlates of self-efficacy for condom use remain largely unstudied. We examined these correlates among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. Eligible male clients were at least 18 years of age, HIV-negative, lived in Tijuana or San Diego, reported unprotected sex with a Tijuana FSW at least once in the past 4 months, and agreed to be treated for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including demographics, substance use, psychosocial and psychosexual characteristics (e.g., outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, social support, and sexual sensation seeking), and sexual behaviors. Participants also underwent HIV/STI testing. A stepwise hierarchical multiple regression analysis identified correlates of self-efficacy for condom use. Of 393 male clients, median age was 37 years. Participants were mostly Spanish-speaking and employed. Factors independently associated with higher self-efficacy for condom use were higher positive outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, lower sexual sensation seeking scores, and higher social support scores. Both psychosocial and psychosexual factors may influence self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of FSWs. These factors represent central constructs in sociocognitive models that explain behavioral change and could be intervention targets for improving self-efficacy for condom use and, ultimately, safer sex behavior. PMID:23842786

  15. Brand equity and willingness to pay for condoms in zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Zimbabwe suffers from one of the greatest burdens of HIV/AIDS in the world that has been compounded by social and economic instability in the past decade. However, from 2001 to 2009 HIV prevalence among 15-49 year olds declined from 26% to approximately 14%. Behavior change and condom use may in part explain this decline. PSI-Zimbabwe socially markets the Protector Plus (P+) branded line of condoms. When Zimbabwe converted to a dollar-based economy in 2009, the price of condoms was greatly increased and new marketing efforts were undertaken. This paper evaluates the role of condom marketing, a multi-dimensional scale of brand peceptions (brand equity), and price in condom use behavior. Methods We randomly sampled sexually active men age 15-49 from 3 groups - current P+ users, former users, and free condom users. We compared their brand equity and willingness to pay based on survey results. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to compare the 3 groups. Results We found that the brand equity scale was positive correlated with willingness to pay and with condom use. Former users also indicated a high willingness to pay for condoms. We found differences in brand equity between the 3 groups, with current P+ users having the highest P+ brand equity. As observed in previous studies, higher brand equity was associated with more of the targeted health behavior, in this case and more consistent condom use. Conclusions Zimbabwe men have highly positive brand perceptions of P+. There is an opportunity to grow the total condom market in Zimbabwe by increasing brand equity across user groups. Some former users may resume using condoms through more effective marketing. Some free users may be willing to pay for condoms. Achieving these objectives will expand the total condom market and reduce HIV risk behaviors. PMID:22029874

  16. Building a (UN) condom manufacturing plant for social marketing projects.

    PubMed

    Yonese, T

    1994-12-01

    At the 10th International Conference on AIDS held in Yokohama, Japan, August 7-12, 1994, reports revealed that the social marketing of condoms has become popular and successful in developing countries. The nongovernmental organization distribution approach is very useful in providing condoms to new users, whose numbers have been increasing since the condom was identified as effective in preventing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. The rapid establishment of semi-commercial outlets even in remote areas enabled many people to obtain condoms more easily than from the government program and at a cheaper price. The social marketing concept has a clear advantage: condoms can be distributed with little government budget disbursement, and the project is based on self-reliance. Meanwhile, the additional free supply programs by many governments of developing countries are reportedly not functioning efficiently, since often large quantities of condoms, donated by agencies for family planning and STD programs, pile up in warehouses and do not reach those who need them. Moreover, the demand for condoms is limited because of the lack of effective campaigns to encourage their use. Quality condoms can be procured at lower costs if a special manufacturing plant could be built that produces condoms exclusively for the social marketing free supply program. Such a condom plant could be built in a developing country where good quality latex, the material used for condoms, is available. The unit production cost of condoms at the proposed plant would be lower compared to costs in developed countries because personnel expenses in latex-producing countries such as Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, India, and Sri Lanka, are cheaper, and the price of latex itself is lower. Mass production is possible because the demand for condoms for the social marketing projects is expected to grow even more. PMID:12319132

  17. Everywhere You Go, Everyone Is Saying Condom, Condom. but Are They Being Used Consistently? Reflections of South African Male Students about Male and Female Condom Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantell, Joanne E.; Smit, Jennifer A.; Beksinska, Mags; Scorgie, Fiona; Milford, Cecilia; Balch, Erin; Mabude, Zonke; Smith, Emily; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Exner, Theresa M.; Hoffman, Susie; Stein, Zena A.

    2011-01-01

    Young men in South Africa can play a critical role in preventing new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, yet are seldom targeted for HIV prevention. While reported condom use at last sex has increased considerably among young people, consistent condom use remains a challenge. In this study, 74 male higher education students gave their…

  18. The Frequency and Determinants of Liver Stiffness Measurement Failure: A Retrospective Study of “Real-Life” 38,464 Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ping; Li, Fan; Li, Bing; Zang, Hong; Niu, Xiaoxia; Li, Zhongbin; Xin, Shaojie; Chen, Guofeng

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the frequency and determinants of liver stiffness measurement (LSM) failure by means of FibroScan in “real-life” Chinese patients. Methods A total of 38,464 “real-life” Chinese patients in 302 military hospital of China through the whole year of 2013, including asymptomatic carrier, chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis (LC), alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other, were enrolled, their clinical and biological parameters were retrospectively investigated. Liver fibrosis was evaluated by FibroScan detection. S probe (for children with height less than 1.20 m) and M probe (for adults) were used. LSM failure defined as zero valid shots (unsuccessful LSM), or the ratio of the interquartile range to the median of 10 measurements (IQR/M) greater than 0.30 plus median LSM greater or equal to 7.1 kPa (unreliable LSM). Results LSM failure occurred in 3.34% of all examinations (1286 patients out of 38,464), among them, there were 958 cases (2.49%) with unsuccessful LSM, and 328 patients (0.85%) with unreliable LSM. Statistical analyses showed that LSM failure was independently associated with body mass index (BMI) greater than 30 kg/m2, female sex, age greater than 50 years, intercostal spaces (IS) less than 9 mm, decompensated liver cirrhosis and HCC patients. There were no significant differences among other diseases. By changing another skilled operator, success was achieved on 301 cases out of 1286, which reduced the failure rate to 2.56%, the decrease was significant (P<0.0001). Conclusions The principal reasons of LSM failure are ascites, obesity and narrow of IS. The failure rates of HCC, decompensated LC, elder or female patients are higher. These results emphasize the need for adequate operator training, technological improvements and optimal criteria for specific patient subpopulations. PMID:25122123

  19. "Condom distribution in high school" -- a rebuttal.

    PubMed

    Rowe, R N

    1994-01-01

    To challenge the distribution of condoms on school campuses with accusations of immorality and "lack of good character" appears shallow at best. Considering the home situation of many young people and their immediate environment, the act of securing a condom could be totally consistent with "good character." Certainly, abstinence up to a certain stage in a youth's life is prudent, but who is to determine the age to which, and the environment in which, abstinence must be observed universally? The litany of virtues to which Gow refers (kindness, courtesy, the Golden Rule, and so forth) all could be attributed to the youth who obtains a condom at school and uses it in an effort to protect himself and his partner. Use of a condom even by a teenager is not an unvirtuous act. Gow refers to two "misguided assumptions." The first is that "it is the legitimate function of the schools to dispense contraceptives." He maintains that parents and physicians, not schools, constitute the proper source of medical information and medication. Granted, they are the most logical and desirable sources, but what if a student has incompetent or perhaps no parental guidance and has little if any access to a physician? Schools have acted in loco parentis ever since public education first evolved. Why should it stop now during a devastating health crisis? The second "misguided assumption"--that "teen sex and pregnancies result from ignorance"--happens to be true. Ignorance is a major cause of pregnancies and AIDS. Distribution of condoms on campuses will help to counteract ignorance because it leads to explanations and discussion, two essential components of education. I find no quarrel with Gow's call for reevaluation of values and methods of communication. His belief that institutions such as churches, families, social organizations, and so forth must assume a larger role in clarification of values is logical. But until that occurs, what institution other than a public school has a better

  20. Implementation of condom social marketing in Louisiana, 1993 to 1996.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, D A; Farley, T A; Bedimo-Etame, J R; Scribner, R; Ward, W; Kendall, C; Rice, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This article describes the implementation and impact of the first statewide condom social marketing intervention in the United States. METHODS: A statewide social marketing program made condoms freely available in 93 public health clinics, 39 community mental health centers, 29 substance abuse treatment sites, and more than 1000 businesses in neighborhoods with high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV. Surveys about condom use were conducted annually. RESULTS: Between 1994 and 1996, more than 33 million condoms were distributed without significant opposition. Over time, self-reported condom use at the last sexual encounter increased among African American women (from 28% in 1994 to 36% in 1996), particularly African American women with 2 or more sex partners (from 30% to 48%). Condom use at the last sexual encounter increased among African American men (from 40% in 1994 to an average of 54% in 1996). The number of reported sex partners did not increase. CONCLUSIONS: Condom social marketing can be successfully implemented in the United States. The widespread availability of free condoms is associated with increased condom use, particularly among persons at high risk for STDs and HIV. PMID:9949750

  1. Minority College Women’s Views on Condom Negotiation

    PubMed Central

    McLaurin-Jones, TyWanda; Lashley, Maudry-Beverly; Marshall, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized quantitative and qualitative methods to (1) investigate the relationship between frequency of condom use and negotiation strategies and (2) evaluate experiences with condom negotiations among sexually active, heterosexual, African American college women. One hundred female students from a Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) completed a questionnaire that included the Condom Influence Strategies Scale (CIS) and participated in a focus group. An ANOVA was conducted to compare differences between never, inconsistent, and consistent condom users. Consistent condom users scored higher than never users on the “withholding sex” subscale of the CIS (4.88 vs. 3.55; p < 0.001) as well as endorsed items more strongly on the “direct request” subscale of the CIS (4.63 vs. 3.82, p < 0.05) than never users. A thematic analysis of open discussions identified overarching themes. Similarly, refusing sex and/or having direct communications with partner emerged as primary strategies. Threats to negotiation included deciding the “right timing” of discussion and having a previous history of sexual intercourse without a condom with their partner. Other key concepts that contribute to condom negotiation are the views that condoms are a male’s responsibility and stigma of women who carry condoms. PMID:26703642

  2. Non-use of condoms by prostitute women.

    PubMed

    Cusick, L

    1998-04-01

    Ethnographic research among Glasgow female prostitutes working in street, sauna, flat, escort agency and "sugar daddy" sectors investigated prostitutes' accounts of the occasions in which condoms were not used for penetrative sexual encounters. Such occasions were a minority of commercial sex encounters and a majority of private sex encounters. Although prostitutes saw condom use as inappropriate in private sexual relationships this was not, as has been suggested, an aid to relationship interpretation as either private or commercial. Condoms in commercial sex were seen as routine tools of the trade, and hence emerged as emblems of prostitution. These emblematic qualities were found in turn to produce both challenges to condom use from customers and opportunities for prostitutes to manipulate customer relations by judicious suspension of condom application. Both norms of gendered role-play and prostitute status were highlighted as threatening condom use in some situations, while prostitute status could also be used as the basis of rational argument for condom use in others. Relational issues such as familiarity or a desire to communicate trust were at the forefront in explanations of condom non-use. Perceptions of physical power and the authority to permit or withhold sexual service or profit were determining influences crucial in condom use negotiation. PMID:9625898

  3. Female condom acceptability among sex workers in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Madrigal, J; Schifter, J; Feldblum, P J

    1998-04-01

    This study measured short-term female condom acceptability among 51 female sex workers in San José, Costa Rica. Each woman was trained in use of the female condom and was asked to use the device if clients refused to use male condoms during a 2-week study period (male condoms were also distributed). Two follow-up visits with short interviews were scheduled, including questions on general reaction to the female condom by the participants and their clients, ease and comfort of use, and preferences for male or female devices. At the first follow-up visit, 51% of the women reported they "liked the female condom very much" and 45% reported they "liked it somewhat." Similar results were reported after the second follow-up phase. Sixty-seven percent of the participants preferred the female condom over the male condom, and, according to the the women, over half of their clients liked the female condom "very much" or "somewhat." The most common problems during the first phase were difficulty to insert (61%) and discomfort (43%). However, during the second study phase a reduction in these problems (22% and 25%, respectively) and other use-related problems were noted. Although this new method is not yet available throughout Costa Rica, these results should encourage sexually transmitted diseases and HIV service organizations to make this method accessible to women. PMID:9573433

  4. Condom use self-efficacy and HIV risk practices among men who use the internet to find male partners for unprotected sex.

    PubMed

    Klein, Hugh

    2014-05-01

    This research examines the levels of condom use self-efficacy in a population of men who have sex with men who are at great risk for contracting/transmitting HIV. It focuses on the relationship between condom use self-efficacy and risk involvement, and examines the factors associated with greater/lower levels of condom use self-efficacy. The data come from a national sample of men, randomly chosen, who used any of 16 websites specifically to identify other men with whom they could engage in unprotected sex. Data were collected between January 2008 and May 2009 from 332 men, via telephone interviews. Multivariate analyses and structural equation modeling were used to test a conceptual model based on syndemics theory. Overall levels of condom use self-efficacy were fairly high, and self-efficacy was related inversely to involvement in HIV risk practices. Six factors were found to be indicative of levels of condom use self-efficacy: the number of drug problems experienced, sexual role identity as a "bottom," not caring about the HIV serostatus of potential sex partners, experiencing childhood maltreatment, having confidence in HIV-related information provided in other men's online profiles, and level of HIV knowledge. Condom use self-efficacy plays an integral role in HIV risk practices among high-risk men who have sex with men. This is true despite the fact that, overall, condom use self-efficacy levels were fairly high in this population. PMID:23832954

  5. Condom Use and Hip Hop Culture: The Case of Urban Young Men in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A.; Castellanos, Daniel H.; Haliburton, Chanel S.; del Aguila, Ernesto Vasquez; Weinstein, Hannah J.; Parker, Richard G.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We explored how young men’s perceptions of and participation in hip hop culture—urban social and artistic expressions, such as clothing style, breakdancing, graffiti, and rap music—and how contextual factors of the hip hop scene may be associated with their condom use, condom-use self-efficacy, and sense of community. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 95 African American and Latino men aged 15 to 25 years as part of a 4-year ethnographic study in New York City. Results. Differences in young men’s perceptions of and levels of affiliation with hip hop culture were not statistically associated with differences in their sense of community or condom-use self-efficacy. Frequency of participation in the hip hop nightclub scene was the strongest factor negatively associated with condom use. Conclusions. Popular discourses on young men’s health risks often blame youths’ cultures such as the hip hop culture for increased risk practices but do not critically examine how risk emerges in urban young men’s lives and what aspects of youths’ culture can be protective. Further research needs to focus on contextual factors of risk such as the role of hip hop nightlife on increased HIV risk. PMID:18445799

  6. Contraceptive and condom use adoption and maintenance: a stage paradigm approach.

    PubMed

    Grimley, D M; Prochaska, J O; Velicer, W F; Prochaska, G E

    1995-02-01

    The Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change was examined for its applicability to contraceptive and condom use adoption and maintenance using N = 248 heterosexually active college-age men and women. The model posits that individuals do not go directly from old behaviors to new behaviors to new behaviors, but progress through a sequence of stages: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. The stages of change offer a temporal dimension that provides information regarding when a particular shift in attitudes, intentions, and behavior may occur. The model also postulates a set of or outcome variables--the pros and cons of change and self-efficacy. The results demonstrated that individuals were furthest along in the stages of change for general contraceptive use, followed closely by condom use with other (e.g., casual) partners, and then condom use with main partners. Although no sex differences were found for the stages for the three separate contraceptive behaviors, males and females differed on the pros and cons and levels of self-efficacy when engaging in intercourse with the two types of partners. MANOVA/ANOVA results indicated that the relationship between stages and other constructs follows predicted patterns suggesting that the transtheoretical model may provide a useful framework or paradigm for understanding contraceptive and condom use behavior. PMID:7721599

  7. Condom use among heterosexual immigrant Latino men in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Knipper, Emily; Rhodes, Scott D; Lindstrom, Kristen; Bloom, Fred R; Leichliter, Jami S; Montaño, Jaime

    2007-10-01

    Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). We examined correlates of condom use among adult heterosexual Latino men who are members of a large multicounty soccer league in rural North Carolina. Of 222 participants, the mean (+/-SD) age was 29.8 (+/-8.3) years. Approximately 60% reported Mexico as their country of origin, 60% reported Grade 8 or below as their highest level of education, and 50% reported using condoms during their most recent vaginal intercourse episodes. Adjusting for relationship status, multivariable logistic regression identified four correlates of condom use: having sought health care information from family members (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=3.68; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.48-9.13); greater knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention (AOR = 2.61; CI = 1.23-5.54); greater condom use self-efficacy (AOR = 4.45; 95% CI = 2.12-9.36); and greater adherence to traditional masculine norms (AOR = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.02-4.33). Our findings underscore the need for innovative and targeted HIV and STD prevention programming among the emerging Latino community in the southeastern United States. PMID:17967113

  8. Factor structure and gender stability in the multidimensional condom attitudes scale.

    PubMed

    Starosta, Amy J; Berghoff, Christopher R; Earleywine, Mitch

    2015-06-01

    Sexually transmitted infections continue to trouble the United States and can be attenuated through increased condom use. Attitudes about condoms are an important multidimensional factor that can affect sexual health choices and have been successfully measured using the Multidimensional Condom Attitudes Scale (MCAS). Such attitudes have the potential to vary between men and women, yet little work has been undertaken to identify if the MCAS accurately captures attitudes without being influenced by underlying gender biases. We examined the factor structure and gender invariance on the MCAS using confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory, within-subscale differential item functioning analyses. More than 770 participants provided data via the Internet. Results of differential item functioning analyses identified three items as differentially functioning between the genders, and removal of these items is recommended. Findings confirmed the previously hypothesized multidimensional nature of condom attitudes and the five-factor structure of the MCAS even after the removal of the three problematic items. In general, comparisons across genders using the MCAS seem reasonable from a methodological standpoint. Results are discussed in terms of improving sexual health research and interventions. PMID:25139383

  9. Violence, condom breakage and HIV infection among female sex workers in Benin, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tounkara, Fatoumata K.; Diabaté, Souleymane; Guédou, Fernand A.; Ahoussinou, Clément; Kintin, Frédéric; Zannou, Djimon M.; Kpatchavi, Adolphe; Bédard, Emmanuelle; Bietra, Raphaël; Alary, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between violence, condom breakage and HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). Methods Data were obtained from the 2012 cross-sectional integrated biological and behavioural survey conducted in Benin. Multivariable log-binomial regression was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) of HIV infection and condom breakage in relation to violence towards FSWs. A score was created to examine the relationship between the number of violence types reported and HIV infection. Results Among the 981 women who provided a blood sample, HIV prevalence was 20.4%. During the last month, 17.2%, 13.5% and 33.5% of them had experienced physical, sexual and psychological violence, respectively. In addition, 15.9% reported at least one condom breakage during the previous week. There was a significant association between all types of violence and HIV prevalence. The APRs of HIV were 1.45 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.05 – 2.00), 1.42 (95%CI: 1.02 – 1.98), and 1.41 (95%CI: 1.08 – 1.41) among those who had ever experienced physical, sexual and psychological violence, respectively. HIV prevalence increased with the violence score (p=0.002, test for trend), and physical and sexual violence were independently associated with condom breakage (p values 0.010 and 0.003, respectively). Conclusion The results show that violence is associated with a higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and that condom breakage is a potential mediator for this association. Longitudinal studies designed to analyse this relationship and specific interventions integrated to current HIV prevention strategies are needed to reduce the burden of violence among FSWs. PMID:24722385

  10. Contextualizing condom use: intimacy interference, stigma, and unprotected sex.

    PubMed

    Starks, Tyrel J; Payton, Gregory; Golub, Sarit A; Weinberger, Corina L; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-06-01

    Intimate relationships have received increasing attention as a context for HIV transmission. We examined the relationships among perceptions that condoms interfere with intimacy, gay-related stigma, and unprotected/protected anal intercourse. Participants included 245 single-identified men who have sex with men. Intimacy Interference was positively associated with number of unprotected anal intercourse acts, and this effect was stronger among participants who reported high levels of gay-related stigma. In contrast, Intimacy Interference was negatively associated with number of protected anal intercourse acts, and gay-related stigma was positively associated with this outcome with no evidence of interaction effects. The findings are explained in the context of rejection sensitivity theory, and implications for public health and clinical intervention are discussed. PMID:23520349

  11. Lights, Camera, Condoms! Assessing College Men's Attitudes toward Condom Use in Pornography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Shane W.; Rosenberg, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Investigate male college students' attitudes toward actors' use of condoms in pornography. Participants: Two hundred thirteen undergraduate males attending a large, state-supported midwestern university in the fall semester, 2012. Methods: Using a Web-based procedure, participants completed questionnaires assessing their pornography…

  12. Condom vending machines in Canada's secondary schools.

    PubMed

    Kerr, D L

    1990-03-01

    A case study of 1 of the 3 school boards approving in 1989 installation of condom machines is presented: The Lisgar Collegiate Institute, Ottawa, Canada. The school is characterized as having 1000 college preparatory students from middle and upper middle class homes and university educated parents. The project was student initiated and involved 1) meeting with communication consultants to determine feasibility, 2) conducting an informal peer consultation to seek out interest and support, 3) meeting with public health officials to gain support and ideas, and 4) conducting research. Condom machine installation (2) was only 1 component; a pilot sexuality education program was included as well. The student proposal was presented and rejected by the principal and the Superintendent of Student Services. Students then lobbied the school board trustees. 2 students lobbies each school board member. Letters of support were obtained from parents' advisory groups, parents, the student council, and other influential people. The media provided coverage in a popular morning television show. The student proposal was submitted to the Board of Education's Education Committee in June 1989; students were assisted by teachers and the Parents Advisory Committee. The school board approved. In the fall of 1989, sexuality awareness week was designated as October 30-November 3. Parents were asked for comments on the designated program, but only 50 contributed in a supportive way. During this week lunch-hour displays and videos, peer-facilitated discussion groups, informal talks by experts, and student theater presentations were sponsored activities. Following this event, the school board arranged for the installment of machines in the men's and women's washrooms near where social events were held and in toilet cubicles in order to provide privacy, as requested by students. The individual cost is US$1/condom. Evaluation is planned. Students have been amused by the amount of public response

  13. Aid cutoff threatens condom program in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Barron, T

    1991-01-01

    The Pressler Amendment, a law prohibiting US assistance to any country that does not sign the UN Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, is forcing USAID to shut down its highly successful Social Marketing of Contraceptives (SMC) program in Pakistan. Adopted in 1985, the amendment calls for an end of funding for projects in Pakistan as of fiscal year 1991, since the country has refused to sign the treaty. Only previously committed funds have kept SMC running, but it may soon have a close shop. The cutoff comes at an especially inopportune time--just when SMC had begun to make an impact. Introduced 5 years ago, Sathi condoms (the project's main product) account for 2/3 of all condoms used in Pakistan. Sales jumped from 30 million in 1978 to 74 million last year. SMC administrators explain that the country has a vast potential for social marketing. But because of the cutoff in aid, the program will exhaust its supply of condoms by March 1992. The end of the SMC program will mean a serious setback for Pakistan, which already has the 2nd largest population in southern Asia, and which has double the fertility of the most populous country in the region, India. Only 7% of the women in Pakistan rely on a modern method of contraception, compared to 42% in India and 26% in Bangladesh. USAID officials explain that the organization is working with the Pakistani government to find ways to continue funding the program after US funds run out. They add that this development will provide Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif an opportunity to demonstrate his stated commitment to curb population growth. PMID:12284521

  14. Condoms too costly for Ghana's youth.

    PubMed

    1996-06-01

    The Red Cross in Ghana has launched a new project to use peer volunteers aged 14-25 years for educating trade apprentices in and around the capital city. The project has funding from the World Health Organization. The aim is to open conversation about taboo subjects, such as HIV infections and reproductive health. A male and female peer educator hold workshops for about 10 apprentices each week for four weeks. Educators use real-life drama role plays to teach women how to say no to unsafe sex and to expand knowledge of HIV infections and other sexually transmitted diseases. An attempt is made to assess the teenaged apprentices knowledge of AIDS. The risk game is used to test existing knowledge. Peer educators give each participant a card, which is marked either high, low, or no risk. Apprentices are asked to match cards with a series of statements, such as sharing food or sleeping with someone who had HIV infection. Findings from a pre-test reveal that over 50% of the apprentices did not consider themselves at risk of contracting the virus. One outcome of discussion was that appendices found that condoms were too costly. Some apprentices earned only about 12 cents per day, but condoms sold for 9 cents for 3 condoms. Role play scenarios involve boyfriends or associates requesting unprotected sex. In one such role play, it was discovered that girls were exchanging sex for money or gifts without considering it prostitution. At the final meeting the story is told of a girl who contracts HIV. A repeat customer eventually invites her to a party, where she is given alcohol to drink. The customer forces her to have unprotected sex. Years later at the birth of her first child within marriage, it is discovered that the baby was infected with HIV. Discussion follows about what went wrong and about transmission and risk. PMID:12291110

  15. The Pleasure Principle: The Effect of Perceived Pleasure Loss Associated with Condoms on Unprotected Anal Intercourse Among Immigrant Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Reisen, Carol A.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J.; Bianchi, Fernanda T.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Sexual pleasure has been identified as an important consideration in decision-making surrounding condom use. We examined the impact of perceived pleasure loss associated with condom use on recent history of insertive and receptive unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) living in the United States. A total of 482 Dominican, Colombian, and Brazilian immigrant MSM were surveyed regarding sexual attitudes and practices via computer-assisted self-interviewing technology with audio enhancement (ACASI). Participants rated the pleasure they derived from protected and unprotected anal intercourse in each position (insertive and receptive) and also reported their HIV status, relationship status, and recent sexual history. Men who had engaged in both positions, with and without condoms (n=268), perceived a greater pleasure loss associated with condoms during anal intercourse in the insertive versus receptive position. Logistic regression analyses controlling for HIV status, relationship status, and age revealed that men who perceived greater pleasure loss from condoms were more likely to have engaged in UAI over the past 3 months (n[insertive]=297; n[receptive]=284). Findings indicate that the pleasure loss associated with condoms may be a key deterrent for their use in either sex position among Latino MSM. Therefore, pleasure needs to be prioritized in the development of condoms and other sexual safety measures as well as in the promotion of their use. PMID:22663165

  16. The Effects of Alcohol on Intentions To Use Condoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Tara K.; And Others

    This study addressed the hypothesis that intentions to use condoms are affected by alcohol intoxication. Recruited for this research were 54 male students, who indicated on a pretest that they were sexually active, usually used condoms, and were social drinkers. Subjects were divided into groups of two or three and then randomly assigned to the…

  17. Men's Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Use during Sexual Assault Perpetration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Kiekel, Preston A.; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the association between alcohol consumption and condom use during penetrative sexual assault acts perpetrated by young adult men. Men aged 21 to 35 who reported inconsistent condom use and heavy episodic drinking (N = 225) completed a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of sexual assault since the age of 15, their consumption of…

  18. Condom distribution in Bali: assuring supply meets demand.

    PubMed

    Merati, T P

    1994-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of tourists visit Bali each year, many of whom pay to have sex with local residents. Kuta, one of Bali's major tourist resort towns, has manifested an higher demand for condoms than other studied areas in Indonesia. Such demand is laudable in the context of a growing HIV/AIDS epidemic, but demand must encounter supply to be worthwhile. The Citra Usadha Indonesia Foundation (YCUI) has been conducting outreach education in Kuta and other areas of Bali since February 1992. Over that time, outreach workers have found that street youths' and prostitutes' main sources for condoms, pharmacies, supermarkets, and YCUI outreach workers, are either closed or potentially unavailable at night, when most sexual transactions occur. Pharmacies and supermarkets close at 10 pm. YCUI therefore initiated a six-month condom distribution program in 1994 to encourage the approximately 150 street vendors working in Kuta to sell condoms. Street vendors who enrolled in the program were provided with a monthly supply of 30 free condoms for the period of six months and invited to sell them to the public at whatever price the market set. Concurrently, YCUI promoted condom sales and increased awareness of the new condom source through social marketing techniques and their network of outreach workers. After six months, 122 vendors had participated in the program selling 10,255 condoms. Vendors were able to sell more and more condoms as the program progressed. A final evaluation will be conducted October 1994 to determine how many vendors still sell condoms now that the free supplies have been discontinued. PMID:12319327

  19. Sexual health and use of condoms among local and international sex workers in Sydney.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, C C; Berry, G; Rohrsheim, R; Donovan, B

    1996-02-01

    This study analyzes data on all female sex workers who attended the Sydney Sexual Health Center for a first visit for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) screening during June 1, 1991, and May 31, 1993. International sex workers were identified as women who do not speak English at home and were born outside Australia. Diseases were confirmed clinically, by specimen or culture or by antibody or serological tests. Results apply to 91 local and 123 international prostitutes. 47% of international prostitutes and 34% of local prostitutes were aged 21-25 years. Most international sex workers spoke Thai or a Chinese dialect. 10% of local prostitutes were born in Asia. 90% of international prostitutes were born in Thailand, Malaysia, or China. Local prostitutes were better educated. 7% of the local prostitutes and none of the international sex workers had a history of injectable drug use. Local prostitutes tended to use condoms for birth control, and international prostitutes tended to use oral contraceptives. One international prostitute tested HIV positive. 1 in 7 international prostitutes had gonorrhea and the same proportion had chlamydia. Viral STDs (chronic hepatitis B, HIV infection, and genital warts) were more prevalent, but uncommon among international prostitutes. More international prostitutes had multiple STDs. 79 international sex workers and only 9 local sex workers had an STD. 47% of international sex workers and only 10% of local sex workers had worked overseas as a prostitute in the preceding 12 months. Over half of local sex workers and only 8% of international sex workers consistently used condoms. Failure to use condoms was associated with being an international sex worker. Inconsistent use of condoms among local prostitutes was related to increased age. PMID:8655167

  20. The effects of safer-sex stories on college students' attitudes toward condoms.

    PubMed

    Wright, S S; Kyes, K B

    1996-01-01

    Social learning theory predicts that reading non-erotic stories involving condom use will be as effective as reading erotic stories with condom use in producing positive attitudes toward condoms. Werner's orthogenetic principle, however, predicts that reading erotic condom stories will be most effective because of the link created between sexual arousal and cognitive information about condoms. 168 male and 149 female undergraduates enrolled in Introductory Psychology at a small, private, southern university participated in a study to test the validity of these two theories. The students read one of the following types of stories: erotic with condom placement described, erotic without condom use, or non-erotic with a model for discussing condoms. The men and women who read the non-erotic stories were most positive about condoms and reported the strongest intentions to use condoms in the future. These findings suggest that erotica is not necessary to produce positive attitudes toward condoms. PMID:12347910

  1. Condom Use Negotiation in Heterosexual African-American Adults: Responses to Types of Social Power-Based Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Otto-Salaj, Laura L.; Reed, Barbara; Brondino, Michael J.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Stevenson, L. Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    Little research has been performed on how people respond to different strategies to negotiate condom use in sexual situations, and whether certain strategies tend to be perceived as more or less effective in condom use negotiation. This study examined gender differences and preferences in the use of and response to six different styles of condom use negotiation with a hypothetical sexual partner of the opposite gender. Participants were 51 heterosexually-active African-American men and women between the ages of 18 and 35, attending an inner-city community center. Study participants completed a semi-structured qualitative interview in which they were presented with six negotiation strategies —coercive, reward, legitimate, expert, referent, and informational--based on Raven’s 1992 Power/Interaction Model of Interpersonal Influence. Results showed that women participants responded best to referent, reward, and legitimate strategies, and worst to informational tactics. Men participants responded best to reward strategies, and worst to coercion to use condoms. Further, responses given by a subset of both women—and, to a greater extent, men--indicated that use of negotiation tactics involving coercion to use condoms may result in negative or angry reactions. Finally, response to strategies may vary with the value of the relationship as viewed by the target of negotiation. Implications for HIV prevention programs and media campaigns are discussed. PMID:18569536

  2. Safer sex negotiation and its association with condom use among clients of female sex workers in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Salikon, Roslan Hj

    2015-03-01

    This study examines safer sex negotiation and its association with condom use among clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangladesh. Data were collected from 484 FSWs living in Dhaka city following a convenient sampling procedure. Overall, 47% of the clients were suggested to use condom during last sexual intercourse and 21% did so. Both bivariate and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses yielded significantly increased risk of negotiation for safer sex with clients among FSWs with higher education. The power bargaining significantly (P < .001) increased the risk of condom use by 2.15 times (95% confidence interval = 1.28-3.59). The odds of condom use were significantly higher among the FSWs with higher education, unmarried, hotel-based, and among those with higher level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. The Bangladeshi FSWs have little control over their profession. HIV prevention programs should aim to encourage FSWs through information, education, and communication program to insist on condom use among clients. PMID:24345848

  3. Modelling condom use: Does the theory of planned behaviour explain condom use in a low risk, community sample?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Joanna; Shiels, Chris; Gabbay, Mark B

    2014-01-01

    To date, most condom research has focused on young or high-risk groups, with little evidence about influences on condom use amongst lower-risk community samples. These groups are not risk free and may still wish to negotiate safer sex; yet the considerations involved could be different from those in higher-risk groups. Our research addresses this gap: We report a cross-sectional questionnaire study enquiring about recent condom use and future use intentions in community settings. Our sample (n = 311) purposively included couples in established relationships, known to be condom users. Items included demographics, sexual history and social-cognitive variables taken from the theory of planned behaviour. The strongest association with condom use/use intentions amongst our respondents was sexual partner's perceived willingness to use them. This applied across both univariate and multivariate analyses. Whilst most social-cognitive variables (attitudes; self-efficacy and peer social norms) were significant in univariate analyses, this was not supported in multivariate regression. Of the social-cognitive variables, only "condom-related attitudes" were retained in the model explaining recent condom use, whilst none of them entered the model explaining future use intentions. Further analysis showed that attitudes concerning pleasure, identity stigma and condom effectiveness were most salient for this cohort. Our results suggest that, in community samples, the decision to use a condom involves different considerations from those highlighted in previous research. Explanatory models for established couples should embrace interpersonal perspectives, emphasising couple-factors rather than individual beliefs. Messages to this cohort could usefully focus on negotiation skills, condom advantages (other than disease prevention) and reducing the stigma associated with use. PMID:23909581

  4. Using the theory of reasoned action (TRA) to understand the decision to use condoms in an STD clinic population.

    PubMed

    Baker, S A; Morrison, D M; Carter, W B; Verdon, M S

    1996-11-01

    The theory of reasoned action (TRA) provides useful information when designing health education interventions. In this study, 703 heterosexual STD clinic clients responded to a TRA-based survey. With steady partners, social norms and attitudes toward condom use were significant predictors of intention for both men and women. The interaction of attitude and norm increased prediction for men (R = .64, p < 0.001) and women (R = .70, p < 0.001). With casual partners, attitude was a predictor for men and social norm was a predictor for women. Prior use of condoms increased prediction for men (R = .38, p < 0.001) and women (R = .47, p < 0.001). Findings suggest that, in addition to traditional TRA model variables, the relationship between sexual partners and the individual's prior experience with condom use should be incorporated into attempts to understand this complex, dyadic behavior. Examining specific outcome and normative beliefs also provides important information for intervention design. PMID:8910029

  5. How does Intimate Partner Violence Affect Condom and Oral Contraceptive Use in the United States? A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Julie N.; Stockman, Jamila K.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Intimate partner violence (IPV) is estimated to affect 25% of adult women in the US alone. IPV directly impacts women’s ability to use contraception, resulting in many of unintended pregnancies and STIs. This review examines the relationship between IPV and condom and oral contraceptive use within the United States at two levels: the female victim’s perspective on barriers to condom and oral contraceptive use, in conjunction with experiencing IPV (Aim 1) and the male perpetrator’s perspective regarding condom and oral contraceptive use (Aim 2). STUDY DESIGN We systematically reviewed and synthesized all publications meeting the study criteria published since 1997. We aimed to categorize the results by emerging themes related to each study aim. RESULTS We identified 42 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We found 37 studies that addressed Aim 1. Within this we identified three themes: violence resulting in reduced condom or oral contraceptive use (n=15); condom or oral contraceptive use negotiation (n=15); which we further categorized as IPV due to condom or oral contraceptive request, perceived violence (or fear) of IPV resulting in decreased condom or oral contraceptive use, and sexual relationship power imbalances decreasing the ability to use condoms or oral contraceptives; and reproductive coercion (n=7). We found 5 studies that addressed Aim 2. Most studies were cross-sectional, limiting the ability to determine causality between IPV and condom or oral contraceptive use; however, most studies did find a positive relationship between IPV and decreased condom or oral contraceptive use. CONCLUSIONS Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods research has demonstrated the linkages between female IPV victimization/male IPV perpetration and condom or oral contraceptive use. However, additional qualitative and longitudinal research is needed to improve the understanding of dynamics in relationships with IPV and determine causality between IPV

  6. Beyond the Condom: Frontiers in Male Contraception.

    PubMed

    Roth, Mara Y; Amory, John K

    2016-05-01

    Nearly half of all pregnancies worldwide are unplanned, despite numerous contraceptive options available. No new contraceptive method has been developed for men since the invention of condom. Nevertheless, more than 25% of contraception worldwide relies on male methods. Therefore, novel effective methods of male contraception are of interest. Herein we review the physiologic basis for both male hormonal and nonhormonal methods of contraception. We review the history of male hormonal contraception development, current hormonal agents in development, as well as the potential risks and benefits of male hormonal contraception options for men. Nonhormonal methods reviewed will include both pharmacological and mechanical approaches in development, with specific focus on methods which inhibit the testicular retinoic acid synthesis and action. Multiple hormonal and nonhormonal methods of male contraception are in the drug development pathway, with the hope that a reversible, reliable, safe method of male contraception will be available to couples in the not too distant future. PMID:26947703

  7. Condoms for the prevention of HIV transmission: cultural dimensions.

    PubMed

    Potts, M; Short, R V

    1989-01-01

    Humans being fundamentally polygamous, condoms should be recognized and promoted as central to an integrated approach for family planning, HIV prevention, and the control of sexually transmitted diseases. They must be more widely and effectively distributed and promoted in both more developed and developing nations. Available data on the ability of condoms to stem the transmission of HIV are limited, yet nonetheless indicative of condoms' general protective effect. Comparatively high prevalence and use of condoms are, however, found only in Japan, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Singapore, and Trinidad and Tobago. Use in the U.S. is under that of a generation ago, while only extremely low levels are found throughout most of Africa, Asia, and South America. The industrialized nations of the West are most readily in the position of affording increased condom prevalence and use through increased manufacturing capacity and intensified promotion of moderate behavioral change among users. The nations of the 3rd World, however, lack the monetary and logistical resources to finance a rapid increase in condom prevalence, and are demanded to focus their energies more than ever where they are most needed, and expected to produce most significant impact. Up to $1 billion/year would be needed from donor agencies to meet universal need for condoms in Africa alone. Simple and cheap though condoms may be, such cost is too high to bear. The use of social marketing is therefore endorsed to target high-risk groups of populations as a means of maximizing resources for greatest potential impact. NGOs will play a major role in condom distribution, and should expect to work with, instead of through, ministries of health. PMID:2514745

  8. Sociocultural and Behavioral Contexts of Condom Use in Heterosexual Married Couples in India: Challenges to the HIV Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharya, Gauri

    2004-01-01

    This article examines sociocultural expectations of sexual behavior and the reasons why not using condoms may be logical to married heterosexual couples in India. Married women who report monogamous sexual relationships with their husbands are a high-risk group for HIV infection in India. Based on the public health model and a population-based…

  9. Condom Use Trajectories in Adolescence and the Transition to Adulthood: The Role of Mother and Father Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pingel, Emily S.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Elkington, Katherine S.; Fergus, Stevenson; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have investigated how mother and father support differ on predicting youths' sexual risk behavior. We therefore examined the influence of parental support on condom use trajectories and its correlates in a predominantly African-American sample (N = 627; 53% female participants; M = 14.86 years [SD = 0.64]) from adolescence to young…

  10. Safer Sex in a Digital World: A Web-Based Motivational Enhancement Intervention to Increase Condom Use among College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starosta, Amy J.; Cranston, Emma; Earleywine, Mitch

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study is a randomized trial of a Web-based intervention to increase condom use among college women. Participants: From October 2012 to March 2013, N = 422 completed baseline questionnaires and intervention procedures. n = 216 completed 3-month follow-up. Methods: Participants completed a decisional balance exercise examining their…

  11. Exploring Gender Differences in the Relationship between HIV/STD Testing and Condom Use among Undergraduate College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bontempi, Jean Breny; Mugno, Raymond; Bulmer, Sandra M.; Danvers, Karina; Vancour, Michele L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Rates of HIV/AIDS, and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), are increasing among university students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in the relationship between condom use and (1) HIV/STD testing behaviors, (2) STD treatment behaviors and, (3) alcohol use behaviors. Methods: A survey was…

  12. Condom use and attitudes among heterosexual college students.

    PubMed

    Myers, T; Clement, C

    1994-01-01

    The responses of a self-selected sample of Canadian college students draw attention to the salience of gender-based analysis in studies of sexual behavior and condom use. Respondents included 249 male and 237 female heterosexuals (mean age 22.6 and 21.9 years, respectively) who approached free condom distribution displays at 4 college campuses in Toronto and agreed to complete a brief questionnaire. Overall, 69% of students stated they were currently involved in a relationship; however, 65% of females compared to only 47% of males reported having just 1 sexual partner in the past year. 83% of students had used a condom at some point in their life and 69% reported condom use on at least 1 occasion in the past year. All respondents acknowledge at least 1 episode of sexual intercourse where a condom was not used. The most frequent reason for nonuse, among both males and females, was involvement in a steady relationship. However, males were significantly more likely than females to claim they did not use condoms for the following other reasons: did not have a condom, sex was so exciting, partner did not want to use a condom, and drugs or alcohol were involved. Males reported significantly higher rates of condom use than females during vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal intercourse. On the other hand, females had more positive attitudes toward condoms and were more conscientious in their proper use. There were significant gender differences on 6 of 10 attitude questions, with females disagreeing more strongly than males with the following statements: condoms are a turnoff, safe sex is boring, long-term lovers can have any type of sex without risk, drug or alcohol use makes it hard to practice safe sex, and it is hard to have safe sex with a very attractive partner. In terms of specific condom use guidelines intended to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission, females were significantly more likely than males to be aware of or adhere to the following

  13. Gender, Contraceptive Attitudes, and Condom Use in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: A Dyadic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Kreager, Derek A.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2014-01-01

    Although sexual risk behavior occurs in a dyadic context, most studies of adolescent sexual behavior focus on individuals. This study uses couple data (N = 488 couples) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine how partners’ contraceptive attitudes correlate over time and whether male or female partners’ attitudes are better predictors of condom use. Net of their own prior attitudes, partners’ prior attitudes predicted both male and female adolescents’ Wave 2 attitudes. This association was stronger for female than for male adolescents, suggesting that female attitudes were influenced more by males’ prior attitudes than vice versa. When entered together, only male adolescents’ attitudes predicted dyadic condom use. Findings suggest that male partners may have greater influence on adolescent contraceptive decisions, and that prevention programs should emphasize the relational context of sexual behavior. PMID:25750492

  14. The Relationship Between Condom-Related Protective Behavioral Strategies and Condom Use Among College Students: Global- and Event-Level Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Melissa A.; Kaysen, Debra L.; Rees, Michiko; Woods, Briana A.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between condom-related protective behavioral strategies (PBS; including those that require active behavior and mental planning) and condom use at both global and event levels. College students (N= 623; 57.8% female) completed self-report measures of condom-related PBS, as well as drinking and sexual behavior. Logistic regression findings indicated that students who reported greater use of condom-related PBS were more likely to discuss their and their partner’s HIV status, sexually transmitted infection (STI) history (other than HIV), and protection against STIs (such as HIV and other STIs) the first time they had sex with their most recent vaginal sexual partner. Logistic regression findings also indicated that more frequent use of condom-related PBS was associated with being more likely to use a condom during the most recent vaginal sexual experience. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression results showed that condom-related PBS predicted condom non-users and that condom-related PBS were associated with increased use of condoms during sexual behavior in the previous three months. These results extend prior research by demonstrating that both active and mental planning condom-related PBS are associated with condom use at both the global and event levels, which suggests that condom-related PBS may be useful to incorporate in interventions targeting risky sexual behavior among young adults. PMID:19657943

  15. The Impact of Condom Use Negotiation Self-Efficacy and Partnership Patterns on Consistent Condom Use Among College-Educated Women.

    PubMed

    Nesoff, Elizabeth D; Dunkle, Kristin; Lang, Delia

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to explore the impact of condom negotiation self-efficacy, interpersonal factors, and sensational factors on condom use behavior among a population of college-educated women with different patterns and types of sexual partner. We administered an online questionnaire capturing sexual behavior, partnership patterns, perceived benefits of and barriers to condom use, and condom use negotiation self-efficacy. A total of 433 women completed the online survey. Perceived sensual, erotic, and interpersonal benefits and barriers to condom use, along with negotiation self-efficacy, were found to be significantly associated with consistent condom use. When compared to respondents reporting only main partners, respondents reporting only casual partners were more likely to use condoms while respondents reporting both main and casual partners were least likely to use condoms. Previous negative experiences with condoms were significantly associated with decreased condom use, while history of sexually transmitted infection diagnosis was not consistently associated with condom use. This study supports the importance of negotiation self-efficacy in promoting condom use; however, building women's self-efficacy is not enough for effective condom use promotion among women. The impact of interpersonal, sensual and erotic factors, as well as the context of different partnership patterns, must be considered in future interventions. PMID:26194206

  16. Making sense of condoms: social representations in young people’s HIV-related narratives from six African countries

    PubMed Central

    Winskell, Kate; Obyerodhyambo, Oby; Stephenson, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Condoms are an essential component of comprehensive efforts to control the HIV epidemic, both for those who know their status and for those who do not. Although young people account for almost half of all new HIV infections, reported condom use among them remains low in many sub-Saharan African countries. In order to inform education and communication efforts to increase condom use, we examined social representations of condoms among young people aged 10–24 in six African countries/regions with diverse HIV prevalence rates: Swaziland, Namibia, Kenya, South-East Nigeria, Burkina Faso, and Senegal. We used a unique data source, namely 11,354 creative ideas contributed from these countries to a continent-wide scriptwriting contest, held from 1st February to 15th April 2005, on the theme of HIV/AIDS. We stratified each country sample by the sex, age (10–14, 15–19, 20–24), and urban/rural location of the author and randomly selected up to 10 narratives for each of the 12 resulting strata, netting a total sample of 586 texts for the six countries. We analyzed the narratives qualitatively using thematic data analysis and narrative-based methodologies. Differences were observed across settings in the prominence accorded to condoms, the assessment of their effectiveness, and certain barriers to and facilitators of their use. Moralization emerged as a key impediment to positive representations of condoms, while humour was an appealing means to normalize them. The social representations in the narratives identify communication needs in and across settings and provide youth-focused ideas and perspectives to inform future intervention efforts. PMID:21388731

  17. The impact of gender norms on condom use among HIV-positive adults in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Fladseth, Kristin; Gafos, Mitzy; Newell, Marie Louise; McGrath, Nuala

    2015-01-01

    Critical to preventing the spread of HIV is promoting condom use among HIV-positive individuals. Previous studies suggest that gender norms (social and cultural constructions of the ways that women and men are expected to behave) may be an important determinant of condom use. However, the relationship has not been evaluated among HIV-positive women and men in South Africa. We examined gender norms and condom use at last sex among 550 partnerships reported by 530 sexually-active HIV-positive women (372) and men (158) who had sought care, but not yet initiated antiretroviral therapy in a high HIV-prevalence rural setting in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa between January 2009 and March 2011. Participants enrolled in the cohort study completed a baseline questionnaire that detailed their socio-demographic characteristics, socio-economic circumstances, religion, HIV testing history and disclosure of HIV status, stigma, social capital, gender norms and self-efficacy. Gender norms did not statistically differ between women and men (p = 0.18). Overall, condoms were used at last sex in 58% of partnerships. Although participants disclosed their HIV status in 66% of the partnerships, 60% did not have knowledge of their partner's HIV status. In multivariable logistic regression, run separately for each sex, women younger than 26 years with more equitable gender norms were significantly more likely to have used a condom at last sex than those of the same age group with inequitable gender norms (OR = 8.88, 95% CI 2.95-26.75); the association between condom use and gender norms among women aged 26+ years and men of all ages was not statistically significant. Strategies to address gender inequity should be integrated into positive prevention interventions, particularly for younger women, and supported by efforts at a societal level to decrease gender inequality. PMID:25853870

  18. Making sense of condoms: social representations in young people's HIV-related narratives from six African countries.

    PubMed

    Winskell, Kate; Obyerodhyambo, Oby; Stephenson, Rob

    2011-03-01

    Condoms are an essential component of comprehensive efforts to control the HIV epidemic, both for those who know their status and for those who do not. Although young people account for almost half of all new HIV infections, reported condom use among them remains low in many sub-Saharan African countries. In order to inform education and communication efforts to increase condom use, we examined social representations of condoms among young people aged 10-24 in six African countries/regions with diverse HIV prevalence rates: Swaziland, Namibia, Kenya, South-East Nigeria, Burkina Faso, and Senegal. We used a unique data source, namely 11,354 creative ideas contributed from these countries to a continent-wide scriptwriting contest, held from 1(st) February to 15(th) April 2005, on the theme of HIV/AIDS. We stratified each country sample by the sex, age (10-14, 15-19, 20-24), and urban/rural location of the author and randomly selected up to 10 narratives for each of the 12 resulting strata, netting a total sample of 586 texts for the six countries. We analyzed the narratives qualitatively using thematic data analysis and narrative-based methodologies. Differences were observed across settings in the prominence accorded to condoms, the assessment of their effectiveness, and certain barriers to and facilitators of their use. Moralization emerged as a key impediment to positive representations of condoms, while humour was an appealing means to normalize them. The social representations in the narratives identify communication needs in and across settings and provide youth-focused ideas and perspectives to inform future intervention efforts. PMID:21388731

  19. Condom use and the popular press in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Renne, E P

    1993-04-01

    The increased acceptability and use of condoms by men in southwestern Nigeria is reflected in joking references to condoms in the comic-style popular press. Yet these references display an ambivalence about condoms that is mirrored in survey data and in interviews regarding condom use by rural Ekiti Yoruba men. This ambivalence, which is often couched in terms of health, has implications for the acceptance of government-sponsored HIV/AIDS-related educational programs. Because of the irreverence of comic-style newspapers and the 'unofficial' nature of their authority which coincides with popular attitudes about health programs, they have a credibility that could be useful in educating adolescents about sexually-transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. PMID:10148797

  20. [Historical reflections on health protection and the condom].

    PubMed

    Forrai, J

    1991-12-01

    The condom was first mentioned in a 1564 writing by Gabriel Fallopius as a means of protection against syphilis describing his tests on 1100 people. The name itself has been ascribed to the Latin word condere, Cum Domino, the French city of Condom, and doctor Quondom, the physician of the English King Charles II. The Marquis de Sade and Casanova used it to avoid venereal diseases (VDs). In London condom manufacturing started in the 18th century. Later it became a symbol of prostitution and immorality. The material used consisted of fish bladder or animal intestines (calf, sheep). The discovery of the rubber tree and the invention of vulcanization by the American technician Goodyear in 1840 made possible large-scale production. In Hungary the 1st rubber manufacturing plant EMERGE started production in 1893 along with toys and other wares. IN 1895 the HUngarian medial association warned about the spread of syphilis facilitated by the activities of 15,400 syphilitic prostitutes in the country. 30% of hospital patients had syphilis. The use of the condom was limited, and illegitimate births increased by 10.5% during the millennium celebrations of Hungary's existence in 1896. EMERGE manufactured condoms called Nono which were mostly distributed to soldiers during World War I, yet they had little popularity. US soldiers did not use the condoms either, as 7 million active days were lost due to VDs during World War II. In the 1950's Anna Ratko was Minister of Health in Hungary who opposed promotion of condoms to increase the population. The invention of penicillin in 1942 also pushed the condom to the background, but in the 1980's the epidemic of AIDS has made its use widespread. PMID:1758695

  1. Contextual influence on condom use in commercial sex venues: A multi-level analysis among female sex workers and gatekeepers in Guangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiyun; Li, Xiaoming; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu; Huedo-Medina, Tania B

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to assess the influence of commercial sex venues on consistent condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) and to examine associations between individual and venue level factors and consistent condom use with clients. Analysis was based on a sample of 637 FSWs and 123 gatekeepers from 51 venues in Guangxi, China. Multi-level logistic regression using Bayesian simulation via Markov Chain Monte Carlo was applied to investigate whether FSWs' individual propensity to use condom with clients was statistically dependent on the venue of working. Multi-level modeling revealed considerable variability across venues in the likelihood of consistent condom use with clients among FSWs. Characteristics at both individual and venue levels helped to explain the observed variation. Certain venue-level factors exerted their influence on condom use over and above the effect of individual-level characteristics. The contextual influence exerted on condom use behaviors among FSWs may imply a potential to harness the path to individual behaviors from a higher and more dominant level, and shed light on the design of more effective sexual risk reduction intervention among venue-based FSWs. PMID:26004452

  2. Contextual Influence on Condom Use in Commercial Sex Venues: a Multi-level Analysis among Female Sex Workers and Gatekeepers in Guangxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiyun; Li, Xiaoming; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess the influence of commercial sex venues on consistent condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) and to examine associations between individual and venue level factors and consistent condom use with clients. Analysis was based on a sample of 637 FSWs and 123 gatekeepers from 51 venues in Guangxi, China. Multi-level logistic regression using Bayesian simulation via Markov Chain Monte Carlo was applied to investigate whether FSWs’ individual propensity to use condom with clients was statistically dependent on the venue of working. Multi-level modeling revealed considerable variability across venues in the likelihood of consistent condom use with clients among FSWs. Characteristics at both individual and venue levels helped to explain the observed variation. Certain venue-level factors exerted their influence on condom use over and above the effect of individual-level characteristics. The contextual influence exerted on condom use behaviors among FSWs may imply a potential to harness the path to individual behaviors from a higher and more dominant level, and shed light on the design of more effective sexual risk reduction intervention among venue-based FSWs. PMID:26004452

  3. $1.5 million female condom order awarded.

    PubMed

    1997-12-01

    The Female Health Co. of Chicago, Illinois, has reported receiving an order for 1.5 million female condoms from South Africa's Department of Health. Shipments are scheduled to begin immediately and are expected to be completed by early 1998. Earlier, South Africa ordered 90,000 female condoms in order to test the device. This order is part of the company's multi-year agreement with the Joint UN Program on AIDS (UNAIDS) which provides a special price based upon global public sector demand. The launch of the female condom in South Africa is just one of a series planned in Africa and other areas of the developing world. The globalization of the female condom, albeit in its early stages, affords the Female Health Co. with the opportunity to explore other options for the future development of its business. The company has engaged Vector Securities International, Inc. to help identify, develop, and evaluate those options. The female condom is currently marketed in the US, the UK, Canada, South Korea, Taiwan, and Holland, and will soon be launched in Brazil. Female Health Co. is also engaged in discussions with potential partners for Europe, the US, India, China, and other countries. The female condom was also recently launched in Zimbabwe as pert of the Joint UNAIDS, and an application had been submitted to Koseisho for marketing approval in Japan. PMID:12293296

  4. Effects of HealthWise South Africa on Condom Use Self-efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Edward A.; Flisher, Alan J.; Caldwell, Linda L.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the impact of the HealthWise South Africa prevention intervention on condom use self-efficacy. Students from the Cape Town area were assessed at the beginning and end of each school year, beginning in the 8th grade and ending in the 11th. The intervention was delivered in 12 lessons during the 8th grade and 6 lessons during the 9th grade. Using three-level multiphase mixed-effects models, we found that HealthWise had a statistically significant positive effect on condom use self-efficacy, although effects differed for boys and girls. HealthWise had an effect during the first phase of the intervention (8th grade) for girls and during the second phase (9th grade) for boys. We speculate that the gender differences occur because the 8th grade lessons of the intervention taught skills such as discussion, decision making, and negotiation, which may be more salient to girls, and a 9th grade lesson explicitly focused on condom use within the context of sexual relationships, which may have been more salient to boys. PMID:21271356

  5. The condom controversy: should latex prophylactics be part of everyday life?

    PubMed

    1994-01-19

    In the Philippines, the Catholic Church opposes condom use and the government's promotion of condom use, yet people can easily buy condoms. In the conservative southern Philippines, both church-going men and women buy condoms from stress near churches. Condom use is being promoted throughout Asia as a means to protect against sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS. Some people object to the openness of public health advocates when they discuss condom use and quality because they believe that the advocates are sending an underlying message that casual sex is acceptable. They call for promotion of sexual abstinence. An Indonesian official suggests a condom red line to mark areas where sex workers operate; anyone entering a red line district would have to have a condom. No advertisements for condoms exist in Malaysia, but condom are readily available at most convenience stores. Most of the 601 HIV-positive people in Japan became infected via contaminated blood products. Condoms have been the primary method of birth control in Japan for many years. At least 27 condom boutiques operate in Japan, resulting in a changed condom image. Condoms sold in Japan must meet strict standards. In a recent condom quality survey in Hong Kong, 66% of 34 model condoms did not pass. They leaked, stretched insufficiently, or had no expiration date or instructions. A marketing director notes that condoms assume value when people spend money for them, while free condoms have little value and are often used as balloons. An advertising agency in India promotes enjoyment while past ads made people feel sleazy. In Malaysia, like in other parts of Asia, it is difficult for women, even educated, professional women, to negotiate safe sex. The Philippines uses this motto--We Follow the ABC's: A for Abstinence, B for Be Faithful, and C for Condoms. PMID:12288297

  6. Increasing condom use: evaluation of a theory-based intervention to prevent sexually transmitted diseases in young women.

    PubMed

    Bryan, A D; Aiken, L S; West, S G

    1996-09-01

    A multicomponent intervention to increase condom use in sexually active young women was designed, implemented, and evaluated in a randomized experiment. Participants were 198 unmarried female college students (mean age = 18.6 years) who received a 1-session condom promotion intervention or a control (stress management) intervention. The condom promotion intervention led to increased self-reported condom use up to 6 months following intervention as well as positive changes in perceived benefits of condom use, affective attitudes toward condom use and condom users, perceived acceptance of sexuality, control over the sexual encounter, perceived self-efficacy for condom use, and intentions to use condoms. Mediational analysis illustrated the mechanisms of the condom promotion intervention effects, linking psychological constructs affected by the intervention (perceived benefits, acceptance of sexuality, control over the sexual encounter, attitudes toward condoms, and self-efficacy for condom use) to condom use intentions. PMID:8891716

  7. Progress and challenges to male and female condom use in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Beksinska, Mags E; Smit, Jennifer A; Mantell, Joanne E

    2011-01-01

    South Africa has responded to the STI and HIV epidemic with a rapid expansion of its national-level public sector condom programme. Male condoms are available widely, at no cost in the public sector, with expanded access via social marketing and the private sector. The female condom programme is one of the largest and well-established globally. National surveys show progressive increases in rates of condom use at last sex. Yet inconsistent and incorrect use and likelihood that condoms are discontinued in longer-term partnerships are some of the challenges impeding the condom programme’s successes in the fight against STIs and HIV. This article reviews the current condom program, related guidelines and policies, the existing data on male and female condom use, including distribution and uptake. We discuss the main challenges to condom use, including both user and service-related issues and finally how these challenges could be addressed. PMID:22348633

  8. Introducing diaphragms into the mix: what happens to male condom use patterns?

    PubMed

    Posner, Samuel F; van der Straten, Ariane; Kang, Mi-Suk; Padian, Nancy; Chipato, Tsungai

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this analysis was to assess the effect of introducing the diaphragm on condom use patterns. Participants included one hundred eighty-nine women attending family planning clinics in Harare, Zimbabwe who reported less than 100% condom use. The proportion of acts where at least one method was used significantly increased over using follow-up; male condom use remained stable. A diaphragm was used with 50% to 54% of acts; male condoms were also used about 50% of the time. The proportion of acts where a female condom was used decreased. Women who used both male and female condoms were more likely to use diaphragms than those who reported not using female condoms. Introducing the diaphragm increased the overall proportion of protected acts. The proportion of acts where a male condom was used did not change. Female condoms use declined because concurrent use with the diaphragm is not possible. PMID:16235134

  9. When free condoms and spermicide are not enough: barriers and solutions to participant recruitment to community-based trials.

    PubMed

    Gabbay, Mark; Thomas, Joanna

    2004-08-01

    While randomised controlled trials remain the accepted 'gold standard' in medical research, participant recruitment is often problematic, particularly with primary care trials or those requiring healthy volunteers. Such difficulties can jeopardise the trial, leading to early abandonment, reduced statistical power or timetable and budget overruns. Substantial changes in recruitment plans may reduce the generalisability of the research. In order to overcome some of the more common recruitment difficulties, it is important that researchers share their recruitment strategy successes and failures. We report our experience of recruiting healthy volunteers to a condom trial, based within primary care and community populations. This was an RCT of the effect that using an additional spermicidal lubricant has on condom failure. We originally aimed to recruit entirely from Family Planning Clinics, but eventually required a wide variety of strategies. Targeted mailings, newspaper coverage and electronic 'posters' were among the most successful we used to bolster clinic recruitment. Concerned at our slow recruitment rates, we conducted a questionnaire survey investigating the reasons for participation and non-participation in the research completed by 101 trial participants, 112 decliners and 90 controls (total 303). The most important reasons given for taking part included 'considering the research to be important' (85%), 'wanting to help the researchers' (70%), 'having time to help' (62%) and 'getting free condoms and lubricant' (56%). The most popular reasons for declining were 'not wanting to use condoms' (38%), 'partner's unwillingness to take part' (29%), 'not wanting to alter usual contraceptive practice' (27%), 'not having time' (21%). Contrary to expectations, embarrassment and fears about confidentiality were relatively unimportant factors in this decision. In conclusion, the key to attaining recruitment targets was the core research team taking an active part

  10. “… But Then He Became My Sipa”: The Implications of Relationship Fluidity for Condom Use Among Women Sex Workers in Antananarivo, Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Hindin, Michelle J.; Nathanson, Constance A.; Rakotoarison, Paul Ghislain; Razafintsalama, Violette

    2009-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that sex workers use condoms less consistently with regular (i.e., nonpaying) partners than with clients. Few studies have examined the extent to which these 2 categories are mutually exclusive. In an ethnographic study of women's sex work in Antananarivo, Madagascar, we examined how the meaning of women sex workers’ sexual relationships could shift among 3 different forms of sex work. Condom use was less likely in forms in which the distinction between client and lover (sipa in Malagasy) was fluid. For many sex workers, therefore, relationships they understood to be intimate imparted the greatest health vulnerability. It is important to examine the influence of the meaning of sexual relationships on condom use for HIV prevention. Policy implications for HIV prevention work with sex workers are considered. PMID:19299685

  11. "... But then he became my sipa": the implications of relationship fluidity for condom use among women sex workers in Antananarivo, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Stoebenau, Kirsten; Hindin, Michelle J; Nathanson, Constance A; Rakotoarison, Paul Ghislain; Razafintsalama, Violette

    2009-05-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that sex workers use condoms less consistently with regular (i.e., nonpaying) partners than with clients. Few studies have examined the extent to which these 2 categories are mutually exclusive. In an ethnographic study of women's sex work in Antananarivo, Madagascar, we examined how the meaning of women sex workers' sexual relationships could shift among 3 different forms of sex work. Condom use was less likely in forms in which the distinction between client and lover (sipa in Malagasy) was fluid. For many sex workers, therefore, relationships they understood to be intimate imparted the greatest health vulnerability. It is important to examine the influence of the meaning of sexual relationships on condom use for HIV prevention. Policy implications for HIV prevention work with sex workers are considered. PMID:19299685

  12. Promoting HIV Testing and Condom Use Among Filipina Commercial Sex Workers: Findings from a Quasi-Experimental Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Morisky, Donald E.; Ksobiech, Kate; Malow, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of a multi-level social action-based theory (SABT) intervention to increase HIV testing and consistent condom use among female commercial sex workers (FCSWs). Respondents in four socio-demographically similar Philippine cities received an SABT intervention based on: (1) peer influence; (2) manager training; (3) combined peer/manager influence; or (4) usual care (control condition). HIV testing increased 86% from baseline (N = 980) to follow-up (N = 903), and was significantly associated with higher HIV/AIDS knowledge, lower probability of contracting HIV and increased condom use. After adjusting for socio-demographic, HIV knowledge and perceived control variables, FCSWs in the manager training and combined peer/manager conditions were significantly more likely to engage in consistent condom use. Mediational analyses revealed higher HIV/ AIDS risk perceptions and a supportive work environment related to increased condom use. These findings support a growing body of research suggesting the need for multilevel sexual risk reduction interventions among FCSWs. PMID:18543095

  13. Spermiotoxicity of commercial condoms made from polyurethane, polyisoprene and latex, using domestic ruminants as an experimental animal model.

    PubMed

    Pradiee, J; O'Brien, E; Esteso, M C; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; López-Sebastián, A; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2016-05-01

    The use of condoms could provide a means of collecting high-quality spermatozoa from different species under physiological ejaculation conditions. However, certain condom materials may affect sperm functionality. This study examined the spermiotoxicity of different commercial condom materials towards ram and goat spermatozoa. Sperm samples were diluted in Tyrode's medium and placed in contact with a piece of condom material (polyurethane, polyisoprene or latex) and incubated for 30 or 90 min. Contact time in the polyisoprene and latex treatments affected some sperm variables; no such effects were seen, however, in the polyurethane treatments. For ram spermatozoa in contact with polyisoprene, the percentage of dead spermatozoa with a damaged acrosome increased at 90 min, while for spermatozoa in contact with latex, the percentage of live spermatozoa with an intact acrosome decreased. For goat spermatozoa in contact with both polyisoprene and latex, the percentage of dead spermatozoa with a damaged acrosome increased at 90 min, while for spermatozoa in contact with polyisoprene, the percentage of live spermatozoa with an intact acrosome decreased. In conclusion, latex and polyisoprene contain components that affect sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and acrosome function. Polyurethane does not seem to reduce the quality of semen. PMID:26289632

  14. Are condom-promotion interventions reaching internal migrants in China? Integrated evidence from two cross-sectional surveys.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaona; Erasmus, Vicki; van Genugten, Lenneke; Sun, Xinying; Tan, Jingguang; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2016-09-01

    Behavioral interventions containing behavior change techniques (BCTs) that do not reach the target populations sufficiently will fail to accomplish their desired outcome. To guide sexually transmitted infection prevention policy for internal migrants in China, this study examines the extent to which BCTs aiming at increasing condom use reach the migrants and investigates the preference of the target population for these techniques among 364 migrants and 44 healthcare workers (HCWs) in Shenzhen, China. The results show that condom-promotion techniques that had been offered by HCWs to internal migrants reached a limited proportion of the population (range of reach ratio: 17.6-55.0%), although there appears to be a good match between what is offered and what is preferred by Chinese internal migrants regarding condom-promotion techniques (rank difference ≤ 1). Our findings highlight the need to increase the reach of condom-promotion techniques among Chinese internal migrants, and suggest techniques that are likely to reach the target population and match their preferred health education approaches. PMID:26936130

  15. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Colleen C; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Bircher, Anja E; Campbell, Chadwick K; Grisham, Kirk; Neilands, Torsten B; Wilson, Patrick A; Dworkin, Shari

    2015-07-01

    Since the July 2012 approval by the FDA of emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, its feasibility and acceptability has been under study. HIV-discordant couples are likely targets for PrEP but little is known about how this new prevention tool impacts relationships. We examined, among gay male couples, the acceptability of individual and partner use of PrEP and intentions to use condoms with primary and outside partners in the context of PrEP use. Data are from two independent samples of couples recruited in the San Francisco bay area and New York City-a qualitative one (N=48 couples) between March and November, 2011, and a quantitative one (N=171 couples) between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Data were categorized by couple HIV status and general linear models; chi-square tests of independence were used to examine condom-use intentions with primary and outside partners, by sexual risk profile, and race. Almost half of the HIV-negative couples felt PrEP was a good HIV prevention strategy for themselves and their partner. Over half reported that they would not change their current condom use if they or their partner were taking PrEP. However, approximately 30% of HIV-negative couples reported that they would stop using condoms or use them less with primary and outside partners if they were on PrEP or if their partner was on PrEP. A large percentage of couples view PrEP positively. However, to ensure safety for both partners, future programing must consider those who intend not to use condoms while on PrEP. PMID:26057304

  16. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Deepalika; Bircher, Anja E.; Campbell, Chadwick K.; Grisham, Kirk; Neilands, Torsten B.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Dworkin, Shari

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Since the July 2012 approval by the FDA of emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, its feasibility and acceptability has been under study. HIV-discordant couples are likely targets for PrEP but little is known about how this new prevention tool impacts relationships. We examined, among gay male couples, the acceptability of individual and partner use of PrEP and intentions to use condoms with primary and outside partners in the context of PrEP use. Data are from two independent samples of couples recruited in the San Francisco bay area and New York City—a qualitative one (N=48 couples) between March and November, 2011, and a quantitative one (N=171 couples) between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Data were categorized by couple HIV status and general linear models; chi-square tests of independence were used to examine condom-use intentions with primary and outside partners, by sexual risk profile, and race. Almost half of the HIV-negative couples felt PrEP was a good HIV prevention strategy for themselves and their partner. Over half reported that they would not change their current condom use if they or their partner were taking PrEP. However, approximately 30% of HIV-negative couples reported that they would stop using condoms or use them less with primary and outside partners if they were on PrEP or if their partner was on PrEP. A large percentage of couples view PrEP positively. However, to ensure safety for both partners, future programing must consider those who intend not to use condoms while on PrEP. PMID:26057304

  17. [Current status of the female condom in Africa].

    PubMed

    Deniaud, F

    1997-01-01

    The female condom was developed in the 1980s. It is a contraceptive device used by women that protects against both pregnancy and sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) including HIV infection. Two studies have investigated the contraceptive effectiveness of the female condom, and it was found to be as effective as other barrier methods. It has been shown to be effective against STD and HIV transmission in vitro but there is only limited evidence of its efficacy in vivo. No serious local side effects or allergies have been reported and the female condom can be used with any type of lubricant, spermicidal cream or foam. The female condom is the only device other than the male condom that has been shown to prevent HIV transmission. The female condom has been marketed in 13 countries since the summer of 1996. Most of these countries are industrialized and the selling price in these countries is too high for developing countries. Sub-Saharan Africa has very high prevalence rates for HIV infection, at least 30% of the general population in Eastern and Central regions. The epidemic is also spreading fast in some parts of the Western region. In Ivory Coast for example, 12 to 15% of pregnant women are infected. African women are subordinate to men in many aspects of their lives, politically, educationally, socially and sexually. This sexual inequality makes them highly vulnerable to STDs, including HIV, and unwanted pregnancies. This paper reviews 10 of the 15 studies carried out in sub-Saharan African countries between 1990 and 1996 and compiled by the World Health Organization. Recruitment methods, education of subjects, methodology and assessment of acceptability differed between studies. Despite these limitations, most studies concluded that the women who participated in the trials generally found the female condom acceptable. Acceptability was established quicker among prostitutes than among other women and men found the female condom less acceptable than did women

  18. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Heart Failure What is Heart Failure? In heart failure, the heart cannot pump enough ... failure often experience tiredness and shortness of breath. Heart Failure is Serious Heart failure is a serious and ...

  19. Two female condoms close to entering U.S. market.

    PubMed

    1989-04-01

    2 female condoms -- the WPC 333 and the Barrier -- are in various stages of entering the US market. The WPC 333 awaits Food and Drug Administration approval; the Barrier has been approved by the FDA by lacks a distributor as yet. The Barrier is a latex, shield-like device, which fits over the outer vagina and perineum and is held in place with thick elastic straps that encircle the women's upper legs. In the center of the device is a tube-shaped pouch, about 1 1/2 times larger than a male condom. The Barrier also contains a silicone lubricant. During use, the penis enters the pouch, never directly touching the woman's outer or inner genitalia. The latex in the device is 2 times thicker than a male condom. In clinical trials of about 450 US couples, the WPC 333 was compared with the male condom for effectiveness. No semen spillage occurred in the vaginas of the women tested, and no tears occurred during use. The WPC is made of polyurethane, resembling a child's sock with a thick flexible ring in the top of the device. Another ring about 2 1/2 inches in diameter is attached to the bottom, or outside of the device, covering the woman's labia. The WPC 333 is lubricated with nonoxynol-9. The medical coordinator at the Vermont Women's Health Center in Burlington questions how well the female condoms will be accepted by patients. PMID:12342200

  20. Social marketing of condoms: selling protection and changing behavior.

    PubMed

    Townsend, S

    1991-06-01

    Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi. PMID:12316887

  1. Condom use among women choosing long-term hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Cushman, L F; Romero, D; Kalmuss, D; Davidson, A R; Heartwell, S; Rulin, M

    1998-01-01

    Concerns have been raised that women who use long-term hormonal contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancy will fail to protect themselves from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including AIDS, through concomitant condom use. This possibility was investigated in a prospective (1993-94), multi-site US (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Dallas, Texas; and New York, New York) study of 1073 new users of either contraceptive implants or Depo-Provera. The mean age of study participants was 23 years; 63% were Hispanic, 24% Black, and 13% White. Overall, the proportion of women who always used condoms in the previous 3 months dropped from 21% at the time of method initiation to 11% at follow-up 6-12 months after enrollment. However, use increased from 25% to 31% among women with more than 1 sexual partner. Significant predictors of dual method use included previous condom use (odds ratio (OR), 2.5); receipt of AIDS-specific counseling (OR, 1.6); the perception, at baseline, of being at some risk of AIDS (OR, 1.4); and more than 1 sexual partner during the study period (OR, 5.4). In addition, injectable users, teenagers, and Black women were more likely than other women to use condoms with their hormonal method. These findings have important implications for family planning programs, especially the need for counseling on the continued importance of condom use for STD prevention when pregnancy is prevented by non-barrier methods. PMID:9782048

  2. Breakage and acceptability of a polyurethane condom: a randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Frezieres, R G; Walsh, T L; Nelson, A L; Clark, V A; Coulson, A H

    1998-01-01

    The only nonsurgical method of male contraception marketed worldwide, the condom is also known to be highly effective against the sexual transmission of HIV and other diseases. Condoms, however, are underutilized compared to other methods. In 1994, the London International Group introduced the first male polyurethane condom in the US. This paper reports findings from a study comparing users' experience with polyurethane and latex condoms. The 360 couples who participated in the masked crossover study were randomized to use 3 polyurethane condoms and 3 latex condoms. After each use, couples recorded condom breaks, condom slips, and other aspects of performance. At the completion of the study, couples compared the sensitivity, ease of use, fit, and lubrication of the 2 types of condoms. The clinical breakage rates of the polyurethane and latex condoms were 7.2% and 1.1%, respectively. The complete slippage rates of the polyurethane and latex condoms were 3.6% and 0.6%, respectively. Most male users found the polyurethane condom to be more sensitive than the latex condom. PMID:9561872

  3. Reliance on condoms for contraceptive protection among HIV care and treatment clients: a mixed methods study on contraceptive choice and motivation within a generalised epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Church, Kathryn; Wringe, Alison; Fakudze, Phelele; Kikuvi, Joshua; Nhlabatsi, Zelda; Masuku, Rachel; Initiative, Integra; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To (i) describe the contraceptive practices of HIV care and treatment (HCTx) clients in Manzini, Swaziland, including their unmet needs for family planning (FP), and compare these with population-level estimates; and (ii) qualitatively explore the causal factors influencing contraceptive choice and use. Methods Mixed quantitative and qualitative methods were used. A cross-sectional survey conducted among HCTx clients (N=611) investigated FP and condom use patterns. Using descriptive statistics, findings were compared with population-level estimates derived from Swaziland Demographic and Health Survey data, weighted for clustering. In-depth interviews were conducted with HCTx providers (n=16) and clients (n=22) and analysed thematically. Results 64% of HCTx clients reported current contraceptive use; most relied on condoms alone, few practiced dual method use. Rates of condom use for FP among female HCTx clients (77%, 95% CI 71% to 82%) were higher than population-level estimates in the study region (50% HIV-positive, 95% CI 43% to 57%; 37% HIV-negative, 95% CI 31% to 43%); rates of unmet FP needs were similar when condom use consistency was accounted for (32% HCTx, 95% CI 26% to 37%; vs 35% HIV-positive, 95% CI 28% to 43%; 29% HIV-negative, 95% CI 24% to 35%). Qualitative analysis identified motivational factors influencing FP choice: fears of reinfection; a programmatic focus on condoms for people living with HIV; changing sexual behaviours before and after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation; failure to disclose to partners; and contraceptive side effect fears. Conclusions Fears of reinfection prevailed over consideration of pregnancy risk. Given current evidence on reinfection, HCTx services must move beyond a narrow focus on condom promotion, particularly for those in seroconcordant relationships, and consider diverse strategies to meet reproductive needs. PMID:24695990

  4. Examining the potential for gender bias in the prediction of symptom validity test failure by MMPI-2 symptom validity scale scores.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tayla T C; Graham, John R; Sellbom, Martin; Gervais, Roger O

    2012-09-01

    Using a sample of individuals undergoing medico-legal evaluations (690 men, 519 women), the present study extended past research on potential gender biases for scores of the Symptom Validity (FBS) scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 by examining score- and item-level differences between men and women and determining the extent to which FBS scores were able to correctly identify men and women who were divided into credible responders (n = 837) and noncredible responders (n = 372) on the basis of performance on symptom validity tests. Results indicated that women had slightly higher raw FBS scores than men (d = .29), and significant differences between men and women in item endorsement were demonstrated for 14 FBS items. Step-down hierarchical logistic regression procedures indicated predictive bias (χ²Δ = 23.72, p < .001). Follow-up analyses indicated intercept bias (χ²Δ = 23.51, p < .001) but not slope bias (χ²Δ = 0.22, p = .64). However, using the test publisher's recommended FBS cutoff scores (Ben-Porath, Graham, & Tellegen, 2009), classification accuracies were similar for women and men (T > 80, h = -.02; T > 100, h = -.22, respectively). On the basis of these results, we conclude there is no evidence of clinically meaningful bias in predictions of symptom validity test failure made using FBS scores for men and women. PMID:22309000

  5. Condom use and sexuality communication with adults: a study among high school students in South Africa and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fostering adolescents’ communication on sexuality issues with their parents and other significant adults is often assumed to be an important component of intervention programmes aimed at promoting healthy adolescent sexual practices. However, there are few studies describing the relationship between such communication and sexual practices, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examined the relationships between adolescents’ communication with significant adults and their condom use in three sites in this region. Methods Data stem from a multi-site randomized controlled trial of a school-based HIV prevention intervention implemented in Cape Town and Mankweng, South Africa and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Only data from comparison schools were used. The design is therefore a prospective panel study with three waves of data collections. Data were collected in 2004 from 6,251 participants in 40 schools. Associations between adolescents’ communication with adults about sexuality issues and their use of condoms were analysed cross-sectionally using analysis of variance, as well as prospectively using multiple ordinal logistic regression analysis. Results Cross-sectional analyses showed that consistent condom users had significantly higher mean scores on communication (across topics and communication partners) than both occasional users and never-users, who had the lowest scores. After controlling for condom use at the first data collection occasion in each model as well as for possible confounders, communication scores significantly predicted consistent condom use prospectively in all three ordinal logistic regression models (Model R2 = .23 to .31). Conclusion The findings are consistent with the assertion that communication on sexuality issues between adolescents and significant adults results in safer sexual practices, as reflected by condom use, among in-school adolescents. The associations between communication variables and condom use might

  6. Influences of social power and normative support on condom use decisions: a research synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Albarracín, D.; Kumkale, G. T.; Johnson, B. T.

    2016-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 58 studies involving 30,270 participants examined how study population and methodological characteristics influence the associations among norms, control perceptions, attitudes, intentions and behaviour in the area of condom use. Findings indicated that control perceptions generally correlated more strongly among members of societal groups that lack power, including female, younger individuals, ethnic-minorities and people with lower educational levels. Furthermore, norms generally had stronger influences among younger individuals and among people who have greater access to informational social support, including males, ethnic majorities and people with higher levels of education. These findings are discussed in the context of HIV prevention efforts. PMID:15370059

  7. SMF focus. The "lowly" condom tops the charts.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    In terms of couple-years of protection, condoms make up for 73% of products delivered in social marketing projects worldwide, monitored by the Social Marketing Forum. 5.3 million couple-years of protection were achieved in the most recent data, including 16% pills, 11% IUDs, and 1% vaginal tablets. Programs with high sales of condoms were India (100%), Nepal (77%), and Bangladesh (75%). Other products were popular for example in Egypt where IUDs represented 65%, and Colombia, where pills represented 80% of protection. Factors influencing the results were government programs, normal retail trade practices, medical resistance, cultural acceptability and literacy rates. PMID:12281608

  8. Incorporating Communication into the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Condom Use Among African American Women.

    PubMed

    Guan, Mengfei; Coles, Valerie B; Samp, Jennifer A; Sales, Jessica McDermott; DiClemente, Ralph J; Monahan, Jennifer L

    2016-09-01

    The present research extends the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to investigate how communication-related variables influence condom use intention and behavior among African American women. According to the TPB, attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy are associated with behavioral intent, which predicts behavior. For women, it was argued that condom negotiation self-efficacy was more important than condom use self-efficacy in predicting consistent condom use. Moreover, an important environmental factor that affects condom use for African American women is fear or worry when negotiating condom use because the sex partners might leave, threaten, or abuse them. Fears associated with negotiating condom use were predicted to be negatively associated with attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy. African American women (N = 560; M age = 20.58) completed assessments of TPB variables at baseline and condom use 3 months later. Condom negotiation self-efficacy was a significant indicator of behavioral intent, while condom use self-efficacy was not. Fear of condom negotiation was negatively associated with all TPB components, which was in turn significantly associated with behavioral intent and condom use. Implications for the TPB, safer sex literature, and sexually transmitted infection prevention intervention design are discussed. PMID:27565192

  9. Appropriateness of Condom Use among College Students: A Social Cognitive Theory Based Explanation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed college students using 12 selected components of social cognitive theory (SCT) to identify factors related to appropriate use of male condoms during vaginal intercourse. Results indicated that 8 of the 12 SCT constructs significantly correlated with appropriateness of condom use. Factors that affected appropriate condom use behavior were…

  10. Condom Discomfort and Associated Problems with Their Use among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosby, Richard; Yarber, William L.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Graham, Cynthia A.

    2005-01-01

    In addition to consistent use, condoms must be used correctly. The purpose of this study was to identify prevalence and types of condom-associated discomfort among university students, the outcomes of this discomfort, and the role of discomfort in condom breakage. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 206 students attending a private university…

  11. Impact of an advertising campaign on condom use in urban Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Agha, Sohail; Meekers, Dominique

    2010-12-01

    This study describes an assessment of the impact on condom use in urban Pakistan of the second phase of an intensive condom advertising campaign conducted as part of a social marketing program. Between April and June 2009, advertisements for Touch condoms appeared on private television channels and on radio stations. To assess the impact of the campaign, a nationally representative panel survey of men married to women aged 15-49 was conducted, collecting information on behaviors related to condom use and recall of contraceptive advertisements. We employed conditional change regression analysis to determine whether awareness of the Touch ad at follow-up was associated with improved attitudes toward condoms and condom use. Respondents with confirmed awareness of the Touch campaign experienced significant improvements in indicators related to condom use, even after controlling for region, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, the values of the indicators at baseline, and exposure to the first phase of the campaign. They experienced increases in the following: perceived availability of condoms; discussion of family planning; approval of family planning; procurement of condoms; and ever use, current use, and consistent use of condoms with wife. The study indicates that condom advertising can be effective in increasing condom use in urban Pakistan. PMID:21465728

  12. Young Men's Aggressive Tactics to Avoid Condom Use: A Test of a Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Logan-Greene, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Although research has demonstrated that men's aggression against women and inconsistent condom use are related phenomena, little is known about what factors increase risk for aggression to avoid condom use. The present article tests a theory-based model of condom avoidance through use of sexual aggression. Adult male participants (N = 289) were…

  13. Understanding constraints to adolescent condom procurement: the case of urban Botswana.

    PubMed

    Meekers, D; Ahmed, G; Molatlhegi, M T

    2001-06-01

    Even when condoms are widely available and affordable, adolescents may be reluctant to obtain them. Hence, programme managers need to understand what determines youths' perceptions of access to condoms. This paper analyzes focus group and survey data on condom access conducted among male and female adolescents in urban Botswana. Although a majority of sexually experienced adolescents have purchased condoms from retail outlets, only about 50% have obtained condoms from health facilities, even though the latter distribute free condoms. This study shows that many adolescents perceive that access to condoms is more difficult from public sector outlets than for private sector outlets, because the public sector providers tend to question the adolescents' behaviour while the latter do not. To bypass this problem, males tend to obtain condoms from friends. However, females are reluctant to ask their friends for condoms because they fear that their friends may gossip about them. The results of this study indicate that adolescents' access to condoms can be improved by interventions that improve the quality of interaction between public sector providers and adolescents, destigmatize condom use, expand private sector condom distribution, and that use peer sales agents and educators. PMID:11397331

  14. Condom use with primary partners among injecting drug users in Bangkok, Thailand and New York City, United States.

    PubMed

    Vanichseni, S; Des Jarlais, D C; Choopanya, K; Friedmann, P; Wenston, J; Sonchai, W; Sotheran, J L; Raktham, S; Carballo, M; Friedman, S R

    1993-06-01

    Trained interviewers spoke to 957 drug users attending a detoxification program, methadone maintenance program, or a research storefront in New York City in 1990-91 and to 601 drug users attending 17 drug use treatment clinics in Bangkok, Thailand, in the autumn of 1989 as part of a study to identify factors linked to the probability or failure of condom use with primary sexual partners among IV drug users. The participants also received HIV counseling and testing. IV drug users in New York City were more likely to be older (36.2 years vs. 30.1 years; p .001), female (25% vs. 5%; p .001), more ethnically diverse (p .001), and inject cocaine more often (33 injections/month vs. 0.5 injections/month) than those in Bangkok. 44% of drug users in New York City and 33% of those in Bangkok engaged in some unprotected penetrative intercourse with a primary heterosexual partner in the previous 6 months. Of drug users having penetrative sexual intercourse with a primary partner in the previous 6 months, 20% in New York City and 12% in Bangkok always used condoms (p .02). The strongest predictors of condom use among IV drug users from both countries were a previous positive HIV test and talking about AIDS with sexual partners (p = .001 for US; p = .0008 for Bangkok and p = .004 for US; p = .0596 for Bangkok, respectively). These findings indicated that unsafe sexual behavior with primary sexual partners among drug users is still a major source of HIV transmission in these 2 cities. Nevertheless, knowledge of HIV positive status and partner communication concerning AIDS are predictors of condom use shared by both groups. Thus, HIV/AIDS prevention programs should provide confidential HIV testing and counseling for drug users and should encourage frank discussions of AIDS between drug users and primary sexual partners. Peer support for risk reduction among drug users has the potential to facilitate such discussions. PMID:8363764

  15. Targeting condom distribution at high risk places increases condom utilization-evidence from an intervention study in Livingstone, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The PLACE-method presumes that targeting HIV preventive activities at high risk places is effective in settings with major epidemics. Livingstone, Zambia, has a major HIV epidemic despite many preventive efforts in the city. A baseline survey conducted in 2005 in places where people meet new sexual partners found high partner turnover and unprotected sex to be common among guests. In addition, there were major gaps in on-site condom availability. This study aimed to assess the impact of a condom distribution and peer education intervention targeting places where people meet new sexual partners on condom use and sexual risk taking among people socializing there. Methods The 2005 baseline survey assessed the presence of HIV preventive activities and sexual risk taking in places where people meet new sexual partners in Livingstone. One township was selected for a non-randomised intervention study on condom distribution and peer education in high risk venues in 2009. The presence of HIV preventive activities in the venues during the intervention was monitored by an external person. The intervention was evaluated after one year with a follow-up survey in the intervention township and a comparison township. In addition, qualitative interviews and focus group discussions were conducted. Results Young people between 17-32 years of age were recruited as peer educators, and 40% were females. Out of 72 persons trained before the intervention, 38 quit, and another 11 had to be recruited. The percentage of venues where condoms were reported to always be available at least doubled in both townships, but was significantly higher in the intervention vs. the control venues in both surveys (84% vs. 33% in the follow-up). There was a reduction in reported sexual risk taking among guests socializing in the venues in both areas, but reporting of recent condom use increased more among people interviewed in the intervention (57% to 84%) than in the control community (55% to 68

  16. Relationships between condoms, hormonal methods, and sexual pleasure and satisfaction: an exploratory analysis from the Women's Well-Being and Sexuality Study

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Jenny A.; Hoffman, Susie; Graham, Cynthia A.; Sanders, Stephanie A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about how condoms and other contraceptives influence women's sexual enjoyment, which could shape use patterns. Methods Data from an online study of women's sexual health and functioning were used to examine how three categories of contraceptive use - hormonal method only, condoms primarily, and dual use - could help predict decreased sexual pleasure associated with contraceptive method and overall sexual satisfaction in the past 4 weeks. Results In analyses controlling for age, relationship length, and other variables, male condoms were most strongly associated with decreased pleasure, whether used alone or in conjunction with hormonal methods. Women who used hormonal methods alone were least likely to report decreased pleasure, but they also had significantly lower overall scores of sexual satisfaction compared with the other two groups. Dual users, or women who used both condoms and a hormonal method, reported the highest sexual satisfaction scores. Conclusions Because male condoms were viewed by many of these women as decreasing sexual pleasure, sexual risk practices are likely to be affected. Although hormonal only users were highly unlikely to report decreased pleasure, they reported lower sexual satisfaction compared with the other two groups. Dual users, who had the highest sexual satisfaction scores, may have been the most sexually satisfied because they felt more fully protected against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmissible infections - consistent with previous qualitative documentation of `eroticising safety.' This exploratory study suggests that different contraceptives affect sexuality in various ways, warranting further research into these sexual dimensions and how they influence contraceptive practices. PMID:19061551

  17. Individual and interpersonal characteristics that influence male-dominated sexual decision-making and inconsistent condom use among married HIV serodiscordant couples in Gujarat, India: results from the positive Jeevan Saathi study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shilpa N; Wingood, Gina M; Kosambiya, J K; McCarty, Frances; Windle, Michael; Yount, Kathryn; Hennink, Monique

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 40 % of new infections occur among married women. No studies have examined the factors that may contribute to HIV transmission among HIV-negative wives in HIV serodiscordant relationships in Gujarat, India. In 2010, a cross-sectional survey with 185 HIV serodiscordant, married couples (i.e. 185 HIV-positive husbands and their 185 HIV-negative wives) in Gujarat was conducted. Socio-demographic, individual, and interpersonal characteristics of HIV-positive husbands and their HIV negative wives were examined. The association of these characteristics with inconsistent condom use and male-dominated sexual decision-making, were examined using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Approximately 10 % of couples reported inconsistent condom use in the past 3 months and 20 % reported intimate partner violence (IPV). Reports of IPV were associated with a higher odds of inconsistent condom use among HIV-positive husbands (aOR = 6.281). Husbands who reported having received couples counseling had a lower odds of male-dominated decision making about condom use (aOR = 0.372). HIV-negative wives who reported sex communication had a lower odds of male-dominated decision making about condom use (aOR = 0.322) with their HIV-positive husbands. Although condom use is a traditional measure of risk behavior, other factors that facilitate risk, such as male-dominated sexual decision-making need to be considered in analyses of risk. PMID:24893852

  18. How to sell a condom? The impact of demand creation tools on male and female condom sales in resource limited settings.

    PubMed

    Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Windmeijer, Frank

    2016-07-01

    Despite condoms being cheap and effective in preventing HIV, there remains an 8billion shortfall in condom use in risky sex-acts. Social marketing organisations apply private sector marketing approaches to sell public health products. This paper investigates the impact of marketing tools, including promotion and pricing, on demand for male and female condoms in 52 countries between 1997 and 2009. A static model differentiates drivers of demand between products, while a dynamic panel data estimator estimates their short- and long-run impacts. Products are not equally affected: female condoms are not affected by advertising, but highly affected by interpersonal communication and HIV prevalence. Price and promotion have significant short- and long-run effects, with female condoms far more sensitive to price than male condoms. The design of optimal distribution strategies for new and existing HIV prevention technologies must consider both product and target population characteristics. PMID:27179197

  19. 21 CFR 801.435 - User labeling for latex condoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false User labeling for latex condoms. 801.435 Section 801.435 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... commonly used by industry after the completion of the accelerated storage tests described in paragraphs...

  20. Predictors of Condom Use in Latino Migrant Day Laborers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organista, Kurt C.; Ehrlich, Samantha F.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on predictors of condom use with casual female sex partners on the part of Latino migrant day laborers in the San Francisco Bay Area. Results come from a secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional survey using convenience sampling to interview 290 sexually active adult, male, migrant Latino day laborers. Regression…

  1. Condom use and alcohol consumption in adolescents and youth

    PubMed Central

    Mola, Rachel; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Barbosa, Sháyra Anny Moura; Almeida, Layane Sá; de Sousa, Mayara Ruth Marinho; Pio, Wellypâmela Pauliny de Lima; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To determine the association between not using the male condom and alcohol consumption in adolescents and schoolchildren. Methods An epidemiological study, with a cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlation design carried out from March to July 2014. The sample consisted of students in public primary and secondary education, aged between 12 and 24 years. The social and demographic survey and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire were used. Results The study included 1,275 students, of these; 37.0% reported having had sexual relations. The prevalent age of sexual initiation was 14-16 years 55.7% and 65.6% used condom in the last sexual intercourse. Regarding the lack of condom use at the last intercourse, girls showed an association with drunkenness in the previous 30 days (2.19; 95%CI: 1.06-4.54). Conclusion In females, the non-use of condoms was associated with drunkenness in the previous 30 days. PMID:27462887

  2. Adolescents' attitudes towards AIDS precautions and intention to use condoms.

    PubMed

    Barling, N R; Moore, S M

    1990-12-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward AIDS precautions of 370 15- and 16-yr.-old secondary school students. Attitudes reflected levels of apathy, denial, and confusion high enough to lead to concern for this potentially high-risk group. Intention to use condoms in future sexual encounters was related to sex, conflict and confusion about AIDS precautions, plus other attitudinal variables. PMID:2287679

  3. Inconsistent Condom Use among Iranian Male Drug Injectors

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Yarmohmmadi Vasel, Mosaieb; Tavakoli, Mahmood; Sehat, Mahmoud; Jafari, Firoozeh; Narenjiha, Hooman; Rafiey, Hassan; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of inconsistent condom use among Iranian male injecting drug users (IDUs). Materials and Methods: Data came from the national Iranian behavioral survey of drug dependence, which sampled 7743 individuals with drug dependence, from medical centers, prisons, and streets in 29 provinces in Iran, in 2007. This study included all individuals who were male, IDUs, and were sexually active (n = 1131). The main outcome was inconsistent condom use which was assessed using a single item. A logistic regression was used to determine the association between socio-economic data, drug use data, and high risk injection behaviors with inconsistent condom use. Result: 83.3% of sexually active IDUs (n = 965) reported inconsistent condom use. Based on the logistic regression, likelihood of inconsistent condom use was higher among those with a history of syringe sharing [Odds Ratio (OR); 1.63, 95% Confidence Interval (CI); 1.13–2.34], but lower among those with higher education levels (OR; 0.34, 95% CI; 0.14–0.82), those who mostly inject at home (OR; 0.09, 95% CI; 0.02–0.47), and those with a history of treatment (OR; 0.54, 95% CI; 0.31–0.94). Conclusion: Because of the link between unsafe sex and risky injecting behaviors among Iranian IDUs, combined programs targeting both sexual and injection behavior may be more appropriate than programs that target sexual or injection behavior. The efficacy of combined programs should be, however, compared with traditional programs that only target sexual or injection behavior of IDUs. PMID:24772093

  4. Predictors of Condom Use among Peer Social Networks of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Ghana, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, LaRon E.; Wilton, Leo; Agyarko-Poku, Thomas; Zhang, Nanhua; Zou, Yuanshu; Aluoch, Marilyn; Apea, Vanessa; Hanson, Samuel Owiredu; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2015-01-01

    Ghanaian men who have sex with men (MSM) have high rates of HIV infection. A first step in designing culturally relevant prevention interventions for MSM in Ghana is to understand the influence that peer social networks have on their attitudes and behaviors. We aimed to examine whether, in a sample of Ghanaian MSM, mean scores on psychosocial variables theorized to influence HIV/STI risk differed between peer social networks and to examine whether these variables were associated with condom use. We conducted a formative, cross-sectional survey with 22 peer social networks of MSM (n = 137) in Ghana. We assessed basic psychological-needs satisfaction, HIV/STI knowledge, sense of community, HIV and gender non-conformity stigmas, gender equitable norms, sexual behavior and condom use. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, generalized estimating equations, and Wilcoxon two sample tests. All models were adjusted for age and income, ethnicity, education, housing and community of residence. Mean scores for all psychosocial variables differed significantly by social network. Men who reported experiencing more autonomy support by their healthcare providers had higher odds of condom use for anal (AOR = 3.29, p<0.01), oral (AOR = 5.06, p<0.01) and vaginal (AOR = 1.8, p<0.05) sex. Those with a stronger sense of community also had higher odds of condom use for anal sex (AOR = 1.26, p<0.001). Compared to networks with low prevalence of consistent condom users, networks with higher prevalence of consistent condom users had higher STD and HIV knowledge, had norms that were more supportive of gender equity, and experienced more autonomy support in their healthcare encounters. Healthcare providers and peer social networks can have an important influence on safer-sex behaviors in Ghanaian MSM. More research with Ghanaian MSM is needed that considers knowledge, attitudes, and norms of their social networks in the development and implementation of culturally relevant HIV

  5. Predictors of condom use among peer social networks of men who have sex with men in Ghana, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Nelson, LaRon E; Wilton, Leo; Agyarko-Poku, Thomas; Zhang, Nanhua; Zou, Yuanshu; Aluoch, Marilyn; Apea, Vanessa; Hanson, Samuel Owiredu; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2015-01-01

    Ghanaian men who have sex with men (MSM) have high rates of HIV infection. A first step in designing culturally relevant prevention interventions for MSM in Ghana is to understand the influence that peer social networks have on their attitudes and behaviors. We aimed to examine whether, in a sample of Ghanaian MSM, mean scores on psychosocial variables theorized to influence HIV/STI risk differed between peer social networks and to examine whether these variables were associated with condom use. We conducted a formative, cross-sectional survey with 22 peer social networks of MSM (n = 137) in Ghana. We assessed basic psychological-needs satisfaction, HIV/STI knowledge, sense of community, HIV and gender non-conformity stigmas, gender equitable norms, sexual behavior and condom use. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, generalized estimating equations, and Wilcoxon two sample tests. All models were adjusted for age and income, ethnicity, education, housing and community of residence. Mean scores for all psychosocial variables differed significantly by social network. Men who reported experiencing more autonomy support by their healthcare providers had higher odds of condom use for anal (AOR = 3.29, p<0.01), oral (AOR = 5.06, p<0.01) and vaginal (AOR = 1.8, p<0.05) sex. Those with a stronger sense of community also had higher odds of condom use for anal sex (AOR = 1.26, p<0.001). Compared to networks with low prevalence of consistent condom users, networks with higher prevalence of consistent condom users had higher STD and HIV knowledge, had norms that were more supportive of gender equity, and experienced more autonomy support in their healthcare encounters. Healthcare providers and peer social networks can have an important influence on safer-sex behaviors in Ghanaian MSM. More research with Ghanaian MSM is needed that considers knowledge, attitudes, and norms of their social networks in the development and implementation of culturally relevant HIV

  6. Understanding gender differences in condom use self-efficacy among youth in urban Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Meekers, Dominique; Klein, Megan

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to understand gender differences in components of condom use self-efficacy to inform the design of effective reproductive health interventions for youth. Data stem from a July to August 2000 reproductive health survey among youth aged 15-24. Gender differentials in self-efficacy are analyzed using logistic regression. Perceived ability to discuss and negotiate condom use is high for both sexes. Women are less likely than men to know correct condom use (58% vs. 80%, p<.01) but are more likely to be shy buying condoms (67% vs. 50%, p<.01). Prior experience buying and using condoms, parental support, and condom promotion affect perceived ability to correctly use condoms and shyness buying condoms. Programs aiming to increase self-efficacy in condom use should focus on increasing confidence in youth's ability to buy condoms and to use them correctly, especially for young women. There is a need for programs that publicize and/or increase access to youth-friendly outlets and increase the acceptability of young women buying condoms. PMID:11900111

  7. Condom use and use-effectiveness in high-risk populations.

    PubMed

    Darrow, W W

    1989-01-01

    In vitro evidence strongly suggests that latex condoms provide an impenetrable barrier for the passage of infectious agents, but few have studied the use-effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted diseases. In 1971, a prospective evaluation of the condom failed to demonstrate efficacy against infections with gonorrhea because users were exposed to infectious secretions before the condom was used. An ongoing multicenter study of female prostitutes in the United States shows that none of 22 women who always use condoms with all male partners has antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but differences in HIV antibody status by patterns of condom use are not statistically significant. An educational campaign to promote the proper and consistent use of condoms as prophylactics is needed to stop the spread of gonorrhea, infections with HIV, and other sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:2554516

  8. Developing a scale for measuring the barriers to condom use in Nigeria.

    PubMed Central

    Sunmola, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the development of a scale for measuring the barriers to condom use in Nigeria and to evaluate its content, feasibility, reliability, and validity. METHODS: The scale consists of 22 items and is structured on three dimensions: condom sexual satisfaction; condom health hazard; and condom sexual interest. It was evaluated on a sample of 786 students attending the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. FINDINGS: The scale appears to be easy to use, and is acceptable and reliable. CONCLUSION: The scale appears suitable for obtaining estimates of personal experiences of sexual and reproductive condom use. Further, it may be employed for assessing factors that hinder condom use in sexual relationships and is useful for determining the predisposition of individuals to use condoms in future sexual encounters. PMID:11693974

  9. Racial/Ethnic Differences in HIV-Related Knowledge among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men and Their Association with Condom Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofalo, Robert; Gayles, Travis; Bottone, Paul Devine; Ryan, Dan; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: HIV disproportionately affects young men who have sex with men, and knowledge about HIV transmission is one factor that may play a role in high rate of infections for this population. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in HIV knowledge among young men who have sex with men in the USA and their correlation to condom usage…

  10. Condom Advertising and AIDS. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    This document present witnesses' testimonies from the Congressional hearing called to examine condom advertising and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Opening statements are included by Congressmen Henry Waxman, William Dannemeyer, and Jim Bates. C. Everett Koop, United States Surgeon General, and Gary Noble, AIDS coordinator for the…

  11. Effects of a Health Behavior Change Model-Based HIV/STI Prevention Intervention on Condom Use among Heterosexual Couples: A Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, S. Marie; Kraft, Joan Marie; West, Stephen G.; Taylor, Aaron B.; Pappas-DeLuca, Katina A.; Beckman, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines an intervention for heterosexual couples to prevent human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infections. It also evaluates the effect of the intervention, which is based on current models of health behavior change, on intermediate outcomes (individual and relationship factors) and consistency of condom use. Eligible…

  12. Distal and Proximal Influences on Men's Intentions to Resist Condoms: Alcohol, Sexual Aggression History, Impulsivity, and Social-Cognitive Factors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Danube, Cinnamon L; Neilson, Elizabeth C; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Kajumulo, Kelly F

    2016-01-01

    Recent scientific evidence demonstrates that many young men commonly resist condom use with their female sex partners and that both alcohol intoxication and a history of sexual aggression may increase the risk of condom use resistance (CUR). Using a community sample of heterosexual male non-problem drinkers with elevated sexual risk (N = 311), this alcohol administration study examined the direct and indirect effects of intoxication and sexual aggression history on men's CUR intentions through a sexual risk analogue. State impulsivity, CUR-related attitudes, and CUR-related self-efficacy were assessed as mediators. Results demonstrated that alcohol intoxication directly increased CUR intentions, and sexual aggression history both directly and indirectly increased CUR intentions. These findings highlight the importance of addressing both alcohol use and sexual aggression in risky sex prevention programs, as well as indicate the continued worth of research regarding the intersection of men's alcohol use, sexual aggression, and sexual risk behaviors, especially CUR. PMID:26156881

  13. Justify your love: testing an online STI-risk communication intervention designed to promote condom use and STI-testing.

    PubMed

    Mevissen, Fraukje E F; Ruiter, Robert A C; Meertens, Ree M; Zimbile, Filippo; Schaalma, Herman P

    2011-02-01

    The efficacy of a tailored, web-based intervention communicating the risks of sexually transmitted infections (STI) for heterosexual young adults was examined in a randomised, controlled trial. The main aims of the relationship-oriented intervention were to influence risk perceptions and to promote (maintenance of) condom use and STI-testing among young adults who reported being recently engaged in a heterosexual relationship. The intervention addressed risk perceptions, attitudes, normative beliefs, self-efficacy and skills related to condom use and STI-testing. Outcomes were compared immediately after the intervention (N = 171) and 3 months later (N = 115) to a non-tailored intervention group and to a control group. Cognitive and behavioural outcomes showed that the tailored intervention was efficacious in influencing perceived susceptibility to STI and STI-testing intentions immediately after the intervention, and in reducing rates of unprotected sex at 3 months. PMID:21318930

  14. The Condom Divide: Disenfranchisement of Malawi Women by Church and State

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Sally H.; Lindgren, Teri; Kools, Susan M.; Schell, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of two mitigating social institutions, religious organizations and the state, on Malawi women's vulnerability to HIV. Design In-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 40 central leaders from 5 faith based organizations (FBOs) in Malawi were recorded and transcribed as part of an on-going larger study. Qualitative description was used to identify themes and categories. Setting Primarily urban and peri-urban areas of south-central Malawi. Participants A minimum of 6 leaders from each FBO were interviewed; the mean age of the primarily male (68%) participants was 44 years (range 26−74). Results Analysis of religious leaders' messages about HIV produced an overarching theme, the condom divide, which conceptualized the divergence between FBOs and the state's prevention messages related to HIV prevention strategies. Conclusion Faith based organizations have “demonized” state messages about condoms as promoting sin. The FBOs' insistence on abstinence and faithfulness leaves women with few options to protect themselves. As socially conscious citizens of the world, nurses can increase the responsiveness to the disparate levels of suffering and death in countries like Malawi. PMID:18811780

  15. Chinese Culture, Homosexuality Stigma, Social Support and Condom Use: A Path Analytic Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjie; Feng, Tiejian; Ha, Toan; Liu, Hui; Cai, Yumao; Liu, Xiaoli; Li, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to examine the interrelationships among individualism, collectivism, homosexuality-related stigma, social support, and condom use among Chinese homosexual men. Methods A cross-sectional study using the respondent-driven sampling approach was conducted among 351 participants in Shenzhen, China. Path analytic modeling was used to analyze the interrelationships. Results The results of path analytic modeling document the following statistically significant associations with regard to homosexuality: (1) higher levels of vertical collectivism were associated with higher levels of public stigma [β (standardized coefficient) = 0.12] and self stigma (β = 0.12); (2) higher levels of vertical individualism were associated with higher levels self stigma (β = 0.18); (3) higher levels of horizontal individualism were associated with higher levels of public stigma (β = 0.12); (4) higher levels of self stigma were associated with higher levels of social support from sexual partners (β = 0.12); and (5) lower levels of public stigma were associated with consistent condom use (β = −0.19). Conclusions The findings enhance our understanding of how individualist and collectivist cultures influence the development of homosexuality-related stigma, which in turn may affect individuals’ decisions to engage in HIV-protective practices and seek social support. Accordingly, the development of HIV interventions for homosexual men in China should take the characteristics of Chinese culture into consideration. PMID:21731850

  16. Reasons for pregnancy termination: negligence or failure of contraception?

    PubMed

    Savonius, H; Pakarinen, P; Sjöberg, L; Kajanoja, P

    1995-11-01

    Interviews with 200 abortion seekers at a Finnish hospital revealed a high incidence of contraceptive failure. Although 93% claimed to have adequate knowledge about contraception, only 23 women (11.5%) were using a reliable method (pill or IUD) at the time of conception. 126 (63%) were relying on a less safe method (e.g., condoms, spermicides, rhythm) and 51 (25.5%) were not using any form of fertility control. 9 of the 16 pill users admitted irregular use; another 3 experienced vomiting or diarrhea at the time of conception, which may have compromised the method's effectiveness. Of the 116 condom users, 89 reported that the condom had broken or slipped off during intercourse or that use had been irregular. Concern about side effects was the most frequently cited reason for not using the pill or IUD; in many other cases, women had been advised by their physician to take a break from use of these methods. Overall, contraceptive failure was considered to have occurred in 43 cases (21.5%); the methods involved were IUD (7 cases), pill (4 cases), condoms (27 cases), and spermicides (5 cases). Recommended to reduce the high rate of contraceptive failure are counseling on proper method use and the alleviation of concern about side effects associated with the most effective methods. PMID:8533567

  17. The Impact of Condom Use Negotiation Self-Efficacy and Partnership Patterns on Consistent Condom Use among College-Educated Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesoff, Elizabeth D.; Dunkle, Kristin; Lang, Delia

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to explore the impact of condom negotiation self-efficacy, interpersonal factors, and sensational factors on condom use behavior among a population of college-educated women with different patterns and types of sexual partner. We administered an online questionnaire capturing sexual behavior, partnership patterns, perceived…

  18. Young Men’s Condom Use Resistance Tactics: A Latent Profile Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that many men have used a variety of tactics to avoid using a condom when having sex with a woman. Guided by previous work demonstrating that men’s use of coercive condom resistance tactics was predicted by negative attitudes toward women, inconsistent condom use, multiple partners, and sexual sensation seeking, the current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to determine whether similar constructs were associated with a variety of resistance tactics. A community sample of 313 moderate drinking men participated, of whom 80% reported employing at least one condom use resistance tactic since adolescence. The LPA revealed three classes of men. In general, men with the least negative beliefs about women, low levels of sexual sensation seeking and impulsivity, and positive beliefs about condoms (Condom Positive/Low Hostility) reported less use of resistance tactics than men with moderate sexual sensation seeking and impulsivity, negative beliefs about condoms, and moderate (Condom Negative/Moderate Hostility) or high (Condom Negative/High Hostility) negative attitudes about women. The classes also differed in terms of their sexual behaviors. This study demonstrated that sexual risk behavior interventions should not only address the tactics through which men resist using condoms but also tailor these efforts to men’s individual characteristics. PMID:23548069

  19. Determinants of condom use in female sex workers in Surabaya, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Joesoef, M R; Kio, D; Linnan, M; Kamboji, A; Barakbah, Y; Idajadi, A

    2000-04-01

    In the developing world condom use among sex workers and their clients plays a dominant role in the transmission of HIV/STD. In Surabaya, Indonesia, data from the 1993 STD prevalence survey in female sex workers (brothels, street, massage parlours, barber shops, call-girl houses, and nightclubs) reveal that only 5% (33/692) of the brothel workers and 14% (25/177) of the street walkers had condoms in their possession at the time of the interview. During the last paid sexual intercourse, sex workers from the brothels, streets, and nightclubs used condoms infrequently (14%, 20%, and 25%, respectively). Sex workers from massage parlours, barber shops, and call girls were about 5 to 3 times more likely to use condoms than sex workers from nightclubs (adjusted odds ratio of 3.5, 4.9, and 4.2, respectively); thus condom promotion programmes should be targeted at sex workers at brothels, streets, and nightclubs. Programmes should include: (1) free distribution of condoms to sex establishments at the initial stage, and condom social marketing at later stages; (2) penalties, including legal sanctions, against any sex establishments that do not consistently use condoms; (3) participation of brothel owners and madams in encouraging sex workers to consistently have clients use condoms during sexual intercourse; and (4) establishment of sentinel surveillance to monitor STD/HIV and condom-use compliance. PMID:10772092

  20. A qualitative study of condom use among married couples in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Nancy E; Liku, Jennifer; McLoughlin, Kerry; Nyamongo, Isaac K; Nakayima, Flavia

    2006-11-01

    Twenty-five years into the HIV/AIDS epidemic, condom use among married/stable couples remains low and under-researched in developing countries, even countries with high HIV prevalence. Introducing condoms into a long-standing relationship, in spite of HIV risk, is likely to be awkward. We conducted a qualitative study in Kampala, Uganda, with 39 couples reporting 100% condom use in the previous three months. The women were recruited from among women in a clinical trial who were using condoms and whose partners also agreed to participate. Twenty-two of the women and six of the men reported having taken the initiative to suggest condom use; the remaining couples disagreed who raised the subject first. Women used insistence, refusal to have sex, persuasion, and condoms for family planning or to protect children, which helped to deflect distrust and get their partner to agree. Some men resisted initially but their reactions were often more positive than expected. Men's reasons for accepting condoms were to please their partner, protect her from HIV, protect their children, protect themselves and, in some cases, continue having other partners. Although condom use is a couple behaviour, an encouraging environment and condom availability are all crucial to increasing condom use by couples in settings like Uganda. PMID:17101426

  1. Condom use still unacceptable to many in Singapore regions.

    PubMed

    1996-10-21

    At a 3-day meeting sponsored by the Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN), Thailand, Malaysia, Viet Nam, the Philippines, Indonesia, Singapore, and Brunei pledged to implement a series of high-profile projects to combat the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. Although details of the projects were not revealed, they focus on education, information sharing, and improved surveillance. Voluntary groups, the private sector, community organizations, and government departments will be enlisted in the AIDS prevention effort. Participants noted that earlier concerns that condom promotion would encourage premarital and extramarital sex have proved unfounded. A survey conducted in Thailand indicated that AIDS education programs have increased condom use with prostitutes to 60%. Almost 3000 new cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) occur each day in South and Southeast Asia. PMID:12320477

  2. Condom use in the context of sex research: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Graham, Cynthia A

    2012-03-01

    This commentary highlights some recent trends in sex research that have particular relevance for research on condom use, including studies investigating the meaning of sexual arousal, desire and pleasure; a focus on couple-level investigations; and the relevance of individual differences and personality characteristics to sexual risk-taking. Although historically, sexuality-related issues have received little systematic attention in the field of public health, researchers are now paying more attention to the role of pleasure and sexual arousal in condom use. It is argued that a better integration of findings from the area of sex research into the HIV and sexually transmissible infection (STI) field is needed to develop and improve programs to reduce the risk of STIs and unintended pregnancy. PMID:22348638

  3. Parental support and condom use among transgender female youth

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Erin C.; Iverson, Ellen; Garofalo, Robert; Belzer, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that transgender female youth (TFY), much like their adult transgender female peers, are at high risk for HIV. Yet little attention has been given to important developmental experiences of TFY that may impact HIV risk for this youth population. The overall purpose of this study was to explore HIV risk in TFY. A re-occurring theme from the qualitative data was the importance of parents. To better understand the impact of parents on HIV risk among TFY, in-depth individual interview data from 21 TFY in Los Angeles and Chicago were analyzed, suggesting a potential link between HIV-related risk behavior and parental support. Youth with parental support in this sample reported regular condom use, while those without such support reported inconsistent condom use. Implications for the unique research and interventions needs of TFY related to parental support and sexual risk behaviors are discussed. PMID:22079675

  4. Condoms and contraceptives in junior high and high school clinics. What do you think?

    PubMed

    Griffin, G C

    1993-04-01

    The experiences of visiting on site a few school-based health clinics are recounted: the Little Rock's Forest Heights Junior High School clinic and the Wellness Clinic, Arkansas; Health Start clinic services in St. Paul, Minnesota. Selected opinions are reported from journal articles and prominent public health professionals: Sandra Samuels, MD; William R. Archer, MD; Sid Crosby, MD; Joycelyn Elders, MD; and others. The overriding concern is finding an answer to the question of what should be done about adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease prevention without promoting sex behavior. Many approaches have been tried and evaluated. In Little Rock's junior high school program, health care was devoted entirely to helping girl's find the most appropriate birth control plan; referrals are made to the state-supported mall clinic near the school. In the Wellness Clinic, the literature was devoted to defining "safer sex" and promoting condom usage for control of sexually transmitted diseases. A visit to Dr. Elders as Director of the Arkansas Health Department showed her to be "warm, articulate, and dynamic" and a believer in reproductive counseling. Today, there are more than 300 schools with school-based clinics across the country. Programs vary in their mandate to prescribe contraceptives or counsel about contraceptive usage. In St. Paul, Minnesota, a nonprofit organization runs the clinics and does not dispense contraceptives. General health exams and treatment are provided with parental permission; family planning services are confidential and follow Minnesota's Minor Consent Law. Reviews of evaluations of school-based clinics do not show any declines in pregnancy rates. Concern is raised for the safety of promoting condom use among teenagers; research studies indicate that condom failure rates are 18% among youth. Dr. Samuels also raises the issue of barrier contraceptives not protecting against Chlamydia, which is reported by Dr. Archer as so infectious

  5. A stochastic model of AIDS and condom use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalal, Nirav; Greenhalgh, David; Mao, Xuerong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we introduce stochasticity into a model of AIDS and condom use via the technique of parameter perturbation which is standard in stochastic population modelling. We show that the model established in this paper possesses non-negative solutions as desired in any population dynamics. We also carry out a detailed analysis on asymptotic stability both in probability one and in pth moment. Our results reveal that a certain type of stochastic perturbation may help to stabilise the underlying system.

  6. AIDS update. Condom availability in New York City schools.

    PubMed

    Kerr, D L

    1991-08-01

    Despite strong protests from a minority group of critics, the New York City Board of Education adopted a measure February 27, 1991, approving universal availability of condoms in city high schools to students without the need for parental consent. This expanded HIV education program allows the system's 261,000 students in 120 public high schools to procure condoms from any of 17 clinics and any teacher or staff member volunteering for the program. While a few, small U.S. school districts have implemented such programs in efforts to curb the incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases infections, and unwanted pregnancies, this move by New York city's enormous school district could set the trend for similar action by other large school systems. The Centers for Disease Control document 691 cases of AIDS in youths aged 13-19, and 7,303 among those aged 20-24. More than 20% of U.S. AIDS cases are among those aged 20-29. Given the long incubation period for HIV, many if not most of these case probably stem from HIV infection during the teenage years. New York City accounts for 20% of all reported AIDS cases among youths aged 13-21, placing New York teens at disproportionate risk for infection. The number of infected adolescents doubles every 14 months. More than adults, these youths are likely to have contracted HIV through heterosexual contact instead of through IV-drug use or homosexual intercourse. Making condoms readily and confidentially available to adolescents, youths vulnerable to HIV infection will no longer fail to procure them due to embarrassment, fear of resistance from store clerks, and cost. The Youth News Service reveals youths to have been most supportive of the new program for several months, and anxious for its implementation. A random poll of adults found support for condom distribution in high schools and junior high schools to be 64% and 47%, respectively. PMID:1956177

  7. Desire to father a child and condom use: a study of young black men at risk of sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Richard A; Graham, Cynthia A; Milhausen, Robin R; Sanders, Stephanie A; Yarber, William L; Salazar, Laura F; Terrell, Ivy; Pasternak, Ryan

    2015-11-01

    To determine whether men's reported desire to father a child or their perception that someone wanted to have their child was associated with elevated rates of unprotected vaginal sex, we studied a sample of young Black men at high risk of sexually transmitted infection acquisition. Data were collected in clinics treating sexually transmitted infections in three southern U.S. cities. Men 15-23 years of age who identified as Black/African American and reported recent (past two months) penile-vaginal sex were eligible (N = 578). Logistic regression was used to examine whether desire to conceive a child (self and perception of partners' desire) predicted condom use, adjusting for age and whether they had previously impregnated someone. Their own level of desire to conceive a child was not significantly associated with unprotected vaginal sex or the proportion of times a condom was used. However, those who perceived higher level of someone wanting to conceive their child were 1.73 times more likely to report unprotected vaginal sex (P = .006) and 1.62 times more likely to report a lower proportion of times condoms were used (P = .019). Young Black men attending sexually transmitted infection clinics in the USA may forego condom use based on a perceived desire of their partners to become pregnant, putting themselves at risk for sexually transmitted infection acquisition and unplanned pregnancy. Findings provide initial support for the relevance of the idea that perceptions of women partners' desire to conceive may be a critical determinant of condomless sex. PMID:25505038

  8. Individual and Partner-Level Factors Associated with Condom Non-Use Among African American STI Clinic Attendees in the Deep South: An Event-Level Analysis.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Brandon D L; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; MacCarthy, Sarah; Mena, Leandro; Chan, Philip A; Towey, Caitlin; Barnett, Nancy; Parker, Sharon; Barnes, Arti; Brinkley-Rubinstein, Lauren; Rose, Jennifer S; Nunn, Amy S

    2016-06-01

    The US HIV/AIDS epidemic is concentrated in the Deep South, yet factors contributing to HIV transmission are not fully understood. We examined relationships between substance use, sexual partnership characteristics, and condom non-use in an African American sample of STI clinic attendees in Jackson, Mississippi. We assessed condom non-use at last intercourse with up to three recent sexual partners reported by participants between January and June 2011. Participant- and partner-level correlates of condom non-use were examined using generalized estimating equations. The 1295 participants reported 2880 intercourse events, of which 1490 (51.7 %) involved condom non-use. Older age, lower educational attainment, reporting financial or material dependence on a sex partner, sex with a primary partner, and higher frequency of sex were associated with increased odds of condomless sex. HIV prevention efforts in the South should address underlying socioeconomic disparities and structural determinants that result in partner dependency and sexual risk behavior. PMID:26683032

  9. Predictors of condom use behaviour among male street labourers in urban Vietnam using a modified Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model.

    PubMed

    Van Huy, Nguyen; P Dunne, Michael; Debattista, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    HIV risk in vulnerable groups such as itinerant male street labourers is often examined via a focus on individual determinants. This study provides a test of a modified Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model to predict condom use behaviour among male street workers in urban Vietnam. In a cross-sectional survey using a social mapping technique, 450 male street labourers from 13 districts of Hanoi, Vietnam were recruited and interviewed. Collected data were first examined for completeness; structural equation modelling was then employed to test the model fit. Condoms were used inconsistently by many of these men, and usage varied in relation to a number of factors. A modified IMB model had a better fit than the original IMB model in predicting condom use behaviour. This modified model accounted for 49% of the variance, versus 10% by the original version. In the modified model, the influence of psychosocial factors was moderately high, whilst the influence of HIV prevention information, motivation and perceived behavioural skills was moderately low, explaining in part the limited level of condom use behaviour. This study provides insights into social factors that should be taken into account in public health planning to promote safer sexual behaviour among Asian male street labourers. PMID:26416016

  10. CONDOM USE WITH VARIOUS TYPES OF SEX PARTNERS BY MONEY BOYS IN CHINA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shusen; Chen, Lin; Li, Li; Zhao, Jin; Cai, Wende; Rou, Keming; Wu, Zunyou; Detels, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Money boys (MBs) who typically sell sex to males have not yet been extensively studied in China. In this 2009 study, 28 venue-based MBs were interviewed. We analyzed their condom use behaviors with various partners, including male and female clients, male and female casual partners, other MBs and female sex workers, and boyfriends and girlfriends. All participants were aware of the need for using condoms; however, usage with different partner types varied. The longer a relationship with a partner, the less frequent was condom use. A major reason for not using condoms was that they or their partners did not like the loss of sensation due to condom use. Other factors included sexual orientation, age, duration in commercial sex, concerns about HIV/AIDS, attractiveness of partners, and support of “mommies” (brothel supervisors). Both individual- and venue-level interventions are needed to promote condom use, and mommies need to be included in intervention strategies. PMID:22468976

  11. Feasibility and use of school-based condom availability programs in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zellner, Jennifer A; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Hovell, Melbourne F; Sipan, Carol L; Blumberg, Elaine J; Carrizosa, Claudia M; Rovniak, Liza

    2006-11-01

    Condom availability programs (CAPs) may increase access to condoms and contribute to increased condom use among youth. This study describes the characteristics, degree of satisfaction, and gender differences among users of a CAP implemented in two high schools in Tijuana (Baja California, Mexico). A kiosk distributing free male condoms was set up in two high schools in Tijuana. Kiosk users (N=570) were more likely to be male, young, and/or enrolled in a lower SES school. Most kiosk users were either sexually active or planning to have sex. Females were less likely to request condoms and to continue using the kiosk, but more likely to request information on other contraceptive methods. Results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing CAPs in Mexican schools and suggest that these programs can improve adolescents' condom access. PMID:16715349

  12. The POWER campaign for promotion of female and male condoms: audience research and campaign development.

    PubMed

    Bull, Sheana Salyers; Cohen, Jennifer; Ortiz, Charlene; Evans, Tom

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we conducted and content analyzed 12 focus groups with women aged 15-25 living in inner city Denver as a process of audience research to develop a male and female condom promotion campaign. We recruited 89 women from school and community sites in central Denver neighborhoods to discuss their knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding both male and female condoms, then solicited opinions about how to increase knowledge about and familiarity with female condoms, increase positive attitudes toward both male and female condoms, and how to increase access to and use of both male and female condoms. Opinions on these topics drove the development of a targeted media campaign promoting condom use in this population. We report here on the general findings from focus groups and provide details about the campaign the participants helped to develop. PMID:12375772

  13. Condom use in sexual exchange relationships among young single adults in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ankomah, A

    1998-08-01

    This article discusses some personal and situational factors which hinder the use of condoms among young single adults ages 18 to 25 years engaged in sexual exchange relationships in a Ghanaian town. Based on focus group discussions and in-depth interviews, this article highlights some key impediments often not adequately discussed in the discourse on condom use but considered vital in any attempt to increase condom use and ultimately reduce HIV transmission. The includes the dilemma facing women who want to use condoms for HIV prevention in premarital sexual exchange relationships (quite different from prostitution) contracted with material gain in mind. Women may face the risk of losing material benefits from sexual exchange relationships if the man is unwilling to use condoms. It is recommended that HIV health educators must increase the involvement of young single adults in exploring these and situational impediments and together design interventions to improve condom use. PMID:9721383

  14. Developing, implementing, and evaluating a condom promotion program targeting sexually active adolescents.

    PubMed

    Alstead, M; Campsmith, M; Halley, C S; Hartfield, K; Goldbaum, G; Wood, R W

    1999-12-01

    This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of the Condom Campaign, a 1995 HIV prevention program promoting condom use among sexually active adolescents in three King County, Washington, urban communities. This program employed three main strategies: (a) mobilizing all levels of the target communities to support and guide program development and implementation; (b) creating and implementing a mass media campaign targeting sexually active teenagers that promoted correct condom use and favorable attitudes toward condoms; and (c) recruiting public agencies, community organizations, and businesses to distribute condoms from bins and vending machines. We evaluated the program through a series of cross-sectional interviews conducted in the three communities chosen for their elevated levels of adolescent sexual risk behavior. Overall, 73% of target youth reported exposure to the Condom Campaign; exposure did not differ by age, gender, race, or level of sexual experience. Levels of sexual activity remained stable throughout the media campaign. PMID:10693646

  15. A validation and reduced form of the Female Condom Attitudes Scale.

    PubMed

    Neilands, Torsten B; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2002-04-01

    The Female Condom Attitudes Scale is an instrument comprising five correlated factors derived from 15 Likert-scale survey items that measure women's attitudes toward the female condom. This scale originated from the 30-item scale of Choi, Gregorich, Anderson, Grinstead, and Gómez (2001; manuscript under review). Exploratory factor analysis of this scale extracted eight correlated factors. Reliability coefficients and confirmatory factor analyses refined the instrument by reducing the number of factors to five and halving the number of items. The reduced form of the Female Condom Attitudes Scale demonstrated both construct and convergent validity by predicting self-reported female condom use behavior. It also correlated with self-efficacy to use male condoms, sexual comfort, and attitudes toward the male condom. The five factors remaining in the final survey instrument were Sexual Pleasure Enhancement, Inconvenience, Improved Prophylaxis, Sexual Pleasure Inhibition, and Insertion Reluctance. Implications of these findings for basic and applied intervention research are discussed. PMID:12000233

  16. Interaction between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and abuse history on adolescent African-American females' condom use behavior following participation in an HIV prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Brody, Gene H; Philibert, Robert A; Rose, Eve

    2014-06-01

    Not everyone exposed to an efficacious human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) intervention will reduce sexual risk behaviors, yet little is known about factors associated with "failure to change" high-risk sexual behaviors post-intervention. History of abuse and polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) may be associated with non-change. The current study sought to identify genetic, life history, and psychosocial factors associated with adolescents' failure to change condom use behaviors post-participation in an HIV prevention intervention. A sub-set of participants from a clinic-based sample of adolescent African-American females (N = 254) enrolled in a randomized trial of an HIV-prevention was utilized for the current study. Forty-four percent did not increase their condom use from baseline levels 6 months after participating in the sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention intervention. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, an interaction between abuse and 5-HTTLPR group was significantly associated with non-change status, along with partner communication frequency scores at follow-up. Follow-up tests found that having a history of abuse was significantly associated with greater odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention for only those with the s allele. For those with ll allele, participants with higher partner communication frequency scores were at decreased odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention. Thus, STI/HIV interventions for adolescent females may consider providing a more in-depth discussion and instruction on how to manage and overcome fear or anxiety related to being assertive in sexual decisions or sexual situations. Doing so may improve the efficacy of STI/HIV prevention programs for adolescent women who have experienced abuse in their lifetime. PMID:23479192

  17. Effect of dispenser location on taking free condoms in an outpatient cocaine abuse treatment clinic

    PubMed Central

    Carrigan, Danielle R.; Kirby, Kimberly C.; Marlowe, Douglas B.

    1995-01-01

    Crack cocaine use increases risky sexual behavior and HIV exposure; therefore, safe sexual practices should be encouraged during cocaine addiction treatment. Research indicates that placing condom dispensers in private restrooms increases taking free condoms. We investigated two other dispenser locations (a day room vs. counselors' offices) and found that substantially more condoms were taken when dispensers were in the day room. This is an important issue for public health facilities without private restrooms. PMID:16795876

  18. Predictors of consistent condom use among Portuguese women attending family planning clinics.

    PubMed

    Costa, Eleonora C V; Oliveira, Rosa; Ferreira, Domingos; Pereira, M Graça

    2016-01-01

    Women account for 30% of all AIDS cases reported to the Health Ministry in Portugal and most infections are acquired through unprotected heterosexual sex with infected partners. This study analyzed socio-demographic and psychosocial predictors of consistent condom use and the role of education as a moderator variable among Portuguese women attending family planning clinics. A cross-sectional study using interviewer-administered fully structured questionnaires was conducted among 767 sexually active women (ages 18-65). Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association between consistent condom use and the predictor variables. Overall, 78.7% of the women were inconsistent condom users. The results showed that consistent condom use was predicted by marital status (being not married), having greater perceptions of condom negotiation self-efficacy, having preparatory safer sexual behaviors, and not using condoms only when practicing abstinence. Living with a partner and having lack of risk perception significantly predicted inconsistent condom use. Less educated women were less likely to use condoms even when they perceive being at risk. The full model explained 53% of the variance in consistent condom use. This study emphasizes the need for implementing effective prevention interventions in this population showing the importance of taking education into consideration. PMID:26277905

  19. Barriers to condom use and barrier method preferences among low-income African-American women.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, G D; St Lawrence, J S; Little, C E; Shelby, M C; Brasfield, T L

    1995-01-01

    Low-income African-American women (N = 178) entering health clinics completed surveys assessing perceived barriers to condom use for themselves personally and for African-American women generally. Following the survey, each woman received a demonstration of five barrier contraceptive methods and then rated her preference among those methods. The women perceived relatively few personal barriers to use of the male condom but perceived significantly greater barriers for other African-American women (all p < .0001). The male condom was first choice of the largest percentage of women (45%) and last choice of the smallest percentage of women (11%). The male condom was preferred for its convenience, availability, and safety, although the necessity for active cooperation by the male partner was considered a hindrance to using the method. Only 23% of women ranked the female condom as first choice and 35% ranked the female condom as last choice. Reasons for selecting the female condom included preference for a female-controlled method, safety, and protection. However, the female condom was perceived to be uncomfortable, to require the partner's acquiescence, and to interfere with sexual experience. Differences in the women's perceptions of barriers to condom use for themselves and for other African-American women are consistent with Weinstein's theory of optimistic bias. Preferences among barrier methods indicate that further research and product development are needed to develop barrier methods that are female-controlled, do not require the awareness of the male partner, and are safe, comfortable, and convenient. PMID:7483652

  20. Younger Gay and Bisexual Men's Condom Use With Main Regular Sexual Partner in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lachowsky, Nathan J; Saxton, Peter J W; Hughes, Anthony J; Dickson, Nigel P; Summerlee, Alastair J S; Milhausen, Robin R; Dewey, Cate E

    2015-06-01

    Main partners are a common source of new HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM). National behavioral surveillance data (2006-2011) for younger MSM (YMSM, aged 16-29) in New Zealand were analyzed to investigate condom use during anal intercourse with a regular partner (boyfriend/fuckbuddy) by sexual position (insertive/receptive). Backward-stepwise multivariate multinomial logistic regression was used to identify demographic, relational, behavioral, and cognitive factors associated with condom use frequency (high, medium, low). Most YMSM who reported a current regular partner (n=1,221) classified them as a boyfriend (59.5%) versus fuckbuddy (40.5%), though condom use was higher with the latter partner type. Condom use or nonuse was habitual across partners, although insertive sexual position was positively associated with condom use. YMSM who believed condoms reduce sensitivity reported lower condom use. Condoms remain the leading HIV/STI prevention tool for YMSM; efforts to improve condom use must consider sexual position and relationship factors. PMID:26010316

  1. Condom Use Determinants and Practices Among People Living with HIV in Kisii County, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Emmanuel, Wamalwa; Edward, Neyole; Moses, Poipoi; William, Ringera; Geoffrey, Otomu; Monicah, Bitok; Rosemary, Mbaluka

    2015-01-01

    The male condom remains the single, most efficient and available technology to reduce sexual transmission of HIV as well as sexually transmitted infections. This study sought to establish condom use determinants and practices among people living with HIV (PLHIVs) in Kisii County, Kenya. We interviewed 340 PLHIVs and 6 health workers. Although most PLHIVs had correct knowledge and approved condoms as effective for HIV prevention, consistent use and condom use at last sex were notably low especially among PLHIVs aged 18 – 24, those who depended on remittances from kin as main source of income, as well as during sex with secondary and casual partners. This study notes that knowledge on various benefits of using condoms is associated with enhanced condom use practices. Non-disclosure of HIV status to secondary and casual partners remains a key barrier to condom use among PLHIVs Our observations highlight the need to further promote condom use among specific PLHIVs socio-demographic groups who continue to exhibit low condom use rates. PMID:26668671

  2. Factors associated with condom use negotiation by female sex workers in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nazmul; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Mridha, Malay K.; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Reichenbach, Laura J.; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Azim, Tasnim

    2013-01-01

    Summary Negotiation for condom use by female sex workers (FSWs) with their male clients can enhance condom use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1395 FSWs; 439 from two brothels, 442 from 30 hotels, and 514 from streets of two cities in Bangladesh to determine the predictors of condom use negotiation. Consistent condom use rates in the seven days prior to interview were reported to be 16.2%, 21.7%, and 4.5% among the brothel, hotel, and street based FSWs respectively. Overall, 28.1% of FSWs negotiated for condom use with their clients. Participation in behaviour change communication (BCC) programmes (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2.–2.0), and self-perceived risk of HIV infection (AOR, 1.8 95% CI, 1.6–2.1) were positive predictors for condom negotiation. Compared to the hotel based FSWs, street (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4–0.9), and brothel based FSWs (AOR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5–0.9) were less likely to negotiate for condom use. FSWs in Bangladesh are at high risk for STI/HIV infection because of low overall negotiation for condom use. Participation in BCC programmes had positive effect on condom negotiation by FSWs, and should be strengthened in commercial sex venues. PMID:23970599

  3. Condom Use Determinants and Practices Among People Living with HIV in Kisii County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, Wamalwa; Edward, Neyole; Moses, Poipoi; William, Ringera; Geoffrey, Otomu; Monicah, Bitok; Rosemary, Mbaluka

    2015-01-01

    The male condom remains the single, most efficient and available technology to reduce sexual transmission of HIV as well as sexually transmitted infections. This study sought to establish condom use determinants and practices among people living with HIV (PLHIVs) in Kisii County, Kenya. We interviewed 340 PLHIVs and 6 health workers. Although most PLHIVs had correct knowledge and approved condoms as effective for HIV prevention, consistent use and condom use at last sex were notably low especially among PLHIVs aged 18 - 24, those who depended on remittances from kin as main source of income, as well as during sex with secondary and casual partners. This study notes that knowledge on various benefits of using condoms is associated with enhanced condom use practices. Non-disclosure of HIV status to secondary and casual partners remains a key barrier to condom use among PLHIVs Our observations highlight the need to further promote condom use among specific PLHIVs socio-demographic groups who continue to exhibit low condom use rates. PMID:26668671

  4. HIV prevention and marriage: peer group effects on condom use acceptability in rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Cordero Coma, Julia

    2014-09-01

    The twofold function of condom use - contraception and sexually transmitted disease protection - should be taken into account when understanding attitudes towards this practice. Emphasis on the interpretation of condom use as a protective practice conflicts with the norms of fidelity and trust, which regulate marriage. The alternative interpretation of condom use as a contraceptive method may be less problematic. This paper analyzes the extent to which the attitude of married men and women towards condom use with their spouses, and their actual use of condoms within marriage, are affected by their expectations about the dominant attitudes and behaviors in their peer group. I expect that a social consensus on understanding condom use as an HIV-preventive behavior will not make this practice more acceptable within marriage, while social acceptance of modern contraception and, more specifically, of the use of condoms for contraceptive purposes will. Two waves of a longitudinal survey from 1996 to 1999 in rural Kenya are analyzed using fixed-effects regression. Social support for each function of condom use is measured with indicators of the proportion of individuals in the peer group that use condoms for a particular purpose or have a positive attitude towards each of the uses, according to the respondent. The results support the hypothesis for men, but are inconclusive for women. PMID:25016170

  5. Factors associated with condom use negotiation by female sex workers in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Alam, Nazmul; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Mridha, Malay K; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Reichenbach, Laura J; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Azim, Tasnim

    2013-10-01

    Negotiation for condom use by female sex workers with their male clients can enhance condom use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1395 female sex workers; 439 from two brothels, 442 from 30 hotels, and 514 from streets of two cities in Bangladesh to determine the predictors of condom use negotiation. Consistent condom use rates in the 7 days prior to interview were reported to be 16.2%, 21.7%, and 4.5% among the brothel, hotel, and street-based female sex workers, respectively. Overall, 28.1% of female sex workers negotiated for condom use with their clients. Participation in behaviour change communication (BCC) programmes (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0) and self-perceived risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection (AOR, 1.8 95% CI, 1.6-2.1) were positive predictors for condom negotiation. Compared to the hotel-based female sex workers, street (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9) and brothel-based female sex workers (AOR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9) were less likely to negotiate for condom use. Female sex workers in Bangladesh are at high risk for sexually transmitted infection / human immunodeficiency virus infection because of low overall negotiation for condom use. Participation in BCC programmes had positive effect on condom negotiation by female sex workers, and should be strengthened in commercial sex venues. PMID:23970599

  6. Kidney Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... if You Have Kidney Disease Kidney Failure Expand Dialysis Kidney Transplant Preparing for Kidney Failure Treatment Choosing Not to Treat with Dialysis or Transplant Paying for Kidney Failure Treatment Contact ...

  7. Mobile phones and sex work in South India: the emerging role of mobile phones in condom use by female sex workers in two Indian states.

    PubMed

    Navani-Vazirani, Sonia; Solomon, Davidson; Gopalakrishnan; Heylen, Elsa; Srikrishnan, Aylur Kailasom; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K; Ekstrand, Maria L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine female sex workers' solicitation of clients using mobile phones and the association between this and condom use with clients. Cross-sectional data were utilised to address the study's aim, drawing on data collected from female sex workers in Calicut, Kerala, and Chirala, Andhra Pradesh. Use of mobile phone solicitation was reported by 46.3% (n = 255) of Kerala participants and 78.7% (n = 464) of those in Andhra Pradesh. Kerala participants reporting exclusive solicitation using mobile phones demonstrated 1.67 times higher odds (95% CI: 1.01-2.79) of inconsistent condom use than those reporting non-use of mobile phones for solicitation. However, those reporting exclusive solicitation through mobile phones in Andhra Pradesh reported lower odds of inconsistent condom use (OR: 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01-0.26) than those not using mobile phones for solicitation. Findings indicate that solicitation of clients using mobile phones facilitates or hampers consistency in condom use with clients depending on the context, and how mobile phones are incorporated into solicitation practices. Variations in sex work environments, including economic dependence on sex work or lack thereof may partially account for the different effects found. PMID:25301669

  8. Mobile phones and sex work in South India: The emerging role of mobile phones in condom use by female sex workers in two Indian states

    PubMed Central

    Navani-Vazirani, S; Solomon, D; Krishnan, G; Heylen, E; Srikrishnan, AK; Vasudevan, CK; Ekstrand, ML

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine female sex workers’ solicitation of clients using mobile phones and the association between this and condom use with clients. Cross-sectional data were utilised to address the study's aim, drawing on data collected from female sex workers in Calicut, Kerala and Chirala, Andhra Pradesh. Use of mobile phone solicitation was reported by 46.3% (n = 255) of Kerala participants and 78.7% (n = 464) of those in Andhra Pradesh. Kerala participants reporting exclusive solicitation using mobile phones demonstrated 1.67 times higher odds (95% CI: 1.01–2.79) of inconsistent condom use than those reporting non-use of mobile phones for solicitation. However, those reporting exclusive solicitation through mobile phones in Andhra Pradesh reported lower odds of inconsistent condom use (OR: 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01–0.26) than those not using mobile phones for solicitation. Findings indicate that solicitation of clients using mobile phones facilitates or hampers consistency in condom use with clients depending on the context, and how mobile phones are incorporated into solicitation practices. Variations in sex work environments, including economic dependence on sex work or lack thereof may partially account for the different effects found. PMID:25301669

  9. Social Cohesion Among Sex Workers and Client Condom Refusal in a Canadian Setting: Implications for Structural and Community-Led Interventions.

    PubMed

    Argento, Elena; Duff, Putu; Bingham, Brittany; Chapman, Jules; Nguyen, Paul; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Shannon, Kate

    2016-06-01

    Community empowerment can be a powerful determinant of HIV risk among sex workers (SWs). This study modeled the impact of social cohesion on client condom refusal among SWs in Vancouver. Longitudinal data were drawn from a prospective cohort of SWs (2010-2013). Lippman and colleagues' Social Cohesion Scale measured SWs' connectedness (i.e., perception of mutual aid, trust, support). Multivariable logistic regression examined the independent effect of social cohesion on client condom refusal. Of 654 SWs, 22 % reported baseline client condom refusal and 34 % over 3 years. The baseline median social cohesion score was 24 (IQR 20-29, range 4-45). In the final confounding model, for every one-point increase in the social cohesion score, average odds of condom refusal decreased by 3 % (AOR 0.97; 95 % CI 0.95-0.99). Community empowerment can have a direct protective effect on HIV risk. These findings highlight the need for a legal framework that enables collectivization and SW-led efforts in the HIV response. PMID:26499335

  10. A placebo-controlled study examining the effect of allopurinol on heart rate variability and dysrhythmia counts in chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Shehab, Abdullah M A; Butler, Robert; MacFadyen, Robert J; Struthers, Allan D

    2001-01-01

    Aims Allopurinol improves endothelial function in chronic heart failure by reducing oxidative stress. We wished to explore if such an effect would attenuate autonomic dysfunction in CHF in line with many other effective therapies in CHF. Methods We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind cross-over study in 16 patients with NYHA Class II-IV chronic heart failure (mean age 67 ± 10 years, 13 male, comparing allopurinol (2 months) at a daily dose of 300 mg (if creatinine < 150 µmol l−1) or 100 mg (if creatinine > 150 µmol l−1) with matched placebo. Mean heart rate and dysrhythmia counts were recorded from 24 h Holter tapes at monthly intervals for 6 months. We assessed autonomic function using standard time domain heart rate variability parameters (HRV): SDNN, SDANN, SDNN index, rMSSD and TI. Results Allopurinol had no significant effect on heart rate variability compared with placebo; the results are expressed as a difference in means ± s.d. with 95% confidence interval (CI) between allopurinol and placebo: SDNN mean=6.5 ± 4.8 ms, P = 0.18 and 95% CI (−3.7, 17); TI mean=−2.1 ± 1.4, P = 0.16 and 95% CI (−5.2, 0.8); SDANN mean=−2.8 ± 7 ms, P = 0.68 and 95% CI (−18, 12); SDNNi mean=2 ± 6.6, P = 0.7 and 95% CI (−12, 16); RMSSD mean=−0.9 ± 2, P = 0.68 and 95% CI (−5.6, 3.7). For mean heart rate the corresponding results were 0.9 ± 1.4, P = 0.5 and 95% CI (−2, 3.8). Log 24 h ventricular ectopic counts (VEC) were 0.032 ± 0.37, P = 0.7 and 95% CI (−0.1, 0.2). Patient compliance with study medication was good since allopurinol showed its expected effect of reducing plasma uric acid (P < 0.001). Conclusions Allopurinol at doses, which are known to reduce oxidative stress appear to have no significant effect on resting autonomic tone, as indicated by time domain heart rate variability or on dysrhythmia count in stable heart failure patients. PMID:11318768

  11. An epidemiological study of urban and rural children in Pakistan: examining the relationship between delayed psychomotor development, low birth weight and postnatal growth failure

    PubMed Central

    Avan, Bilal I.; Raza, Syed A.; Kirkwood, Betty R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Low birth weight is known to be associated with postnatal growth failure. It is not yet established that both conditions are determinants of psychomotor development. The study investigated whether or not low birth weight leads to delayed psychomotor development of a child, and whether it can be mitigated by adequate postnatal growth. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2002 in 15 rural and 11 urban communities of Sindh province, Pakistan. Assessment of 1234 children less than 3 years of age included Bayley's Scale of Infant Development II, socioeconomic questionnaire and anthropometry; WHO standards were used to calculate z-scores of height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age. The underlying study hypotheses were tested through multiple regression modelling. Results Out of 1219 children, 283 (23.2%) had delayed psychomotor development and 639 (52.4%) were undernourished according to the composite index of anthropometric failure. Strong negative associations with the psychomotor development index were detected between stunting and being underweight, with a larger magnitude of effect for stunting (p<0.001). The strong relationship persisted even when the analysis was restricted to non-malnourished children. The psychomotor index increased by 2.07 points with every unit increase in height-for-age z-score. Conclusions The relationship between low birth weight and psychomotor development appears to be mediated largely by postnatal growth and nutritional status. This association suggests that among undernourished children there is significant likelihood of a group that is developmentally delayed. It is important to emphasize developmental needs in programmes that target underprivileged children. PMID:25354850

  12. Sexual Decision-Making in HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men: How Moral Concerns and Sexual Motives Guide Intended Condom Use with Steady and Casual Sex Partners

    PubMed Central

    Hospers, Harm J.; van Empelen, Pepijn; Breukelen, Gerard van; Kok, Gerjo

    2007-01-01

    Determinants of intended condom use with steady and casual sex partners were examined among Dutch HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) (N = 296). Given the proposition that safer sex behavior among HIV-positive people is a form of prosocial behavior, the present study extended the general framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior with Schwartz’s norm-activation theory and tested the assumption that personal norms would mediate the effects of other psychosocial factors on intended condom use for anal sex. In addition, it was hypothesized that, depending on the context in which sex occurs, specific motives for unprotected anal sex may have a negative influence on intended condom use and, as such, undermine a prosocial tendency to practice safer sex. Therefore, we also investigated the influence of sexual motives for unprotected anal sex on intended condom use with steady and casual sex partners. Results indicated that the Theory of Planned Behavior adequately predicted condom use intentions (for casual sex partners and steady sex partners, the explained variance was 52% and 53%, respectively). However, our proposed model of sexual decision-making significantly improved the prediction of behavioral intentions. For steady and casual sex partners, the assumption of the mediating role of personal norms on condom use intention was confirmed empirically. Additionally, sexual motives for unprotected anal sex exerted, as expected, a direct, negative effect on condom use intention with casual sex partners. The implications of the findings for future research and the development of HIV-prevention programs for HIV-positive MSM are discussed. PMID:17333328

  13. Relationship between social cognitive theory constructs and self-reported condom use: assessment of behaviour in a subgroup of the Safe in the City trial

    PubMed Central

    Snead, Margaret C; O'Leary, Ann M; Mandel, Michele G; Kourtis, Athena P; Wiener, Jeffrey; Jamieson, Denise J; Warner, Lee; Malotte, C Kevin; Klausner, Jeffrey D; O'Donnell, Lydia; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A; Margolis, Andrew D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies have found social cognitive theory (SCT)-framed interventions are successful for improving condom use and reducing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted a secondary analysis of behavioural data from the Safe in the City intervention trial (2003–2005) to investigate the influence of SCT constructs on study participants’ self-reported use of condoms at last intercourse. Methods The main trial was conducted from 2003 to 2005 at three public US STI clinics. Patients (n=38 635) were either shown a ‘safer sex’ video in the waiting room, or received the standard waiting room experience, based on their visit date. A nested behavioural assessment was administered to a subsample of study participants following their index clinic visit and again at 3 months follow-up. We used multivariable modified Poisson regression models to examine the relationships among SCT constructs (sexual self-efficacy, self-control self-efficacy, self-efficacy with most recent partner, hedonistic outcome expectancies and partner expected outcomes) and self-reported condom use at last sex act at the 3-month follow-up study visit. Results Of 1252 participants included in analysis, 39% reported using a condom at last sex act. Male gender, homosexual orientation and single status were significant correlates of condom use. Both unadjusted and adjusted models indicate that sexual self-efficacy (adjusted relative risk (RRa)=1.50, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.84), self-control self-efficacy (RRa=1.67, 95% CI 1.37 to 2.04), self-efficacy with most recent partner (RRa=2.56, 95% CI 2.01 to 3.27), more favourable hedonistic outcome expectancies (RRa=1.83, 95% CI 1.54 to 2.17) and more favourable partner expected outcomes (RRa=9.74, 95% CI 3.21 to 29.57) were significantly associated with condom use at last sex act. Conclusions Social cognitive skills, such as self-efficacy and partner expected outcomes, are an important aspect of condom use behaviour. Trial

  14. Reported Condom Use among Students Enrolled in a Personal Health and Wellness Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson,Yasenka; Johnson, Maureen; Hutchins, Matthew; Florence, Candace

    2013-01-01

    When used consistently and correctly every time, condoms can prevent against the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unplanned pregnancies. Condoms are a significant prevention method viable for all populations. This study was conducted among students (277) at a Midwestern University who were enrolled in a personal health and…

  15. Resisting the "Condom Every Time for Anal Sex" Health Education Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jeffery; Neville, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Ensuring men who have sex with men (MSM) adopt and maintain condom use for anal sex is a challenging health education goal. In order to inform the development of social marketing practices to encourage safe-sex practices, the views of MSM about a key HIV health education message ("using a condom every time for anal sex") were sought.…

  16. Contraceptive Attitudes and Intention to Use Condoms in Sexually Experienced and Inexperienced Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleck, Joseph H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Assessed contraceptive attitudes and intention to use a condom at next intercourse among 1,880 adolescent males. Findings showed that about three-fifths of sexually experienced and inexperienced adolescent males intending to have sex in the next year reported an "almost certain chance" of condom use with a hypothetical future partner. (Author/PVV)

  17. Young Men's Aggressive Tactics to Avoid Condom Use: A Test of a Theoretical Model

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Logan-Greene, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Although research has demonstrated that men's aggression against women and inconsistent condom use are related phenomena, little is known about what factors increase risk for aggression to avoid condom use. The present article tests a theory-based model of condom avoidance through use of sexual aggression. Adult male participants (N = 289) were recruited nationally through online advertisements. Aggressive tactics to avoid condom use were measured using an adapted version of the revised Sexual Experiences Survey, and a variety of aggressive behaviors spanning coercion to physical force were assessed. One hundred participants (35.3%) reported at least one instance of coercion or aggression to avoid using a condom. Structural equation modeling indicated that attitudes toward women, inconsistent condom use, and number of sexual partners were significant predictors of aggressive tactics to avoid condom use. A better understanding of the attitudinal and behavioral pathways through which men avoid condom use through aggressive and coercive means will ultimately result in improved education and prevention efforts for at-risk men and women. PMID:23139623

  18. Preparatory Behavior for Condom Use among Heterosexual Young Men: A Longitudinal Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Telma; Alvarez, Maria-João; Barz, Milena; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Motivation is not sufficient to actually use condoms, as self-regulatory processes are needed to translate motivation into action. Buying condoms and carrying them constitute preparatory behaviors that may serve as proximal predictors of action. Whether or not such preparatory behaviors operate as mediators between intention and action…

  19. Are Written Instructions Enough? Efficacy of Male Condom Packaging Leaflets among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindemann, Dana F.; Harbke, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether or not written condom use instructions successfully inform correct condom use skills. Design: Between-subjects, two-group design. Setting: Public university located in rural Midwestern region of the United States. Method: Participants were randomly assigned to either a control condition (read physical exercise…

  20. Male Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Association With Condom Use in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Repp, Kimberly K.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Fu, Rongwei; Schafer, Sean; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmerón, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Villa, Luisa L.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Reported associations of condom use and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection have been inconsistent. We investigated self-reported frequency of condom use and detection of genital HPV among men. Methods. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in men aged 18–70 years from Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Men completed questionnaires on sexual history, condom use, and sociodemographic characteristics. Among 2621 men reporting recent vaginal sex, prevalence of any HPV, any oncogenic type, and nononcogenic types only was estimated by frequency of condom use (“always” or “not always”). Multivariable models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for HPV according to frequency of condom use. Results. The prevalence of any HPV was 70.5%; any oncogenic type, 34%, and nononcogenic types only, 22.2%. The adjusted PR for always vs not always using condoms was 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI], .77–.97) for all countries combined. The association was stronger in the United States (PR, 0.70; CI, .55–.90) than in Brazil (PR, 0.84; CI, .71–1.01) or Mexico (PR, 1.05; CI, .89–1.25) (P for interaction = .025). Conclusions. HPV prevalence was high even among those who reported always using condoms, and its associations with always using condoms varied among countries. PMID:22396601

  1. Risk factors influencing non-use of condoms at sexual relations in populations under heightened risk.

    PubMed

    Medić, Alan; Dzelalija, Boris; Koźul, Karlo; Novosel, Iva Pem; Dijanić, Tomislav

    2014-09-01

    To determine risk factors for non-use of condoms when engaging in sexual intercourse among high-risk population groups for acquiring HIV/STIs. We collected the data obtained by interviews in the period from 2005 to 2011 in the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center for HIV/AIDS at the Institute of Public Health of Zadar County. Four hundred ninety four respondents were divided into risk and control groups. The majority of the respondents in our population does not consistently use condoms, in the risk group as much as 89.9%, and in the control group 65.7% of them (p< 0.001). Persons consuming alcohol when having sexual relations use condoms about 5x less often compared to those not consuming alcohol at all (OR=5.00; CI=1.69-14.29). There are significant differences among women and men in the risk group regarding reasons for non-use of condoms. The main reason with women is "I trust mypartners" 33.7% while men "do not like having sex with condoms, 53.6% of them (p < 0.001). The main risk factors for non-use of condoms are alcohol consumption at sexual relations, non-use of condoms in a casual relationship. Having in mind the non-use of condoms among populations of high-risk groups of acquiring HIV there are significant differences among genders. PMID:25507355

  2. Risk factors influencing non-use of condoms at sexual relations in populations under heightened risk.

    PubMed

    Medić, Alan; Dzelalija, Boris; Koźul, Karlo; Novosel, Iva Pem; Dijanić, Tomislav

    2014-09-01

    To determine risk factors for non-use of condoms when engaging in sexual intercourse among high-risk population groups for acquiring HIV/STIs. We collected the data obtained by interviews in the period from 2005 to 2011 in the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center for HIV/AIDS at the Institute of Public Health of Zadar County. Four hundred ninety four respondents were divided into risk and control groups. The majority of the respondents in our population does not consistently use condoms, in the risk group as much as 89.9%, and in the control group 65.7% of them (p< 0.001). Persons consuming alcohol when having sexual relations use condoms about 5x less often compared to those not consuming alcohol at all (OR=5.00; CI=1.69-14.29). There are significant differences among women and men in the risk group regarding reasons for non-use of condoms. The main reason with women is "I trust mypartners" 33.7% while men "do not like having sex with condoms, 53.6% of them (p < 0.001). The main risk factors for non-use of condoms are alcohol consumption at sexual relations, non-use of condoms in a casual relationship. Having in mind the non-use of condoms among populations of high-risk groups of acquiring HIV there are significant differences among genders. PMID:25420371

  3. [In vitro studies of factors possibly influencing the performance of latex condoms].

    PubMed

    Guigon, P; Breton, D; Mendes-Oustric, A C; Pech, A; Clair, P

    2005-11-01

    Male condoms are undoubtedly the best protection against sexually transmitted diseases. The French Military Health Service buys condoms from civilian manufacturers using a public purchasing process. This process includes strict technical analysis that allows selection of the best supplier. In addition each batch of condoms delivered to French armed forces undergoes quality testing in the laboratory of the Armed Services Central Pharmacy before being distributed to troops. Despite these strict control measures, several isss remain unclear. One issue involves the shelf life of condoms stored in warm humid tropical conditions. Another issue involves the effect of lubricants on condom quality. The purpose of this report is to describe a study designed to gain insight into these two issues. This study was conducted by the Armed Services Central Pharmacy in colaboration with the Procuremnt and Central Establishment Directorate. Findings showed that stage conditions have no negative effects on the intrinsic physico-chemial properties of condoms supplied by two different manufacturers. Conversely use of inadequate lubricants (alimentary or cosmetic compounds) appeared to have extremely deleterious effects on condom quality. Laboratory tests showed that lubricants composed mainly of fatty acids dramatically decreased the effectiveness of condoms. PMID:16555519

  4. The Condom Works in All Situations? Paradoxical Messages in Mainstream Sex Education in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolander, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The condom plays a vital part in safe sex, the ideal outcome of mainstream Swedish sex education. As researchers have pointed out, however, the condom is not a neutral object; rather, it plays a part in shaping, in different ways, both sexual practices and the idea of what sex is. This paper focuses on sex education television programmes produced…

  5. One Size Fits All? Promoting Condom Use for Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention among Heterosexual Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Visser, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this exploratory qualitative study were to increase our understanding of heterosexual young adults knowledge and beliefs about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) other than HIV, to explore their beliefs about the factors that influence condom use for STI prevention, and to explore their ideas about how best to promote condom use…

  6. Correlates of Condom Use among Chinese College Students in Hunan Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Zhiwen

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to test an integrated model of condom use with a sample of 490 sexually active Chinese college students. A number of variables in the integrated model were predictors of condom use, explaining 33.4% of the variance in use. Partner communication was the strongest predictors (beta = 0.317, SE = 0.038, p less…

  7. A Condom Distribution Program for Adolescents: The Findings of a Feasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Charles B.; Cogswell, Betty E.

    This paper describes a family planning service for adolescent males in an inner-city area. The program utilized the distribution of free condoms through local commercial outlets (barber shops, grocery stores, pool hall, restaurant). The proprietors agreed to distribute condoms in the target area which included approximately 3,000 males aged 12-26…

  8. Consistent condom use among juvenile detainees: the role of individual differences, social bonding, and health beliefs.

    PubMed

    Broaddus, Michelle R; Bryan, Angela

    2008-01-01

    This study takes the perspective that condom use may be a non-continuous variable, and that the endpoint of consistent condom use is an important focus of study both in terms of public health considerations and theoretically. As consistent condom use is the ultimate goal for prevention of the spread of HIV and STDs among those who are sexually active, special attention needs to be paid to those who have accomplished that goal, especially among high-risk populations. Guided by theories of resiliency, and using consistent condom use as a marker of the broader sexual health resiliency construct, condom promotive factors are used to predict consistent condom use among detained adolescents. Consistent condom users appear to be a distinct sub-population. Likely to be male, they are also likely to have higher self-esteem, higher optimism, and lower sensation seeking and impulsive decision making. They are likely to be in school and to live with both biological parents. Finally, they are likely to have positive attitudes towards condoms and report having friends and peers who feel the same way. PMID:17578661

  9. Examining brain structures associated with the motive to achieve success and the motive to avoid failure: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Ming, Dan; Chen, Qunlin; Yang, Wenjing; Chen, Rui; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Wenfu; Qiu, Jiang; Xu, Zhan; Zhang, Qinglin

    2016-01-01

    The motive to achieve success (MAS) and motive to avoid failure (MAF) are two different but classical kinds of achievement motivation. Though many functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have explored functional activation in motivation-related conditions, research has been silent as to the brain structures associated with individual differences in achievement motivation, especially with respect to MAS and MAF. In this study, the voxel-based morphometry method was used to uncover focal differences in brain structures related to MAS and MAF measured by the Mehrabian Achieving Tendency Scale in 353 healthy young Chinese adults. The results showed that the brain structures associated with individual differences in MAS and MAF were distinct. MAS was negatively correlated with regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)/orbitofrontal cortex while MAF was negatively correlated with rGMV in the mPFC/subgenual cingulate gyrus. After controlling for mutual influences of MAS and MAF scores, MAS scores were found to be related to rGMV in the mPFC/orbitofrontal cortex and another cluster containing the parahippocampal gyrus and precuneus. These results may predict that compared with MAF, the generation process of MAS may be more complex and rational, thus in the real world, perhaps MAS is more beneficial to personal growth and guaranteeing the quality of task performance. PMID:25895120

  10. Bush blasts 'filth' on TV, school condom handouts.

    PubMed

    1991-12-18

    President Bush complained yesterday about the "filth and indecent material" that Americans are exposed to through televised trials. Mr. Bush also criticized programs to combat AIDS that give condoms to teenagers and clean needles to drug addicts. He said such efforts undermine traditional values. He expressed hope that Earvin "Magic" Johnson's revelation that he is HIV positive "will teach people that wayward lifestyles or just kind of unsafe sex at random is not the way it ought to work." Mr. Bush made the comments in a series of satellite television interviews with ABC affiliates in major cities. In an apparent reaction to graphic testimony at the recent Palm Beach rape trial of William Kennedy Smith, Mr. Bush said, "I think the American people have a right to be protected against some of these excesses." Mr. Smith, a nephew of Sen. Edward M. Kennedy, D-Mass., was acquitted last week. The Cable News Network and Court TV provided virtually gavel-to-gavel coverage. Mr. Bush took a dim view of a plan to distribute condoms to juniors and seniors in Philadelphia city high schools as part of a program to combat acquired immune deficiency syndrome. "This is a disease that can be controlled for the most part by individual behavior," Mr. Bush said. "Indeed, I must tell you I'm worried about it. I'm worried about so much filth and indecent material coming in through the airwaves and through these trials into people's homes," he said. PMID:12284862

  11. Association of negotiation strategies with consistent use of male condoms by women receiving an HIV prevention intervention in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Ann; Moore, Janet S; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Loeb, Lisa; Cobb, Daphne; Hruschka, Dan; Khan, Rizwana; Padian, Nancy

    2003-07-25

    One of the fundamental aspects of HIV counselling for women is condom negotiation strategy development. The present research sought to identify condom request strategies used by Zimbabwean women and to determine which were most effective in persuading male partners to use condoms. Of six types of strategies used by women after a prevention intervention, one was significantly associated with consistent condom use 2 months later. Implications for the development of counselling and testing protocols are discussed. PMID:12853758

  12. Examining the Potential for Gender Bias in the Prediction of Symptom Validity Test Failure by MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tayla T. C.; Graham, John R.; Sellbom, Martin; Gervais, Roger O.

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of individuals undergoing medico-legal evaluations (690 men, 519 women), the present study extended past research on potential gender biases for scores of the Symptom Validity (FBS) scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 by examining score- and item-level differences between men and women and determining the…

  13. Perceived condom use self-efficacy among at-risk women.

    PubMed

    Sterk, Claire E; Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W

    2003-06-01

    The objectives of this study are to assess the confidence in their ability to use condoms among at-risk women and identify predictors for the women's condom use self-efficacy. Structured interviews were conducted with 250 adult women in Atlanta, Georgia, between August 1997 and August 2000. Overall, the women reported feeling moderately to moderately-strongly confident in their ability to use condoms consistently. Multivariate analysis showed women with higher condom use self-efficacy were significantly younger, experienced childhood neglect, had higher self-esteem, communicated better with their sex partner, and had fewer drug problems. Findings suggest the importance of addressing condom use self-efficacy in HIV risk reduction programs with a specific focus on women and the need to be attuned to tailored needs for specific subgroups such as older women or women who encountered childhood neglect. PMID:14586202

  14. Demographic factors and sexist beliefs as predictors of condom use among Latinos in the USA.

    PubMed

    Albarracin, Julia; Plambeck, Chad R

    2010-08-01

    Based on a survey conducted among 198 Latinos in Central Illinois, USA, this study shows that income, education, and language skills were important predictors of condom use. In addition, hostile and benevolent sexist ideas had a differing impact on condom use. Hostile sexist ideas, such as the belief that women try to control men, increased condom use with both main and occasional partners. Benevolent sexism, for example, the idea that women should be cherished and protected, was negatively and significantly correlated with condom use with main partner. In this sense, benevolent sexism, an apparently less harmful type of prejudice against women, seems to out them at higher risk of HIV/AIDS infection. Therefore, HIV/AIDS prevention interventions designed for Latinos should not only address the dangers of hostile sexist beliefs in reproducing negative feelings about women but also the problems associated with benevolent sexist beliefs, which seem to decrease condom use. PMID:20677032

  15. The reach and effect of radio communication campaigns on condom use in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Meekers, Dominique; Van Rossem, Ronan; Silva, Martha; Koleros, Andrew

    2007-06-01

    This study uses data from the 2004 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey to assess the reach of selected radio programs about family planning and health in Malawi and their effect on condom use and discussion of family planning. The results show that such radio programs in Malawi reach a broad audience: eight of the 12 programs were heard by at least half of the respondents, although women were less effectively reached than men. For both women and men, the radio programs were found to have a significant impact on family planning discussion with one's partner. The programs' effect on condom use was limited, however. A positive association was found with ever use of condoms, but no association was found with condom use at last intercourse. This limited impact suggests that such radio communication campaigns need to be informed by research identifying the specific constraints to current condom use in Malawi. PMID:17642412

  16. Condom use at last sexual relationship among adolescents of Santiago Island, Cape Verde, - West Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate factors associated with condom use at last sexual intercourse among adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 368 sexually active adolescents aged 13–17 years from eight public high schools on Santiago Island, Cape Verde, 2007. The level of significance was 5.0% obtained from logistic regression, considering the association between condom use and socio-demographic, sexual and reproductive variables. Results The prevalence of condom use at last sexual intercourse was 94.9%. Factors associated with condom use at last sexual relationship were: non-Catholic religion (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.52; 0.88) and affective-sexual partnership before the interview (OR=5.15, 95%CI: 1.79; 14.80). Conclusions There was a high prevalence of condom use at last sexual intercourse of adolescents. PMID:23153259

  17. Perspectives on condom breakage: a qualitative study of female sex workers in Bangalore, India.

    PubMed

    Gurav, Kaveri; Bradley, Janet; Chandrashekhar Gowda, G; Alary, Michel

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted to obtain a detailed understanding of two key determinants of condom breakage - 'rough sex' and poor condom fit - identified in a recent telephone survey of female sex workers, in Bangalore, India. Transcripts from six focus-group discussions involving 35 female sex workers who reported condom breakage during the telephone survey were analysed. Rough sex in different forms, from over-exuberance to violence, was often described by sex workers as a result of clients' inebriation and use of sexual stimulants, which, they report, cause tumescence, excessive thrusting and sex that lasts longer than usual, thereby increasing the risk of condom breakage. Condom breakage in this setting is the result of a complex set of social situations involving client behaviours and power dynamics that has the potential to put the health and personal lives of sex workers at risk. These findings and their implications for programme development are discussed. PMID:24588078

  18. The Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Women's Condom Negotiation Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Holly; O'Connell, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    HIV prevention efforts promote the use of condoms to prevent the spread of HIV and other STDs. Thus, a woman's agency to practice healthy sexual behaviors necessarily involves negotiation with another person. This poses unique challenges for women who have limited power in relationships. The current study explores how the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) impacts a woman's confidence in her ability to negotiate condom use with a sexual partner (i.e., condom use self-efficacy), using data from incarcerated females in three states, who were interviewed just prior to release back into the community. The direct effect of experiencing IPV as an adult, controlling for other risk factors, on condom use self-efficacy has not previously been empirically tested. Results show that IPV experiences among women significantly decreases their confidence in negotiating condom use with a partner, putting them at a higher risk of HIV infection than women who do not report having recently experienced IPV. PMID:21987514

  19. Unlike Thailand, RP can't adopt local condom use policy.

    PubMed

    Department of Health Secretary Alberto Romualdez has declared that the Philippines would not be able to adopt a local condom use policy similar to that of Thailand. The policy has greatly reduced the number of STD cases in Thailand from 6.5/1000 in 1989 to 0.49/1000 in 1996 and has imposed a 95% rate of condom use in sex establishments. Secretary Romualdez said that the condom policy could not be applied in the Philippines because, unlike Thailand, the sex trade is illegal in the Philippines; thus its government would not be able to impose the condom use policy on its sex workers. He announced that the DOH, however, continued to support programs to protect persons engaged in unprotected sex and that he believed that condoms were still the best STD prevention devices. PMID:12349214

  20. HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Jaime E; Bozon, Michel; Ortiz, Edith; Arredondo, Anabella

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%), although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%). The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability. PMID:17653395

  1. Men’s Condom Use Resistance: Alcohol Effects on Theory of Planned Behavior Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Danube, Cinnamon L.; Morrison, Diane M.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study is a novel investigation of 1) the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict men’s condom use resistance (CUR; i.e., attempts to avoid condom use with a partner who wants to use one) and 2) the effects of alcohol on endorsement of TPB-CUR constructs. Methods Using an alcohol administration protocol, a between- and within-subjects experiment was conducted with a community sample of 312 young male non-problem drinkers who have sex with women. After assessing endorsement of TPB-CUR constructs (e.g., attitudes, norms, self-efficacy, control, and intentions) in a sober state, beverage condition was experimentally manipulated between subjects and endorsement of TPB-CUR constructs was reassessed. Results Analyses included repeated measures MANOVAs with beverage condition (no alcohol vs. alcohol) as the between-subjects factor and time (pre-beverage vs. post-beverage) as the within-subjects factor. Between-subjects, intoxicated participants reported significantly stronger CUR intentions, more favorable CUR attitudes and normative perceptions, and greater CUR self-efficacy than sober participants. There were significant within-subject changes for CUR intentions, attitudes, normative perceptions, and self-efficacy. Neither between- nor within-subjects effects were found for CUR control. An exploratory multi-group path analysis indicated that the relationships among the TPB-CUR constructs were similar for alcohol and no alcohol groups. Conclusions Findings indicated that alcohol intoxication increased men’s CUR intentions and self-efficacy and led to more positive CUR attitudes and norms, yet had no effect on CUR control. Future research should examine whether there are similar effects of intoxication on TPB constructs related to other sexual risk behaviors. PMID:26348499

  2. Examining the Effects of Remote Monitoring Systems on Activation, Self-care, and Quality of Life in Older Patients With Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Lee, Jung-Ah; Moore, Alison A.; Motie, Marjan; Ghasemzadeh, Hassan; Sarrafzadeh, Majid; Mangione, Carol M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of remote monitoring systems (RMSs) in healthcare has grown exponentially and has improved the accessibility to and ability of patients to engage in treatment intensification. However, research describing the effects of RMSs on activation, self-care, and quality of life (QOL) in older patients with heart failure (HF) is limited. Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a 3-month RMS intervention on activation, self-care, and QOL of older patients versus a reference group matched on age, gender, race, and functional status (ie, New York Heart Association classification) who received standard discharge instructions after an acute episode of HF exacerbation requiring hospitalization. Methods A total of 21 patients (mean age, 72.7 ± 8.9 years; range, 58–83 years; 52.4% women) provided consent and were trained to measure their weight, blood pressure, and heart rate at home with an RMS device and transmit this information every day for 3 months to a centralized information system. The system gathered all data and dispatched alerts when certain clinical conditions were met. Results The baseline sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the 2 groups were comparable. Over time, participants in the RMS group showed greater improvements in activation, self-care, and QOL compared with their counterparts. Data showed moderately strong associations between increased activation, self-care, and QOL. Conclusion Our preliminary data show that the use of an RMS is feasible and effective in promoting activation, self-care, and QOL. A larger-scale randomized clinical trial is warranted to show that the RMS is a new and effective method for improving clinical management of older adults with chronic HF. PMID:24365871

  3. A prospective study assessing the effects of introducing the female condom in a sex worker population in Mombasa, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, S C; Ombidi, W; Toroitich‐Ruto, C; Wong, E L; Tucker, H O; Homan, R; Kingola, N; Luchters, S

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact and costs of adding female condoms to a male condom promotion and distribution peer education programme for sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. Design A 12 month, prospective study of 210 female sex workers. Methods We interviewed participants about their sexual behaviour every 2 months for a total of seven times and introduced female condoms after the third interview. We also collected cost data and calculated the cost and cost effectiveness of adding the female condom component to the existing programme. Results Introduction of the female condom in an HIV/AIDS prevention project targeting sex workers led to small, but significant, increases in consistent condom use with all sexual partners. However, there was a high degree of substitution of the female condom for male condoms. The cost per additional consistent condom user at a programme level is estimated to be $2160 (£1169, €1711) (95% CI: 1338 to 11 179). Conclusions The female condom has some potential for reducing unprotected sex among sex workers. However, given its high cost, and the marginal improvements seen here, governments should limit promotion of the female condom in populations that are already successfully using the male condom. More research is needed to identify effective methods of encouraging sex workers to practise safer sex with their boyfriends. PMID:16854997

  4. Development of Condom-Use Self-Efficacy over 36 Months among Early Adolescents: A Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinguang; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Brathwaite, Nanika; Cottrell, Lesley; Deveaux, Lynette; Gomez, Perry; Harris, Carole; Li, Xiaoming; Lunn, Sonja; Marshall, Sharon; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    This research evaluates condom-use self-efficacy and its increase throughout adolescence. Documentation of the development of condom-use self-efficacy would be important for prevention efforts given the influence of self-efficacy on actual condom usage. This study assesses a hypothesized mediation mechanism of the development of self-efficacy…

  5. A Comprehensive Test of the Health Belief Model in the Prediction of Condom Use among African American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfield, Evelyn B.; Whaley, Arthur L.

    2002-01-01

    Tested an expanded version of the Health Belief Model (HBM) in predicting condom use among heterosexual African American college students. Overall, only the core HBM explained a significant amount of variance in condom use. Perceived barriers and gender significantly predicted condom use. Perceived barriers mediated the correlation between gender…

  6. Not to stigmatize but to humanize sexual lives of the transgender (hijra) in Bangladesh: condom chat in the AIDS era.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sharful Islam; Hussain, Mohammed Iftekher; Gourab, Gorkey; Parveen, Shaila; Bhuiyan, Mahbubul Islam; Sikder, Joya

    2008-01-01

    Despite condom interventions since year 2000 with the transgender (hijra) population, condom use remains low. Consequently, hijra suffer from higher rates of active syphilis, putting them under threat of HIV transmission. In an ethnographic study, 50 in-depth interviews with diverse groups of hijra along with 20 key-informants interviews with various stakeholders, and 13 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with comprehensive field observations. Findings indicate that most hijra understand the importance of condoms, but none use condoms consistently. Complex underlying reasons positioned beyond the individual's cognitive domain include: low self-confidence; economic hardships for mere survival; multiple transient partners; sexual desire, preferences, and eroticisms concerning anal sex; stigma associated with purchasing condoms; poor quality and interrupted supply of condoms and lubricants; limitation of fear-producing messages in favor of condoms; inadequate professional skills and motivational impetus of the outreach staff for condom promotion, and incompetent management with inadequate understanding about the dynamics of condom use. Imposing condoms by disregarding socio-cultural and socio-economic scripts of sexual relationships and eroticism of hijra-sexuality have challenged the effectiveness of current condom interventions. Interventions should not mechanize the process, rather they may humanize and eroticize sexual lives of the hijra. A paradigm shift is required where condoms enhance the dignity and quality of sexual lives of the hijra beyond the framework of disgrace, disease, and death. PMID:19856745

  7. Condom-Associated Erection Problems: A Study of High-Risk Young Black Males Residing in the Southern United States.

    PubMed

    Graham, Cynthia A; Crosby, Richard; Sanders, Stephanie; Milhausen, Robin; Yarber, William L

    2016-03-01

    Previous research indicates that young men may experience condom-associated erection loss and that these problems may lead to inconsistent or incomplete condom use. The primary aim of this study was to assess, using a retrospective recall period of 2 months, correlates of condom-associated erection problems among young Black men attending sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics. Data were collected in clinics treating patients with STIs in three southern U.S. cities. Males 15 to 23 years of age who identified as Black/African American and reported recent (past 2 months) condom use were eligible. A total of 494 men participated. Nineteen percent reported that condom-associated erection problems during condom application occurred at least once, and 17.8% indicated erection difficulties occurred during sexual intercourse at least once in the past 2 months. Multivariate analyses identified that condom-associated erection problems were associated with reports of sex with more than one partner during the recall period, reported problems with condom fit and feel, lower motivation to use condoms, and attempts at condom application before having a full erection. Findings suggest that clinic interventions should address possible condom-associated erection problems among young Black men who are at risk of STIs. Encouraging men who may be vulnerable to erection loss when condoms are used to allow sufficient time for sexual arousal to build may be an effective strategy. PMID:25475105

  8. Dimensions of poverty and inconsistent condom use among youth in urban Kenya.

    PubMed

    Davidoff-Gore, Alena; Luke, Nancy; Wawire, Salome

    2011-10-01

    To date, research on the link between poverty and unsafe sexual behaviors has utilized limited measures of socioeconomic status and has overlooked key dimensions of poverty at the individual level. This study explored how various dimensions of socioeconomic status are associated with inconsistent condom use and how these associations vary by gender. We analyzed unique life history survey data from 261 young men and women in Kisumu, Kenya, and conducted analyses based on 959 person-months in which respondents had been sexually active in nonmarital relationships. Dependent variables were inconsistent condom use (not always using a condom) and never use of condoms. Condoms were used inconsistently in 57% of months and were never used in 31%. Corroborating existing literature, lower household wealth and lower educational attainment were associated with inconsistent condom use. Lower individual economic status (lower earned income, food insufficiency, and larger material transfers from partners) were also important determinants of inconsistent condom use. There were no significant differences in these associations by gender, with the exception of food insufficiency, which increased the risk of inconsistent condom use for young women but not for young men. None of these individual measures of socioeconomic status were associated with never use of a condom. The findings suggest that both household- and individual-level measures of socioeconomic status are important correlates of condom use and that individual economic resources play a crucial role in negotiations over the highest level of usage. The results highlight the importance of poverty in shaping sexual behavior, and, in particular, that increasing individual access to resources beyond the household, including ensuring access to food and providing educational and work opportunities, could prove to be effective strategies for decreasing the risk of HIV among youth. PMID:21562992

  9. Examination of a 15. 24-cm ball valve from the Morgantown Energy Technology Center Lock Hopper Valve Testing and Development Project: failure analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Danyluk, S.; Diercks, D.; Dragel, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    A 15.24-cm ball valve failed while undergoing tests in simulated lock hopper service. The valve stem developed severe torsional deformation after 3134 cycles while handling limestone fines, and a replacement stem also exhibited deformation after an additional 124 cycles. The test was terminated at that point due to excessive valve leakage. Inspection of the valve at METC revealed large quantities of limestone fines packed between the valve ball and the body, and also revealed chipping of the chromium oxide coating around the valve stem slot. The valve seats, ball, and stem were sent to the Materials Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory for further examination. A visual examination at Argonne confirmed the general features seen at METC, and also revealed chipping of the coating on the overspray region of one of the valve seats. It was determined that the torque required to cause gross plastic deformation of the valve stem was well below that which the actuator was capable of applying in the valve test at METC. A microstructural examination of sections from each of the two valve seats indicated no significant debonding of the coating, and an independent analysis by the Linde Division of Union Carbide Corp. found the coating to meet the manufacturer's specifications. Variations in coating thickness on the valve ball of the order of 50% were observed using eddy-current techniques, but absolute values for the coating thicknesses were not obtained.Hardness readings on the valve-seat coating material were found to be slightly below the specified values, but the difference did not appear to be significant.

  10. Respiratory Failure

    MedlinePlus

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, such ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can't ...

  11. Kidney Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... enough red blood cells. This is called kidney failure. If your kidneys fail, you need treatment to ... providers, family, and friends, most people with kidney failure can lead full and active lives. NIH: National ...

  12. Predictors of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers: an application of the protection motivation theory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Lin, Danhua; Su, Shaobing; Zhang, Chen; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    We utilized Protection Motivation Theory to assess predictors of intention and behavior of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers (FSWs). A self-administered questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional survey among 700 FSWs in Guangxi, China. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, self-efficacy, and response costs predicted consistent condom use intention and behavior among FSWs. Sexually transmitted infection/ HIV prevention programs need to reduce FSWs' perceptions of positive extrinsic rewards and intrinsic rewards for engaging in consistent condom use, reduce FSWs' perception of response costs for using a condom, and increase condom use self-efficacy among FSWs. PMID:25061932

  13. Predictors of Consistent Condom Use Among Chinese Female Sex Workers: An Application of the Protection Motivation Theory

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Lin, Danhua; Su, Shaobing; Zhang, Chen; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-01-01

    We utilized the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to assess predictors of intention and behavior of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers (FSWs). A self-administered questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional survey among 700 FSWs in Guangxi, China. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, self-efficacy and response costs predicted consistent condom use intention and behavior among FSWs. STI/HIV prevention programs need to reduce FSWs’ perceptions of positive extrinsic rewards and intrinsic rewards for engaging in consistent condom use, reduce FSWs’ perception of response costs for using a condom, and increase condom use self-efficacy among FSWs. PMID:25061932

  14. Social-cognitive determinants of condom use in a cohort of young gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Franssens, Dirk; Hospers, Harm J; Kok, Gerjo

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to identify relevant determinants of young gay and bisexual men's (YGBM) condom use when having anal sex with casual partners. Respondents (185 YGBM in the midst of their coming-out; mean age 18.9 years) completed an online questionnaire on social-cognitive determinants of condoms use derived from the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991) at Wave 1. At six months follow-up (Wave 2) sexual behavior with casual partners was assessed. A total of 63 YGBM reported sex with a casual partner in the six months between Waves 1 and 2, of whom 49% (N=31) had anal sex. Of the YGBM who had anal sex, 42% (N=13) had unprotected anal sex. Condom use with casual partners was best predicted by the intention to always use condoms. Furthermore, attitude, descriptive and personal norms, and perceived control significantly predicted intention to always use condoms. Interventions, targeting YGBM, aiming to promote condom use with casual partners should focus on increasing attitudes and strengthening skills to negotiate and use condoms. PMID:20024726

  15. Integration of five health behaviour models: common strengths and unique contributions to understanding condom use.

    PubMed

    Reid, Allecia E; Aiken, Leona S

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to select from the health belief model (HBM), theories of reasoned action (TRA) and planned behaviour (TPB), information-motivation-behavioural skills model (IMB) and social cognitive theory (SCT) the strongest longitudinal predictors of women's condom use and to combine these constructs into a single integrated model of condom use. The integrated model was evaluated for prediction of condom use among young women who had steady versus casual partners. At Time 1, all constructs of the five models and condom use were assessed in an initial and a replication sample (n = 193, n = 161). Condom use reassessed 8 weeks later (Time 2) served as the main outcome. Information from IMB, perceived susceptibility, benefits, and barriers from HBM, self-efficacy and self-evaluative expectancies from SCT, and partner norm and attitudes from TPB served as indirect or direct predictors of condom use. All paths replicated across samples. Direct predictors of behaviour varied with relationship status: self-efficacy significantly predicted condom use for women with casual partners, while attitude and partner norm predicted for those with steady partners. Integrated psychosocial models, rich in constructs and relationships drawn from multiple theories of behaviour, may provide a more complete characterisation of health protective behaviour. PMID:21678166

  16. Factors contributing to inconsistent condom use among heterosexual men in Curaçao.

    PubMed

    Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bertens, Madelief G B C; Mevissen, Fraukje E F; Schaalma, Herman P

    2013-01-01

    This study explored, from a public health perspective, factors that contribute to inconsistent condom use by men in Curaçao through semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 21 heterosexual men. The findings show that there is an important disconnect between what is considered culturally appropriate sexual behaviour for men and women and condom use, that diverging from prescribed notions of masculinity and femininity in order to use condoms consistently is difficult, and that condom use is particularly problematic in the context of concurrent partnerships and sexual economic exchanges. Participants further reported that Caribbean family structures, whereby mothers assume the role as primary caregiver and fathers contribute biologically but, to a much lesser extent socially, also have an impact on condom use. Additionally, consistent condom use was reported to be impeded by a cultural taboo on talking seriously about sex and sexual health. In their totality, findings provide important input from men for the development of sexual health promotion interventions that are cognizant of the cultural context in which inconsistent condom use occurs, and that are geared not only to the individual level but also to the interpersonal and structural levels. PMID:23350609

  17. Wanted: new condom suppliers for USAID (foreign companies need not apply).

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    The US Agency for International Development (USAID) could have expanded its family planning service budget by 10% had it purchased condoms from foreign manufacturers. In 1991, USAID purchased more than 633 million condoms at 5.3 cents/condom, or $7.63/gross. The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), however, buy condoms from Korean manufacturers at an approximate cost of 1.7 cents/condom, or $2.50/gross. Had USAID followed suit, more than $22 million would have been saved to be better spent on expanding family planning and AIDS prevention programs in developing countries. The Australian company Ansell supplies 90% of USAID's condoms from its Alabama offices. Alabama Senator Howell Heflin and Ansell representatives have effectively lobbied to make sure that USAID adheres to a policy of buying only American-made products. While the Federal Procurement Act strongly encourages USAID to favor American products, federal law does not bar purchases of products manufactured overseas. USAID also pays considerably more for IUDs than other international agencies. UNFPA and IPPF agree with critics who say that USAID has a responsibility to purchase condoms from less expensive overseas suppliers. In so doing, USAID would maximize the use of American tax dollars while expanding the agency's mission in developing countries. The perceived need to protect a few dozen jobs in Alabama pales next to the potential of sparing hundreds of thousands of lives in Africa. PMID:12344624

  18. Expanding safer sex options: introducing the female condom into national programmes.

    PubMed

    Warren, Mitchell; Philpott, Anne

    2003-05-01

    Although the female condom has been introduced into over 90 countries since 1997, it has only been accepted in sexual and reproductive health programmes as a mainstream method in a few. This paper describes introductory strategies developed by Ministries of Health and non-governmental organisations in Brazil, Ghana, Zimbabwe and South Africa, supported by UNAIDS, and the manufacturers of the female condom, which have significantly expanded the number of female condoms being used. These projects have several key similarities: a focus on training for providers and peer educators, face-to-face communication with potential users to equip them with information and skills, an identified target audience, a consistent supply, a long assessment period to gauge actual use beyond the initial novelty phase, and a mix of public and private sector distribution. Female condom programmes require the sanction, leadership and funding of governments and donors. However, the non-governmental and private sectors have also played a major role in programme implementation. To ensure successful introduction of the female condom, it is crucial to involve a range of decision-makers, programme managers, service providers, community leaders and women's and youth groups. The rising cost of inaction and unprotected sex in the spread of HIV and AIDS force us to recognise the high cost of not providing female condoms alongside male condoms in family planning and AIDS prevention programmes. PMID:12800710

  19. Sexual practices and condom usage in a cohort of homosexual men in relation to human immunodeficiency virus status.

    PubMed

    Tindall, B; Swanson, C; Donovan, B; Cooper, D A

    1989-09-18

    Between January 1, and October 31, 1987, 420 homosexual men who participated in a cohort study of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) completed a questionnaire that examined their sexual practices during the previous six months. Of the subjects, 205 (48.8%) men were HIV-seropositive and 215 (51.2%) men were HIV-seronegative. Although there was an appreciable level of condom usage in both groups, 13.5% of the HIV-seronegative men had engaged in unprotected receptive anal intercourse and 6.3% of the HIV-seropositive men had engaged in unprotected insertive anal intercourse. Condom breakage was reported on approximately 6% of occasions by a minority of subjects. Among subjects who were in a relationship with a regular male sexual partner, the most commonly reported sexual practices were deep kissing, mutual masturbation and receptive oral intercourse without ejaculation. No HIV-seronegative man engaged in unprotected receptive and/or insertive anal intercourse, receptive oral intercourse with ejaculation or receptive and/or insertive "fisting" with a regular partner who was HIV-seropositive. No HIV-seropositive man engaged in unprotected insertive anal intercourse to ejaculation with an HIV-seronegative partner, although they did so with partners who were HIV-seropositive or of unknown status. On multivariate analyses the subject's antibody status was found to be associated with receptive anal intercourse with a condom (P = 0.007) and mutual masturbation (P = 0.001), with HIV-seronegative men being more likely to practise either; no significant independent effect was associated with the partner's antibody status. These findings provide important information on the types and levels of sexual practices in a group of homosexual men after the recognition of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in this country. PMID:2593942

  20. Condom-associated erection problems: behavioural responses and attributions in young, heterosexual men

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Brandon J.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Crosby, Richard A.; Ingelhart, Kara N.; Janssen, Erick

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have associated men who experience condom-associated erection problems (CAEP) with incomplete condom use and/or foregoing using condoms altogether. However, how men respond to CAEP and what they attribute CAEP to, remains unclear. Understanding young men's CAEP responses and attributions could help improve sexually transmissible infections (STI)/HIV prevention programs and interventions. Methods Behavioural responses to, and attributions for, CAEP during application (CAEP-Application) and/or during penile-vaginal intercourse (CAEP-PVI) were reported using an online questionnaire by 295 young, heterosexual men (aged 18–24 years) who were recruited via social media websites and university Listservs across major cities in the Midwestern USA. Results Behavioural responses to CAEP-Application included receiving oral or manual stimulation, stimulating a partner, self-stimulation, foregoing condom use and applying the condom after starting intercourse. Attributions for CAEP-Application included: distraction, fit and feel problems, application taking too long and having consumed too much alcohol. Behavioural responses to CAEP-PVI included increasing the intensity of intercourse, removing the condom to receive oral or manual stimulation and removing condom and continuing intercourse. Attributions for CAEP-PVI included: lack of sensation, taking too long to orgasm, not being ‘turned on’ enough, fit and feel problems and partner-related factors. Conclusions Men who report CAEP respond with both STI/HIV risk-reducing and potentially risk-increasing behaviours (e.g. forgoing condom use). Men attribute their experiences to a wide range of individual- and partner-level factors. Addressing men's CAEP behavioural responses and attributions may increase the efficacious value of condom programs and STI/HIV prevention interventions – particularly among men who experience CAEP. PMID:26166025

  1. Attitudinal and behavioral correlates of condom use in urban adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Pendergrast, R A; DuRant, R H; Gaillard, G L

    1992-03-01

    To determine correlates of condom use in adolescent males, we administered a sexual behavior questionnaire to 105 urban males attending a general adolescent clinic. The mean age was 16.5 +/- 1.6 years, and all reported heterosexual activity during the prior 3 months. Condom use was significantly (p less than 0.05) associated with perceived hassle of use (Spearman's rho = -0.40), perception of girlfriend's attitude toward condoms (rho = -0.36), self-confidence in correct use (rho = 0.26), younger age (rho = 0.25), reported degree of exposure to sexually transmitted disease (STD) education (rho = 0.23), perceived condom safety (rho = 0.23), and perceived risk of STD if not wearing a condom (rho = 0.21). Using stepwise multiple regression, four variables explained a significant amount of variation in condom use: perceived hassle of use, perceived girlfriend's attitude toward condom use, age, and self-confidence in correct use (adjusted R2 = 0.28, p less than 0.001). Intention to use free condoms was significantly (p less than 0.05) associated with past use (rho = 0.63), girlfriend's attitude toward use (rho = -0.46), self-confidence in correct use (rho = 0.36), perceived hassle (rho = -0.31), and degree of exposure to STD education (rho = 0.25). Three variables in a regression model explained a significant amount of variation in intent to use free condoms: self-reported past use, girlfriend's attitude, and self-confidence in correct use (adjusted R2 = 0.51, p less than 0.001). PMID:1627581

  2. A Pooled Analysis of the Effect of Condoms in Preventing HSV-2 Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Emily T.; Krantz, Elizabeth; Gottlieb, Sami L.; Magaret, Amalia S.; Langenberg, Andria; Stanberry, Lawrence; Kamb, Mary; Wald, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Background The degree of effectiveness of condoms in preventing the transmission of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), is uncertain. We performed a large pooled analysis to address this question. Methods We identified prospective studies with individual-level condom use data and laboratory-defined HSV-2 acquisition. Six studies were identified through a review of publications through 2007: three candidate HSV-2 vaccine studies, an HSV-2 drug study, an observational STD incidence study and a behavioral STD intervention study. Study investigators provided us individual-level data to perform a pooled analysis. Effect of condom use was modeled using a continuous percent of sex acts during which a condom was used and, alternatively, using absolute number of unprotected sex acts. Results A total of 5384 people who were HSV-2 negative at baseline contributed 2,040,894 follow-up days. 415 persons acquired laboratory-documented HSV-2 during follow-up. Consistent (100%) condom users had a 30% lower risk of HSV-2 acquisition compared to those who never used condoms (hazard ratio: 0.70; 95 percent confidence interval: 0.40, 0.94; p = 0.01). Risk for HSV-2 acquisition increased steadily and significantly with each unprotected sex act (hazard ratio: 1.16; 95 percent confidence interval: 1.08, 1.25); p < 0.001). Condom effectiveness did not vary by gender. Conclusions This is the largest analysis using prospective data to assess the effect of condoms in preventing HSV-2 acquisition. Although the magnitude of protection was not as large as has been observed with other STIs, we found that condoms offer moderate protection against HSV-2 acquisition in men and women. PMID:19597073

  3. Egocentric Network and Condom Use Among Mid-Age Female Sex Workers in China: A Multilevel Modeling Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjie

    2016-04-01

    The epidemics of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have spread among older adults in the world, including China. This study addresses the deficiency of studies about the multiple contextual influences on condom use among mid-age female sex workers (FSWs) over 35 years old. A combination of an egocentric network design and multilevel modeling was used to investigate factors of condom use over mid-age FSWs (egos) particular relationships with sexual partners (alters). Of the 1245 mid-age FSWs interviewed, 73% (907) reported having at least one sexual partner who would provide social support to egos. This generated a total of 1300 ego-alter sex ties in egos' support networks. Condoms were consistently used among one-third of sex ties. At the ego level, condoms were more likely to be used consistently if egos received a middle school education or above, had stronger perceived behavioral control for condom use, or consistently used condoms with other sex clients who were not in their support networks. At the alter level, condoms were not consistently used over spousal ties compared to other ties. Condoms were less likely to be used among alters whom ego trusted and provided emotional support. Cross-level factors (egos' attitudes toward condom use and emotional support from alters) documented a significant positive interaction on consistent condom use. Given the low frequency of condom use, future interventions should focus on mid-age FSWs and their partners within and beyond their support networks. PMID:27028182

  4. Condom acquisition and preferences within a sample of sexually active gay and bisexual men in the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Yee, Leland J; Wilkin, Aimee M; Clarke, Thomas L; Wooldredge, Rich; Brown, Monica; Davis, A Bernard

    2007-11-01

    Health departments, community-based organizations (CBOs), and AIDS service organizations (ASOs) in the United States and abroad distribute large quantities of free condoms to sexually active individuals; however, little is known about where individuals who use condoms actually acquire them. This community-based participatory research (CBPR) study was designed to identify factors associated with the use of free condoms during most recent anal intercourse among self-identifying gay and bisexual men who reported condom use. Data were collected using targeted intercept interviewing during North Carolina Pride Festival events in Fall 2006, using the North Carolina Condom Acquisition and Preferences Assessment (NC-CAPA). Of the 606 participants who completed the assessment, 285 met the inclusion criteria. Mean age of participants was 33 (+/-10.8) years. The sample was predominantly white (80%), 50% reported being single or not dating anyone special, and 38% reported the use of free condoms during most recent anal intercourse. In multivariable analysis, participants who reported using free condoms during most recent anal sex were more likely to report increased age; dating someone special or being partnered; and having multiple male sexual partners in the past 3 months. These participants were less likely to report ever having had a sexually transmitted disease. Despite being in the third decade of the HIV epidemic, little is known about condom acquisition among, and condom preferences of, gay and bisexual men who use condoms. Although more research is needed, our findings illustrate the importance of free condom distribution. PMID:18240895

  5. HIV risk among young Ghanaians in high school: validation of a multidimensional attitude towards condom use scale

    PubMed Central

    Masa, Rainier D.; Chowa, Gina A.

    2014-01-01

    Condom use remains low among sexually active youth in sub-Saharan Africa. Theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that attitudes towards condom use are important predictors of actual condom use. However, few attempts have been made to systematically develop a valid scale that measures attitudes towards condom use among youth, particularly high school students in sub-Saharan Africa. Using the health belief model, we developed an instrument that measures such attitudes. We analysed survey data collected from 6252 Ghanaian junior high school students. We assessed construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis. Results indicate that attitudes towards condom use among young Ghanaians are best represented by a multidimensional construct. Young Ghanaians differentiate constructs related to perception of benefits and barriers to condom use, as well as perception of severity and susceptibility to HIV. This instrument offers a valid tool for assessing high school students' attitudes towards condom use and their HIV risk. PMID:25431514

  6. The female condom: a promising but unavailable method for Dominican sex workers, their clients, and their partners.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Marieke G; Pineda, Diana Lara; Grossman, Daniel; Sorhaindo, Annik; García, Sandra G

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence of the potential of the female condom as a method that effectively protects against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, and pregnancy, it is still not widely available. We conducted in-depth interviews with 18 sex workers, 15 male clients, and seven partners in the Dominican Republic to assess the acceptability of the female condom. The majority of the sex workers found the female condom acceptable and welcomed the option of a female-controlled method. Clients and partners of the sex workers were also positive about the female condom and, particularly with regard to pleasure; almost all preferred it to the male condom. These findings suggest that the female condom offers an acceptable option for protection against HIV, STIs, and pregnancy. The positive attitudes of women and men could be developed into messages in marketing campaigns for the female condom, targeting not only vulnerable groups but also the general population. PMID:23465398

  7. Female condoms scheduled to reach U.S. market this year.

    PubMed

    1991-08-01

    3 female condoms, or "vaginal pouches" as they are called by the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) are expected to be marketed in the US in 1991, the Bikini Condom from International Prophylactics Inc., Princeton NJ; Women's Choice from M.D. Personal Products, Hayward CA; and Reality from Wisconsin Pharmacal Co., Jackson, WI. The advantages of the female condoms are control for women over contraception and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), availability over the counter, no need for spermicides, thicker than male condoms with better barrier effectiveness and less breakage and slippage, and reported heightened sensation for women. The disadvantages are difficulty for inexperienced women to insert, unappealing appearance of part of device protruding from vagina, interference with foreplay, cost of $1.50-$2.40 each, few reports of vaginal irritation. The Bikini Condom looks like a G-string panty with a condom pouch that is automatically introduced into the vagina with coitus. Bikini had a breakage rate of 0.5%, compared to 1-2% for male condoms, an acceptance level of 56%, and can be used 5-10 times. It effectively blocked STDs and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). Women's Choice has a 2-inch diameter flexible ring that covers the introitus, and a thickened dome of latex resembling a diaphragm at the deep end, lubricated with silicone. 20% of women reported increased clitoral and labial sensation during use. It prevented transfer of semen acid phosphatase, and enzyme smaller than STDs and viruses. Reality condom is a polyurethane sheath with an inner ring similar to a diaphragm, but fitting more loosely, and an outer ring covering part of the vulva, all inserted with an applicator. It had a leakage rate of 0.6% compared to 3.5% for male condoms, and a slippage rate of 2.7% compared to 8.1% slippage and breakage of male condoms. 5% of users reported vaginal irritation. 65% of women and 80% of men liked Reality. Generally people in female condom trials either

  8. Open, closed, or in between: relationship configuration and condom use among men who use the internet to seek sex with men.

    PubMed

    Brady, Sonya S; Iantaffi, Alex; Galos, Dylan L; Rosser, B R Simon

    2013-05-01

    Nearly 70 % of HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM) are estimated to have contracted HIV from a main partner. We examine whether condom use varies by relationship configuration, including open relationships with and without cheating. 656 MSM in committed relationships were recruited through a sexually explicit social networking website. Of the 55 % of MSM who had anal sex with a non-main partner in the past 90 days, two-thirds did not use a condom. Adjusting for covariates, MSM in relationships characterized as open with cheating versus monogamous were more likely to have unprotected anal sex with both main and non-main partners. MSM who perceived that their partner played around or cheated were more likely to have unprotected anal sex with a non-main partner. Prevention messages should attempt to reduce cheating and increase personal responsibility for protecting partners from HIV. Messages should be tailored to reflect open and monogamous relationships. PMID:23008123

  9. Open, Closed, or In Between: Relationship Configuration and Condom Use among Men Who Use the Internet to Seek Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Sonya S.; Iantaffi, Alex; Galos, Dylan L.; Simon Rosser, B. R.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 70% of HIV+ MSM (men who have sex with men) are estimated to have contracted HIV from a main partner. We examine whether condom use varies by relationship configuration, including open relationships with and without cheating. 656 MSM in committed relationships were recruited through a sexually explicit social networking website. Of the 55% of MSM who had anal sex with a non-main partner in the past 90 days, two-thirds did not use a condom. Adjusting for covariates, MSM in relationships characterized as open with cheating versus monogamous were more likely to have unprotected anal sex with both main and non-main partners. MSM who perceived that their partner played around or cheated were more likely to have unprotected anal sex with a non-main partner. Prevention messages should attempt to reduce cheating and increase personal responsibility for protecting partners from HIV. Messages should be tailored to reflect open and monogamous relationships. PMID:23008123

  10. Inconsistent condom use by male clients during anal intercourse with occasional and regular female sex workers (FSWs): survey findings from southern states of India

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Shreena; Nagarajan, Karikalan; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Mainkar, Mandar K; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Yadav, Diwakar; Sen, Shrabanti; George, Bitra; Rachakulla, Harikumar; Subramanian, Thilakavathi; Paranjape, Ramesh S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Self-reported anal intercourse by female sex workers (FSWs) documented in recent studies from India range between 11.9% and 22%. However, comparable data on anal intercourse and condom use from male clients of FSWs is lacking. Using data from a bio-behavioural survey (2009–2010), we examined prevalence of anal intercourse, male clients’ self-reported inconsistent condom use during anal intercourse with FSWs, and correlates of this behaviour in India's high HIV prevalence southern states (Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu combined). Methods Using two-stage time location cluster sampling, we recruited 4803 clients of FSWs, ages 18–60 years, who had purchased sex from an FSW in the past month. After obtaining informed consent, respondents were interviewed and tested for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with inconsistent condom use during anal intercourse (in the past 6 months) with FSWs. Results Overall, 12.3% clients reported anal intercourse in the past 6 months, of whom 48.4% used condoms inconsistently. Clients of FSWs who were ages 26 years or older (AOR 2.68, p=0.032); employed as manual labourers (AOR 2.43, p=0.013); consumed alcohol (AOR 2.63, p=0.001); reported five or more sex acts with FSWs in the past month (AOR 2.53, p=0.031); and perceived themselves to be at higher risk for HIV (AOR 4.82, p=0.001) were more likely to inconsistently use condoms during anal intercourse. Conclusions The results suggest that sex workers and their clients commonly practice anal intercourse, but a relatively high proportion of clients do not consistently use condoms, leading to a greater risk of acquiring HIV and its further transmission to other male and female sexual partners. Given the multidirectional risk, safer sex communication on heterosexual anal intercourse must be incorporated into HIV prevention programmes. PMID

  11. Work-related violence and inconsistent condom use with non-paying partners among female sex workers in Adama City, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although reported condom use between female sex workers and their clients is high in Ethiopia, condom use with regular, non-paying partners remains low, posing a substantial risk of HIV infection to sex workers, their partners and the general population. Previous studies have identified the synergistic effects of substance abuse, violence and HIV risk, but few have examined these inter-relationships among female sex workers and their regular, non-paying partners. This study explored the associations between work-related violence, alcohol abuse and inconsistent condom use among establishment-based female sex workers and their regular, non-paying partners in Adama City, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 350 establishment-based female sex workers, aged 15–35, at 63 bars, hotels and nightclubs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the association between work-related violence and condom use with regular, non-paying partners, controlling for age, overall income, education and sex workers’ total number of sexual partners in the past week. Alcohol abuse was explored as an effect modifier. Results Respondents reported a high prevalence of work-related violence (59%) and alcohol abuse (51%). Work-related violence was statistically significantly associated with unprotected sex with regular, non-paying partners among those who abused alcohol (OR: 6.34, 95% CI: 2.43-16.56) and among those who did not (OR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.36-6.54). Alcohol abuse was not associated with inconsistent condom use within these partnerships, though it may strengthen the effect of work-related violence on unprotected sex. Conclusions Findings suggest violence against establishment-based female sex workers is associated with HIV risk within regular, non-paying partnerships. Qualitative work is needed to better understand the links between a violent work environment and condom use with regular, non-paying partners and how

  12. Context matters: The moderating role of bar context in the association between substance use during sex and condom use among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Wagner, Karla D.; Goodman, David; Semple, Shirley J.; Chavarin, Claudia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Tijuana is situated on Mexico’s northern border with the U.S., where sex work is quasi-legal. Whereas previous work has focused on the risk behaviors of female sex workers (FSWs), less is known about the risk behaviors of their male clients. Further, research has not examined structural factors as moderators of the association between substance use and condom use, including the contexts in which sex takes place. The purpose of the current study is to examine whether having sex with FSWs in a bar moderates the link between alcohol intoxication during sex and condom use. We recruited 375 male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico from San Diego, California and Tijuana. Using computer assisted interviewing, we surveyed participants on their alcohol use, condom use, and physical contexts of sex with FSWs in the past four months. Results showed that more frequent intoxication during sex with FSWs is associated with more unprotected sex, but only among clients having sex with FSWs in a bar context. Results point to potential reasons for inconsistent condom use with FSWs in this context, including lower risk perceptions of sex with FSWs in bars. Future research should examine structural factors that underlie clients’ risk behavior in bars in order to inform structural-level HIV prevention interventions. PMID:23640653

  13. Condom knowledge, history of use, and attitudes among chemically addicted populations.

    PubMed

    Kramer, T H; Mosely, J A; Rivera, A; Ottomanelli, G; Li, P W; Bihari, B

    1991-01-01

    The need for behavioral change of risky sexual practices has been of the highest priority since the onset of the AIDS epidemic. The major focus of education for safe sex has been emphasis on condom use. We surveyed 124 individuals applying to treatment for various chemical dependencies and 60 individuals applying for non-chemical-dependency medical treatment on various aspects of condom knowledge, history of use, and attitudes. Respondents reported that AIDS has motivated them to increase their use of condoms, however, only 13.9% always use them. Education is needed in the areas of increasing protection. Along with the use of a condom, the need for a reservoir tip and the risks associated with multiple sex partners should be stressed. PMID:1787548

  14. Condom use among immigrant Latino sexual minorities: multilevel analysis after respondent-driven sampling.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; McCoy, Thomas P

    2015-02-01

    This study explored correlates of condom use within a respondent-driven sample of 190 Spanish-speaking immigrant Latino sexual minorities, including gay and bisexual men, other men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender person, in North Carolina. Five analytic approaches for modeling data collected using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) were compared. Across most approaches, knowledge of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and increased condom use self-efficacy predicted consistent condom use and increased homophobia predicted decreased consistent condom use. The same correlates were not significant in all analyses but were consistent in most. Clustering due to recruitment chains was low, while clustering due to recruiter was substantial. This highlights the importance accounting for clustering when analyzing RDS data. PMID:25646728

  15. Stages of change and condom use among an Internet sample of gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Gullette, Donna L; Turner, Joan G

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive correlational study using the transtheoretical model was to determine the relationship between stages of change and condom use among gay and bisexual men with primary (steady) and casual (occasional) partners. A convenience sample of 241 gay and bisexual men was recruited from the Internet. The majority of men (n = 198, 82%) never used condoms during anal, vaginal, or oral intercourse with primary partners, indicating they were in the first of five stages of change (precontemplation). Thirty percent (n = 71) of men reported using condoms every time during anal intercourse with casual partners and were in the last stage of change (maintenance). Multiple regression analysis revealed that older bisexual men who informed partners of their HIV status and who were confident and perceived more advantages in using condoms were in higher stages of change. By placing participants into various stages of change, stage specific interventions can be designed. PMID:15090131

  16. Condom Use among Immigrant Latino Sexual Minorities: Multilevel Analysis after Respondent-Driven Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; McCoy, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored correlates of condom use within a respondent-driven sample of 190 Spanish-speaking immigrant Latino sexual minorities, including gay and bisexual men, other men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender person, in North Carolina. Five analytic approaches for modeling data collected using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) were compared. Across most approaches, knowledge of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and increased condom use self-efficacy predicted consistent condom use and increased homophobia predicted decreased consistent condom use. The same correlates were not significant in all analyses but were consistent in most. Clustering due to recruitment chains was low, while clustering due to recruiter was substantial. This highlights the importance accounting for clustering when analyzing RDS data. PMID:25646728

  17. Condom Use Falls When Teen Girls Opt for IUDs Vs. the Pill

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_157762.html Condom Use Falls When Teen Girls Opt for IUDs vs. The Pill Experts ... a related editorial. "Dual protection for sexually active adolescents should be encouraged, so that adolescents are not ...

  18. Is pornography consumption associated with condom use and intoxication during hookups?

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Scott R; Givens, Anneli; Brown, Jacob; Fincham, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine whether pornography consumption is associated with risky sexual behaviour among emerging adults, we examined two large samples of those who reported hooking up in the past 12 months (combined n =  1216). Pornography use was associated with a higher likelihood of having a penetrative hookup; a higher incidence of intoxication during hookups for men (but a lower incidence of intoxication during hookups for women); increasing levels of intoxication during hookups for men but decreasing levels of intoxication for women; and a higher likelihood of being in the riskiest category of having a penetrative hookup, without a condom, while intoxicated. For each of these outcomes, our point estimates for Study 2 fell within the 95% confidence intervals from Study 1. Controlling for trait self-control, binge drinking frequency, broader problematic patterns of alcohol use, openness to experience, and attitudes toward casual sex did not change the pattern of results. Implications for interventions to reduce sexual risk are discussed. PMID:26043841

  19. Fibroepithelial polyp of the prepuce: A rare complication of long-term condom catheter usage

    PubMed Central

    Banerji, John S.; Shah, Sanjeev; Kekre, Nitin S.

    2008-01-01

    External urinary drainage devices are in wide clinical uses. There are only a few reports of complications from improper use of condom catheters. We present a case of fibroepithelial polyp of the penis, due to long-term usage of condom catheter. The lesion affected the ventral aspect of the penis. He was successfully treated with wide local excision. The histopathological diagnosis was a fibroepithelial polyp. PMID:19468410

  20. Do natural rubber latex condoms pose a risk to aquatic systems?

    PubMed

    Lambert, Scott; Johnson, Catherine; Keller, Virginie D J; Sinclair, Chris J; Williams, Richard J; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2013-12-01

    The presence and potential adverse effects of plastic-polymers in the environment are receiving increasing attention in the popular and scientific press. However, quantifying emissions, exposure and effects of these materials remains a challenge. This paper describes the application of a questionnaire survey to quantify emissions of condom material from the domestic household to the sewage waste stream. Condoms are an important mainstay for birth control and the reduction of sexually transmitted infections. Survey participants were estimated to flush condoms down the toilet 2.96% of the time, and emissions were calculated as 0.99 mg of condom material per person per day. Using information on screening efficiencies at sewage treatment plants, the questionnaire data was combined with a GIS-based water quality model (LF2000-WQX) to predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) in a UK river basin catchment. Annual average PECs of condom material were 0.08-0.2 μg L(-1), under the model scenario used. To put these PECs into context, rubber latex condom material was degraded in outdoor microcosms. This resulted in the formation of a complex mixture of substances including chemical degradation products and particles in the nano range. The direct effects of the degradation mixture were investigated using two freshwater organisms with different life cycle traits, the water column crustacean Daphnia magna and the sediment-dwelling larval of Chironomus riparius. Ecotoxicity tests investigated both acute and chronic endpoints and were shown to exhibit no toxic effects. This precluded the derivation of a genuine no-effect concentration. Hence, the results suggest that limited risk to invertebrates is associated with latex condom degradation products to the organisms tested. Future studies should extend this risk framework to assess risks of condoms to other taxonomic groups as well as the risks of other polymer materials. PMID:24162606

  1. Consumer preference study of the female condom in a sexually active population at risk of contracting AIDS.

    PubMed

    Sakondhavat, C; Weeravatrakul, Y; Benette, T; Pinitsoontorn, P; Kuchaisit, C; Kukieattikool, P; Pongsatra, K

    2001-07-01

    To determine the acceptability of the female condom among commercial sex workers in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Twenty sex workers from a massage parlor and 21 from a brothel were trained in the use of the female condom. The voluntary participants were instructed about the risk of HIV and advised that they could use the female condom as an alternative method to the male condom for protection. The female condom was used in 28.4 per cent and 17.8 per cent episodes of sex in each site during the two weeks. Continuation of use of the female condom increased from 0 per cent in the first group to 43 per cent in the second group. The reasons for discontinuing its use were that it was inconvenient and because of their partners' objection. More users said they liked the female condom even though more thought it was difficult to insert and it did cause pain. However, they would recommend it to others and most felt that other women would want to try it. The participants also saw the advantage of the female condom as a back-up method in case of clients' refusal to use the male condom but all prefered the male condom if there was a choice. PMID:11759978

  2. Short-Term Acceptability of the Woman's Condom among Married Couples in Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junqing; Huang, Zirong

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Woman's Condom, a second-generation female condom designed for acceptability, is poised for introduction in China. Method. This single-arm study was conducted among 60 couples in China in 2010 to assess acceptability of the Woman's Condom. Results. Male participants reported that ease of handling, inserting, and removing the device improved significantly from first to fourth use. Female and male participants reported that comfort during insertion, feel of lubricant during insertion, comfort/fit of outer ring during use, and overall comfort improved significantly from first to fourth use. Further, at fourth use, female participants reported significant improvement in the comfort of the feel of the condom material and lubricant. Female and male participants reported that satisfaction with stability and sensation during sex and ability to achieve orgasm improved significantly from first to fourth use. At fourth use, female participants reported statistically significant improvement in sensation compared to using nothing. A majority of participants (78%) stated that they would use the Woman's Condom in the future, primarily due to its dual protection profile. Conclusion. This study has shown that, in China, the Woman's Condom appears to be acceptable to married couples. User experience contributes to improvement in many aspects of device acceptability. PMID:27547481

  3. Sex workers, condoms, and mobility among men in Uzbekistan: implications for HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Smolak, Alex; El-Bassel, Nabila; Malin, Anne; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Samatova, Salkynai

    2016-03-01

    Uzbekistan has one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in the world. In this study, men who reported mobility were compared to non-mobile men in regard to paying for sex and condom use during paid sex. The sample included 2333 men between the ages of 15 and 59 in Uzbekistan. Generalised linear models were used to assess the relationship between mobility, paid sex, and condom use while adjusting for possible confounders. Of the total sample, 103 (4.4%) reported engaging in paid sex and 43 (42%) reported using condoms while engaging in paid sex. Mobile men were found to have more than three times the odds of paid sex than non-mobile men (OR: 3.209; 95% CI: 2.481, 4.150; p < 0.001). Mobile men were not significantly different from non-mobile men in terms of condom use; however, unmarried men were found to have six times the odds of not using a condom when compared to married men during paid sex (OR: 6.411; 95% CI: 2.502, 16.425; p = 0.004). Only one of the men who reported paid sex also reported using a condom with their spouses at last intercourse. The findings contribute to understanding mobility and HIV risk, and have important implications for HIV prevention interventions. PMID:25838298

  4. Self-objectification and condom use self-efficacy in women university students.

    PubMed

    Parent, Mike C; Moradi, Bonnie

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the roles of indicators of the self-objectification process in women's condom use self-efficacy. Data were collected from 595 college women. Self-objectification variables were assessed with measures of internalization of cultural standards of beauty, body surveillance, and body shame. Participants also completed measures of perceived control over sexual activity, acceptance of sexuality, and condom use self-efficacy. Measurement and structural invariance were supported, indicating that the measurement model and hypothesized structural model did not differ across participants who were or were not sexually active. Structural equation modeling results were consistent with hypotheses and prior evidence indicating that body surveillance partially mediated the link between internalization of cultural standards of beauty and body shame. Results also indicated that body shame was associated with lower condom use self-efficacy both directly and indirectly through the partial mediation of perceived control over sexual activity; acceptance of sexuality was not a significant mediator of this link but was associated directly with greater condom use self-efficacy. These results connect the substantial literature on the self-objectification process with women's condom use self-efficacy. Specifically, these results point to interrupting the self-objectification process and reducing body shame as well as to enhancing acceptance of sexuality and control over sexual activity as potentially fruitful targets for interventions to promote women's condom use self-efficacy. PMID:25304902

  5. Negative perceptions about condom use in a clinic population: comparisons by gender, race and age.

    PubMed

    Crosby, R; Shrier, L A; Charnigo, R; Sanders, S A; Graham, C A; Milhausen, R; Yarber, W L

    2013-02-01

    We sought to elucidate the associations of 13 items assessing negative perceptions about condom use with gender, age and race in a sample of clinic attendees. Patients from four clinics, in three US cities, were recruited (N = 928). Data were collected using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing. The primary measure was a 13-item adapted version of the Condom Barriers Scale. Logistic regression and chi-square tests were employed to relate the 13 items to gender, age and race. Gender, race and age all had significant associations with negative perceptions of condoms and their use. A primary finding was a large number of significant differences between men and women, with negative perceptions more common among women than among men. For African Americans, especially women, negative perceptions were more common among older participants than among younger participants. In conclusion, important demographic differences regarding negative perceptions may inform the tailoring of intervention efforts that seek to rectify negative perceptions about condoms and thus promote condom use among individuals at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the USA. On the other hand, our findings also suggest that the majority of STI clinic attendees may hold positive perceptions about condoms and their use; maintaining and building upon these positive perceptions via education, counselling, and access is also important. PMID:23467292

  6. Video-based sexually transmitted disease patient education: its impact on condom acquisition.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, L N; Doval, A S; Duran, R; O'Donnell, C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study assessed the impact of video-based educational interventions on condom acquisition among men and women seeking services at a large sexually transmitted disease clinic in the South Bronx, New York. METHODS. During 1992, 3348 African American and Hispanic patients were enrolled in a clinical trial of video-based interventions designed to promote safer sex behaviors, including increased condom use. Patients were assigned to one of three groups: control, video, or video plus interactive group discussion. Subjects were given a coupon to redeem for free condoms at a pharmacy several blocks from the clinic. Rates of condom acquisition were assessed by level of intervention. RESULTS. In comparison with a control group, subjects who viewed videos were significantly more likely to redeem coupons for condoms (21.2% redemption rate vs 27.6%). However, participation in interactive sessions after video viewing augmented the positive effects of video viewing alone (27.6% redemption rate vs 36.9%). Gender and ethnicity were significantly associated with outcomes. CONCLUSIONS. The condom acquisition are almost doubled with the use of culturally appropriate, video-based interventions. Designed to present minimal disruption to clinical services, these interventions can be implemented in clinics servicing at-risk men and women. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:7762716

  7. Effect of an STD/HIV Behavioral Intervention on Women's Use of the Female Condom

    PubMed Central

    Van Devanter, Nancy; Gonzales, Virginia; Merzel, Cheryl; Parikh, Nina S.; Celantano, David; Greenberg, Judith

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study assessed the effectiveness of a sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV behavior change intervention in increasing women's use of the female condom. Methods. A total of 604 women at high risk for STDs and HIV in New York City, Baltimore, Md, and Seattle, Wash, enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a small-group, skills-training intervention that included information and skills training in the use of the female condom. Results. In a logistic regression, the strongest predictors of use were exposure to the intervention (odds ratio [OR] = 5.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.8, 10.7), intention to use the female condom in the future (OR = 4.5; 95% CI = 2.4, 8.5), having asked a partner to use a condom in the past 30 days (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3, 3.9), and confidence in asking a partner to use a condom (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.1, 3.5). Conclusions. Clinicians counseling women in the use of the female condom need to provide information, demonstrate its correct use with their clients, and provide an opportunity for their clients to practice skills themselves. PMID:11772772

  8. Using the Internet and social media to promote condom use in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Christopher H

    2011-05-01

    Condoms are an important contraceptive method in Turkey, used by one in three couples using modern methods. However, withdrawal remains the most common form of contraception, resulting in many unwanted pregnancies. To address this issue and increase condom use in Turkey, DKT International, a social marketing enterprise, leveraged the high use of the Internet and social networking to help build Fiesta, a premium condom brand, and promote sales and condom use. By utilising a wide range of digital platforms--a new website, Facebook page, Google Adwords, an e-newsletter, viral marketing, banner ads and involving bloggers--Fiesta achieved strong recognition among the target audience of sexually active young people, though far more men than women. Retail audits, Internet analysis and sales performance suggest that using the Internet was instrumental in establishing Fiesta. Sales reached 4.3 million condoms (of which 8% were sold online) in the first 18 months. In contrast, Kiss, a far more inexpensive DKT condom, launched at the same time but with no digital campaign, sold 2.6 million. With the growing availability and use of the Internet and social media globally, family planning organizations should consider incorporating these technologies into their educational, outreach and marketing programmes. PMID:21555096

  9. The acceptability of the female condom among substance-using women in Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Klein, H; Eber, M; Crosby, H; Welka, D A; Hoffman, J A

    1999-01-01

    This research is based on structured interviews, semi-structured interviews, and informal firsthand observation of women residents of Washington, DC who used crack and/or injected drugs during the previous 30 days. The study entailed introducing these women to the female condom, exposing them to an HIV risk reduction intervention teaching them how to use it and how to negotiate its use with their sexual partner(s). Women were tested for HIV and asked to return one week later for their results. They were asked to try the female condom within that first week. Upon returning for their tests results, ethnographers discussed with them their experiences with the female condom. They were reinterviewed for follow-up three months later to assess changes in behavior from baseline as well as their longer term experiences with and opinions of the female condom. The data presented in this paper are based on the interviews conducted one week after baseline. Of particular interest and concern to this research were: women's perceptions of the female condom prior to and subsequent to using it, women's partners' perceptions of the female condom after being introduced to it, and potential barriers to use. In all, 131 women, mostly African-American, took part in this study, which was conducted during the winter of 1997-1998. PMID:10466513

  10. Short-Term Acceptability of the Woman's Condom among Married Couples in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junqing; Huang, Zirong; Coffey, Patricia S; Kilbourne-Brook, Maggie

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Woman's Condom, a second-generation female condom designed for acceptability, is poised for introduction in China. Method. This single-arm study was conducted among 60 couples in China in 2010 to assess acceptability of the Woman's Condom. Results. Male participants reported that ease of handling, inserting, and removing the device improved significantly from first to fourth use. Female and male participants reported that comfort during insertion, feel of lubricant during insertion, comfort/fit of outer ring during use, and overall comfort improved significantly from first to fourth use. Further, at fourth use, female participants reported significant improvement in the comfort of the feel of the condom material and lubricant. Female and male participants reported that satisfaction with stability and sensation during sex and ability to achieve orgasm improved significantly from first to fourth use. At fourth use, female participants reported statistically significant improvement in sensation compared to using nothing. A majority of participants (78%) stated that they would use the Woman's Condom in the future, primarily due to its dual protection profile. Conclusion. This study has shown that, in China, the Woman's Condom appears to be acceptable to married couples. User experience contributes to improvement in many aspects of device acceptability. PMID:27547481

  11. Examination of coating failure by acoustic emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Christopher C.

    1985-01-01

    Coatings of NiCrAlY bond coat with a zirconia - 12 wt percent yttria overlay were applied to disc-shaped specimens of U-700 alloy. A waveguide of 1 mm diameter platinum was TIG welded to the specimen and allowed it to be suspended in a tubular furnace. The specimen was thermally cycled to 1150 C, and the acoustic emission (AE) monitored. The weight gain per thermal cycle was also measured. A computer system based on the IBM-XT microcomputer was used extensively to acquire the AE data with respect to temperature. This system also controlled the temperature by using a PD software loop. Several different types of AE analyses were performed. A major feature of these tests, not addressed by previous work in this area, was that the coatings covered 100 percent of the specimen and also that the AE was amplified at two different levels. It is believed that this latter feature allows a qualitative appraisal of the relative number of cracks per AE event. The difference in AE counts between the two channels is proportional to the number of cracks per AE event, and this parameter may be thought of as the crack density. The ratio of the AE count difference to the AE count magnitude of one channel is inversely proportional to the crack growth. Both of these parameters allow the crack distribution and crack growth within each specimen to be qualitatively followed during the thermal cycling operation. Recent results which used these principles will be presented.

  12. A total market approach for condoms in Myanmar: the need for the private, public and socially marketed sectors to work together for a sustainable condom market for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Longfield, Kim; Mundy, Gary; Win, Zaw; Montagu, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Background Concerns about appropriate pricing strategies and the high market share of subsidized condoms prompted Population Services International (PSI)/Myanmar to adopt a total market approach (TMA). This article presents data on the size and composition of the Myanmar condom market, identifies inefficiencies and recommends methods for better targeting public subsidy. Methodology Data on condom need and condom use came from PSI/Myanmar’s (PSI/M’s) behavioural surveys; data for key populations’ socioeconomic status profiles came from the same surveys and the National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey. Data on market share, volumes, value and number of condoms were from PSI/M’s quarterly retail audits and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Results Between 2008 and 2010, the universal need for condoms decreased from 112.9 to 98.2 million while condom use increased from 32 to 46%. Free and socially marketed condoms dominated the market (94%) in 2009–11 with an increase in the proportion of free condoms over time. The retail price of socially marketed condoms was artificially low at 44 kyats ($0.05 USD) in 2011 while the price for commercial condoms was 119–399 kyats ($0.15–$0.49 USD). Equity analyses demonstrated an equal distribution of female sex workers across national wealth quintiles, but 54% of men who have sex with men and 55% of male clients were in the highest two quintiles. Donor subsidies for condoms increased over time; from $434 000 USD in 2009 to $577 000 USD in 2011. Conclusion The market for male condoms was stagnant in Myanmar due to: limited demand for condoms among key populations, the dominance of free and socially marketed condoms on the market and a neglected commercial sector. Subsidies for socially marketed and free condoms have prevented the growth of the private sector, an unintended consequence. A TMA is needed to grow and sustain the condom market in Myanmar, which requires close co-ordination between the

  13. Social Dominance Orientation Relates to Believing Men Should Dominate Sexually, Sexual Self-Efficacy, and Taking Free Female Condoms Among Undergraduate Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Sheri R.; Earnshaw, Valerie A.

    2014-01-01

    Gendered-based power affects heterosexual relationships, with beliefs in the U.S. prescribing that men dominate women sexually. We draw on social dominance theory to examine whether women’s and men’s level of support for group-based hierarchy (i.e., social dominance orientation; SDO) helps explain gender-based power beliefs and dynamics in heterosexual relationships. We conducted a laboratory study at a Northeastern U.S. university among 357 women and 126 men undergraduates who reported being heterosexual and sexually active, testing three sets of hypotheses. First, as hypothesized, women endorsed SDO and the belief that men should dominate sexually less than men did. Second, as hypothesized, among women and men, SDO was positively correlated with the belief that men should dominate sexually, and negatively correlated with sexual self-efficacy (confidence in sexual situations) and number of female condoms (a woman-controlled source of protection) taken. Third, structural equation modeling, controlling for age, family income, number of sexual partners in the past month, and perceived HIV/AIDS risk, supported the hypothesis that among women and men, the belief that men should dominate sexually mediates SDO’s association with sexual self-efficacy. The hypothesis that the belief that men should dominate sexually mediates SDO’s association with number of female condoms taken was supported for women only. The hypothesis that sexual self-efficacy mediates SDO’s association with number of female condoms taken was not supported. Results suggest SDO influences power beliefs and dynamics in heterosexual relationships. Although female condoms are an important woman-controlled source of protection, power-related beliefs may pose a challenge to their use. PMID:24482555

  14. Productive Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapur, Manu

    2008-01-01

    This study demonstrates an existence proof for "productive failure": engaging students in solving complex, ill-structured problems without the provision of support structures can be a productive exercise in failure. In a computer-supported collaborative learning setting, eleventh-grade science students were randomly assigned to one of two…

  15. How Parents Explain Academic Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conti, Michael

    This study examined the factors to which parents attribute their children's academic failure. Participating in the research were 13 parents, all living in Malta. About half of the parents' 41 children (ranging in age from 6 to 17 years) had experienced failure in school examinations. Almost all the parents were from a low socioeconomic background.…

  16. Structure and agency in long-distance truck drivers' lived experiences of condom use for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Sastry, Shaunak

    2016-01-01

    Condom promotion has emerged as a mainstay of targeted HIV prevention interventions in India, with its emphasis on individual behaviour change and personal responsibility. However, such approaches often do not account for marginalised populations' structural vulnerability to HIV, arising from social, economic and political factors in the lived environment. In this paper, I use a critical health communication framework to analyse how structure and agency interact in influencing condom use among long-distance truck drivers in India. Drawing on an abductive discourse analysis of condom-use discourses among truckers and peer educators in two Indian cities, findings reveal that while truckers understand the biomedical logic of condoms as barriers, they also express anxiety about condom breakage and experience structural barriers to condom use. The paper concludes by calling for greater attention to structural vulnerabilities in future HIV prevention efforts with truck drivers. PMID:26490032

  17. Sex Partner Type, Drug Use and Condom Use Self-Efficacy Among African Americans from Disadvantaged Neighborhoods: Are Associations with Consistent Condom Use Moderated by Gender?

    PubMed

    Nehl, Eric J; Elifson, Kirk; DePadilla, Lara; Sterk, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Gender inequalities in sexual behavior are explored from the perspective of the theory of gender and power. This study focused on the effect of sex partner type (steady versus casual), drug use, and condom use self-efficacy regarding consistent condom use (CCU) among a community-based sample of adults. The sample included 1,357 African American men and women (M age 37.0, SD 13.1 years; 44% women, 66% men) from 61 disadvantaged census block groups in Atlanta, GA as part of a study of individual and neighborhood characteristics and HIV risk-taking. Having a steady partner decreased the odds of CCU, while higher condom use self-efficacy increased the odds of CCU. Among non-drug users, having a drug-using partner was associated with decreased odds of condom use for women only. Women with drug-using partners, especially a steady partner, were least likely to report CCU. Therefore, interventions intended to empower CCU among women need to expand beyond acknowledging the reduced control that women who use drugs demonstrate to also consider those who have drug-using sexual partners. PMID:26580813

  18. Fertility intentions, power relations and condom use within intimate and other non-paying partnerships of women in sex work in Bagalkot District, South India.

    PubMed

    Deering, Kathleen N; Shaw, Souradet Y; Thompson, Laura H; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Raghavendra, T; Doddamane, Mahesh; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Moses, Stephen; Lorway, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to: (1) examine the relationship between interpersonal as well as social-demographic, cultural and structural factors, and condom non-use by sex workers' main intimate or other non-paying male sex partners (NPPs), as reported by a sample of sex workers (SWs); and (2) understand HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) risk (e.g., numbers of sexual partners; condom use with different partners) among couples comprised of a sub-set of SWs and their NPPs. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with condom non-use at last sex by the main NPP, as reported by SWs. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals are reported (AOR[95%CIs]). Data were drawn from cross-sectional surveys in Bagalkot District, Karnataka State, South India. Responses by SWs whose main NPPs agreed to enrol in the study and the main NPP enroled were linked; these responses by couples (pairs of SWs and NPPs) were examined to assess sexual risk for HIV/STIs. Overall, this study included 257 SWs and 76 NPPs. The data from 67 couples (88.2%) could be linked. In over a quarter of partnerships, at least one (SW or NPP) partner reported having another type of partner besides each other (and clients of SWs). In multivariable analysis, significantly increased odds of condom non-use at last sex with the main NPP were found for the following key factors: planning to have a child with their main NPP (AOR = 3.71[1.44-9.58]); and having decisions about condom use made by their main NPP (AOR = 9.87[4.03-24.16]) or both equally (AOR = 3.18[1.39-7.80]) (versus by the SWs herself). Our study highlights the potential risk for HIV/STI acquisition and transmission between NPPs and SWs, and between NPPs and their non-SWs wives and other sex partners. Study results underscore the need for HIV/STI prevention approaches that incorporate informed decision-making about childbearing and parenting, and empowerment strategies for SWs in the

  19. Inconsistent Condom Use among Public Primary Care Patients with Tuberculosis in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Matseke, Gladys; Peltzer, Karl; Louw, Julia; Naidoo, Pamela; Mchunu, Gugu; Tutshana, Bomkazi

    2012-01-01

    The high rate of HIV infections among tuberculosis (TB) patients in South Africa calls for urgent HIV reduction interventions in this subpopulation. While correct and consistent condom use is one of the effective means of HIV prevention among sexually active people, there is insufficient research on condom use among TB patients in South Africa. The aim of this paper was to determine the prevalence of inconsistent condom use among public primary care TB patients and its associated factors using a sample of 4900 TB patients from a cross-sectional survey in three health districts in South Africa. Results indicated that when asked about their consistency of condom use in the past 3 months, 63.5% of the participants reported that they did not always use condoms. In the multivariable analysis, being married (OR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.25–2.20) or cohabitating or separated, divorced, or widowed (OR = 3.67; 1.85–7.29), lower educational level (OR = 0.66; 0.46–0.94), greater poverty (OR = 1.60; 1.25–2.20), not having HIV status disclosed (OR = 0.34; 0.25–0.48), sexual partner on antiretroviral treatment (OR = 0.38; 0.23–0.60), and partner alcohol use before sex (OR = 1.56; 1.30–1.90) were significantly associated with inconsistent condom use in the past 3 months. The low proportion of consistent condom use among TB patients needs to be improved. PMID:22919329

  20. Determinants of risky sexual behavior and condom use among college students in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xinying; Liu, Xiaona; Shi, Yuhui; Wang, Yanling; Wang, Peiyu; Chang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess sexual behavior and condom use among Chinese college students, and to explore social-environmental and social-cognitive determinants associated with risky sexual behaviors within this population. A survey was conducted among 19,123 Chinese college students recruited through stratified cluster sampling. About 9% of the students reported having had sex (male=13.3%, female=5.0%, OR=2.918), 3.6% had multiple sexual partners (male=5.7%, female=1.6%, OR=3.624), and 0.9% had commercialized sex (male=1.6%, female=0.3%, OR=6.169). Only 24.8% of sexually active students had used a condom for every sexual encounter, and there was no significant difference in condom use between male students and female students. Logistic regression showed that sex (female, OR=0.769), age (older, OR=1.263), exposure to pornographic information (higher, OR=1.751), drinking (intoxication, OR=1.437), and smoking (OR=2.123-5.112) were all determinants of sexual behaviors. Path analysis showed that exposure to pornographic information, level of consumption, and sex education were important social-environmental factors of condom use. Condom use was more common among those who had greater HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes toward high-risk behavior, self-efficacy, and intent to use a condom. Intentions were the most important and direct factor influencing condom use. The study concluded that college students are vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases - including HIV/AIDS infection - through sexual contact. Therefore, future HIV/AIDS prevention and safer sex interventions should focus on self-protection skills and target behavior change. PMID:23252705

  1. Characterizing the Individual, Social, and Structural Determinants of Condom Use Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Brown, Carolyn Adele; Grosso, Ashley Lynn; Adams, Darrin; Sithole, Bhekie; Ketende, Sosthenes; Greene, Jessica; Maziya, Sibusiso; Mnisi, Zandile; Mabuza, Xolile; Baral, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Within the broadly generalized HIV epidemic in Swaziland, men who have sex with men (MSM) have specific HIV acquisition and transmission risks. In the current era of expanding antiretroviral therapy-based prevention and treatment approaches, condom use remains a core component of mitigating these risks. A cross-sectional study characterizing the vulnerabilities for HIV among MSM in Swaziland was analyzed to describe factors associated with condom use at last sex with a male partner. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess correlates of condom use at last sex with both casual and regular male partners. Disclosure of sexual practices to a healthcare provider and being able to count on other MSM to support condom use were significantly associated with condom use at last sex with a causal and a regular partner, respectively. Reporting difficulty insisting on condom use was inversely associated with condom use at last sex with both regular and casual partners. In addition, having faced legal discrimination was similarly inversely associated with condom use at last sex with a regular partner. Condom use among MSM in Swaziland may increase with improved partner communication, provider sensitization to encourage sexual disclosure, and the promotion of safer sex norms within MSM communities. These approaches, in combination with existing and emerging evidence of informed and human rights affirming prevention and HIV treatment approaches may reduce the incidence of HIV among MSM in Swaziland and all those in their sexual networks. PMID:26651122

  2. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... together. About Rise Above HF Rise Above Heart Failure seeks to increase the dialogue about HF and improve the lives of people affected by the condition through awareness, education and support. Through the initiative, AHA strives to ...

  3. Testicular failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood tests may show a low level of testosterone and high levels of prolactin, FSH , and LH . ... testes will be ordered. Testicular failure and low testosterone level may be hard to diagnose in older ...

  4. Everyday Attention Failures: An Individual Differences Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational…

  5. Individual-Level, Partnership-Level, and Sexual Event-Level Predictors of Condom Use During Receptive Anal Intercourse Among HIV-Negative Men Who Have Sex with Men in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Pines, Heather A; Gorbach, Pamina M; Weiss, Robert E; Reback, Cathy J; Landovitz, Raphael J; Mutchler, Matt G; Mitsuyasu, Ronald T

    2016-06-01

    We examined individual-level, partnership-level, and sexual event-level factors associated with condom use during receptive anal intercourse (RAI) among 163 low-income, racially/ethnically diverse, HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Los Angeles (2007-2010). At baseline, 3-month, and 12-month visits, computer-assisted self-interviews collected information on ≤3 recent male partners and the last sexual event with those partners. Factors associated with condom use during RAI at the last sexual event were identified using logistic generalized linear mixed models. Condom use during RAI was negatively associated with reporting ≥ high school education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.32, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.96) and methamphetamine use, specifically during RAI events with non-main partners (AOR = 0.20, 95 % CI 0.07-0.53) and those that included lubricant use (AOR = 0.20, 95 % CI 0.08-0.53). Condom use during RAI varies according to individual-level, partnership-level, and sexual event-level factors that should be considered in the development of risk reduction strategies for this population. PMID:26471884

  6. Evaluation of a targeted AIDS prevention intervention to increase condom use among prostitutes in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Asamoah-Adu, A; Weir, S; Pappoe, M; Kanlisi, N; Neequaye, A; Lamptey, P

    1994-02-01

    Findings of a prospective study of condom use among prostitutes in Ghana provided support for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention educational interventions with this high risk populating and evidence of informal program diffusion. 382 self-identified prostitutes voluntarily entered the study in three waves (a pilot group of 72 recruited in June 1987, another 176 prostitutes who were admitted at their request in January 1988, and 106 who entered in September 1991). From this group, selected prostitutes were trained to educate their peers about AIDS risk factors through meetings and printed materials and to distribute free condoms. Self-reported condom use in 1991 was correlated with contact with these peer educators. During the 6-month pilot study, the proportion of prostitutes who always used condom increased from 6% at baseline to 71%. 48% of prostitutes entering the study in January 1988 were already always using condoms, suggesting a diffusion effect. In 1991, consistent condom use was reported by 56% of women from the pilot group available for follow-up and 66% of those interviewed from the 1988 wave; however, these rates were not appreciably higher than the 55% rate reported at baseline by the 1991 wave of recruits. (This convergence is assumed to reflect both suspension of the educational program in 1988-91 and increased social acceptance of condom use given the spread of AIDS.) Of the 107 women from the pilot and expanded groups available for interview in 1991, 24% identified peer outreach workers as their source of AIDS information. Women who had contact with staff were 2.63 times more likely than non-exposed women to report consistent condom use. The interaction model revealed that women who maintained contact with project staff were 3.17 times more likely to be consistent users, those who knew that healthy appearing men could transmit AIDS were 2.68 times more likely to fall into this use category, and prostitutes who had clients who

  7. Concordant and Discordant Reports on Shared Sexual Behaviors and Condom Use Among African American Serodiscordant Couples in Four Cities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the concordance of reported shared sexual behaviors, including condom use, among 535 heterosexual, African American, serodiscordant couples and identifies factors that might predict discordant reports. Percentages of agreement, Kappa and McNemar’s statistics and conditional probability indices are used to measure concordance. Logistic regression models identify predictors of couples’ discordant sexual reports. Analyses revealed Kappa statistics for reporting anal sex, fellatio and cunnilingus indicated moderate to substantial agreement. The effects of demographics and the couples’ relationship contexts on concordance of reported sexual behaviors were found to vary somewhat by gender and type of sexual behavior. Findings showed that concordance of reporting between the couples was consistent for the past 90 and 30 days. Findings from this paper provide new scientific insights into the knowledge base of self-reported couples’ data and suggest that these data can be used to evaluate their accuracy and serve as a proxy for validity. PMID:20499151

  8. Validity and reliability in reporting sexual partners and condom use in a Swiss population survey.

    PubMed

    Jeannin, A; Konings, E; Dubois-Arber, F; Landert, C; Van Melle, G

    1998-02-01

    To monitor the impact of its AIDS prevention efforts, Switzerland conducts an annual telephone survey about AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and preventive behavior in the general population aged 17-45 years. Based upon a test-retest study with additional focused interviews conducted upon a subsample of 138 respondents aged 17-22, the authors report their findings from an investigation of the validity and reliability of indicators of sexual behavior and condom use in those surveys. The initial survey sample was comprised of 2800 respondents aged 17-45 in October 1992. The subsample included more French-speaking respondents and more people in stable relationships than did the initial sample. Survey indicators are the number of lifetime sex partners, casual sex during lifetime and number of casual sex partners during the preceding 6 months, condom use with casual partners during the past 6 months, the acquisition of a new steady partner during the year, condom use with that partner, age at first intercourse, and condom use at last intercourse. These indicators were determined to be highly reliable, although more research is needed on the validity of the data. Among sexually active respondents, 12.5% of the men and 1.9% of women included nonpenetrative sex in their definitions of sexual intercourse. Furthermore, 40% of the 15 respondents who reported consistent condom use with casual sex partners at the initial interview later admitted at reinterview that they sometimes have unprotected sex. PMID:9556172

  9. Correlates of condom use among chinese college students in hunan province.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhiwen

    2012-10-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to test an integrated model of condom use with a sample of 490 sexually active Chinese college students. A number of variables in the integrated model were predictors of condom use, explaining 33.4% of the variance in use. Partner communication was the strongest predictors (β = .317, SE = .038, p < .001). Self-efficacy (β = .252, SE = .076, p < .001), positive attitudes (β = .150, SE = .060, p < .001), and social norms (β = .207, SE = .080, p < .001) were also significant predictors of condom use. Additionally, peer communication marginally significantly predicted condom use (β = .089, SE = .039, p = .055). This study provides evidence of the utility of the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior as an effective underlying theoretical framework for HIV prevention and safe sex intervention programs in a non-Western culture. The study also provides evidence that communication with sexual partners about condom use should be one of the most important factors to be considered in the development of HIV prevention and safer sex education programs for Chinese youth. PMID:23016507

  10. Today I’ll Use a Condom, But Who Knows about Tomorrow

    PubMed Central

    Kiene, Susan M.; Tennen, Howard; Armeli, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Most models of health behavior change applied to condom use behavior have focused on individual differences in theoretical constructs to explain condom use or non-use, while ignoring the possibility that day-to-day within-person changes in these constructs may contribute to understanding this behavior. Using a daily process approach, the present study investigated if condom use attitudes, self-efficacy and behavioral intentions vary day-to-day, if this within-person variability predicts behavior, and if negative affective states help to explain this variability. Sexually-active college students (N = 116) reported their current feelings of negative affect, prospectively reported their condom use attitudes, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions and retrospectively reported their prior evening’s sexual behaviors every evening for 30-days using a web-based structured daily diary. Within-person variability was found for each of the constructs. Within-person day-to-day changes in behavioral intentions and attitudes predicted the instances in which an individual would use a condom and daily negative affect partially explained within-person day-to-day changes in behavioral intentions and self-efficacy. Implications for models of health behavior change and for behavior change interventions are discussed. PMID:18643004

  11. Blockage and flow: intimate experiences of condoms and microbicides in a South African clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Jonathan; Saethre, Eirik

    2011-01-01

    Based on qualitative research undertaken during a phase-three microbicide gel trial, this paper explores female participants' experiences and perceptions of gel and condom use and the opinions of their male partners and community members. Participants were aware that condoms were effective in preventing HIV infection and that the efficacy of the microbicide was unproven. Yet, in narratives about gel and condom use, participants ascribed improvements to their reproductive health and intimate relationships with men to gel use. In contrast, condoms were believed to prevent disease, yet also embodied mistrust, were believed to contain dangerous substances and were felt to block the womb. These apparently contradictory views about condoms and gels are explored in the light of conceptions of flow and blockage. Health is achieved by maintaining a steady balance of substances within the body, while preventing fluid flow results in illness. We argue that women enrolled in the trial broadened the meaning of the gel beyond its primary intended effect of preventing HIV. Through their accounts of gel use, women 'reinvented' the gel as a substance that transformed their bodies and sexual relations. This has implications for understanding how local knowledge of health and illness intersects with biomedical knowledge. PMID:20960355

  12. Fruity, fun and safe: creating a youth condom brand in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Christopher H

    2006-11-01

    DKT Indonesia, a social marketing enterprise, undertook research among young people in Indonesia to develop a strategy to heighten understanding of safer sex and increase the availability and use of condoms among sexually active youth. The centerpiece of this campaign was the launch in 2003 of Fiesta condoms, with a range of flavours, colours, shapes and pricing aimed to appeal to young people. Working with key commercial and NGO partners, distribution has focused on places where young people often congregate and shop. The campaign relies heavily on the media, including TV commercials, radio talk shows, print media and mobile text messaging. DKT has also partnered with MTV, the Staying Alive campaign and other NGO and private sector partners to educate young people on a range of reproductive and sexual health issues. Based on retail audits and focus group discussions, the Fiesta brand has been a success. In three years, it has gained a 10% share of the condom market and helped to increase overall condom sales by 22%. Young people identify Fiesta as "their" brand and have started to use Fiesta condoms in significant numbers. PMID:17101431

  13. Nonoxynol-9 in lubricated condoms. Results of a study in female prostitutes.

    PubMed

    Ward, H; De La Court, A; Kitchen, V

    1996-01-01

    It remains unclear whether the intravaginal application of nonoxynol-9 (N-9) safely prevents the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) during sexual intercourse. Some studies have suggested a protective effect, while others a potential adverse effect created through the inflammation and ulceration of the genital tract caused by N-9. N-9 is commonly found in the lubricating agents used on condoms. However, the dose in each condom is small relative to pessaries or spermicidal gels. 70 female prostitutes participated in a study to assess the tolerability of different levels of N-9 in condom lubricants. Women were excluded from participation if they had a STD, vaginal candidiasis or bacterial vaginosis, were pregnant, or were using intravaginal spermicides for contraception. Participants were asked to use the trial condoms for all vaginal intercourse for a 2-week period and to avoid using any other spermicidal preparation. 1636 identical condoms were used during the study, either lubricated with polyethyleneglycol, polyethyleneglycol with 2% N-9, or polyethyleneglycol with 4% N-9. No association was found between the dose of N-9 and reported symptoms or signs of genital tract inflammation, although an increased dose of N-9 was associated with increased numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes on a vaginal wall smear. Future studies of the effects of low-dose N-9 on the female genital tract require highly controlled exposures together with colposcopy with or without vaginal biopsy for confirmation. PMID:8885074

  14. Condom Use by Partner Type Among Military and Police Personnel in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Villaran, Manuel V.; Bayer, Angela; Konda, Kelika A.; Mendoza, Carlos; Quijandria, Hilda; Ampuero, Julia S.; Apolaya, Moises; Palacios, Oswaldo; Lescano, Andres G.; Vega, Antonio M.; Blazes, David L.; Kochel, Tadeusz; Montano, Silvia M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the rates of condom use among military and police populations in Peru, focusing on differences in use by type of partner. A Knowledge Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted among 6,808 military and police personnel in 18 Peruvian cities between August–September 2006 and September–October 2007. A total of 90.2% of the survey respondents were male; mean age was 37.8 years and 77.9% were married/cohabiting. In all, 99.5% reported having had sex; 89% of the participants had their last sexual contact with their stable partner, 9.7% with a nonstable partner, and 0.8% with a sex worker. Overall, 20.4% used a condom during their most recent sexual contact. Reasons for nonuse of condoms included the following: perception that a condom was not necessary (31.3%) and using another birth control method (26.7%). Prevention efforts against sexually transmitted diseases should focus on strengthening condom use, especially among individuals with nonstable partners. PMID:22398988

  15. Migration of nitrosamines from rubber products--are balloons and condoms harmful to the human health?

    PubMed

    Altkofer, Werner; Braune, Stefan; Ellendt, Kathi; Kettl-Grömminger, Margit; Steiner, Gabriele

    2005-03-01

    Studies performed in 2001 and 2003 surveyed the release of carcinogenic nitrosamines and nitrosatable substances from rubber toy balloons by extraction with artificial saliva and gas chromatography-thermal energy analysis (GC-TEA). 81% of the 16 in 2001 sampled balloons and 93% of the 14 in 2003 sampled balloons released nitrosamines above the recommended level in Germany of 10 mug per kg material. Furthermore, 32 rubber condom samples collected in 2004 from the German market were surveyed for nitrosamines by determining the amount migrating into an artificial sweat test solution. The levels released from condoms varied from < 10 to 660 mug per kg material (i. e., up to 1.4 mug nitrosamines per condom). In a model calculation, not considering the differences that may exist in the resorption rate, we have calculated that the exposure from condoms may exceed the exposure from food 1.5-3 fold. To our knowledge so far no legal binding legislation exists worldwide concerning nitrosamine migration from toy balloons or condoms. PMID:15672455

  16. Decision Processes about Condom Use among Shelter-Homeless LGBT Youth in Manhattan

    PubMed Central

    Ream, Geoffrey L.; Barnhart, Kate F.; Lotz, Kevin V.

    2012-01-01

    Health behavior interventions based on Theory of Planned Behavior address participants' personally-held beliefs, perceived social norms, and control over the behavior. New data are always needed to “member check” participants' decision processes and inform interventions. This qualitative study investigates decision processes around condom use among 81 homeless LGBT youth ages 18–26. Findings indicated considerable endorsement of the conventional policy of always using condoms, promulgated in HIV prevention education targeting this population. Although some participants reported risk behavior in contexts of sex work, survival sex, casual encounters, open relationships, and substance use, most were aware of these risks and consistently safe in those situations. Condoms use boundaries became vulnerable in states of emotional need and negative mood. The only effect participants acknowledged of homelessness on condom use was indirect, through negative mood states. The most prevalent context of condom non-use was with long-term primary partners, a potential area of vulnerability because, of 13 participants for HIV or HCV, nine mentioned how they had been infected, and all nine believed they had acquired it from a primary partner. Findings imply programs should emphasize HIV risk potential within long-term romantic partnerships and mental health services to remediate negative mood states. PMID:22693658

  17. Social marketing campaigns that promote condom use among MSM: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Neville, Stephen; Adams, Jeffery; Holdershaw, Judith

    2014-03-01

    The turn of the century has seen an increase in reported cases of sexually transmitted infections including the human immunodeficiency virus, particularly in groups of men who have sex with men. Both internationally and in New Zealand the implementation of social marketing human immunodeficiency virus prevention programmes are identified as appropriate mechanisms to promote condom use in men who have sex with men. This paper presents a review of the literature on research-based social marketing initiatives designed to decrease sexually transmitted infections, including the human immunodeficiency virus, through an increase in condom use by men who have sex with men. Eleven quality assured articles met the inclusion criteria and were consequently included in the review. The review presented here strongly supports the utilisation of behaviourally based social marketing campaigns to increase condom use in men who have sex with men. Nurses are frequently first point of contact for consumers of health services. As such they need to have a sound understanding of not only Get it On!, a New Zealand social marketing campaign designed to promote condom use, but also about existing international campaigns. Nurses should also know about social marketing principles if they are to effect positive changes in condom use and address the complex challenges inherent in tackling increased rates of sexually transmitted infections, including the human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:24839743

  18. Effectiveness of an intervention promoting the female condom to patients at sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    PubMed Central

    Artz, L; Macaluso, M; Brill, I; Kelaghan, J; Austin, H; Fleenor, M; Robey, L; Hook, E W

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated a behavioral intervention designed to promote female condoms and reduce unprotected sex among women at high risk for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). METHODS: The effect of the intervention on barrier use was evaluated with a pretest-posttest design with 1159 female STD clinic patients. RESULTS: Among participants with follow-up data, 79% used the female condom at least once and often multiple times. More than one third of those who completed the study used female condoms throughout follow-up. Use of barrier protection increased significantly after the intervention, and high use was maintained during a 6-month follow-up. To account for attrition, the use of protection by all subjects was projected under 3 conservative assumptions. The initial visit and termination visit projections suggest that use increased sharply after the intervention and declined during follow-up but remained elevated compared with the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Many clients of public STD clinics will try, and some will continue, to use female condoms when they are promoted positively and when women are trained to use them correctly and to promote them to their partners. A behavioral intervention that promotes both female and male condoms can increase barrier use. PMID:10667185

  19. Evaluation of a Video-Based Intervention to Promote Condom Use Among College Students in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lee, Chiu-Hsiang; Chang, Chi-Chang; Lin, Chia-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Almost of HIV/AIDS cases in Taiwan occur in the age range of 20 to 29 yrs. Many of the reported cases are in the college-age and infection might have occurred through unprotected sexual behaviors. This study was to identify the effectiveness of a video-based intervention has important implications for health provider to plan evidence-based address the specific needs of college students.The research design of this study was based on TranstheoreticalModel (TTM). In addition, through an experimental design with groups: (i) to evaluate the effectiveness of a video-based intervention on the TTM stages of change,condom use self-efficacy, perceived benefits of and barriers to condom use by Taiwanese college students and (ii) to explore the factors affecting the TTM constructs for condom use. Overall, students have higher score in the pretest HIV knowledge scale, pretest self-efficacy scale and perceived benefits scale than the posttest. The score in perceived barriers scale of condom use also reduced after receiving intervention. This result shows that the videos and health education intervention can be effective in changing the college's intention to use condoms. PMID:27350477

  20. Sexual behavior of female sex workers and access to condoms in Kenya and Uganda on the Trans-Africa highway.

    PubMed

    Morris, Chester N; Morris, Sheldon R; Ferguson, Alan G

    2009-10-01

    Female sex workers and their clients remain a high risk core group for HIV in Africa. We measured sexual behavior of a snowball sample of female sex workers (FSW) along the Trans Africa highway from Mombasa, Kenya to Kampala, Uganda and surveyed the availability of male condoms at 1,007 bars and lodgings in Kenya along the highway trucking stops where transactional sex occurs. There were 578 FSW one month sex diaries analyzed, 403 from Kenya and 175 from Uganda. Kenyan FSW had a median of 45 sexual acts per 28 days compared to 39 sex acts per 28 days by Ugandan FSW (P < 0.05). Condom use by FSW for all sexual liaisons was 79% in Kenya compared to 74% in Uganda. In multivariate analysis, adjusting for repeated measures, Kenyan FSW were more likely to use a condom by an adjusted odds ratio of 2.54 (95% confidence interval 1.89-3.41) compared to Ugandan FSW. Condom use with regular clients was 50.8% in Uganda compared with 68.7% in Kenya (P < 0.01). The number of sex workers reporting 100% condom use was 26.8% in Kenya and 18.9% in Uganda (P < 0.01). Bars and lodges in Kenya compared to Uganda were more likely to: have condom dispensers, 25% versus 1%, respectively (P < 0.01); distribute or sell condoms, 73.9% versus 47.6% (P < 0.01); and have more weekly condom distribution, 4.92 versus 1.27 condoms per seating capacity (P < 0.01). Our data indicate that in both countries condom use for FSW is suboptimal, particularly with regular partners, and greater condom use by Trans African highway FSW in Kenya compared to Uganda may be related to availability. Targeted interventions are warranted for FSW and truck drivers to prevent transmission in this important core group. PMID:18665445