#### Sample records for conducting incompressible fluids

1. Mathematical modelling of a steady flow of a heat conductive incompressible fluid through the cascade of profiles

Neustupa, T.

2016-06-01

This paper deals with the mathematical model of a steady flow of a heat-conductive incompressible viscous fluid through a spatially periodic plane profile cascade. The corresponding boundary value problem is reduced to one spatial period. We prove the existence of a weak solution of a coupled problem, with various boundary conditions on the parts of the boundary. Particularly, the condition on the outflow is a variant of the so called "do nothing" boundary condition.

2. Incompressible Viscous Fluid Dynamics

Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

1992-02-13

NACHOS2 is a finite element program designed for the analysis of two-dimensional, incompressible viscous fluid flow problems. The basic flows considered may be isothermal, nonisothermal, or may involve other physical processes, such as mass transport. Both steady and transient flows may be analyzed. The class of problems treated are those described by the two-dimensional (plane or axisymmetric) incompressible form of the Navier-Stokes equations. An energy transport equation is included in the formulation for problems inmore » which heat transfer effects are important. Two auxiliary transport equations can be added to describe other physical processes,e.g. mass transfer, chemical reactions. Among the specific types of flow problems treated are: isothermal flow; forced, free, or mixed convection; conjugate heat transfer; flow in saturated porous media with or without heat transfer; and inelastic, non-Newtonian flows with or without heat transfer. Other problem classes are possible depending on the specific definitions applied to the auxiliary transport equations.« less

3. Ideal and incompressible fluid dynamics

Oneill, M. E.; Chorlton, F.

An introductory treatment of fluid mechanics theory, emphasizing mathematical methods and techniques, is given. Basic mathematical techniques of flow analysis are outlined in connection with viscous and inviscid flows, compressible and incompressible flows, and ideal flows. Among the specific flow problems addressed are: the kinematics of fluids in motion; equations of motion in boundary layer flows; and the stream functions for two-dimensional flows. Methods for analyzing wave motion in rectangular and cylindrical tanks are also described.

4. Interfacial gauge methods for incompressible fluid dynamics.

PubMed

Saye, Robert

2016-06-01

Designing numerical methods for incompressible fluid flow involving moving interfaces, for example, in the computational modeling of bubble dynamics, swimming organisms, or surface waves, presents challenges due to the coupling of interfacial forces with incompressibility constraints. A class of methods, denoted interfacial gauge methods, is introduced for computing solutions to the corresponding incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. These methods use a type of "gauge freedom" to reduce the numerical coupling between fluid velocity, pressure, and interface position, allowing high-order accurate numerical methods to be developed more easily. Making use of an implicit mesh discontinuous Galerkin framework, developed in tandem with this work, high-order results are demonstrated, including surface tension dynamics in which fluid velocity, pressure, and interface geometry are computed with fourth-order spatial accuracy in the maximum norm. Applications are demonstrated with two-phase fluid flow displaying fine-scaled capillary wave dynamics, rigid body fluid-structure interaction, and a fluid-jet free surface flow problem exhibiting vortex shedding induced by a type of Plateau-Rayleigh instability. The developed methods can be generalized to other types of interfacial flow and facilitate precise computation of complex fluid interface phenomena. PMID:27386567

5. Interfacial gauge methods for incompressible fluid dynamics

PubMed Central

Saye, Robert

2016-01-01

Designing numerical methods for incompressible fluid flow involving moving interfaces, for example, in the computational modeling of bubble dynamics, swimming organisms, or surface waves, presents challenges due to the coupling of interfacial forces with incompressibility constraints. A class of methods, denoted interfacial gauge methods, is introduced for computing solutions to the corresponding incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. These methods use a type of “gauge freedom” to reduce the numerical coupling between fluid velocity, pressure, and interface position, allowing high-order accurate numerical methods to be developed more easily. Making use of an implicit mesh discontinuous Galerkin framework, developed in tandem with this work, high-order results are demonstrated, including surface tension dynamics in which fluid velocity, pressure, and interface geometry are computed with fourth-order spatial accuracy in the maximum norm. Applications are demonstrated with two-phase fluid flow displaying fine-scaled capillary wave dynamics, rigid body fluid-structure interaction, and a fluid-jet free surface flow problem exhibiting vortex shedding induced by a type of Plateau-Rayleigh instability. The developed methods can be generalized to other types of interfacial flow and facilitate precise computation of complex fluid interface phenomena. PMID:27386567

6. Maximal mixing by incompressible fluid flows

Seis, Christian

2013-12-01

We consider a model for mixing binary viscous fluids under an incompressible flow. We prove the impossibility of perfect mixing in finite time for flows with finite viscous dissipation. As measures of mixedness we consider a Monge-Kantorovich-Rubinstein transportation distance and, more classically, the H-1 norm. We derive rigorous a priori lower bounds on these mixing norms which show that mixing cannot proceed faster than exponentially in time. The rate of the exponential decay is uniform in the initial data.

7. Nearly incompressible fluids. II - Magnetohydrodynamics, turbulence, and waves

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zank, G. P.; Matthaeus, W. H.

1993-01-01

The theory of nearly incompressible (NI) fluid dynamics developed previously for hydrodynamics is extended to magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Based on a singular expansion technique, modified systems of fluid equations are obtained for which the effects of compressibility are admitted only weakly in terms of the different possible incompressible solutions. NI MHD represents the interface between the compressible and incompressible magnetofluid descriptions in the subsonic regime. It is shown that three distinct NI descriptions exist corresponding to each of the three possible plasma beta regimes. The detailed theory of weakly compressible corrections to the various incompressible MHD descriptions is presented, and the implications for the solar wind are discussed.

8. The equations of nearly incompressible fluids. I. Hydrodynamics, turbulence, and waves

Zank, G. P.; Matthaeus, W. H.

1991-01-01

A unified analysis delineating the conditions under which the equations of classical incompressible and compressible hydrodynamics are related in the absence of large-scale thermal, gravitational, and field gradients is presented. By means of singular expansion techniques, a method is developed to derive modified systems of fluid equations in which the effects of compressibility are admitted only weakly in terms of the incompressible hydrodynamic solutions (hence nearly incompressible hydrodynamics''). Besides including molecular viscosity self-consistently, the role of thermal conduction in an ideal fluid is also considered. With the inclusion of heat conduction, it is found that two distinct routes to incompressibility are possible, distinguished according to the relative magnitudes of the temperature, density, and pressure fluctuations. This leads to two distinct models for thermally conducting, nearly incompressible hydrodynamics—heat-fluctuation-dominated hydrodynamics (HFDH's) and heat-fluctuation-modified hydrodynamics (HFMD's). For the HFD case, the well-known classical passive scalar equation for temperature is derived as one of the nearly incompressible fluid equations and temperature and density fluctuations are predicted to be anticorrelated. For HFM fluids, a new thermal transport equation, in which compressible acoustic effects are present, is obtained together with a more-complicated correlation'' between temperature, density, and pressure fluctuations. Although the equations of nearly incompressible hydrodynamics are envisaged principally as being applicable to homogeneous turbulence and wave propagation in low Mach number flow, it is anticipated that their applicability is likely to be far greater.

9. Bose Fluids Above Tc: Incompressible Vortex Fluids and Supersolidity''

Anderson, P. W.

2008-05-01

This Letter emphasizes that nonlinear rotational or diamagnetic susceptibility is characteristic of Bose fluids above their superfluid TC’s. For sufficiently slow rotation or, for superconductors, weak B fields, this amounts to an incompressible response to vorticity. The cause is that there are terms missing in the conventionally accepted model Hamiltonian for quantized vortices in the Bose fluid. The resulting susceptibility can account for recent observations of Chan et al. [Nature (London)NATUAS0028-0836 427, 225 (2004); 10.1038/nature02220ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 305, 1941 (2004)10.1126/science.1101501] on solid He and Ong et al. [Europhys. Lett.EULEEJ0295-5075 72, 451 (2005)10.1209/epl/i2005-10254-4] on cuprate superconductors.

10. Triangular spectral elements for incompressible fluid flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mavriplis, C.; Vanrosendale, John

1993-01-01

We discuss the use of triangular elements in the spectral element method for direct simulation of incompressible flow. Triangles provide much greater geometric flexibility than quadrilateral elements and are better conditioned and more accurate when small angles arise. We employ a family of tensor product algorithms for triangles, allowing triangular elements to be handled with comparable arithmetic complexity to quadrilateral elements. The triangular discretizations are applied and validated on the Poisson equation. These discretizations are then applied to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and a laminar channel flow solution is given. These new triangular spectral elements can be combined with standard quadrilateral elements, yielding a general and flexible high order method for complex geometries in two dimensions.

11. Stability of axisymmetric swirl flows of viscous incompressible fluid

Aktershev, S. P.; Kuibin, P. A.

2013-09-01

A new method of solution to the problem of stability of the swirl flow of viscous incompressible fluid is developed. The method based on expansion of the required function into power series of radial coordinate allows an avoidance of difficulties related to numerical integration of the system of differential equations with a singular point. Stability of the Poiseuille flow in a rotating pipe is considered as an example.

12. Local mesh refinement for incompressible fluid flow with free surfaces

SciTech Connect

Terasaka, H.; Kajiwara, H.; Ogura, K.

1995-09-01

A new local mesh refinement (LMR) technique has been developed and applied to incompressible fluid flows with free surface boundaries. The LMR method embeds patches of fine grid in arbitrary regions of interest. Hence, more accurate solutions can be obtained with a lower number of computational cells. This method is very suitable for the simulation of free surface movements because free surface flow problems generally require a finer computational grid to obtain adequate results. By using this technique, one can place finer grids only near the surfaces, and therefore greatly reduce the total number of cells and computational costs. This paper introduces LMR3D, a three-dimensional incompressible flow analysis code. Numerical examples calculated with the code demonstrate well the advantages of the LMR method.

13. Effective surface-shear viscosity of an incompressible particle-laden fluid interface

Lishchuk, S. V.

2014-04-01

The presence of even a small amount of surfactant at the particle-laden fluid interface subjected to shear makes surface flow incompressible if the shear rate is small enough [T. M. Fischer et al., J. Fluid Mech. 558, 451 (2006), 10.1017/S002211200600022X]. In the present paper the effective surface shear viscosity of a flat, low-concentration, particle-laden incompressible interface separating two immiscible fluids is calculated. The resulting value is found to be 7.6% larger than the value obtained without account for surface incompressibility.

14. Instantaneous Point Explosion in Incompressible Fluid-like Media

Grinfeld, Michael; Segletes, Steven

The problem of point explosion is one of the most famous and extensively developed in in the sense of corresponding physics, mechanics, and applied mathematics. There are many reasons for that based on its practical importance and theoretical beauty. We refer interested readers to the publications of Sedov, Taylor, Laudau and Lifshitz, and Lavrent'ev and Shabat. In the paper, we discuss this classical program from the standpoint of terminal ballistics and present our novel results relating to the special situation when the media can be treated as an effective'' incompressible liquid. Sedov, L.I., Similarity and Dimensional Methods in Mechanics, CRC Press, 1993. Taylor, J., Explosion. II. The Atomic Explosion of 1945. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A201, ¹ 1065, 1950, p. 175. Landau, L.D. and Lifshitz, E.M., Fluid Mechanics, Pergamon Press, 1959. Zeldovich Ya. B. and Raizer, Yu.P., Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena,Dover, New York, 2002. Lavrent'ev, M.A. and Shabat, B.V., Hydrodynamic Phenomena and Their Mathematical Models. Hauka, 1973 (in Russian).

15. MHD Couette flow of viscous incompressible fluid with Hall current and suction

Parvin, Afroja; Dola, Tanni Alam; Alam, Md. Mahmud

2016-07-01

An electrically conducting viscous incompressible fluid bounded by two parallel non-conducting plates has been investigated in the presence of Hall current. The fluid motion is uniform at the upper plate and the uniform magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the plate. The lower plate is stationary while upper plate moves with a constant velocity. The governing equations have been non-dimensionalzed by using usual transformations. The obtained governing non-linear coupled partial differential equations have been solved by using implicit finite difference technique. The numerical solutions are obtained for momentum and energy equations. The influence of various interesting parameters on the flow has been analyzed and discussed through graph in details. The values of Nusselt number and Skin-Friction for different physical parameters are also elucidated in the form of graph.

16. Nearly incompressible fluids: hydrodynamics and large scale inhomogeneity.

PubMed

Hunana, P; Zank, G P; Shaikh, D

2006-08-01

A system of hydrodynamic equations in the presence of large-scale inhomogeneities for a high plasma beta solar wind is derived. The theory is derived under the assumption of low turbulent Mach number and is developed for the flows where the usual incompressible description is not satisfactory and a full compressible treatment is too complex for any analytical studies. When the effects of compressibility are incorporated only weakly, a new description, referred to as "nearly incompressible hydrodynamics," is obtained. The nearly incompressible theory, was originally applied to homogeneous flows. However, large-scale gradients in density, pressure, temperature, etc., are typical in the solar wind and it was unclear how inhomogeneities would affect the usual incompressible and nearly incompressible descriptions. In the homogeneous case, the lowest order expansion of the fully compressible equations leads to the usual incompressible equations, followed at higher orders by the nearly incompressible equations, as introduced by Zank and Matthaeus. With this work we show that the inclusion of large-scale inhomogeneities (in this case time-independent and radially symmetric background solar wind) modifies the leading-order incompressible description of solar wind flow. We find, for example, that the divergence of velocity fluctuations is nonsolenoidal and that density fluctuations can be described to leading order as a passive scalar. Locally (for small lengthscales), this system of equations converges to the usual incompressible equations and we therefore use the term "locally incompressible" to describe the equations. This term should be distinguished from the term "nearly incompressible," which is reserved for higher-order corrections. Furthermore, we find that density fluctuations scale with Mach number linearly, in contrast to the original homogeneous nearly incompressible theory, in which density fluctuations scale with the square of Mach number. Inhomogeneous nearly

17. Experiments on the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability of Incompressible Fluids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jacobs, J.; Niederhaus, C.

2000-01-01

Richtmyer-Meshkov (R-M) instability occurs when two different density fluids are impulsively accelerated in the direction normal to their nearly planar interface. The instability causes small perturbations on the interface to grow and possibly become turbulent given the proper initial conditions. R-M instability is similar to the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability, which is generated when the two fluids undergo a constant acceleration. R-M instability is a fundamental fluid instability that is important to fields ranging from astrophysics to high-speed combustion. For example, R-M instability is currently the limiting factor in achieving a net positive yield with inertial confinement fusion. The experiments described here utilize a novel technique that circumvents many of the experimental difficulties previously limiting the study of the R-M instability. A Plexiglas tank contains two unequal density liquids and is gently oscillated horizontally to produce a controlled initial fluid interface shape. The tank is mounted to a sled on a high speed, low friction linear rail system, constraining the main motion to the vertical direction. The sled is released from an initial height and falls vertically until it bounces off of a movable spring, imparting an impulsive acceleration in the upward direction. As the sled travels up and down the rails, the spring retracts out of the way, allowing the instability to evolve in free-fall until impacting a shock absorber at the end of the rails. The impulsive acceleration provided to the system is measured by a piezoelectric accelerometer mounted on the tank, and a capacitive accelerometer measures the low-level drag of the bearings. Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence is used for flow visualization, which uses an Argon ion laser to illuminate the flow and a CCD camera, mounted to the sled, to capture images of the interface. This experimental study investigates the instability of an interface between incompressible, miscible liquids

18. Rayleigh-Taylor modes in constant-density incompressible fluids accelerated by radiation pressure. [astrophysical models

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Krolik, J. H.

1977-01-01

The paper examines the behavior of linear perturbations in an incompressible fluid undergoing acceleration by radiation pressure, with reference to processes occurring in quasars, supernovae, and planetary nebulae. It is shown that, contrary to prior expectation, fluids accelerated by radiation pressure, are not always unstable to Rayleigh-Taylor modes. Some are, in fact, unstable, but the nature of the instability is qualitatively different.

19. A General Approach to Time Periodic Incompressible Viscous Fluid Flow Problems

Geissert, Matthias; Hieber, Matthias; Nguyen, Thieu Huy

2016-06-01

This article develops a general approach to time periodic incompressible fluid flow problems and semilinear evolution equations. It yields, on the one hand, a unified approach to various classical problems in incompressible fluid flow and, on the other hand, gives new results for periodic solutions to the Navier-Stokes-Oseen flow, the Navier-Stokes flow past rotating obstacles, and, in the geophysical setting, for Ornstein-Uhlenbeck and various diffusion equations with rough coefficients. The method is based on a combination of interpolation and topological arguments, as well as on the smoothing properties of the linearized equation.

20. Nearly incompressible fluids: Decay of solar wind density fluctuations

Hunana, P.; Zank, G. P.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Shaikh, D.

2008-11-01

The evolution of density fluctuations throughout the solar wind is investigated as the basis of a newly developed theory of nearly incompressible hydrodynamics for an inhomogeneous flow. The model is explored using two-dimensional numerical simulations. The lowest-order density fluctuations (absent in the original homogeneous nearly incompressible theory) obey a passive scalar evolution equation with an additional source term that results from coupling to the large-scale inhomogeneous mean density gradient. The importance of this source term is explored, and we estimate analytically an upper bound for the maximum possible effect of a source term for nearly incompressible flows with an inhomogeneous background (static and spherically symmetric). For typical solar wind parameters, we show that this effect is rather weak beyond 0.1 AU and that the density fluctuations can be described sufficiently accurately as a pure passive scalar. Our simulations identify the sensitive dependence of density fluctuation evolution on typical initial length-scale ratio of scalar (density) and velocity fields, an effect known from the theory of passive scalar decay and experimentally measured in grid-generated turbulence. It has long been thought that the variance in the density fluctuations (δρ)2 should decay in the manner analogous to the mean background density, implying that with heliocentric distance (δρ)2 ∝ R-4 throughout the heliosphere. Analysis of plasma data obtained by the Voyager spacecraft by Bellamy et al. (2005) showed that the density fluctuations decay much more slowly than R-4 and the decay rate exhibits a flattening between 20-30 AU and a possible rise afterward. A possible mechanism to reduce the decay rate within 30 AU was suggested to be turbulence driven by stream-stream interactions followed by more dominant pickup ion interactions beyond 30 AU. Here we show that the variance in the density fluctuations as described by the inhomogeneous nearly

1. Models of incompressible fluid configurations with allowance for the part played by the gravitational vacuum

SciTech Connect

Grigoryan, L.S.

1985-03-01

Models of superdense incompressible-fluid stellar configurations are calculated under the assumption that a special gravitational vacuum exists. In the case of superdense celestial bodies, vacuum effects are important. The most important result is the conclusion that equilibrium superdense celestial bodies with masses much greater than the Sun's can exist.

2. Oscillating Droplets and Incompressible Liquids: Slow-Motion Visualization of Experiments with Fluids

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vollmer, Michael; Mollmann, Klaus-Peter

2012-01-01

We present fascinating simple demonstration experiments recorded with high-speed cameras in the field of fluid dynamics. Examples include oscillations of falling droplets, effects happening upon impact of a liquid droplet into a liquid, the disintegration of extremely large droplets in free fall and the consequences of incompressibility. (Contains…

3. Nested Cartesian grid method in incompressible viscous fluid flow

Peng, Yih-Ferng; Mittal, Rajat; Sau, Amalendu; Hwang, Robert R.

2010-09-01

In this work, the local grid refinement procedure is focused by using a nested Cartesian grid formulation. The method is developed for simulating unsteady viscous incompressible flows with complex immersed boundaries. A finite-volume formulation based on globally second-order accurate central-difference schemes is adopted here in conjunction with a two-step fractional-step procedure. The key aspects that needed to be considered in developing such a nested grid solver are proper imposition of interface conditions on the nested-block boundaries, and accurate discretization of the governing equations in cells that are with block-interface as a control-surface. The interpolation procedure adopted in the study allows systematic development of a discretization scheme that preserves global second-order spatial accuracy of the underlying solver, and as a result high efficiency/accuracy nested grid discretization method is developed. Herein the proposed nested grid method has been widely tested through effective simulation of four different classes of unsteady incompressible viscous flows, thereby demonstrating its performance in the solution of various complex flow-structure interactions. The numerical examples include a lid-driven cavity flow and Pearson vortex problems, flow past a circular cylinder symmetrically installed in a channel, flow past an elliptic cylinder at an angle of attack, and flow past two tandem circular cylinders of unequal diameters. For the numerical simulations of flows past bluff bodies an immersed boundary (IB) method has been implemented in which the solid object is represented by a distributed body force in the Navier-Stokes equations. The main advantages of the implemented immersed boundary method are that the simulations could be performed on a regular Cartesian grid and applied to multiple nested-block (Cartesian) structured grids without any difficulty. Through the numerical experiments the strength of the solver in effectively

4. Laminar Motion of the Incompressible Fluids in Self-Acting Thrust Bearings with Spiral Grooves

PubMed Central

Velescu, Cornel; Popa, Nicolae Calin

2014-01-01

We analyze the laminar motion of incompressible fluids in self-acting thrust bearings with spiral grooves with inner or external pumping. The purpose of the study is to find some mathematical relations useful to approach the theoretical functionality of these bearings having magnetic controllable fluids as incompressible fluids, in the presence of a controllable magnetic field. This theoretical study approaches the permanent motion regime. To validate the theoretical results, we compare them to some experimental results presented in previous papers. The laminar motion of incompressible fluids in bearings is described by the fundamental equations of fluid dynamics. We developed and particularized these equations by taking into consideration the geometrical and functional characteristics of these hydrodynamic bearings. Through the integration of the differential equation, we determined the pressure and speed distributions in bearings with length in the “pumping” direction. These pressure and speed distributions offer important information, both quantitative (concerning the bearing performances) and qualitative (evidence of the viscous-inertial effects, the fluid compressibility, etc.), for the laminar and permanent motion regime. PMID:24526896

5. Incompressible fluids of the de Sitter horizon and beyond

Anninos, Dionysios; Anous, Tarek; Bredberg, Irene; Ng, Gim Seng

2012-05-01

There are (at least) two surfaces of particular interest in eternal de Sitter space. One is the timelike hypersurface constituting the lab wall of a static patch observer and the other is the future boundary of global de Sitter space. We study both linear and non-linear deformations of four-dimensional de Sitter space which obey the Einstein equation. Our deformations leave the induced conformal metric and trace of the extrinsic curvature unchanged for a fixed hypersurface. This hypersurface is either timelike within the static patch or spacelike in the future diamond. We require the deformations to be regular at the future horizon of the static patch observer. For linearized perturbations in the future diamond, this corresponds to imposing incoming flux solely from the future horizon of a single static patch observer. When the slices are arbitrarily close to the cosmological horizon, the finite deformations are characterized by solutions to the incompressible Navier- Stokes equation for both spacelike and timelike hypersurfaces. We then study, at the level of linearized gravity, the change in the discrete dispersion relation as we push the timelike hypersurface toward the worldline of the static patch. Finally, we study the spectrum of linearized solutions as the spacelike slices are pushed to future infinity and relate our calculations to analogous ones in the context of massless topological black holes in AdS4.

6. A matrix-form GSM-CFD solver for incompressible fluids and its application to hemodynamics

Yao, Jianyao; Liu, G. R.

2014-10-01

A GSM-CFD solver for incompressible flows is developed based on the gradient smoothing method (GSM). A matrix-form algorithm and corresponding data structure for GSM are devised to efficiently approximate the spatial gradients of field variables using the gradient smoothing operation. The calculated gradient values on various test fields show that the proposed GSM is capable of exactly reproducing linear field and of second order accuracy on all kinds of meshes. It is found that the GSM is much more robust to mesh deformation and therefore more suitable for problems with complicated geometries. Integrated with the artificial compressibility approach, the GSM is extended to solve the incompressible flows. As an example, the flow simulation of carotid bifurcation is carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed GSM-CFD solver. The blood is modeled as incompressible Newtonian fluid and the vessel is treated as rigid wall in this paper.

7. PDM performance Test Results and Preliminary Analysis: Incompressible and Compressible Fluids

SciTech Connect

Dreesen, D.S.; Gruenhagan, E.; Cohen, J.C.; Moran, D.W.

1999-02-01

Three, small diameter, Moineau, positive displacement (drilling) motors (PDMs) were dynamometer tested using water, air-water mist, air-water foam, and aerated water. The motors included (1) a 1.5-inch OD, single-lobe mud motor; (2) a 1.69-inch OD, 5:6 multi-lobe mud motor; and (3) a 1.75-inch OD, 5:6 multi-lobe air motor. This paper describes the test apparatus, procedures, data analysis, and results. Incompressible and compressible fluid performance are compared; linear performance, predicted by a positive displacement motor model, is identified where it occurs. Preliminary results and conclusions are (1) the performance of all three motors is accurately modeled using a two-variable, linear model for incompressible fluid and (2) the model was not successfully adapted to model compressible fluid performance.

8. Direct pore-level modeling of incompressible fluid flow in porous media

SciTech Connect

2010-09-20

We present a dynamic particle-based model for direct pore-level modeling of incompressible viscous fluid flow in disordered porous media. The model is capable of simulating flow directly in three-dimensional high-resolution micro-CT images of rock samples. It is based on moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method. We modify this technique in order to improve its stability for flow in porous media problems. Using the micro-CT image of a rock sample, the entire medium, i.e., solid and fluid, is discretized into particles. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are then solved for each particle using the MPS summations. The model handles highly irregular fluid-solid boundaries effectively. An algorithm to split and merge fluid particles is also introduced. To handle the computational load, we present a parallel version of the model that runs on distributed memory computer clusters. The accuracy of the model is validated against the analytical, numerical, and experimental data available in the literature. The validated model is then used to simulate both unsteady- and steady-state flow of an incompressible fluid directly in a representative elementary volume (REV) size micro-CT image of a naturally-occurring sandstone with 3.398 {mu}m resolution. We analyze the quality and consistency of the predicted flow behavior and calculate absolute permeability using the steady-state flow rate.

9. Towards entropy detection of anomalous mass and momentum exchange in incompressible fluid flow

Naterer, G. F.; Rinn, D.

2002-08-01

An entropy-based approach is presented for assessment of computational accuracy in incompressible flow problems. It is shown that computational entropy can serve as an effective parameter in detecting erroneous or anomalous predictions of mass and momentum transport in the flow field. In the present paper, the fluid flow equations and second law of thermodynamics are discretized by a Galerkin finite-element method with linear, isoparametric triangular elements. It is shown that a weighted entropy residual is closely related to truncation error; this relationship is examined in an application problem involving incompressible flow through a converging channel. In particular, regions exhibiting anomalous flow behaviour, such as under-predicted velocities, appear together with analogous trends in the weighted entropy residual. It is anticipated that entropy-based error detection can provide important steps towards improved accuracy in computational fluid flow. Copyright

10. A p-version finite element method for steady incompressible fluid flow and convective heat transfer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Winterscheidt, Daniel L.

1993-01-01

A new p-version finite element formulation for steady, incompressible fluid flow and convective heat transfer problems is presented. The steady-state residual equations are obtained by considering a limiting case of the least-squares formulation for the transient problem. The method circumvents the Babuska-Brezzi condition, permitting the use of equal-order interpolation for velocity and pressure, without requiring the use of arbitrary parameters. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and generality of the method.

11. Multi-material incompressible flow simulation using the moment-of-fluid method

SciTech Connect

Garimella, R V; Schofield, S P; Lowrie, R B; Swartz, B K; Christon, M A; Dyadechko, V

2009-01-01

The Moment-of-Fluid interface reconstruction technique is implemented in a second order accurate, unstructured finite element variable density incompressible Navier-Stokes solver. For flows with multiple materials, MOF significantly outperforms existing first and second order interface reconstruction techniques. For two material flows, the performance of MOF is similar to other interface reconstruction techniques. For strongly driven bouyant flows, the errors in the flow solution dominate and all the interface reconstruction techniques perform similarly.

12. Optimum parallel step-sector bearing lubricated with an incompressible fluid

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hamrock, B. J.

1983-01-01

The dimensionless parameters normally associated with a step sector thrust bearing are the film thickness ratio, the dimensionless step location, the number of sectors, the radius ratio, and the angular extent of the lubrication feed groove. The optimum number of sectors and the parallel step configuration for a step sector thrust bearing while considering load capacity or stiffness and assuming an incompressible fluid are presented.

13. Optimum step design for centering of pistons moving in an incompressible fluid

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Etsion, I.; Hamrock, B. J.

1976-01-01

Hydrodynamic effects are analyzed for a stepped piston moving within a tight clearance tube filled with an incompressible fluid. Hydrostatic effects are analyzed and a complete solution is obtained and an optimum step design for centering of the piston is suggested. The axial speed resulting from an axial driving force is calculated, and some experimental results for pistons falling in a water-filled tube are presented.

14. Phase-field-based lattice Boltzmann model for incompressible binary fluid systems with density and viscosity contrasts.

PubMed

Zu, Y Q; He, S

2013-04-01

A lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) is proposed based on the phase-field theory to simulate incompressible binary fluids with density and viscosity contrasts. Unlike many existing diffuse interface models which are limited to density matched binary fluids, the proposed model is capable of dealing with binary fluids with moderate density ratios. A new strategy for projecting the phase field to the viscosity field is proposed on the basis of the continuity of viscosity flux. The new LBM utilizes two lattice Boltzmann equations (LBEs): one for the interface tracking and the other for solving the hydrodynamic properties. The LBE for interface tracking can recover the Chan-Hilliard equation without any additional terms; while the LBE for hydrodynamic properties can recover the exact form of the divergence-free incompressible Navier-Stokes equations avoiding spurious interfacial forces. A series of 2D and 3D benchmark tests have been conducted for validation, which include a rigid-body rotation, stationary and moving droplets, a spinodal decomposition, a buoyancy-driven bubbly flow, a layered Poiseuille flow, and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. It is shown that the proposed method can track the interface with high accuracy and stability and can significantly and systematically reduce the parasitic current across the interface. Comparisons with momentum-based models indicate that the newly proposed velocity-based model can better satisfy the incompressible condition in the flow fields, and eliminate or reduce the velocity fluctuations in the higher-pressure-gradient region and, therefore, achieve a better numerical stability. In addition, the test of a layered Poiseuille flow demonstrates that the proposed scheme for mixture viscosity performs significantly better than the traditional mixture viscosity methods. PMID:23679542

15. Phase-field-based lattice Boltzmann model for incompressible binary fluid systems with density and viscosity contrasts

Zu, Y. Q.; He, S.

2013-04-01

A lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) is proposed based on the phase-field theory to simulate incompressible binary fluids with density and viscosity contrasts. Unlike many existing diffuse interface models which are limited to density matched binary fluids, the proposed model is capable of dealing with binary fluids with moderate density ratios. A new strategy for projecting the phase field to the viscosity field is proposed on the basis of the continuity of viscosity flux. The new LBM utilizes two lattice Boltzmann equations (LBEs): one for the interface tracking and the other for solving the hydrodynamic properties. The LBE for interface tracking can recover the Chan-Hilliard equation without any additional terms; while the LBE for hydrodynamic properties can recover the exact form of the divergence-free incompressible Navier-Stokes equations avoiding spurious interfacial forces. A series of 2D and 3D benchmark tests have been conducted for validation, which include a rigid-body rotation, stationary and moving droplets, a spinodal decomposition, a buoyancy-driven bubbly flow, a layered Poiseuille flow, and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. It is shown that the proposed method can track the interface with high accuracy and stability and can significantly and systematically reduce the parasitic current across the interface. Comparisons with momentum-based models indicate that the newly proposed velocity-based model can better satisfy the incompressible condition in the flow fields, and eliminate or reduce the velocity fluctuations in the higher-pressure-gradient region and, therefore, achieve a better numerical stability. In addition, the test of a layered Poiseuille flow demonstrates that the proposed scheme for mixture viscosity performs significantly better than the traditional mixture viscosity methods.

16. The numerical calculation of the viscous incompressible fluid transfer between contacting surfaces

Varepo, L. G.; Panichkin, A. V.; Trapeznikova, O. V.

2016-04-01

The movement of the thin layer of the viscous incompressible fluid (VTF) between two cylinders is analysed. The numerical calculations results of VTF transfer from the engaged zone of two cylinders to porous substrates are presented. The VTF (ink) is moved along the rubberized top blanket of the first cylinder. The surface of the second cylinder contacts the substrate with some part of the VTF layer transferred from the first cylinder. The fluid is double bounded by the free surface. Images of cylinders boundary deformation and VTF flow areas are shown.

17. Iterative and multigrid methods in the finite element solution of incompressible and turbulent fluid flow

Lavery, N.; Taylor, C.

1999-07-01

Multigrid and iterative methods are used to reduce the solution time of the matrix equations which arise from the finite element (FE) discretisation of the time-independent equations of motion of the incompressible fluid in turbulent motion. Incompressible flow is solved by using the method of reduce interpolation for the pressure to satisfy the Brezzi-Babuska condition. The k-l model is used to complete the turbulence closure problem. The non-symmetric iterative matrix methods examined are the methods of least squares conjugate gradient (LSCG), biconjugate gradient (BCG), conjugate gradient squared (CGS), and the biconjugate gradient squared stabilised (BCGSTAB). The multigrid algorithm applied is based on the FAS algorithm of Brandt, and uses two and three levels of grids with a V-cycling schedule. These methods are all compared to the non-symmetric frontal solver. Copyright

18. Incompressible SPH Model for Simulating Violent Free-Surface Fluid Flows

Staroszczyk, Ryszard

2014-06-01

In this paper the problem of transient gravitational wave propagation in a viscous incompressible fluid is considered, with a focus on flows with fast-moving free surfaces. The governing equations of the problem are solved by the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method (SPH). In order to impose the incompressibility constraint on the fluid motion, the so-called projection method is applied in which the discrete SPH equations are integrated in time by using a fractional-step technique. Numerical performance of the proposed model has been assessed by comparing its results with experimental data and with results obtained by a standard (weakly compressible) version of the SPH approach. For this purpose, a plane dam-break flow problem is simulated, in order to investigate the formation and propagation of a wave generated by a sudden collapse of a water column initially contained in a rectangular tank, as well as the impact of such a wave on a rigid vertical wall. The results of simulations show the evolution of the free surface of water, the variation of velocity and pressure fields in the fluid, and the time history of pressures exerted by an impacting wave on a wall.

19. A theoretical method for the analysis and design of axisymmetric bodies. [flow distribution and incompressible fluids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Beatty, T. D.

1975-01-01

A theoretical method is presented for the computation of the flow field about an axisymmetric body operating in a viscous, incompressible fluid. A potential flow method was used to determine the inviscid flow field and to yield the boundary conditions for the boundary layer solutions. Boundary layer effects in the forces of displacement thickness and empirically modeled separation streamlines are accounted for in subsequent potential flow solutions. This procedure is repeated until the solutions converge. An empirical method was used to determine base drag allowing configuration drag to be computed.

20. TEMPEST/N33.5. Computational Fluid Dynamics Package For Incompressible, 3D, Time Dependent Pro

SciTech Connect

Trent, Dr.D.S.; Eyler, Dr.L.L.

1991-04-01

TEMPESTN33.5 provides numerical solutions to general incompressible flow problems with coupled heat transfer in fluids and solids. Turbulence is created with a k-e model and gas, liquid or solid constituents may be included with the bulk flow. Problems may be modeled in Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates. Limitations include incompressible flow, Boussinesq approximation, and passive constituents. No direct steady state solution is available; steady state is obtained as the limit of a transient.

1. Steady-state hydrodynamics of a viscous incompressible fluid with spinning particles.

PubMed

Felderhof, B U

2011-12-21

The steady-state hydrodynamics of a viscous incompressible fluid with spinning particles is studied on the basis of extended Stokes equations. The profiles of flow velocity and spin velocity in simple flow situations may be used to determine the vortex viscosity and spin viscosity of the molecular liquid or fluid suspension. As an example, one situation studied is the flow generated by a uniform torque density in a planar layer of infinite fluid. The spinning particles drive a nearly uniform flow on either side of the layer, in opposite directions on the two sides. The Green function of the extended Stokes equations is derived. The translational and rotational friction coefficients of a sphere with no-slip boundary conditions, and the corresponding flow profiles, are calculated. PMID:22191899

2. Numerical Simulation of the Sedimentation of a Tripole-like Body in an Incompressible Viscous Fluid

SciTech Connect

Juarez, L H.; Glowinski, R; Pettitt, Bernard M.

2002-08-01

In this note, we discuss the application of a methodology combining distributed Lagrange multiplier based fictitious domain techniques, finite-element approximations and operator splitting, to the numerical simulation of the motion of a tripole-like rigid body falling in a Newtonian incompressible viscous fluid. The motion of the body is driven by the hydrodynamical forces and gravity. The numerical simulation shows that the distribution of mass of this rigid body and added moment of inertia compared to a simple cylinder (circular or elliptic) plays a significant role on the particle-fluid interaction. Apparently, for the parameters examined, the action of the moving rigid body on the fluid is stronger than the hydrodynamic forces acting on the rigid body.

3. Incompressible wave motion of inhomogeneous, compressible fluids in a gravity field

Godin, O. A.

2012-04-01

-linear wave motion of compressible fluids to the well-known Gerstner wave in incompressible fluids is discussed.

4. A fast pressure-correction method for incompressible two-fluid flows

Dodd, Michael S.; Ferrante, Antonino

2014-09-01

We have developed a new pressure-correction method for simulating incompressible two-fluid flows with large density and viscosity ratios. The method's main advantage is that the variable coefficient Poisson equation that arises in solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for two-fluid flows is reduced to a constant coefficient equation, which can be solved with an FFT-based, fast Poisson solver. This reduction is achieved by splitting the variable density pressure gradient term in the governing equations. The validity of this splitting is demonstrated from our numerical tests, and it is explained from a physical viewpoint. In this paper, the new pressure-correction method is coupled with a mass-conserving volume-of-fluid method to capture the motion of the interface between the two fluids but, in general, it could be coupled with other interface advection methods such as level-set, phase-field, or front-tracking. First, we verified the new pressure-correction method using the capillary wave test-case up to density and viscosity ratios of 10,000. Then, we validated the method by simulating the motion of a falling water droplet in air and comparing the droplet terminal velocity with an experimental value. Next, the method is shown to be second-order accurate in space and time independent of the VoF method, and it conserves mass, momentum, and kinetic energy in the inviscid limit. Also, we show that for solving the two-fluid Navier-Stokes equations, the method is 10-40 times faster than the standard pressure-correction method, which uses multigrid to solve the variable coefficient Poisson equation. Finally, we show that the method is capable of performing fully-resolved direct numerical simulation (DNS) of droplet-laden isotropic turbulence with thousands of droplets using a computational mesh of 10243 points.

5. Lattice Boltzmann method for binary fluids based on mass-conserving quasi-incompressible phase-field theory

Yang, Kang; Guo, Zhaoli

2016-04-01

In this paper, a lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) model is proposed for binary fluids based on a quasi-incompressible phase-field model [J. Shen et al., Commun. Comput. Phys. 13, 1045 (2013), 10.4208/cicp.300711.160212a]. Compared with the other incompressible LBE models based on the incompressible phase-field theory, the quasi-incompressible model conserves mass locally. A series of numerical simulations are performed to validate the proposed model, and comparisons with an incompressible LBE model [H. Liang et al., Phys. Rev. E 89, 053320 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.89.053320] are also carried out. It is shown that the proposed model can track the interface accurately. As the stationary droplet and rising bubble problems, the quasi-incompressible LBE gives nearly the same predictions as the incompressible model, but the compressible effect in the present model plays a significant role in the phase separation problem. Therefore, in general cases the present mass-conserving model should be adopted.

6. User's manual for PELE3D: a computer code for three-dimensional incompressible fluid dynamics

SciTech Connect

McMaster, W H

1982-05-07

The PELE3D code is a three-dimensional semi-implicit Eulerian hydrodynamics computer program for the solution of incompressible fluid flow coupled to a structure. The fluid and coupling algorithms have been adapted from the previously developed two-dimensional code PELE-IC. The PELE3D code is written in both plane and cylindrical coordinates. The coupling algorithm is general enough to handle a variety of structural shapes. The free surface algorithm is able to accommodate a top surface and several independent bubbles. The code is in a developmental status since all the intended options have not been fully implemented and tested. Development of this code ended in 1980 upon termination of the contract with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

7. The capturing of free surfaces in incompressible multi-fluid flows

Pan, Dartzi; Chang, Chih-Hao

2000-05-01

By treating it as a contact discontinuity in the density field, a free surface between two immiscible fluids can be automatically captured by the enforcement of conservation laws. A surface-capturing method of this kind requires no special tracking or fitting treatment for the free surface, thereby offering the advantage of algorithm simplicity over the surface-tracking or the surface-fitting method. A surface-capturing method based on a new multi-fluid incompressible Navier-Stokes formulation is developed. It is applied to a variety of free-surface flows, including the Rayleigh-Taylor instability problem, the ship waves around a Wigley hull and a model bubble-rising problem to demonstrate the validity and versatility of the present method. Copyright

8. Swimming of a deformable slab in a viscous incompressible fluid with inertia

Felderhof, B. U.

2015-12-01

The swimming of a deformable planar slab in a viscous incompressible fluid is studied on the basis of the Navier-Stokes equations. A continuum of plane wave displacements, symmetric on both sides of the slab and characterized by a polarization angle, allows optimization of the swimming efficiency with respect to polarization. The mean swimming velocity and mean rate of dissipation are calculated to second order in the amplitude of the stroke. The optimum efficiency depends on the ratio of viscosity and mass density of the fluid. For high viscosity a stroke is found with significantly higher efficiency than Taylor's solution for a waving sheet. For low viscosity the efficiency is optimal for a nearly irrotational flow pattern.

9. Weak Dual Pairs and Jetlet Methods for Ideal Incompressible Fluid Models in n ≥ 2 Dimensions

Cotter, C. J.; Eldering, J.; Holm, D. D.; Jacobs, H. O.; Meier, D. M.

2016-07-01

We review the role of dual pairs in mechanics and use them to derive particle-like solutions to regularized incompressible fluid systems. In our case we have a dual pair resulting from the action of diffeomorphisms on point particles (essentially by moving the points). We then augment our dual pair by considering the action of diffeomorphisms on Taylor series, also known as jets. The augmented weak dual pairs induce a hierarchy of particle-like solutions and conservation laws with particles carrying a copy of a jet group. We call these augmented particles jetlets. The jet groups serve as finite-dimensional models of the diffeomorphism group itself, and so the jetlet particles serve as a finite-dimensional model of the self-similarity exhibited by ideal incompressible fluids. The conservation law associated to jetlet solutions is shown to be a shadow of Kelvin's circulation theorem. Finally, we study the dynamics of infinite time particle mergers. We prove that two merging particles at the zeroth level in the hierarchy yield dynamics which asymptotically approach that of a single particle in the first level in the hierarchy. This merging behavior is then verified numerically as well as the exchange of angular momentum which must occur during a near collision of two particles. The resulting particle-like solutions suggest a new class of meshless methods which work in dimensions n ≥ 2 and which exhibit a shadow of Kelvin's circulation theorem. More broadly, this provides one of the first finite-dimensional models of self-similarity in ideal fluids.

10. On the Motion of a Small Light Body Immersed in a Two Dimensional Incompressible Perfect Fluid with Vorticity

Glass, Olivier; Lacave, Christophe; Sueur, Franck

2016-02-01

In this paper we consider the motion of a rigid body immersed in a two dimensional unbounded incompressible perfect fluid with vorticity. We prove that when the body shrinks to a massless pointwise particle with fixed circulation, the "fluid+rigid body" system converges to the vortex-wave system introduced by Marchioro and Pulvirenti (Mathematical theory of incompressible nonviscous fluids. Applied Mathematical Sciences 96, Springer-Verlag, 1994). This extends both the paper (Glass et al. Bull Soc Math France 142(3):489-536, 2014) where the case of a solid tending to a massive pointwise particle was tackled and the paper (Glass et al. Dynamics of a point vortex as limits of a shrinking solid in an irrotational fluid, 2014) where the massless case was considered but in a bounded cavity filled with an irrotational fluid.

11. An incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics method for the motion of rigid bodies in fluids

Tofighi, N.; Ozbulut, M.; Rahmat, A.; Feng, J. J.; Yildiz, M.

2015-09-01

A two-dimensional incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics scheme is presented for simulation of rigid bodies moving through Newtonian fluids. The scheme relies on combined usage of the rigidity constraints and the viscous penalty method to simulate rigid body motion. Different viscosity ratios and interpolation schemes are tested by simulating a rigid disc descending in quiescent medium. A viscosity ratio of 100 coupled with weighted harmonic averaging scheme has been found to provide satisfactory results. The performance of the resulting scheme is systematically tested for cases with linear motion, rotational motion and their combination. The test cases include sedimentation of a single and a pair of circular discs, sedimentation of an elliptic disc and migration and rotation of a circular disc in linear shear flow. Comparison with previous results at various Reynolds numbers indicates that the proposed method captures the motion of rigid bodies driven by flow or external body forces accurately.

12. Updated lagrangian mixed finite element formulation for quasi and fully incompressible fluids

Oñate, Eugenio; Carbonell, Josep M.

2014-12-01

We present a mixed velocity-pressure finite element formulation for solving the updated Lagrangian equations for quasi and fully incompressible fluids. Details of the governing equations for the conservation of momentum and mass are given in both differential and variational form. The finite element interpolation uses an equal order approximation for the velocity and pressure unknowns. The procedure for obtaining stabilized FEM solutions is outlined. The solution in time of the discretized governing conservation equations using an incremental iterative segregated scheme is described. The linearization of these equations and the derivation of the corresponding tangent stiffness matrices is detailed. Other iterative schemes for the direct computation of the nodal velocities and pressures at the updated configuration are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of choosing the current or the updated configuration as the reference configuration in the Lagrangian formulation are discussed.

13. Equilibria, stability and Hamiltonian Hopf bifurcation of a gyrostat in an incompressible ideal fluid

Guirao, Juan L. G.; Vera, Juan A.

2012-10-01

For a gyrostat in a incompressible ideal fluid, by writing Kirchhoff’s equations as a Lie-Poisson system and using a non-canonical Hamiltonian formulation, we provide the expressions of the equilibria when the gyrostatic momentum is constant with the form l=(0,0,l) and present necessary and sufficient conditions for the stability of some of them via the energy-Casimir method and the study of the linearized equations of the motion. Finally, using a recent geometric method introduced by Hanssmann and Van der Meer, we give a sufficient condition for the existence of a non-degenerate Hamiltonian Hopf bifurcation at those equilibria when the gyrostat is symmetric.

14. The construction and use of divergence free vector expansions for incompressible fluid flow calculations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mhuiris, N. M. G.

1986-01-01

For incompressible fluids the law of mass conservation reduces to a constraint on the velocity vector, namely that it be divergence free. This constraint has long been a source of great difficulty to the numericist seeking to discretize the Navier-Stokes and Euler equations. A spectral method is discussed which overcomes this difficulty. Its efficacy is demonstrated on some simple problems. The velocity is approximated by a finite sum of divergence free vectors, each of which satisfies the same boundary conditions as the velocity. Projecting the governing equation onto the space of inviscid vector fields eliminates the pressure term and produces a set of ordinary differential equations that must be solved for the coefficents in the velocity. The pressure can then be recovered if it is needed.

15. Velocity relaxation of an ellipsoid immersed in a viscous incompressible fluid

Felderhof, B. U.

2013-01-01

The motion of an ellipsoid in a viscous incompressible fluid, caused by a small time-dependent applied force, is studied on the basis of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations in terms of the frequency-dependence of the friction tensor. The asymptotic behavior of the hydrodynamic force at high frequency contains a term linear in frequency, with an added mass coefficient, and a term proportional to the square root of frequency, with a Basset coefficient. The latter is calculated from an expression derived by Batchelor [An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1967)]. A simple approximate three-pole expression is proposed for the frequency-dependent admittance for each principal direction, embodying added mass, particle mass, the steady state friction coefficient, and the Basset coefficient. It is suggested that a remaining unknown coefficient in the expression be determined by experiment, computer simulation, or numerical solution of an integral equation derived by Pozrikidis ["A study of linearized oscillatory flow past particles by the boundary-integral method," J. Fluid Mech. 202, 17 (1989), 10.1017/S0022112089001084].

16. CCM Continuity Constraint Method: A finite-element computational fluid dynamics algorithm for incompressible Navier-Stokes fluid flows

SciTech Connect

Williams, P.T.

1993-09-01

As the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) continues to mature, algorithms are required to exploit the most recent advances in approximation theory, numerical mathematics, computing architectures, and hardware. Meeting this requirement is particularly challenging in incompressible fluid mechanics, where primitive-variable CFD formulations that are robust, while also accurate and efficient in three dimensions, remain an elusive goal. This dissertation asserts that one key to accomplishing this goal is recognition of the dual role assumed by the pressure, i.e., a mechanism for instantaneously enforcing conservation of mass and a force in the mechanical balance law for conservation of momentum. Proving this assertion has motivated the development of a new, primitive-variable, incompressible, CFD algorithm called the Continuity Constraint Method (CCM). The theoretical basis for the CCM consists of a finite-element spatial semi-discretization of a Galerkin weak statement, equal-order interpolation for all state-variables, a 0-implicit time-integration scheme, and a quasi-Newton iterative procedure extended by a Taylor Weak Statement (TWS) formulation for dispersion error control. Original contributions to algorithmic theory include: (a) formulation of the unsteady evolution of the divergence error, (b) investigation of the role of non-smoothness in the discretized continuity-constraint function, (c) development of a uniformly H{sup 1} Galerkin weak statement for the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes pressure Poisson equation, (d) derivation of physically and numerically well-posed boundary conditions, and (e) investigation of sparse data structures and iterative methods for solving the matrix algebra statements generated by the algorithm.

17. Advanced computational techniques for incompressible/compressible fluid-structure interactions

Kumar, Vinod

2005-07-01

Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) problems are of great importance to many fields of engineering and pose tremendous challenges to numerical analyst. This thesis addresses some of the hurdles faced for both 2D and 3D real life time-dependent FSI problems with particular emphasis on parachute systems. The techniques developed here would help improve the design of parachutes and are of direct relevance to several other FSI problems. The fluid system is solved using the Deforming-Spatial-Domain/Stabilized Space-Time (DSD/SST) finite element formulation for the Navier-Stokes equations of incompressible and compressible flows. The structural dynamics solver is based on a total Lagrangian finite element formulation. Newton-Raphson method is employed to linearize the otherwise nonlinear system resulting from the fluid and structure formulations. The fluid and structural systems are solved in decoupled fashion at each nonlinear iteration. While rigorous coupling methods are desirable for FSI simulations, the decoupled solution techniques provide sufficient convergence in the time-dependent problems considered here. In this thesis, common problems in the FSI simulations of parachutes are discussed and possible remedies for a few of them are presented. Further, the effects of the porosity model on the aerodynamic forces of round parachutes are analyzed. Techniques for solving compressible FSI problems are also discussed. Subsequently, a better stabilization technique is proposed to efficiently capture and accurately predict the shocks in supersonic flows. The numerical examples simulated here require high performance computing. Therefore, numerical tools using distributed memory supercomputers with message passing interface (MPI) libraries were developed.

18. Physical formulation and numerical algorithm for simulating N immiscible incompressible fluids involving general order parameters

SciTech Connect

Dong, S.

2015-02-15

We present a family of physical formulations, and a numerical algorithm, based on a class of general order parameters for simulating the motion of a mixture of N (N⩾2) immiscible incompressible fluids with given densities, dynamic viscosities, and pairwise surface tensions. The N-phase formulations stem from a phase field model we developed in a recent work based on the conservations of mass/momentum, and the second law of thermodynamics. The introduction of general order parameters leads to an extremely strongly-coupled system of (N−1) phase field equations. On the other hand, the general form enables one to compute the N-phase mixing energy density coefficients in an explicit fashion in terms of the pairwise surface tensions. We show that the increased complexity in the form of the phase field equations associated with general order parameters in actuality does not cause essential computational difficulties. Our numerical algorithm reformulates the (N−1) strongly-coupled phase field equations for general order parameters into 2(N−1) Helmholtz-type equations that are completely de-coupled from one another. This leads to a computational complexity comparable to that for the simplified phase field equations associated with certain special choice of the order parameters. We demonstrate the capabilities of the method developed herein using several test problems involving multiple fluid phases and large contrasts in densities and viscosities among the multitude of fluids. In particular, by comparing simulation results with the Langmuir–de Gennes theory of floating liquid lenses we show that the method using general order parameters produces physically accurate results for multiple fluid phases.

19. An Incompressible Fluid Model for High-Speed Pellet Propagation in Guide-tubes

Perkins, F. W.

2006-04-01

This work reports theoretical models developed to support optimization of pellet-fueling. Experiments show pellet penetration will be optimized by high-field-side, high-speed launch. In present pellet systems, acceleration takes place outside the main tokamak chamber and pellets must propagate at high velocity through curved guide tubes to reach the desired HFS launch point. If the pellet velocity V exceeds a critical value Vc 300m/s, then centrifugal force will breakup the pellet in agreement with observations. In the limit V>>Vc, the pellet material can be modeled as an incompressible granular fluid of DT dust fragments and an equation is developed for its length l along the guide tube. The solution shows that l depends only on the angle the guide tube bends and not on the pellet speed. If a v-notch guide tube is used with a right-angle bend, the pellet as emerges as a highly elongated DT dust cloud, essentially a fluid jet. Further analysis shows this jet to be unstable and breakup into a series of droplets is expected. Ablation calculations based on droplet size result in poor penetration.

20. Mass transfer effects on an unsteady MHD free convective flow of an incompressible viscous dissipative fluid past an infinite vertical porous plate

Prabhakar Reddy, B.

2016-02-01

In this paper, a numerical solution of mass transfer effects on an unsteady free convection flow of an incompressible electrically conducting viscous dissipative fluid past an infinite vertical porous plate under the influence of a uniform magnetic field considered normal to the plate has been obtained. The non-dimensional governing equations for this investigation are solved numerically by using the Ritz finite element method. The effects of flow parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration fields are presented through the graphs and numerical data for the skin-friction, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are presented in tables and then discussed.

1. Nonlinear Exact Solutions of the 2-Dimensional Rotational Euler Equations for the Incompressible Fluid

An, Hong-Li; Yang, Jin-Jing; Yuen, Man-Wai

2015-05-01

In this paper, the Clarkson-Kruskal direct approach is employed to investigate the exact solutions of the 2-dimensional rotational Euler equations for the incompressible fluid. The application of the method leads to a system of completely solvable ordinary differential equations. Several special cases are discussed and novel nonlinear exact solutions with respect to variables x and y are obtained. It is of interest to notice that the pressure p is obtained by the second kind of curvilinear integral and the coefficients of the nonlinear solutions are solitary wave type functions like tanh(kt/2) and sech (kt/2) due to the rotational parameter k ≠ 0. Such phenomenon never appear in the classical Euler equations wherein the Coriolis force arising from the gravity and Earth's rotation is ignored. Finally, illustrative numerical figures are attached to show the behaviors that the exact solutions may exhibit. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11301269, Jiangsu Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. BK20130665, the Fundamental Research Funds KJ2013036 for the Central Universities, Student Research Training under Grant No. 1423A02 of Nanjing Agricultural University, and the Research Grant RG21/2013-2014R from the Hong Kong Institute of Education

2. A GPU-accelerated flow solver for incompressible two-phase fluid flows

Codyer, Stephen; Raessi, Mehdi; Khanna, Gaurav

2011-11-01

We present a numerical solver for incompressible, immiscible, two-phase fluid flows that is accelerated by using Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). The Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the projection method, which involves solving a pressure Poisson problem at each time step. A second-order discretization of the Poisson problem leads to a sparse matrix with five and seven diagonals for two- and three-dimensional simulations, respectively. Running a serial linear algebra solver on a single CPU can take 50-99.9% of the total simulation time to solve the above system for pressure. To remove this bottleneck, we utilized the large parallelization capabilities of GPUs; we developed a linear algebra solver based on the conjugate gradient iterative method (CGIM) by using CUDA 4.0 libraries and compared its performance with CUSP, an open-source, GPU library for linear algebra. Compared to running the CGIM solver on a single CPU core, for a 2D case, our GPU solver yields speedups of up to 88x in solver time and 81x overall time on a single GPU card. In 3D cases, the speedups are up to 81x (solver) and 15x (overall). Speedup is faster at higher grid resolutions and our GPU solver outperforms CUSP. Current work examines the acceleration versus a parallel CGIM CPU solver.

3. Parallel finite element simulations of incompressible viscous fluid flow by domain decomposition with Lagrange multipliers

Rivera, Christian A.; Heniche, Mourad; Glowinski, Roland; Tanguy, Philippe A.

2010-07-01

A parallel approach to solve three-dimensional viscous incompressible fluid flow problems using discontinuous pressure finite elements and a Lagrange multiplier technique is presented. The strategy is based on non-overlapping domain decomposition methods, and Lagrange multipliers are used to enforce continuity at the boundaries between subdomains. The novelty of the work is the coupled approach for solving the velocity-pressure-Lagrange multiplier algebraic system of the discrete Navier-Stokes equations by a distributed memory parallel ILU (0) preconditioned Krylov method. A penalty function on the interface constraints equations is introduced to avoid the failure of the ILU factorization algorithm. To ensure portability of the code, a message based memory distributed model with MPI is employed. The method has been tested over different benchmark cases such as the lid-driven cavity and pipe flow with unstructured tetrahedral grids. It is found that the partition algorithm and the order of the physical variables are central to parallelization performance. A speed-up in the range of 5-13 is obtained with 16 processors. Finally, the algorithm is tested over an industrial case using up to 128 processors. In considering the literature, the obtained speed-ups on distributed and shared memory computers are found very competitive.

4. Flow and Drag Formulas for Simple Quadrics. [pressure drag and flow equations for an ellipsoid in incompressible fluids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zahm, A. F.

1979-01-01

The pressure distribution and resistance found by theory and experiment for simple quadrics fixed in an infinite uniform stream of practically incompressible fluid are calculated. The experimental values pertain to air and some liquids, especially water; the theoretical refer sometimes to perfect, again to viscid fluids. Formulas for the velocity at all points of the flow field are given. Pressure and pressure drag are discussed for a sphere, a round cylinder, the elliptic cylinder, the prolate and oblate spheroid, and the circular disk. The velocity and pressure in an oblique flow are examined.

5. Laminar and turbulent incompressible fluid flow analysis with heat transfer by the finite element method

SciTech Connect

Cochran, R.J.

1992-01-01

A study of the finite element method applied to two-dimensional incompressible fluid flow analysis with heat transfer is performed using a mixed Galerkin finite element method with the primitive variable form of the model equations. Four biquadratic, quadrilateral elements are compared in this study--the serendipity biquadratic element with bilinear continuous pressure interpolation (Q2(8)-Q1) and the Lagrangian biquadratic element with bilinear continuous pressure interpolation (Q2-Q1) of the Taylor-Hood form. A modified form of the Q2-Q1 element is also studied. The pressure interpolation is augmented by a discontinuous constant shape function for pressure (Q2-Q1+). The discontinuous pressure element formulation makes use of biquadratic shape functions and a discontinuous linear interpolation of the pressure (Q2-P1(3)). Laminar flow solutions, with heat transfer, are compared to analytical and computational benchmarks for flat channel, backward-facing step and buoyancy driven flow in a square cavity. It is shown that the discontinuous pressure elements provide superior solution characteristics over the continuous pressure elements. Highly accurate heat transfer solutions are obtained and the Q2-P1(3) element is chosen for extension to turbulent flow simulations. Turbulent flow solutions are presented for both low turbulence Reynolds number and high Reynolds number formulations of two-equation turbulence models. The following three forms of the length scale transport equation are studied; the turbulence energy dissipation rate ([var epsilon]), the turbulence frequency ([omega]) and the turbulence time scale (tau). It is shown that the low turbulence Reynolds number model consisting of the K - [tau] transport equations, coupled with the damping functions of Shih and Hsu, provides an optimal combination of numerical stability and solution accuracy for the flat channel flow.

6. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS: Phase Effect on Mode Coupling in Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability for Two-Dimensional Incompressible Fluid

Wang, Li-Feng; Teng, Ai-Ping; Ye, Wen-Hua; Xue, Chuang; Fan, Zheng-Feng; Li, Ying-Jun

2009-10-01

This paper studies the phase effect in mode coupling of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in two-dimensional incompressible fluid. It is found that there is an important growth phenomenon of every mode in the mode coupling process. The growth changes periodically with phase difference and in the condition of our simulation the period is about 0.7π. The period characteristic is apparent in all stage of the mode coupling process, especially in the relatively later stage.

7. Adaptive particle-based pore-level modeling of incompressible fluid flow in porous media: a direct and parallel approach

Ovaysi, S.; Piri, M.

2009-12-01

We present a three-dimensional fully dynamic parallel particle-based model for direct pore-level simulation of incompressible viscous fluid flow in disordered porous media. The model was developed from scratch and is capable of simulating flow directly in three-dimensional high-resolution microtomography images of naturally occurring or man-made porous systems. It reads the images as input where the position of the solid walls are given. The entire medium, i.e., solid and fluid, is then discretized using particles. The model is based on Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) technique. We modify this technique in order to improve its stability. The model handles highly irregular fluid-solid boundaries effectively. It takes into account viscous pressure drop in addition to the gravity forces. It conserves mass and can automatically detect any false connectivity with fluid particles in the neighboring pores and throats. It includes a sophisticated algorithm to automatically split and merge particles to maintain hydraulic connectivity of extremely narrow conduits. Furthermore, it uses novel methods to handle particle inconsistencies and open boundaries. To handle the computational load, we present a fully parallel version of the model that runs on distributed memory computer clusters and exhibits excellent scalability. The model is used to simulate unsteady-state flow problems under different conditions starting from straight noncircular capillary tubes with different cross-sectional shapes, i.e., circular/elliptical, square/rectangular and triangular cross-sections. We compare the predicted dimensionless hydraulic conductances with the data available in the literature and observe an excellent agreement. We then test the scalability of our parallel model with two samples of an artificial sandstone, samples A and B, with different volumes and different distributions (non-uniform and uniform) of solid particles among the processors. An excellent linear scalability is

8. Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles

SciTech Connect

Choi, S.U.S.; Eastman, J.A.

1995-10-01

Low thermal conductivity is a primary limitation in the development of energy-efficient heat transfer fluids that are required in many industrial applications. In this paper we propose that an innovative new class of heat transfer fluids can be engineered by suspending metallic nanoparticles in conventional heat transfer fluids. The resulting {open_quotes}nanofluids{close_quotes} are expected to exhibit high thermal conductivities compared to those of currently used heat transfer fluids, and they represent the best hope for enhancement of heat transfer. The results of a theoretical study of the thermal conductivity of nanofluids with copper nanophase materials are presented, the potential benefits of the fluids are estimated, and it is shown that one of the benefits of nanofluids will be dramatic reductions in heat exchanger pumping power.

9. Steady incompressible potential flow around lifting bodies immersed in a fluid. M.S. Thesis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chiuchiolo, E. A.

1974-01-01

The refinement was investigated of a method for evaluating the pressure distribution on a body surface of arbitrary shape in incompressible flow. The solution was obtained in terms of the velocity potential, through numerical approximations which require the use of a high speed digital computer. The box method and the modal method are described in detail, and were applied to a very thin, rectangular wing in incompressible, steady flow. The box method is found to be more practical as it is applicable to more general geometries (the modal method requires a new set of functions for each geometry), and requires less computer time (fifty percent of that required by the modal method for the same problem).

10. Laminar and turbulent incompressible fluid flow analysis with heat transfer by the finite element method

Cochran, Robert James

A study of the finite element method applied to two-dimensional incompressible fluid flow analysis with heat transfer is performed using a mixed Galerkin finite element method with the primitive variable form of the model equations. Four biquadratic, quadrilateral elements are compared in this study--the serendipity biquadratic element with bilinear continuous pressure interpolation (Q2(8)-Q1) and the Lagrangian biquadratic element with bilinear continuous pressure interpolation (Q2-Q1) of the Taylor-Hood form. A modified form of the Q-2Q1 element is also studied. The pressure interpolation is augmented by a discontinuous constant shape function for pressure (Q2-Q1+). The discontinuous pressure element formulation makes use of biquadratic shape functions and a discontinuous linear interpolation of the pressure (Q2-P1(3)). Laminar flow solutions, with heat transfer, are compared to analytical and computational benchmarks for flat channel, backward-facing step and buoyancy driven flow in a square cavity. It is shown that the discontinuous pressure elements provide superior solution characteristics over the continuous pressure elements. Highly accurate heat transfer solutions are obtained and the Q2-P1(3) element is chosen for extension to turbulent flow simulations. Turbulent flow solutions are presented for both low turbulence Reynolds number and high Reynolds number formulations of two equation turbulence models. The following three forms of the length scale transport equation are studied: the turbulence energy dissipation rate (epsilon), the turbulence frequency (omega) and the turbulence time scale (tau). It is shown that the low turbulence Reynolds number model consisting of the k-tau transport equations, coupled with the damping functions of Shih and Hsu, provides an optimal combination of numerical stability and solution accuracy for the flat channel flow. Attempts to extend the formulation beyond the flat channel were not successful due to oscillatory

11. A Multiblock Approach for Calculating Incompressible Fluid Flows on Unstructured Grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sheng, Chunhua; Whitfield, David L.; Anderson, W. Kyle

1997-01-01

A multiblock approach is presented for solving two-dimensional incompressible turbulent flows on unstructured grids. The artificial compressibility form of the governing equations is solved by a vertex-centered, finite-volume implicit scheme which uses a backward Euler time discretization. Point Gauss-Seidel relaxations are used to solve the linear system of equations at each time step. This work introduces a multiblock strategy to the solution procedure, which greatly improves the efficiency of the algorithm by significantly reducing the memory requirements while not increasing the CPU time. Results presented in this work shows that the current multiblock algorithm requires 70% less memory than the single block algorithm.

12. A hybrid approach for the simulation of a nearly neutrally buoyant nanoparticle thermal motion in an incompressible Newtonian fluid medium.

PubMed

Uma, B; Radhakrishnan, R; Eckmann, D M; Ayyaswamy, P S

2013-01-01

A hybrid scheme based on Markovian fluctuating hydrodynamics of the fluid and a non-Markovian Langevin dynamics with the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise perturbing the translational and rotational equations of motion of a nanoparticle is employed to study the thermal motion of a nearly neutrally buoyant nanoparticle in an incompressible Newtonian fluid medium. A direct numerical simulation adopting an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian based finite element method is employed in simulating the thermal motion of the particle suspended in the fluid contained in a cylindrical vessel. The instantaneous flow around the particle and the particle motion are fully resolved. The numerical results show that (a) the calculated temperature of the nearly neutrally buoyant Brownian particle in a quiescent fluid satisfies the equipartition theorem; (b) the translational and rotational decay of the velocity autocorrelation functions result in algebraic tails, over long time; (c) the translational and rotational mean square displacements of the particle obeys Stokes-Einstein and Stokes-Einstein-Debye relations, respectively; and (d) the parallel and perpendicular diffusivities of the particle closer to the wall are consistent with the analytical results, where available. The study has important implications for designing nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery. PMID:23814315

13. Effect of inertia on laminar swimming and flying of an assembly of rigid spheres in an incompressible viscous fluid

Felderhof, B. U.

2015-11-01

A mechanical model of swimming and flying in an incompressible viscous fluid in the absence of gravity is studied on the basis of assumed equations of motion. The system is modeled as an assembly of rigid spheres subject to elastic direct interactions and to periodic actuating forces which sum to zero. Hydrodynamic interactions are taken into account in the virtual mass matrix and in the friction matrix of the assembly. An equation of motion is derived for the velocity of the geometric center of the assembly. The mean power is calculated as the mean rate of dissipation. The full range of viscosity is covered, so that the theory can be applied to the flying of birds, as well as to the swimming of fish or bacteria. As an example a system of three equal spheres moving along a common axis is studied.

14. Effect of inertia on laminar swimming and flying of an assembly of rigid spheres in an incompressible viscous fluid.

PubMed

Felderhof, B U

2015-11-01

A mechanical model of swimming and flying in an incompressible viscous fluid in the absence of gravity is studied on the basis of assumed equations of motion. The system is modeled as an assembly of rigid spheres subject to elastic direct interactions and to periodic actuating forces which sum to zero. Hydrodynamic interactions are taken into account in the virtual mass matrix and in the friction matrix of the assembly. An equation of motion is derived for the velocity of the geometric center of the assembly. The mean power is calculated as the mean rate of dissipation. The full range of viscosity is covered, so that the theory can be applied to the flying of birds, as well as to the swimming of fish or bacteria. As an example a system of three equal spheres moving along a common axis is studied. PMID:26651783

15. Measurement of the mechanical deformations of an elastic spherical shell, filled with an incompressible fluid, with the help of a semiconductor laser autodyne

SciTech Connect

Usanov, D A; Skripal, A V; Dobdin, S Yu

2012-04-30

We report the possibility of measuring mechanical deformations of an elastic spherical shell filled with an incompressible fluid under the action of an air pulse. The value of the deformation was determined by the semiconductor laser autodyne signal using a wavelet transform. It is established that it correlates with the internal pressure.

16. A Finite Element Method for Free-Surface Flows of Incompressible Fluids in Three Dimensions, Part II: Dynamic Wetting Lines

SciTech Connect

Baer, T.A.; Cairncross, R.A.; Rao, R.R.; Sackinger, P.A.; Schunk, P.R.

1999-01-29

To date, few researchers have solved three-dimensional free-surface problems with dynamic wetting lines. This paper extends the free-surface finite element method described in a companion paper [Cairncross, R.A., P.R. Schunk, T.A. Baer, P.A. Sackinger, R.R. Rao, "A finite element method for free surface flows of incompressible fluid in three dimensions, Part I: Boundary-Fitted mesh motion.", to be published (1998)] to handle dynamic wetting. A generalization of the technique used in two dimensional modeling to circumvent double-valued velocities at the wetting line, the so-called kinematic paradox, is presented for a wetting line in three dimensions. This approach requires the fluid velocity normal to the contact line to be zero, the fluid velocity tangent to the contact line to be equal to the tangential component of web velocity, and the fluid velocity into the web to be zero. In addition, slip is allowed in a narrow strip along the substrate surface near the dynamic contact line. For realistic wetting-line motion, a contact angle which varies with wetting speed is required because contact lines in three dimensions typically advance or recede a different rates depending upon location and/or have both advancing and receding portions. The theory is applied to capillary rise of static fluid in a corner, the initial motion of a Newtonian droplet down an inclined plane, and extrusion of a Newtonian fluid from a nozzle onto a moving substrate. The extrusion results are compared to experimental visualization. Subject Categories

17. Gas-liquid Two Phase Flow Modelling of Incompressible Fluid and Experimental Validation Studies in Vertical Centrifugal Casting

Zhou, J. X.; Shen, X.; Yin, Y. J.; Guo, Z.; Wang, H.

2015-06-01

In this paper, Gas-liquid two phase flow mathematic models of incompressible fluid were proposed to explore the feature of fluid under certain centrifugal force in vertical centrifugal casting (VCC). Modified projection-level-set method was introduced to solve the mathematic models. To validate the simulation results, two methods were used in this study. In the first method, the simulation result of basic VCC flow process was compared with its analytic solution. The relationship between the numerical solution and deterministic analytic solution was presented to verify the correctness of numerical algorithms. In the second method, systematic water simulation experiments were developed. In this initial experiment, special experimental vertical centrifugal device and casting shapes were designed to describe typical mold-filling processes in VCC. High speed camera system and data collection devices were used to capture flow shape during the mold-filling process. Moreover, fluid characteristic at different rotation speed (from 40rpm, 60rpmand 80rpm) was discussed to provide comparative resource for simulation results. As compared with the simulation results, the proposed mathematical models could be proven and the experimental design could help us advance the accuracy of simulation and further studies for VCC.

18. Ion slip effect on a steady flow through a circular pipe of a dusty conducting Oldroyd 8-constant fluid

Attia, H. A.; Abdeen, M. A. M.; Elbarawy, M. T. M. M.

2014-09-01

In this paper, a steady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of a dusty incompressible electrically conducting Oldroyd 8-constant fluid through a circular pipe is examined with considering the ion slip effect. A constant pressure gradient in the axial direction and an external uniform magnetic field in the perpendicular direction are applied. A numerical solution is obtained for the governing nonlinear momentum equations by using finite differences. The effect of the ion slip, the non-Newtonian fluid characteristics, and the particle-phase viscosity on the velocity, volumetric flow rates, and skin friction coefficients of both the fluid and particle phases is reported.

19. On the nonlinear stability of the unsteady, viscous flow of an incompressible fluid in a curved pipe

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shortis, Trudi A.; Hall, Philip

1995-01-01

The stability of the flow of an incompressible, viscous fluid through a pipe of circular cross-section curved about a central axis is investigated in a weakly nonlinear regime. A sinusoidal pressure gradient with zero mean is imposed, acting along the pipe. A WKBJ perturbation solution is constructed, taking into account the need for an inner solution in the vicinity of the outer bend, which is obtained by identifying the saddle point of the Taylor number in the complex plane of the cross-sectional angle co-ordinate. The equation governing the nonlinear evolution of the leading order vortex amplitude is thus determined. The stability analysis of this flow to periodic disturbances leads to a partial differential system dependent on three variables, and since the differential operators in this system are periodic in time, Floquet theory may be applied to reduce this system to a coupled infinite system of ordinary differential equations, together with homogeneous uncoupled boundary conditions. The eigenvalues of this system are calculated numerically to predict a critical Taylor number consistent with the analysis of Papageorgiou. A discussion of how nonlinear effects alter the linear stability analysis is also given, and the nature of the instability determined.

20. Flow rate measurement in aggressive conductive fluids

Dubovikova, Nataliia; Kolesnikov, Yuri; Karcher, Christian

2014-03-01

Two non-contact experimental methods of flow rate measurements for aggressive conductive liquids are described. The techniques are based on electromagnetic forces and Faraday's law: Lorentz force is induced inside moving conductive liquid under influence of variable magnetic field of permanent magnets. They are mounted along a liquid metal channel or (in case of the second method) inserted into rotated metal wheels. The force acts in the opposite of fluids' velocity direction and hence it is possible to measure reaction force of it that takes place according to Newton's law on magnetic field source - permanent magnets. And by knowing the force, which linearly depends on velocity, one can calculate mean flow rate of liquid. In addition experimental "dry" calibration and its results are described for one of the measurements' techniques.

1. Flow of a binary mixture of linearly incompressible viscous fluids between two horizontal parallel plates

SciTech Connect

Massoudi, M.

2008-01-01

In this paper, we use the classical Mixture Theory and present exact solutions to the equations of motion for the steady flow of two linearly viscous fluids between two horizontal plates. We show that for a saturated mixture and under very special conditions, namely when the body forces are assumed negligible, the only interaction force is due to relative velocity (drag force), and if the two velocities are assumed to be related to each other in a linear fashion, then it is possible to integrate the coupled ordinary differential equations and obtain analytical expressions for the velocities and the volume fraction.

2. Flow of a binary mixture of linearly incompressible viscous fluids between two horizontal parallel plates

SciTech Connect

2008-12-01

In this paper, we use the classical Mixture Theory and present exact solutions to the equations of motion for the steady flow of two linearly viscous fluids between two horizontal plates. We show that for a saturated mixture and under very special conditions, namely when the body forces are assumed negligible, the only interaction force is due to relative velocity (drag force), and if the two velocities are assumed to be related to each other in a linear fashion, then it is possible to integrate the coupled ordinary differential equations and obtain analytical expressions for the velocities and the volume fraction.

3. Numerical investigation of incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer around a rotating circular cylinder

Bouakkaz, R.; Talbi, K.; Khelil, Y.; Salhi, F.; Belghar, N.; Ouazizi, M.

2014-01-01

The heat transfer and air flow around an unconfined heated rotating circular cylinder is investigated numerically for varying rotation rates ( α = 0-6) in the Reynolds number range of 20-200. The numerical calculations are carried out by using a finite volume method based commercial computational fluid dynamics solver FLUENT. The successive changes in the flow pattern are studied as a function of the rotation rate. Suppression of vortex shedding occurs as the rotation rate increases ( α > 2). A second kind of instability appears for higher rotation speed where a series of counter-clockwise vortices is shed in the upper shear layer. The rotation attenuates the secondary instability and increases the critical Reynolds number for the appearance of this instability. Besides, time-averaged (lift and drag coefficients and Nusselt number) results are obtained and compared with the literature data. A good agreement has been obtained for both the local and averaged values.

4. Contribution to the study of vortex flow in an incompressible fluid

Pascal, Philippe

Vortices can have large effects on the performance of aircraft flying at high angles of attack and missiles equipped with highly swept control surfaces. A theoretical study was conducted to develop a calculation method for predicting vortex flows. Different models used to determine how the vortex approaches breakdown were compared. These methods are based on the assumption of axisymmetry and on a conventional statistical treatment of the turbulence using closure in one point. The computations and experimental results were compared. An experimental study was conducted in a wind tunnel to qualify the influence of turbulence in the development of an unburst vortex. An arrangement producing a wing tip vortex was used. The internal structure of the vortex exhibited a velocity maximum in its center which decreased longitudinally. The external velocity field is represented by a potential vortex. The existence of lateral flow movements induced low frequency fluctuations which are superimposed on the turbulence.

5. Incompressible fluid ellipsoids in halos. I - The second-harmonic oscillations of the Maclaurin spheroids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Durisen, R. H.

1978-01-01

The structure and stability of Maclaurin spheroids embedded in rigid uniform-density oblate spheroidal halos are determined by the tensor virial-equation method. These spheroid-halo systems can be thought of as crude fluid analogs of disk galaxies with halos. The halos are assumed to have the same center, the same axis of symmetry, and the same equatorial radius as the Maclaurin spheroids. Only halos with lower eccentricity than the Maclaurin spheroids are considered. The dynamic instability of the toroidal (barlike) modes is suppressed when m, the ratio of the halo mass to Maclaurin spheroid mass, is greater than 3 pi/8 for spherical halos and when m is greater than 1/2 for halos congruent to the Maclaurin spheroids. Intermediate halo flattenings yield intermediate critical m-values. On the other hand, a neutral point of the toroidal modes in the rotating and inertial frames occurs for all m and for all allowed halo flattenings. Growth rates for secular instability beyond the neutral point are calculated, and the eigenfrequencies of all second-harmonic modes are given for select cases. The Ostriker-Peebles (1973) conjecture concerning the stability of disk galaxies against barlike perturbations appears to be incorrect.

6. Experimental Study of the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability of Incompressible Fluids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Niederhaus, Charles; Jacobs, Jeffrey W.

2002-01-01

The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability of a low Atwood number, miscible, two-liquid system is investigated experimentally. The initially stratified fluids are contained within a rectangular tank mounted to a sled that rides on a vertical set of rails. The instability is generated by dropping the sled onto a coil spring, producing a nearly impulsive upward acceleration. The subsequent freefall that occurs as the container travels upward and then downward on the rails allows the instability to evolve in the absence of gravity. The interface separating the two liquids initially has a well-defined, sinusoidal perturbation that quickly inverts and then grows in amplitude after undergoing the impulsive acceleration. Disturbance amplitudes are measured and compared to theoretical predictions. Linear stability theory gives excellent agreement with the measured initial growth rate, a(sub 0), for single-mode perturbations with the predicted amplitudes differing by less than 10% from experimental measurements up to a nondimensional time ka(sub 0)t = 0.7, where k is the wavenumber. Linear stability theory also provides excellent agreement for the individual mode amplitudes of multi-mode initial perturbations up until the interface becomes multi-valued. Comparison with previously published weakly nonlinear single-mode models shows good agreement up to ka(sub 0)t = 3, while published nonlinear single-mode models provide good agreement up to ka(sub 0)t = 30. The effects of Reynolds number on the vortex core evolution and overall growth rate of the interface are also investigated. Measurements of the overall amplitude are found to be unaffected by the Reynolds number for the range of values studied here. However, experiments carried out at lower values of Reynolds numbers were found to have decreased vortex core rotation rates. In addition, an instability in the vortex cores is observed.

7. An investigation of Newton-Krylov algorithms for solving incompressible and low Mach number compressible fluid flow and heat transfer problems using finite volume discretization

SciTech Connect

McHugh, P.R.

1995-10-01

Fully coupled, Newton-Krylov algorithms are investigated for solving strongly coupled, nonlinear systems of partial differential equations arising in the field of computational fluid dynamics. Primitive variable forms of the steady incompressible and compressible Navier-Stokes and energy equations that describe the flow of a laminar Newtonian fluid in two-dimensions are specifically considered. Numerical solutions are obtained by first integrating over discrete finite volumes that compose the computational mesh. The resulting system of nonlinear algebraic equations are linearized using Newtons method. Preconditioned Krylov subspace based iterative algorithms then solve these linear systems on each Newton iteration. Selected Krylov algorithms include the Arnoldi-based Generalized Minimal RESidual (GMRES) algorithm, and the Lanczos-based Conjugate Gradients Squared (CGS), Bi-CGSTAB, and Transpose-Free Quasi-Minimal Residual (TFQMR) algorithms. Both Incomplete Lower-Upper (ILU) factorization and domain-based additive and multiplicative Schwarz preconditioning strategies are studied. Numerical techniques such as mesh sequencing, adaptive damping, pseudo-transient relaxation, and parameter continuation are used to improve the solution efficiency, while algorithm implementation is simplified using a numerical Jacobian evaluation. The capabilities of standard Newton-Krylov algorithms are demonstrated via solutions to both incompressible and compressible flow problems. Incompressible flow problems include natural convection in an enclosed cavity, and mixed/forced convection past a backward facing step.

8. Fluid volume displacement at the oval and round windows with air and bone conduction stimulation

Stenfelt, Stefan; Hato, Naohito; Goode, Richard L.

2004-02-01

The fluids in the cochlea are normally considered incompressible, and the fluid volume displacement of the oval window (OW) and the round window (RW) should be equal and of opposite phase. However, other channels, such as the cochlear and vestibular aqueducts, may affect the fluid flow. To test if the OW and RW fluid flows are equal and of opposite phase, the volume displacement was assessed by multiple point measurement at the windows with a laser Doppler vibrometer. This was done during air conduction (AC) stimulation in seven fresh human temporal bones, and with bone conduction (BC) stimulation in eight temporal bones and one human cadaver head. With AC stimulation, the average volume displacement of the two windows is within 3 dB, and the phase difference is close to 180° for the frequency range 0.1 to 10 kHz. With BC stimulation, the average volume displacement difference between the two windows is greater: below 2 kHz, the volume displacement at the RW is 5 to 15 dB greater than at the OW and above 2 kHz more fluid is displaced at the OW. With BC stimulation, lesions at the OW caused only minor changes of the fluid flow at the RW.

9. RETRACTION: Unsteady flow and heat transfer of viscous incompressible fluid with temperature-dependent viscosity due to a rotating disc in a porous medium

Attia, H. A.

2007-04-01

It has come to the attention of the Institute of Physics that this article should not have been submitted for publication owing to its plagiarism of an earlier paper (Hossain A, Hossain M A and Wilson M 2001 Unsteady flow of viscous incompressible fluid with temperature-dependent viscosity due to a rotating disc in presence of transverse magnetic field and heat transfer Int. J. Therm. Sci. 40 11-20). Therefore this article has been retracted by the Institute of Physics and by the author, Hazem Ali Attia.

10. A hybrid formalism combining fluctuating hydrodynamics and generalized Langevin dynamics for the simulation of nanoparticle thermal motion in an incompressible fluid medium

PubMed Central

Uma, B.; Eckmann, D.M.; Ayyaswamy, P.S.; Radhakrishnan, R.

2012-01-01

A novel hybrid scheme based on Markovian fluctuating hydrodynamics of the fluid and a non-Markovian Langevin dynamics with the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise perturbing the translational and rotational equations of motion of the nanoparticle is employed to study the thermal motion of a nanoparticle in an incompressible Newtonian fluid medium. A direct numerical simulation adopting an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) based finite element method (FEM) is employed in simulating the thermal motion of a particle suspended in the fluid confined in a cylindrical vessel. The results for thermal equilibrium between the particle and the fluid are validated by comparing the numerically predicted temperature of the nanoparticle with that obtained from the equipartition theorem. The nature of the hydrodynamic interactions is verified by comparing the velocity autocorrelation function (VACF) and mean squared displacement (MSD) with well-known analytical results. For nanoparticle motion in an incompressible fluid, the fluctuating hydrodynamics approach resolves the hydrodynamics correctly but does not impose the correct equipartition of energy based on the nanoparticle mass because of the added mass of the displaced fluid. In contrast, the Langevin approach with an appropriate memory is able to show the correct equipartition of energy, but not the correct short- and long-time hydrodynamic correlations. Using our hybrid approach presented here, we show for the first time, that we can simultaneously satisfy the equipartition theorem and the (short- and long-time) hydrodynamic correlations. In effect, this results in a thermostat that also simultaneously preserves the true hydrodynamic correlations. The significance of this result is that our new algorithm provides a robust computational approach to explore nanoparticle motion in arbitrary geometries and flow fields, while simultaneously enabling us to study carrier adhesion mediated by biological reactions (receptor

11. Magnetic field effect on waves in a centrifuged layer of a rotating conducting viscous fluid

Klueva, N. V.; Sandalov, V. M.; Tkach, M. E.; Soldatov, I. N.

2015-05-01

This paper considers wave processes in a centrifuged layer of an incompressible viscous conducting fluid in an axial magnetic field in the cavity of a rapidly rotating infinite cylinder with insulating walls. Inertial modes (solutions of the linearized boundary-value problem of magnetohydrodynamics) are represented as a superposition of helical fields. Expressions for the vorticity parameters of the helical flows forming the inertial mode at a small Stewart number are given. Dispersion curves of inertial waves are constructed, and the influence of the magnetic field on the flow field is analyzed. The critical frequencies at which the lowest (surface) mode arises are determined. The spatial and temporal stability of the modes are investigated.

12. Investigation of Fateh Mishrif fluid-conductive faults

SciTech Connect

Trocchio, J.T. )

1990-08-01

Adjacent well production histories indicated that several faults within the Fateh Mishrif reservoir have fluid-conductive natures. Example histories displayed high formation water cuts in upstructure wells that could be explained only by aquifer influx along nearby faults. Subsequent data gathered in these wells-including the results from pressure-transient tests, production logging, and radioactive-tracer surveys-verified fluid flow paths. This paper demonstrates how specific data-gathering operations and recent reservoir simulation studies revealed the effect of fluid flow along fault planes on overall reservoir performance. The paper presents effects of fluid-conductive faults on development-well placement, waterflood pattern balancing, and workover evaluations.

13. An efficient, interface-preserving level set redistancing algorithm and its application to interfacial incompressible fluid flow

SciTech Connect

Sussman, M. . Dept. of Mathematics); Fatemi, E.

1999-04-01

In Sussman, Smereka, and Osher, a numerical scheme was presented for computing incompressible air-water flows using the level set method. Crucial to the above method was a new iteration method for maintaining the level set function as the signed distance from the zero level set. In this paper the authors implement a constraint along with higher order difference schemes in order to make the iteration method more accurate and efficient. Accuracy is measured in terms of the new computed signed distance function and the original level set function having the same zero level set. The authors apply the redistancing scheme to incompressible flows with noticeably better resolved results at reduced cost. They validate the results with experiment and theory. They show that the distance level set scheme with the added constraint competes well with available interface tracking schemes for basic advection of an interface. They perform basic accuracy checks and more stringent tests involving complicated interfacial structures. As with all level set schemes, the method is easy to implement.

14. On flow of electrically conducting fluids over a flat plate in the presence of a transverse magnetic field

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rossow, Vernon J

1958-01-01

The use of a magnetic field to control the motion of electrically conducting fluids is studied. The incompressible boundary-layer solutions are found for flow over a flat plate when the magnetic field is fixed relative to the plate or to the fluid. The equations are integrated numerically for the effect of the transverse magnetic field on the velocity and temperature profiles, and hence, the skin friction and rate of heat transfer. It is concluded that the skin friction and the heat-transfer rate are reduced when the transverse magnetic field is fixed relative to the plate and increased when fixed relative to the fluid. The total drag is increased in all of the areas.

15. Unsteady Two-Layered Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer of Conducting Fluids in a Channel Between Parallel Porous Plates Under Transverse Magnetic Field

Raju, T. Linga; Nagavalli, M.

2013-08-01

The unsteady magnetohydrodynamic flow of two immiscible fluids in a horizontal channel bounded by two parallel porous isothermal plates in the presence of an applied magnetic and electric field is investigated. The flow is driven by a constant uniform pressure gradient in the channel bounded by two parallel insulating plates, one being stationary and the other oscillating, when both fluids are considered as electrically conducting. Also, both fluids are assumed to be incompressible with variable properties, viz. different viscosities, thermal and electrical conductivities. The transport properties of the two fluids are taken to be constant and the bounding plates are maintained at constant and equal temperatures. The governing equations are partial in nature, which are then reduced to the ordinary linear differential equations using two-term series. Closed form solutions for velocity and temperature distributions are obtained in both fluid regions of the channel. Profiles of these solutions are plotted to discuss the effect on the flow and heat transfer characteristics, and their dependence on the governing parameters involved, such as the Hartmann number, porous parameter, ratios of the viscosities, heights, electrical and thermal conductivities

16. Sub- and super-luminar propagation of structures satisfying Poynting-like theorem for incompressible generalized hydrodynamic fluid model depicting strongly coupled dusty plasma medium

Dharodi, Vikram; Das, Amita; Patel, Bhavesh; Kaw, Predhiman

2016-01-01

The strongly coupled dusty plasma has often been modelled by the Generalized Hydrodynamic (GHD) model used for representing visco-elastic fluid systems. The incompressible limit of the model which supports transverse shear wave mode is studied in detail. In particular, dipole structures are observed to emit transverse shear waves in both the limits of sub- and super-luminar propagation, where the structures move slower and faster than the phase velocity of the shear waves, respectively. In the sub-luminar limit the dipole gets engulfed within the shear waves emitted by itself, which then backreacts on it and ultimately the identity of the structure is lost. However, in the super-luminar limit the emission appears like a wake from the tail region of the dipole. The dipole, however, keeps propagating forward with little damping but minimal distortion in its form. A Poynting-like conservation law with radiative, convective, and dissipative terms being responsible for the evolution of W, which is similar to "enstrophy" like quantity in normal hydrodynamic fluid systems, has also been constructed for the incompressible GHD equations. The conservation law is shown to be satisfied in all the cases of evolution and collision amidst the nonlinear structures to a great accuracy. It is shown that monopole structures which do not move at all but merely radiate shear waves, the radiative term, and dissipative losses solely contribute to the evolution of W. The dipolar structures, on the other hand, propagate in the medium and hence convection also plays an important role in the evolution of W.

17. Phase separation in quasi-incompressible fluids: Cahn-Hilliard model in the Cattaneo-Maxwell framework

Alessia, Berti; Bochicchio, Ivana; Fabrizio, Mauro

2015-02-01

In this paper, we propose a mathematical model of phase separation for a quasi-incompressible binary mixture where the spinodal decomposition is induced by an heat flux governed by the Cattaneo-Maxwell equation. As usual, the phase separation is considered in the framework of phase-field modeling so that the transition is described by an additional field, the mixture concentration c. The evolution of the mixture concentration is described by the Cahn-Hilliard equation, and in our model, it is coupled with the Navier-Stokes equation. Since thermal effect is included, the whole set of evolution equations is set up for the velocity, the mixture concentration, the temperature and the heat flux. The model is compatible with thermodynamics and a maximum theorem holds.

18. System and method for determining velocity of electrically conductive fluid

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polzin, Kurt A. (Inventor); Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Markusic, Thomas E. (Inventor); Stanojev, Boris Johann (Inventor)

2008-01-01

A flowing electrically-conductive fluid is controlled between an upstream and downstream location thereof to insure that a convection timescale of the flowing fluid is less than a thermal diffusion timescale of the flowing fluid. First and second nodes of a current-carrying circuit are coupled to the fluid at the upstream location. A current pulse is applied to the current-carrying circuit so that the current pulse travels through the flowing fluid to thereby generate a thermal feature therein at the upstream location. The thermal feature is convected to the downstream location where it is monitored to detect a peak associated with the thermal feature so-convected. The velocity of the fluid flow is determined using a time-of-flight analysis.

19. Incompressible Flows Free Surfaces

Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

1992-02-01

NASA-VOF3D is a three-dimensional, transient, free surface, incompressible fluid dynamics program. It is specifically designed to calculate confined flows in a low gravity environment in which surface physics must be accurately treated. It allows multiple free surfaces with surface tension and wall adhesion and includes a partial cell treatment that allows curved boundaries and internal obstacles. Variable mesh spacing is permitted in all three coordinate directions. Boundary conditions available are rigid free-slip wall, rigid no-slipmore » wall, continuative, periodic, and specified pressure outflow boundary.« less

20. Hybrid fluid/kinetic model for parallel heat conduction

SciTech Connect

Callen, J.D.; Hegna, C.C.; Held, E.D.

1998-12-31

It is argued that in order to use fluid-like equations to model low frequency ({omega} < {nu}) phenomena such as neoclassical tearing modes in low collisionality ({nu} < {omega}{sub b}) tokamak plasmas, a Chapman-Enskog-like approach is most appropriate for developing an equation for the kinetic distortion (F) of the distribution function whose velocity-space moments lead to the needed fluid moment closure relations. Further, parallel heat conduction in a long collision mean free path regime can be described through a combination of a reduced phase space Chapman-Enskog-like approach for the kinetics and a multiple-time-scale analysis for the fluid and kinetic equations.

1. Computational Challenges of Viscous Incompressible Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin; Kim, Chang Sung

2004-01-01

Over the past thirty years, numerical methods and simulation tools for incompressible flows have been advanced as a subset of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) discipline. Although incompressible flows are encountered in many areas of engineering, simulation of compressible flow has been the major driver for developing computational algorithms and tools. This is probably due to the rather stringent requirements for predicting aerodynamic performance characteristics of flight vehicles, while flow devices involving low-speed or incompressible flow could be reasonably well designed without resorting to accurate numerical simulations. As flow devices are required to be more sophisticated and highly efficient CFD took become increasingly important in fluid engineering for incompressible and low-speed flow. This paper reviews some of the successes made possible by advances in computational technologies during the same period, and discusses some of the current challenges faced in computing incompressible flows.

2. Centrifugal acceleration modes for incompressible fluid in the leakage annulus between a shrouded pump impeller and its housing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Childs, D. W.

1991-01-01

An algorithm is developed for calculating complex eigenvalues and eigenvectors associated with the fluid resonances and is used to analyze the perturbed flow in the leakage path between a shrouded-pump impeller and its housing. The eigenvalues obtained are consistent with the forced-response curves. First- and second-natural-frequency eigensolutions are presented for mode shapes corresponding to lateral excitations, and first-natural-frequency eigensolutions are presented for mode shapes corresponding to axial excitation.

3. Stationary cylindrical vortex in a viscous electrically conducting fluid

Baikin, A. N.; Golovin, S. V.

2013-07-01

An exact solution of the magnetohydrodynamic equations is constructed which describes steady vortex flow in a stationary cylinder on the axis of which a conductor carrying a known current is located. The solution is obtained under the assumption that the fluid is viscous and has finite electrical conductivity and that the magnetic field has only the axial and azimuthal components in a cylindrical coordinate system. It is found that the action of the Lorentz force is compensated by changing the pressure. Fluid flow occurs from the periphery to the axis of the cylinder under a pressure gradient, with flow rotation and swirling. The fluid flow causes a concentration of the magnetic lines near the axis of the cylinder, providing an exponential decrease in the magnetic field strength with distance from the axis. This flow can be considered as a model of a local increase in the magnetic field strength due to the transfer of its force lines by the flow of the electrically conducting fluid.

4. Role of dielectric constant in electrohydrodynamics of conducting fluids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rhodes, Percy H.; Snyder, Robert S.; Roberts, Glyn O.

1992-01-01

Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flows are driven by the interaction of an electric field with variations in electric conductivity or dielectric constant. In reported EHD experiments on the deformation of drops of immiscible dielectric fluids, the role of conductivity has tended to overshadow the role of dielectric constant. Often, large conductivity contrasts were convenient because the conductivities of the dielectric fluid were relatively uncertain. As a result, the observed effects were always qualitatively the same as if there had been no contrast in dielectric constant. Our early experiments studying the EHC deformations of cylindrical streams readily showed the conductivity effect but the dielectric constant effect was not discernible. We have modified our flow chamber and improved our method of observation and can now see an unequivocal dielectric constant effect which is in agreement with the prior theory. In this paper we first give a brief description of the physics of charge buildup at the interface of an immersed spherical drop or flowing cylindrical sample stream and then show how these charge distributions lead to interface distortions and accompanying viscous flows which constitute EHD. We next review theory and experiment describing the deformation of spherical drops. We show that in the reported drop deformation experiments, the contrast in dielectric constant was never sufficient to reverse the deformation due to the conductivity contrast. We review our work describing the deformation of a cylindrical stream of one fluid flowing in a parallel flow of another, and we compare the deformation equations with those for spherical drops. Finally, we show a definite experimental dielectric constant effect for cylindrical stream of aqueous polystyrene latex suspension. The dielectric constant varies with the frequency of the imposed electric field, and the associated EHD flow change is very apparent.

5. Role of dielectric constant in electrohydrodynamics of conducting fluids

Rhodes, Percy H.; Snyder, Robert S.; Roberts, Glyn O.

Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flows are driven by the interaction of an electric field with variations in electric conductivity or dielectric constant. In reported EHD experiments on the deformation of drops of immiscible dielectric fluids, the role of conductivity has tended to overshadow the role of dielectric constant. Often, large conductivity contrasts were convenient because the conductivities of the dielectric fluid were relatively uncertain. As a result, the observed effects were always qualitatively the same as if there had been no contrast in dielectric constant. Our early experiments studying the EHC deformations of cylindrical streams readily showed the conductivity effect but the dielectric constant effect was not discernible. We have modified our flow chamber and improved our method of observation and can now see an unequivocal dielectric constant effect which is in agreement with the prior theory. In this paper we first give a brief description of the physics of charge buildup at the interface of an immersed spherical drop or flowing cylindrical sample stream and then show how these charge distributions lead to interface distortions and accompanying viscous flows which constitute EHD. We next review theory and experiment describing the deformation of spherical drops. We show that in the reported drop deformation experiments, the contrast in dielectric constant was never sufficient to reverse the deformation due to the conductivity contrast. We review our work describing the deformation of a cylindrical stream of one fluid flowing in a parallel flow of another, and we compare the deformation equations with those for spherical drops. Finally, we show a definite experimental dielectric constant effect for cylindrical stream of aqueous polystyrene latex suspension. The dielectric constant varies with the frequency of the imposed electric field, and the associated EHD flow change is very apparent.

6. Acoustic waves superimposed on incompressible flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hodge, Steve

1990-01-01

The use of incompressible approximations in deriving solutions to the Lighthill wave equation was investigated for problems where an analytical solution could be found. A particular model problem involves the determination of the sound field of a spherical oscillating bubble in an ideal fluid. It is found that use of incompressible boundary conditions leads to good approximations in the important region of high acoustic wave number.

7. Unsteady two-layered fluid flow of conducting fluids in a channel between parallel porous plates under transverse magnetic field in a rotating system

Linga Raju, T.; Neela Rao, B.

2016-05-01

An unsteady MHD two-layered fluid flow of electrically conducting fluids in a horizontal channel bounded by two parallel porous plates under the influence of a transversely applied uniform strong magnetic field in a rotating system is analyzed. The flow is driven by a common constant pressure gradient in a channel bounded by two parallel porous plates, one being stationary and the other oscillatory. The two fluids are assumed to be incompressible, electrically conducting with different viscosities and electrical conductivities. The governing partial differential equations are reduced to the linear ordinary differential equations using two-term series. The resulting equations are solved analytically to obtain exact solutions for the velocity distributions (primary and secondary) in the two regions respectively, by assuming their solutions as a combination of both the steady state and time dependent components of the solutions. Numerical values of the velocity distributions are computed for different sets of values of the governing parameters involved in the study and their corresponding profiles are also plotted. The details of the flow characteristics and their dependence on the governing parameters involved, such as the Hartmann number, Taylor number, porous parameter, ratio of the viscosities, electrical conductivities and heights are discussed. Also an observation is made how the velocity distributions vary with the rotating hydromagnetic interaction in the case of steady and unsteady flow motions. The primary velocity distributions in the two regions are seen to decrease with an increase in the Taylor number, but an increase in the Taylor number causes a rise in secondary velocity distributions. It is found that an increase in the porous parameter decreases both the primary and secondary velocity distributions in the two regions.

8. The magnetic-distortion probe: Velocimetry in conducting fluids

Miralles, Sophie; Verhille, Gautier; Plihon, Nicolas; Pinton, Jean-François

2011-09-01

A new type of velocimeter, capable of local velocity measurements in conducting fluids, is introduced. The principle of the "magnetic-distortion probe" is based on the measurement of the induced magnetic field by the flow of a conducting fluid in the vicinity of a localized magnetic field. The new velocimeter has no moving parts, and can be enclosed in a sealed cap, easing the implementation in harsh environments, such as liquid metals. The proposed method allows one to probe both the continuous part and fluctuations of the velocity, the temporal and spatial resolution being linked to the actual geometric configuration of the probe. A prototype probe has been tested in a gallinstan pipe flow and in a fully turbulent flow of liquid gallium generated by the counter rotation of two coaxial impellers in a cylinder. The signals have been compared to a reference potential probe and show very good agreement both for time-averaged velocities and turbulent fluctuations. The prototype is shown to detect motion from a few cm s-1 to a few m s-1. Moreover, the use of the magnetic-distortion probe with large-scale applied magnetic field is discussed.

9. Metastable Lennard-Jones fluids. II. Thermal conductivity.

PubMed

Baidakov, Vladimir G; Protsenko, Sergey P

2014-06-01

The method of equilibrium molecular dynamics with the use of the Green-Kubo formalism has been used to calculate the thermal conductivity λ in stable and metastable regions of a Lennard-Jones fluid. Calculations have been made in the range of reduced temperatures 0.4 ≤ T* = k(b)T/ε ≤ 2.0 and densities 0.01 ≤ ρ* = ρσ³ ≤ 1.2 on 15 isotherms for 234 states, 130 of which refer to metastable regions: superheated and supercooled liquids, supersaturated vapor. Equations have been built up which describe the dependence of the regular part of the thermal conductivity on temperature and density, and also on temperature and pressure. It has been found that in (p, T) variables in the region of a liquid-gas phase transition a family of lines of constant value of excess thermal conductivity Δλ = λ - λ0, where λ0 is the thermal conductivity of a dilute gas, has an envelope which coincides with the spinodal. Thus, at the approach to the spinodal of a superheated liquid and supersaturated vapor (∂Δλ/∂p)T → ∞, (∂Δλ/∂T)p → ∞. PMID:24908025

10. The conductivity dependence of the shear stress in electrorheological fluids

Lan, Yucheng; Xu, Xiaoyu; Men, Shouqiang; Lu, Kunquan

1998-11-01

A ferroelectric KNO3/silicone oil electrorheological (ER) fluid is introduced to investigate the conductivity dependence of the ER effect under dc electric fields where the ER effect is conductivity dominated. By measuring the temperature dependence of the shear stress across the Curie temperature of particles, the dependence of the ER effect on conductivity has been quantitatively obtained in experiments. There is a critical conductivity ratio Γc (or mismatch factor βc2): when Γ<Γc, the shear stress increases with Γ; when Γ>Γc, the shear stress decreases with Γ. An agreement is obtained between theory and experiment when Γ (or β2) is lower. In the higher Γ(or β2) range, the experimental data are not in agreement with the theoretical prediction and the interfacial effect should be taken into account. The experimental data are more reliable due to the same conditions, such as the chemical nature, the surfacial property of particles, and the interfacial property between particles and suspending liquid as well as the size and shape of the particles.

11. An incompressible state of a photo-excited electron gas

PubMed Central

Chepelianskii, Alexei D.; Watanabe, Masamitsu; Nasyedkin, Kostyantyn; Kono, Kimitoshi; Konstantinov, Denis

2015-01-01

Two-dimensional electrons in a magnetic field can form new states of matter characterized by topological properties and strong electronic correlations as displayed in the integer and fractional quantum Hall states. In these states, the electron liquid displays several spectacular characteristics, which manifest themselves in transport experiments with the quantization of the Hall resistance and a vanishing longitudinal conductivity or in thermodynamic equilibrium when the electron fluid becomes incompressible. Several experiments have reported that dissipationless transport can be achieved even at weak, non-quantizing magnetic fields when the electrons absorb photons at specific energies related to their cyclotron frequency. Here we perform compressibility measurements on electrons on liquid helium demonstrating the formation of an incompressible electronic state under these resonant excitation conditions. This new state provides a striking example of irradiation-induced self-organization in a quantum system. PMID:26007282

12. Numerical, Analytical, Experimental Study of Fluid Dynamic Forces in Seals. Volume 4; Description of Incompressible Fluid Seal Codes ICYL and IFACE

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liang, Anita D. (Technical Monitor); Artiles, Antonio

2004-01-01

The objectives of the program were to develop computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes and simpler industrial codes for analyzing and designing advanced seals for air-breathing and space propulsion engines. The CFD code SCISEAL is capable of producing full three-dimensional flow field information for a variety of cylindrical configurations. An implicit multidomain capability allow the division of complex flow domains to allow optimum use of computational cells. SCISEAL also has the unique capability to produce cross-coupled stiffness and damping coefficients for rotordynamic computations. The industrial codes consist of a series of separate stand-alone modules designed for expeditious parametric analyses and optimization of a wide variety of cylindrical and face seals. Coupled through a Knowledge-Based System (KBS) that provides a user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI), the industrial codes are PC based using an OS/2 operating system. These codes were designed to treat film seals where a clearance exists between the rotating and stationary components. Leakage is inhibited by surface roughness, small but stiff clearance films, and viscous pumping devices. The codes have demonstrated to be a valuable resource for seal development of future air-breathing and space propulsion engines.

13. Miniatuization of the flowing fluid electric conductivity loggingtec hnique

SciTech Connect

Su, Grace W.; Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Cook, Paul J.; Shipp, William

2005-10-19

An understanding of both the hydraulic properties of the aquifer and the depth distribution of salts is critical for evaluating the potential of groundwater for conjunctive water use and for maintaining suitable groundwater quality in agricultural regions where groundwater is used extensively for irrigation and drinking water. The electrical conductivity profiles recorded in a well using the flowing fluid electric conductivity logging (FEC logging) method can be analyzed to estimate interval specific hydraulic conductivity and estimates of the salinity concentration with depth. However, irrigation wells that are common in agricultural regions have limited access into them because these wells are still in operation, and the traditional equipment used for FEC logging cannot fit through the small access pipe intersecting the well. A modified, miniaturized FEC logging technique was developed such that this logging method could be used in wells with limited access. In addition, a new method for injecting water over the entire screened interval of the well was developed to reduce the time required to perform FEC logging. Results of FEC logging using the new methodology and miniaturized system in two irrigation wells are also summarized.

14. Successes and Challenges of Incompressible Flow Simulation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin

2003-01-01

During the past thirty years, numerical methods and simulation tools for incompressible flows have been advanced as a subset of CFD discipline. Even though incompressible flows are encountered in many areas of engineering, simulation of compressible flow has been the major driver for developing computational algorithms and tools. This is probably due to rather stringent requirements for predicting aerodynamic performance characteristics of flight vehicles, while flow devices involving low speed or incompressible flow could be reasonably well designed without resorting to accurate numerical simulations. As flow devices are required to be more sophisticated and highly efficient, CFD tools become indispensable in fluid engineering for incompressible and low speed flow. This paper is intended to review some of the successes made possible by advances in computational technologies during the same period, and discuss some of the current challenges.

15. Self-gravitational instability in magnetized finitely conducting viscoelastic fluid

Prajapati, R. P.; Chhajlani, R. K.

2013-04-01

The linear self-gravitational instability of finitely conducting, magnetized viscoelastic fluid is investigated using the modified generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model. A general dispersion relation is obtained with the help of linearized perturbation equations using the normal mode analysis and it is discussed for longitudinal and transverse modes of propagation. In longitudinal propagation, we find that Alfven mode is uncoupled with the gravitating mode. The Jeans criterion of instability is determined which depends upon shear viscosity and bulk viscosity while it is independent of magnetic field. The viscoelastic effects modify the fundamental Jeans criterion of gravitational instability. In transverse mode of propagation, the Alfven mode couples with the acoustic mode, compressional viscoelastic mode and gravitating mode. The growth rate of Jeans instability is compared in weakly coupled plasma (WCP) and strongly coupled plasma (SCP) which is larger for SCP in both the modes of propagations. The presence of finite electrical resistivity removes the effect of magnetic field in the condition of Jeans instability and expression of critical Jeans wavenumber. It is found that Mach number and shear viscosity has stabilizing while finite electrical resistivity has destabilizing influence on the growth rate of Jeans instability.

16. Astronaut Mike Fincke Conducts Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM) Experiment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

2004-01-01

Astronaut Mike Fincke places droplets of honey onto the strings for the Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM) investigation onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The FMVM experiment measures the time it takes for two individual highly viscous fluid droplets to coalesce or merge into one droplet. Different fluids and droplet size combinations were tested in the series of experiments. By using the microgravity environment, researchers can measure the viscosity or 'thickness' of fluids without the influence of containers and gravity using this new technique. Understanding viscosity could help scientists understand industrially important materials such as paints, emulsions, polymer melts and even foams used to produce pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic products.

17. EXAMINATION OF THE PCICE METHOD IN THE NEARLY INCOMPRESSIBLE, AS WELL AS STRICTLY INCOMPRESSIBLE, LIMITS

SciTech Connect

Ray A. Berry; Richard C. Martineau

2007-04-01

The conservative-form, pressure-based PCICE numerical method (Martineau and Berry, 2004) (Berry, 2006), recently developed for computing transient fluid flows of all speeds from very low to very high (with strong shocks), is simplified and generalized. Though the method automatically treats a continuous transition of compressibility, three distinct, limiting compressibility regimes are formally defined for purposes of discussion and comparison with traditional methods – the strictly incompressible limit, the nearly incompressible limit, and the f ully compressible limit. The PCICE method’s behavior is examined in each limiting regime. In the strictly incompressible limit the PCICE algorithm reduces to the traditional MAC-type method with velocity divergence driving the pressure Poisson equation. In the nearly incompressible limit the PCICE algorithm is found to reduce to a generalization of traditional incompressible methods, i.e. to one in which not only the velocity divergence effect, but also the density gradient effect is included as a driving function in the pressure Poisson equation. This nearly incompressible regime has received little attention, and it appears that in the past, strictly incompressible methods may have been conveniently applied to flows in this regime at the expense of ignoring a potentially important coupling mechanism. This could be significant in many important flows; for example, in natural convection flows resulting from high heat flux. In the f ully compressible limit or regime, the algorithm is found to reduce to an expression equivalent to density-based methods for high-speed flow.

18. Computing Incompressible Flows With Free Surfaces

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kothe, D.

1994-01-01

RIPPLE computer program models transient, two-dimensional flows of incompressible fluids with surface tension on free surfaces of general shape. Surface tension modeled as volume force derived from continuum-surface-force model, giving RIPPLE both robustness and accuracy in modeling surface-tension effects at free surface. Also models wall adhesion effects. Written in FORTRAN 77.

19. Effect of viscosity of base fluid on thermal conductivity of nanofluids

Tsai, Tsung-Han; Kuo, Long-Sheng; Chen, Ping-Hei; Yang, Chin-Ting

2008-12-01

This study aims to investigate the effect of viscosity of the base fluid on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids in which Fe3O4 nanoparticles are suspended in the base fluid composed of diesel oil and polydimethylsiloxane. Viscosity of the base fluid is varied by changing the volumetric fractions between both fluids. The measured thermal conductivity of nanofluids gradually approaches the value predicted by the Maxwell equation by increasing the viscosity. It demonstrates that the viscosity of nanofluids does affect the thermal conductivity of nanofluids, and the Brownian motion of suspended particles could be an important factor that enhances the thermal conductivity of nanofluids.

20. A two-fluid model for relativistic heat conduction

SciTech Connect

López-Monsalvo, César S.

2014-01-14

Three years ago it was presented in these proceedings the relativistic dynamics of a multi-fluid system together with various applications to a set of topical problems [1]. In this talk, I will start from such dynamics and present a covariant formulation of relativistic thermodynamics which provides us with a causal constitutive equation for the propagation of heat in a relativistic setting.

1. Development of a Front Tracking Method for Two-Phase Micromixing of Incompressible Viscous Fluids with Interfacial Tension in Solvent Extraction

SciTech Connect

Zhou, Yijie; Lim, Hyun-Kyung; de Almeida, Valmor F; Navamita, Ray; Wang, Shuqiang; Glimm, James G; Li, Xiao-lin; Jiao, Xiangmin

2012-06-01

This progress report describes the development of a front tracking method for the solution of the governing equations of motion for two-phase micromixing of incompressible, viscous, liquid-liquid solvent extraction processes. The ability to compute the detailed local interfacial structure of the mixture allows characterization of the statistical properties of the two-phase mixture in terms of droplets, filaments, and other structures which emerge as a dispersed phase embedded into a continuous phase. Such a statistical picture provides the information needed for building a consistent coarsened model applicable to the entire mixing device. Coarsening is an undertaking for a future mathematical development and is outside the scope of the present work. We present here a method for accurate simulation of the micromixing dynamics of an aqueous and an organic phase exposed to intense centrifugal force and shearing stress. The onset of mixing is the result of the combination of the classical Rayleigh- Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. A mixing environment that emulates a sector of the annular mixing zone of a centrifugal contactor is used for the mathematical domain. The domain is small enough to allow for resolution of the individual interfacial structures and large enough to allow for an analysis of their statistical distribution of sizes and shapes. A set of accurate algorithms for this application requires an advanced front tracking approach constrained by the incompressibility condition. This research is aimed at designing and implementing these algorithms. We demonstrate verification and convergence results for one-phase and unmixed, two-phase flows. In addition we report on preliminary results for mixed, two-phase flow for realistic operating flow parameters.

2. The effect of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the thermal conductivities of various base fluids.

PubMed

Altan, Cem L; Bucak, Seyda

2011-07-15

Conventional heat transfer fluids have intrinsically poor heat transfer properties compared to solids. Enhancing the efficiency of heat transfer is of great interest for various industrial applications. Suspending solid particles in a fluid increases the thermal conductivity of the resulting suspension and enhances the heat transfer properties. In this work, changes in thermal conductivities of fluids upon the addition of magnetic nanoparticles have been investigated. Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles are synthesized using different synthesis methods and are suspended in various oils. The effect of the base fluid and the type of magnetic particle on the thermal conductivity is investigated in detail. Up to 28% increase in the thermal conductivity is obtained with 2.5 wt% magnetic particles in hexane. The thermal conductivity enhancement is found to depend on the particle concentration, method of preparation and base fluid. The enhancements obtained are higher than those estimated using any theoretical model present in the literature. PMID:21659690

3. The effect of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the thermal conductivities of various base fluids

Altan, Cem L.; Bucak, Seyda

2011-07-01

Conventional heat transfer fluids have intrinsically poor heat transfer properties compared to solids. Enhancing the efficiency of heat transfer is of great interest for various industrial applications. Suspending solid particles in a fluid increases the thermal conductivity of the resulting suspension and enhances the heat transfer properties. In this work, changes in thermal conductivities of fluids upon the addition of magnetic nanoparticles have been investigated. Fe3O4 nanoparticles are synthesized using different synthesis methods and are suspended in various oils. The effect of the base fluid and the type of magnetic particle on the thermal conductivity is investigated in detail. Up to 28% increase in the thermal conductivity is obtained with 2.5 wt% magnetic particles in hexane. The thermal conductivity enhancement is found to depend on the particle concentration, method of preparation and base fluid. The enhancements obtained are higher than those estimated using any theoretical model present in the literature.

4. Incompressible limit of solutions of multidimensional steady compressible Euler equations

Chen, Gui-Qiang G.; Huang, Feimin; Wang, Tian-Yi; Xiang, Wei

2016-06-01

A compactness framework is formulated for the incompressible limit of approximate solutions with weak uniform bounds with respect to the adiabatic exponent for the steady Euler equations for compressible fluids in any dimension. One of our main observations is that the compactness can be achieved by using only natural weak estimates for the mass conservation and the vorticity. Another observation is that the incompressibility of the limit for the homentropic Euler flow is directly from the continuity equation, while the incompressibility of the limit for the full Euler flow is from a combination of all the Euler equations. As direct applications of the compactness framework, we establish two incompressible limit theorems for multidimensional steady Euler flows through infinitely long nozzles, which lead to two new existence theorems for the corresponding problems for multidimensional steady incompressible Euler equations.

5. Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with graphite nanoparticles and carbon nanotube

DOEpatents

Zhang, Zhiqiang; Lockwood, Frances E.

2008-03-25

A fluid media such as oil or water, and a selected effective amount of carbon nanomaterials necessary to enhance the thermal conductivity of the fluid. One of the preferred carbon nanomaterials is a high thermal conductivity graphite, exceeding that of the neat fluid to be dispersed therein in thermal conductivity, and ground, milled, or naturally prepared with mean particle size less than 500 nm, and preferably less than 200 nm, and most preferably less than 100 nm. The graphite is dispersed in the fluid by one or more of various methods, including ultrasonication, milling, and chemical dispersion. Carbon nanotubes with graphitic structure is another preferred source of carbon nanomaterial, although other carbon nanomaterials are acceptable. To confer long term stability, the use of one or more chemical dispersants is preferred. The thermal conductivity enhancement, compared to the fluid without carbon nanomaterial, is proportional to the amount of carbon nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes and/or graphite) added.

6. High-End Computing for Incompressible Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin

2001-01-01

The objective of the First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics (June 12-14, 2001) is to bring together industry and academia (and government) to nurture the next generation in computational mechanics. The objective of the current talk, 'High-End Computing for Incompressible Flows', is to discuss some of the current issues in large scale computing for mission-oriented tasks.

7. Scaling the Incompressible Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability

SciTech Connect

Cotrell, D; Cook, A

2007-01-09

We derive a scaling relation for Richtmyer-Meshkov instability of incompressible fluids. The relation is tested using both numerical simulations and experimental data. We obtain collapse of growth rates for a wide range of initial conditions by using vorticity and velocity scales associated with the interfacial perturbations and the acceleration impulse. A curve fit to the collapsed growth rates yields a fairly universal model for the mixing layer thickness versus time.

8. Measurement of the thermal properties of electrically conducting fluids using coated transient hot wires

SciTech Connect

Perkins, R.A.

1994-12-31

Measurements of fluid thermal properties using the transient hot-wire technique are described. When bare hot wires are used in electrically conducting fluids there are additional measurement uncertainties due to the formation of electric double layers on the surfaces of the wires and the cell wall. If the electrical conductivity of the fluid is large enough there is also significant power generation in the fluid. These measurement uncertainties can be eliminated by electrically insulating the hot wires with a thin film. The use of tantalum hot wires with an anodized layer of tantalum pentoxide is demonstrated with measurements on nonpolar argon and polar 1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroethane (R134a). Although coated tantalum hot wires have been used previously in a transient mode to measure the thermal conductivity of liquids, this work is the first demonstration of the use of coated wires to measure thermal conductivity in the liquid, vapor, and supercritical gas phases.

9. Measurement of the thermal properties of electrically conducting fluids using coated transient hot wires

SciTech Connect

Perkins, R.A.

1994-09-01

Measurements of fluid thermal properties using the transient hot-wire technique are described. When bare hot wires are used in electrically conducting fluids there are additional measurement uncertainties due to the formation of electric double layers on the surfaces of the wires and the cell wall. If the electrical conductivity of the fluid is large enough there is also significant power generation in the fluid. These measurement uncertainties can be eliminated by electrically insulating the hot wires with a thin film. The use of tantalum hot wires with an anodized layer of tantalum pentoxide is demonstrated with measurements on nonpolar argon and polar 1,1,1,2 tetrafluorethane (R134a). Although coated tantalum hot wires have been used previously in a transient mode to measure the thermal conductivity of liquids, this work is the first demonstration of the use of coated wires to measure thermal conductivity in the liquid, vapor, and supercritical gas phases.

10. Effective bone hemostasis and healing using radiofrequency and conductive fluid.

PubMed

Bertone, Alicia; Lipson, David; Kamei, Janet; Litsky, Alan; Weisbrode, Stephen

2006-05-01

Hemostasis in bone is difficult to achieve because of the mineral content. Current techniques often are ineffective, can have systemic effects, or leave residual material in the wound. Our hypotheses were that a wand device coupling radiofrequency energy with a cooling conductive saline solution, applied topically to bone, could produce superior hemostasis compared with conventional electrocautery or no treatment, and not impede bone healing. Immediate hemostasis and subsequent bone healing for 6 and 12 weeks were evaluated in an iliac crest ostectomy (cancellous bone) and a drilled tibia defect (cortical bone) sheep model. Outcome variables were amount and intensity of bleeding, serial radiography, quantitative computed tomography, histology and mechanical testing. Control of bleeding was nearly complete (93%) and greater with the radiofrequency/saline treatment compared with electrocautery (56%) or no treatment (0%) in cancellous bone and cortical bone. Electrocautery induced surface char (black carbon debris) that could be seen at 6 and 12 weeks. There were no differences in bone healing between the radiofrequency and electrocautery device applications or untreated bone. At 12 weeks, all healing tibiae defects were as strong as undrilled tibiae. This may be an effective method to produce rapid hemostasis in bone without char or healing complications. PMID:16467618

11. Fluid stimulation elicits hearing in the absence of air and bone conduction-An animal study.

PubMed

Perez, Ronen; Adelman, Cahtia; Sohmer, Haim

2016-04-01

Conclusion Cochlea can be directly excited by fluid (soft-tissue) stimulation. Objective To determine whether there is no difference in auditory-nerve-brainstem evoked response (ABR) thresholds to fluid stimulation between normal and animal models of post radical-mastoidectomy, as seen in a previous human study. Background It has been shown in humans that hearing can be elicited with stimulation to fluid in the external auditory meatus (EAM), and radical-mastoidectomy cavity. These groups differed in age, initial hearing, and drilling exposure. To overcome this difference, experiments were conducted in sand-rats, first intact, and after inducing a radical-mastoidectomy. Methods The EAM of five sand-rats was filled with 0.3 ml saline. ABR thresholds were determined in response to vibratory stimulation by a clinical bone-vibrator with a plastic rod, applied to the saline in the EAM. Then the tympanic membrane was removed, and malleus dislocated (radical-mastoidectomy model). The cavity was filled with 0.45 ml saline and the ABR threshold was determined in response to vibratory stimulation to the cavity fluid. Results There was no difference in ABR fluid thresholds to EAM and mastoidectomy cavity stimulation. Air-conduction stimulation from the bone-vibrator was not involved (conductive loss due to fluid). Bone-conduction stimulation was not involved (large difference in acoustic impedance between fluid and bone). PMID:26824146

12. Method for electrically producing dispersions of a nonconductive fluid in a conductive medium

DOEpatents

DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Feng, J.Q.

1998-06-09

A method is described for use in electrically forming dispersions of a nonconducting fluid in a conductive medium that minimizes power consumption, gas generation, and sparking between the electrode of the nozzle and the conductive medium. The method utilizes a nozzle having a passageway, the wall of which serves as the nozzle electrode, for the transport of the nonconducting fluid into the conductive medium. A second passageway provides for the transport of a flowing low conductivity buffer fluid which results in a region of the low conductivity buffer fluid immediately adjacent the outlet from the first passageway to create the necessary protection from high current drain and sparking. An electrical potential difference applied between the nozzle electrode and an electrode in contact with the conductive medium causes formation of small droplets or bubbles of the nonconducting fluid within the conductive medium. A preferred embodiment has the first and second passageways arranged in a concentric configuration, with the outlet tip of the first passageway withdrawn into the second passageway. 4 figs.

13. Method for electrically producing dispersions of a nonconductive fluid in a conductive medium

DOEpatents

DePaoli, David W.; Tsouris, Constantinos; Feng, James Q.

1998-01-01

A method for use in electrically forming dispersions of a nonconducting fluid in a conductive medium that minimizes power consumption, gas generation, and sparking between the electrode of the nozzle and the conductive medium. The method utilizes a nozzle having a passageway, the wall of which serves as the nozzle electrode, for the transport of the nonconducting fluid into the conductive medium. A second passageway provides for the transport of a flowing low conductivity buffer fluid which results in a region of the low conductivity buffer fluid immediately adjacent the outlet from the first passageway to create the necessary protection from high current drain and sparking. An electrical potential difference applied between the nozzle electrode and an electrode in contact with the conductive medium causes formation of small droplets or bubbles of the nonconducting fluid within the conductive medium. A preferred embodiment has the first and second passageways arranged in a concentric configuration, with the outlet tip of the first passageway withdrawn into the second passageway.

14. Growth and Morphology of Supercritical Fluids, a Fluid Physics Experiment Conducted on Mir, Complete

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wilkinson, R. Allen

2001-01-01

The Growth and Morphology of Supercritical Fluids (GMSF) is an international experiment facilitated by the NASA Glenn Research Center and under the guidance of U.S. principal investor Professor Hegseth of the University of New Orleans and three French coinvestigators: Daniel Beysens, Yves Garrabos, and Carole Chabot. The GMSF experiments were concluded in early 1999 on the Russian space station Mir. The experiments spanned the three science themes of near-critical phase separation rates, interface dynamics in near-critical boiling, and measurement of the spectrum of density fluctuation length scales very close to the critical point. The fluids used were pure CO2 or SF6. Three of the five thermostats used could adjust the sample volume with the scheduled crew time. Such a volume adjustment enabled variable sample densities around the critical density as well as pressure steps (as distinct from the usual temperature steps) applied to the sample. The French-built ALICE II facility was used for these experiments. It allows tightly thermostated (left photograph) samples (right photograph) to be controlled and viewed/measured. Its diagnostics include interferometry, shadowgraph, high-speed pressure measurements, and microscopy. Data were logged on DAT tapes, and PCMCIA cards and were returned to Earth only after the mission was over. The ground-breaking near critical boiling experiment has yielded the most results with a paper published in Physical Review Letters (ref. 1). The boiling work also received press in Science Magazine (ref. 2). This work showed that, in very compressible near-critical two-phase pure fluids, a vapor bubble was induced to temporarily overheat during a rapid heating of the sample wall. The temperature rise in the vapor was 23-percent higher than the rise in the driving container wall. The effect is due to adiabatic compression of the vapor bubble by the rapid expansion of fluid near the boundary during heatup. Thermal diffusivity is low near the

15. Electrical conductivity measurements of aqueous fluids under pressure with a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell

Ni, Huaiwei; Chen, Qi; Keppler, Hans

2014-11-01

Electrical conductivity data of aqueous fluids under pressure can be used to derive the dissociation constants of electrolytes, to assess the effect of ionic dissociation on mineral solubility, and to interpret magnetotelluric data of earth's interior where a free fluid phase is present. Due to limitation on the tensile strength of the alloy material of hydrothermal autoclaves, previous measurements of fluid conductivity were mostly restricted to less than 0.4 GPa and 800 °C. By adapting a Bassett-type hydrothermal diamond anvil cell, we have developed a new method for acquiring electrical conductivity of aqueous fluids under pressure. Our preliminary results for KCl solutions using the new method are consistent with literature data acquired with the conventional method, but the new method has great potential for working in a much broader pressure range.

16. Comparative Analysis of Natural Convection Flows Simulated by both the Conservation and Incompressible Forms of the Navier-Stokes Equations in a Differentially-Heated Square Cavity

SciTech Connect

Richard C. Martineau; Ray A. Berry; Aurélia Esteve; Kurt D. Hamman; Dana A. Knoll; Ryosuke Park; William Taitano

2009-01-01

This report illustrates a comparative study to analyze the physical differences between numerical simulations obtained with both the conservation and incompressible forms of the Navier-Stokes equations for natural convection flows in simple geometries. The purpose of this study is to quantify how the incompressible flow assumption (which is based upon constant density advection, divergence-free flow, and the Boussinesq gravitational body force approximation) differs from the conservation form (which only assumes that the fluid is a continuum) when solving flows driven by gravity acting upon density variations resulting from local temperature gradients. Driving this study is the common use of the incompressible flow assumption in fluid flow simulations for nuclear power applications in natural convection flows subjected to a high heat flux (large temperature differences). A series of simulations were conducted on two-dimensional, differentially-heated rectangular geometries and modeled with both hydrodynamic formulations. From these simulations, the selected characterization parameters of maximum Nusselt number, average Nusselt number, and normalized pressure reduction were calculated. Comparisons of these parameters were made with available benchmark solutions for air with the ideal gas assumption at both low and high heat fluxes. Additionally, we generated body force, velocity, and divergence of velocity distributions to provide a basis for further analysis. The simulations and analysis were then extended to include helium at the Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR) normal operating conditions. Our results show that the consequences of incorporating the incompressible flow assumption in high heat flux situations may lead to unrepresentative results. The results question the use of the incompressible flow assumption for simulating fluid flow in an operating nuclear reactor, where large temperature variations are present. The results show that the use of

17. Electrothermal Fluid Manipulation of High-Conductivity Samples for Laboratory Automation Applications

PubMed Central

Sin, Mandy L. Y.; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C.; Wong, Pak Kin

2010-01-01

Electrothermal flow is a promising technique in microfluidic manipulation toward laboratory automation applications, such as clinical diagnostics and high throughput drug screening. Despite the potential of electrothermal flow in biomedical applications, relative little is known about electrothermal manipulation of highly conductive samples, such as physiological fluids and buffer solutions. In this study, the characteristics and challenges of electrothermal manipulation of fluid samples with different conductivities were investigated systematically. Electrothermal flow was shown to create fluid motion for samples with a wide range of conductivity when the driving frequency was above 100 kHz. For samples with low conductivities (below 1 S/m), the characteristics of the electrothermal fluid motions were in quantitative agreement with the theory. For samples with high conductivities (above 1 S/m), the fluid motion appeared to deviate from the model as a result of potential electrochemical reactions and other electrothermal effects. These effects should be taken into consideration for electrothermal manipulation of biological samples with high conductivities. This study will provide insights in designing microfluidic devices for electrokinetic manipulation of biological samples toward laboratory automation applications in the future. PMID:21180401

18. Thermal conductivity and viscosity of self-assembled alcohol/polyalphaolefin nanoemulsion fluids

PubMed Central

2011-01-01

Very large thermal conductivity enhancement had been reported earlier in colloidal suspensions of solid nanoparticles (i.e., nanofluids) and more recently also in oil-in-water emulsions. In this study, nanoemulsions of alcohol and polyalphaolefin (PAO) are spontaneously generated by self-assembly, and their thermal conductivity and viscosity are investigated experimentally. Alcohol and PAO have similar thermal conductivity values, so that the abnormal effects, such as particle Brownian motion, on thermal transport could be deducted in these alcohol/PAO nanoemulsion fluids. Small angle neutron-scattering measurement shows that the alcohol droplets are spheres of 0.8-nm radius in these nanoemulsion fluids. Both thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of the fluids are found to increase with alcohol droplet loading, as expected from classical theories. However, the measured conductivity increase is very moderate, e.g., a 2.3% increase for 9 vol%, in these fluids. This suggests that no anomalous enhancement of thermal conductivity is observed in the alcohol/PAO nanoemulsion fluids tested in this study. PMID:21711807

19. Electrical conductivity of NaCl-H2O fluid in the crust

Sakuma, Hiroshi; Ichiki, Masahiro

2016-02-01

Ionic electrical conductivity of NaCl-H2O fluid as a function of pressure (0.2-2.0 GPa), temperature (673-2000 K), and NaCl concentration (0.6-9.6 wt %) was investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Conductivity versus NaCl concentration has a nonlinear relationship due to the presence of electrically neutral ion pairs in concentrated solutions. The calculated conductivity at 0.6 wt % NaCl is consistent with the available experimental data, and the calculated conductivity at higher temperatures shows a greater degree of pressure dependence. The major factors controlling the conductivity are the density of the NaCl-H2O fluid and the permittivity of solvent H2O. A purely empirical equation for deriving the conductivity was proposed. Highly conductive zones below a depth of 35 km in the middle portion of the continental crust can be interpreted by the presence of NaCl-H2O fluid with the salinity ranging from 0.2 to 7.0 wt %. A highly conductive zone observed at a depth of 20 to 40 km above the subducting oceanic crust in Cascadia can be explained by the presence of low-salinity (0.5 wt %) NaCl-H2O fluid possibly generated by the dehydration of basalt.

20. Conductivity measurements on H2O-bearing CO2-rich fluids

DOE PAGESBeta

Capobianco, Ryan M.; Miroslaw S. Gruszkiewicz; Bodnar, Robert J.; Rimstidt, J. Donald

2014-09-10

Recent studies report rapid corrosion of metals and carbonation of minerals in contact with carbon dioxide containing trace amounts of dissolved water. One explanation for this behavior is that addition of small amounts of H2O to CO2 leads to significant ionization within the fluid, thus promoting reactions at the fluid-solid interface analogous to corrosion associated with aqueous fluids. The extent of ionization in the bulk CO2 fluid was determined using a flow-through conductivity cell capable of detecting very low conductivities. Experiments were conducted from 298 to 473 K and 7.39 to 20 MPa with H2O concentrations up to ~1600 ppmwmore » (xH2O ≈ 3.9 x 10-3), corresponding to the H2O solubility limit in liquid CO2 at ambient temperature. All solutions showed conductivities <10 nS/cm, indicating that the solutions were essentially ion-free. Furthermore, this observation suggests that the observed corrosion and carbonation reactions are not the result of ionization in CO2-rich bulk phase, but does not preclude ionization in the fluid at the fluid-solid interface.« less

1. Parametric electroconvection in a weakly conducting fluid in a horizontal parallel-plate capacitor

Kartavykh, N. N.; Smorodin, B. L.; Il'in, V. A.

2015-07-01

We study the flows of a nonuniformly heated weakly conducting fluid in an ac electric field of a horizontal parallel-plate capacitor. Analysis is carried out for fluids in which the charge formation is governed by electroconductive mechanism associated with the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity of the medium. Periodic and chaotic regimes of fluid flow are investigated in the limiting case of instantaneous charge relaxation and for a finite relaxation time. Bifurcation diagrams and electroconvective regimes charts are constructed. The regions where fluid oscillations synchronize with the frequency of the external field are determined. Hysteretic transitions between electroconvection regimes are studied. The scenarios of transition to chaotic oscillations are analyzed. Depending on the natural frequency of electroconvective system and the external field frequency, the transition from periodic to chaotic oscillations can occur via quasiperiodicity, a subharmonic cascade, or intermittence.

2. Parametric electroconvection in a weakly conducting fluid in a horizontal parallel-plate capacitor

SciTech Connect

Kartavykh, N. N.; Smorodin, B. L. Il’in, V. A.

2015-07-15

We study the flows of a nonuniformly heated weakly conducting fluid in an ac electric field of a horizontal parallel-plate capacitor. Analysis is carried out for fluids in which the charge formation is governed by electroconductive mechanism associated with the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity of the medium. Periodic and chaotic regimes of fluid flow are investigated in the limiting case of instantaneous charge relaxation and for a finite relaxation time. Bifurcation diagrams and electroconvective regimes charts are constructed. The regions where fluid oscillations synchronize with the frequency of the external field are determined. Hysteretic transitions between electroconvection regimes are studied. The scenarios of transition to chaotic oscillations are analyzed. Depending on the natural frequency of electroconvective system and the external field frequency, the transition from periodic to chaotic oscillations can occur via quasiperiodicity, a subharmonic cascade, or intermittence.

3. Lattice Boltzmann modeling of three-phase incompressible flows.

PubMed

Liang, H; Shi, B C; Chai, Z H

2016-01-01

In this paper, based on multicomponent phase-field theory we intend to develop an efficient lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for simulating three-phase incompressible flows. In this model, two LB equations are used to capture the interfaces among three different fluids, and another LB equation is adopted to solve the flow field, where a new distribution function for the forcing term is delicately designed. Different from previous multiphase LB models, the interfacial force is not used in the computation of fluid velocity, which is more reasonable from the perspective of the multiscale analysis. As a result, the computation of fluid velocity can be much simpler. Through the Chapman-Enskog analysis, it is shown that the present model can recover exactly the physical formulations for the three-phase system. Numerical simulations of extensive examples including two circular interfaces, ternary spinodal decomposition, spreading of a liquid lens, and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability are conducted to test the model. It is found that the present model can capture accurate interfaces among three different fluids, which is attributed to its algebraical and dynamical consistency properties with the two-component model. Furthermore, the numerical results of three-phase flows agree well with the theoretical results or some available data, which demonstrates that the present LB model is a reliable and efficient method for simulating three-phase flow problems. PMID:26871191

4. Lattice Boltzmann modeling of three-phase incompressible flows

Liang, H.; Shi, B. C.; Chai, Z. H.

2016-01-01

In this paper, based on multicomponent phase-field theory we intend to develop an efficient lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for simulating three-phase incompressible flows. In this model, two LB equations are used to capture the interfaces among three different fluids, and another LB equation is adopted to solve the flow field, where a new distribution function for the forcing term is delicately designed. Different from previous multiphase LB models, the interfacial force is not used in the computation of fluid velocity, which is more reasonable from the perspective of the multiscale analysis. As a result, the computation of fluid velocity can be much simpler. Through the Chapman-Enskog analysis, it is shown that the present model can recover exactly the physical formulations for the three-phase system. Numerical simulations of extensive examples including two circular interfaces, ternary spinodal decomposition, spreading of a liquid lens, and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability are conducted to test the model. It is found that the present model can capture accurate interfaces among three different fluids, which is attributed to its algebraical and dynamical consistency properties with the two-component model. Furthermore, the numerical results of three-phase flows agree well with the theoretical results or some available data, which demonstrates that the present LB model is a reliable and efficient method for simulating three-phase flow problems.

5. Taylor Instability of Incompressible Liquids

DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

Fermi, E.; von Neumann, J.

1955-11-01

A discussion is presented in simplified form of the problem of the growth of an initial ripple on the surface of an incompressible liquid in the presence of an acceleration, g, directed from the outside into the liquid. The model is that of a heavy liquid occupying at t = 0 the half space above the plane z = 0, and a rectangular wave profile is assumed. The theory is found to represent correctly one feature of experimental results, namely the fact that the half wave of the heavy liquid into the vacuum becomes rapidly narrower while the half wave pushing into the heavy liquid becomes more and more blunt. The theory fails to account for the experimental results according to which the front of the wave pushing into the heavy liquid moves with constant velocity. The case of instability at the boundary of 2 fluids of different densities is also explored. Similar results are obtained except that the acceleration of the heavy liquid into the light liquid is reduced.

6. Particle-particle interactions in electrorheological fluids based on surface conducting particles

Gonon, P.; Foulc, J.-N.; Atten, P.; Boissy, C.

1999-12-01

We develop a simple, analytical conduction model for the case of electrorheological fluids based on surface conducting particles. By modeling two contacting spheres in a dielectric liquid by a distributed impedances network we derive analytical expressions for the potential and current at the spheres surface, and for the electric field and the current in the liquid phase. The knowledge of the electric field in the dielectric liquid allows us to calculate the interparticle interaction force as a function of the applied voltage. The theoretical interaction force is compared with experimental results obtained on insulating spheres coated with a thin conducting polyaniline film. We find a good agreement between the theory and experiment. The materials properties which govern the response of the system are outlined. In this regard, the product of the liquid conductivity by the sheet resistance of the surface coating appears as a key parameter. Some applications of this model for the practical design of electrorheological fluids are given.

7. Measuring the sedimentation rate in a magnetorheological fluid column via thermal conductivity monitoring

Cheng, Haibin; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Liu, Guizhen; Ma, Wentao; Wereley, Norman M.

2016-05-01

Measuring sedimentation rate of magnetorheological fluids (MRFs) is of great importance when designing and synthesizing MRFs for engineering applications. A method of characterizing sedimentation rate in an MRF column is proposed utilizing thermal conductivity correlated with particle concentration. A series of MRF samples composed of carbonyl iron particles suspended in silicone oil were prepared, and their concentrations (measured as volume fraction, ∅) and thermal conductivities, k, were tested. A calibration curve was developed to relate particle concentration, ∅, to thermal conductivity, k, using this set of MRF samples with known concentration. The particle concentration, ∅, in the MRF column was then monitored by measuring thermal conductivities (k) at a fixed location and using this calibration relationship. Finally, sedimentation rate in the MRF column was determined by examining how particle concentration varied with time. The sedimentation rate measured in the MRF column was validated using visual observation of mudline (boundary between the topmost clarified fluid zone and MRF below).

8. Magnetohydrodynamic flow of Sisko fluid over a stretching cylinder with variable thermal conductivity: A numerical study

Malik, M. Y.; Hussain, Arif; Salahuddin, T.; Awais, M.; Bilal, S.

2016-02-01

In present study effects of magnetic field and variable thermal conductivity on Sisko fluid model are analyzed. The modeled partial differential equations are simplified by boundary layer approach. Appropriate similarity transformations are applied to transform governing partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations. Then these equations are solved numerically by shooting method in combination with Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method. Comparison between present and previous computed results is presented via tables. The variations in fluid velocity and temperature are displayed through graphs for different values of Sisko fluid parameter, curvature parameter, magnetic field parameter, thermal conductivity parameter and Prandtl number. The effects of physical parameters on skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are exhibited with figures and tables.

9. Electrical conductivity and equation of state measurements on planetary fluids at high pressures and temperatures

SciTech Connect

Hamilton, D.C.; Nellis, W.J.; Holmes, N.C.; Radousky, H.B.; Ree, F.H.; Nicol, M.

1987-07-01

Hugoniot equation-of-state, shock temperature, and electrical conductivity measurements are reported for fluids believed to be the primary constituents of the planets Uranus and Neptune. The equation-of-state results are compared with calculations performed using a statistical mechanical, chemical equilibrium computer code and electrical conductivities are discussed in terms of the recently measured magnetic field of Uranus. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

10. Broken Ergodicity in Ideal, Homogeneous, Incompressible Turbulence

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Morin, Lee; Shebalin, John; Fu, Terry; Nguyen, Phu; Shum, Victor

2010-01-01

We discuss the statistical mechanics of numerical models of ideal homogeneous, incompressible turbulence and their relevance for dissipative fluids and magnetofluids. These numerical models are based on Fourier series and the relevant statistical theory predicts that Fourier coefficients of fluid velocity and magnetic fields (if present) are zero-mean random variables. However, numerical simulations clearly show that certain coefficients have a non-zero mean value that can be very large compared to the associated standard deviation. We explain this phenomena in terms of broken ergodicity', which is defined to occur when dynamical behavior does not match ensemble predictions on very long time-scales. We review the theoretical basis of broken ergodicity, apply it to 2-D and 3-D fluid and magnetohydrodynamic simulations of homogeneous turbulence, and show new results from simulations using GPU (graphical processing unit) computers.

11. SLOW SHOCKS AND CONDUCTION FRONTS FROM PETSCHEK RECONNECTION OF SKEWED MAGNETIC FIELDS: TWO-FLUID EFFECTS

SciTech Connect

Longcope, D. W.; Bradshaw, S. J.

2010-08-01

In models of fast magnetic reconnection, flux transfer occurs within a small portion of a current sheet triggering stored magnetic energy to be thermalized by shocks. When the initial current sheet separates magnetic fields which are not perfectly anti-parallel, i.e., they are skewed, magnetic energy is first converted to bulk kinetic energy and then thermalized in slow magnetosonic shocks. We show that the latter resemble parallel shocks or hydrodynamic shocks for all skew angles except those very near the anti-parallel limit. As for parallel shocks, the structures of reconnection-driven slow shocks are best studied using two-fluid equations in which ions and electrons have independent temperature. Time-dependent solutions of these equations can be used to predict and understand the shocks from reconnection of skewed magnetic fields. The results differ from those found using a single-fluid model such as magnetohydrodynamics. In the two-fluid model, electrons are heated indirectly and thus carry a heat flux always well below the free-streaming limit. The viscous stress of the ions is, however, typically near the fluid-treatable limit. We find that for a wide range of skew angles and small plasma {beta} an electron conduction front extends ahead of the slow shock but remains within the outflow jet. In such cases, conduction will play a more limited role in driving chromospheric evaporation than has been predicted based on single-fluid, anti-parallel models.

12. Performance of WPA Conductivity Sensor during Two-Phase Fluid Flow in Microgravity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carter, Layne; O'Connor, Edward W.; Snowdon, Doug

2003-01-01

The Conductivity Sensor designed for use in the Node 3 Water Processor Assembly (WPA) was based on the existing Space Shuttle application for the fuel cell water system. However, engineering analysis has determined that this sensor design is potentially sensitive to two-phase fluid flow (gadliquid) in microgravity. The source for this sensitivity is the fact that gas bubbles will become lodged between the sensor probe and the wall of the housing without the aid of buoyancy in l-g. Once gas becomes lodged in the housing, the measured conductivity will be offset based on the volume of occluded gas. A development conductivity sensor was flown on the NASA Microgravity Plan to measure the offset, which was determined to range between 0 and 50%. Based on these findings, a development program was initiated at the sensor s manufacturer to develop a sensor design fully compatible with two-phase fluid flow in microgravity.

13. Mixed Boundary Value Problems for Stationary Magnetohydrodynamic Equations of a Viscous Heat-Conducting Fluid

2016-04-01

We consider the boundary value problem for stationary magnetohydrodynamic equations of electrically and heat conducting fluid under inhomogeneous mixed boundary conditions for electromagnetic field and temperature and Dirichlet condition for the velocity. The problem describes the thermoelectromagnetic flow of a viscous fluid in 3D bounded domain with the boundary consisting of several parts with different thermo- and electrophysical properties. The global solvability of the boundary value problem is proved and the apriori estimates of the solution are derived. The sufficient conditions on the data are established which provide a local uniqueness of the solution.

14. Simultaneous solution for core magnetic field and fluid flow beneath an electrically conducting mantle

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voorhies, Goerte V.; Nishihama, Masahiro

1994-01-01

The effects of laterally homogeneous mantle electrical conductivity have been included in steady, frozen-flux core surface flow estimation along with refinements in method and weighting. The refined method allows simultaneous solution for both the initial radial geomagnetic field component at the core-mantle boundary and the subadjacent fluid motion; it also features Gauss' method for solving the nonlinear inverse problem associated with steady motional induction. The trade-off between spatial complexity of the derived flows and misfit to the weighted Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field models is studied for various mantle conductivity profiles. For simple flow and a fixed initial geomagnetic condition a fairly high deep-mantle conductivity performs better than either insulating or weakly conducting profiles; however, a thin, very high conductivity layer at the base of the mantle performs almost as well. Simultaneous solution for both initial geomagnetic field and fluid flow reduces the misfit per degree of freedom even more than does changing the mantle conductivity profile. Moreover, when both core field and flow are estimated, the performance of the solutions and the derived flows become insensitive to the conductivity profile.

15. Simultaneous solution for core magnetic field and fluid flow beneath an electrically conducting mantle

Voorhies, Goerte V.; Nishihama, Masahiro

1994-04-01

The effects of laterally homogeneous mantle electrical conductivity have been included in steady, frozen-flux core surface flow estimation along with refinements in method and weighting. The refined method allows simultaneous solution for both the initial radial geomagnetic field component at the core-mantle boundary and the subadjacent fluid motion; it also features Gauss' method for solving the nonlinear inverse problem associated with steady motional induction. The trade-off between spatial complexity of the derived flows and misfit to the weighted Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field models is studied for various mantle conductivity profiles. For simple flow and a fixed initial geomagnetic condition a fairly high deep-mantle conductivity performs better than either insulating or weakly conducting profiles; however, a thin, very high conductivity layer at the base of the mantle performs almost as well. Simultaneous solution for both initial geomagnetic field and fluid flow reduces the misfit per degree of freedom even more than does changing the mantle conductivity profile. Moreover, when both core field and flow are estimated, the performance of the solutions and the derived flows become insensitive to the conductivity profile.

16. Unified approach for incompressible flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chang, Tyne-Hsien

1995-01-01

A unified approach for solving incompressible flows has been investigated in this study. The numerical CTVD (Centered Total Variation Diminishing) scheme used in this study was successfully developed by Sanders and Li for compressible flows, especially for the high speed. The CTVD scheme possesses better mathematical properties to damp out the spurious oscillations while providing high-order accuracy for high speed flows. It leads us to believe that the CTVD scheme can equally well apply to solve incompressible flows. Because of the mathematical difference between the governing equations for incompressible and compressible flows, the scheme can not directly apply to the incompressible flows. However, if one can modify the continuity equation for incompressible flows by introducing pseudo-compressibility, the governing equations for incompressible flows would have the same mathematical characters as compressible flows. The application of the algorithm to incompressible flows thus becomes feasible. In this study, the governing equations for incompressible flows comprise continuity equation and momentum equations. The continuity equation is modified by adding a time-derivative of the pressure term containing the artificial compressibility. The modified continuity equation together with the unsteady momentum equations forms a hyperbolic-parabolic type of time-dependent system of equations. Thus, the CTVD schemes can be implemented. In addition, the physical and numerical boundary conditions are properly implemented by the characteristic boundary conditions. Accordingly, a CFD code has been developed for this research and is currently under testing. Flow past a circular cylinder was chosen for numerical experiments to determine the accuracy and efficiency of the code. The code has shown some promising results.

17. Stability of magneto-acoustic waves in a thermally conducting compressible fluid

Antia, H. M.; Chitre, S. M.

1980-03-01

The stability of magneto-acoustic waves in an inviscid, perfectly conducting isothermal fluid, stratified under constant gravity and subjected to a horizontal magnetic field is investigated, where mathematically tractable equations are provided. Both an isothermal atmosphere and a polytropic fluid are considered in the presence of thermal dissipation, with the magnetic field having pressure proportional to the gas pressure. It is found that, for both cases, the fluid can be convectively unstable for all values of gamma (the ratio of specific heats) and GB in the case of waves with small wave number or waves travelling in a direction nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. The oscillatory modes, however, are overstable when the temperature gradient is superadiabatic.

18. Volume conservation issues in incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics

Nair, Prapanch; Tomar, Gaurav

2015-09-01

A divergence-free velocity field is usually sought in numerical simulations of incompressible fluids. We show that the particle methods that compute a divergence-free velocity field to achieve incompressibility suffer from a volume conservation issue when a finite time-step position update scheme is used. Further, we propose a deformation gradient based approach to arrive at a velocity field that reduces the volume conservation issues in free surface flows and maintains density uniformity in internal flows while retaining the simplicity of first order time updates.

19. Evaluation of Fluid Conduction and Mixing within a Subassembly of the Actinide Burner Test Reactor

SciTech Connect

Cliff B. Davis

2007-09-01

The RELAP5-3D code is being considered as a thermal-hydraulic system code to support the development of the sodium-cooled Actinide Burner Test Reactor as part of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. An evaluation was performed to determine whether the control system could be used to simulate the effects of non-convective mechanisms of heat transport in the fluid, including axial and radial heat conduction and subchannel mixing, that are not currently represented with internal code models. The evaluation also determined the relative importance of axial and radial heat conduction and fluid mixing on peak cladding temperature for a wide range of steady conditions and during a representative loss-of-flow transient. The evaluation was performed using a RELAP5-3D model of a subassembly in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, which was used as a surrogate for the Actinide Burner Test Reactor.

20. Viscous potential flow analysis of electrified miscible finitely conducting fluid through porous media

SciTech Connect

Obied Allah, M. H.

2013-04-15

In this work, a viscous potential flow analysis is used to investigate capillary surface waves between two horizontal finite fluid layers. The two layers have finite conductivities and admit mass and heat transfer. A general dispersion relation is derived. The presence of finite conductivities together with the dielectric permeabilities makes the horizontal electric field play a dual role in the stability criterion. The phenomenon of negative viscosity is observed. A new growth rate parameter, depending on the kinematical viscosity of the lower fluid layer, is found and has a stabilizing effect on the unstable modes. The growth rates and neutral stability curve are given and applied to air-water interface. The effects of various parameters are discussed for the Kelvin-Helmholtz and the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities.

1. CUDA Simulation of Homogeneous, Incompressible Turbulence

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Morin, Lee; Shebalin, John V.; Shum, Victor; Fu, Terry

2011-01-01

We discuss very fast Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) simulations of ideal homogeneous incompressible turbulence based on Fourier models. These models have associated statistical theories that predict that Fourier coefficients of fluid velocity and magnetic fields (if present) are zero-mean random variables. Prior numerical simulations have shown that certain coefficients have a non-zero mean value that can be very large compared to the associated standard deviation. We review the theoretical basis of this "broken ergodicity" as applied to 2-D and 3-D fluid and magnetohydrodynamic simulations of homogeneous turbulence. Our new simulations examine the phenomenon of broken ergodicity through very long time and large grid size runs performed on a state-of-the-art CUDA platform. Results comparing various CUDA hardware configurations and grid sizes are discussed. NS and MHD results are compared.

2. Assessing Redox Potential and Fluid Conductivity of a Contaminant Plume from Geoelectric Methods

Naudet, V.; Revil, A.; Rizzo, E.; Bottero, J.; Begassat, P.

2003-12-01

The redox potential and the fluid conductivity of a contaminant plume are two key-parameter to evaluate the plume development and to propose appropriate remediation technologies. we applied geo-electrical methods (self-potential, SP, and electrical resistivity tomography, ERT) to the Entressen landfill site (South-eastern France). From the knowledge of the piezometric head variation of the groundwater, the electrokinetic source is removed from the SP signals measured on the field. Then, a correlation (Rý=0.85) is obtained between the residual SP due to redox effect and the redox potential values measured in monitoring wells. The first-order linear relationship derived from this correlation is finally used to obtain a redox potential map of the overall contaminated site. A correlation (Rý=0.70) is observed between the electrical conductivities determined from the 3D ERT image and the conductivity of the groundwater measured in boreholes. From this correlation a map of the fluid conductivity is obtained. The maps of the redox potential and conductivity of the groundwater are both indicative of the presence of contaminants. The first one is more sensitive to the presence of organic matter and biodegradation. The second one gives information on the mineralization of the groundwater. Both maps can therefore be used to optimise the position of pumping wells for remediation.

3. A borehole fluid conductivity logging method for the determination of fracture inflow parameters

SciTech Connect

Tsang, Chin-Fu

1987-10-01

It is of much current interest to determine the flow characteristics of fractures intersecting a wellbore to provide data in the estimation of the hydrologic behavior of fractured rocks. The fluid inflow rates from the fractures into the wellbore are important quantities to measure. Often these inflows are at very low rates. One often finds that only a few percent of the fractures identified by core inspection and geophysical logging are water-conducting fractures, the rest being closed, clogged, or isolated from the water flow system. A new procedure is proposed and a corresponding method of analysis developed to locate water-conducting fractures and obtain fracture inflow parameters by means of a time sequence of electric conductivity logs of the borehole fluid. The physical basis of the analysis method is discussed. The procedure is applied to an existing set of data, which shows initiation and growth of nine conductivity peaks in a 900-m section of a 1690-m borehole, corresponding to nine water-conducting fractures intersecting the borehole. We are able to match all nine peaks and determine the flow rates from these fractures. 16 refs., 28 figs., 5 tabs.

4. Unified approach for incompressible flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chang, Tyne-Hsien

1993-01-01

An unified approach for solving both compressible and incompressible flows was investigated in this study. The difference in CFD code development between incompressible and compressible flows is due to the mathematical characteristics. However, if one can modify the continuity equation for incompressible flows by introducing pseudocompressibility, the governing equations for incompressible flows would have the same mathematical characters as compressible flows. The application of a compressible flow code to solve incompressible flows becomes feasible. Among numerical algorithms developed for compressible flows, the Centered Total Variation Diminishing (CTVD) schemes possess better mathematical properties to damp out the spurious oscillations while providing high-order accuracy for high speed flows. It leads us to believe that CTVD schemes can equally well solve incompressible flows. In this study, the governing equations for incompressible flows include the continuity equation and momentum equations. The continuity equation is modified by adding a time-derivative of the pressure term containing the artificial compressibility. The modified continuity equation together with the unsteady momentum equations forms a hyperbolic-parabolic type of time-dependent system of equations. The continuity equation is modified by adding a time-derivative of the pressure term containing the artificial compressibility. The modified continuity equation together with the unsteady momentum equations forms a hyperbolic-parabolic type of time-dependent system of equations. Thus, the CTVD schemes can be implemented. In addition, the boundary conditions including physical and numerical boundary conditions must be properly specified to obtain accurate solution. The CFD code for this research is currently in progress. Flow past a circular cylinder will be used for numerical experiments to determine the accuracy and efficiency of the code before applying this code to more specific applications.

5. General Equation Set Solver for Compressible and Incompressible Turbomachinery Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sondak, Douglas L.; Dorney, Daniel J.

2002-01-01

Turbomachines for propulsion applications operate with many different working fluids and flow conditions. The flow may be incompressible, such as in the liquid hydrogen pump in a rocket engine, or supersonic, such as in the turbine which may drive the hydrogen pump. Separate codes have traditionally been used for incompressible and compressible flow solvers. The General Equation Set (GES) method can be used to solve both incompressible and compressible flows, and it is not restricted to perfect gases, as are many compressible-flow turbomachinery solvers. An unsteady GES turbomachinery flow solver has been developed and applied to both air and water flows through turbines. It has been shown to be an excellent alternative to maintaining two separate codes.

6. Fluid flow volume measurements using a capacitance/conductance probe system

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nguyen, T. X.; Arndt, G. D.; Carl, J. R.

1995-01-01

A probe system has been developed to measure the flow volume of a single fluid passing through an orifice or flow line. The system employs both capacitance and a conductance probe at the orifice, together with phase detection and data acquisition circuitry to measure flow volume and salinity under low or zero gravity conditions. A wide variety of frequencies can be used for the radio frequency (RF) signal source which is chosen primarily by the capacitance of the orifice probe and the fluid passing through the orifice. Rapid measurements are made using the reflected signal from the orifice probe to determine the 'instantaneous' permittivity of the fluid/gas mixture passing through. The 'instantaneous' measurements are integrated over time to determine flow volume. Analysis reveals that a narrow orifice helps to reduce non-linearities caused by differing flow rates. The geometry of 'deflectors' and 'directors' for the flowing fluid are important in obtaining linearity. Measured data shows that a volume measurement accuracy of approximately four percent can be consistently achieved. The prototype hardware system and associated software have been optimized and are available for further applications. The system has immediate application in low or zero gravity environments for measurements of urine or other liquid volumes.

7. Comparison of Natural Convection Flows Under VHTR Type Conditions Modeled by both the Conservation and Incompressible Forms of the Navier-Stokes Equations

SciTech Connect

Richard C. Martineau; Ray A. Berry; Aur´elia Esteve; Kurt D. Hamman; Dana A. Knoll; Ryosuke Park; William Taitano

2010-06-01

This manuscript illustrates a comparative study to analyze the physical differences between numerical simulations obtained with both the conservation and incompressible forms of the Navier-Stokes equations for natural convection flows in simple geometries. The purpose of this study is to quantify how the incompressible flow assumption (which is based upon constant density advection, divergence-free flow, and the Boussinesq gravitational body force approximation) differs from the conservation form (which only assumes that the fluid is a continuum) when solving flows driven by gravity acting upon density variations resulting from local temperature gradients. Driving this study is the common use of the incompressible flow assumption in fluid flow simulations for nuclear power applications in natural convection flows subjected to a high heat flux (large temperature differences). A series of simulations were conducted on two-dimensional, differentially-heated rectangular geometries and modeled with both hydrodynamic formulations. From these simulations, the selected characterization parameters of maximum Nusselt number, average Nusselt number, and normalized pressure reduction were calculated. Comparisons of these parameters were made with available benchmark solutions for air with the ideal gas assumption at both low and high heat fluxes. Additionally, we generated specific force quantities and velocity and temperature distributions to provide a basis for further analysis. The simulations and analysis were then extended to include helium at the Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR) normal operating conditions. Our results show that the consequences of incorporating the incompressible flow assumption in high heat flux situations may lead to unrepresentative results. The results question the use of the incompressible flow assumption for simulating fluid flow in an operating nuclear reactor, where large temperature variations are present.

8. Modified two-fluid model of conductivity for superconducting surface resistance calculation. Master's thesis

SciTech Connect

Linden, D.S.

1993-05-01

The traditional two-fluid model of superconducting conductivity was modified to make it accurate, while remaining fast, for designing and simulating microwave devices. The modification reflects the BCS coherence effects in the conductivity of a superconductor, and is incorporated through the ratio of normal to superconducting electrons. This modified ratio is a simple analytical expression which depends on frequency, temperature and material parameters. This modified two-fluid model allows accurate and rapid calculation of the microwave surface impedance of a superconductor in the clean and dirty limits and in the weak- and strong-coupled regimes. The model compares well with surface resistance data for Nb and provides insight into Nb3Sn and Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta). Numerical calculations with the modified two-fluid model are an order of magnitude faster than the quasi-classical program by Zimmermann (1), and two to five orders of magnitude faster than Halbritter's BCS program (2) for surface resistance.

9. Fuel cell assembly unit for promoting fluid service and electrical conductivity

DOEpatents

Jones, Daniel O.

1999-01-01

Fluid service and/or electrical conductivity for a fuel cell assembly is promoted. Open-faced flow channel(s) are formed in a flow field plate face, and extend in the flow field plate face between entry and exit fluid manifolds. A resilient gas diffusion layer is located between the flow field plate face and a membrane electrode assembly, fluidly serviced with the open-faced flow channel(s). The resilient gas diffusion layer is restrained against entering the open-faced flow channel(s) under a compressive force applied to the fuel cell assembly. In particular, a first side of a support member abuts the flow field plate face, and a second side of the support member abuts the resilient gas diffusion layer. The support member is formed with a plurality of openings extending between the first and second sides of the support member. In addition, a clamping pressure is maintained for an interface between the resilient gas diffusion layer and a portion of the membrane electrode assembly. Preferably, the support member is spikeless and/or substantially flat. Further, the support member is formed with an electrical path for conducting current between the resilient gas diffusion layer and position(s) on the flow field plate face.

10. Simultaneous solution for core magnetic field and fluid flow beneath an electrically conducting mantle

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voorhies, Coerte V.; Nishihama, Masahiro

1993-01-01

The effects of laterally homogeneous mantle electrical conductivity were included in steady, frozen-flux core surface flow estimation along with refinements in method and weighting. The refined method allows simultaneous solution for both the initial radial geomagnetic field component at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and the sub-adjacent fluid motion; it also features Gauss' method for solving the non-linear inverse problem associated with steady motional induction. The tradeoff between spatial complexity of the derived flows and misfit to the weighted Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field models (DGRF's) is studied for various mantle conductivity profiles. For simple flow and a fixed initial geomagnetic condition, a fairly high deep-mantle conductivity performs better than either insulating or weakly conducting profiles; however, a thin, very high conductivity layer at the base of the mantle performs almost as well. Simultaneous solution for both initial geomagnetic field and flow reduces the misfit per degree of freedom even more than does changing the mantle conductivity profile. Moreover, when both core field and flow are estimated, the performance of the solutions and the derived flows become insensitive to the conductivity profile.

11. Utilization of the magnetogranulometric analysis to estimate the thermal conductivity of magnetic fluids

Holotescu, S.; Stoian, F. D.; Marinica, O.; Kubicar, L.; Kopcansky, P.; Timko, M.

2011-05-01

In this study, the semi-empirical equation for the effective thermal conductivity of the Holotescu-Stoian model was applied to a set of four dilutions of a transformer oil based magnetic fluid with magnetite nanoparticles as magnetic phase, using the results obtained for the size distributions from the magnetogranulometry analysis, followed by a comparison with the measured values of the effective thermal conductivity obtained by the hot ball method. The link between the size distribution by number and by volume used in the magnetogranulometry analysis and the Holotescu-Stoian model adaptation to the lognormal distribution were presented. The comparison between the results given by the model and the corresponding experimental data showed that by using the approximated size distribution to calculate the effective thermal conductivity the analytical results much closer to the experimental ones are obtained, compared to those given by the Maxwell classical model.

12. Electrokinetic Focusing and Separation of Mammalian Cells in Conductive Biological Fluids

PubMed Central

Gao, Jian Gao; Riahi, Reza; Sin, Mandy L. Y.; Zhang, Shufeng; Wong, Pak Kin

2014-01-01

Active manipulation of cells, such as trapping, focusing, and isolation, is essential for various bioanalytical applications. Herein, we report a hybrid electrokinetic technique for manipulating mammalian cells in physiological fluids. This technique applies a combination of negative dielectrophoretic force and hydrodynamic drag force induced by electrohydrodynamics, which is effective in conductive biological fluids. With a three-electrode configuration, the stable equilibrium positions of cells can be adjusted for separation and focusing applications. Cancer cells and white blood cells can be positioned and isolated into specific locations in the microchannel under both static and dynamic flow conditions. To investigate the sensitivity of the hybrid electrokinetic process, AC voltage, frequency, and bias dependences of the cell velocity were studied systematically. The applicability of the hybrid electrokinetic technique for manipulating cells in physiological samples is demonstrated by continuous focusing human breast adenocarcinoma spiked in urine, buffy coats, and processed blood samples with 98% capture efficiency. PMID:22937529

13. Dynamic permeability of electrically conducting fluids under magnetic fields in annular ducts.

PubMed

Cuevas, S; del Río, J A

2001-07-01

The dynamic response of an electrically conducting fluid (either Newtonian or Maxwellian) flowing between straight concentric circular cylinders under a constant radial magnetic field, is analyzed. The isothermal flow is studied using the time Fourier transform, so that the dynamic generalization of Darcy's law in the frequency domain is obtained and analytical expressions for the dynamic permeability are derived. For the Newtonian case, the range of frequencies where the dynamic permeability approaches the static value is enlarged the smaller the gap between the cylinders and the higher the magnetic-field strength. For the Maxwell fluid, the presence of the inner cylinder shifts the frequencies that lead to the enhancement of the real part of the dynamic permeability to larger values and increases its maximum values relative to the case where the inner cylinder is absent. In addition, the Ohmic dissipation causes the damping of the amplitude of the response. PMID:11461397

14. Electrokinetic focusing and separation of mammalian cells in conductive biological fluids.

PubMed

Gao, Jian; Riahi, Reza; Sin, Mandy L Y; Zhang, Shufeng; Wong, Pak Kin

2012-11-21

Active manipulation of cells, such as trapping, focusing, and isolation, is essential for various bioanalytical applications. Herein, we report a hybrid electrokinetic technique for manipulating mammalian cells in physiological fluids. This technique applies a combination of negative dielectrophoretic force and hydrodynamic drag force induced by electrohydrodynamics, which is effective in conductive biological fluids. With a three-electrode configuration, the stable equilibrium positions of cells can be adjusted for separation and focusing applications. Cancer cells and white blood cells can be positioned and isolated into specific locations in the microchannel under both static and dynamic flow conditions. To investigate the sensitivity of the hybrid electrokinetic process, AC voltage, frequency, and bias dependences of the cell velocity were studied systematically. The applicability of the hybrid electrokinetic technique for manipulating cells in physiological samples is demonstrated by continuous focusing of human breast adenocarcinoma spiked in urine, buffy coats, and processed blood samples with 98% capture efficiency. PMID:22937529

15. Skin-Friction Measurements in Incompressible Flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Smith, Donald W.; Walker, John H.

1959-01-01

Experiments have been conducted to measure the local surface-shear stress and the average skin-friction coefficient in Incompressible flow for a turbulent boundary layer on a smooth flat plate having zero pressure gradient. Data were obtained for a range of Reynolds numbers from 1 million to 45 million. The local surface-shear stress was measured by a floating-element skin-friction balance and also by a calibrated total head tube located on the surface of the test wall. The average skin-friction coefficient was obtained from boundary-layer velocity profiles.

16. Fluid Distribution in Synthetic Wet Halite Rocks : Inference from Measured Elastic Wave Velocity and Electrical Conductivity

Watanabe, T.; Kitano, M.

2011-12-01

Intercrystalline fluid can significantly affect rheological and transport properties of rocks. Its influences are strongly dependent on its distribution. The dihedral angle between solid and liquid phases has been widely accepted as a key parameter that controls solid-liquid textures. The liquid phase is not expected to be interconnected if the dihedral angle is larger than 60 degree. However, observations contradictory to dihedral angle values have been reported. Watanabe (2010) suggested the coexistence of grain boundary fluid with a positive dihedral angle. For good understanding of fluid distribution, it is thus critical to study the nature of grain boundary fluid. We have developed a high pressure and temperature apparatus for study of intercrystalline fluid distribution. It was specially designed for measurements of elastic wave velocities and electrical conductivity. The apparatus mainly consists of a conventional cold-seal vessel with an external heater. The pressure medium is silicon oil of the viscosity of 0.1 Pa s. The pressure and temperature can be controlled from 0 to 200 MPa and from 20 to 200 C, respectively. Dimensions of a sample are 9 mm in diameter, and 15 mm in length. Halite-water system is used as an analog for crustal rocks. The dihedral angle has been studied systematically at various pressure and temperature conditions [Lewis and Holness, 1996]. The dihedral angle is larger than 60 degree at lower pressure and temperature. It decreases to be smaller than 60 degree with increasing pressure and temperature. A sample is prepared by cold-pressing and annealing of wet NaCl powder. Optical examination has shown that synthesized samples are microstructurally homogeneous. Grains are polygonal and equidimensional with a mean diameter of 100 micrometer. Grain boundaries vary from straight to bowed and 120 degree triple junctions are common. Gas and fluid bearing inclusions are visible on the grain boundaries. There are spherical inclusions or

17. Computation of viscous incompressible flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kwak, Dochan

1989-01-01

Incompressible Navier-Stokes solution methods and their applications to three-dimensional flows are discussed. A brief review of existing methods is given followed by a detailed description of recent progress on development of three-dimensional generalized flow solvers. Emphasis is placed on primitive variable formulations which are most promising and flexible for general three-dimensional computations of viscous incompressible flows. Both steady- and unsteady-solution algorithms and their salient features are discussed. Finally, examples of real world applications of these flow solvers are given.

18. Electrical conductivity of lawsonite and dehydrating fluids at high pressures and temperatures

Manthilake, Geeth; Mookherjee, Mainak; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Andrault, Denis

2015-09-01

Lawsonite is a calcium-aluminum bearing hydrous silicate mineral with CaAl2Si2O7(OH)2.H2O stoichiometry. It is thermodynamically stable in the hydrated oceanic crust. Low-velocity anomalies observed in the cold subducted slabs have been related to the unusual shear wave velocities of lawsonite eclogite. However, electrical conductivity of lawsonite at high pressure and temperature remains unknown. In this study, we measured the electrical conductivity of lawsonite at 7 GPa, and temperatures ranging from 298 K-1320 K. At 1173 K, the electrical conductivity of lawsonite is around 10-1 S/m. A sharp increase of electrical conductivity is observed at temperatures exceeding the dehydration ~1258 K. The high electrical conductivity up to 101 S/m observed in our experiments is due to the presence of highly conductive fluid and could explain the low resistivity observed at 150-250 km depths in subduction zone settings such as NE Japan, northern, and central Chile.

19. A monolithic mass tracking formulation for bubbles in incompressible flow

SciTech Connect

Aanjaneya, Mridul Patkar, Saket Fedkiw, Ronald

2013-08-15

We devise a novel method for treating bubbles in incompressible flow that relies on the conservative advection of bubble mass and an associated equation of state in order to determine pressure boundary conditions inside each bubble. We show that executing this algorithm in a traditional manner leads to stability issues similar to those seen for partitioned methods for solid–fluid coupling. Therefore, we reformulate the problem monolithically. This is accomplished by first proposing a new fully monolithic approach to coupling incompressible flow to fully nonlinear compressible flow including the effects of shocks and rarefactions, and then subsequently making a number of simplifying assumptions on the air flow removing not only the nonlinearities but also the spatial variations of both the density and the pressure. The resulting algorithm is quite robust, has been shown to converge to known solutions for test problems, and has been shown to be quite effective on more realistic problems including those with multiple bubbles, merging and pinching, etc. Notably, this approach departs from a standard two-phase incompressible flow model where the air flow preserves its volume despite potentially large forces and pressure differentials in the surrounding incompressible fluid that should change its volume. Our bubbles readily change volume according to an isothermal equation of state.

20. Mixed boundary value problems for the stationary magnetohydrodynamics model of a viscous heat-conducting fluid

Alekseev, G. V.

2015-12-01

The boundary value problem for the stationary magnetohydrodynamics model of a viscous heatconducting fluid considered under inhomogeneous mixed boundary conditions for an electromagnetic field and the temperature and Dirichlet condition for the velocity is investigated. This problem describes the flow of an electricaland heat-conducting liquid in a bounded three-dimensional domain the boundary of which consists of several parts with different thermoand electrophysical properties. Sufficient conditions imposed on the initial data to provide for global solvability of the problem and local uniqueness of its solution are established.

1. Electroconvection of a poorly conducting fluid under unipolar charge injection in a steady electric field

SciTech Connect

Il’in, V. A. Mordvinov, A. N.; Petrov, D. A.

2015-01-15

We study the stability of equilibrium and nonlinear regimes of a nonuniformly heated poorly conducting fluid in a horizontal capacitor in the gravity field and in a dc electric field under a unipolar charge injection. A model in which the density of charges injected from the cathode is proportional to the electric field strength in the capacitor is considered. The dependences of critical parameters on the degree of heating and charge injection are determined. The effect of the Prandtl number on the equilibrium instability boundary and on the frequency of neutral vibrations is analyzed. Nonlinear regimes of electroconvection are studied for heating from below.

2. Video of Miscible Fluid Experiment Conducted on NASA Low Gravity Airplane

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

2003-01-01

This is a video of dyed water being injected into glycerin in a 2.2 centimeter (cm) diameter test tube. The experiment was conducted on the KC-135 aircraft, a NASA plane that creates microgravity and 2g conditions as it maneuvers through multiple parabolas. The water is less dense and so it rises to the top of the glycerin. The goal of the experiment was to determine if a blob of a miscible fluid would spontaneously become spherical in a microgravity environment.

3. Internally supported flexible duct joint. [device for conducting fluids in high pressure systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kuhn, R. F., Jr. (Inventor)

1975-01-01

An internally supported, flexible duct joint for use in conducting fluids under relatively high pressures in systems where relatively large deflection angles must be accommodated is presented. The joint includes a flexible tubular bellows and an elongated base disposed within the bellows. The base is connected through radiating struts to the bellows near mid-portion and to each of the opposite end portions of the bellows through a pivotal connecting body. A motion-controlling linkage is provided for linking the connecting bodies, whereby angular displacement of the joint is controlled and uniformity in the instantaneous bend radius of the duct is achieved as deflection is imposed.

4. Reduced Order Modeling Incompressible Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Helenbrook, B. T.

2010-01-01

The details: a) Need stable numerical methods; b) Round off error can be considerable; c) Not convinced modes are correct for incompressible flow. Nonetheless, can derive compact and accurate reduced-order models. Can be used to generate actuator models or full flow-field models

5. Fuel cell assembly fluid flow plate having conductive fibers and rigidizing material therein

DOEpatents

Walsh, Michael M.

2000-01-01

A fluid flow plate is preferably formed with three initial sections, for instance, two layers of conductive (e.g., metal) fibers and a barrier material (e.g., metal foil) which is interposed between the two layers. For example, sintering of these three sections can provide electrical path(s) between outer faces of the two layers. Then, the sintered sections can be, for instance, placed in a mold for forming of flow channel(s) into one or more of the outer faces. Next, rigidizing material (e.g., resin) can be injected into the mold, for example, to fill and/or seal space(s) about a conductive matrix of the electrical path(s). Preferably, abrading of surface(s) of the outer face(s) serves to expose electrical contact(s) to the electrical path(s).

6. Influence of pore fluid chemistry on the complex conductivity and induced polarization responses of Berea sandstone

Lesmes, David P.; Frye, Kevin M.

2001-01-01

The spectral induced-polarization (IP) response of rocks and soils is a complex function of pore solution chemistry, sample microgeometry, and surface chemical properties. We measure the complex conductivity and the time domain IP responses of Berea sandstone as a function of pore fluid ionic strength and pH. Complex conductivity is measured over the frequency range 10-3 to 106 Hz, and chargeability is computed using a time window of 0.16 to 1.74 s. The field IP parameters: phase, percent frequency effect, and chargeability are functions of both the surface and bulk electrical properties of the sample and are observed to decrease with increasing solution conductivity. Dividing these parameters by the sample resistivity yields normalized IP parameters (quadrature conductivity, metal factor, normalized chargeability) that are proportional to the imaginary component of the complex surface conductivity. Normalized IP parameters increase with ionic strength up to concentrations of 10-1 M NaCl and show a reduced response at pH 3, the point of zero charge for quartz-dominated systems. For concentrations >10-1 M NaCl, the normalized parameters decrease with increasing concentration. This decrease in surface polarization may indicate a decrease in the effective mobility of polarizing charges at high solution concentration. Our data indicate that normalized IP parameters are directly related to the physiochemical parameters that control the surface conductivity responses of rocks and soils. Normalization of IP measurements in environmental investigations should increase the effectiveness of IP surveys, especially in high-conductivity environments.

7. Effect of Axial Fluid Conduction on Thermal Transport in Superhydrophobic Microchannels

Cowley, Adam; Maynes, Daniel; Crockett, Julie; Fluids; Thermal Transport Lab-BYU Team

2014-11-01

Convective heat transfer in a rib/cavity structured superhydrophobic microchannel is explored numerically. The cavities are assumed to be in the Cassie state (not wet) and the liquid meniscus is modeled as flat. The ribs are oriented perpendicular to the flow direction and are smaller than the channel hydraulic diameter. A constant heat flux condition is prescribed at the top of the ribs while the gas/liquid interface is approximated as adiabatic. The varied parameters include Peclet number, relative cavity size, and relative channel-wall spacing. The influence of fluid axial conduction is explored and it is found that axial conduction plays a significant role in superhydrophobic microchannels. Aggregate results are presented in the form of an average Nusselt number and the ratio of the temperature jump length to the hydrodynamic slip length. These results are compared to two previous studies: one where axial conduction was neglected and another where diffusion is assumed to be dominant. Overall, the results show that heat transfer is decreased for a superhydrophobic channel when compared to a classical smooth channel and that axial conduction exerts influence over a much larger range of parameters than prevails for classical no-slip channels. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) (Grant No. CBET-1235881).

8. Decoupling ion conductivity and fluid permeation through optimizing hydrophilic channel morphology

Chu, Peter Po-Jen; Fang, Yu-Shin; Tseng, Yu-Chen

2016-05-01

Approaches to improve membrane ion conductivity usually leads to higher degree of swelling, more serious fuel cross-over and often sacrificed membrane mechanical strength. Preserving all three main membrane properties is a tough challenge in searching high ion conducting fuel cell membrane. The long standing dilemma is resolved by decoupling ion conduction and fluid permeation property by creating optimized channel morphology using external electric field poling. Success of this approach is demonstrated in the proton conducting membrane composed of poly(ether sulfones) (PES) and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK, degree of sulfonation=50%) composites prepared under electric field poling condition. The external field enhanced the aromatic chain ordering from both sPEEK and PES and improved the miscibility. This induced interaction is conducive to the formation of more densely packed amorphous domains that eventually leads to preferentially ordered hydrophilic proton conducting channels having a average dimension (3 nm) smaller than that in generic sPEEK or Nafion. The narrower but more ordered channel displayed much lower methanol permeability (3.17×10-7 cm2/s), and lower swelling ratio (31.20%), while the conductivity (~10-1 S/cm) is higher than that of Nafion, or sPEEK at higher (64%) degree of sulfonation. The composite is chemically stable and highly durable with improved membrane mechanical strength. Nearly 50% increase of DMFC power output is observed using this membrane, and the best power density is recorded at 155 mA/cm2 (80 °C, 1M Methanol).

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kwak, Dochan

2001-01-01

This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of viscous incompressible flow computations for three-dimensional steady and unsteady flows. Details are given on the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as an engineering tool, solution methods for incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, numerical and physical characteristics of the primitive variable approach, and the role of CFD in the past and in current engineering and research applications.

10. The application of moment methods to the analysis of fluid electrical conductivity logs in boreholes

SciTech Connect

Loew, S. ); Tsang, Chin-Fu; Hale, F.V. ); Hufschmied, P. , Baden )

1990-08-01

This report is one of a series documenting the results of the Nagra-DOE Cooperative (NDC-I) research program in which the cooperating scientists explore the geological, geophysical, hydrological, geochemical, and structural effects anticipated from the use of a rock mass as a geologic repository for nuclear waste. Previous reports have presented a procedure for analyzing a time sequence of wellbore electric conductivity logs in order to obtain outflow parameters of fractures intercepted by the borehole, and a code, called BORE, used to simulate borehole fluid conductivity profiles given these parameters. The present report describes three new direct (not iterative) methods for analyzing a short time series of electric conductivity logs based on moment quantities of the individual outflow peaks and applies them to synthetic as well as to field data. The results of the methods discussed show promising results and are discussed in terms of their respective advantages and limitations. In particular it is shown that one of these methods, the so-called Partial Moment Method,'' is capable of reproducing packer test results from field experiments in the Leuggern deep well within a factor of three, which is below the range of what is recognized as the precision of packer tests themselves. Furthermore the new method is much quicker than the previously used iterative fitting procedure and is even capable of handling transient fracture outflow conditions. 20 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

11. Ketoconazole activates Cl- conductance and blocks Cl- and fluid absorption by cultured cystic fibrosis (CFPAC-1) cells.

PubMed Central

Kersting, U; Kersting, D; Spring, K R

1993-01-01

The role of arachidonic acid metabolites in the regulation of apical cell membrane Cl- conductance and transepithelial transport of fluid and Cl- by cultured pancreatic cells from cystic fibrosis (CFPAC-1) and corrected (PAC-1) cell lines was evaluated by the use of inhibitors. CFPAC-1 cells did not exhibit an apical membrane Cl- conductance, absorbed Cl- and fluid, and did not respond to stimulation or inhibition of cAMP action. PAC-1 cells exhibited a cAMP-responsive apical Cl- conductance, which was blocked by indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor. Ketoconazole, an epoxygenase inhibitor, had virtually no effects on PAC-1 cell Cl- conductance but caused CFPAC-1 cells to develop a cAMP-insensitive Cl- conductance, blocked Cl- and fluid absorption, and reduced transepithelial electrical resistance. Ketoconazole treatment effectively reversed the cystic fibrosis defect in these cultured cells. PMID:7683418

12. Instability in Three-Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Flows of an Electrically Conducting Fluid

Zakir, Hussain; Liu, Chan; Zhang, Nianmei; Ni, Mingjiu

2013-12-01

The three-dimensional instability of an electrically conducting fluid between two parallel plates affected by an imposed transversal magnetic field is numerically investigated by a Chebyshev collocation method. The QZ method is utilized to obtain neutral curves of the linear instability. The details of instability are analyzed by solving the generalized Orr-Sommerfeld equation. The critical Reynolds number Rec, the stream-wise and span-wise critical wave numbers αc and βc are obtained for a wide range of Hartmann number Ha. The effects of Lorentz force and span-wise perturbation on three-dimensional instability are investigated. The results show that magnetic field would suppress the instability and critical Reynolds number tends to be larger than that for two-dimensional instability.

13. Supercomputing Aspects for Simulating Incompressible Flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kwak, Dochan; Kris, Cetin C.

2000-01-01

The primary objective of this research is to support the design of liquid rocket systems for the Advanced Space Transportation System. Since the space launch systems in the near future are likely to rely on liquid rocket engines, increasing the efficiency and reliability of the engine components is an important task. One of the major problems in the liquid rocket engine is to understand fluid dynamics of fuel and oxidizer flows from the fuel tank to plume. Understanding the flow through the entire turbo-pump geometry through numerical simulation will be of significant value toward design. One of the milestones of this effort is to develop, apply and demonstrate the capability and accuracy of 3D CFD methods as efficient design analysis tools on high performance computer platforms. The development of the Message Passage Interface (MPI) and Multi Level Parallel (MLP) versions of the INS3D code is currently underway. The serial version of INS3D code is a multidimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes solver based on overset grid technology, INS3D-MPI is based on the explicit massage-passing interface across processors and is primarily suited for distributed memory systems. INS3D-MLP is based on multi-level parallel method and is suitable for distributed-shared memory systems. For the entire turbo-pump simulations, moving boundary capability and efficient time-accurate integration methods are built in the flow solver, To handle the geometric complexity and moving boundary problems, an overset grid scheme is incorporated with the solver so that new connectivity data will be obtained at each time step. The Chimera overlapped grid scheme allows subdomains move relative to each other, and provides a great flexibility when the boundary movement creates large displacements. Two numerical procedures, one based on artificial compressibility method and the other pressure projection method, are outlined for obtaining time-accurate solutions of the incompressible Navier

14. Conductivity measurements on H2O-bearing CO2-rich fluids

SciTech Connect

Capobianco, Ryan M.; Miroslaw S. Gruszkiewicz; Bodnar, Robert J.; Rimstidt, J. Donald

2014-09-10

Recent studies report rapid corrosion of metals and carbonation of minerals in contact with carbon dioxide containing trace amounts of dissolved water. One explanation for this behavior is that addition of small amounts of H2O to CO2 leads to significant ionization within the fluid, thus promoting reactions at the fluid-solid interface analogous to corrosion associated with aqueous fluids. The extent of ionization in the bulk CO2 fluid was determined using a flow-through conductivity cell capable of detecting very low conductivities. Experiments were conducted from 298 to 473 K and 7.39 to 20 MPa with H2O concentrations up to ~1600 ppmw (xH2O ≈ 3.9 x 10-3), corresponding to the H2O solubility limit in liquid CO2 at ambient temperature. All solutions showed conductivities <10 nS/cm, indicating that the solutions were essentially ion-free. Furthermore, this observation suggests that the observed corrosion and carbonation reactions are not the result of ionization in CO2-rich bulk phase, but does not preclude ionization in the fluid at the fluid-solid interface.

15. Tree-Shaped Fluid Flow and Heat Storage in a Conducting Solid

SciTech Connect

Combelles, L.; Lorente, S.; Anderson, R.; Bejan, A.

2012-01-01

This paper documents the time-dependent thermal interaction between a fluid stream configured as a plane tree of varying complexity embedded in a conducting solid with finite volume and insulated boundaries. The time scales of the convection-conduction phenomenon are identified. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional configurations are simulated numerically. The number of length scales of the tree architecture varies from one to four. The results show that the heat transfer density increases, and the time of approach to equilibrium decreases as the complexity of the tree designs increases. These results are then formulated in the classical notation of energy storage by sensible heating, which shows that the effective number of heat transfer units increases as the complexity of the tree design increases. The complexity of heat transfer designs in many applications is constrained by first cost and operating cost considerations. This work provides a fundamental basis for objective evaluation of cost and performance tradeoffs in thermal design of energy systems with complexity as an unconstrained parameter that can be actively varied over a broad range to determine the optimum system design.

16. Effects of fluid-rock interactions in arkosic sandstones: Long-term direct monitoring of changes in permeability, electrical conductivity, and pore fluid chemistry

Schepers, A.; Milsch, H.

2009-04-01

In the context of low enthalpy geothermal energy production from deep sedimentary reservoirs laboratory experiments and simulations in the system quartz-feldspar-water were conducted. To constrain the effect of fluid-rock interactions on permeability under hydrothermal in situ conditions an interdisciplinary approach covering petrophysical, petrological and hydrogeochemical methods was applied. Long-term flow-through experiments were conducted under hydrostatic pressure conditions in a HPT-permeameter. Two arkosic sandstones, one pure quartz arenite (Fontainebleau) as well as one sandwich sample containing a quartz-feldspar powder of defined grain size and composition were investigated. The pore fluid was distilled water. At a maximum temperature of 160°C both permeability and electrical rock conductivity were simultaneously monitored. The maximum run duration was three months. Complementary batch experiments were performed with quartz-feldspar powders to constrain the mechanisms and kinetics of potentially occurring hydrothermal reactions. The resulting fluids were analysed with ICP-OES and the reacted powders were characterised with XRD and SEM. Additionally, the hydrothermal reactions were modelled with PHREEQC. It will be demonstrated that permeability decreases in the course of the experiments. However, compared to similar experiments conducted under deviatoric stress conditions (Tenthorey et al., 1998) the decrease in permeability is low. For both arkosic sandstones and at stagnant flow conditions the electrical rock conductivity showed an asymptotical increase indicating that the respective pore fluid approaches a saturation state. Furthermore, fluid samples taken at the end of the Fontainebleau experiment exhibit supersaturation with respect to quartz. In addition, PHREEQC simulations of the feldspar-quartz-water equilibrium indicate that different clay minerals and gibbsite are supersaturated in the resulting fluid. Consequently and despite the sluggish

17. Incompressible and anelastic flow simulations on numerically generated grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sharman, R. D.; Keller, T. L.; Wurtele, M. G.

1988-01-01

In the numerical simulation of incompressible and anelastic flows, it is necessary to solve an elliptic equation at each time step. When the boundaries of such flows are nonrectangular, it may be advantageous to solve the equations on a new, numerically generated coordinate grid, in which the property of orthogonality has been preserved. Flow equations in general curvilinear coordinates maintaining the conservative form are given for both anelastic models using the momentum equations, and for incompressible models, using the vorticity equation. The general problem of grid-generation in two dimensions is presented, and a quasi-conformal transformation technique is discussed in detail. Some examples of grids generated by this technique are exhibited. Three examples of the flow of a stratified fluid over obstacles are presented, in which the grid-generation permits some new results to be obtained.

18. Impulsively started incompressible turbulent jet

SciTech Connect

Witze, P O

1980-10-01

Hot-film anemometer measurements are presented for the centerline velocity of a suddenly started jet of air. The tip penetration of the jet is shown to be proportional to the square-root of time. A theoretical model is developed that assumes the transient jet can be characterized as a spherical vortex interacting with a steady-state jet. The model demonstrates that the ratio of nozzle radius to jet velocity defines a time constant that uniquely characterizes the behavior and similarity of impulsively started incompressible turbulent jets.

19. Potential flow and forces for incompressible viscous flow

Chang, Chien-Cheng

1992-06-01

Forces on a finite body in an incompressible viscous flow are shown to be contributed by a potential flow and fluid elements of nonzero vorticity in a revealing formulation. The present study indicates that the potential flow pay also a geometric role in determining the contribution of the fluid elements. Consideration is given to a solid body moving through a fluid, fluid accelerating past a solid body and a solid body which oscillates in a uniform stream. The effects of induced-mass and inertial forces appear naturally in the formulation and are separated from the contribution due to the surface vorticity and that due to the vorticity within the flow. Physical significance of the present analysis for vortical flows about a finite body is illustrated by examples, e.g., flow past a circular cylinder or an ellipsoid of revolution.

20. Determining majors fluid-flow zones in a geothermal sandstone reservoir from thermal conductivity and temperature logs

Haffen, S.; Géraud, Y.; Diraison, M.; Dezayes, C.

2012-04-01

A method, based on thermal gradient analysis, is presented for locating hot fluid flow in a rock formation. The method involves determining the thermal gradient from thermal conductivity measurements on core samples and also from borehole temperature logs run in the same borehole. With a heat flow density calculation and thermal conductivity measurements, one can apply Fourier's law to calculate the thermal gradient in a rock system where the heat transfer is assumed to be controlled only by conduction. The thermal gradient calculated from a measured temperature log profile takes into account both the conductive and the convective or advective part due to fluid circulation. On the one hand, if the thermal gradient deduced from temperature logs indicates similar values to the thermal gradient calculated with Fourier's law, the heat transfer is assumed to be controlled solely by conduction in the rock formation and thus involves no relative hot or cold fluid circulation. If, on the other hand, the thermal gradient deduced from the temperature logs indicates higher or lower values than that calculated with Fourier's law, then respectively hot or cold fluid flow could be suspected. We applied this method to borehole EPS1 (Soultz-sous-Forêts, Upper Rhine Graben) for which temperature logs and core samples from the Buntsandstein are available. Variations between the two determined thermal gradient curves revealed three main hot fluid flow levels alternating with non-flow zones in the sandstone formation. The pattern was then compared against the fracture distribution, and also against sedimentological analyses determined from the borehole cores, in order to determine the driving components of the fluid flows. The flow zones in the Buntsandstein are controlled on the one hand by a macroscopic network with two major fault zones providing a flow path for the deep heat source and on the other hand by a matrix network formed during sedimentary or diagenetic processes within

1. On the nature of incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

SciTech Connect

Gogoberidze, G.

2007-02-15

A novel model of incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the presence of a strong external magnetic field is proposed for the explanation of recent numerical results. According to the proposed model, in the presence of the strong external magnetic field, incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence becomes nonlocal in the sense that low-frequency modes cause decorrelation of interacting high-frequency modes from the inertial interval. It is shown that the obtained nonlocal spectrum of the inertial range of incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence represents an anisotropic analogue of Kraichnan's nonlocal spectrum of hydrodynamic turbulence. Based on the analysis performed in the framework of the weak-coupling approximation, which represents one of the equivalent formulations of the direct interaction approximation, it is shown that incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence could be both local and nonlocal, and therefore anisotropic analogues of both the Kolmogorov and Kraichnan spectra are realizable in incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

2. Electrohydrostatic analysis of equilibrium shape and stability of stressed conducting fluids: Application to liquid metal ion sources

SciTech Connect

Chung, M.; Miskovsky, N.M.; Cutler, P.H.; Feuchtwang, T.E.; Kazes, E.

1987-11-01

An exact mathematical treatment of the problem of an electrically stressed fluid from zero field to the onset of instability gives rise to the nonlinear electrohydrodynamic equations which, in general, are not amenable to analytic solution. To make the problem more tractable, one considers two limiting regimes, the electrohydrostatic (EHS) and the electrohydrodynamic (EHD) limits. In the EHS case, the fields and the velocities are assumed to be small so that quasistatic equilibrium exists and the fluid surface is essentially at rest. In this paper we consider the electrohydrostatic analysis of the equilibrium shape and stability of the electrically stressed fluids. The current work reintroduces the EHS stability criterion due to Zeleny, as well as a new set of equations and numerical procedure for analyzing the stability of an axially symmetric fluid with an arbitrary shaped surface. These are contrasted with a stability criterion, introduced by Taylor, which it is argued, is only an equilibrium condition and not a proper criterion for analyzing the general stability of electrified fluids. The Taylor and Zeleny criteria are applied to fluid sources modeled as simple coordinate surfaces, such as the cone, the cusp, and the hyperboloid. These results lead to a new physical interpretation of the onset of fluid instability in the EHS limit. A set of partial differential equations is derived, whose solution describes the equilibrium shape of a conducting fluid as a function of the applied electric field. Numerical results are presented for the evolution of the equilibrium shapes of several liquid metals as a function of the applied voltage. Values of the critical or breakdown voltage are obtained from these results and found to be in good agreement with experiment. Finally, the EHS analysis indicates that a realistic and accurate treatment of the onset of instability requires fluid flow in a dynamical model.

3. RIPPLE - A new model for incompressible flows with free surfaces

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kothe, D. B.; Mjolsness, R. C.

1991-01-01

A new free surface flow model, RIPPLE, is summarized. RIPPLE obtains finite difference solutions for incompressible flow problems having strong surface tension forces at free surfaces of arbitrarily complex topology. The key innovation is the continuum surface force model which represents surface tension as a (strongly) localized volume force. Other features include a higher-order momentum advection model, a volume-of-fluid free surface treatment, and an efficient two-step projection solution method. RIPPLE's unique capabilities are illustrated with two example problems: low-gravity jet-induced tank flow, and the collision and coalescence of two cylindrical rods.

4. Numerical Simulation of Incompressible Flows with Moving Interfaces

Medale, Marc; Jaeger, Marc

1997-03-01

A numerical model has been developed for the 2D simulation of free surface flows or, more generally speaking, moving interface ones. The bulk fluids on both sides of the interface are taken into account in simulating the incompressible laminar flow state. In the case of heat transfer the whole system, i.e. walls as well as possible obstacles, is considered. This model is based on finite element analysis with an Eulerian approach and an unstructured fixed mesh. A special technique to localize the interface allows its temporal evolution through this mesh. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the model.

5. Preconditioning and the limit to the incompressible flow equations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Turkel, E.; Fiterman, A.; Vanleer, B.

1993-01-01

The use of preconditioning methods to accelerate the convergence to a steady state for both the incompressible and compressible fluid dynamic equations are considered. The relation between them for both the continuous problem and the finite difference approximation is also considered. The analysis relies on the inviscid equations. The preconditioning consists of a matrix multiplying the time derivatives. Hence, the steady state of the preconditioned system is the same as the steady state of the original system. For finite difference methods the preconditioning can change and improve the steady state solutions. An application to flow around an airfoil is presented.

6. Pseudo-compressibility methods for the incompressible flow equations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Turkel, Eli; Arnone, A.

1993-01-01

Preconditioning methods to accelerate convergence to a steady state for the incompressible fluid dynamics equations are considered. The analysis relies on the inviscid equations. The preconditioning consists of a matrix multiplying the time derivatives. Thus the steady state of the preconditioned system is the same as the steady state of the original system. The method is compared to other types of pseudo-compressibility. For finite difference methods preconditioning can change and improve the steady state solutions. An application to viscous flow around a cascade with a non-periodic mesh is presented.

7. Influence of Pore-Fluid Pressure on Elastic Wave Velocity and Electrical Conductivity in Water-Saturated Rocks

Higuchi, A.; Watanabe, T.

2013-12-01

Pore-fluid pressure in seismogenic zones can play a key role in the occurrence of earthquakes (e.g., Sibson, 2009). Its evaluation via geophysical observations can lead to a good understanding of seismic activities. The evaluation requires a thorough understanding of the influence of the pore-fluid pressure on geophysical observables like seismic velocity and electrical conductivity. We have studied the influence of pore-fluid pressure on elastic wave velocity and electrical conductivity in water-saturated rocks. Fine grained (100-500μm) biotite granite (Aji, Kagawa pref., Japan) was used as rock samples. The density is 2.658-2.668 g/cm3, and the porosity 0.68-0.87%. The sample is composed of 52.8% plagioclase, 36.0% Quartz, 3.0% K-feldspar, 8.2% biotite. SEM images show that a lot of grain boundaries are open. Few intracrystalline cracks were observed. Following the method proposed by David and Zimmerman (2012), the distribution function of crack aspect ratio was evaluated from the pressure dependence of compressional and shear wave velocities in a dry sample. Cylindrical sample has dimensions of 25 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length, and saturated with 0.01 mol/l KCl aqueous solution. Compressional and shear wave velocities were measured with the pulse transmission technique (PZT transducers, f=2 MHz), and electrical conductivity the two-electrode method (Ag-AgCl electrodes, f=1 Hz-100 kHz). Simultaneous measurements of velocities and conductivity were made using a 200 MPa hydrostatic pressure vessel, in which confining and pore-fluid pressures can be separately controlled. The pore-fluid is electrically insulated from the metal work of the pressure vessel by using a newly designed plastic device (Watanabe and Higuchi, 2013). The confining pressure was progressively increased up to 25 MPa, while the pore-fluid pressure was kept at 0.1 MPa. It took five days or longer for the electrical conductivity to become stationary after increasing the confining pressure

8. Fluid Dynamics with Free Surfaces

Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

1992-02-01

RIPPLE is a two-dimensional, transient, free surface incompressible fluid dynamics program. It allows multiple free surfaces with surface tension and wall adhesion forces and has a partial cell treatment which allows curved boundaries and interior obstacles.

9. An efficient and robust algorithm for two dimensional time dependent incompressible Navier-Stokes equations - High Reynolds number flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goodrich, John W.

1991-01-01

An algorithm is presented for unsteady two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes calculations. This algorithm is based on the fourth order partial differential equation for incompressible fluid flow which uses the streamfunction as the only dependent variable. The algorithm is second order accurate in both time and space. It uses a multigrid solver at each time step. It is extremely efficient with respect to the use of both CPU time and physical memory. It is extremely robust with respect to Reynolds number.

10. An efficient and robust algorithm for two dimensional time dependent incompressible Navier-Stokes equations: High Reynolds number flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goodrich, John W.

1991-01-01

An algorithm is presented for unsteady two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes calculations. This algorithm is based on the fourth order partial differential equation for incompressible fluid flow which uses the streamfunction as the only dependent variable. The algorithm is second order accurate in both time and space. It uses a multigrid solver at each time step. It is extremely efficient with respect to the use of both CPU time and physical memory. It is extremely robust with respect to Reynolds number.

11. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.

PubMed

Brenner, Howard

2012-07-01

Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases. PMID:23005525

12. Seismic swarms, fluid flow and hydraulic conductivity in the forearc offshore North Costa Rica and Nicaragua

Thorwart, Martin; Dzierma, Yvonne; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Hensen, Christian

2014-10-01

At the continental margin of north Costa Rica and Nicaragua, the strongly hydrated Cocos Plate subducts beneath the Caribbean Plate. From the downgoing Cocos plate fluids are released through extensional fractures in the overriding plate. At the seafloor, they form fluid seeps, mounds and other types of fluid expulsion. Using an offshore temporary seismic network, we investigated seismicity possibly related to these processes and observed several swarms of earthquakes located on the continental slope trenchward of the seismogenic zone of S Nicaragua. The seismicity occurred within the downgoing plate, near the plate interface and in the overriding plate. We interpret these swarm events as an expression of pore pressure propagation under critical stress conditions driven by fluid release from the downgoing plate. In order to estimate hydraulic diffusivity and permeability values, we applied a theory developed for injection test interpretation to the spatio-temporal development of the swarms. The resulting diffusivity and permeability values are in the ranges of 28-305 m²/s and 3.2 × 10-14 m²-35.1 × 10-14 m², respectively, applying to the continental and oceanic crust near the plate interface. These values are somewhat larger than observed in drill logs on the margin wedge off north Costa Rica, but of comparable magnitude to values estimated for the Antofagasta 1995 earthquake aftershock sequence.

13. Dependence of particle size on the effective thermal diffusivity and conductivity of nanofluids: role of base fluid properties

Nisha, M. R.; Philip, J.

2012-10-01

Effect of nanoparticle size on effective thermal diffusivity and conductivity of polymeric and water based nanofluids are investigated following thermal wave interference technique. Two sets of nanofluids, prepared by dispersing TiO2 nanoparticles, with average sizes in the range 5-100 nm, in polyvinyl alcohol and water show opposing particle size dependences. Variations are explained invoking effective medium theory, including size of nanoparticles, molecular weight of base fluid and effects associated with it.

14. Quantifying Hydraulic Conductivity and Fluid Pressures in the Alpine Fault Hanging-Wall Using DFDP-2 Data and Numerical Models

Coussens, J. P.; Woodman, N. D.; Menzies, C. D.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Sutherland, R.; Capova, L.; Cox, S.; Upton, P.; Townend, J.; Toy, V.

2015-12-01

Fluid flow can play an important role in fault failure, due to the influence of pore pressure on effective confining stress and through chemical and thermal alteration of the fault zone. Rocks of the Alpine Fault Zone, both exposed at the surface and recovered in cores, show evidence for significant alteration by fluids. However, the fluid flow regime in the region is poorly constrained and its relationship with the behaviour of the fault is uncertain. In 2014 the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) drilled the DFDP-2B borehole, penetrating 893 m into the hanging-wall of the Alpine Fault. Prior to drilling, a set of hydrogeological models for the Whataroa Valley region, encompassing the DFDP-2B drill site, were constructed using the modelling software FEFLOW. Models were constructed for a range of plausible hydraulic conductivity structures for the region. They predicted strongly artesian hydraulic heads of 50-150 m above surface elevation and temperatures exceeding 100 °C within 1 km depth in bedrock beneath the DFDP-2 drill site, with the exact hydraulic and thermal gradients dependent on the hydraulic conductivity structure chosen. During the drilling project hydraulic and thermal data from the borehole was collected. This included 33 slug test datasets, carried out at a range of borehole depths throughout the project. Estimates for hydraulic conductivity were obtained by analysis of slug test data. Steady state hydraulic heads for the borehole, across a range of depths, were estimated from the slug test measurements. Depth profiles of hydraulic head show rapid increases in hydraulic head with depth, in line with model predictions. Results show fluid pressures greatly exceeding hydrostatic pressure in the shallow crust, reflecting significant upward flow of groundwater beneath the Whataroa Valley. Hydraulic conductivity estimates provide constraints on the hydraulic conductivity structure of the region. All hydraulic conductivity structures modelled thus far

15. Transport properties of dense fluid mixtures using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics. [Viscosity and thermal conductivity of continuous, or polydisperse mixtures

SciTech Connect

1990-09-01

This progress report covers research carried out during the period September 15, 1987--September 15, 1990. The main emphasis of the work was on dense fluid mixtures, although in some cases work had to be done on pure fluids before we could study mixtures in a meaningful way. A summary of our results is given. (1) An algorithm was developed and used to calculate the viscosity and thermal conductivity of continuous, or polydisperse mixtures with various distributions (e.g. linear, several gaussian distributions including unsymmetric, etc.) using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). (2) A method was developed to calculate the thermal conductivity of nonspherical (rigid) molecules using NEMD. (3) The NEMD method for thermal conductivity of nonspherical molecules was used to have a careful look at the contributions due to internal rotational degrees of freedom in linear compounds such as chlorine, nitrogen, etc. (4) It has long been speculated that polar fluids exhibit heat induced birefringence, i.e., the molecules will tend to align themselves along the direction of an external heat field. Using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics we were able to conclusively confirm this. (5) We completed a preliminary study of the viscosity of homonuclear diatomics and their mixtures (e.g. N{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}, etc.). (6) We completed a study of the various flexibility (vibrational) effects, such as bond bending, bond stretching etc., on linear and nonlinear model triatomics. To examine these effects in our preliminary study, we looked at the pressure second virial coefficients.

16. Hydrologic testing during drilling: application of the flowing fluid electrical conductivity (FFEC) logging method to drilling of a deep borehole

Tsang, Chin-Fu; Rosberg, Jan-Erik; Sharma, Prabhakar; Berthet, Theo; Juhlin, Christopher; Niemi, Auli

2016-04-01

Drilling of a deep borehole does not normally allow for hydrologic testing during the drilling period. It is only done when drilling experiences a large loss (or high return) of drilling fluid due to penetration of a large-transmissivity zone. The paper proposes the possibility of conducting flowing fluid electrical conductivity (FFEC) logging during the drilling period, with negligible impact on the drilling schedule, yet providing important information on depth locations of both high- and low-transmissivity zones and their hydraulic properties. The information can be used to guide downhole fluid sampling and post-drilling detailed testing of the borehole. The method has been applied to the drilling of a 2,500-m borehole at Åre, central Sweden, firstly when the drilling reached 1,600 m, and then when the drilling reached the target depth of 2,500 m. Results unveil eight hydraulically active zones from 300 m down to borehole bottom, with depths determined to within the order of a meter. Further, the first set of data allows the estimation of hydraulic transmissivity values of the six hydraulically conductive zones found from 300 to 1,600 m, which are very low and range over one order of magnitude.

17. Magnetohydrodynamic equilibria with incompressible flows: Symmetry approach

SciTech Connect

Cicogna, G.; Pegoraro, F.

2015-02-15

We identify and discuss a family of azimuthally symmetric, incompressible, magnetohydrodynamic plasma equilibria with poloidal and toroidal flows in terms of solutions of the Generalized Grad Shafranov (GGS) equation. These solutions are derived by exploiting the incompressibility assumption, in order to rewrite the GGS equation in terms of a different dependent variable, and the continuous Lie symmetry properties of the resulting equation and, in particular, a special type of “weak” symmetries.

18. Conduction-only transport phenomena in compressible bivelocity fluids: Diffuse interfaces and Korteweg stresses

Brenner, Howard

2014-04-01

"Diffuse interface" theories for single-component fluids—dating back to van der Waals, Korteweg, Cahn-Hilliard, and many others—are currently based upon an ad hoc combination of thermodynamic principles (built largely upon Helmholtz's free-energy potential) and so-called "nonclassical" continuum-thermomechanical principles (built largely upon Newtonian mechanics), with the latter originating with the pioneering work of Dunn and Serrin [Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 88, 95 (1985)]. By introducing into the equation governing the transport of energy the notion of an interstitial work-flux contribution, above and beyond the usual Fourier heat-flux contribution, namely, jq=-k∇T, to the energy flux, Dunn and Serrin provided a rational continuum-thermomechanical basis for the presence of Korteweg stresses in the equation governing the transport of linear momentum in compressible fluids. Nevertheless, by their failing to recognize the existence and fundamental need for an independent volume transport equation [Brenner, Physica A 349, 11 (2005), 10.1016/j.physa.2004.10.033]—especially for the roles played therein by the diffuse volume flux jv and the rate of production of volume πv at a point of the fluid continuum—we argue that diffuse interface theories for fluids stand today as being both ad hoc and incomplete owing to their failure to recognize the need for an independent volume transport equation for the case of compressible fluids. In contrast, we point out that bivelocity hydrodynamics, as it already exists [Brenner, Phys. Rev. E 86, 016307 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.016307], provides a rational, non-ad hoc, and comprehensive theory of diffuse interfaces, not only for single-component fluids, but also for certain classes of crystalline solids [Danielewski and Wierzba, J. Phase Equilib. Diffus. 26, 573 (2005), 10.1007/s11669-005-0002-y]. Furthermore, we provide not only what we believe to be the correct constitutive equation for the Korteweg stress in the

19. Conduction and dissipation in the shearing flow of granular materials modeled as non-Newtonian fluids

SciTech Connect

Massoudi, M.C.; Tran, P.X.

2007-06-15

After providing a brief review of the constitutive modeling of the stress tensor for granular materials using non-Newtonian fluid models, we study the flow between two horizontal flat plates. It is assumed that the granular media behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid (of the Reiner–Rivlin type); we use the constitutive relation derived by Rajagopal and Massoudi [Rajagopal, K. R. and M. Massoudi, “A Method for measuring material moduli of granular materials: flow in an orthogonal rheometer,” Topical Report, DOE/PETC/TR-90/3, 1990] which can predict the normal stress differences. The lower plate is fixed and heated, and the upper plate (which is at a lower temperature than the lower plate) is set into motion with a constant velocity. The steady fully developed flow and the heat transfer equations are made dimensionless and are solved numerically; the effects of different dimensionless numbers and viscous dissipation are discussed.

20. Development of anisotropy in incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

Bigot, Barbara; Galtier, Sébastien; Politano, Hélène

2008-12-01

We present a set of three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of incompressible decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in which we investigate the influence of an external uniform magnetic field B0 . A parametric study in terms of B0 intensity is made where, in particular, we distinguish the shear-from the pseudo-Alfvén waves dynamics. The initial kinetic and magnetic energies are equal with a negligible cross correlation. Both the temporal and spectral effects of B0 are discussed. A subcritical balance is found between the Alfvén and nonlinear times with both a global and a spectral definition. The nonlinear dynamics of strongly magnetized flows is characterized by a different k⊥ spectrum (where B0 defines the parallel direction) if it is plotted at a fixed k∥ (two-dimensional spectrum) or if it is integrated (averaged) over all k∥ (one-dimensional spectrum). In the former case a much wider inertial range is found with a steep power law, closer to the wave turbulence prediction than the Kolmogorov one such as in the latter case. It is believed that the averaging effect may be a source of difficulty to detect the transition towards wave turbulence in natural plasmas. Another important result of this paper is the formation of filaments reported within current and vorticity sheets in strongly magnetized flows, which modifies our classical picture of dissipative sheets in conductive flows.

1. Statistical theory of turbulent incompressible multimaterial flow

SciTech Connect

Kashiwa, B.

1987-10-01

Interpenetrating motion of incompressible materials is considered. ''Turbulence'' is defined as any deviation from the mean motion. Accordingly a nominally stationary fluid will exhibit turbulent fluctuations due to a single, slowly moving sphere. Mean conservation equations for interpenetrating materials in arbitrary proportions are derived using an ensemble averaging procedure, beginning with the exact equations of motion. The result is a set of conservation equations for the mean mass, momentum and fluctuational kinetic energy of each material. The equation system is at first unclosed due to integral terms involving unknown one-point and two-point probability distribution functions. In the mean momentum equation, the unclosed terms are clearly identified as representing two physical processes. One is transport of momentum by multimaterial Reynolds stresses, and the other is momentum exchange due to pressure fluctuations and viscous stress at material interfaces. Closure is approached by combining careful examination of multipoint statistical correlations with the traditional physical technique of kappa-epsilon modeling for single-material turbulence. This involves representing the multimaterial Reynolds stress for each material as a turbulent viscosity times the rate of strain based on the mean velocity of that material. The multimaterial turbulent viscosity is related to the fluctuational kinetic energy kappa, and the rate of fluctuational energy dissipation epsilon, for each material. Hence a set of kappa and epsilon equations must be solved, together with mean mass and momentum conservation equations, for each material. Both kappa and the turbulent viscosities enter into the momentum exchange force. The theory is applied to (a) calculation of the drag force on a sphere fixed in a uniform flow, (b) calculation of the settling rate in a suspension and (c) calculation of velocity profiles in the pneumatic transport of solid particles in a pipe.

2. VOF Method for Simulation of Multiphase Incompressible Flows with Phase Change

Zhang, S. P.; Ni, M. J.; Ma, H. Y.

2011-09-01

A volume-of-fluid method for simulation of incompressible multiphase flows with phase change is studied. We have simulated a series of processes of the vapor bubble deformation in a three-dimensional film boiling using volume of fluid (VOF) method, which include the generation, detachment and rising deformation of the bubble. Our numerical results show that the VOF method is a useful method to handle complex deformation of the liquid-vapor interface during film boiling.

3. Application of Multi-rate Flowing Fluid Electric ConductivityLogging Method to Well DH-2, Tono Site, Japan

SciTech Connect

Doughty, Christine; Takeuchi, Shinji; Amano, Kenji; Shimo, Michito; Tsang, Chin-Fu

2004-10-04

The flowing fluid electric conductivity (FEC) logging method, wellbore fluid is replaced with de-ionized water, following which FEC profiles in the wellbore are measured at a series of times while the well is pumped at a constant rate. Locations were fluid enters the wellbore show peaks in the FEC logs, which may be analyzed to infer inflow strengths and salinities of permeable features intersected by the wellbore. In multi-rate flowing FEC logging, the flowing FEC logging method is repeated using two or more pumping rates, which enables the transmissivities and inherent pressure heads of these features to be estimated as well. We perform multi-rate FEC logging on a deep borehole in fractured granitic rock, using three different pumping rates. Results identify 19 hydraulically conducting fractures and indicate that transmissivity, pressure head, and salinity vary significantly among them. By using three pumping rates rather than the minimum number of two, we obtain an internal consistency check on the analysis that provides a measure of the uncertainty of the results. Good comparisons against static FEC profiles and against independent chemical, geological, and hydrogeological data have further enhanced confidence in the results of the multi-rate flowing FEC logging method.

4. Thermal radiation effects on MHD flow of a micropolar fluid over a stretching surface with variable thermal conductivity

Mahmoud, Mostafa A. A.

2007-03-01

In this paper, the effects of variable thermal conductivity and radiation on the flow and heat transfer of an electrically conducting micropolar fluid over a continuously stretching surface with varying temperature in the presence of a magnetic field are considered. The surface temperature is assumed to vary as a power-law temperature. The governing conservation equations of mass, momentum, angular momentum and energy are converted into a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations by means of similarity transformation. The resulting system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations is solved numerically. The numerical results show that the thermal boundary thickness increases as the thermal conductivity parameter S increases, while it decreases as the radiation parameter F increases. Also, it was found that the Nusselt number increases as F increases and decreases as S increases.

5. Equilibrium shapes and stability of nonconducting pendant drops surrounded by a conducting fluid in an electric field

SciTech Connect

Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A.

1995-03-15

The shapes and stability of pendant drops in the presence of an electric field is a classical problem in capillarity. This problem has been studied in great detail by numerous investigators when the drops are either perfect conductors or nonconductors and the surrounding fluid is a nonconductor. In this paper, the axisymmetric equilibrium shapes and stability of a nonconducting drop hanging from a nonconducting nozzle that is immersed in a perfectly conducting ambient fluid, a problem that has heretofore not been considered in the literature, are determined by solving the free boundary problem comprised of the Young-Laplace equation for drop shape and an integral equation for the electric field distribution. Here the free boundary problem is discretized by a hybrid technique in which the Young-Laplace equation is solved by the finite element method and the electrostatic problem solved by the boundary element method.

6. Role and Nature of High Field Conduction of the Suspending Liquid in Electrorheological Fluids

Atten, P.; Foulc, J.-N.; Gonon, P.

We examine the interaction force between spheres of a slightly conducting material immersed in a dielectric liquid when subjected to a DC field. An approach is developed which refines the previous two-zone model retaining only the electrical conduction of the solid and liquid phases and taking into account the field enhanced dissociation of electrolytic impurities. Approximations on the shape of the equipotential surfaces inside the solid lead to a system of ordinary differential equations governing the distribution of the electrical potential along the sphere surface. Estimates are derived for the attraction force between spheres in contact, for the current and for the electric stress in the liquid lying between the spheres in the contact zone''. This field takes values in the range 200-300 V/μm which correspond to extremely high levels of salts dissociation. The different conduction phenomena in the liquid are then discussed and their role in limiting the interaction force is emphasized.

7. Three-Dimensional Flow of an Oldroyd-B Fluid with Variable Thermal Conductivity and Heat Generation/Absorption

PubMed Central

Shehzad, Sabir Ali; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hayat, Tasawar; Alhuthali, M. Shahab

2013-01-01

This paper looks at the series solutions of three dimensional boundary layer flow. An Oldroyd-B fluid with variable thermal conductivity is considered. The flow is induced due to stretching of a surface. Analysis has been carried out in the presence of heat generation/absorption. Homotopy analysis is implemented in developing the series solutions to the governing flow and energy equations. Graphs are presented and discussed for various parameters of interest. Comparison of present study with the existing limiting solution is shown and examined. PMID:24223780

8. Heat transfer within hydrodissection fluids: An analysis of thermal conduction and convection using liquid and gel materials.

PubMed

Johnson, Alexander; Brace, Christopher

2015-01-01

Interventional oncology procedures such as thermal ablation are becoming widely used for many tumours in the liver, kidney and lung. Thermal ablation refers to the focal destruction of tissue by generating cytotoxic temperatures in the treatment zone. Hydrodissection - separating tissues with fluids - protects healthy tissues adjacent to the ablation treatment zone to improve procedural safety, and facilitate more aggressive power application or applicator placement. However, fluids such as normal saline and 5% dextrose in water (D5W) can migrate into the peritoneum, reducing their protective efficacy. As an alternative, a thermo-gelable poloxamer 407 (P407) solution has been recently developed to facilitate hydrodissection procedures. We hypothesise that the P407 gel material does not provide convective heat dissipation from the ablation site, and therefore may alter the heat transfer dynamics compared to liquid materials during hydrodissection-assisted thermal ablation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the heat dissipation mechanics within D5W, liquid P407 and gel P407 hydrodissection barriers. Overall it was shown that the gel P407 dissipated heat primarily through conduction, whereas the liquid P407 and D5W dissipated heat through convection. Furthermore, the rate of temperature change within the gel P407 was greater than liquid P407 and D5W. Testing to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of the fluids with different modes of heat dissipation seems warranted for further study. PMID:25960147

9. The acoustic radiation force on a small thermoviscous or thermoelastic particle suspended in a viscous and heat-conducting fluid

Karlsen, Jonas; Bruus, Henrik

2015-11-01

We present a theoretical analysis (arxiv.org/abs/1507.01043) of the acoustic radiation force on a single small particle, either a thermoviscous fluid droplet or a thermoelastic solid particle, suspended in a viscous and heat-conducting fluid. Our analysis places no restrictions on the viscous and thermal boundary layer thicknesses relative to the particle radius, but it assumes the particle to be small in comparison to the acoustic wavelength. This is the limit relevant to scattering of ultrasound waves from sub-micrometer particles. For particle sizes smaller than the boundary layer widths, our theory leads to profound consequences for the acoustic radiation force. For example, for liquid droplets and solid particles suspended in gasses we predict forces orders of magnitude larger than expected from ideal-fluid theory. Moreover, for certain relevant choices of materials, we find a sign change in the acoustic radiation force on different-sized but otherwise identical particles. These findings lead to the concept of a particle-size-dependent acoustophoretic contrast factor, highly relevant to applications in acoustic levitation or separation of micro-particles in gases, as well as to handling of μm- and nm-sized particles such as bacteria and vira in lab-on-a-chip systems.

10. Role of superfluidity in nuclear incompressibilities

SciTech Connect

Khan, E.

2009-07-15

Nuclei are propitious tools to investigate the role of the superfluidity in the compressibility of a Fermionic system. The centroid of the Giant Monopole Resonance (GMR) in Tin isotopes is predicted using a constrained Hartree-Fock Bogoliubov approach, ensuring a full self-consistent treatment. Superfluidity is found to favour the compressibitily of nuclei. Pairing correlations explain why doubly magic nuclei such as {sup 208}Pb are stiffer compared to open-shell nuclei. Fully self-consistent predictions of the GMR on an isotopic chain should be the way to microscopically extract both the incompressibility and the density dependence of a given energy functional. The macroscopic extraction of K{sub sym}, the asymmetry incompressibility, is questioned. Investigations of the GMR in unstable nuclei are called for. Pairing gap dependence of the nuclear matter incompressibility should also be investigated.

11. Spatial resolution of the electrical conductance of ionic fluids using a Green-Kubo method.

PubMed

Jones, R E; Ward, D K; Templeton, J A

2014-11-14

We present a Green-Kubo method to spatially resolve transport coefficients in compositionally heterogeneous mixtures. We develop the underlying theory based on well-known results from mixture theory, Irving-Kirkwood field estimation, and linear response theory. Then, using standard molecular dynamics techniques, we apply the methodology to representative systems. With a homogeneous salt water system, where the expectation of the distribution of conductivity is clear, we demonstrate the sensitivities of the method to system size, and other physical and algorithmic parameters. Then we present a simple model of an electrochemical double layer where we explore the resolution limit of the method. In this system, we observe significant anisotropy in the wall-normal vs. transverse ionic conductances, as well as near wall effects. Finally, we discuss extensions and applications to more realistic systems such as batteries where detailed understanding of the transport properties in the vicinity of the electrodes is of technological importance. PMID:25399135

12. The Jeans instability criterion for a compressible fluid including viscosity and heat conduction

Corona-Galindo, M. G.; Dehnen, H.

1989-03-01

For the region after the recombination era of the universe, the hydrodynamical density waves are analyzed, including shear viscosity and heat conduction for densities equal to and less than the critical density of the universe. Very near to the end of the recombination era (z = 1200), the well-known Jeans instability is found. Although the influence of the shear viscosity on the instabilities is negligible, a visible influence of the bulk viscosity is found to be present.

13. Effects of transverse magnetic field with variable thermal conductivity on tangent hyperbolic fluid with exponentially varying viscosity

Salahuddin, T.; Malik, M. Y.; Hussain, Arif; Bilal, S.; Awais, M.

2015-12-01

The purpose of present analysis is to examine the effects of temperature dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity on MHD stagnation point flow over a stretching cylinder. The momentum and the temperature equations are modeled by using tangent hyperbolic fluid and the effect of viscous dissipation is also considered. The requisite partial differential equations are metamorphosed into ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformations. The succeeding ordinary differential equations are solved by using shooting method. The physical behavior of non-dimensional parameters for momentum and temperature profiles is deliberated through graphs. The numerical values of skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are calculated in order to recognize the behavior of fluid near the surface. The comparison with previous literature is completed in order to check the accuracy of the present work. It is found the velocity reduces with increasing power law index, Weissenberg number, Hartmann number and variable viscosity parameter. With the increasing values of curvature parameter, velocity is found to increase. Variable thermal conductivity parameter and Prandtl number shows opposite behavior for temperature profile.

14. Simultaneous axial conduction in the fluid and the pipe wall for forced convective laminar flow with blowing and suction at the wall

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Faghri, Amir; Chen, Ming-Ming; Mahefkey, E. T.

1989-01-01

Numerical solutions are reported for conjugate heat transfer in a porous pipe having an internal flow with blowing or suction at the inner surface of the pipe and constant heat flux at the outer surface. The effect of the simultaneous axial conduction through the wall and the fluid has been studied for the combined hydrodynamic and thermal entry lengths. The results show that the ratio of the thermal conductivities of the pipe wall to the fluid and the thickness of the pipe wall may become significant factors on the heat transfer when the Peclet number is small, especially for the case when fluid is injected into the pipe. It is also shown that the effect of axial wall conduction for the case of constant heat flux at the outer wall surface can be neglected when the wall thickness is small and the ratio of the conductivities of the wall to the fluid approaches unity.

15. The heat conductivity of liquid crystal phases of a soft ellipsoid string-fluid evaluated by molecular dynamics simulation.

PubMed

Sarman, Sten; Laaksonen, Aatto

2011-04-01

We have applied a nonequilibrium molecular dynamics heat flow algorithm to calculate the heat conductivity of a molecular model system, which forms uniaxial and biaxial nematic liquid crystals. The model system consists of a soft ellipsoid string-fluid where the ellipsoids interact according to a repulsive version of the Gay-Berne potential. On compression, this system forms discotic or calamitic uniaxial nematic phases depending on the dimensions of the molecules, and on further compression a biaxial nematic phase is formed. In the discotic nematic phase, the heat conductivity has two components, one parallel and one perpendicular to the director, where the last mentioned component is the largest one. This order of magnitudes is reversed in the calamitic nematic phase. In the biaxial nematic phase there are three components of the heat conductivity, one in the direction around which the long axes of the molecules are oriented, this is the largest component, another one in the direction around which the normals of the broadsides of the molecules are oriented, this is the smallest component, and one in the direction perpendicular to these two directions with a magnitude in between those of the first mentioned components. The relative magnitudes of the components of the heat conductivity span a fairly wide interval so it should be possible to use the model to parameterise experimental data. PMID:21336361

16. Chemoelectronic mobilization of chemical species in low-conductivity fluids: new electrokinetic effect.

PubMed Central

Haber, N

1982-01-01

An electrokinetic phenomenon is reported here which differs from its classical counterparts most distinctively by nonlinear conductivity and mobility. Neither purely electrolytic nor electrostatic in nature, this phenomenon is presumed to involve subtle charge transfer effects and association reactions permitting a controlled "chemoelectric" mobilization. In its electrokinetic manifestation, this phenomenon can be used to mobilize chemical species commonly with migration rates orders of magnitude greater than can be achieved electrophoretically and is shown to induce the movement of nonpolar molecules, such as aromatic hydrocarbons, at rates exceeding several centimeters per minute in easily achievable voltage gradients. The operational technique, developed as a separations method used for demonstrating the effect, is called "electromolecular propulsion". Images PMID:6952183

17. Measurement of the high-frequency complex permittivity and conductivity of magnetic fluids

Fannin, P. C.; Charles, S. W.; Vincent, D.; Giannitsis, A. T.

2002-11-01

Measurements of the permittivity, ɛ( ω)= ɛ'( ω)-i ɛ″( ω), and conductivity, σ( ω)= ωɛ0ɛ″( ω), of two ferrofluid samples of ferrite particles in a hydrocarbon carrier, isopar M, over the frequency range 0.1-6 GHz are presented. It is shown that the sample with the highest concentration of particles has the highest permittivity and by means of profile fitting it is demonstrated, for the first time, that σ( ω) has a Debye-type profile. The frequency limitation of the used measurement technique is highlighted and a possible alternative technique capable of measuring in the 20-30 GHz region is presented.

18. G-300: The first French Getaway Special microgravity measurements of fluid thermal conductivity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perron, J. C.; Chretien, P.; Garnier, C.; Lecaude, N.

1987-01-01

Thermal conductivity measurements on liquids are difficult to perform on Earth because of thermal motions due to convection. In microgravity, the convection due to buoyancy is evanescent, and a strong reduction of Rayleigh and Nusselt numbers can be expected. Three low viscosity liquids are selected to carry out the measurements; distilled water (standard) and two silicone oils. A modified hot plate method with a simplified guard ring is used; the reduction of convective motions permitted the use in the experimental cells of larger interplate distances and/or temperature differences than in Earth measurements, improving the accuracy. Comparisons between Earth and orbit results may help to understand the convection occurrence in the cells. Thermal, vibrational, and EMI tests have proved that the design satisfies the NASA requirements.

19. Bernoulli theorem generalized to rheologically complex viscous fluid flow

Brutyan, M. A.; Krapivskii, P. L.

1992-08-01

The Bernoulli theorem is generalized to two-dimensional and axisymmetric micropolar incompressible fluid flows. It is shown that the approach developed is also applicable to magnetohydrodynamic flows of a viscous Newtonian fluid.

20. Symmetric stiffness matrix for incompressible hyperelastic materials

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Takamatsu, T.; Stricklin, J. A.; Key, J. E.

1976-01-01

Symmetric structure matrices are derived for solving plane strain and axisymmetric problems involving incompressible hyperelastic materials. An infinite hollow cylinder subjected to internal pressure is considered as an example. Displacement and hydrostatic pressure profiles are calculated using the Newton-Raphson iteration technique. The results are in good agreement with the exact curves.

1. Equilibria with incompressible flows from symmetry analysis

SciTech Connect

Kuiroukidis, Ap E-mail: gthroum@cc.uoi.gr; Throumoulopoulos, G. N. E-mail: gthroum@cc.uoi.gr

2015-08-15

We identify and study new nonlinear axisymmetric equilibria with incompressible flow of arbitrary direction satisfying a generalized Grad Shafranov equation by extending the symmetry analysis presented by Cicogna and Pegoraro [Phys. Plasmas 22, 022520 (2015)]. In particular, we construct a typical tokamak D-shaped equilibrium with peaked toroidal current density, monotonically varying safety factor, and sheared electric field.

2. Long-wavelength corrections to Hall conductivity in fractional quantum Hall fluids

Yang, Bo; Haldane, F. D. M.

2013-03-01

Recent work by Hoyos and Son, then Bradlyn et al., has investigated the relation between the long-wavelength (O (q2)) corrections to the Hall conductivity σH (q) and the Hall viscosity of quantum Hall states. These works assume the presence of Galilean and rotational invariance. However, these are not generic symmetries of electrons in condensed matter. We identify translation and (2D) inversion symmetry as the only generic symmetries of an ideal'' quantum Hall liquid, as these are needed to guarantee the absence of any dissipationless ground state current density; then σH (q) = σH (- q) characterizes the dissipation less current that flows in response to a spatially-non-uniform electric field. We consider the general problem for fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states without Galilean or rotational invariance, when the guiding-center contribution to the Hall viscosity becomes a non-trivial tensor property related to an emergent geometry of the FQH state, (Bo Yang et,al (PRB 85,165318). Supported by DOE DE-SC0002140 and Agency for Science Technology and Research (A*STAR, Singapore).

3. Nested Grid Iteration for Incompressible Viscous Flow and Transport

Kirk, B.; Lipnikov, K.; Carey, G. F.

2003-07-01

We investigate the use of one-way cascadic multigrid strategies (CMG) in the solution of incompressible viscous flow using the finite element method. First we describe the basic CMG approach for representative elliptic boundary value problems and summarize the theoretical error estimates from approximation theory, desired smoother properties, and arithmetic complexity of the method. The extension of these error and complexity estimates to adaptive grids is also given. Then we present the mathematical formulation and the finite element approximation scheme for the class of fluid-thermal problems of interest. In supporting numerical experiments, we examine performance of the algorithm on both serial and distributed parallel systems. We carry out comparison studies with a standard BCG solution strategy on the fine level grid and study diagonal treatments for the zero pressure block.

4. High order parallel numerical schemes for solving incompressible flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lin, Avi; Milner, Edward J.; Liou, May-Fun; Belch, Richard A.

1992-01-01

The use of parallel computers for numerically solving flow fields has gained much importance in recent years. This paper introduces a new high order numerical scheme for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) specifically designed for parallel computational environments. A distributed MIMD system gives the flexibility of treating different elements of the governing equations with totally different numerical schemes in different regions of the flow field. The parallel decomposition of the governing operator to be solved is the primary parallel split. The primary parallel split was studied using a hypercube like architecture having clusters of shared memory processors at each node. The approach is demonstrated using examples of simple steady state incompressible flows. Future studies should investigate the secondary split because, depending on the numerical scheme that each of the processors applies and the nature of the flow in the specific subdomain, it may be possible for a processor to seek better, or higher order, schemes for its particular subcase.

5. Portable capillary electrophoresis instrument with contactless conductivity detection for on-site analysis of small volumes of biological fluids.

PubMed

Greguš, Michal; Foret, František; Kubáň, Petr

2016-01-01

A novel, easy to use and portable capillary electrophoretic instrument for injection of small volumes of biological fluids equipped with contactless conductivity detection was constructed. The instrument is lightweight (<5 kg), all necessary parts including a tablet computer are accommodated in a plastic briefcase with dimensions 20 cm × 33 cm × 17 cm (w × l × h), allows hydrodynamic injection of small sample volumes and can continuously operate for at least 10 hours. The semi-automated hydrodynamic sample injection is accomplished via a specially designed PMMA interface that is able to repeatedly inject sample aliquots from a sample volume as low as 10 μL, with repeatability of peak areas below 5%. The developed interface and the instrument were optimized for the injection of biological fluids. Practical utility was demonstrated on the determination of formate in blood serum samples from acute methanol intoxication patients and on the analysis of ionic profile (nitrosative stress markers, including nitrite and nitrate) in the exhaled breath condensate from one single exhalation. PMID:26709071

6. Model of two-fluid reconnection.

PubMed

Malyshkin, Leonid M

2009-12-01

A theoretical model of quasistationary, two-dimensional magnetic reconnection is presented in the framework of incompressible two-fluid magnetohydrodynamics. The results are compared with recent numerical simulations and experiment. PMID:20366155

7. Application of Nonstandard Analysis to the Study of the Shock Structure in a Viscous Heat Conducting Fluid

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Farassat, F.; Baty, R. S.

2000-01-01

The study of the shock structure in a viscous heat conducting fluid is an old problem. We study this problem from a novel mathematical point of view. A new class of generalized functions is defined where multiplication of any two functions is allowed with the usual properties. A Heaviside function in this class has the unit jump at occurring on an infinitesimal interval of the nonstandard analysis (NSA) in the halo of . This jump has a smooth microstructure over the infinitesimal interval . From this point of view, we have a new class of Heaviside functions, and their derivatives the Dirac delta functions, which are equivalent when viewed as continuous linear functionals over the test function space of Schwartz. However, they differ in their microstructures which in applications are determined from physics of the problem as shown in our presentation.

8. A Priori Estimates for Free Boundary Problem of Incompressible Inviscid Magnetohydrodynamic Flows

Hao, Chengchun; Luo, Tao

2014-06-01

In the present paper, we prove the a priori estimates of Sobolev norms for a free boundary problem of the incompressible inviscid magnetohydrodynamics equations in all physical spatial dimensions n = 2 and 3 by adopting a geometrical point of view used in Christodoulou and Lindblad (Commun Pure Appl Math 53:1536-1602, 2000), and estimating quantities such as the second fundamental form and the velocity of the free surface. We identify the well-posedness condition that the outer normal derivative of the total pressure including the fluid and magnetic pressures is negative on the free boundary, which is similar to the physical condition (Taylor sign condition) for the incompressible Euler equations of fluids.

9. Higher-Order Compact Schemes for Numerical Simulation of Incompressible Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wilson, Robert V.; Demuren, Ayodeji O.; Carpenter, Mark

1998-01-01

A higher order accurate numerical procedure has been developed for solving incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for 2D or 3D fluid flow problems. It is based on low-storage Runge-Kutta schemes for temporal discretization and fourth and sixth order compact finite-difference schemes for spatial discretization. The particular difficulty of satisfying the divergence-free velocity field required in incompressible fluid flow is resolved by solving a Poisson equation for pressure. It is demonstrated that for consistent global accuracy, it is necessary to employ the same order of accuracy in the discretization of the Poisson equation. Special care is also required to achieve the formal temporal accuracy of the Runge-Kutta schemes. The accuracy of the present procedure is demonstrated by application to several pertinent benchmark problems.

10. On a modification of GLS stabilized FEM for solving incompressible viscous flows

Burda, P.; Novotný, J.; Ístek, J.

2006-07-01

We deal with 2D flows of incompressible viscous fluids with high Reynolds numbers. Galerkin Least Squares technique of stabilization of the finite element method is studied and its modification is described. We present a number of numerical results obtained by the developed method, showing its contribution to solving flows with high Reynolds numbers. Several recommendations and remarks are included. We are interested in positive as well as negative aspects of stabilization, which cannot be divorced.

11. A nested iterative scheme for computation of incompressible flows in long domains

Manguoglu, Murat; Sameh, Ahmed H.; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Sathe, Sunil

2008-12-01

We present an effective preconditioning technique for solving the nonsymmetric linear systems encountered in computation of incompressible flows in long domains. The application category we focus on is arterial fluid mechanics. These linear systems are solved using a nested iterative scheme with an outer Richardson scheme and an inner iteration that is handled via a Krylov subspace method. Test computations that demonstrate the robustness of our nested scheme are presented.

12. On an Inviscid Model for Incompressible Two-Phase Flows with Nonlocal Interaction

Gal, Ciprian G.

2016-03-01

We consider a diffuse interface model which describes the motion of an ideal incompressible mixture of two immiscible fluids with nonlocal interaction in two-dimensional bounded domains. This model consists of the Euler equation coupled with a convective nonlocal Cahn-Hilliard equation. We establish the existence of globally defined weak solutions as well as well-posedness results for strong/classical solutions.

13. Strongly coupled dynamics of fluids and rigid-body systems with the immersed boundary projection method

Wang, Chengjie; Eldredge, Jeff D.

2015-08-01

A strong coupling algorithm is presented for simulating the dynamic interactions between incompressible viscous flows and rigid-body systems in both two- and three-dimensional problems. In this work, the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow are solved on a uniform Cartesian grid by the vorticity-based immersed boundary projection method of Colonius and Taira. Dynamical equations for arbitrary rigid-body systems are also developed. The proposed coupling method attempts to unify the treatment of constraints in the fluid and structure-the incompressibility of the fluid, the linkages in the rigid-body system, and the conditions at the interface-through the use of Lagrange multipliers. The resulting partitioned system of equations is solved with a simple relaxation scheme, based on an identification of virtual inertia from the fluid. The scheme achieves convergence in only 2 to 5 iterations per time step for a wide variety of mass ratios. The formulation requires that only a subset of the discrete fluid equations be solved in each iteration. Several two- and three-dimensional numerical tests are conducted to validate and demonstrate the method, including a falling cylinder, flapping of flexible wings, self-excited oscillations of a system of many linked plates in a free stream, and passive pivoting of a finite aspect ratio plate under the influence of gravity in a free stream. The results from the current method are compared with previous experimental and numerical results and good agreement is achieved.

14. Global existence and uniqueness theorem to 2-D incompressible non-resistive MHD system with non-equilibrium background magnetic field

Zhai, Cuili; Zhang, Ting

2016-09-01

In this article, we consider the global existence and uniqueness of the solution to the 2D incompressible non-resistive MHD system with non-equilibrium background magnetic field. Our result implies that a strong enough non-equilibrium background magnetic field will guarantee the stability of the nonlinear MHD system. Beside the classical energy method, the interpolation inequalities and the algebraic structure of the equations coming from the incompressibility of the fluid are crucial in our arguments.

15. Energy Conservation in Two-dimensional Incompressible Ideal Fluids

Cheskidov, A.; Filho, M. C. Lopes; Lopes, H. J. Nussenzveig; Shvydkoy, R.

2016-08-01

This note addresses the issue of energy conservation for the 2D Euler system with an L p -control on vorticity. We provide a direct argument, based on a mollification in physical space, to show that the energy of a weak solution is conserved if {ω = nabla × u in L^{3/2}} . An example of a 2D field in the class {ω in L^{3/2 - ɛ}} for any ɛ > 0 , and {u in B^{1/3}_{3,∞}} (Onsager critical space, see Shvydkoy in Discr Contin Dyn Syst Ser S 3(3):473-496, 2010) is constructed with non-vanishing energy flux. This demonstrates sharpness of the kinematic argument, which does not differentiate between 2D and 3D, and requires Onsager's regularity control on the solution. Next, we show that for physically realizable solutions there is a mechanism preventing the anomalous dissipation in 2D that does not require such a control. Namely, we prove that any solution to the Euler equations produced via a vanishing viscosity limit from the Navier-Stokes equations, with {ω in L^p} , for p > 1, conserves energy.

16. TOPAZ: a computer code for modeling heat transfer and fluid flow in arbitrary networks of pipes, flow branches, and vessels

SciTech Connect

Winters, W.S.

1984-01-01

An overview of the computer code TOPAZ (Transient-One-Dimensional Pipe Flow Analyzer) is presented. TOPAZ models the flow of compressible and incompressible fluids through complex and arbitrary arrangements of pipes, valves, flow branches and vessels. Heat transfer to and from the fluid containment structures (i.e. vessel and pipe walls) can also be modeled. This document includes discussions of the fluid flow equations and containment heat conduction equations. The modeling philosophy, numerical integration technique, code architecture, and methods for generating the computational mesh are also discussed.

17. 10 CFR 26.97 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a specimen of oral fluids.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... oral fluids. 26.97 Section 26.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS... fluids. (a) To perform the initial test, the collector shall— (1) Check the expiration date on the device... fluids in the manner described by the device's manufacturer (wear single-use examination or...

18. 10 CFR 26.97 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a specimen of oral fluids.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-01-01

... oral fluids. 26.97 Section 26.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS... fluids. (a) To perform the initial test, the collector shall— (1) Check the expiration date on the device... fluids in the manner described by the device's manufacturer (wear single-use examination or...

19. 10 CFR 26.97 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a specimen of oral fluids.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-01-01

... oral fluids. 26.97 Section 26.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS... fluids. (a) To perform the initial test, the collector shall— (1) Check the expiration date on the device... fluids in the manner described by the device's manufacturer (wear single-use examination or...

20. 10 CFR 26.97 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a specimen of oral fluids.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-01-01

... oral fluids. 26.97 Section 26.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS... fluids. (a) To perform the initial test, the collector shall— (1) Check the expiration date on the device... fluids in the manner described by the device's manufacturer (wear single-use examination or...

1. 10 CFR 26.97 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a specimen of oral fluids.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-01-01

... oral fluids. 26.97 Section 26.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS... fluids. (a) To perform the initial test, the collector shall— (1) Check the expiration date on the device... fluids in the manner described by the device's manufacturer (wear single-use examination or...

2. Two-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics and Conduction Simulations of Heat Transfer in Horizontal Window Frames with Internal Cavities

SciTech Connect

Gustavsen, Arlid; Kohler, Christian; Dalehaug, Arvid; Arasteh, Dariush

2008-12-01

This paper assesses the accuracy of the simplified frame cavity conduction/convection and radiation models presented in ISO 15099 and used in software for rating and labeling window products. Temperatures and U-factors for typical horizontal window frames with internal cavities are compared; results from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations with detailed radiation modeling are used as a reference. Four different frames were studied. Two were made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and two of aluminum. For each frame, six different simulations were performed, two with a CFD code and four with a building-component thermal-simulation tool using the Finite Element Method (FEM). This FEM tool addresses convection using correlations from ISO 15099; it addressed radiation with either correlations from ISO 15099 or with a detailed, view-factor-based radiation model. Calculations were performed using the CFD code with and without fluid flow in the window frame cavities; the calculations without fluid flow were performed to verify that the CFD code and the building-component thermal-simulation tool produced consistent results. With the FEM-code, the practice of subdividing small frame cavities was examined, in some cases not subdividing, in some cases subdividing cavities with interconnections smaller than five millimeters (mm) (ISO 15099) and in some cases subdividing cavities with interconnections smaller than seven mm (a breakpoint that has been suggested in other studies). For the various frames, the calculated U-factors were found to be quite comparable (the maximum difference between the reference CFD simulation and the other simulations was found to be 13.2 percent). A maximum difference of 8.5 percent was found between the CFD simulation and the FEM simulation using ISO 15099 procedures. The ISO 15099 correlation works best for frames with high U-factors. For more efficient frames, the relative differences among various simulations are larger. Temperature was also

3. Interface waves in almost incompressible elastic materials

Virta, Kristoffer; Kreiss, Gunilla

2015-12-01

We study the problem of two elastic half-planes in contact and the Stoneley interface wave that may exist at the interface between two different elastic materials, emphasis being put on the case when the half-planes are almost incompressible. We show that numerical simulations involving interface waves require an unexpectedly high number of grid points per wavelength as the materials become more incompressible. Let λ, μ, ρ and λ‧, μ‧, ρ‧ be the Lamé parameters and densities of the first and second half-plane, respectively. A theoretical study shows that if K is a real constant, λ‧ = Kλ, μ‧ = Kμ, ρ‧ = Kρ and μ → 0, then for an accurate solution the required number of grid points per wavelength scales as (μ / λ) - 1 / p, where p is the order of accuracy of the numerical method. This requirement becomes very restrictive close to the incompressible limit μ ≪ λ, especially for lower order methods i.e., a small p. The theoretical findings are supported by numerical experiments that illustrate the demanding resolution requirement as well as the superiority of higher order methods. The scaling is also seen to hold for a more general choice of Lamé parameters. Numerical experiments when one of the half-planes is a vacuum are also presented, where the higher resolution requirement is illustrated in a numerical solution of Lamb's problem.

4. Computational thermo-fluid analysis of a disk brake

Takizawa, Kenji; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Kuraishi, Takashi; Tabata, Shinichiro; Takagi, Hirokazu

2016-06-01

We present computational thermo-fluid analysis of a disk brake, including thermo-fluid analysis of the flow around the brake and heat conduction analysis of the disk. The computational challenges include proper representation of the small-scale thermo-fluid behavior, high-resolution representation of the thermo-fluid boundary layers near the spinning solid surfaces, and bringing the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) calculated in the thermo-fluid analysis of the flow to the heat conduction analysis of the spinning disk. The disk brake model used in the analysis closely represents the actual configuration, and this adds to the computational challenges. The components of the method we have developed for computational analysis of the class of problems with these types of challenges include the Space-Time Variational Multiscale method for coupled incompressible flow and thermal transport, ST Slip Interface method for high-resolution representation of the thermo-fluid boundary layers near spinning solid surfaces, and a set of projection methods for different parts of the disk to bring the HTC calculated in the thermo-fluid analysis. With the HTC coming from the thermo-fluid analysis of the flow around the brake, we do the heat conduction analysis of the disk, from the start of the breaking until the disk spinning stops, demonstrating how the method developed works in computational analysis of this complex and challenging problem.

5. Thermodynamics of fluid conduction through hydrophobic channel of carbon nanotubes: The exciting force for filling of nanotubes with polar and nonpolar fluids

SciTech Connect

Sahu, Pooja; Ali, Sk. M. Shenoy, K. T.

2015-02-21

Thermodynamic properties of the fluid in the hydrophobic pores of nanotubes are known to be different not only from the bulk phase but also from other conventional confinements. Here, we use a recently developed theoretical scheme of “two phase thermodynamic (2PT)” model to understand the driving forces inclined to spontaneous filling of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with polar (water) and nonpolar (methane) fluids. The CNT confinement is found to be energetically favorable for both water and methane, leading to their spontaneous filling inside CNT(6,6). For both the systems, the free energy of transfer from bulk to CNT confinement is favored by the increased entropy (TΔS), i.e., increased translational entropy and increased rotational entropy, which were found to be sufficiently high to conquer the unfavorable increase in enthalpy (ΔE) when they are transferred inside CNT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time when it has been established that the increase in translational entropy during confinement in CNT(6,6) is not unique to water-like H bonding fluid but is also observed in case of nonpolar fluids such as methane. The thermodynamic results are explained in terms of density, structural rigidity, and transport of fluid molecules inside CNT. The faster diffusion of methane over water in bulk phase is found to be reversed during the confinement in CNT(6,6). Studies reveal that though hydrogen bonding plays an important role in transport of water through CNT, but it is not the solitary driving factor, as the nonpolar fluids, which do not have any hydrogen bond formation capacity can go inside CNT and also can flow through it. The associated driving force for filling and transport of water and methane is enhanced translational and rotational entropies, which are attributed mainly by the strong correlation between confined fluid molecules and availability of more free space for rotation of molecule, i.e., lower density of fluid inside CNT due to their

6. Thermodynamics of fluid conduction through hydrophobic channel of carbon nanotubes: The exciting force for filling of nanotubes with polar and nonpolar fluids

Sahu, Pooja; Ali, Sk. M.; Shenoy, K. T.

2015-02-01

Thermodynamic properties of the fluid in the hydrophobic pores of nanotubes are known to be different not only from the bulk phase but also from other conventional confinements. Here, we use a recently developed theoretical scheme of "two phase thermodynamic (2PT)" model to understand the driving forces inclined to spontaneous filling of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with polar (water) and nonpolar (methane) fluids. The CNT confinement is found to be energetically favorable for both water and methane, leading to their spontaneous filling inside CNT(6,6). For both the systems, the free energy of transfer from bulk to CNT confinement is favored by the increased entropy (TΔS), i.e., increased translational entropy and increased rotational entropy, which were found to be sufficiently high to conquer the unfavorable increase in enthalpy (ΔE) when they are transferred inside CNT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time when it has been established that the increase in translational entropy during confinement in CNT(6,6) is not unique to water-like H bonding fluid but is also observed in case of nonpolar fluids such as methane. The thermodynamic results are explained in terms of density, structural rigidity, and transport of fluid molecules inside CNT. The faster diffusion of methane over water in bulk phase is found to be reversed during the confinement in CNT(6,6). Studies reveal that though hydrogen bonding plays an important role in transport of water through CNT, but it is not the solitary driving factor, as the nonpolar fluids, which do not have any hydrogen bond formation capacity can go inside CNT and also can flow through it. The associated driving force for filling and transport of water and methane is enhanced translational and rotational entropies, which are attributed mainly by the strong correlation between confined fluid molecules and availability of more free space for rotation of molecule, i.e., lower density of fluid inside CNT due to their

7. Thermodynamics of fluid conduction through hydrophobic channel of carbon nanotubes: the exciting force for filling of nanotubes with polar and nonpolar fluids.

PubMed

Sahu, Pooja; Ali, Sk M; Shenoy, K T

2015-02-21

Thermodynamic properties of the fluid in the hydrophobic pores of nanotubes are known to be different not only from the bulk phase but also from other conventional confinements. Here, we use a recently developed theoretical scheme of "two phase thermodynamic (2PT)" model to understand the driving forces inclined to spontaneous filling of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with polar (water) and nonpolar (methane) fluids. The CNT confinement is found to be energetically favorable for both water and methane, leading to their spontaneous filling inside CNT(6,6). For both the systems, the free energy of transfer from bulk to CNT confinement is favored by the increased entropy (TΔS), i.e., increased translational entropy and increased rotational entropy, which were found to be sufficiently high to conquer the unfavorable increase in enthalpy (ΔE) when they are transferred inside CNT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time when it has been established that the increase in translational entropy during confinement in CNT(6,6) is not unique to water-like H bonding fluid but is also observed in case of nonpolar fluids such as methane. The thermodynamic results are explained in terms of density, structural rigidity, and transport of fluid molecules inside CNT. The faster diffusion of methane over water in bulk phase is found to be reversed during the confinement in CNT(6,6). Studies reveal that though hydrogen bonding plays an important role in transport of water through CNT, but it is not the solitary driving factor, as the nonpolar fluids, which do not have any hydrogen bond formation capacity can go inside CNT and also can flow through it. The associated driving force for filling and transport of water and methane is enhanced translational and rotational entropies, which are attributed mainly by the strong correlation between confined fluid molecules and availability of more free space for rotation of molecule, i.e., lower density of fluid inside CNT due to their

8. Frequency-selection mechanism in incompressible open-cavity flows via reflected instability waves.

PubMed

Tuerke, F; Sciamarella, D; Pastur, L R; Lusseyran, F; Artana, G

2015-01-01

We present an alternative perspective on nonharmonic mode coexistence, commonly found in the shear layer spectrum of open-cavity flows. Modes obtained by a local linear stability analysis of perturbations to a two-dimensional, incompressible, and inviscid sheared flow over a cavity of finite length and depth were conditioned by a so-called coincidence condition first proposed by Kulikowskii [J. Appl. Math. Mech. 30, 180 (1966)] which takes into account instability wave reflection within the cavity. The analysis yields a set of discrete, nonharmonic frequencies, which compare well with experimental results [Phys. Fluids 20, 114101 (2008); Exp. Fluids 50, 905 (2010)]. PMID:25679706

9. Application of Nonstandard Analysis to the Study of the Shock Structure in a Viscous Heat Conducting Fluid

Farassat, F.; Baty, R. S.

2000-11-01

The study of the shock structure in a viscous heat conducting fluid is an old problem [Murduchow and Libby, J. Aero. Sc., Vol. 16, 1949, 674-704]. We study this problem from a novel mathematical point of view. A new class of generalized functions is defined where multiplication of any two functions is allowed with the usual properties. A Heaviside function in this class has the unit jump at x = 0 occurring on an infinitesimal interval of the nonstandard analysis (NSA) in the halo of x = 0. This jump has a smooth microstructure over the infinitesimal interval. From this point of view, we have a new class of Heaviside functions, and their derivatives the Dirac delta functions, which are equivalent when viewed as continuous linear functionals over the test function space of Schwartz. However, they differ in their microstructures which in applications are determined from physics of the problem as shown in our presentation. We start by assuming that the jumps in fluid dynamic parameters pressure p, specific volume v, velocity ui, etc., occur over the same infinitesimal interval. We emphasize that what we call a jump here has a smooth transition within an infinitesimal interval that to an observer on the real line looks like a classical "jump" obtained from the shock macrostructure. For each fluid dynamic parameter, say the pressure p, we write p = p1+ [p] L(x), where p1 is the pressure on the upstream side of the shock, [p] is the jump across the shock, and L(x) is Heaviside function associated with the transition of the pressure within the shock which is identically zero on the upstream side of the shock. The Heaviside functions associated with the jumps of the fluid dynamic parameters across the shock are assumed to have different microstructures. We are interested in determining the shock speed, the values of these jumps, and the microstructures of these Heaviside functions which collectively we call the shock structure. We study the shock structure for a fluid with

10. Core Formation And Gravothermal Collapse Of Self-interacting Dark Matter Halos: Monte Carlo N-body simulation versus Conducting Fluid Model

Koda, Jun; Shapiro, P. R.

2007-12-01

Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) has been proposed to solve the cuspy core problem of dark matter halos in standard CDM. There are two ways to investigate the effect of the 2-body, non-gravitational, elastic collisions of SIDM, Monte-Carlo N-body simulation and a conducting fluid model. The former is a gravitational N-body simulation with a Monte Carlo algorithm for the SIDM scattering that changes the direction of N-body particles randomly according to a given scattering cross section. The latter is a system of fluid conservation equations with a thermal conduction that describes the collisional effect, which was originally invented to describe the gravothermal collapse of globular clusters. Our previous work found a significant disagreement as regards the strength of collisionality required to solve cuspy core problem. However the two methods have not been properly tested against each other. Here, we make direct comparisons between Monte Carlo N-body simulations and analytic and numerical solutions of the conducting fluid (gaseous) model, for various isolated self-interacting dark matter halos. The N-body simulations reproduce the analytical self-similar solution of gravothermal collapse in the fluid model when one free parameter, the coefficient of heat conduction C, is chosen to be 0.75. The gravothermal collapse results of the simulations agrees well with our 1D numerical hydro solutions of the fluid model within 20% for other initial conditions, including Plummer model, Hernquist profile and NFW profile. In conclusion the conducting fluid model is in reasonably good agreement with the Monte Carlo simulations for isolated halos. We will pursue the origin of the reported disagreement between two methods in a cosmological environment by comparing new N-body simulations with fully cosmological initial conditions.

11. Users' Manual for Computer Code SPIRALI Incompressible, Turbulent Spiral Grooved Cylindrical and Face Seals

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Walowit, Jed A.; Shapiro, Wilbur

2005-01-01

The SPIRALI code predicts the performance characteristics of incompressible cylindrical and face seals with or without the inclusion of spiral grooves. Performance characteristics include load capacity (for face seals), leakage flow, power requirements and dynamic characteristics in the form of stiffness, damping and apparent mass coefficients in 4 degrees of freedom for cylindrical seals and 3 degrees of freedom for face seals. These performance characteristics are computed as functions of seal and groove geometry, load or film thickness, running and disturbance speeds, fluid viscosity, and boundary pressures. A derivation of the equations governing the performance of turbulent, incompressible, spiral groove cylindrical and face seals along with a description of their solution is given. The computer codes are described, including an input description, sample cases, and comparisons with results of other codes.

12. Multigrid Approach to Incompressible Viscous Cavity Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wood, William A.

1996-01-01

Two-dimensional incompressible viscous driven-cavity flows are computed for Reynolds numbers on the range 100-20,000 using a loosely coupled, implicit, second-order centrally-different scheme. Mesh sequencing and three-level V-cycle multigrid error smoothing are incorporated into the symmetric Gauss-Seidel time-integration algorithm. Parametrics on the numerical parameters are performed, achieving reductions in solution times by more than 60 percent with the full multigrid approach. Details of the circulation patterns are investigated in cavities of 2-to-1, 1-to-1, and 1-to-2 depth to width ratios.

13. Progress in incompressible Navier-Stokes computations for propulsion flows and its dual-use applications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kiris, Cetin

1995-01-01

Development of an incompressible Navier-Stokes solution procedure was performed for the analysis of a liquid rocket engine pump components and for the mechanical heart assist devices. The solution procedure for the propulsion systems is applicable to incompressible Navier-Stokes flows in a steadily rotating frame of reference for any general complex configurations. The computer codes were tested on different complex configurations such as liquid rocket engine inducer and impellers. As a spin-off technology from the turbopump component simulations, the flow analysis for an axial heart pump was conducted. The baseline Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) design was improved by adding an inducer geometry by adapting from the liquid rocket engine pump. The time-accurate mode of the incompressible Navier-Stokes code was validated with flapping foil experiment by using different domain decomposition methods. In the flapping foil experiment, two upstream NACA 0025 foils perform high-frequency synchronized motion and generate unsteady flow conditions for a downstream larger stationary foil. Fairly good agreement was obtained between unsteady experimental data and numerical results from two different moving boundary procedures. Incompressible Navier-Stokes code (INS3D) has been extended for heat transfer applications. The temperature equation was written for both forced and natural convection phenomena. Flow in a square duct case was used for the validation of the code in both natural and forced convection.

14. Density dependence of the conduction-band energy {ital V}{sub 0} of excess electrons in fluid xenon

SciTech Connect

Frongillo, Y.; Plenkiewicz, B.; Jay-Gerin, J.

1996-05-01

The ground-state energy {ital V}{sub 0} (relative to vacuum) of quasifree excess electrons in fluid xenon is calculated as a function of fluid density {ital n}. The calculations are performed within the framework of the Wigner-Seitz mean-field approximation for nonpolar fluids, using an accurate atomic pseudopotential to model the excess electron-xenon interaction. The calculated values of {ital V}{sub 0}({ital n}) are compared to experimental data and with other theoretical results. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

15. Reduced viscosity interpreted for fluid/gas mixtures

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lewis, D. H.

1981-01-01

Analysis predicts decrease in fluid viscosity by comparing pressure profile of fluid/gas mixture with that of power-law fluid. Fluid is taken to be viscous, non-Newtonian, and incompressible; the gas to be ideal; the flow to be inertia-free, isothermal, and one dimensional. Analysis assists in design of flow systems for petroleum, coal, polymers, and other materials.

16. An efficient algorithm for incompressible N-phase flows

Dong, S.

2014-11-01

We present an efficient algorithm within the phase field framework for simulating the motion of a mixture of N (N⩾2) immiscible incompressible fluids, with possibly very different physical properties such as densities, viscosities, and pairwise surface tensions. The algorithm employs a physical formulation for the N-phase system that honors the conservations of mass and momentum and the second law of thermodynamics. We present a method for uniquely determining the mixing energy density coefficients involved in the N-phase model based on the pairwise surface tensions among the N fluids. Our numerical algorithm has several attractive properties that make it computationally very efficient: (i) it has completely de-coupled the computations for different flow variables, and has also completely de-coupled the computations for the (N-1) phase field functions; (ii) the algorithm only requires the solution of linear algebraic systems after discretization, and no nonlinear algebraic solve is needed; (iii) for each flow variable the linear algebraic system involves only constant and time-independent coefficient matrices, which can be pre-computed during pre-processing, despite the variable density and variable viscosity of the N-phase mixture; (iv) within a time step the semi-discretized system involves only individual de-coupled Helmholtz-type (including Poisson) equations, despite the strongly-coupled phase-field system of fourth spatial order at the continuum level; (v) the algorithm is suitable for large density contrasts and large viscosity contrasts among the N fluids. Extensive numerical experiments have been presented for several problems involving multiple fluid phases, large density contrasts and large viscosity contrasts. In particular, we compare our simulations with the de Gennes theory, and demonstrate that our method produces physically accurate results for multiple fluid phases. We also demonstrate the significant and sometimes dramatic effects of the

17. An efficient algorithm for incompressible N-phase flows

SciTech Connect

Dong, S.

2014-11-01

We present an efficient algorithm within the phase field framework for simulating the motion of a mixture of N (N⩾2) immiscible incompressible fluids, with possibly very different physical properties such as densities, viscosities, and pairwise surface tensions. The algorithm employs a physical formulation for the N-phase system that honors the conservations of mass and momentum and the second law of thermodynamics. We present a method for uniquely determining the mixing energy density coefficients involved in the N-phase model based on the pairwise surface tensions among the N fluids. Our numerical algorithm has several attractive properties that make it computationally very efficient: (i) it has completely de-coupled the computations for different flow variables, and has also completely de-coupled the computations for the (N−1) phase field functions; (ii) the algorithm only requires the solution of linear algebraic systems after discretization, and no nonlinear algebraic solve is needed; (iii) for each flow variable the linear algebraic system involves only constant and time-independent coefficient matrices, which can be pre-computed during pre-processing, despite the variable density and variable viscosity of the N-phase mixture; (iv) within a time step the semi-discretized system involves only individual de-coupled Helmholtz-type (including Poisson) equations, despite the strongly-coupled phase–field system of fourth spatial order at the continuum level; (v) the algorithm is suitable for large density contrasts and large viscosity contrasts among the N fluids. Extensive numerical experiments have been presented for several problems involving multiple fluid phases, large density contrasts and large viscosity contrasts. In particular, we compare our simulations with the de Gennes theory, and demonstrate that our method produces physically accurate results for multiple fluid phases. We also demonstrate the significant and sometimes dramatic effects of the

18. AN IMMERSED BOUNDARY METHOD FOR COMPLEX INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOWS

EPA Science Inventory

An immersed boundary method for time-dependant, three- dimensional, incompressible flows is presented in this paper. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are discretized using a low-diffusion flux splitting method for the inviscid fluxes and a second order central differenc...

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hafez, Mohammed; Dacles, Jennifer

1989-01-01

The numerical analysis of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are becoming important tools in the understanding of some fluid flow problems which are encountered in research as well as in industry. With the advent of the supercomputers, more realistic problems can be studied with a wider choice of numerical algorithms. An alternative formulation is presented for viscous incompressible flows. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are cast in a velocity/vorticity formulation. This formulation consists of solving the Poisson equations for the velocity components and the vorticity transport equation. Two numerical algorithms for the steady two-dimensional laminar flows are presented. The first method is based on the actual partial differential equations. This uses a finite-difference approximation of the governing equations on a staggered grid. The second method uses a finite element discretization with the vorticity transport equation approximated using a Galerkin approximation and the Poisson equations are obtained using a least squares method. The equations are solved efficiently using Newton's method and a banded direct matrix solver (LINPACK). The method is extended to steady three-dimensional laminar flows and applied to a cubic driven cavity using finite difference schemes and a staggered grid arrangement on a Cartesian mesh. The equations are solved iteratively using a plane zebra relaxation scheme. Currently, a two-dimensional, unsteady algorithm is being developed using a generalized coordinate system. The equations are discretized using a finite-volume approach. This work will then be extended to three-dimensional flows.

20. Incompressible Polaritons in a Flat Band

Biondi, Matteo; van Nieuwenburg, Evert P. L.; Blatter, Gianni; Huber, Sebastian D.; Schmidt, Sebastian

2015-10-01

We study the interplay of geometric frustration and interactions in a nonequilibrium photonic lattice system exhibiting a polariton flat band as described by a variant of the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model. We show how to engineer strong photonic correlations in such a driven, dissipative system by quenching the kinetic energy through frustration. This produces an incompressible state of photons characterized by short-ranged crystalline order with period doubling. The latter manifests itself in strong spatial correlations, i.e., on-site and nearest-neighbor antibunching combined with extended density-wave oscillations at larger distances. We propose a state-of-the-art circuit QED realization of our system, which is tunable in situ.

1. Incompressible Polaritons in a Flat Band.

PubMed

Biondi, Matteo; van Nieuwenburg, Evert P L; Blatter, Gianni; Huber, Sebastian D; Schmidt, Sebastian

2015-10-01

We study the interplay of geometric frustration and interactions in a nonequilibrium photonic lattice system exhibiting a polariton flat band as described by a variant of the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model. We show how to engineer strong photonic correlations in such a driven, dissipative system by quenching the kinetic energy through frustration. This produces an incompressible state of photons characterized by short-ranged crystalline order with period doubling. The latter manifests itself in strong spatial correlations, i.e., on-site and nearest-neighbor antibunching combined with extended density-wave oscillations at larger distances. We propose a state-of-the-art circuit QED realization of our system, which is tunable in situ. PMID:26551811

2. A vectorized solution for incompressible flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Patel, N. R.; Thompson, J. F.

1984-01-01

An algorithm is developed to obtain solutions to the unsteady Reynolds-averaged incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates on a vector processor. The governing equations are in nonconservative form with the velocity and pressure as dependent variables. Two momentum equations and the Poisson equation for pressure form a set of three governing equations for three flow field unknowns: u, v, and p. The governing equations and boundary conditions are expressed in terms of boundary-conforming curvilinear coordinates, and a checkerboard SOR iteration is used to solve the governing equations. Several possible sequences for a checkerboard SOR iteration are investigated for finding the best overall convergence rate. The efficiency and capability of the present algorithm was assessed using the example of an 18 percent thick NACA 66(3)018 airfoil at zero degree angle of attack for chord Reynolds number range 1000-40,000.

3. Weakly nonlinear analysis of Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a non-Newtonian fluid between plates of finite conductivity: Influence of shear-thinning effects

Bouteraa, Mondher; Nouar, Chérif

2015-12-01

Finite-amplitude thermal convection in a shear-thinning fluid layer between two horizontal plates of finite thermal conductivity is considered. Weakly nonlinear analysis is adopted as a first approach to investigate nonlinear effects. The rheological behavior of the fluid is described by the Carreau model. As a first step, the critical conditions for the onset of convection are computed as a function of the ratio ξ of the thermal conductivity of the plates to the thermal conductivity of the fluid. In agreement with the literature, the critical Rayleigh number Rac and the critical wave number kc decrease from 1708 to 720 and from 3.11 to 0, when ξ decreases from infinity to zero. In the second step, the critical value αc of the shear-thinning degree above which the bifurcation becomes subcritical is determined. It is shown that αc increases with decreasing ξ . The stability of rolls and squares is then investigated as a function of ξ and the rheological parameters. The limit value ξc, below which squares are stable, decreases with increasing shear-thinning effects. This is related to the fact that shear-thinning effects increase the nonlinear interactions between sets of rolls that constitute the square patterns [M. Bouteraa et al., J. Fluid Mech. 767, 696 (2015), 10.1017/jfm.2015.64]. For a significant deviation from the critical conditions, nonlinear convection terms and nonlinear viscous terms become stronger, leading to a further diminution of ξc. The dependency of the heat transfer on ξ and the rheological parameters is reported. It is consistent with the maximum heat transfer principle. Finally, the flow structure and the viscosity field are represented for weakly and highly conducting plates.

4. Weakly nonlinear analysis of Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a non-Newtonian fluid between plates of finite conductivity: Influence of shear-thinning effects.

PubMed

Bouteraa, Mondher; Nouar, Chérif

2015-12-01

Finite-amplitude thermal convection in a shear-thinning fluid layer between two horizontal plates of finite thermal conductivity is considered. Weakly nonlinear analysis is adopted as a first approach to investigate nonlinear effects. The rheological behavior of the fluid is described by the Carreau model. As a first step, the critical conditions for the onset of convection are computed as a function of the ratio ξ of the thermal conductivity of the plates to the thermal conductivity of the fluid. In agreement with the literature, the critical Rayleigh number Ra(c) and the critical wave number k(c) decrease from 1708 to 720 and from 3.11 to 0, when ξ decreases from infinity to zero. In the second step, the critical value α(c) of the shear-thinning degree above which the bifurcation becomes subcritical is determined. It is shown that α(c) increases with decreasing ξ. The stability of rolls and squares is then investigated as a function of ξ and the rheological parameters. The limit value ξ(c), below which squares are stable, decreases with increasing shear-thinning effects. This is related to the fact that shear-thinning effects increase the nonlinear interactions between sets of rolls that constitute the square patterns [M. Bouteraa et al., J. Fluid Mech. 767, 696 (2015)]. For a significant deviation from the critical conditions, nonlinear convection terms and nonlinear viscous terms become stronger, leading to a further diminution of ξ(c). The dependency of the heat transfer on ξ and the rheological parameters is reported. It is consistent with the maximum heat transfer principle. Finally, the flow structure and the viscosity field are represented for weakly and highly conducting plates. PMID:26764814

5. Energy Equation Approximation in Fluid Mechanics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goldstein, Arthur W.

1959-01-01

There is some confusion in the literature of fluid mechanics in regard to the correct form of the energy equation for the study of the flow of nearly incompressible fluids. Several forms of the energy equation and their use are therefore discussed in this note.

6. Vibration characteristics of rectangular plate in compressible inviscid fluid

Liao, Chan-Yi; Ma, Chien-Ching

2016-02-01

This paper presents a mathematical derivation of the vibration characteristics of an elastic thin plate placed at the bottom of a three dimensional rectangular container filled with compressible inviscid fluid. A set of beam functions is used as the admissible functions of the plate in a fluid-plate system, and the motion of the fluid induced by the deformation of the plate is obtained from a three-dimensional acoustic equation. Pressure from the fluid over the fluid-plate interface is integrated to form a virtual mass matrix. The frequency equation of the fluid-plate system is derived by combining mass, stiffness, and the virtual mass matrix. Solving the frequency equation makes it possible to obtain the dynamic characteristic of the fluid-plate system, such as resonant frequencies, corresponding mode shapes, and velocity of the fluid. Numerical calculations were performed for plates coupled with fluids with various degrees of compressibility to illustrate the difference between compressible and incompressible fluids in a fluid-plate system. The proposed method could be used to predict resonant frequencies and mode shapes with accuracy compared to that of incompressible fluid theory (IFT). The proposed method can be used to analyze cases involving high value of sound velocity, such as incompressible fluids. When the sound velocity approaches infinity, the results obtained for compressible fluids are similar to those of incompressible fluids. We also examined the influence of fluid compressibility on vibration characteristics in which a decrease in sound velocity was shown to correspond to a decrease in resonant frequency. Additional modes, not observed in incompressible fluids, were obtained in cases of low sound velocity, particularly at higher resonant frequencies. Fluid velocity plots clearly reveal that the additional resonant modes can be attributed to the compressible behavior of the fluid.

7. Cauchy's almost forgotten Lagrangian formulation of the Euler equation for 3D incompressible flow

Frisch, Uriel; Villone, Barbara

2014-09-01

Two prized papers, one by Augustin Cauchy in 1815, presented to the French Academy and the other by Hermann Hankel in 1861, presented to Göttingen University, contain major discoveries on vorticity dynamics whose impact is now quickly increasing. Cauchy found a Lagrangian formulation of 3D ideal incompressible flow in terms of three invariants that generalize to three dimensions the now well-known law of conservation of vorticity along fluid particle trajectories for two-dimensional flow. This has very recently been used to prove analyticity in time of fluid particle trajectories for 3D incompressible Euler flow and can be extended to compressible flow, in particular to cosmological dark matter. Hankel showed that Cauchy's formulation gives a very simple Lagrangian derivation of the Helmholtz vorticity-flux invariants and, in the middle of the proof, derived an intermediate result which is the conservation of the circulation of the velocity around a closed contour moving with the fluid. This circulation theorem was to be rediscovered independently by William Thomson (Kelvin) in 1869. Cauchy's invariants were only occasionally cited in the 19th century - besides Hankel, foremost by George Stokes and Maurice Lévy - and even less so in the 20th until they were rediscovered via Emmy Noether's theorem in the late 1960, but reattributed to Cauchy only at the end of the 20th century by Russian scientists.

8. Numerical simulation methods of incompressible flows and an application to the space shuttle main engine

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chang, J. L. C.; Kwak, D.; Rogers, S. E.; Yang, R.-J.

1988-01-01

Incompressible Navier-Stokes solution methods are discussed with an emphasis on the pseudocompressibility method. A steady-state flow solver based on the pseudocompressibility approach is then described. This flow-solver code was used to analyze the internal flow in the Space Shuttle main engine hot-gas manifold. Salient features associated with this three-dimensional realistic flow simulation are discussed. Numerical solutions relevant to the current engine analysis and the redesign effort are discussed along with experimental results. This example demonstrates the potential of computational fluid dynamics as a design tool for aerospace applications.

9. Conditions at the downstream boundary for simulations of viscous incompressible flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hagstrom, Thomas

1990-01-01

The proper specification of boundary conditions at artificial boundaries for the simulation of time-dependent fluid flows has long been a matter of controversy. A general theory of asymptotic boundary conditions for dissipative waves is applied to the design of simple, accurate conditions at downstream boundary for incompressible flows. For Reynolds numbers far enough below the critical value for linear stability, a scaling is introduced which greatly simplifies the construction of the asymptotic conditions. Numerical experiments with the nonlinear dynamics of vortical disturbances to plane Poiseuille flow are presented which illustrate the accuracy of our approach. The consequences of directly applying the scalings to the equations are also considered.

10. Source Listings for Computer Code SPIRALI Incompressible, Turbulent Spiral Grooved Cylindrical and Face Seals

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Walowit, Jed A.; Shapiro, Wibur

2005-01-01

This is the source listing of the computer code SPIRALI which predicts the performance characteristics of incompressible cylindrical and face seals with or without the inclusion of spiral grooves. Performance characteristics include load capacity (for face seals), leakage flow, power requirements and dynamic characteristics in the form of stiffness, damping and apparent mass coefficients in 4 degrees of freedom for cylindrical seals and 3 degrees of freedom for face seals. These performance characteristics are computed as functions of seal and groove geometry, load or film thickness, running and disturbance speeds, fluid viscosity, and boundary pressures.

11. Wave Number Selection for Incompressible Parallel Jet Flows Periodic in Space

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

1997-01-01

The temporal instability of a spatially periodic parallel flow of an incompressible inviscid fluid for various jet velocity profiles is studied numerically using Floquet Analysis. The transition matrix at the end of a period is evaluated by direct numerical integration. For verification, a method based on approximating a continuous function by a series of step functions was used. Unstable solutions were found only over a limited range of wave numbers and have a band type structure. The results obtained are analogous to the behavior observed in systems exhibiting complexity at the edge of order and chaos.

12. NACHOS 2: A finite element computer program for incompressible flow problems. Part 1: Theoretical background

Gartling, D. K.

1987-04-01

The theoretical and numerical background for the finite element computer program, NACHOS 2, is presented in detail. The NACHOS 2 code is designed for the two-dimensional analysis of viscous incompressible fluid flows, including the effects of heat transfer and/or other transport processes. A general description of the boundary value problems treated by the program is presented. The finite element formulations and the associated numerical methods used in the NACHOS 2 code are also outlined. Instructions for use of the program are documented in SAND-86-1817; examples of problems analyzed by the code are provided in SAND-86-1818.

13. On the evolution of centrifugal instabilities within curved incompressible mixing layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Otto, S. R.; Jackson, T. L.; Hu, F. Q.

1994-01-01

It is known that certain configurations which possess curvature are prone to a class of instabilities which their 'flat' counterparts will not support. The main thrust of the study of these centrifugal instabilities has concentrated on curved solid boundaries and their effect on the fluid motion. In this article attention is shifted towards a fluid-fluid interface observed within a curved incompressible mixing layer. Experimental evidence is available to support the conjecture that this situation may be subjected to centrifugal instabilities. The evolution of modes with wavelengths comparable with the layer's thickness is considered and the high Taylor/Gortler number regime is also discussed which characterizes the ultimate fate of the modes.

14. Effect of Stiffness on Reflection and Transmission of Waves at an Interface between Heat Conducting Elastic Solid and Micropolar Fluid Media

PubMed Central

Kumar, Rajneesh; Rajvanshi, S. C.

2014-01-01

The present investigation is concerned with the propagation of waves at an imperfect boundary of heat conducting elastic solid and micropolar fluid media. The amplitude ratios of various reflected and transmitted waves are obtained in a closed form due to incidence of longitudinal wave (P-wave), thermal wave (T-wave), and transverse wave (SV-wave). The variation of various amplitude ratios with angle of incidence is obtained for normal force stiffness, transverse force stiffness, thermal contact conductance, and perfect bonding. Numerical results are shown graphically to depict the effect of stiffness and thermal relaxation times on resulting quantities. Some particular cases are also deduced in the present investigation. PMID:27355038

15. Effect of Stiffness on Reflection and Transmission of Waves at an Interface between Heat Conducting Elastic Solid and Micropolar Fluid Media.

PubMed

Kumar, Rajneesh; Rajvanshi, S C; Kaur, Mandeep

2014-01-01

The present investigation is concerned with the propagation of waves at an imperfect boundary of heat conducting elastic solid and micropolar fluid media. The amplitude ratios of various reflected and transmitted waves are obtained in a closed form due to incidence of longitudinal wave (P-wave), thermal wave (T-wave), and transverse wave (SV-wave). The variation of various amplitude ratios with angle of incidence is obtained for normal force stiffness, transverse force stiffness, thermal contact conductance, and perfect bonding. Numerical results are shown graphically to depict the effect of stiffness and thermal relaxation times on resulting quantities. Some particular cases are also deduced in the present investigation. PMID:27355038

16. Hypercapnia modulates cAMP signalling and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-dependent anion and fluid secretion in airway epithelia.

PubMed

Turner, Mark J; Saint-Criq, Vinciane; Patel, Waseema; Ibrahim, Salam H; Verdon, Bernard; Ward, Christopher; Garnett, James P; Tarran, Robert; Cann, Martin J; Gray, Michael A

2016-03-15

Hypercapnia is clinically defined as an arterial blood partial pressure of CO2 of above 40 mmHg and is a feature of chronic lung disease. In previous studies we have demonstrated that hypercapnia modulates agonist-stimulated cAMP levels through effects on transmembrane adenylyl cyclase activity. In the airways, cAMP is known to regulate cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated anion and fluid secretion, which contributes to airway surface liquid homeostasis. The aim of the current work was to investigate if hypercapnia could modulate cAMP-regulated ion and fluid transport in human airway epithelial cells. We found that acute exposure to hypercapnia significantly reduced forskolin-stimulated elevations in intracellular cAMP as well as both adenosine- and forskolin-stimulated increases in CFTR-dependent transepithelial short-circuit current, in polarised cultures of Calu-3 human airway cells. This CO2 -induced reduction in anion secretion was not due to a decrease in HCO3 (-) transport given that neither a change in CFTR-dependent HCO3 (-) efflux nor Na(+) /HCO3 (-) cotransporter-dependent HCO3 (-) influx were CO2 -sensitive. Hypercapnia also reduced the volume of forskolin-stimulated fluid secretion over 24 h, yet had no effect on the HCO3 (-) content of the secreted fluid. Our data reveal that hypercapnia reduces CFTR-dependent, electrogenic Cl(-) and fluid secretion, but not CFTR-dependent HCO3 (-) secretion, which highlights a differential sensitivity of Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) transporters to raised CO2 in Calu-3 cells. Hypercapnia also reduced forskolin-stimulated CFTR-dependent anion secretion in primary human airway epithelia. Based on current models of airways biology, a reduction in fluid secretion, associated with hypercapnia, would be predicted to have important consequences for airways hydration and the innate defence mechanisms of the lungs. PMID:26574187

17. Incompressibility in finite nuclei and nuclear matter

Stone, J. R.; Stone, N. J.; Moszkowski, S. A.

2014-04-01

The incompressibility (compression modulus) K0 of infinite symmetric nuclear matter at saturation density has become one of the major constraints on mean-field models of nuclear many-body systems as well as of models of high density matter in astrophysical objects and heavy-ion collisions. It is usually extracted from data on the giant monopole resonance (GMR) or calculated using theoretical models. We present a comprehensive reanalysis of recent data on GMR energies in even-even 112-124Sn and 106,100-116Cd and earlier data on 58≤A≤208 nuclei. The incompressibility of finite nuclei KA is calculated from experimental GMR energies and expressed in terms of A-1/3 and the asymmetry parameter β =(N-Z)/A as a leptodermous expansion with volume, surface, isospin, and Coulomb coefficients Kvol, Ksurf, Kτ, and KCoul. Only data consistent with the scaling approximation, leading to a fast converging leptodermous expansion, with negligible higher-order-term contributions to KA, were used in the present analysis. Assuming that the volume coefficient Kvol is identified with K0, the KCoul=-(5.2±0.7) MeV and the contribution from the curvature term KcurvA-2/3 in the expansion is neglected, compelling evidence is found for K0 to be in the range 250

18. On the propagation of acceleration waves in incompressible hyperelastic solids

Gültop, T.

2003-07-01

The conditions for the propagation of acceleration waves (sound waves) in incompressible elastic media undergoing finite deformation are investigated. The incompressible hyperelastic solid media is considered in accordance with the general constitutive theory of materials subject to internal mechanical constraints. The equation of motion of acceleration waves is obtained using the theory of singular surfaces. A general comparison is made between the magnitudes of the propagation speeds of waves in incompressible and unconstrained solid media by the use of Mandel's inequalities. The magnitudes of the speeds of propagation of acceleration waves in the incompressible hyperelastic material classes of neo-Hookean, Mooney-Rivlin, and St. Venant-Kirchhoff solids are determined. Comparisons are made of the specific results concerning the magnitudes of wave propagation speeds making use of the corresponding material parameters.

19. HELENA code with incompressible parallel plasma flow

Throumoulopoulos, George; Poulipoulis, George; Konz, Christian; EFDA ITM-TF Team

2015-11-01

It has been established that plasma rotation in connection to both zonal and equilibrium flow can play a role in the transitions to the advanced confinement regimes in tokamaks, as the L-H transition and the formation of Internal Transport Barriers. For incompressible rotation the equilibrium is governed by a generalized Grad-Shafranov (GGS) equation and a decoupled Bernoulli-type equation for the pressure. For parallel flow the GGS equation can be transformed to one identical in form with the usual Grad-Shafranov equation. In the present study on the basis of the latter equation we have extended HELENA, an equilibrium fixed boundary solver integrated in the ITM-TF modeling infrastructure. The extended code solves the GGS equation for a variety of the two free-surface-function terms involved for arbitrary Afvén Mach functions. We have constructed diverted-boundary equilibria pertinent to ITER and examined their characteristics, in particular as concerns the impact of rotation. It turns out that the rotation affects noticeably the pressure and toroidal current density with the impact on the current density being stronger in the parallel direction than in the toroidal one. Also, the linear stability of the equilibria constructed is examined This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfuion Consortium and has received funding from the National Programme for the Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion, Hellenic Republic.

20. Incompressible flow in stepped labyrinth seals

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Morrison, G. L.; Chi, D.

1985-01-01

A steped labyrinth seal was experimentally investigated to determine the effects of pressure ratio, shaft speed, number of teeth, and tooth/step location upon the leakage through the seal for incompressible flow. The dependence of the flow coefficient upon the number of throttles and pressure ratio are similar to those for straight-through labyrinth seals. It can be noted that the axial location of the throttle with respect to the step had a special effect upon the flow coefficient. That is, the dependency of the flow coefficient upon rotation rate and the number of throttles changes with axial location. It was found that the minimum flow coefficient was obtained when the seal teeth were centered on the step surface. Axial pressure distribution measurements show that when the teeth are centered on the step, the pressure drop from cavity to cavity is almost uniform. It is speculated that the obtaining of this uniform pressure gradient is the cause for the enhanced performance of the stepped labyrinth seal when operated in that configuration.

1. Robust preconditioners for incompressible MHD models

Ma, Yicong; Hu, Kaibo; Hu, Xiaozhe; Xu, Jinchao

2016-07-01

In this paper, we develop two classes of robust preconditioners for the structure-preserving discretization of the incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) system. By studying the well-posedness of the discrete system, we design block preconditioners for them and carry out rigorous analysis on their performance. We prove that such preconditioners are robust with respect to most physical and discretization parameters. In our proof, we improve the existing estimates of the block triangular preconditioners for saddle point problems by removing the scaling parameters, which are usually difficult to choose in practice. This new technique is applicable not only to the MHD system, but also to other problems. Moreover, we prove that Krylov iterative methods with our preconditioners preserve the divergence-free condition exactly, which complements the structure-preserving discretization. Another feature is that we can directly generalize this technique to other discretizations of the MHD system. We also present preliminary numerical results to support the theoretical results and demonstrate the robustness of the proposed preconditioners.

2. Exact solutions of the incompressible dissipative Hall magnetohydrodynamics

SciTech Connect

Xia, Zhenwei; Yang, Weihong

2015-03-15

By using analytical method, the exact solutions of the incompressible dissipative Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations are derived. It is found that a phase difference may occur between the velocity and magnetic field fluctuations when the kinetic and magnetic Reynolds numbers are both very large. Since velocity and magnetic field fluctuations are both circular polarized, the phase difference makes them no longer parallel or anti-parallel like that in the incompressible ideal Hall MHD.

3. Large deformations of a new class of incompressible elastic bodies

Bustamante, R.; Orellana, O.; Meneses, R.; Rajagopal, K. R.

2016-06-01

The consequences of the constraint of incompressibility is studied for a new class of constitutive relation for elastic bodies, for which the left Cauchy-Green tensor is a function of the Cauchy stress tensor. The requirement of incompressibility is imposed directly in the constitutive relation, and it is not necessary to assume a priori that the stress tensor should be divided into two parts, a constraint stress and a constitutively specified part, as in the classical theory of nonlinear elasticity.

4. An Experimental Investigation of Incompressible Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jacobs, J. W.; Niederhaus, C. E.

2002-01-01

Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability occurs when two different density fluids are impulsively accelerated in the direction normal to their nearly planar interface. The instability causes small perturbations on the interface to grow and eventually become a turbulent flow. It is closely related to Rayleigh-Taylor instability, which is the instability of a planar interface undergoing constant acceleration, such as caused by the suspension of a heavy fluid over a lighter one in the earth's gravitational field. Like the well-known Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, RM instability is a fundamental hydrodynamic instability which exhibits many of the nonlinear complexities that transform simple initial conditions into a complex turbulent flow. Furthermore, the simplicity of RM instability (in that it requires very few defining parameters), and the fact that it can be generated in a closed container, makes it an excellent test bed to study nonlinear stability theory as well as turbulent transport in a heterogeneous system. However, the fact that RM instability involves fluids of unequal densities which experience negligible gravitational force, except during the impulsive acceleration, requires RM instability experiments to be carried out under conditions of microgravity. This experimental study investigates the instability of an interface between incompressible, miscible liquids with an initial sinusoidal perturbation. The impulsive acceleration is generated by bouncing a rectangular tank containing two different density liquids off a retractable vertical spring. The initial perturbation is produced prior to release by oscillating the tank in the horizontal direction to produce a standing wave. The instability evolves in microgravity as the tank travels up and then down the vertical rails of a drop tower until hitting a shock absorber at the bottom. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) is employed to visualize the flow. PLIF images are captured by a video camera that travels

5. An anisotropic flow law for incompressible polycrystalline materials

Placidi, Luca; Hutter, Kolumban

2005-11-01

New and explicit anisotropic constitutive equations between the stretching and deviatoric stress tensors for the two- and three-dimensional cases of incompressible polycrystalline materials are presented. The anisotropy is assumed to be driven by an Orientation Distribution Function (ODF). The polycrystal is composed of transversally isotropic crystallites, the lattice orientation of which can be characterized by a single unit vector. The proposed constitutive equations are valid for any frame of reference and for every state of deformation. The basic assumption of this method is that the principle directions of the stretching and of the stress deviator are the same in the isotropic as well as in the anisotropic case. This means that the proposed constitutive laws are able to model the effects of anisotropy only via a change of the fluidity due to a change of the ODF. Such an assumption is justified to guarantee that, besides knowledge of the parameters involved in the isotropic constitutive equation, the anisotropic material response is completely characterized by only one additional parameter, a type of enhancement factor. Explicit comparisons with experimental data are conducted for Ih ice.

6. Identification of whistling ability of a single hole orifice from an incompressible flow simulation

SciTech Connect

Lacombe, Romain; Moussou, Pierre

2012-07-01

Pure tone noise from orifices in pipe result from vortex shedding with lock-in. Acoustic amplification at the orifice is coupled to resonant condition to create self-sustained oscillations. One key feature of this phenomenon is hence the ability of an orifice to amplify acoustic waves in a given range of frequencies. Here a numerical investigation of the linear response of an orifice is undertaken, with the support of experimental data for validation. The study deals with a sharp edge orifice. Its diameter equals to 0.015 m and its thickness to 0.005 m. The pipe diameter is 0.030 m. An air flow with a Mach number 0.026 and a Reynolds number 18000 in the main pipe is present. At such a low Mach number; the fluid behavior can reasonably be described as locally incompressible. The incompressible Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations are solved with the help of a finite volume fluid mechanics software. The orifice is submitted to an average flow velocity, with superimposed small harmonic perturbations. The harmonic response of the orifice is the difference between the upstream and downstream pressures, and a straightforward calculation brings out the acoustic impedance of the orifice. Comparison with experiments shows that the main physical features of the whistling phenomenon are reasonably reproduced. (authors)

7. Conducting Rapid Street Assessment of Drug Users in New York City Using Oral Fluid and Brief Interviews: A Feasibility Study

PubMed Central

Aikins, Ross; Hoefinger, Heidi; Guarino, Honoria; Rosenblum, Andrew; Magura, Stephen; Joseph, Herman

2016-01-01

This study piloted the feasibility of rapidly collecting both self-reports of drug use and saliva specimens for drug toxicology in field settings. The use of oral fluid collection devices to supplement self-reports is unproven in street settings and may pose challenges for field research. Sixty adults who identified as recent illicit drug users were recruited in public settings in New York City and were asked to complete a brief drug screening inventory and provided saliva specimens. Descriptive findings are detailed along with critical best research practices and limitations that provide important directions for researchers looking to employ both toxicology and self-report in rapid field recruitment designs. PMID:26098766

8. Characterization and modification of fluid conductivity in heterogeneous reservoirs to improve sweep efficiency. [Quarterly report, July--September 1993

SciTech Connect

Fogler, H.S.

1993-12-01

The main objectives of this project were to develop new treatment strategies that would improve the efficiency of oil production, and stimulation procedures. Treatment strategies were developed to treat injection well matrix heterogeneities, production well matrix or saturation heterogeneities, and fractured wells. The treatment strategies investigated included a particulate system, and a foamed gel for injection well profile modification, a foam/acid injection strategy for improving acidization of carbonates, an acid reactive gel for controlling acid leak-off into fractures, and a water reactive gel for water shut-off at production wells. The research performed focused on discovering the principles governing the performance of the treatment strategies to provide a fundamental basis for further development of these techniques. Other goals of this project were to demonstrate the use of Neutron Imaging for real time imaging of fluid flow through heterogeneous porous media and develop a kinetic model to simulate the effect of diagenetic processes on reservoir porosity and permeability.

9. A displacement-based finite element formulation for incompressible and nearly-incompressible cardiac mechanics

PubMed Central

Hadjicharalambous, Myrianthi; Lee, Jack; Smith, Nicolas P.; Nordsletten, David A.

2014-01-01

The Lagrange Multiplier (LM) and penalty methods are commonly used to enforce incompressibility and compressibility in models of cardiac mechanics. In this paper we show how both formulations may be equivalently thought of as a weakly penalized system derived from the statically condensed Perturbed Lagrangian formulation, which may be directly discretized maintaining the simplicity of penalty formulations with the convergence characteristics of LM techniques. A modified Shamanskii–Newton–Raphson scheme is introduced to enhance the nonlinear convergence of the weakly penalized system and, exploiting its equivalence, modifications are developed for the penalty form. Focusing on accuracy, we proceed to study the convergence behavior of these approaches using different interpolation schemes for both a simple test problem and more complex models of cardiac mechanics. Our results illustrate the well-known influence of locking phenomena on the penalty approach (particularly for lower order schemes) and its effect on accuracy for whole-cycle mechanics. Additionally, we verify that direct discretization of the weakly penalized form produces similar convergence behavior to mixed formulations while avoiding the use of an additional variable. Combining a simple structure which allows the solution of computationally challenging problems with good convergence characteristics, the weakly penalized form provides an accurate and efficient alternative to incompressibility and compressibility in cardiac mechanics. PMID:25187672

10. Flow of Sisko fluid over a stretching cylinder and heat transfer with viscous dissipation and variable thermal conductivity: A numerical study

Malik, M. Y.; Hussain, Arif; Salahuddin, T.; Awais, M.; Bilal, S.; Khan, Farzana

2016-04-01

In present analysis boundary layer flow of Sisko fluid over stretching cylinder is analyzed. Combined effects of variable thermal conductivity and viscous dissipation are assumed in heat transfer. The modeled boundary layer partial differential equations are transfigured into ordinary differential equations by using suitable transformations. These nonlinear ordinary differential equations are solved numerically by Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method. The accuracy of computed results is certified by comparing with existing literature. To interpret the effects of flow parameters on velocity and temperature profiles graphs are developed. The influence of all physical parameters on skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are discussed via tabular and graphical form.

11. Numerical solution of Williamson fluid flow past a stretching cylinder and heat transfer with variable thermal conductivity and heat generation/absorption

Malik, M. Y.; Bibi, M.; Khan, Farzana; Salahuddin, T.

2016-03-01

In this article, Williamson fluid flow and heat transfer over a stretching cylinder is discussed. The thermal conductivity is assumed to be vary linearly with temperature. Heat generation/absorption effects are also taken into account. Modeled partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential form by using appropriate transformations. Shooting method in conjunction with Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method is used to find the solution of the problem. Moreover, the effects of different flow parameters γ, λ, ɛ, β and Pr on velocity and temperature profiles are shown graphically. Local Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient are shown in tabular and graphical form.

12. Instability of plane-parallel flow of incompressible liquid over a saturated porous medium

Lyubimova, T. P.; Lyubimov, D. V.; Baydina, D. T.; Kolchanova, E. A.; Tsiberkin, K. B.

2016-07-01

The linear stability of plane-parallel flow of an incompressible viscous fluid over a saturated porous layer is studied to model the instability of water flow in a river over aquatic plants. The saturated porous layer is bounded from below by a rigid plate and the pure fluid layer has a free, undeformable upper boundary. A small inclination of the layers is imposed to simulate the riverbed slope. The layers are inclined at a small angle to the horizon. The problem is studied within two models: the Brinkman model with the boundary conditions by Ochoa-Tapia and Whitaker at the interface, and the Darcy-Forchheimer model with the conditions by Beavers and Joseph. The neutral curves and critical Reynolds numbers are calculated for various porous layer permeabilities and relative thicknesses of the porous layer. The results obtained within the two models are compared and analyzed.

13. Instability of plane-parallel flow of incompressible liquid over a saturated porous medium.

PubMed

Lyubimova, T P; Lyubimov, D V; Baydina, D T; Kolchanova, E A; Tsiberkin, K B

2016-07-01

The linear stability of plane-parallel flow of an incompressible viscous fluid over a saturated porous layer is studied to model the instability of water flow in a river over aquatic plants. The saturated porous layer is bounded from below by a rigid plate and the pure fluid layer has a free, undeformable upper boundary. A small inclination of the layers is imposed to simulate the riverbed slope. The layers are inclined at a small angle to the horizon. The problem is studied within two models: the Brinkman model with the boundary conditions by Ochoa-Tapia and Whitaker at the interface, and the Darcy-Forchheimer model with the conditions by Beavers and Joseph. The neutral curves and critical Reynolds numbers are calculated for various porous layer permeabilities and relative thicknesses of the porous layer. The results obtained within the two models are compared and analyzed. PMID:27575214

14. A Hybrid Nodal Method for Time-Dependent Incompressible Flow in Two-Dimensional Arbitrary Geometries

SciTech Connect

Toreja, A J; Uddin, R

2002-10-21

A hybrid nodal-integral/finite-analytic method (NI-FAM) is developed for time-dependent, incompressible flow in two-dimensional arbitrary geometries. In this hybrid approach, the computational domain is divided into parallelepiped and wedge-shaped space-time nodes (cells). The conventional nodal integral method (NIM) is applied to the interfaces between adjacent parallelepiped nodes (cells), while a finite analytic approach is applied to the interfaces between parallelepiped and wedge-shaped nodes (cells). In this paper, the hybrid method is formally developed and an application of the NI-FAM to fluid flow in an enclosed cavity is presented. Results are compared with those obtained using a commercial computational fluid dynamics code.

15. The use of polarity switching for the sensitive determination of nitrate in human cerebrospinal fluid by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

PubMed

Tůma, Petr

2016-05-20

A new electrophoretic stacking method has been developed for the sensitive determination of nitrates in cerebrospinal fluid. 2M acetic acid was used as the BGE; inorganic anions were detected using a contactless conductivity detector and separation was carried out in an INST-coated capillary with inner diameter of 25μm. The sample of cerebrospinal fluid was injected in a large volume into the short end of the separation capillary (15cm) and separation first occurred in the isotachophoretic mode, where a long zone of the majority chloride migrates in the capillary and is followed by a concentrated zone of the unseparated nitrates. The sample zone passes to the end of the capillary where more than 99% of the chlorides are let out. Then the polarity of the voltage is switched and separation occurs in the zone electrophoresis mode, in which the nitrates are separated from the zone of chlorides. The time of switching the polarity is determined by the decrease in the electrophoretic current. Up to 99.95% of the original amount of chlorides present in the cerebrospinal fluid could be let out of the capillary by this technique, thus increasing the signal/noise ratio by up to 60-fold compared to classical electrophoretic separation. PMID:27108047

16. Analysis of 6-year fluid electric conductivity logs to evaluate the hydraulic structure of the deep drill hole at Outokumpu, Finland

Sharma, Prabhakar; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Kukkonen, Ilmo T.; Niemi, Auli

2015-11-01

Over the last two decades, the flowing fluid electric conductivity (FFEC) logging method has been applied in boreholes in the well-testing mode to evaluate the transmissivity, hydraulic head, and formation water electrical conductivity as a function of depth with a resolution of about 10-20 cm. FFEC profiles along the borehole are obtained under both shut-in and pumping conditions in a logging procedure that lasts only 3 or 4 days. A method for analyzing these FFEC logs has been developed and successfully employed to obtain formation parameters in a number of field studies. The present paper concerns the analysis of a unique set of FFEC logs that were taken from a deep borehole reaching down to 2.5 km at Outokumpu, Finland, over a 6-year time period. The borehole intersects paleoproterozoic metasedimentary, granitoid, and ophiolite-derived rocks. After the well was drilled, completed, and cleaned up, FFEC logs were obtained after 7, 433, 597, 948, and 2036 days. In analyzing these five profiles, we discovered the need to account for salinity diffusion from water in the formation to the borehole. Analysis results include the identification of 15 hydraulically conducting zones along the borehole, the calculation of flow rates associated with these 15 zones, as well as the estimation of the variation of formation water electrical conductivity as a function of depth. The calculated flow rates were used to obtain the tentative hydraulic conductivity values at these 15 depth levels.

17. Analysis of 6-year fluid electric conductivity logs to evaluate the hydraulic structure of the deep drill hole at Outokumpu, Finland

Sharma, Prabhakar; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Kukkonen, Ilmo T.; Niemi, Auli

2016-07-01

Over the last two decades, the flowing fluid electric conductivity (FFEC) logging method has been applied in boreholes in the well-testing mode to evaluate the transmissivity, hydraulic head, and formation water electrical conductivity as a function of depth with a resolution of about 10-20 cm. FFEC profiles along the borehole are obtained under both shut-in and pumping conditions in a logging procedure that lasts only 3 or 4 days. A method for analyzing these FFEC logs has been developed and successfully employed to obtain formation parameters in a number of field studies. The present paper concerns the analysis of a unique set of FFEC logs that were taken from a deep borehole reaching down to 2.5 km at Outokumpu, Finland, over a 6-year time period. The borehole intersects paleoproterozoic metasedimentary, granitoid, and ophiolite-derived rocks. After the well was drilled, completed, and cleaned up, FFEC logs were obtained after 7, 433, 597, 948, and 2036 days. In analyzing these five profiles, we discovered the need to account for salinity diffusion from water in the formation to the borehole. Analysis results include the identification of 15 hydraulically conducting zones along the borehole, the calculation of flow rates associated with these 15 zones, as well as the estimation of the variation of formation water electrical conductivity as a function of depth. The calculated flow rates were used to obtain the tentative hydraulic conductivity values at these 15 depth levels.

18. Response of an emulsion of leaky dielectric drops immersed in a simple shear flow: Drops more conductive than the suspending fluid

Fernández, Arturo

2008-04-01

Direct numerical simulation is used to examine the rheological properties of an emulsion of leaky dielectric fluids when an electric field is applied to the system. The emulsion consisting of neutrally buoyant drops is immersed in a simple shear flow where an electric potential difference is applied between the plates. It is assumed that drops are more conductive than the suspending fluid and that the electrical conductivity ratio between the drops and the suspending fluid, R =σi/σo, is larger than the dielectric permittivity ratio, S =ɛo/ɛi. If a single leaky dielectric drop is immersed in an electric field, this combination of properties leads to a viscous fluid motion from the equator to the poles. The response of an emulsion depends on the competition between the electrical forces and the fluid shear. This relation is quantified by the Mason number, Mn =(3λ+2)μγ˙/6(λ+1)ɛ0β2E∞2. The significance of drop deformability is measured through the electric capillary number, Ce=ɛ0β2E∞2a/γ. The microstructure and properties of an emulsion depend mainly on Mn, Ce, and R. An emulsion immersed in an electric field exhibits three different regimes for increasing Mn. When the electrical forces are substantially larger than the fluid shear, Mn <0.02, the drops aggregate in structures oriented parallel to the electric field that dictate the response of the system. At intermediate shear rates, 0.02fluid shear results in a continuous rearrangement of the aggregated structures. When the shear rate is increased further, Mn >0.2, the aggregated structures are broken up, and the effect of the electrical interaction weakens. The application of an electric field leads electrorheological emulsions to exhibit an increase in their effective viscosity for the range of properties examined here, 0.001

19. Extended neoclassical transport theory for incompressible tokamak plasmas

SciTech Connect

Shaing, K.C.

1997-09-01

Conventional neoclassical transport theory is extended to include the effects of orbit squeezing, and to allow the effective poloidal Mach number U{sub pM}=[(V{sub {parallel}}/v{sub t})+(V{sub E}B/v{sub t}B{sub p})] of the order of unity for incompressible tokamak plasmas. Here, V{sub {parallel}} is the parallel mass flow, v{sub t} is the ion thermal speed, V{sub E} is the poloidal {bold E{times}B} drift speed, B is the magnetic field strength, and B{sub p} is the poloidal magnetic field strength. It is found that ion thermal conductivity is reduced from its conventional neoclassical value in both banana and plateau regimes if U{sub pM}{gt}1 and S{gt}1. Here, S=[1+cI{sup 2}{Phi}{sup {prime}{prime}}/({Omega}{sub 0}B{sub 0})] is the orbit squeezing factor with c the speed of light, I=RB{sub t}, R the major radius, {Phi} the electrostatic potential, B{sub 0} the magnetic field strength on the axis, {Omega}{sub 0}=eB{sub 0}/Mc, M the ion mass, e the ion charge, {Phi}{sup {prime}{prime}}=d{sup 2}{Phi}/d{psi}{sup 2}, and {psi} the poloidal flux function. However, there is an irreducible minimum for the ion thermal conductivity in the banana-plateau regime set by the conventional Pfirsch{endash}Schl{umlt u}ter transport. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

20. On the thermodynamic derivation of differential equations for turbulent flow transfer in a compressible heat-conducting fluid

Kolesnichenko, A. V.

2010-08-01

This paper considers the modern approach to the thermodynamic modeling of developed turbulent flows of a compressible fluid based on the systematic application of the formalism of extended irreversible thermodynamics (EIT) that goes beyond the local equilibrium hypothesis, which is an inseparable attribute of classical nonequilibrium thermodynamics (CNT). In addition to the classical thermodynamic variables, EIT introduces new state parameters—dissipative flows and the means to obtain the respective evolutionary equations consistent with the second law of thermodynamics. The paper presents a detailed discussion of a number of physical and mathematical postulates and assumptions used to build a thermodynamic model of turbulence. A turbulized liquid is treated as an indiscrete continuum consisting of two thermodynamic sub-systems: an averaged motion subsystem and a turbulent chaos subsystem, where turbulent chaos is understood as a conglomerate of small-scale vortex bodies. Under the above formalism, this representation enables the construction of new models of continual mechanics to derive cause-and-effect differential equations for turbulent heat and impulse transfer, which describe, together with the averaged conservations laws, turbulent flows with transverse shear. Unlike gradient (noncausal) relationships for turbulent flows, these differential equations can be used to investigate both hereditary phenomena, i.e., phenomena with history or memory, and nonlocal and nonlinear effects. Thus, within EIT, the second-order turbulence models underlying the so-called invariant modeling of developed turbulence get a thermodynamic explanation. Since shear turbulent flows are widespread in nature, one can expect the given modification of the earlier developed thermodynamic approach to developed turbulence modeling (see Kolesnichenko, 1980; 1998; 2002-2004; Kolesnichenko and Marov, 1985; Kolesnichenko and Marov, 2009) to be used in research on a broad class of dissipative

1. Stochastic finite difference lattice Boltzmann method for steady incompressible viscous flows

SciTech Connect

Fu, S.C.; So, R.M.C.; Leung, W.W.F.

2010-08-20

With the advent of state-of-the-art computers and their rapid availability, the time is ripe for the development of efficient uncertainty quantification (UQ) methods to reduce the complexity of numerical models used to simulate complicated systems with incomplete knowledge and data. The spectral stochastic finite element method (SSFEM) which is one of the widely used UQ methods, regards uncertainty as generating a new dimension and the solution as dependent on this dimension. A convergent expansion along the new dimension is then sought in terms of the polynomial chaos system, and the coefficients in this representation are determined through a Galerkin approach. This approach provides an accurate representation even when only a small number of terms are used in the spectral expansion; consequently, saving in computational resource can be realized compared to the Monte Carlo (MC) scheme. Recent development of a finite difference lattice Boltzmann method (FDLBM) that provides a convenient algorithm for setting the boundary condition allows the flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, with and without external body forces to be simulated with ease. Also, the inherent compressibility effect in the conventional lattice Boltzmann method, which might produce significant errors in some incompressible flow simulations, is eliminated. As such, the FDLBM together with an efficient UQ method can be used to treat incompressible flows with built in uncertainty, such as blood flow in stenosed arteries. The objective of this paper is to develop a stochastic numerical solver for steady incompressible viscous flows by combining the FDLBM with a SSFEM. Validation against MC solutions of channel/Couette, driven cavity, and sudden expansion flows are carried out.

2. Mechanical picture of the linear transient growth of vortical perturbations in incompressible smooth shear flows

Chagelishvili, George; Hau, Jan-Niklas; Khujadze, George; Oberlack, Martin

2016-08-01

The linear dynamics of perturbations in smooth shear flows covers the transient exchange of energies between (1) the perturbations and the basic flow and (2) different perturbations modes. Canonically, the linear exchange of energies between the perturbations and the basic flow can be described in terms of the Orr and the lift-up mechanisms, correspondingly for two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) perturbations. In this paper the mechanical basis of the linear transient dynamics is introduced and analyzed for incompressible plane constant shear flows, where we consider the dynamics of virtual fluid particles in the framework of plane perturbations (i.e., perturbations with plane surfaces of constant phase) for the 2D and 3D case. It is shown that (1) the formation of a pressure perturbation field is the result of countermoving neighboring sets of incompressible fluid particles in the flow, (2) the keystone of the energy exchange mechanism between the basic flow and perturbations is the collision of fluid particles with the planes of constant pressure in accordance with the classical theory of elastic collision of particles with a rigid wall, making the pressure field the key player in this process, (3) the interplay of the collision process and the shear flow kinematics describes the transient growth of plane perturbations and captures the physics of the growth, and (4) the proposed mechanical picture allows us to reconstruct the linearized Euler equations in spectral space with a time-dependent shearwise wave number, the linearized Euler equations for Kelvin modes. This confirms the rigor of the presented analysis, which, moreover, yields a natural generalization of the proposed mechanical picture of the transient growth to the well-established linear phenomenon of vortex-wave-mode coupling.

3. A stable partitioned FSI algorithm for incompressible flow and deforming beams

Li, L.; Henshaw, W. D.; Banks, J. W.; Schwendeman, D. W.; Main, A.

2016-05-01

An added-mass partitioned (AMP) algorithm is described for solving fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems coupling incompressible flows with thin elastic structures undergoing finite deformations. The new AMP scheme is fully second-order accurate and stable, without sub-time-step iterations, even for very light structures when added-mass effects are strong. The fluid, governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, is solved in velocity-pressure form using a fractional-step method; large deformations are treated with a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian approach on deforming composite grids. The motion of the thin structure is governed by a generalized Euler-Bernoulli beam model, and these equations are solved in a Lagrangian frame using two approaches, one based on finite differences and the other on finite elements. The key AMP interface condition is a generalized Robin (mixed) condition on the fluid pressure. This condition, which is derived at a continuous level, has no adjustable parameters and is applied at the discrete level to couple the partitioned domain solvers. Special treatment of the AMP condition is required to couple the finite-element beam solver with the finite-difference-based fluid solver, and two coupling approaches are described. A normal-mode stability analysis is performed for a linearized model problem involving a beam separating two fluid domains, and it is shown that the AMP scheme is stable independent of the ratio of the mass of the fluid to that of the structure. A traditional partitioned (TP) scheme using a Dirichlet-Neumann coupling for the same model problem is shown to be unconditionally unstable if the added mass of the fluid is too large. A series of benchmark problems of increasing complexity are considered to illustrate the behavior of the AMP algorithm, and to compare the behavior with that of the TP scheme. The results of all these benchmark problems verify the stability and accuracy of the AMP scheme. Results for one

4. Incompressibility of osmium metal at ultrahigh pressures and temperatures

SciTech Connect

Armentrout, Matt M.; Kavner, Abby

2010-07-23

Osmium is one of the most incompressible elemental metals, and is used as a matrix material for synthesis of ultrahard materials. To examine the behavior of osmium metal under extreme conditions of high pressure and temperature, we measured the thermal equation of state of osmium metal at pressures up to 50 GPa and temperatures up to 3000 K. X-ray diffraction measurements were conducted in the laser heated diamond anvil cell at GeoSoilEnviroCARS and the High Pressure at the Advanced Photon Source and beamline 12.2.2 at the advanced light source. Ambient temperature data give a zero pressure bulk modulus of 421 (3) GPa with a first pressure derivative fixed at 4. Fitting to a high temperature Birch-Murnaghan equation of state gives a room pressure thermal expansion of 1.51(0.06) x 10{sup -5} K{sup -1} with a first temperature derivative of 4.9(0.7) x 10{sup -9} K{sup -2} and the first temperature derivative of bulk modulus of be dK{sub 0}/dT = -0.055 (0.004). Fitting to a Mie-Grueneisen-Debye equation of state gives a Grueneisen parameter of 2.32 (0.08) with a q of 7.2 (1.4). A comparison of the high pressure, temperature behavior among Re, Pt, Os, shows that Os has the highest bulk modulus and lowest thermal expansion of the three, suggesting that Os-based ultrahard materials may be especially mechanically stable under extreme conditions.

5. Velocity boundary conditions for vorticity formulations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations

SciTech Connect

Kempka, S.N.; Strickland, J.H.; Glass, M.W.; Peery, J.S.; Ingber, M.S.

1995-04-01

formulation to satisfy velocity boundary conditions for the vorticity form of the incompressible, viscous fluid momentum equations is presented. The tangential and normal components of the velocity boundary condition are satisfied simultaneously by creating vorticity adjacent to boundaries. The newly created vorticity is determined using a kinematical formulation which is a generalization of Helmholtz decomposition of a vector field. Though it has not been generally recognized, these formulations resolve the over-specification issue associated with creating voracity to satisfy velocity boundary conditions. The generalized decomposition has not been widely used, apparently due to a lack of a useful physical interpretation. An analysis is presented which shows that the generalized decomposition has a relatively simple physical interpretation which facilitates its numerical implementation. The implementation of the generalized decomposition is discussed in detail. As an example the flow in a two-dimensional lid-driven cavity is simulated. The solution technique is based on a Lagrangian transport algorithm in the hydrocode ALEGRA. ALEGRAs Lagrangian transport algorithm has been modified to solve the vorticity transport equation and the generalized decomposition, thus providing a new, accurate method to simulate incompressible flows. This numerical implementation and the new boundary condition formulation allow vorticity-based formulations to be used in a wider range of engineering problems.

6. Computation of incompressible viscous flows through artificial heart devices with moving boundaries

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kiris, Cetin; Rogers, Stuart; Kwak, Dochan; Chang, I.-DEE

1991-01-01

The extension of computational fluid dynamics techniques to artificial heart flow simulations is illustrated. Unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations written in 3-D generalized curvilinear coordinates are solved iteratively at each physical time step until the incompressibility condition is satisfied. The solution method is based on the pseudo compressibility approach and uses an implicit upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. The efficiency and robustness of the time accurate formulation of the algorithm are tested by computing the flow through model geometries. A channel flow with a moving indentation is computed and validated with experimental measurements and other numerical solutions. In order to handle the geometric complexity and the moving boundary problems, a zonal method and an overlapping grid embedding scheme are used, respectively. Steady state solutions for the flow through a tilting disk heart valve was compared against experimental measurements. Good agreement was obtained. The flow computation during the valve opening and closing is carried out to illustrate the moving boundary capability.

7. Large eddy simulation models for incompressible magnetohydrodynamics derived from the variational multiscale formulation

SciTech Connect

2012-10-15

Novel large eddy simulation (LES) models are developed for incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). These models include the application of the variational multiscale formulation of LES to the equations of incompressible MHD. Additionally, a new residual-based eddy viscosity model is introduced for MHD. A mixed LES model that combines the strengths of both of these models is also derived. The new models result in a consistent numerical method that is relatively simple to implement. The need for a dynamic procedure in determining model coefficients is no longer required. The new LES models are tested on a decaying Taylor-Green vortex generalized to MHD and benchmarked against classical LES turbulence models. The LES simulations are run in a periodic box of size [-{pi}, {pi}]{sup 3} with 32 modes in each direction and are compared to a direct numerical simulation (DNS) with 512 modes in each direction. The new models are able to account for the essential MHD physics which is demonstrated via comparisons of energy spectra. We also compare the performance of our models to a DNS simulation by Pouquet et al.['The dynamics of unforced turbulence at high Reynolds number for Taylor-Green vortices generalized to MHD,' Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 104, 115-134 (2010)], for which the ratio of DNS modes to LES modes is 262:144.

8. Perturbation theory and numerical modelling of weakly and moderately nonlinear incompressible Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

Herrmann, M.; Velikovich, A. L.; Abarzhi, S. I.

2014-10-01

A study of incompressible two-dimensional Richtmyer-Meshkov instability by means of high-order Eulerian perturbation theory and numerical simulations is reported. Nonlinear corrections to Richtmyer's impulsive formula for the bubble and spike growth rates have been calculated analytically for arbitrary Atwood number and an explicit formula has been obtained for it in the Boussinesq limit. Conditions for early-time acceleration and deceleration of the bubble and the spike have been derived. In our simulations we have solved 2D unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for immiscible incompressible fluids using the finite volume fractional step flow solver NGA developed by, coupled to the level set based interface solver LIT,. The impact of small amounts of viscosity and surface tension on the RMI flow dynamics is studied numerically. Simulation results are compared to the theory to demonstrate successful code verification and highlight the influence of the theory's ideal inviscid flow assumption. Theoretical time histories of the interface curvature at the bubble and spike tip and the profiles of vertical and horizontal velocities have been favorably compared to simulation results, which converge to the theoretical predictions as the Reynolds and Weber numbers are increased. Work supported by the US DOE/NNSA.

9. Towards a segregated time spectral solution method for incompressible viscous flows

Sabine, Baumbach

2016-06-01

Considering the growth of interest in understanding flow phenomena in rotational machines, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a powerful tool to reach this goal. Especially unsteady simulations are becoming a focus of interest. Nevertheless, unsteady simulations require huge computational times and ressources, thus it is necessary to investigate other methods to find more appropriate approaches to model time-periodic cases. For time-periodic flows the time spectral method (TSM) presents an interesting alternative to the regular time marching solvers. The TSM is well-known for computation of compressible time-periodic flows, but applications to incompressible cases are limited. This paper presents an extension of the TSM to incompressible flows. While there have been previous implementations using pressure correction method with an explicit treatment of time coupling, here an implicit treatment is chosen. To increase efficiency and employ a more robust coupling of the individual time instances the momentum equations are solved in block-coupled fashion. The pressure correction term is solved segregatedly. To consider cases with dynamic mesh motion an arbitrary lagrange Euler (ALE) formulation is also used in the solver. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated using a basic 2D aerodynamic test case and the results are compared to traditional time-stepping approaches.

10. Computational fluid mechanics utilizing the variational principle of modeling damping seals

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abernathy, J. M.; Farmer, R.

1985-01-01

An analysis for modeling damping seals for use in Space Shuttle main engine turbomachinery is being produced. Development of a computational fluid mechanics code for turbulent, incompressible flow is required.

11. Computational fluid mechanics utilizing the variational principle of modeling damping seals

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1984-01-01

The pressure solution for incompressible flow was investigated in support of a computational fluid mechanics model which simulates the damping seals considered for use in the space shuttle main engine turbomachinery. Future work directions are discussed briefly.

12. Flow and Heat Transfer of Powell-Eyring Fluid due to an Exponential Stretching Sheet with Heat Flux and Variable Thermal Conductivity

Megahed, Ahmed M.

2015-03-01

An analysis was carried out to describe the problem of flow and heat transfer of Powell-Eyring fluid in boundary layers on an exponentially stretching continuous permeable surface with an exponential temperature distribution in the presence of heat flux and variable thermal conductivity. The governing partial differential equations describing the problem were transformed into a set of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations and then solved with a numerical technique using appropriate boundary conditions for various physical parameters. The numerical solution for the governing non-linear boundary value problem is based on applying the shooting method over the entire range of physical parameters. The effects of various parameters like the thermal conductivity parameter, suction parameter, dimensionless Powell-Eyring parameters and the Prandtl number on the flow and temperature profiles as well as on the local skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are presented and discussed. In this work, special attention was given to investigate the effect of the thermal conductivity parameter on the velocity and temperature fields above the sheet in the presence of heat flux. The numerical results were also validated with results from a previously published work on various special cases of the problem, and good agreements were seen.

13. The Effective Field Theory Approach to Fluid Dynamics

Endlich, Solomon George Shamsuddin Osman

In this thesis we initiate a systematic study of fluid dynamics using the effective field theory (EFT) program. We consider the canonical quantization of an ordinary fluid in an attempt to discover if there is some kind of quantum mechanical inconsistency with ordinary fluids at zero temperature. The system exhibits a number of peculiarities associated with the vortex degrees of freedom. We also study the dynamics of a nearly incompressible fluid via (classical) effective field theory. In the kinematical regime corresponding to near incompressibility (small fluid velocities and accelerations), compressional modes are, by definition, difficult to excite, and can be dealt with perturbatively. We systematically outline the corresponding perturbative expansion, which can be thought of as an expansion in the ratio of fluid velocity and speed of sound. This perturbation theory allows us to compute many interesting quantities associated with sound-flow interactions. Additionally, we also improve on the so-called vortex filament model, by providing a local field theory describing the dynamics of vortex-line systems and their interaction with sound, to all orders in perturbation theory. Next, we develop a cosmological model where primordial inflation is driven by a 'solid'. The low energy EFT describing such a system is just a less symmetric version of the action of a fluid---it lacks the volume preserving diffeomorphism. The symmetry breaking pattern of this system differs drastically from that of standard inflationary models: time translations are unbroken. This prevents our model from fitting into the standard effective field theory description of adiabatic perturbations, with crucial consequences for the dynamics of cosmological perturbations. And finally, we introduce dissipative effects in the effective field theory of hydrodynamics. We do this in a model-independent fashion by coupling the long-distance degrees of freedom explicitly kept in the effective field theory

14. Boundary-layer phenomena for the cylindrically symmetric Navier–Stokes equations of compressible heat-conducting fluids with large data at vanishing shear viscosity

Ye, Xia; Zhang, Jianwen

2016-08-01

This paper concerns the asymptotic behavior of the solution to an initial-boundary value problem of the cylindrically symmetric Navier–Stokes equations with large data for compressible heat-conducting ideal fluids, as the shear viscosity μ goes to zero. A suitable corrector function (the so-called boundary-layer type function) is constructed to eliminate the disparity of boundary values. As by-products, the convergence rates of the derivatives in L 2 are obtained and the boundary-layer thickness (BL-thickness) of the value O≤ft({μα}\\right) with α \\in ≤ft(0,1/2\\right) is shown by an alternative method, compared with the results proved in Jiang and Zhang (2009 SIAM J. Math. Anal. 41 237–68) and Qin et al (2015 Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 216 1049–86).

15. A hydrodynamic analysis of fluid flow between meshing spur gear teeth

Wittbrodt, M. J.; Pechersky, M. J.

1987-10-01

A one dimensional analysis of the fluid pumping action resulting from the meshing of spur gears was performed by writing a computer algorithm. Two separate analyses were conducted; one using incompressible and the other using compressible flow theory. The incompressible flow calculations correspond to heavily lubricated gears whereas the compressible flow calculations are representative of lightly lubricated gears. The analysis demonstrated that the velocity of the discharged fluid reached high velocities for both cases. The high meshing rate of the teeth along with the small discharge area is the cause for the high fluid velocities. Certain geometric design variables of the gears were seen to affect the peak velocities for each case. The variables most significantly affecting the peak velocity appear to be the drive ratio and the face width. The high velocities may contribute to the noise generated during meshing of gear teeth due to the jet noise as a result of the high velocity jets impinging on the enclosures surrounding the gears and the formation of shock waves at the exit plane of the teeth.

16. Convective heat and mass transfer on MHD peristaltic flow of Williamson fluid with the effect of inclined magnetic field

Veera Krishna, M.; Swarnalathamma, B. V.

2016-05-01

In this paper, we discussed the peristaltic MHD flow of an incompressible and electrically conducting Williamson fluid in a symmetric planar channel with heat and mass transfer under the effect of inclined magnetic field. Viscous dissipation and Joule heating are also taken into consideration. Mathematical model is presented by using the long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximations. The differential equations governing the flow are highly nonlinear and thus perturbation solution for small Weissenberg number (We < 1) is presented. Effects of the heat and mass transfer on the longitudinal velocity, temperature and concentration are studied in detail. Main observations are presented in the concluding section. The streamlines pattern is also given due attention.

17. Analysis of Turbulent Flow and Heat Transfer on a Flat Plate at High Mach Numbers with Variable Fluid Properties

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deissler, R. G.; Loeffler, A. L., Jr.

1959-01-01

A previous analysis of turbulent heat transfer and flow with variable fluid properties in smooth passages is extended to flow over a flat plate at high Mach numbers, and the results are compared with experimental data. Velocity and temperature distributions are calculated for a boundary layer with appreciative effects of frictional heating and external heat transfer. Viscosity and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary as a power or the temperature, while Prandtl number and specific heat are taken as constant. Skin-friction and heat-transfer coefficients are calculated and compared with the incompressible values. The rate of boundary-layer growth is obtained for various Mach numbers.

18. MHD flow of a micropolar fluid over a stretchable disk in a porous medium with heat and mass transfer

SciTech Connect

Rauf, A. Meraj, M. A.; Ashraf, M.; Batool, K.; Hussain, M.

2015-07-15

This article studies the simultaneous impacts of heat and mass transfer of an incompressible electrically conducting micropolar fluid generated by the stretchable disk in presence of porous medium. The thermal radiation effect is accounted via Rosseland’s approximation. The governing boundary layer equations are reduced into dimensionless form by employing the suitable similarity transformations. A finite difference base algorithm is utilized to obtain the solution expressions. The impacts of physical parameters on dimensionless axial velocity, radial velocity, micro-rotation, temperature and concentrations profiles are presented and examined carefully. Numerical computation is performed to compute shear stress, couple stress, heat and mass rate at the disk.

19. MHD flow of a micropolar fluid over a stretchable disk in a porous medium with heat and mass transfer

Rauf, A.; Ashraf, M.; Batool, K.; Hussain, M.; Meraj, M. A.

2015-07-01

This article studies the simultaneous impacts of heat and mass transfer of an incompressible electrically conducting micropolar fluid generated by the stretchable disk in presence of porous medium. The thermal radiation effect is accounted via Rosseland's approximation. The governing boundary layer equations are reduced into dimensionless form by employing the suitable similarity transformations. A finite difference base algorithm is utilized to obtain the solution expressions. The impacts of physical parameters on dimensionless axial velocity, radial velocity, micro-rotation, temperature and concentrations profiles are presented and examined carefully. Numerical computation is performed to compute shear stress, couple stress, heat and mass rate at the disk.

20. High order ADER schemes for a unified first order hyperbolic formulation of continuum mechanics: Viscous heat-conducting fluids and elastic solids

Dumbser, Michael; Peshkov, Ilya; Romenski, Evgeniy; Zanotti, Olindo

2016-06-01

This paper is concerned with the numerical solution of the unified first order hyperbolic formulation of continuum mechanics recently proposed by Peshkov and Romenski [110], further denoted as HPR model. In that framework, the viscous stresses are computed from the so-called distortion tensor A, which is one of the primary state variables in the proposed first order system. A very important key feature of the HPR model is its ability to describe at the same time the behavior of inviscid and viscous compressible Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids with heat conduction, as well as the behavior of elastic and visco-plastic solids. Actually, the model treats viscous and inviscid fluids as generalized visco-plastic solids. This is achieved via a stiff source term that accounts for strain relaxation in the evolution equations of A. Also heat conduction is included via a first order hyperbolic system for the thermal impulse, from which the heat flux is computed. The governing PDE system is hyperbolic and fully consistent with the first and the second principle of thermodynamics. It is also fundamentally different from first order Maxwell-Cattaneo-type relaxation models based on extended irreversible thermodynamics. The HPR model represents therefore a novel and unified description of continuum mechanics, which applies at the same time to fluid mechanics and solid mechanics. In this paper, the direct connection between the HPR model and the classical hyperbolic-parabolic Navier-Stokes-Fourier theory is established for the first time via a formal asymptotic analysis in the stiff relaxation limit. From a numerical point of view, the governing partial differential equations are very challenging, since they form a large nonlinear hyperbolic PDE system that includes stiff source terms and non-conservative products. We apply the successful family of one-step ADER-WENO finite volume (FV) and ADER discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element schemes to the HPR model in the stiff

1. Thermodynamically Consistent Physical Formulation and an Efficient Numerical Algorithm for Incompressible N-Phase Flows

Dong, Suchuan

2015-11-01

This talk focuses on simulating the motion of a mixture of N (N>=2) immiscible incompressible fluids with given densities, dynamic viscosities and pairwise surface tensions. We present an N-phase formulation within the phase field framework that is thermodynamically consistent, in the sense that the formulation satisfies the conservations of mass/momentum, the second law of thermodynamics and Galilean invariance. We also present an efficient algorithm for numerically simulating the N-phase system. The algorithm has overcome the issues caused by the variable coefficient matrices associated with the variable mixture density/viscosity and the couplings among the (N-1) phase field variables and the flow variables. We compare simulation results with the Langmuir-de Gennes theory to demonstrate that the presented method produces physically accurate results for multiple fluid phases. Numerical experiments will be presented for several problems involving multiple fluid phases, large density contrasts and large viscosity contrasts to demonstrate the capabilities of the method for studying the interactions among multiple types of fluid interfaces. Support from NSF and ONR is gratefully acknowledged.

2. Application of direct-fitting, mass-integral, and multi-ratemethods to analysis of flowing fluid electric conductivity logs fromHoronobe, Japan

SciTech Connect

Doughty, C.; Tsang, C.-F.; Hatanaka, K.; Yabuuchi, S.; Kurikami, H.

2007-08-01

The flowing fluid electric conductivity (FFEC) loggingmethod is an efficient way to provide information on the depths,salinities, and transmissivities of individual conductive featuresintercepted by a borehole, without the use of specialized probes. Usingit in a multiple-flow-rate mode allows, in addition, an estimate of theinherent "far-field" pressure heads in each of the conductive features.The multi-rate method was successfully applied to a 500-m borehole in agranitic formation and reported recently. The present paper presents theapplication of the method to two zones within a 1000-m borehole insedimentary rock, which produced, for each zone, three sets of logs atdifferent pumping rates, each set measured over a period of about oneday. The data sets involve a number of complications, such as variablewell diameter, free water table decline in the well, and effects ofdrilling mud. To analyze data from this borehole, we apply varioustechniques that have been developed for analyzing FFEC logs:direct-fitting, mass-integral, and the multi-rate method mentioned above.In spite of complications associated with the tests, analysis of the datais able to identify 44 hydraulically conducting fractures distributedover the depth interval 150-775 meters below ground surface. Thesalinities (in FEC), and transmissivities and pressure heads (indimensionless form) of these 44 features are obtained and found to varysignificantly among one another. These results are compared with datafrom eight packer tests with packer intervals of 10-80 m, which wereconducted in this borehole over the same depth interval. They are foundto be consistent with these independent packer-test data, thusdemonstrating the robustness of the FFEC logging method under non-idealconditions.

3. Minimal surfaces, incompressible flows and the geometric phase

Martinez, J. C.

1995-02-01

We show that the Berry phase may be associated with an incompressible flow issuing through a minimal surface. An example based on the linear Jahn-Teller effect is given and found to be related to a Clifford torus rather than the usual magnetic monopole in S 3.

4. Consistent lattice Boltzmann methods for incompressible axisymmetric flows.

PubMed

Zhang, Liangqi; Yang, Shiliang; Zeng, Zhong; Yin, Linmao; Zhao, Ya; Chew, Jia Wei

2016-08-01

In this work, consistent lattice Boltzmann (LB) methods for incompressible axisymmetric flows are developed based on two efficient axisymmetric LB models available in the literature. In accord with their respective original models, the proposed axisymmetric models evolve within the framework of the standard LB method and the source terms contain no gradient calculations. Moreover, the incompressibility conditions are realized with the Hermite expansion, thus the compressibility errors arising in the existing models are expected to be reduced by the proposed incompressible models. In addition, an extra relaxation parameter is added to the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator to suppress the effect of the ghost variable and thus the numerical stability of the present models is significantly improved. Theoretical analyses, based on the Chapman-Enskog expansion and the equivalent moment system, are performed to derive the macroscopic equations from the LB models and the resulting truncation terms (i.e., the compressibility errors) are investigated. In addition, numerical validations are carried out based on four well-acknowledged benchmark tests and the accuracy and applicability of the proposed incompressible axisymmetric LB models are verified. PMID:27627407

5. EVIDENCE FOR THE PHOTOSPHERIC EXCITATION OF INCOMPRESSIBLE CHROMOSPHERIC WAVES

SciTech Connect

Morton, R. J.; Verth, G.; Fedun, V.; Erdelyi, R.; Shelyag, S.

2013-05-01

Observing the excitation mechanisms of incompressible transverse waves is vital for determining how energy propagates through the lower solar atmosphere. We aim to show the connection between convectively driven photospheric flows and incompressible chromospheric waves. The observations presented here show the propagation of incompressible motion through the quiet lower solar atmosphere, from the photosphere to the chromosphere. We determine photospheric flow vectors to search for signatures of vortex motion and compare results to photospheric flows present in convective simulations. Further, we search for the chromospheric response to vortex motions. Evidence is presented that suggests incompressible waves can be excited by the vortex motions of a strong magnetic flux concentration in the photosphere. A chromospheric counterpart to the photospheric vortex motion is also observed, presenting itself as a quasi-periodic torsional motion. Fine-scale, fibril structures that emanate from the chromospheric counterpart support transverse waves that are driven by the observed torsional motion. A new technique for obtaining details of transverse waves from time-distance diagrams is presented and the properties of transverse waves (e.g., amplitudes and periods) excited by the chromospheric torsional motion are measured.

6. Spatial Angular Compounding for Elastography without the Incompressibility Assumption

PubMed Central

Rao, Min; Varghese, Tomy

2007-01-01

Spatial-angular compounding is a new technique that enables the reduction of noise artifacts in ultrasound elastography. Previous results using spatial angular compounding, however, were based on the use of the tissue incompressibility assumption. Compounded elastograms were obtained from a spatially-weighted average of local strain estimated from radiofrequency echo signals acquired at different insonification angles. In this paper, we present a new method for reducing the noise artifacts in the axial strain elastogram utilizing a least-squares approach on the angular displacement estimates that does not use the incompressibility assumption. This method produces axial strain elastograms with higher image quality, compared to noncompounded axial strain elastograms, and is referred to as the least-squares angular-compounding approach for elastography. To distinguish between these two angular compounding methods, the spatial-angular compounding with angular weighting based on the tissue incompressibility assumption is referred to as weighted compounding. In this paper, we compare the performance of the two angular-compounding techniques for elastography using beam steering on a linear-array transducer. Quantitative experimental results demonstrate that least-squares compounding provides comparable but smaller improvements in both the elastographic signal-to-noise ratio and the contrast-to-noise ratio, as compared to the weighted-compounding method. Ultrasound simulation results suggest that the least-squares compounding method performs better and provide accurate and robust results when compared to the weighted compounding method, in the case where the incompressibility assumption does not hold. PMID:16761786

7. Consistent lattice Boltzmann methods for incompressible axisymmetric flows

Zhang, Liangqi; Yang, Shiliang; Zeng, Zhong; Yin, Linmao; Zhao, Ya; Chew, Jia Wei

2016-08-01

In this work, consistent lattice Boltzmann (LB) methods for incompressible axisymmetric flows are developed based on two efficient axisymmetric LB models available in the literature. In accord with their respective original models, the proposed axisymmetric models evolve within the framework of the standard LB method and the source terms contain no gradient calculations. Moreover, the incompressibility conditions are realized with the Hermite expansion, thus the compressibility errors arising in the existing models are expected to be reduced by the proposed incompressible models. In addition, an extra relaxation parameter is added to the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator to suppress the effect of the ghost variable and thus the numerical stability of the present models is significantly improved. Theoretical analyses, based on the Chapman-Enskog expansion and the equivalent moment system, are performed to derive the macroscopic equations from the LB models and the resulting truncation terms (i.e., the compressibility errors) are investigated. In addition, numerical validations are carried out based on four well-acknowledged benchmark tests and the accuracy and applicability of the proposed incompressible axisymmetric LB models are verified.

8. On axially symmetric incompressible magnetohydrodynamics in three dimensions

Lei, Zhen

2015-10-01

In the short article we study the ideal incompressible magnetohydrodynamic equations in three dimensions in which the Faraday law is inviscid. We prove the global well-posedness of classical solutions for a family of special axisymmetric initial data whose swirl components of the velocity field and magnetic vorticity field are trivial.

9. A new incompressible Navier-Stokes method with general hybrid meshes and its application to flow/structure interactions

Ahn, Hyung Taek

2005-12-01

A new incompressible Navier-Stokes method is developed for unstructured general hybrid meshes which contain all four types of elements in a single computational domain, namely tetrahedra, pyramids, prisms, and hexahedra. Various types of general hybrid meshes are utilized and appropriate numerical flux computation schemes are presented. The artificial compressibility method with a dual time-stepping scheme is used for the time-accurate solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model is also presented in the dual time-stepping form and is solved in a strongly coupled manner with the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The developed scheme is applied to the study of the inflow turbulence effect on the hydrodynamic forces exerted on a circular cylinder. In order to accommodate possible structural and mesh motion, the method is extended to the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) frame of reference. The geometric conservation law is satisfied with the proposed ALE scheme in moving mesh simulations. The developed ALE scheme is applied to the vortex induced vibration of a cylinder. A strong coupling of fluid and structure interaction based on the predictor-corrector method is presented. The superior stability property of the strong coupling is demonstrated by a comparison with the weak coupling. Finally, the developed methods are parallelized for distributed memory machines using partitioned general hybrid meshes and an efficient parallel communication scheme to minimize CPU time.

10. Fluid inclusion volatile analysis by gas chromatography with photoionization micro-thermal conductivity detectors: Applications to magmatic MoS 2 and other H 2O-CO 2 and H 2O-CH 4 fluids

Bray, C. J.; Spooner, E. T. C.

1992-01-01

Eighteen fluid inclusion volatile peaks have been detected and identified from 1-2 g samples (quartz) by gas chromatography using heated (~105°C) on-line crushing, helium carrier gas, a single porous polymer column (HayeSep R; 10' × 1/8″: 100/120#; Ni alloy tubing), two temperature programme conditions for separate sample aliquots, micro-thermal conductivity (TCD) and photoionization detectors (PID; 11.7 eV lamp), and off-line digital peak processing. In order of retention time these volatile peaks are: N 2, Ar, CO, CH 4, CO 2, C 2H 4, C 2H 6, C 2H 2, COS, C 3H 6, C 3H 8, C 3H 4 (propyne), H 2O (22.7 min at 80°C), SO 2, ± iso- C4H10 ± C4H8 (1-butene) ± CH3SH, C 4H 8 (iso-butylene), (?) C 4H 6 (1,3 butadiene) and ± n- C4H10 ± C4H8 (trans-2-butene) (80 and -70°C temperature programme conditions combined). H 2O is analysed directly. O 2 can be analysed cryogenically between N 2 and Ar, but has not been detected in natural samples to date in this study. H 2S, SO 2, NH 3, HCl, HCN, and H 2 ca nnot be analysed at present. Blanks determined by crushing heat-treated Brazilian quartz (800-900°C/4 h) are zero for 80°C temperature programme conditions, except for a large, unidentified peak at ~64 min, but contain H 2O, CO 2, and some low molecular weight hydrocarbons at -70°C temperature conditions due to cryogenic accumulation from the carrier gas and subsequent elution. TCD detection limits are ~30 ppm molar in inclusions; PID detection limits are ~ 1 ppm molar in inclusions and lower for unsaturated hydrocarbons (e.g., ~0.2 ppm for C 2H 4; ~ 1 ppb for C 2H 2; ~0.3 ppb for C 3H 6). Precisions (1σ) are ~ ±1-2% and ~ ± 13% for H 2O in terms of total moles detected; the latter value is equivalent to ±0.6 mol% at the 95 mol% H 2O level. Major fluid inclusion volatile species have been successfully analysed on a ~50 mg fluid inclusion section chip (~7 mm × ~10 mm × ~100 μm). Initial inclusion volatile analyses of fluids of interpreted magmatic origin from

11. A Rotational Pressure-Correction Scheme for Incompressible Two-Phase Flows with Open Boundaries

PubMed Central

Dong, S.; Wang, X.

2016-01-01

Two-phase outflows refer to situations where the interface formed between two immiscible incompressible fluids passes through open portions of the domain boundary. We present several new forms of open boundary conditions for two-phase outflow simulations within the phase field framework, as well as a rotational pressure correction based algorithm for numerically treating these open boundary conditions. Our algorithm gives rise to linear algebraic systems for the velocity and the pressure that involve only constant and time-independent coefficient matrices after discretization, despite the variable density and variable viscosity of the two-phase mixture. By comparing simulation results with theory and the experimental data, we show that the method produces physically accurate results. We also present numerical experiments to demonstrate the long-term stability of the method in situations where large density contrast, large viscosity contrast, and backflows occur at the two-phase open boundaries. PMID:27163909

12. A Rotational Pressure-Correction Scheme for Incompressible Two-Phase Flows with Open Boundaries.

PubMed

Dong, S; Wang, X

2016-01-01

Two-phase outflows refer to situations where the interface formed between two immiscible incompressible fluids passes through open portions of the domain boundary. We present several new forms of open boundary conditions for two-phase outflow simulations within the phase field framework, as well as a rotational pressure correction based algorithm for numerically treating these open boundary conditions. Our algorithm gives rise to linear algebraic systems for the velocity and the pressure that involve only constant and time-independent coefficient matrices after discretization, despite the variable density and variable viscosity of the two-phase mixture. By comparing simulation results with theory and the experimental data, we show that the method produces physically accurate results. We also present numerical experiments to demonstrate the long-term stability of the method in situations where large density contrast, large viscosity contrast, and backflows occur at the two-phase open boundaries. PMID:27163909

13. The Effects of Thermal Radiation on an Unsteady MHD Axisymmetric Stagnation-Point Flow over a Shrinking Sheet in Presence of Temperature Dependent Thermal Conductivity with Navier Slip

PubMed Central

Mondal, Sabyasachi; Haroun, Nageeb A. H.; Sibanda, Precious

2015-01-01

In this paper, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) axisymmetric stagnation-point flow of an unsteady and electrically conducting incompressible viscous fluid in with temperature dependent thermal conductivity, thermal radiation and Navier slip is investigated. The flow is due to a shrinking surface that is shrunk axisymmetrically in its own plane with a linear velocity. The magnetic field is imposed normally to the sheet. The model equations that describe this fluid flow are solved by using the spectral relaxation method. Here, heat transfer processes are discussed for two different types of wall heating; (a) a prescribed surface temperature and (b) a prescribed surface heat flux. We discuss and evaluate how the various parameters affect the fluid flow, heat transfer and the temperature field with the aid of different graphical presentations and tabulated results. PMID:26414006

14. Verification, validation, and implementation of numerical methods and models for OpenFOAM 2.0 for incompressible flow

Robertson, Eric D.

A comprehensive survey of available numerical methods and models was performed on the open source computational fluid dynamics solver OpenFOAM version 2.0 for incompressible turbulent bluff body flows. Numerical methods are illuminated using source code for side-by-side comparison. For validation, the accuracy of flow predictions over a sphere in the subcritical regime and delta wing with sharp leading edge is assessed. Solutions show mostly good agreement with experimental data and data obtained from commercial software. A demonstration of the numerical implementation of a dynamic hybrid RANS/LES framework is also presented, including results from test studies.

15. Performance of journal bearings with semi-compressible fluids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carpino, M.; Peng, J.-P.

1991-01-01

Cryogenic fluids in isothermal rigid surface and foil type journal bearings can sometimes be treated as semicompressible fluids. In these applications, the fluid density is a function of the pressure. At low pressures, the fluids can change from a liquid to a saturated liquid-vapor phase. The performance of a rigid surface journal bearing with an idealized semicompressible fluid is discussed. Pressure solutions are based upon a Reynolds equation which includes the effects of a compressibility via the bulk modulus of the fluid. Results are contrasted with the performance of isothermal constant property incompressible fluids.

16. Numerical Modeling of Conjugate Heat Transfer in Fluid Network

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Majumdar, Alok

2004-01-01

Fluid network modeling with conjugate heat transfer has many applications in Aerospace engineering. In modeling unsteady flow with heat transfer, it is important to know the variation of wall temperature in time and space to calculate heat transfer between solid to fluid. Since wall temperature is a function of flow, a coupled analysis of temperature of solid and fluid is necessary. In cryogenic applications, modeling of conjugate heat transfer is of great importance to correctly predict boil-off rate in propellant tanks and chill down of transfer lines. In TFAWS 2003, the present author delivered a paper to describe a general-purpose computer program, GFSSP (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program). GFSSP calculates flow distribution in complex flow circuit for compressible/incompressible, with or without heat transfer or phase change in all real fluids or mixtures. The flow circuit constitutes of fluid nodes and branches. The mass, energy and specie conservation equations are solved at the nodes where as momentum conservation equations are solved at the branches. The proposed paper describes the extension of GFSSP to model conjugate heat transfer. The network also includes solid nodes and conductors in addition to fluid nodes and branches. The energy conservation equations for solid nodes solves to determine the temperatures of the solid nodes simultaneously with all conservation equations governing fluid flow. The numerical scheme accounts for conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer. The paper will also describe the applications of the code to predict chill down of cryogenic transfer line and boil-off rate of cryogenic propellant storage tank.

17. Toward in vivo lung's tissue incompressibility characterization for tumor motion modeling in radiation therapy

SciTech Connect

2013-05-15

Purpose: A novel technique is proposed to characterize lung tissue incompressibility variation during respiration. Estimating lung tissue incompressibility parameter variations resulting from air content variation throughout respiration is critical for computer assisted tumor motion tracking. Continuous tumor motion is a major challenge in lung cancer radiotherapy, especially with external beam radiotherapy. If not accounted for, this motion may lead to areas of radiation overdosage for normal tissue. Given the unavailability of imaging modality that can be used effectively for real-time lung tumor tracking, computer assisted approach based on tissue deformation estimation can be a good alternative. This approach involves lung biomechanical model where its fidelity depends on input tissue properties. This investigation shows that considering variable tissue incompressibility parameter is very important for predicting tumor motion accurately, hence improving the lung radiotherapy outcome. Methods: First, an in silico lung phantom study was conducted to demonstrate the importance of employing variable Poisson's ratio for tumor motion predication. After it was established that modeling this variability is critical for accurate tumor motion prediction, an optimization based technique was developed to estimate lung tissue Poisson's ratio as a function of respiration cycle time. In this technique, the Poisson's ratio and lung pressure value were varied systematically until optimal values were obtained, leading to maximum similarity between acquired and simulated 4D CT lung images. This technique was applied in an ex vivo porcine lung study where simulated images were constructed using the end exhale CT image and deformation fields obtained from the lung's FE modeling of each respiration time increment. To model the tissue, linear elastic and Marlow hyperelastic material models in conjunction with variable Poisson's ratio were used. Results: The phantom study showed that

18. Vertical hydraulic conductivity of a clayey-silt aquitard: accelerated fluid flow in a centrifuge permeameter compared with in situ conditions

Timms, W. A.; Crane, R.; Anderson, D. J.; Bouzalakos, S.; Whelan, M.; McGeeney, D.; Rahman, P. F.; Guinea, A.; Acworth, R. I.

2014-03-01

Evaluating the possibility of leakage through low permeability geological strata is critically important for sustainable water supplies, extraction of fuels from strata such as coal beds, and confinement of waste within the earth. Characterizing low or negligible flow rates and transport of solutes can require impractically long periods of field or laboratory testing, but is necessary for evaluations over regional areas and over multi-decadal timescales. The current work reports a custom designed centrifuge permeameter (CP) system, which can provide relatively rapid and reliable hydraulic conductivity (K) measurement compared to column permeameter tests at standard gravity (1g). Linear fluid velocity through a low K porous sample is linearly related to g-level during a CP flight unless consolidation or geochemical reactions occur. The CP module is designed to fit within a standard 2 m diameter, geotechnical centrifuge with a capacity for sample dimensions of 30 to 100 mm diameter and 30 to 200 mm in length. At maximum RPM the resultant centrifugal force is equivalent to 550g at base of sample or a total stress of ~2 MPa. K is calculated by measuring influent and effluent volumes. A custom designed mounting system allows minimal disturbance of drill core samples and a centrifugal force that represents realistic in situ stress conditions is applied. Formation fluids were used as influent to limit any shrink-swell phenomena which may alter the resultant K value. Vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) results from CP testing of core from the sites in the same clayey silt formation varied (10-7 to 10-9 m s-1, n = 14) but higher than 1g column permeameter tests of adjacent core using deionized water (10-9 to 10-11 m s-1, n = 7). Results at one site were similar to in situ Kv values (3 × 10-9 m s-1) from pore pressure responses within a 30 m clayey sequence in a homogenous area of the formation. Kv sensitivity to sample heterogeneity was observed, and anomalous flow via

19. Impermeability Through a Perforated Domain for the Incompressible two dimensional Euler Equations

2016-09-01

We study the asymptotic behavior of the motion of an ideal incompressible fluid in a perforated domain. The porous medium is composed of inclusions of size {\\varepsilon} separated by distances {d_{\\varepsilon}} and the fluid fills the exterior. If the inclusions are distributed on the unit square, the asymptotic behavior depends on the limit of {d_{\\varepsilon}}\\varepsilon} when {\\varepsilon} goes to zero. If {frac{d_{\\varepsilon}}\\varepsilon to infty}, then the limit motion is not perturbed by the porous medium, namely, we recover the Euler solution in the whole space. If, on the contrary, {frac{d_{\\varepsilon}}\\varepsilon to 0}, then the fluid cannot penetrate the porous region, namely, the limit velocity verifies the Euler equations in the exterior of an impermeable square. If the inclusions are distributed on the unit segment then the behavior depends on the geometry of the inclusion: it is determined by the limit of {frac{d_{\\varepsilon}/\\varepsilon^{2+frac1γ}} where {γ in (0,infty]} is related to the geometry of the lateral boundaries of the obstacles. If {d_{\\varepsilon}/\\varepsilon^{2+frac1γ} to infty}, then the presence of holes is not felt at the limit, whereas an impermeable wall appears if this limit is zero. Therefore, for a distribution in one direction, the critical distance depends on the shape of the inclusions; in particular, it is equal to {\\varepsilon3} for balls.

20. Computational fluid dynamics analyses of lateral heat conduction, coolant azimuthal mixing and heat transfer predictions in a BR2 fuel assembly geometry.

SciTech Connect

Tzanos, C. P.; Dionne, B.

2011-05-23

To support the analyses related to the conversion of the BR2 core from highly-enriched (HEU) to low-enriched (LEU) fuel, the thermal-hydraulics codes PLTEMP and RELAP-3D are used to evaluate the safety margins during steady-state operation (PLTEMP), as well as after a loss-of-flow, loss-of-pressure, or a loss of coolant event (RELAP). In the 1-D PLTEMP and RELAP simulations, conduction in the azimuthal and axial directions is not accounted. The very good thermal conductivity of the cladding and the fuel meat and significant temperature gradients in the lateral directions (axial and azimuthal directions) could lead to a heat flux distribution that is significantly different than the power distribution. To evaluate the significance of the lateral heat conduction, 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, using the CFD code STAR-CD, were performed. Safety margin calculations are typically performed for a hot stripe, i.e., an azimuthal region of the fuel plates/coolant channel containing the power peak. In a RELAP model, for example, a channel between two plates could be divided into a number of RELAP channels (stripes) in the azimuthal direction. In a PLTEMP model, the effect of azimuthal power peaking could be taken into account by using engineering factors. However, if the thermal mixing in the azimuthal direction of a coolant channel is significant, a stripping approach could be overly conservative by not taking into account this mixing. STAR-CD simulations were also performed to study the thermal mixing in the coolant. Section II of this document presents the results of the analyses of the lateral heat conduction and azimuthal thermal mixing in a coolant channel. Finally, PLTEMP and RELAP simulations rely on the use of correlations to determine heat transfer coefficients. Previous analyses showed that the Dittus-Boelter correlation gives significantly more conservative (lower) predictions than the correlations of Sieder-Tate and Petukhov. STAR-CD 3-D

1. A Quantitative Comparison of Leading-edge Vortices in Incompressible and Supersonic Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wang, F. Y.; Milanovic, I. M.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

2002-01-01

When requiring quantitative data on delta-wing vortices for design purposes, low-speed results have often been extrapolated to configurations intended for supersonic operation. This practice stems from a lack of database owing to difficulties that plague measurement techniques in high-speed flows. In the present paper an attempt is made to examine this practice by comparing quantitative data on the nearwake properties of such vortices in incompressible and supersonic flows. The incompressible flow data are obtained in experiments conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel. Detailed flow-field properties, including vorticity and turbulence characteristics, obtained by hot-wire and pressure probe surveys are documented. These data are compared, wherever possible, with available data from a past work for a Mach 2.49 flow for the same wing geometry and angles-of-attack. The results indicate that quantitative similarities exist in the distributions of total pressure and swirl velocity. However, the streamwise velocity of the core exhibits different trends. The axial flow characteristics of the vortices in the two regimes are examined, and a candidate theory is discussed.

2. Conservative properties of finite difference schemes for incompressible flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Morinishi, Youhei

1995-01-01

The purpose of this research is to construct accurate finite difference schemes for incompressible unsteady flow simulations such as LES (large-eddy simulation) or DNS (direct numerical simulation). In this report, conservation properties of the continuity, momentum, and kinetic energy equations for incompressible flow are specified as analytical requirements for a proper set of discretized equations. Existing finite difference schemes in staggered grid systems are checked for satisfaction of the requirements. Proper higher order accurate finite difference schemes in a staggered grid system are then proposed. Plane channel flow is simulated using the proposed fourth order accurate finite difference scheme and the results compared with those of the second order accurate Harlow and Welch algorithm.

3. Mathematical aspects of finite element methods for incompressible viscous flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gunzburger, M. D.

1986-01-01

Mathematical aspects of finite element methods are surveyed for incompressible viscous flows, concentrating on the steady primitive variable formulation. The discretization of a weak formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations are addressed, then the stability condition is considered, the satisfaction of which insures the stability of the approximation. Specific choices of finite element spaces for the velocity and pressure are then discussed. Finally, the connection between different weak formulations and a variety of boundary conditions is explored.

4. An analysis of a new stable partitioned algorithm for FSI problems. Part I: Incompressible flow and elastic solids

Banks, J. W.; Henshaw, W. D.; Schwendeman, D. W.

2014-07-01

Stable partitioned algorithms for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems are developed and analyzed in this two-part paper. Part I describes an algorithm for incompressible flow coupled with compressible elastic solids, while Part II discusses an algorithm for incompressible flow coupled with structural shells. Importantly, these new added-mass partitioned (AMP) schemes are stable and retain full accuracy with no sub-iterations per time step, even in the presence of strong added-mass effects (e.g. for light solids). The numerical approach described here for bulk compressible solids extends the scheme of Banks et al. [1,2] for inviscid compressible flow, and uses Robin (mixed) boundary conditions with the fluid and solid solvers at the interface. The basic AMP Robin conditions, involving a linear combination of velocity and stress, are determined from the outgoing solid characteristic relation normal to the fluid-solid interface combined with the matching conditions on the velocity and traction. Two alternative forms of the AMP conditions are then derived depending on whether the fluid equations are advanced with a fractional-step method or not. The stability and accuracy of the AMP algorithm is evaluated for linearized FSI model problems; the full nonlinear case being left for future consideration. A normal mode analysis is performed to show that the new AMP algorithm is stable for any ratio of the solid and fluid densities, including the case of very light solids when added-mass effects are large. In contrast, it is shown that a traditional partitioned algorithm involving a Dirichlet-Neumann coupling for the same FSI problem is formally unconditionally unstable for any ratio of densities. Exact traveling wave solutions are derived for the FSI model problems, and these solutions are used to verify the stability and accuracy of the corresponding numerical results obtained from the AMP algorithm for the cases of light, medium and heavy solids.

5. Mixed Convective Flow of an Elastico-Viscous Fluid Past a Vertical Plate in the Presence of Thermal Radiation and Chemical Reaction with an Induced Magnetic Field

Das, Utpal Jyoti

2016-01-01

The purpose of the study is to investigate the steady, two-dimensional, hydromagnetic, mixed convection heat and mass transfer of a conducting, optically thin, incompressible, elastico-viscous fluid (characterized by the Walters' B' model) past a permeable, stationary, vertical, infinite plate in the presence of thermal radiation and chemical reaction with account for an induced magnetic field. The governing equations of the flow are solved by the series method, and expressions for the velocity field, induced magnetic field, temperature field, and the skin friction are obtained.

6. Rotation of a rod system containing inertial fluid flow

Sergeev, A. D.

2012-11-01

This paper considers a rod system for which it is possible to correctly formulate and solve the problem of three-dimensional motion in the physical space of an elastic pipeline area containing inertial incompressible fluid flow. The precession of the axis of an elastic pipeline along which inertial incompressible fluid flows is described, a physical phenomenon which has not been previously studied. With the use of rigid body dynamics, it was theoretically established that a three-dimensional dynamic process is possible in an open (exchanging mass with the environment) elastic-inertial rod system.

7. Fluid imbalance

MedlinePlus

... up in the body. This is called fluid overload (volume overload). This can lead to edema (excess fluid in ... Water imbalance; Fluid imbalance - dehydration; Fluid buildup; Fluid overload; Volume overload; Loss of fluids; Edema - fluid imbalance; ...

8. Neumann and Robin boundary conditions for heat conduction modeling using smoothed particle hydrodynamics

Esmaili Sikarudi, M. A.; Nikseresht, A. H.

2016-01-01

Smoothed particle hydrodynamics is a robust Lagrangian particle method which is widely used in various applications, from astrophysics to hydrodynamics and heat conduction. It has intrinsic capabilities for simulating large deformation, composites, multiphysics events, and multiphase fluid flows. It is vital to use reliable boundary conditions when boundary value problems like heat conduction or Poisson equation for incompressible flows are solved. Since smoothed particle hydrodynamics is not a boundary fitted grids method, implementation of boundary conditions can be problematic. Many methods have been proposed for enhancing the accuracy of implementation of boundary conditions. In the present study a new approach for facilitating the implementation of Robin and Neumann boundary conditions is proposed and proven to give accurate results. Also there is no need to use complicated preprocessing as in virtual particle method. The new method is compared to an equivalent one dimensional moving least square scheme and it is shown that the present method is less sensitive to particle disorder.

9. A monolithic FEM-multigrid solver for non-isothermal incompressible flow on general meshes

Damanik, H.; Hron, J.; Ouazzi, A.; Turek, S.

2009-06-01

We present special numerical simulation methods for non-isothermal incompressible viscous fluids which are based on LBB-stable FEM discretization techniques together with monolithic multigrid solvers. For time discretization, we apply the fully implicit Crank-Nicolson scheme of 2nd order accuracy while we utilize the high order Q2P1 finite element pair for discretization in space which can be applied on general meshes together with local grid refinement strategies including hanging nodes. To treat the nonlinearities in each time step as well as for direct steady approaches, the resulting discrete systems are solved via a Newton method based on divided differences to calculate explicitly the Jacobian matrices. In each nonlinear step, the coupled linear subproblems are solved simultaneously for all quantities by means of a monolithic multigrid method with local multilevel pressure Schur complement smoothers of Vanka type. For validation and evaluation of the presented methodology, we perform the MIT benchmark 2001 [M.A. Christon, P.M. Gresho, S.B. Sutton, Computational predictability of natural convection flows in enclosures, in: First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics, vol. 40, Elsevier, 2001, pp. 1465-1468] of natural convection flow in enclosures to compare our results with respect to accuracy and efficiency. Additionally, we simulate problems with temperature and shear dependent viscosity and analyze the effect of an additional dissipation term inside the energy equation. Moreover, we discuss how these FEM-multigrid techniques can be extended to monolithic approaches for viscoelastic flow problems.

10. Fluid Physics in a Fluctuating Acceleration Environment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thomson, J. Ross; Drolet, Francois; Vinals, Jorge

1996-01-01

We summarize several aspects of an ongoing investigation of the effects that stochastic residual accelerations (g-jitter) onboard spacecraft can have on experiments conducted in a microgravity environment. The residual acceleration field is modeled as a narrow band noise, characterized by three independent parameters: intensity (g(exp 2)), dominant angular frequency Omega, and characteristic correlation time tau. Realistic values for these parameters are obtained from an analysis of acceleration data corresponding to the SL-J mission, as recorded by the SAMS instruments. We then use the model to address the random motion of a solid particle suspended in an incompressible fluid subjected to such random accelerations. As an extension, the effect of jitter on coarsening of a solid-liquid mixture is briefly discussed, and corrections to diffusion controlled coarsening evaluated. We conclude that jitter will not be significant in the experiment 'Coarsening of solid-liquid mixtures' to be conducted in microgravity. Finally, modifications to the location of onset of instability in systems driven by a random force are discussed by extending the standard reduction to the center manifold to the stochastic case. Results pertaining to time-modulated oscillatory convection are briefly discussed.

11. Effects of mistuning on bending-torsion flutter and response of a cascade in incompressible flow

SciTech Connect

Kaza, K.R.V.; Kielb, R.E.

1981-01-01

An investigation of the effects of blade mistuning on the aeroelastic stability and response of a cascade in incompressible flow is reported. The aerodynamic, inertial, and structural coupling between the bending and torsional motions of each blade and the aerodynamic coupling between the blades are included in the formulation. A digital computer program was developed to conduct parametric studies. Results indicate that the mistuning has a beneficial effect on the coupled bending-torsion and uncoupled torsion flutter. The effect of mistuning on forced response, however, may be either beneficial or adverse, depending on the engine order of the forcing function. Additionally, the results illustrate that it may be feasible to utilize mistuning as a passive control to increase flutter speed while maintaining forced response at an acceptable level.

12. Unsteady magnetohydrodynamic flow of a micropolar fluid due to constant accelerated disk with no slip conditions in a porous medium

2012-05-01

The unsteady MHD flow of an incompressible micropolar fluid have been considered. The fluid is filling the semi-infinite space z>0 which is in contact with an infinite porous rotating disk at z = 0. The common angular velocity of the disk and fluid at infinity is Ω. The fluid is electrically conducting in presence of an applied constant magnetic field B0. Initially the disk and the fluid are rotating about the z/-axis and at time t = 0, suddenly the disk starts rotating about the z-axis and moving with uniform acceleration, while the fluid at infinity continue to rotate about z/-axis with same angular velocity Ω. The axes of rotation of both the disk and that of the fluid at infinity are assumed to be in the plane x = 0, and distance between axes is l. The governing problem is solved numerically using Newton's method. Numerical results explaining the effects of various parameters associated with the flow are discussed graphically.

13. Approximate factorization with an elliptic pressure solver for incompressible flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bernard, R. S.; Thompson, J. F.

1982-01-01

Two-dimensional curvilinear coordinates are used to solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, in conjunction with approximate factorization for the solution of the momentum equation and the successive overrelaxation by lines method for the solution of a Poisson equation for the pressure. The combined algorithm, although not fully explicit, is marginally stable at Reynolds numbers lower than 10,000 and time increments of 0.01. Pressure distributions calculated for attack angles of zero and 6 deg are of the same shape as the experimental curves, but are shifted to one side.

14. A multilevel approximate projections for incompressible flow calculations

SciTech Connect

Howell, L.H.

1994-12-31

An adaptive-mesh projection algorithm for unsteady, variable-density, incompressible flow at high Reynolds number has been developed in the Applied Mathematics Group at LLNL. A grid-based refinement scheme combines the theoretical efficiencies of adaptive methods with the computational advantages of uniform grids, while a second-order Godunov method provides a robust and accurate treatment of advection in the presence of discontinuities without excessive dissipation. This paper focuses on the work of the present author concerning the approximate projection itself, which involves the numerical inversion of the operator {del} {center_dot} (1/{rho}){del} on various subsets of the adaptive grid hierarchy.

15. Determining the alpha dynamo parameter in incompressible homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Matthaeus, W. H.; Goldstein, M. L.; Lantz, S. R.

1983-01-01

Alpha, an important parameter in dynamo theory, is proportional to either the kinetic, current, magnetic, or velocity helicity of the fluctuating magnetic field and fluctuating velocity field. The particular helicity to which alpha is proportional depends on the assumptions used in deriving the first order smoothed equations that describe the alpha effect. In two cases, when alpha is proportional to either the magnetic helicity or velocity helicity, alpha is determined experimentally from two point measurements of the fluctuating fields in incompressible, homogeneous turbulence having arbitrary symmetry. For the other two possibilities, alpha is determined if the turbulence is isotropic.

16. New discretization and solution techniques for incompressible viscous flow problems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gunzburger, M. D.; Nicolaides, R. A.; Liu, C. H.

1983-01-01

Several topics arising in the finite element solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are considered. Specifically, the question of choosing finite element velocity/pressure spaces is addressed, particularly from the viewpoint of achieving stable discretizations leading to convergent pressure approximations. The role of artificial viscosity in viscous flow calculations is studied, emphasizing work by several researchers for the anisotropic case. The last section treats the problem of solving the nonlinear systems of equations which arise from the discretization. Time marching methods and classical iterative techniques, as well as some modifications are mentioned.

17. A boundary element method for steady incompressible thermoviscous flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dargush, G. F.; Banerjee, P. K.

1991-01-01

A boundary element formulation is presented for moderate Reynolds number, steady, incompressible, thermoviscous flows. The governing integral equations are written exclusively in terms of velocities and temperatures, thus eliminating the need for the computation of any gradients. Furthermore, with the introduction of reference velocities and temperatures, volume modeling can often be confined to only a small portion of the problem domain, typically near obstacles or walls. The numerical implementation includes higher order elements, adaptive integration and multiregion capability. Both the integral formulation and implementation are discussed in detail. Several examples illustrate the high level of accuracy that is obtainable with the current method.

18. Incompressible viscous flow simulations of the NFAC wind tunnel

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Champney, Joelle Milene

1986-01-01

The capabilities of an existing 3-D incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver, INS3D, are extended and improved to solve turbulent flows through the incorporation of zero- and two-equation turbulence models. The two-equation model equations are solved in their high Reynolds number form and utilize wall functions in the treatment of solid wall boundary conditions. The implicit approximate factorization scheme is modified to improve the stability of the two-equation solver. Applications to the 3-D viscous flow inside the 80 by 120 feet open return wind tunnel of the National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) are discussed and described.

19. Microfabrication of hybrid fluid membrane for microengines

Chutani, R.; Formosa, F.; de Labachelerie, M.; Badel, A.; Lanzetta, F.

2015-12-01

This paper describes the microfabrication and dynamic characterization of thick membranes providing a technological solution for microengines. The studied membranes are called hybrid fluid-membrane (HFM) and consist of two thin membranes that encapsulate an incompressible fluid. This work details the microelectromechanical system (MEMS) scalable fabrication and characterization of HFMs. The membranes are composite structures based on Silicon spiral springs embedded in a polymer (RTV silicone). The anodic bonding of multiple stacks of Si/glass structures, the fluid filling and the sealing have been demonstrated. Various HFMs were successfully fabricated and their dynamic characterization demonstrates the agreement between experimental and theoretical results.

20. Unsteady Heat and Mass Transfer of Chemically Reacting Micropolar Fluid in a Porous Channel with Hall and Ion Slip Currents

PubMed Central

2014-01-01

This paper presents an incompressible two-dimensional heat and mass transfer of an electrically conducting micropolar fluid flow in a porous medium between two parallel plates with chemical reaction, Hall and ion slip effects. Let there be periodic injection or suction at the lower and upper plates and the nonuniform temperature and concentration at the plates are varying periodically with time. The flow field equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations and then solved numerically by quasilinearization technique. The profiles of velocity components, microrotation, temperature distribution and concentration are studied for different values of fluid and geometric parameters such as Hartmann number, Hall and ion slip parameters, inverse Darcy parameter, Prandtl number, Schmidt number, and chemical reaction rate and shown in the form of graphs. PMID:27419211

1. MHD Two-Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer between Two Inclined Parallel Plates in a Rotating System

PubMed Central

Sri Ramachandra Murty, P.; Balaji Prakash, G.

2014-01-01

Two-phase magnetohydrodynamic convective flow of electrically conducting fluid through an inclined channel is studied under the action of a constant transverse magnetic field in a rotating system. The fluids in the two phases are steady, incompressible, laminar, immiscible, and electrically conducting, having different densities, viscosities, and thermal and electrical conductivities. The transport properties of both the fluids are assumed constant. The bounding infinite inclined parallel plates are maintained at different constant temperatures, making an angle ϕ with the horizontal. Approximate solutions for velocity and temperature distributions are obtained by using a straightforward regular perturbation technique. An in-depth study has been done on the effects of rotation parameter, Hartmann number, inclination angle, the ratio of electrical conductivities, and viscosities of two fluids on the flow. It is observed that the effect of increasing rotation is to decrease the primary velocity. Further it is noticed that as the rotation increases, the secondary velocity increases for smaller rotation, while for larger rotation it decreases. It is also found that the temperature distribution decreases as the rotation increases. PMID:27351017

2. Fluid-Structure Interaction Study on a Pre-Buckled Deformable Flat Ribbon

Fovargue, Lauren; Shams, Ehsan; Watterson, Amy; Corson, Dave; Filardo, Benjamin; Zimmerman, Daniel; Shan, Bob; Oberai, Assad

2015-11-01

A Fluid-Structure Interaction study is conducted for the flow over a deformable flat ribbon. This mechanism, which is called ribbon frond, maybe used as a device for pumping water and/or harvesting energy in rivers. We use a lower dimensional mathematical model, which represents the ribbon as a pre-buckled structure. The surface forces from the fluid flow, dictate the deformation of the ribbon, and the ribbon in turn imposes boundary conditions for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The mesh motion is handled using an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) scheme and the fluid-structure coupling is handled by iterating over the staggered governing equations for the structure, the fluid and the mesh. Simulations are conducted at three different free stream velocities. The results, including the frequency of oscillations, show agreement with experimental data. The vortical structures near the surface of the ribbon and its deformation are highly correlated. It is observed that the ribbon motion exhibits deviation from a harmonic motion, especially at lower free stream velocities. The behavior of the ribbon is compared to swimming animals, such as eels, in order to better understand its performance. The authors acknowledge support from ONR SBIR Phase II, contract No. N0001412C0604 and USDA, NIFA SBIR Phase I, contract No. 2013-33610-20836 and NYSERDA PON 2569, contract No. 30364.

3. Development of an accurate fluid management system for a pediatric continuous renal replacement therapy device

PubMed Central

SANTHANAKRISHNAN, ARVIND; NESTLE, TRENT T.; MOORE, BRIAN L.; YOGANATHAN, AJIT P.; PADEN, MATTHEW L.

2013-01-01

Acute kidney injury is common in critically ill children and renal replacement therapies provide a life saving therapy to a subset of these children. However, there is no Food and Drug Administration approved device to provide pediatric continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Consequently, clinicians adapt approved adult CRRT devices for use in children due to lack of safer alternatives. Complications occur using adult CRRT devices in children due to inaccurate fluid balance (FB) between the volumes of ultrafiltrate (UF) removed and replacement fluid (RF) delivered. We demonstrate the design and validation of a pediatric fluid management system for obtaining accurate instantaneous and cumulative FB. Fluid transport was achieved via multiple novel pulsatile diaphragm pumps. The conservation of volume principle leveraging the physical property of fluid incompressibility along with mechanical coupling via a crankshaft was used for FB. Accuracy testing was conducted in vitro for 8-hour long continuous operation of the coupled UF and RF pumps. The mean cumulative FB error was <1% across filtration flows from 300 mL/hour to 3000 mL/hour. This approach of FB control in a pediatric specific CRRT device would represent a significant accuracy improvement over currently used clinical implementations. PMID:23644618

4. Development of an accurate fluid management system for a pediatric continuous renal replacement therapy device.

PubMed

Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Nestle, Trent T; Moore, Brian L; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Paden, Matthew L

2013-01-01

Acute kidney injury is common in critically ill children, and renal replacement therapies provide a life-saving therapy to a subset of these children. However, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved device to provide pediatric continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Consequently, clinicians adapt approved adult CRRT devices for use in children because of lack of safer alternatives. Complications occur using adult CRRT devices in children because of inaccurate fluid balance (FB) between the volumes of ultrafiltrate (UF) removed and replacement fluid (RF) delivered. We demonstrate the design and validation of a pediatric fluid management system for obtaining accurate instantaneous and cumulative FB. Fluid transport was achieved via multiple novel pulsatile diaphragm pumps. The conservation of volume principle leveraging the physical property of fluid incompressibility along with mechanical coupling via a crankshaft was used for FB. Accuracy testing was conducted in vitro for 8 hour long continuous operation of the coupled UF and RF pumps. The mean cumulative FB error was <1% across filtration flows from 300 to 3000 ml/hour. This approach of FB control in a pediatric-specific CRRT device would represent a significant accuracy improvement over currently used clinical implementations. PMID:23644618

5. The Minkowski dimension of interior singular points in the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations

Koh, Youngwoo; Yang, Minsuk

2016-09-01

We study the possible interior singular points of suitable weak solutions to the three dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. We present an improved parabolic upper Minkowski dimension of the possible singular set, which is bounded by 95/63. The result also continue to hold for the three dimensional incompressible magnetohydrodynamic equations without any difficulty.

6. Exponential integrators for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations.

SciTech Connect

Newman, Christopher K.

2004-07-01

We provide an algorithm and analysis of a high order projection scheme for time integration of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations (NSE). The method is based on a projection onto the subspace of divergence-free (incompressible) functions interleaved with a Krylov-based exponential time integration (KBEI). These time integration methods provide a high order accurate, stable approach with many of the advantages of explicit methods, and can reduce the computational resources over conventional methods. The method is scalable in the sense that the computational costs grow linearly with problem size. Exponential integrators, used typically to solve systems of ODEs, utilize matrix vector products of the exponential of the Jacobian on a vector. For large systems, this product can be approximated efficiently by Krylov subspace methods. However, in contrast to explicit methods, KBEIs are not restricted by the time step. While implicit methods require a solution of a linear system with the Jacobian, KBEIs only require matrix vector products of the Jacobian. Furthermore, these methods are based on linearization, so there is no non-linear system solve at each time step. Differential-algebraic equations (DAEs) are ordinary differential equations (ODEs) subject to algebraic constraints. The discretized NSE constitute a system of DAEs, where the incompressibility condition is the algebraic constraint. Exponential integrators can be extended to DAEs with linear constraints imposed via a projection onto the constraint manifold. This results in a projected ODE that is integrated by a KBEI. In this approach, the Krylov subspace satisfies the constraint, hence the solution at the advanced time step automatically satisfies the constraint as well. For the NSE, the projection onto the constraint is typically achieved by a projection induced by the L{sup 2} inner product. We examine this L{sup 2} projection and an H{sup 1} projection induced by the H{sup 1} semi-inner product. The H

7. An incompressible two-dimensional multiphase particle-in-cell model for dense particle flows

SciTech Connect

Snider, D.M.; ORourke, P.J.; Andrews, M.J.

1997-06-01

A two-dimensional, incompressible, multiphase particle-in-cell (MP-PIC) method is presented for dense particle flows. The numerical technique solves the governing equations of the fluid phase using a continuum model and those of the particle phase using a Lagrangian model. Difficulties associated with calculating interparticle interactions for dense particle flows with volume fractions above 5% have been eliminated by mapping particle properties to a Eulerian grid and then mapping back computed stress tensors to particle positions. This approach utilizes the best of Eulerian/Eulerian continuum models and Eulerian/Lagrangian discrete models. The solution scheme allows for distributions of types, sizes, and density of particles, with no numerical diffusion from the Lagrangian particle calculations. The computational method is implicit with respect to pressure, velocity, and volume fraction in the continuum solution thus avoiding courant limits on computational time advancement. MP-PIC simulations are compared with one-dimensional problems that have analytical solutions and with two-dimensional problems for which there are experimental data.

8. Dipole method for incompressible flows and its test calculation of time evolution of a dipolar vortex

Matsumoto, Yuko; Ueno, Kazuyuki

2006-11-01

A new numerical method to calculate an incompressible flow, a dipole method, is proposed. In the dipole method, a flow field is represented by superposition of many dipolar vortices, and these dipolar vortices are replaced dipole elements.'' The dipole elements move in fluid. Each dipole element is characterized by two variables, dipole moment and core radius. The dipole moment is a vector quantity whose direction is the same as the axis of the dipolar vortex. The core radius is an effective radius of rotational flow region of the dipolar vortex. These variables, changed with time, are determined by the momentum conservation law where the flow around the dipolar vortex is assumed to be irrotational. This dipole element has a self-induced velocity. Time evolutions of a dipolar vortex in two cases of background flows are simulated, the first case is a strain flow, and the second one is a rotational flow of the Rankin's vortex. The results of the dipole method are compared to numerical simulations using the vortex method with the same initial condition.

9. Flow-Induced Vibration of Flexible Hydrofoils in Incompressible, Turbulent Flows

Chae, Eun Jung; Akcabay, Deniz Tolga; Young, Yin Lu

2014-11-01

Flexible lifting bodies can be used to enhance the energy-efficiency and maneuverability of propulsion devices compared to their rigid counterparts. To take advantage of advances in materials and active/passive control techniques, an improved understanding of the fluid-structure interaction physics is needed. This numerical study focuses on flexible hydrofoil in incompressible, turbulent flows. The spanwise bending and twisting of a rectangular, cantilevered hydrofoil was modeled as 2DOF equations of motion coupled with the unsteady RANS equation. The results, which have been validated with experimental measurements, showed that the natural frequencies are lower in water compared to those in air due to the added mass effect, and the natural frequencies vary slightly with speed and angle of attack due to hydrodynamic bend-twist coupling and viscous effects. Lock-in of the vortex shedding frequencies with the natural frequencies was observed, along with modification of the wake patterns due to hydrodynamic bend-twist coupling. The hydrodynamic damping was found to be much greater than structural damping, and depends on the relative velocity, angle of attack, as well as structural stiffness and density, and can lead to destabilizing condition of structure in particular cases.

10. Hot electrons downstream of the termination shock and the incompressibility of the heliosheath plasma

Fahr, Hans-Jörg; Verscharen, Daniel

2016-04-01

We consider a fast magnetosonic multifluid representation of the solar wind termination shock and assume that the shock transition occurs in two steps: First the upstream plasma is subjected to a strong electric field decelerating the supersonic ion flow and accelerating the electrons to high velocities. In this part the electric forces strongly dominate over Lorentz forces, i.e. the de-magnetization region. By means of the Vlasow theorem we obtain the distribution function and the bulk velocity of the electrons. We can show that the shocked electrons experience a strong energy gain in form of overshoot kinetic energies. In the second part of the shock, convected magnetic fields lead to Lorentz forces that compete with electric forces and take care of winding up the electrons into a shell distribution which stores about 3/4 of the upstream ion kinetic energy. Due to this the electron fluid represents the dominating pressure in the heliosheath plasma which thus, as we show, behaves incompressible under such conditions.

11. A parallel second-order adaptive mesh algorithm for incompressible flow in porous media.

PubMed

Pau, George S H; Almgren, Ann S; Bell, John B; Lijewski, Michael J

2009-11-28

In this paper, we present a second-order accurate adaptive algorithm for solving multi-phase, incompressible flow in porous media. We assume a multi-phase form of Darcy's law with relative permeabilities given as a function of the phase saturation. The remaining equations express conservation of mass for the fluid constituents. In this setting, the total velocity, defined to be the sum of the phase velocities, is divergence free. The basic integration method is based on a total-velocity splitting approach in which we solve a second-order elliptic pressure equation to obtain a total velocity. This total velocity is then used to recast component conservation equations as nonlinear hyperbolic equations. Our approach to adaptive refinement uses a nested hierarchy of logically rectangular grids with simultaneous refinement of the grids in both space and time. The integration algorithm on the grid hierarchy is a recursive procedure in which coarse grids are advanced in time, fine grids are advanced multiple steps to reach the same time as the coarse grids and the data at different levels are then synchronized. The single-grid algorithm is described briefly, but the emphasis here is on the time-stepping procedure for the adaptive hierarchy. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the algorithm's accuracy and convergence properties and to illustrate the behaviour of the method. PMID:19840985

12. A Parallel Second-Order Adaptive Mesh Algorithm for Incompressible Flow in Porous Media

SciTech Connect

Pau, George Shu Heng; Almgren, Ann S.; Bell, John B.; Lijewski, Michael J.

2008-04-01

In this paper we present a second-order accurate adaptive algorithm for solving multiphase, incompressible flows in porous media. We assume a multiphase form of Darcy's law with relative permeabilities given as a function of the phase saturation. The remaining equations express conservation of mass for the fluid constituents. In this setting the total velocity, defined to be the sum of the phase velocities, is divergence-free. The basic integration method is based on a total-velocity splitting approach in which we solve a second-order elliptic pressure equation to obtain a total velocity. This total velocity is then used to recast component conservation equations as nonlinear hyperbolic equations. Our approach to adaptive refinement uses a nested hierarchy of logically rectangular grids with simultaneous refinement of the grids in both space and time. The integration algorithm on the grid hierarchy is a recursive procedure in which coarse grids are advanced in time, fine grids areadvanced multiple steps to reach the same time as the coarse grids and the data atdifferent levels are then synchronized. The single grid algorithm is described briefly,but the emphasis here is on the time-stepping procedure for the adaptive hierarchy. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the algorithm's accuracy and convergence properties and to illustrate the behavior of the method.

13. Instabilities of time-periodic, incompressible, inviscid flow in ellipsoidal domains.

Biello, Joseph A.; Saldanha, Kenneth I.; Lebovitz, Norman R.

1999-11-01

We consider the linear stability of exact, temporally periodic solutions of the Euler equations of incompressible, inviscid flow in an ellipsoidal domain. The problem of linear stability is reduced, without approximation, to a hierarchy of finite-dimensional Floquet problems governing fluid-dynamical perturbations of differing spatial scales and symmetries. We study two of these Floquet problems in detail, emphasizing parameter regimes of special physical significance. One of these regimes includes periodic flows differing only slightly from steady flows. Another includes long-period flows representing the nonlinear outcome of an instability of steady flows. In both cases much of the parameter space corresponds to instability, excepting a region adjacent to the spherical configuration. In the second case, even if the ellipsoid departs only moderately from a sphere, there are filamentary regions of instability in the parameter space. We relate this and other features of our results to properties of reversible and Hamiltonian systems, and compare our results with related studies of periodic flows.

14. Instabilities of exact, time-periodic solutions of the incompressible Euler equations

Biello, Joseph A.; Saldanha, Kenneth I.; Lebovitz, Norman R.

2000-02-01

We consider the linear stability of exact, temporally periodic solutions of the Euler equations of incompressible, inviscid flow in an ellipsoidal domain. The problem of linear stability is reduced, without approximation, to a hierarchy of finite-dimensional Floquet problems governing fluid-dynamical perturbations of differing spatial scales and symmetries. We study two of these Floquet problems in detail, emphasizing parameter regimes of special physical significance. One of these regimes includes periodic flows differing only slightly from steady flows. Another includes long-period flows representing the nonlinear outcome of an instability of steady flows. In both cases much of the parameter space corresponds to instability, excepting a region adjacent to the spherical configuration. In the second case, even if the ellipsoid departs only moderately from a sphere, there are filamentary regions of instability in the parameter space. We relate this and other features of our results to properties of reversible and Hamiltonian systems, and compare our results with related studies of periodic flows.

15. Studying Semi-Convection by Pseudo-Incompressible Spectral Element with Variable Diffusivity

Brown, Justin; Garaud, Pascale

2015-01-01

The treatment and conditions of convection remain two of the weakest aspects of stellar evolution models despite substantial experimental, observational, and numerical effort. One particularly troubling aspect is the mixing that occurs when a fluid is marginally unstable to convection but stabilized by a composition gradient; this scenario is known as semi-convection. Much numerical and theoretical work has been done recently, and we've begun to understand this process phenomenologically but not yet quantitatively. Recent numerical work suggests that semi-convection takes the large-scale form of convective layers, which merge until they fill the simulated domain; however, this could be a failing of the the approximations made in these codes, in particular the approximations of incompressibility and non-variable diffusivity. We are writing a new code tailored to this problem which will eventually loosen both of these restrictions. We present some preliminary results, illustrating how the code compares with other similar codes and highlight some interesting features.

16. Block recursive LU preconditioners for the thermally coupled incompressible inductionless MHD problem

Badia, Santiago; Martín, Alberto F.; Planas, Ramon

2014-10-01

The thermally coupled incompressible inductionless magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) problem models the flow of an electrically charged fluid under the influence of an external electromagnetic field with thermal coupling. This system of partial differential equations is strongly coupled and highly nonlinear for real cases of interest. Therefore, fully implicit time integration schemes are very desirable in order to capture the different physical scales of the problem at hand. However, solving the multiphysics linear systems of equations resulting from such algorithms is a very challenging task which requires efficient and scalable preconditioners. In this work, a new family of recursive block LU preconditioners is designed and tested for solving the thermally coupled inductionless MHD equations. These preconditioners are obtained after splitting the fully coupled matrix into one-physics problems for every variable (velocity, pressure, current density, electric potential and temperature) that can be optimally solved, e.g., using preconditioned domain decomposition algorithms. The main idea is to arrange the original matrix into an (arbitrary) 2×2 block matrix, and consider an LU preconditioner obtained by approximating the corresponding Schur complement. For every one of the diagonal blocks in the LU preconditioner, if it involves more than one type of unknowns, we proceed the same way in a recursive fashion. This approach is stated in an abstract way, and can be straightforwardly applied to other multiphysics problems. Further, we precisely explain a flexible and general software design for the code implementation of this type of preconditioners.

17. Efficient solutions of two-dimensional incompressible steady viscous flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Morrison, J. H.; Napolitano, M.

1986-01-01

A simple, efficient, and robust numerical technique is provided for solving two dimensional incompressible steady viscous flows at moderate to high Reynolds numbers. The proposed approach employs an incremental multigrid method and an extrapolation procedure based on minimum residual concepts to accelerate the convergence rate of a robust block-line-Gauss-Seidel solver for the vorticity-stream function Navier-Stokes equations. Results are presented for the driven cavity flow problem using uniform and nonuniform grids and for the flow past a backward facing step in a channel. For this second problem, mesh refinement and Richardson extrapolation are used to obtain useful benchmark solutions in the full range of Reynolds numbers at which steady laminar flow is established.

18. Finite strain crack tip fields in soft incompressible elastic solids.

PubMed

Krishnan, Venkat R; Hui, Chung Yuen; Long, Rong

2008-12-16

A finite element model (FEM) is used to study the behavior of the large deformation field near the tip of a crack in a soft incompressible plane stress fracture specimen loaded in mode I. Results are obtained for the case of a neo-Hookean solid (ideal rubber) and a hyperelastic solid with exponentially hardening behavior. In contrast to the predictions of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM), the near tip stress fields are dominated by the opening stress which shows a 1/R singularity for the neo-Hookean material and a -1/(R ln R) singularity for the exponential hardening solid. We found very similar qualitative behavior in the near tip stress fields despite the very large difference in strain hardening behavior of the two material models. Our result shows that the near tip opening stress is controlled by the far field energy release rate for large applied loads. PMID:19053624

19. Linear analysis of incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability in solids.

PubMed

Piriz, A R; Cela, J J López; Tahir, N A

2009-10-01

The study of the linear stage of the incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability in elastic-plastic solids is performed by considering thick plates under a constant acceleration that is also uniform except for a small sinusoidal ripple in the horizontal plane. The analysis is carried out by using an analytical model based on the Newton second law and it is complemented with extensive two-dimensional numerical simulations. The conditions for marginal stability that determine the instability threshold are derived. Besides, the boundary for the transition from the elastic to the plastic regime is obtained and it is demonstrated that such a transition is not a sufficient condition for instability. The model yields complete analytical solutions for the perturbation amplitude evolution and reveals the main physical process that governs the instability. The theory is in general agreement with the numerical simulations and provides useful quantitative results. Implications for high-energy-density-physics experiments are also discussed. PMID:19905434

20. Incompressible Navier-Stokes computations of rotating flows

Kiris, Cetin; Chang, Leon; Kwak, Dochan; Rogers, Stuart

1993-01-01

Flow through pump components, such as an inducer and an impeller, is efficiently simulated by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The solution method is based on the pseudocompressibility approach and uses an implicit-upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. Current computations use one-equation Baldwin-Barth turbulence model which is derived from a simplified form of the standard k-epsilon model equations. The resulting computer code is applied to the flow analysis inside a generic rocket engine pump inducer, a fuel pump impeller, and SSME high-pressure fuel turbopump impeller. Numerical results of inducer flow are compared with experimental measurements. Flow analyses at 80-, 100-, and 120-percent of design conditions are presented.

1. STREMR: Numerical model for depth-averaged incompressible flow

Roberts, Bernard

1993-09-01

The STREMR computer code is a two-dimensional model for depth-averaged incompressible flow. It accommodates irregular boundaries and nonuniform bathymetry, and it includes empirical corrections for turbulence and secondary flow. Although STREMR uses a rigid-lid surface approximation, the resulting pressure is equivalent to the displacement of a free surface. Thus, the code can be used to model free-surface flow wherever the local Froude number is 0.5 or less. STREMR uses a finite-volume scheme to discretize and solve the governing equations for primary flow, secondary flow, and turbulence energy and dissipation rate. The turbulence equations are taken from the standard k-Epsilon turbulence model, and the equation for secondary flow is developed herein. Appendices to this report summarize the principal equations, as well as the procedures used for their discrete solution.

2. Pressure boundary conditions for incompressible flow using unstructured meshes

SciTech Connect

Mathur, S.R.; Murthy, J.Y.

1997-10-01

A large variety of industrial problems require the specification of pressure boundary conditions. In many industrial pipe flows, for example, the mass flow rate is not known a priori; the flow is driven by a specified pressure difference between inlet and outlet. This article presents a numerical method for computing incompressible flows with given pressure boundary conditions. Unstructured meshes composed of arbitrary polyhedra are considered in a cell-centered, co-located pressure-velocity formulation. The SIMPLE algorithm of Patankar and Spalding is extended to develop correction equations for boundary static pressure and boundary mass flux through an added-dissipation scheme. The procedure is validated against published benchmarks and shown to perform satisfactorily.

3. Stimuli Responsive/Rheoreversible Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids for Enhanced Geothermal Energy Production (Part II)

SciTech Connect

Bonneville, Alain; Jung, Hun Bok; Shao, Hongbo; Kabilan, Senthil; Um, Wooyong; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Varga, Tamas; Suresh, Niraj; Stephens, Sean A.; Fernandez, Carlos A.

2014-12-14

We have used an environmentally friendly and recyclable hydraulic fracturing fluid - diluted aqueous solutions of polyallylamine or PAA – for reservoir stimulation in Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). This fluid undergoes a controlled and large volume expansion with a simultaneous increase in viscosity triggered by CO2 at EGS temperatures. We are presenting here the results of laboratory-scale hydraulic fracturing experiment using the fluid on small cylindrical rock cores (1.59 cm in diameter and 5.08 cm in length) from the Coso geothermal field in California. Rock samples consisted of Mesozoic diorite metamorphosed to greenschist facies. The experiments were conducted on 5 samples for realistic ranges of pressures (up to 275 bar) and temperatures (up to 210 °C) for both the rock samples and the injected fluid. After fracturing, cores were subjected to a CO2 leakage test, injection of KI solution, and X-ray microtomography (XMT) scanning to examine the formation and distribution of fractures. The design and conduct of these experiments will be presented and discussed in details. Based on the obtained XMT images, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were then performed to visualize hydraulic fractures and compute the bulk permeability. OpenFOAM (OpenCFD Ltd., Reading, UK), was used to solve the steady state simulation. The flow predictions, based upon the laminar, 3-D, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for fluid mass and momentum, show the remarkable stimulation of the permeability in the core samples and demonstrate the efficiency of such a CO2 triggered fluid in EGS.

4. Stokes’ Second Problem for a Micropolar Fluid with Slip

PubMed Central

Florea, Olivia Ana; Roşca, Ileana Constanţa

2015-01-01

In this paper is presented the model of an incompressible micropolar fluid flow with slip using the initial and boundary conditions when the wall velocity is considered depending on the frequency of the vibration. Regarding the boundary conditions of the velocity at the wall, we remark that there is a discontinuity of the velocity at the fluid-wall interface. The solutions for velocity and microrotation with the given conditions are obtained using the method of numerical inversion of Laplace transform. PMID:26161780

5. Incompressible laminar flow through hollow fibers: a general study by means of a two-scale approach

Borsi, Iacopo; Farina, Angiolo; Fasano, Antonio

2011-08-01

We study the laminar flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid in a hollow fiber, whose walls are porous. We write the Navier-Stokes equations for the flow in the inner channel and Darcy's law for the flow in the fiber, coupling them by means of the Beavers-Joseph condition which accounts for the (possible) slip at the membrane surface. Then, we introduce a small parameter {\\varepsilon ≪ 1} (the ratio between the radius and the length of the fiber) and expand all relevant quantities in powers of ɛ. Averaging over the fiber cross section, we find the velocity profiles for the longitudinal flow and for the cross-flow, and eventually, we determine the explicit expression of the permeability of the system. This work is also preliminary to the study of more complex systems comprising a large number of identical fibers (e.g., ultrafiltration modules and dialysis).

6. Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for incompressible miscible flow with large viscosity ratio and high Péclet number.

PubMed

Meng, Xuhui; Guo, Zhaoli

2015-10-01

A lattice Boltzmann model with a multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operator is proposed for incompressible miscible flow with a large viscosity ratio as well as a high Péclet number in this paper. The equilibria in the present model are motivated by the lattice kinetic scheme previously developed by Inamuro et al. [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 360, 477 (2002)]. The fluid viscosity and diffusion coefficient depend on both the corresponding relaxation times and additional adjustable parameters in this model. As a result, the corresponding relaxation times can be adjusted in proper ranges to enhance the performance of the model. Numerical validations of the Poiseuille flow and a diffusion-reaction problem demonstrate that the proposed model has second-order accuracy in space. Thereafter, the model is used to simulate flow through a porous medium, and the results show that the proposed model has the advantage to obtain a viscosity-independent permeability, which makes it a robust method for simulating flow in porous media. Finally, a set of simulations are conducted on the viscous miscible displacement between two parallel plates. The results reveal that the present model can be used to simulate, to a high level of accuracy, flows with large viscosity ratios and/or high Péclet numbers. Moreover, the present model is shown to provide superior stability in the limit of high kinematic viscosity. In summary, the numerical results indicate that the present lattice Boltzmann model is an ideal numerical tool for simulating flow with a large viscosity ratio and/or a high Péclet number. PMID:26565362

7. Influence of Young's moduli in 3D fluid-structure coupled models of the human cochlea

Böhnke, Frank; Semmelbauer, Sebastian; Marquardt, Torsten

2015-12-01

The acoustic wave propagation in the human cochlea was studied using a tapered box-model with linear assumptions respective to all mechanical parameters. The discretisation and evaluation is conducted by a commercial finite element package (ANSYS). The main difference to former models of the cochlea was the representation of the basilar membrane by a 3D elastic solid. The Young's moduli of this solid were modified to study their influence on the travelling wave. The lymph in the scala vestibuli and scala tympani was represented by a viscous and nearly incompressible fluid finite element approach. Our results show the maximum displacement for f = 2kHz at half of the length of the cochlea in accordance with former experiments. For low frequencies f <200 Hz nearly zero phase shifts were found, whereas for f =1 kHz it reaches values up to -12 cycles depending on the degree of orthotropy.

8. Magnetohydrodynamic stagnation point flow towards a stretching vertical sheet in a micropolar fluid

Ishak, A.; Nazar, R.; Pop, I.

2007-03-01

The analysis of steady two-dimensional stagnation point flow of an incompressible micropolar and electrically conducting fluid subject to a transverse uniform magnetic field towards a stretching vertical sheet is investigated when the sheet is stretched in its own plane with a velocity and a temperature proportional to the distance from the stagnation point. The governing system of partial differential equations is transformed to ordinary differential equations, which then are solved numerically using a finite difference scheme known as the Keller-box method. The velocity, microrotation and temperature distributions as well as the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are obtained for various parameters. Both the assisting and the opposing buoyant flows are considered. It is found that dual solutions exist for the opposing flow, for some regions of the buoyancy parameter, while for the assisting flow the solution is unique. Tables 3, Figs 14, Refs 26.

9. Compressible and incompressible fluid seals: Influence on rotordynamic response and stability

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thames, Howard D.

1992-01-01

The flow field inside a whirling annular seal operating a Reynolds numbers of 12,000 and 24,000 and a Taylor number of 6,600 was measured. The rotor was mounted eccentric (50 percent) upon the facilities shaft which resulted in a circular orbit at a whirl ratio of 1.0. Three papers which summarize the work were written and are presented. Addition measurements were performed for the annular seal operating at an eccentricity ratio of 10 percent for Re = 24,000 and Ta = 6,600. A labyrinth seal was also installed into the facility and operated at an eccentricity ratio of 50 percent at the same Reynolds and Taylor numbers. These data are currently being reduced and analyzed.

10. Diffused interface ghost fluid method for incompressible multiphase, phase change simulations

Lee, Moon Soo; Riaz, Amir

2013-11-01

Sharp interface methods for simulating multiphase flow often suffer from unstable pressure and velocity fluctuations for problems involving mass transfer. An improved sharp interface method is developed for multiphase flow with phase change using both sharp and diffused interfacial properties. The approach is based on defining continuous, phase averaged velocity and density fields within a diffused interfacial region while using the sharp treatment for the implementation of the jumps in the pressure and the temperature gradient. The method implements interface advection with diffused and stable velocity field but can represent accurate movement of the sharp interface. Two-dimensional film boiling problems are solved on a horizontal surface to demonstrate the performance of the new approach.

11. Holographic forced fluid dynamics in non-relativistic limit

Cai, Rong-Gen; Li, Li; Nie, Zhang-Yu; Zhang, Yun-Long

2012-11-01

We study the thermodynamics and non-relativistic hydrodynamics of the holographic fluid on a finite cutoff surface in the Gauss-Bonnet gravity. It is shown that the isentropic flow of the fluid is equivalent to a radial component of gravitational field equations. We use the non-relativistic fluid expansion method to study the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton system with a negative cosmological constant, and obtain the holographic incompressible forced Navier-Stokes equations of the dual fluid at AdS boundary and at a finite cutoff surface, respectively. The concrete forms of external forces are given.

12. Computational fluid dynamics - A personal view

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hussaini, M. Y.

1989-01-01

This paper provides a personal view of computational fluid dynamics. The main theme is divided into two categories - one dealing with algorithms and engineering applications and the other with scientific investigations. The former category may be termed computational aerodynamics, with the objective of providing reliable aerodynamic or engineering predictions. The latter category is essentially basic research, where the algorithmic tools are used to unravel and elucidate fluid-dynamic phenomena hard to obtain in a laboratory. A critique of the numerical solution techniques for both compressible and incompressible flows is included. The discussion on scientific investigations deals in particular with transition and turbulence.

13. Conductivity measures coupled with treatment with ion-exchange resin for the assessment of sodium concentration in physiological fluids: analyses on artificial solutions

Tura, A.; Sbrignadello, S.; Mambelli, E.; Ravazzani, P.; Santoro, A.; Pacini, G.

2013-09-01

In humans, sodium is essential for the regulation of blood volume and pressure. During hemodialysis, sodium measurement is important to preserve the patient from hypo- or hyper-natremia Usually, sodium measurement is performed through laboratory equipment which is typically expensive, and requires manual intervention. We propose a new method, based on conductivity measurement after treatment of dialysate solution through ion-exchange resin. To test this method, we performed in vitro experiments. We prepared 40 ml sodium chloride (NaCl) samples at 280, 140, 70, 35, 17.5, 8.75, 4.375 mEq/l, and some "mixed samples", i.e., with added potassium chloride (KCl) at different concentrations (4.375-17.5 mEq/l), to simulate the confounding factors in a conductivity-based sodium measurement. We measured the conductivity of all samples. Afterwards, each sample was treated for 1 min with 1 g of Dowex G-26 resin, and conductivity measured again. On average, the difference ɛ in the conductivity between mixed samples and corresponding pure NaCl samples (at the same NaCl concentration) was 20.9%. With treatment with the resin, it was 9.9%, only. We conclude that ion-exchange resin treatment coupled with conductivity measures may be a possible simple approach for continuous and automatic sodium measurement during hemodialysis.

14. Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid

SciTech Connect

Franke, Rudiger; Casella, Francesco; Sielemann, Michael; Proelss, Katrin; Otter, Martin; Wetter, Michael

2009-09-01

This article discusses the Modelica.Fluid library that has been included in the Modelica Standard Library 3.1. Modelica.Fluid provides interfaces and basic components for the device-oriented modeling of onedimensional thermo-fluid flow in networks containing vessels, pipes, fluid machines, valves and fittings. A unique feature of Modelica.Fluid is that the component equations and the media models as well as pressure loss and heat transfer correlations are decoupled from each other. All components are implemented such that they can be used for media from the Modelica.Media library. This means that an incompressible or compressible medium, a single or a multiple substance medium with one or more phases might be used with one and the same model as long as the modeling assumptions made hold. Furthermore, trace substances are supported. Modeling assumptions can be configured globally in an outer System object. This covers in particular the initialization, uni- or bi-directional flow, and dynamic or steady-state formulation of mass, energy, and momentum balance. All assumptions can be locally refined for every component. While Modelica.Fluid contains a reasonable set of component models, the goal of the library is not to provide a comprehensive set of models, but rather to provide interfaces and best practices for the treatment of issues such as connector design and implementation of energy, mass and momentum balances. Applications from various domains are presented.

15. Nonlinear theory of unstable fluid mixing driven by shock wave

Zhang, Qiang; Sohn, Sung-Ik

1997-04-01

A shock driven material interface between two fluids of different density is unstable. This instability is known as Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability. In this paper, we present a quantitative nonlinear theory of compressible Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in two dimensions. Our nonlinear theory contains no free parameter and provides analytical predictions for the overall growth rate, as well as the growth rates of the bubble and spike, from early to later times for fluids of all density ratios. The theory also includes a general formulation of perturbative nonlinear solutions for incompressible fluids (evaluated explicitly through the fourth order). Our theory shows that the RM unstable system goes through a transition from a compressible and linear one at early times to a nonlinear and incompressible one at later times. Our theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with the results of full numerical simulations from linear to nonlinear regimes.

16. Global small solutions of 2-D incompressible MHD system

Lin, Fanghua; Xu, Li; Zhang, Ping

2015-11-01

In this paper, we consider the global wellposedness of 2-D incompressible magneto-hydrodynamical system with smooth initial data which is close to some non-trivial steady state. It is a coupled system between the Navier-Stokes equations and a free transport equation with a universal nonlinear coupling structure. The main difficulty of the proof lies in exploring the dissipative mechanism of the system. To achieve this and to avoid the difficulty of propagating anisotropic regularity for the free transport equation, we first reformulate our system (1.1) in the Lagrangian coordinates (2.19). Then we employ anisotropic Littlewood-Paley analysis to establish the key a prioriL1 (R+ ; Lip (R2)) estimate for the Lagrangian velocity field Yt. With this estimate, we can prove the global wellposedness of (2.19) with smooth and small initial data by using the energy method. We emphasize that the algebraic structure of (2.19) is crucial for the proofs to work. The global wellposedness of the original system (1.1) then follows by a suitable change of variables.

17. Consistent and conservative framework for incompressible multiphase flow simulations

Owkes, Mark; Desjardins, Olivier

2015-11-01

We present a computational methodology for convection that handles discontinuities with second order accuracy and maintains conservation to machine precision. We use this method in the context of an incompressible gas-liquid flow to transport the phase interface, momentum, and scalars. Using the same methodology for all the variables ensures discretely consistent transport, which is necessary for robust and accurate simulations of turbulent atomizing flows with high-density ratios. The method achieves conservative transport by computing consistent fluxes on a refined mesh, which ensures all conserved quantities are fluxed with the same discretization. Additionally, the method seamlessly couples semi-Lagrangian fluxes used near the interface with finite difference fluxes used away from the interface. The semi-Lagrangian fluxes are three-dimensional, un-split, and conservatively handle discontinuities. Careful construction of the fluxes ensures they are divergence-free and no gaps or overlaps form between neighbors. We have tested and used the scheme for many cases and demonstrate a simulation of an atomizing liquid jet.

18. High -Pressure Synthesis and Characterization of Incompressible Titanium Pernitride

Bhadram, Venkata; Kim, Duck Young; Strobel, Timothy

We report the discovery of a new transition-metal pernitride, TiN2, which was synthesized by reacting TiN with N2 at 73GPa in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell (DAC). Our in situ pressure dependent x-ray diffraction studies suggest that TiN2 is recoverable at ambient conditions in a crystal structure that contains single bonded nitrogen units (N2 dumbbells) embedded in the metal lattice and exhibits high bulk modulus (in the range 360-385 GPa) which is usually observed in superhard materials. We have performed ab initio calculations to understand the electronic properties and bonding nature in TiN2 and thereby elucidate the origin of incompressible behavior of this material which is rooted in the nearly filled anti-bonding states of the pernitride units. Although, study of transition metal pernitrides has been an active area of research for quite some time, most of the pernitrides synthesized so far are belong to noble metal group. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental report on TiN2 which is the only light metal pernitride exhibiting bonding-mechanical property relation that is usually seen in heavy metal pernitrides. This work was supported by Energy Frontier Research in Extreme Environments (EFree) Center, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science under Award No. DE-SC0001057.

19. Structure of reconnection boundary layers in incompressible MHD

SciTech Connect

Sonnerup, B.U.Oe.; Wang, D.J. )

1987-08-01

The incompressible MHD equations with nonvanishing viscosity and resistivity are simplified by use of the boundary layer approximation to describe the flow and magnetic field in the exit flow regions of magnetic field reconnection configurations when the reconnection rate is small. The conditions are derived under which self-similar solutions exist of the resulting boundary layer equations. For the case of zero viscosity and resistivity, the equations describing such self-similar layers are then solved in terms of quadratures, and the resulting flow and field configurations are described. Symmetric solutions, relevant, for example, to reconnection in the geomagnetic tail, as well as asymmetric solutions, relevant to reconnection at the earth's magnetopause, are found to exist. The nature of the external solutions to which the boundary layer solutions should be matched is discussed briefly, but the actual matching, which is to occur at Alfven-wave characteristic curves in the boundary layer solutions, is not carried out. Finally, it is argued that the solutions obtained may also be used to describe the structure of the intense vortex layers observed to occur at magnetic separatrices in computer simulations and in certain analytical models of the reconnection process.

20. Incompressible Navier-Stokes calculations in pump flows

Kiris, Cetin; Chang, Leon; Kwak, Dochan

1993-07-01

Flow through pump components, such as the SSME-HPFTP Impeller and an advanced rocket pump impeller, is efficiently simulated by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The solution method is based on the pseudo compressibility approach and uses an implicit-upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. The equations are solved in steadily rotating reference frames and the centrifugal force and the Coriolis force are added to the equation of motion. Current computations use one-equation Baldwin-Barth turbulence model which is derived from a simplified form of the standard k-epsilon model equations. The resulting computer code is applied to the flow analysis inside an 11-inch SSME High Pressure Fuel Turbopump impeller, and an advanced rocket pump impeller. Numerical results of SSME-HPFTP impeller flow are compared with experimental measurements. In the advanced pump impeller, the effects of exit and shroud cavities are investigated. Flow analyses at design conditions will be presented.

1. Incompressible Navier-Stokes Calculations in Pump Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kiris, Cetin; Chang, Leon; Kwak, Dochan

1993-01-01

Flow through pump components, such as the SSME-HPFTP Impeller and an advanced rocket pump impeller, is efficiently simulated by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The solution method is based on the pseudo compressibility approach and uses an implicit-upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. The equations are solved in steadily rotating reference frames and the centrifugal force and the Coriolis force are added to the equation of motion. Current computations use one-equation Baldwin-Barth turbulence model which is derived from a simplified form of the standard k-epsilon model equations. The resulting computer code is applied to the flow analysis inside an 11-inch SSME High Pressure Fuel Turbopump impeller, and an advanced rocket pump impeller. Numerical results of SSME-HPFTP impeller flow are compared with experimental measurements. In the advanced pump impeller, the effects of exit and shroud cavities are investigated. Flow analyses at design conditions will be presented.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Howell, Louis H.

1993-01-01

There are two main requirements for practical simulation of unsteady flow at high Reynolds number: the algorithm must accurately propagate discontinuous flow fields without excessive artificial viscosity, and it must have some adaptive capability to concentrate computational effort where it is most needed. We satisfy the first of these requirements with a second-order Godunov method similar to those used for high-speed flows with shocks, and the second with a grid-based refinement scheme which avoids some of the drawbacks associated with unstructured meshes. These two features of our algorithm place certain constraints on the projection method used to enforce incompressibility. Velocities are cell-based, leading to a Laplacian stencil for the projection which decouples adjacent grid points. We discuss features of the multigrid and multilevel iteration schemes required for solution of the resulting decoupled problem. Variable-density flows require use of a modified projection operator--we have found a multigrid method for this modified projection that successfully handles density jumps of thousands to one. Numerical results are shown for the 2D adaptive and 3D variable-density algorithms.

3. Implicit lower-upper/approximate-factorization schemes for incompressible flows

SciTech Connect

Briley, W.R.; Neerarambam, S.S.; Whitfield, D.L.

1996-10-01

A lower-upper/approximate-factorization (LU/AF) scheme is developed for the incompressible Euler or Navier-Stokes equations. The LU/AF scheme contains an iteration parameter that can be adjusted to improve iterative convergence rate. The LU/AF scheme is to be used in conjunction with linearized implicit approximations and artificial compressibility to compute steady solutions, and within sub-iterations to compute unsteady solutions. Formulations based on time linearization with and without sub-iteration and on Newton linearization are developed using spatial difference operators. The spatial approximation used includes upwind differencing based on Roes approximate Riemann solver and van Leers MUSCL scheme, with numerically computed implicit flux linearizations. Simple one-dimensional diffusion and advection/diffusion problems are first studied analytically to provide insight for development of the Navier-Stokes algorithm. The optimal values of both time step and LU/AF parameter are determined for a test problem consisting of two-dimensional flow past a NACA 0012 airfoil, with a highly stretched grid. The optimal parameter provides a consistent improvement in convergence rate for four test cases having different grids and Reynolds numbers and, also, for an inviscid case. The scheme can be easily extended to three dimensions and adapted for compressible flows. 24 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

4. A study of local anisotropy in globally isotropic incompressible MHD

Milano, L. J.; Dmitruk, P.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Montgomery, D.

2000-10-01

It is a well known fact that in presence of a DC applied field, MHD turbulence develops spectral anisotropy from an isotropic initial condition [1]. Typically, the reduced spectrum is steeper in the direction of the magnetic field than it is in any transverse direction. Theoretical insight into the origin of this effect has been derived from simulations in which there is a uniform DC magnetic field, but suggestions of a similar anisotropy is seen in various laboratory devices and also in the solar wind [2,3]. One might expect that a DC field is not essential, and it is the local mean field that is responsible. Here we investigate the occurence of local anisotropy in 3 dimensional MHD, i.e. we search for a local version of the spectral anisotropy effect. We perform 3D MHD pseudo-spectral incompressible relaxation simulations, and compute structure functions accumulated according to whether the separation is parallel to, or transverse to, the local magnetic field. Preliminary results show that correlations decay slower in the locally averaged magnetic field direction. [1] J. Shebalin, W. Matthaeus and D. Montgomery, J. Plasma Phys. 29, 525 (1983) [2] W.H. Matthaeus, M.L. Goldsteon and D.A. Roberts, J. Geophys. Res. 95, 20 673 (1990) [3] J. Armstrong, W. Coles, M. Kojima and B. Rickett, Ap. J. 358, 685 (1990)

5. Adjoint operator approach to shape design for internal incompressible flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cabuk, H.; Sung, C.-H.; Modi, V.

1991-01-01

The problem of determining the profile of a channel or duct that provides the maximum static pressure rise is solved. Incompressible, laminar flow governed by the steady state Navier-Stokes equations is assumed. Recent advances in computational resources and algorithms have made it possible to solve the direct problem of determining such a flow through a body of known geometry. It is possible to obtain a set of adjoint equations, the solution to which permits the calculation of the direction and relative magnitude of change in the diffuser profile that leads to a higher pressure rise. The solution to the adjoint problem can be shown to represent an artificially constructed flow. This interpretation provides a means to construct numerical solutions to the adjoint equations that do not compromise the fully viscous nature of the problem. The algorithmic and computational aspects of solving the adjoint equations are addressed. The form of these set of equations is similar but not identical to the Navier-Stokes equations. In particular some issues related to boundary conditions and stability are discussed.

6. Three-dimensional incompressible flow calculations with alternative discretization schemes

Tamamidis, Panos; Assanis, Dennis N.

1993-08-01

A finite-volume calculation procedure for steady, incompressible, elliptic flows in complex geometries is presented. The methodology uses generalized body-fitted coordinates to model the shape of the boundary accurately. All variables are stored at the centroids of the elements, thus achieving simplicity and low cost of computations. Turbulence is modeled by using the standard two-equation k-epsilon model. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the performance and accuracy of flow calculations under different discretization schemes in the light of experimental results. The discretization schemes that are incorporated in the code include the classical hybrid scheme, the third-order QUICK scheme, and a fifth-order upwind scheme. Benchmark tests are performed for laminar and turbulent flows in 90 deg curved ducts of square and circular cross sections. Flaw solutions obtained using the classical hybrid scheme are compared with solutions obtained with the higher-order schemes. The results show that accurate solutions can be efficiently obtained on grids of moderate size by using high-order-accuracy schemes. Overall, the potential of the methodology for calculating real-life engineering flows is demonstrated.

7. Computation of incompressible viscous flows through turbopump components

Kiris, Cetin; Chang, Leon

1993-02-01

Flow through pump components, such as an inducer and an impeller, is efficiently simulated by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The solution method is based on the pseudocompressibility approach and uses an implicit-upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. the equations are solved in steadily rotating reference frames and the centrifugal force and the Coriolis force are added to the equation of motion. Current computations use a one-equation Baldwin-Barth turbulence model which is derived from a simplified form of the standard k-epsilon model equations. The resulting computer code is applied to the flow analysis inside a generic rocket engine pump inducer, a fuel pump impeller, and SSME high pressure fuel turbopump impeller. Numerical results of inducer flow are compared with experimental measurements. In the fuel pump impeller, the effect of downstream boundary conditions is investigated. Flow analyses at 80 percent, 100 percent, and 120 percent of design conditions are presented.

8. The exact calculation of quadrupole sources for some incompressible flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brentner, Kenneth S.

1988-01-01

This paper is concerned with the application of the acoustic analogy of Lighthill to the acoustic and aerodynamic problems associated with moving bodies. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation, which is an interpretation of the acoustic analogy for sound generation by moving bodies, manipulates the source terms into surface and volume sources. Quite often in practice the volume sources, or quadrupoles, are neglected for various reasons. Recently, Farassat, Long and others have attempted to use the FW-H equation with the quadrupole source and neglected to solve for the surface pressure on the body. The purpose of this paper is to examine the contribution of the quadrupole source to the acoustic pressure and body surface pressure for some problems for which the exact solution is known. The inviscid, incompressible, 2-D flow, calculated using the velocity potential, is used to calculate the individual contributions of the various surface and volume source terms in the FW-H equation. The relative importance of each of the sources is then assessed.

9. Applications of the formal variational calculus to the equations of fluid dynamics

SciTech Connect

Verosky, J.M.

1985-01-01

The Formal Variational Calculus is applied to the equations of fluid dynamics. In particular, it is shown that the equations for one-dimensional isentropic compressible flow have infinitely many higher order symmetries and a first-order conservation law. The notion of a generalized fluid equation is introduced and is shown that the incompressible fluid equations inherit their Hamiltonian structure from the compressible ones. Finally, the behavior of certain Hamiltonian structures under a change in dependent variables is examined.

10. Computational fluid mechanics utilizing the variational principle of modeling damping seals

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abernathy, J. M.

1986-01-01

A computational fluid dynamics code for application to traditional incompressible flow problems has been developed. The method is actually a slight compressibility approach which takes advantage of the bulk modulus and finite sound speed of all real fluids. The finite element numerical analog uses a dynamic differencing scheme based, in part, on a variational principle for computational fluid dynamics. The code was developed in order to study the feasibility of damping seals for high speed turbomachinery. Preliminary seal analyses have been performed.

11. Accurate and robust methods for variable density incompressible flows with discontinuities

SciTech Connect

Rider, W.J.; Kothe, D.B.; Puckett, E.G.

1996-09-01

We are interested in the solution of incompressible flows which are characterized by large density variations, interfacial physics, arbitrary material topologies and strong vortical content. The issues present in constant density incompressible flow are exacerbated by the presence of density discontinuities. A much greater premium requirement is placed the positivity of computed quantities The mechanism of baroclinc vorticity generation exists ({gradient}p x {gradient}p) to further complicate the physics.

12. Three-dimensional linear stability analysis of incompressible viscous flows using the finite element method

Ding, Yan; Kawahara, Mutsuto

1999-09-01

The linear stability of incompressible flows is investigated on the basis of the finite element method. The two-dimensional base flows computed numerically over a range of Reynolds numbers are perturbed with three-dimensional disturbances. The three-dimensionality in the flow associated with the secondary instability is identified precisely. First, by using linear stability theory and normal mode analysis, the partial differential equations governing the evolution of perturbation are derived from the linearized Navier-Stokes equation with slight compressibility. In terms of the mixed finite element discretization, in which six-node quadratic Lagrange triangular elements with quadratic interpolation for velocities (P2) and three-node linear Lagrange triangular elements for pressure (P1) are employed, a non-singular generalized eigenproblem is formulated from these equations, whose solution gives the dispersion relation between complex growth rate and wave number. Then, the stabilities of two cases, i.e. the lid-driven cavity flow and flow past a circular cylinder, are examined. These studies determine accurately stability curves to identify the critical Reynolds number and the critical wavelength of the neutral mode by means of the Krylov subspace method and discuss the mechanism of instability. For the cavity flow, the estimated critical results are Rec=920.277+/-0.010 for the Reynolds number and kc=7.40+/-0.02 for the wave number. These results are in good agreement with the observation of Aidun et al. and are more accurate than those by the finite difference method. This instability in the cavity is associated with absolute instability [Huerre and Monkewitz, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 22, 473-537 (1990)]. The Taylor-Göertler-like vortices in the cavity are verified by means of the reconstruction of three-dimensional flows. As for the flow past a circular cylinder, the primary instability result shows that the flow has only two-dimensional characteristics at the

13. Estimation of lung tissue incompressibility variation throughout respiration for tumor targeting in lung radiotherapy

2013-03-01

A novel technique is proposed to characterize lung tissue incompressibility variation during respiration. Lung tissue incompressibility variation stems from significant air content variation in the tissue throughout respiration. Estimating lung tissue incompressibility and its variation is critical for computer assisted tumor motion tracking. Continuous tumor motion during respiration is a major challenge in lung cancer treatment by external beam radiotherapy. If not accounted for, this motion leads to areas of radiation over dosage for the lung normal tissues. Since no effective imaging modality is available for real-time lung tumor tracking, computer based modeling which has the capability for accurate tissue deformation estimation can be a good alternative. Lung tissue deformation estimation can be made using the lung Finite Element (FE) model where its accuracy depends on input tissue biomechanical properties including incompressibility parameter. In this research, an optimization algorithm is proposed to estimate the incompressibility parameter function in terms of respiration cycle time. In this algorithm, the incompressibility parameter and lung pressure values are varied systematically until optimal values, which result in maximum similarity between acquired and simulated 4D CT images of the lung, are achieved for each respiration time point. The simulated images are constructed using a reference image in conjunction with the deformation field obtained from the lung's FE model in each respiration time increment. We demonstrated that utilizing the calculated function along with respiratory system FE modeling leads to accurate tumor targeting, hence potentially improving lung radiotherapy outcome.

14. An a-posteriori finite element error estimator for adaptive grid computation of viscous incompressible flows

Wu, Heng

2000-10-01

In this thesis, an a-posteriori error estimator is presented and employed for solving viscous incompressible flow problems. In an effort to detect local flow features, such as vortices and separation, and to resolve flow details precisely, a velocity angle error estimator e theta which is based on the spatial derivative of velocity direction fields is designed and constructed. The a-posteriori error estimator corresponds to the antisymmetric part of the deformation-rate-tensor, and it is sensitive to the second derivative of the velocity angle field. Rationality discussions reveal that the velocity angle error estimator is a curvature error estimator, and its value reflects the accuracy of streamline curves. It is also found that the velocity angle error estimator contains the nonlinear convective term of the Navier-Stokes equations, and it identifies and computes the direction difference when the convective acceleration direction and the flow velocity direction have a disparity. Through benchmarking computed variables with the analytic solution of Kovasznay flow or the finest grid of cavity flow, it is demonstrated that the velocity angle error estimator has a better performance than the strain error estimator. The benchmarking work also shows that the computed profile obtained by using etheta can achieve the best matching outcome with the true theta field, and that it is asymptotic to the true theta variation field, with a promise of fewer unknowns. Unstructured grids are adapted by employing local cell division as well as unrefinement of transition cells. Using element class and node class can efficiently construct a hierarchical data structure which provides cell and node inter-reference at each adaptive level. Employing element pointers and node pointers can dynamically maintain the connection of adjacent elements and adjacent nodes, and thus avoids time-consuming search processes. The adaptive scheme is applied to viscous incompressible flow at different

15. Mid-crust fluid and water-rock interaction kinetic experiments and their geophysical significance: 3. in situ measurements of electric conductance of the water-rock interaction system at high temperatures

Hu, S.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.

2013-12-01

Recently, we designed a new experimental apparatus, which was used to measure dissolution rates as water-rock interactions, and simultaneously in situ measure the electric conductance of the multi phase (rock - fluid) system. At first, a tubular reactor is put in horizontally. The rock sample was crushed and sieved to 20-40 mesh, and cleaned, then put in a titanium network bag inside of the vessel. The electric conductivity detectors were connected to the two ends of the vessel. Fluid inlet and outlet were also fabricated in the two ends of the vessel. And the furnace, temperature controller, liquid pump, back pressure regulator etc. are involved in the whole experimental system. High temperature (T) and pressure (P) electric conductivity measuring system consists of an electric conductivity detector (ECD limit.), which was reformed by us and connected to the vessel; and a transfer: T23-CDH-UM: 5.67(L)×3.50(W)×5.67(H) (inch).The distance between the two electrode of the sensor is 10cm. The electrode is 5cm of length and its diameter is 5/16 inch. Water-rock interaction experiments were performed using this apparatus. The volume inside of vessel is 10.81 ml, l= 170mm, d=4.5mm and 7.246g rock sample put in the vessel. The fluid velocity was changed from 1.5 to 3.5 ml/min, allowing the water through the sample. As in situ to measure the electric conductance of the rock-fluids in the vessel, continuously record the electric conductance, each record in 5 seconds. Water-basalt interaction experiments were carried out and in situ measured electric conductance at high T up to 450°C and at 22 to 36MPa. Basalt sample was collected from natural outcrop (volcanic area in Yangtze valley, China, which is K-rich trachy-basalt. Rock sample was crushed and sieved to 20-40 mesh, and cleaned. 8.0097g sample was put in the vessel (surface area: 1.37m2/g ). Experiments found dissolution rates (dis.r.) for different metals of the rock vary with T. Usually, dis.r., rSi increase with T

16. Numerical Solution of the Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations in Three-dimensional Generalized Curvilinear Coordinates

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rogers, S. E.; Kwak, D.; Chang, J. L. C.

1986-01-01

Numerically solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is known to be time consuming and expensive. Testing of the INS3D computers code, which solves these equations with the use of the pseudocompressibility method, shows this method to be an efficient way to obtain the steady state solution. The effects of the waves introduced by the pseudocompressibility method are analyzed and criteria are set and tested for the choice of the pseudocompressibility parameter which governs the artificial sound speed. The code is tested using laminar flow over a two dimensional backward-facing step, and laminar flow over a two dimensional circular cylinder. The results of the computations over the backward-facing step are in excellent agreement with experimental results. The transient solution of the flow over the cylinder impulsively started from rest is in good agreement with experimental results. However, the computed frequency of periodic shedding of vortices behind the cylinder is not in agreement with the experimental value. For a three dimensional test case, computations were conducted for a cylinder end wall junction. The saddle point separation and horseshoe vortex system appear in the computed field. The solution also shows secondary vortex filaments which wrap around the cylinder and spiral up in the wake.

17. Modeling transversely isotropic, viscoelastic, incompressible tissue-like materials with application in ultrasound shear wave elastography

Qiang, Bo; Brigham, John C.; Aristizabal, Sara; Greenleaf, James F.; Zhang, Xiaoming; Urban, Matthew W.

2015-02-01

In this paper, we propose a method to model the shear wave propagation in transversely isotropic, viscoelastic and incompressible media. The targeted application is ultrasound-based shear wave elastography for viscoelasticity measurements in anisotropic tissues such as the kidney and skeletal muscles. The proposed model predicts that if the viscoelastic parameters both across and along fiber directions can be characterized as a Voigt material, then the spatial phase velocity at any angle is also governed by a Voigt material model. Further, with the aid of Taylor expansions, it is shown that the spatial group velocity at any angle is close to a Voigt type for weakly attenuative materials within a certain bandwidth. The model is implemented in a finite element code by a time domain explicit integration scheme and shear wave simulations are conducted. The results of the simulations are analyzed to extract the shear wave elasticity and viscosity for both the spatial phase and group velocities. The estimated values match well with theoretical predictions. The proposed theory is further verified by an ex vivo tissue experiment measured in a porcine skeletal muscle by an ultrasound shear wave elastography method. The applicability of the Taylor expansion to analyze the spatial velocities is also discussed. We demonstrate that the approximations from the Taylor expansions are subject to errors when the viscosities across or along the fiber directions are large or the maximum frequency considered is beyond the bandwidth defined by radii of convergence of the Taylor expansions.

18. Detached Eddy Simulations of Incompressible Turbulent Flows Using the Finite Element Method

SciTech Connect

2001-08-01

An explicit Galerkin finite-element formulation of the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) 1 - equation turbulent transport model was implemented into the incompressible flow module of a parallel, multi-domain, Galerkin finite-element, multi-physics code, using both a RANS formulation and a DES formulation. DES is a new technique for simulating/modeling turbulence using a hybrid RANSkES formulation. The turbulent viscosity is constructed from an intermediate viscosity obtained from the transport equation which is spatially discretized using Q1 elements and integrated in time via forward Euler time integration. Three simulations of plane channel flow on a RANS-type grid, using different turbulence models, were conducted in order to validate the implementation of the SA model: SA-RANS, SA-DES and Smagorinksy (without wall correction). Very good agreement was observed between the SA-RANS results and theory, namely the Log Law of the Wall (LLW), especially in the viscous sublayer region and, to a lesser extent, in the log-layer region. The results obtained using the SA-DES model did not agree as well with the LLW, and it is believed that this poor agreement can be attributed to using a DES model on a RANS grid, namely using an incorrect length-scale. It was observed that near the wall, the SA-DES model acted as an RANS model, and away from the wall it acted as an LES model.

19. Modeling Transversely Isotropic, Viscoelastic, Incompressible Tissue-like Materials with Application in Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography

PubMed Central

Qiang, Bo; Brigham, John C.; Aristizabal, Sara; Greenleaf, James F.; Zhang, Xiaoming; Urban, Matthew W.

2015-01-01

In this paper, we propose a method to model the shear wave propagation in transversely isotropic, viscoelastic and incompressible media. The targeted application is ultrasound-based shear wave elastography for viscoelasticity measurements in anisotropic tissues such as the kidney and skeletal muscles. The proposed model predicts that if the viscoelastic parameters both across and along fiber directions can be characterized as a Voigt material, then the spatial phase velocity at any angle is also governed by a Voigt material model. Further, with the aid of Taylor expansions, it is shown that the spatial group velocity at any angle is close to a Voigt type for weakly attenuative materials within a certain bandwidth. The model is implemented in a finite element code by a time domain explicit integration scheme and shear wave simulations are conducted. The results of the simulations are analyzed to extract the shear wave elasticity and viscosity for both the spatial phase and group velocities. The estimated values match well with theoretical predictions. The proposed theory is further verified by an ex vivo tissue experiment measured in a porcine skeletal muscle by an ultrasound shear wave elastography method. The applicability of the Taylor expansion to analyze the spatial velocities is also discussed. We demonstrate that the approximations from the Taylor expansions are subject to errors when the viscosities across or along the fiber directions are large or the maximum frequency considered is beyond the bandwidth defined by radii of convergence of the Taylor expansions. PMID:25591921

20. Evaluation of rotating, incompressibly lubricated, pressurized thrust bearings

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fleming, D. P.

1971-01-01

Program evaluates a series hybrid, fluid film ball bearing consisting of an orifice compensated pressurized thrust bearing in conjunction with a self-acting journal bearing. Oil viscosities corresponding to experimentally measured ball bearing outer-race temperatures were used.

1. Unified semi-analytical wall boundary conditions applied to 2-D incompressible SPH

Leroy, A.; Violeau, D.; Ferrand, M.; Kassiotis, C.

2014-03-01

This work aims at improving the 2-D incompressible SPH model (ISPH) by adapting it to the unified semi-analytical wall boundary conditions proposed by Ferrand et al. [10]. The ISPH algorithm considered is as proposed by Lind et al. [25], based on the projection method with a divergence-free velocity field and using a stabilising procedure based on particle shifting. However, we consider an extension of this model to Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations based on the k-ɛ turbulent closure model, as done in [10]. The discrete SPH operators are modified by the new description of the wall boundary conditions. In particular, a boundary term appears in the Laplacian operator, which makes it possible to accurately impose a von Neumann pressure wall boundary condition that corresponds to impermeability. The shifting and free-surface detection algorithms have also been adapted to the new boundary conditions. Moreover, a new way to compute the wall renormalisation factor in the frame of the unified semi-analytical boundary conditions is proposed in order to decrease the computational time. We present several verifications to the present approach, including a lid-driven cavity, a water column collapsing on a wedge and a periodic schematic fish-pass. Our results are compared to Finite Volumes methods, using Volume of Fluids in the case of free-surface flows. We briefly investigate the convergence of the method and prove its ability to model complex free-surface and turbulent flows. The results are generally improved when compared to a weakly compressible SPH model with the same boundary conditions, especially in terms of pressure prediction.

2. Anti-diffusion method for interface steepening in two-phase incompressible flow

So, K. K.; Hu, X. Y.; Adams, N. A.

2011-06-01

In this paper, we present a method for obtaining sharp interfaces in two-phase incompressible flows by an anti-diffusion correction, that is applicable in a straight-forward fashion for the improvement of two-phase flow solution schemes typically employed in practical applications. The underlying discretization is based on the volume-of-fluid (VOF) interface-capturing method on unstructured meshes. The key idea is to steepen the interface, independently of the underlying volume-fraction transport equation, by solving a diffusion equation with reverse time, i.e. an anti-diffusion equation, after each advection time step of the volume fraction. As the solution of the anti-diffusion equation requires regularization, a limiter based on the directional derivative is developed for calculating the gradient of the volume fraction. This limiter ensures the boundedness of the volume fraction. In order to control the amount of anti-diffusion introduced by the correction algorithm we propose a suitable stopping criterion for interface steepening. The formulation of the limiter and the algorithm for solving the anti-diffusion equation are applicable to 3-dimensional unstructured meshes. Validation computations are performed for passive advection of an interface, for 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional rising-bubbles, and for a rising drop in a periodically constricted channel. The results demonstrate that sharp interfaces can be recovered reliably. They show that the accuracy is similar to or even better than that of level-set methods using comparable discretizations for the flow and the level-set evolution. Also, we observe a good agreement with experimental results for the rising drop where proper interface evolution requires accurate mass conservation.

3. Scalable implicit incompressible resistive MHD with stabilized FE and fully-coupled Newton–Krylov-AMG

DOE PAGESBeta

Shadid, J. N.; Pawlowski, R. P.; Cyr, E. C.; Tuminaro, R. S.; Chacon, L.; Weber, P. D.

2016-02-10

Here, we discuss that the computational solution of the governing balance equations for mass, momentum, heat transfer and magnetic induction for resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) systems can be extremely challenging. These difficulties arise from both the strong nonlinear, nonsymmetric coupling of fluid and electromagnetic phenomena, as well as the significant range of time- and length-scales that the interactions of these physical mechanisms produce. This paper explores the development of a scalable, fully-implicit stabilized unstructured finite element (FE) capability for 3D incompressible resistive MHD. The discussion considers the development of a stabilized FE formulation in context of the variational multiscale (VMS) method,more » and describes the scalable implicit time integration and direct-to-steady-state solution capability. The nonlinear solver strategy employs Newton–Krylov methods, which are preconditioned using fully-coupled algebraic multilevel preconditioners. These preconditioners are shown to enable a robust, scalable and efficient solution approach for the large-scale sparse linear systems generated by the Newton linearization. Verification results demonstrate the expected order-of-accuracy for the stabilized FE discretization. The approach is tested on a variety of prototype problems, that include MHD duct flows, an unstable hydromagnetic Kelvin–Helmholtz shear layer, and a 3D island coalescence problem used to model magnetic reconnection. Initial results that explore the scaling of the solution methods are also presented on up to 128K processors for problems with up to 1.8B unknowns on a CrayXK7.« less

4. Analytical study of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model for a boundary layer flow of Oldroyd-B fluid

F, M. Abbasi; M, Mustafa; S, A. Shehzad; M, S. Alhuthali; T, Hayat

2016-01-01

We investigate the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model for a two-dimensional laminar boundary layer flow of an incompressible Oldroyd-B fluid over a linearly stretching sheet. Mathematical formulation of the boundary layer problems is given. The nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into the ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. The dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles are obtained through optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM). The influences of the physical parameters on the velocity and the temperature are pointed out. The results show that the temperature and the thermal boundary layer thickness are smaller in the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model than those in the Fourier’s law of heat conduction. Project supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR) King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (Grant No. 32-130-36-HiCi).

5. An Improved Momentum-Exchanged Immersed Boundary-Based Lattice Boltzmann Method for Incompressible Viscous Thermal Flows

Chen, Mufeng; Niu, Xiaodong

2016-06-01

An improved momentum-exchanged immersed boundary-based lattice Boltzmann method (MEIB-LBM) for incompressible viscous thermal flows is presented here. MEIB-LBM was first proposed by Niu et al, which has been shown later that the non-slip boundary condition is not satisfied. Wang. et al. and Hu. et al overcome this drawback by iterative method. But it needs to give an appropriate relaxation parameter. In this work, we come back to the intrinsic feature of LBM, which uses the density distribution function as a dependent variable to evolve the flow field, and uses the density distribution function correction at the neighboring Euler mesh points to satisfy the non-slip boundary condition on the immersed boundary. The same idea can also be applied to the thermal flows with fluid-structure interference. The merits of present improvements for the original MEIB-LBM are that the intrinsic feature of LBM is kept and the flow penetration across the immersed boundaries is avoided. To validate the present method, examples, including forced convection over a stationary heated circular cylinder for heat flux condition, and natural convection with a suspended circle particle in viscous fluid, are simulated. The streamlines, isothermal contours, the drag coefficients and Nusselt numbers are calculated and compared to the benchmark results to demonstrate the effective of the present method.

6. MHD Flow of the Micropolar Fluid between Eccentrically Rotating Disks.

PubMed

Srivastava, Neetu

2014-01-01

This analytical investigation examines the magnetohydrodynamic flow problem of an incompressible micropolar fluid between the two eccentrically placed disks. Employing suitable transformations, the flow governing partial differential equations is reduced to ordinary differential equations. An exact solution representing the different flow characteristic of micropolar fluid has been derived by solving the ordinary differential equations. Analysis of the flow characteristics of the micropolar fluid has been done graphically by varying the Reynolds number and the Hartmann number. This analysis has been carried out for the weak and strong interactions. PMID:27355040

7. MHD Flow of the Micropolar Fluid between Eccentrically Rotating Disks

PubMed Central

Srivastava, Neetu

2014-01-01

This analytical investigation examines the magnetohydrodynamic flow problem of an incompressible micropolar fluid between the two eccentrically placed disks. Employing suitable transformations, the flow governing partial differential equations is reduced to ordinary differential equations. An exact solution representing the different flow characteristic of micropolar fluid has been derived by solving the ordinary differential equations. Analysis of the flow characteristics of the micropolar fluid has been done graphically by varying the Reynolds number and the Hartmann number. This analysis has been carried out for the weak and strong interactions.

8. SPAR improved structure/fluid dynamic analysis capability

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oden, J. T.; Pearson, M. L.

1983-01-01

The capability of analyzing a coupled dynamic system of flowing fluid and elastic structure was added to the SPAR computer code. A method, developed and adopted for use in SPAR utilizes the existing assumed stress hybrid plan element in SPAR. An operational mode was incorporated in SPAR which provides the capability for analyzing the flaw of a two dimensional, incompressible, viscous fluid within rigid boundaries. Equations were developed to provide for the eventual analysis of the interaction of such fluids with an elastic solid.

9. Simulation of a pulsatile total artificial heart: Development of a partitioned Fluid Structure Interaction model

Sonntag, Simon J.; Kaufmann, Tim A. S.; Büsen, Martin R.; Laumen, Marco; Linde, Torsten; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

2013-04-01

Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Due to a shortage in donor organs artificial hearts can be a bridge to transplantation or even serve as a destination therapy for patients with terminal heart insufficiency. A pusher plate driven pulsatile membrane pump, the Total Artificial Heart (TAH) ReinHeart, is currently under development at the Institute of Applied Medical Engineering of RWTH Aachen University.This paper presents the methodology of a fully coupled three-dimensional time-dependent Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) simulation of the TAH using a commercial partitioned block-Gauss-Seidel coupling package. Partitioned coupling of the incompressible fluid with the slender flexible membrane as well as a high fluid/structure density ratio of about unity led inherently to a deterioration of the stability (‘artificial added mass instability’). The objective was to conduct a stable simulation with high accuracy of the pumping process. In order to achieve stability, a combined resistance and pressure outlet boundary condition as well as the interface artificial compressibility method was applied. An analysis of the contact algorithm and turbulence condition is presented. Independence tests are performed for the structural and the fluid mesh, the time step size and the number of pulse cycles. Because of the large deformation of the fluid domain, a variable mesh stiffness depending on certain mesh properties was specified for the fluid elements. Adaptive remeshing was avoided. Different approaches for the mesh stiffness function are compared with respect to convergence, preservation of mesh topology and mesh quality. The resulting mesh aspect ratios, mesh expansion factors and mesh orthogonalities are evaluated in detail. The membrane motion and flow distribution of the coupled simulations are compared with a top-view recording and stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements, respectively, of the actual pump.

10. Strongly Coupled Fluid-Body Dynamics in the Immersed Boundary Projection Method

Wang, Chengjie; Eldredge, Jeff D.

2014-11-01

A computational algorithm is developed to simulate dynamically coupled interaction between fluid and rigid bodies. The basic computational framework is built upon a multi-domain immersed boundary method library, whirl, developed in previous work. In this library, the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow are solved on a uniform Cartesian grid by the vorticity-based immersed boundary projection method of Colonius and Taira. A solver for the dynamics of rigid-body systems is also included. The fluid and rigid-body solvers are strongly coupled with an iterative approach based on the block Gauss-Seidel method. Interfacial force, with its intimate connection with the Lagrange multipliers used in the fluid solver, is used as the primary iteration variable. Relaxation, developed from a stability analysis of the iterative scheme, is used to achieve convergence in only 2-4 iterations per time step. Several two- and three-dimensional numerical tests are conducted to validate and demonstrate the method, including flapping of flexible wings, self-excited oscillations of a system of linked plates and three-dimensional propulsion of flexible fluked tail. This work has been supported by AFOSR, under Award FA9550-11-1-0098.

11. Postimpact heat conduction and compaction-driven fluid flow in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure based on downhole vitrinite reflectance data, ICDP-USGS Eyreville deep core holes and Cape Charles test holes

USGS Publications Warehouse

Malinconico, M.L.; Sanford, W.E.; Wright, Horton W.J.J., Jr.

2009-01-01

Vitrinite reflectance data from the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP)-U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Eyreville deep cores in the centralcrater moat of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure and the Cape Charles test holes on the central uplift show patterns of postimpact maximum-temperature distribution that result from a combination of conductive and advective heat flow. Within the crater-fill sediment-clast breccia sequence at Eyreville, an isoreflectance (-0.44% Ro) section (525-1096 m depth) is higher than modeled background coastal-plain maturity and shows a pattern typical of advective fluid flow. Below an intervening granite slab, a short interval of sediment-clast breccia (1371-1397 m) shows a sharp increase in reflectance (0.47%-0.91% Ro) caused by conductive heat from the underlying suevite (1397-1474 m). Refl ectance data in the uppermost suevite range from 1.2% to 2.1% Ro. However, heat conduction alone is not sufficient to affect the temperature of sediments more than 100 m above the suevite. Thermal modeling of the Eyreville suevite as a 390 ??C cooling sill-like hot rock layer supplemented by compaction- driven vertical fluid flow (0.046 m/a) of cooling suevitic fluids and deeper basement brines (120 ??C) upward through the sediment breccias closely reproduces the measured reflectance data. This scenario would also replace any marine water trapped in the crater fill with more saline brine, similar to that currently in the crater, and it would produce temperatures sufficient to kill microbes in sediment breccias within 450 m above the synimsuevite. A similar downhole maturity pattern is present in the sediment-clast breccia over the central uplift. High-reflectance (5%-9%) black shale and siltstone clasts in the suevite and sediment-clast breccia record a pre-impact (Paleozoic?) metamorphic event. Previously published maturity data in the annular trough indicate no thermal effect there from impact-related processes. ?? 2009 The

12. Amniotic fluid

MedlinePlus

Amniotic fluid is a clear, slightly yellowish liquid that surrounds the unborn baby (fetus) during pregnancy. It is ... in the womb, the baby floats in the amniotic fluid. The amount of amniotic fluid is greatest at ...

13. Three-dimensional nonlinear ideal MHD equilibria with field-aligned incompressible and compressible flows

Moawad, S. M.; Ibrahim, D. A.

2016-08-01

The equilibrium properties of three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are investigated. Incompressible and compressible flows are considered. The governing equations are taken in a steady state such that the magnetic field is parallel to the plasma flow. Equations of stationary equilibrium for both of incompressible and compressible MHD flows are derived and described in a mathematical mode. For incompressible MHD flows, Alfvénic and non-Alfvénic flows with constant and variable magnetofluid density are investigated. For Alfvénic incompressible flows, the general three-dimensional solutions are determined with the aid of two potential functions of the velocity field. For non-Alfvénic incompressible flows, the stationary equilibrium equations are reduced to two differential constraints on the potential functions, flow velocity, magnetofluid density, and the static pressure. Some examples which may be of some relevance to axisymmetric confinement systems are presented. For compressible MHD flows, equations of the stationary equilibrium are derived with the aid of a single potential function of the velocity field. The existence of three-dimensional solutions for these MHD flows is investigated. Several classes of three-dimensional exact solutions for several cases of nonlinear equilibrium equations are presented.

14. Front Speed Enhancement by Incompressible Flows in Three or Higher Dimensions

2014-07-01

We study, in dimensions N ≥ 3, the family of first integrals of an incompressible flow: these are functions whose level surfaces are tangential to the streamlines of the advective incompressible field. One main motivation for this study comes from earlier results proving that the existence of nontrivial first integrals of an incompressible flow q is the main key that leads to a "linear speed up" by a large advection of pulsating traveling fronts solving a reaction-advection-diffusion equation in a periodic heterogeneous framework. The family of first integrals is not well understood in dimensions N ≥ 3 due to the randomness of the trajectories of q and this is in contrast with the case N = 2. By looking at the domain of propagation as a union of different components produced by the advective field, we provide more information about first integrals and we give a class of incompressible flows which exhibit "ergodic components" of positive Lebesgue measure (and hence are not shear flows) and which, under certain sharp geometric conditions, speed up the KPP fronts linearly with respect to the large amplitude. In the proofs, we establish a link between incompressibility, ergodicity, first integrals and the dimension to give a sharp condition about the asymptotic behavior of the minimal KPP speed in terms of the configuration of ergodic components.

15. Finite Element Modeling of Impulsive Excitation and Shear Wave Propagation in an Incompressible, Transversely Isotropic Medium

PubMed Central

Rouze, Ned C.; Wang, Michael H.; Palmeri, Mark L.; Nightingale, Kathy R.

2013-01-01

Elastic properties of materials can be measured by observing shear wave propagation following localized, impulsive excitations and relating the propagation velocity to a model of the material. However, characterization of anisotropic materials is difficult because of the number of elasticity constants in the material model and the complex dependence of propagation velocity relative to the excitation axis, material symmetries, and propagation directions. In this study, we develop a model of wave propagation following impulsive excitation in an incompressible, transversely isotropic (TI) material such as muscle. Wave motion is described in terms of three propagation modes identified by their polarization relative to the material symmetry axis and propagation direction. Phase velocities for these propagation modes are expressed in terms of five elasticity constants needed to describe a general TI material, and also in terms of three constants after the application of two constraints that hold in the limit of an incompressible material. Group propagation velocities are derived from the phase velocities to describe the propagation of wave packets away from the excitation region following localized excitation. The theoretical model is compared to the results of finite element (FE) simulations performed using a nearly incompressible material model with the five elasticity constants chosen to preserve the essential properties of the material in the incompressible limit. Propagation velocities calculated from the FE displacement data show complex structure that agrees quantitatively with the theoretical model and demonstrates the possibility of measuring all three elasticity constants needed to characterize an incompressible, TI material. PMID:24094454

16. Incompressible-compressible flows with a transient discontinuous interface using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH)

Lind, S. J.; Stansby, P. K.; Rogers, B. D.

2016-03-01

A new two-phase incompressible-compressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method has been developed where the interface is discontinuous in density. This is applied to water-air problems with a large density difference. The incompressible phase requires surface pressure from the compressible phase and the compressible phase requires surface velocity from the incompressible phase. Compressible SPH is used for the air phase (with the isothermal stiffened ideal gas equation of state for low Mach numbers) and divergence-free (projection based) incompressible SPH is used for the water phase, with the addition of Fickian shifting to produce sufficiently homogeneous particle distributions to enable stable, accurate, converged solutions without noise in the pressure field. Shifting is a purely numerical particle regularisation device. The interface remains a true material discontinuity at a high density ratio with continuous pressure and velocity at the interface. This approach with the physics of compressibility and incompressibility represented is novel within SPH and is validated against semi-analytical results for a two-phase elongating and oscillating water drop, analytical results for low amplitude inviscid standing waves, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and a dam break problem with high interface distortion and impact on a vertical wall where experimental and other numerical results are available.

17. Inner Ear Conductive Hearing Loss and Unilateral Pulsatile Tinnitus Associated with a Dural Arteriovenous Fistula: Case Based Review and Analysis of Relationship between Intracranial Vascular Abnormalities and Inner Ear Fluids

PubMed Central

Cassandro, Ettore; Cassandro, Claudia; Sequino, Giuliano; Scarpa, Alfonso; Petrolo, Claudio; Chiarella, Giuseppe

2015-01-01

While pulsatile tinnitus (PT) and dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) are not rarely associated, the finding of a conductive hearing loss (CHL) in this clinical picture is unusual. Starting from a case of CHL and PT, diagnosed to be due to a DAVF, we analyzed relationship between intracranial vascular abnormalities and inner ear fluids. DAVF was treated with endovascular embolization. Following this, there was a dramatic recovery of PT and of CHL, confirming their cause-effect link with DAVF. We critically evaluated the papers reporting this association. This is the first case of CHL associated with PT and DAVF. We describe the most significant experiences and theories reported in literature, with a personal analysis about the possible relationship between vascular intracranial system and labyrinthine fluids. In conclusion, we believe that this association may be a challenge for otolaryngologists. So we suggest to consider the possibility of a DAVF or other AVMs when PT is associated with CHL, without alterations of tympanic membrane and middle ear tests. PMID:26693371

18. Application of a Real-Fluid Turbomachinery Analysis to Rocket Turbopump Geometries

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dorney, Daniel J.; Sondak, Douglas L.; Marcu, Bogdan

2005-01-01

A three-dimensional flow solver has been developed for turbomachinery components utilizing real fluid properties. The code is applicable to both incompressible and compressible flow fields. In this study, the code has been applied to the analysis of inducer and impeller geometries representative of those used in rocket engine applications. The predicted results show good agreement with the available experimental data.

19. Magnetic particle capture for biomagnetic fluid flow in stenosed aortic bifurcation considering particle-fluid coupling

Bose, Sayan; Banerjee, Moloy

2015-07-01

Magnetic nanoparticles drug carriers continue to attract considerable interest for drug targeting in the treatment of cancer and other pathological conditions. Guiding magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with the help of an external magnetic field to its target is the basic principle behind the Magnetic Drug Targeting (MDT). It is essential to couple the ferrohydrodynamic (FHD) and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles when magnetic fields are applied to blood as a biomagnetic fluid. The present study is devoted to study on MDT technique by particle tracking in the presence of a non uniform magnetic field in a stenosed aortic bifurcation. The present numerical model of biomagnetic fluid dynamics (BFD) takes into accounts both magnetization and electrical conductivity of blood. The blood flow in the bifurcation is considered to be incompressible and Newtonian. An Eulerian-Lagrangian technique is adopted to resolve the hemodynamic flow and the motion of the magnetic particles in the flow using ANSYS FLUENT two way particle-fluid coupling. An implantable infinitely long cylindrical current carrying conductor is used to create the requisite magnetic field. Targeted transport of the magnetic particles in a partly occluded vessel differs distinctly from the same in a regular unblocked vessel. Results concerning the velocity and temperature field indicate that the presence of the magnetic field influences the flow field considerably and the disturbances increase as the magnetic field strength increases. The insert position is also varied to observe the variation in flow as well as temperature field. Parametric investigation is conducted and the influence of the particle size (dp), flow Reynolds number (Re) and external magnetic field strength (B0) on the "capture efficiency" (CE) is reported. The difference in CE is also studied for different particle loading condition. According to the results, the magnetic field increased the particle concentration in the target region

20. General Transient Fluid Flow Algorithm

Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

1992-03-12

SALE2D calculates two-dimensional fluid flows at all speeds, from the incompressible limit to highly supersonic. An implicit treatment of the pressure calculation similar to that in the Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) technique provides this flow speed flexibility. In addition, the computing mesh may move with the fluid in a typical Lagrangian fashion, be held fixed in an Eulerian manner, or move in some arbitrarily specified way to provide a continuous rezoning capability. This latitude resultsmore » from use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) treatment of the mesh. The partial differential equations solved are the Navier-Stokes equations and the mass and internal energy equations. The fluid pressure is determined from an equation of state and supplemented with an artificial viscous pressure for the computation of shock waves. The computing mesh consists of a two-dimensional network of quadrilateral cells for either cylindrical or Cartesian coordinates, and a variety of user-selectable boundary conditions are provided in the program.« less

1. Least-squares finite element method for fluid dynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jiang, Bo-Nan; Povinelli, Louis A.

1989-01-01

An overview is given of new developments of the least squares finite element method (LSFEM) in fluid dynamics. Special emphasis is placed on the universality of LSFEM; the symmetry and positiveness of the algebraic systems obtained from LSFEM; the accommodation of LSFEM to equal order interpolations for incompressible viscous flows; and the natural numerical dissipation of LSFEM for convective transport problems and high speed compressible flows. The performance of LSFEM is illustrated by numerical examples.

2. Projection methods for incompressible flow problems with WENO finite difference schemes

de Frutos, Javier; John, Volker; Novo, Julia

2016-03-01

Weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) finite difference schemes have been recommended in a competitive study of discretizations for scalar evolutionary convection-diffusion equations [20]. This paper explores the applicability of these schemes for the simulation of incompressible flows. To this end, WENO schemes are used in several non-incremental and incremental projection methods for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Velocity and pressure are discretized on the same grid. A pressure stabilization Petrov-Galerkin (PSPG) type of stabilization is introduced in the incremental schemes to account for the violation of the discrete inf-sup condition. Algorithmic aspects of the proposed schemes are discussed. The schemes are studied on several examples with different features. It is shown that the WENO finite difference idea can be transferred to the simulation of incompressible flows. Some shortcomings of the methods, which are due to the splitting in projection schemes, become also obvious.

3. A comparison of two incompressible Navier-Stokes algorithms for unsteady internal flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wiltberger, N. Lyn; Rogers, Stuart E.; Kwak, Dochan

1993-01-01

A comparative study of two different incompressible Navier-Stokes algorithms for solving an unsteady, incompressible, internal flow problem is performed. The first algorithm uses an artificial compressibility method coupled with upwind differencing and a line relaxation scheme. The second algorithm uses a fractional step method with a staggered grid, finite volume approach. Unsteady, viscous, incompressible, internal flow through a channel with a constriction is computed using the first algorithm. A grid resolution study and parameter studies on the artificial compressibility coefficient and the maximum allowable residual of the continuity equation are performed. The periodicity of the solution is examined and several periodic data sets are generated using the first algorithm. These computational results are compared with previously published results computed using the second algorithm and experimental data.

4. Physical aspects of computing the flow of a viscous fluid

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mehta, U. B.

1984-01-01

One of the main themes in fluid dynamics at present and in the future is going to be computational fluid dynamics with the primary focus on the determination of drag, flow separation, vortex flows, and unsteady flows. A computation of the flow of a viscous fluid requires an understanding and consideration of the physical aspects of the flow. This is done by identifying the flow regimes and the scales of fluid motion, and the sources of vorticity. Discussions of flow regimes deal with conditions of incompressibility, transitional and turbulent flows, Navier-Stokes and non-Navier-Stokes regimes, shock waves, and strain fields. Discussions of the scales of fluid motion consider transitional and turbulent flows, thin- and slender-shear layers, triple- and four-deck regions, viscous-inviscid interactions, shock waves, strain rates, and temporal scales. In addition, the significance and generation of vorticity are discussed. These physical aspects mainly guide computations of the flow of a viscous fluid.

5. Field application of lightweight, hollow-glass-sphere drilling fluid

SciTech Connect

1997-11-01

A new class of underbalanced drilling fluids being developed under US Dept. of Energy (US DOE) sponsorship was recently successfully field tested. The fluid uses hollow glass spheres (HGSs) to decrease the fluid density to less than that of the base mud while maintaining incompressibility. Concentrations of up to 20 vol% were used to decrease the fluid density to 0.8 lbm/gal less than normally used in the field. Potential benefits of using these fluids include higher penetration rates, decreased formation damage, and lost-circulation mitigation. When used in place of aerated fluid, they can eliminate compressor usage and allow the use of mud-pulse measurement-while-drilling tools. These and other recent advances in technology have spurred interest in underbalanced drilling to the highest level in 30 years. Industry-wide surveys indicate that more than 12% of wells drilled in the US in 1997 will intentionally use underbalanced techniques.

6. Existence Theory for Stochastic Power Law Fluids

Breit, Dominic

2015-06-01

We consider the equations of motion for an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid in a bounded Lipschitz domain during the time interval (0, T) together with a stochastic perturbation driven by a Brownian motion W. The balance of momentum reads as where v is the velocity, the pressure and f an external volume force. We assume the common power law model and show the existence of martingale weak solution provided . Our approach is based on the -truncation and a harmonic pressure decomposition which are adapted to the stochastic setting.

7. Fluid-structure-coupling algorithm. [BWR

SciTech Connect

McMaster, W.H.; Gong, E.Y.; Landram, C.S.; Quinones, D.F.

1980-01-01

A fluid-structure-interaction algorithm has been developed and incorporated into the two dimensional code PELE-IC. This code combines an Eulerian incompressible fluid algorithm with a Lagrangian finite element shell algorithm and incorporates the treatment of complex free surfaces. The fluid structure, and coupling algorithms have been verified by the calculation of solved problems from the literature and from air and steam blowdown experiments. The code has been used to calculate loads and structural response from air blowdown and the oscillatory condensation of steam bubbles in water suppression pools typical of boiling water reactors. The techniques developed here have been extended to three dimensions and implemented in the computer code PELE-3D.

8. 2D Mixed Convection Thermal Incompressible Viscous Flows

Bermudez, Blanca; Nicolas, Alfredo

2005-11-01

Mixed convection thermal incomprressible viscous fluid flows in rectangular cavities are presented. These kind of flows may be governed by the time-dependent Boussinesq approximation in terms of the stream function-vorticity variables formulation. The results are obtained with a simple numerical scheme based mainly on a fixed point iterative process applied to the non-linear system of elliptic equations that is obtained after a second order time discretization. Numerical experiments are reported for the problem of a cavity with fluid boundary motion on the top. Some results correspond to validation examples and others, to the best of our knowledge, correspond to new results. To show that the new results are correct, a mesh size and time independence studies are carried out, and the acceptable errors are measured point-wise. For the optimal mesh size and time step the final times when the steady state is reached, as solution from the unsteady problem, are reported; it should be seen that they are larger than the ones for natural convection which, physically speaking, show the agreement that mixed convection flows are more active than those of natural convection due to the fluid boundary motion on the top of the cavity. The flow parameters are: the Reynolds number, the Grashof number and the aspect ratio.

9. Response of the incompressible ionosphere to the compression of the magnetosphere during the geomagnetic sudden commencements

Kikuchi, T.; Hashimoto, K. K.; Tomizawa, I.; Ebihara, Y.; Nishimura, Y.; Araki, T.; Shinbori, A.; Veenadhari, B.; Tanaka, T.; Nagatsuma, T.

2016-02-01

The ionospheric plasma in midlatitude moves upward/downward during the geomagnetic sudden commencement causing the HF Doppler frequency changes; SCF (+ -) and (- +) on the dayside and nightside, respectively, except for the SCF (+ -) in the evening as found by Kikuchi et al. (1985). Although the preliminary and main frequency deviations (PFD, MFD) of the SCF have been attributed to the dusk-to-dawn and dawn-to-dusk potential electric fields, there still remain questions if the positive PFD can be caused by the compressional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave and what causes the evening anomaly of the SCF. With the HF Doppler sounder, we show that the dayside ionosphere moves upward toward the Sun during the main impulse (MI) of the SC, when the compressional wave is supposed to push the ionosphere downward. The motion of the ionosphere is shown to be correlated with the equatorial electrojet, matching the potential electric field transmitted with the ionospheric currents from the polar ionosphere. We confirmed that the electric field of the compressional wave is severely suppressed by the conducting ionosphere and reproduced the SC electric fields using the global MHD simulation in which the potential solver is employed. The model calculations well reproduced the preliminary impulse and MI electric fields and their evening anomaly. It is suggested that the electric potential is transmitted from the polar ionosphere to the equator by the zeroth-order transverse magnetic (TM0) mode waves in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. The near-instantaneous transmission of the electric potential leads to instantaneous global response of the incompressible ionosphere.

10. The solution of the two-dimensional incompressible flow equations on unstructured triangular meshes

Williams, Morgan

1993-05-01

A numerical method for calculating two-dimensional turbulent incompressible flow on unstructured triangular meshes is developed. A primitive variable formulation is used. The Helmholtz pressure equation algorithm is used to enforce the velocity continuity relation for incompressible flow. A careful treatment of the pressure dissipation model is presented. A standard k-epsilon turbulence model with wall functions is used to provide closure for the governing equations. A backward-facing step turbulent flow is calculated using an unstructured triangular mesh, and the results are compared to experimental and computational data.

11. A multi-moment finite volume method for incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured grids: Volume-average/point-value formulation

Xie, Bin; , Satoshi, Ii; Ikebata, Akio; Xiao, Feng

2014-11-01

A robust and accurate finite volume method (FVM) is proposed for incompressible viscous fluid dynamics on triangular and tetrahedral unstructured grids. Differently from conventional FVM where the volume integrated average (VIA) value is the only computational variable, the present formulation treats both VIA and the point value (PV) as the computational variables which are updated separately at each time step. The VIA is computed from a finite volume scheme of flux form, and is thus numerically conservative. The PV is updated from the differential form of the governing equation that does not have to be conservative but can be solved in a very efficient way. Including PV as the additional variable enables us to make higher-order reconstructions over compact mesh stencil to improve the accuracy, and moreover, the resulting numerical model is more robust for unstructured grids. We present the numerical formulations in both two and three dimensions on triangular and tetrahedral mesh elements. Numerical results of several benchmark tests are also presented to verify the proposed numerical method as an accurate and robust solver for incompressible flows on unstructured grids.

12. Computational Fluid Dynamics Library

Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

2005-03-04

CFDLib05 is the Los Alamos Computational Fluid Dynamics LIBrary. This is a collection of hydrocodes using a common data structure and a common numerical method, for problems ranging from single-field, incompressible flow, to multi-species, multi-field, compressible flow. The data structure is multi-block, with a so-called structured grid in each block. The numerical method is a Finite-Volume scheme employing a state vector that is fully cell-centered. This means that the integral form of the conservation lawsmore » is solved on the physical domain that is represented by a mesh of control volumes. The typical control volume is an arbitrary quadrilateral in 2D and an arbitrary hexahedron in 3D. The Finite-Volume scheme is for time-unsteady flow and remains well coupled by means of time and space centered fluxes; if a steady state solution is required, the problem is integrated forward in time until the user is satisfied that the state is stationary.« less

13. Shock Compressing Diamond to a Conducting Fluid

SciTech Connect

Bradley, D K; Eggert, J H; Hicks, D G; Celliers, P M; Moon, S J; Cauble, R C; Collins, G W

2004-07-29

Laser generated shock reflectance data show that diamond undergoes a continuous transition from optically absorbing to reflecting between Hugoniot pressures 600

14. Lagrangian coherent structures and transport in two-dimensional incompressible flows with oceanographic and atmospheric applications

Rypina, Irina I.

The Lagrangian dynamics of two-dimensional incompressible fluid flows is considered, with emphasis on transport processes in atmospheric and oceanic flows. The dynamical-systems-based approach is adopted; the Lagrangian motion in such systems is studied with the aid of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) theory, and results relating to stable and unstable manifolds and lobe dynamics. Some nontrivial extensions of well-known results are discussed, and some extensions of the theory are developed. In problems for which the flow field consists of a steady background on which a time-dependent perturbation is superimposed, it is shown that transport barriers arise naturally and play a critical role in transport processes. Theoretical results are applied to the study of transport in measured and simulated oceanographic and atmospheric flows. Two particular problems are considered. First, we study the Lagrangian dynamics of the zonal jet at the perimeter of the Antarctic Stratospheric Polar Vortex during late winter/early spring within which lies the "ozone hole". In this system, a robust transport barrier is found near the core of a zonal jet under typical conditions, which is responsible for trapping of the ozone-depleted air within the ozone hole. The existence of such a barrier is predicted theoretically and tested numerically with use of a dynamically-motivated analytically-prescribed model. The second, oceanographic, application considered is the study of the surface transport in the Adriatic Sea. The surface flow in the Adriatic is characterized by a robust three-gyre background circulation pattern. Motivated by this observation, the Lagrangian dynamics of a perturbed three-gyre system is studied, with emphasis on intergyre transport and the role of transport barriers. It is shown that a qualitative change in transport properties, accompanied by a qualitative change in the structure of stable and unstable manifolds occurs in the perturbed three-gyre system when the

15. Numerical solution of fluid-structure interaction represented by human vocal folds in airflow

Valášek, J.; Sváček, P.; Horáček, J.

2016-03-01

The paper deals with the human vocal folds vibration excited by the fluid flow. The vocal fold is modelled as an elastic body assuming small displacements and therefore linear elasticity theory is used. The viscous incompressible fluid flow is considered. For purpose of numerical solution the arbitrary Lagrangian-Euler method (ALE) is used. The whole problem is solved by the finite element method (FEM) based solver. Results of numerical experiments with different boundary conditions are presented.

16. A Fully Conservative and Entropy Preserving Cut-Cell Method for Incompressible Viscous Flows on Staggered Cartesian Grids

Le Chenadec, Vincent; Bay, Yong Yi

2015-11-01

The treatment of complex geometries in Computational Fluid Dynamics applications is a challenging endeavor, which immersed boundary and cut-cell techniques can significantly simplify by alleviating the meshing process required by body-fitted meshes. These methods also introduce new challenges, in that the formulation of accurate and well-posed discrete operators is not trivial. A cut-cell method for the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation is proposed for staggered Cartesian grids. In both scalar and vector cases, the emphasis is set on the structure of the discrete operators, designed to mimic the properties of the continuous ones while retaining a nearest-neighbor stencil. For convective transport, different forms are proposed (divergence, advective and skew-symmetric), and shown to be equivalent when the discrete continuity equation is satisfied. This ensures mass, momentum and kinetic energy conservation. For diffusive transport, conservative and symmetric operators are proposed for both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. Symmetry ensures the existence of a sink term (viscous dissipation) in the discrete kinetic energy budget, which is beneficial for stability. The accuracy of method is finally assessed in standard test cases.

17. Melting Phenomenon in MHD Stagnation Point Flow of Dusty Fluid over a Stretching Sheet in the Presence of Thermal Radiation and Non-Uniform Heat Source/Sink

Prasannakumara, B. C.; Gireesha, B. J.; Manjunatha, P. T.

2015-09-01

A comprehensive numerical study is conducted to investigate the effect of melting on flow and heat transfer of incompressible viscous dusty fluid near two-dimensional stagnation-point flow over a stretching surface, in the presence of thermal radiation, non-uniform heat source/sink and applied magnetic field. Using suitable transformations, the governing nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations and then they are solved numerically. The influence of the various interesting parameters on the flow and heat transfer is analyzed and discussed in detail through plotted graphs. Comparison of the present results with existing results is shown and a good agreement is observed. We found that the velocity and temperature fields increase with an increase in the melting process of the stretching sheet.

18. Effect of ion slip on the time-varying Hartmann flow of a non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluid with heat transfer

Attia, H. A.; Abdeen, M. A. M.

2013-03-01

Ion slip in a time-varying Hartmann flow of a conducting incompressible non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluid between two parallel horizontal insulating porous plates is studied with allowance for heat transfer. A uniform and constant pressure gradient is applied in the axial direction. An external uniform magnetic field and uniform suction and injection through the surface of the plates are applied in the normal direction. The two plates are maintained at different but constant temperatures; the Joule and viscous dissipations are taken into consideration. Numerical solutions for the governing momentum and energy equations are obtained with the use of finite differences, and the effect of various physical parameters on both the velocity and temperature fields is discussed.

19. Variational principles for stochastic fluid dynamics

PubMed Central

Holm, Darryl D.

2015-01-01

This paper derives stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) for fluid dynamics from a stochastic variational principle (SVP). The paper proceeds by taking variations in the SVP to derive stochastic Stratonovich fluid equations; writing their Itô representation; and then investigating the properties of these stochastic fluid models in comparison with each other, and with the corresponding deterministic fluid models. The circulation properties of the stochastic Stratonovich fluid equations are found to closely mimic those of the deterministic ideal fluid models. As with deterministic ideal flows, motion along the stochastic Stratonovich paths also preserves the helicity of the vortex field lines in incompressible stochastic flows. However, these Stratonovich properties are not apparent in the equivalent Itô representation, because they are disguised by the quadratic covariation drift term arising in the Stratonovich to Itô transformation. This term is a geometric generalization of the quadratic covariation drift term already found for scalar densities in Stratonovich's famous 1966 paper. The paper also derives motion equations for two examples of stochastic geophysical fluid dynamics; namely, the Euler–Boussinesq and quasi-geostropic approximations.

20. EQUIVALENCE BETWEEN SHORT-TIME BIPHASIC AND INCOMPRESSIBLE ELASTIC MATERIAL RESPONSES

PubMed Central

Ateshian, Gerard A.; Ellis, Benjamin J.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

2009-01-01

Porous-permeable tissues have often been modeled using porous media theories such as the biphasic theory. This study examines the equivalence of the short-time biphasic and incompressible elastic responses for arbitrary deformations and constitutive relations from first principles. This equivalence is illustrated in problems of unconfined compression of a disk, and of articular contact under finite deformation, using two different constitutive relations for the solid matrix of cartilage, one of which accounts for the large disparity observed between the tensile and compressive moduli in this tissue. Demonstrating this equivalence under general conditions provides a rationale for using available finite element codes for incompressible elastic materials as a practical substitute for biphasic analyses, so long as only the short-time biphasic response is sought. In practice, an incompressible elastic analysis is representative of a biphasic analysis over the short-term response δt≪Δ2/‖C4‖||K||, where Δ is a characteristic dimension, C4 is the elasticity tensor and K is the hydraulic permeability tensor of the solid matrix. Certain notes of caution are provided with regard to implementation issues, particularly when finite element formulations of incompressible elasticity employ an uncoupled strain energy function consisting of additive deviatoric and volumetric components. PMID:17536908

1. Laws for third-order moments in homogeneous anisotropic incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

Podesta, J. J.

It is known that Kolmogorov's four-fifths law for statistically homogeneous and isotropic turbulence can be generalized to anisotropic turbulence. This fundamental result for homogeneous anisotropic turbulence says that in the inertial range the divergence of the vector third-order moment |v(r) is constant and is equal to -4, where is the dissipation rate of the turbulence. This law can be extended to incompressible magnetohydrodyamic (MHD) turbulence where statistical isotropy is often not valid due, for example, to the presence of a large-scale magnetic field. Laws for anisotropic incompressible MHD turbulence were first derived by Politano and Pouquet. In this paper, the laws for vector third-order moments in homogeneous non-isotropic incompressible MHD turbulence are derived by a technique due to Frisch that clarifies the relationship between the energy flux in Fourier space and the vector third-order moments in physical space. This derivation is different from the original derivation of Politano and Pouquet which is based on the Kn-Howarth equation, and provides some new physical insights. Separate laws are derived for the cascades of energy, cross-helicity and magnetic-helicity, the three ideal invariants of incompressible MHD for flows in three dimensions. These laws are of fundamental importance in the theory of MHD turbulence where non-isotropic turbulence is much more prevalent than isotropic turbulence.

2. Global existence for a model of inhomogeneous incompressible elastodynamics in 2D

Yin, Silu

2016-05-01

In this paper, we investigate a model of incompressible, isotropic, inhomogeneous elastodynamics in two space dimensions, inspired by Lei in [18]. We prove the global existence for this Cauchy problem with sufficiently small initial displacement and small density disturbance around constant.

3. An Exact Solution to the Draining Reservoir Problem of the Incompressible and Non-Viscous Liquid

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hong, Seok-In

2009-01-01

The exact expressions for the drain time and the height, velocity and acceleration of the free surface are found for the draining reservoir problem of the incompressible and non-viscous liquid. Contrary to the conventional approximate results, they correctly describe the initial time dependence of the liquid velocity and acceleration. Torricelli's…

4. A priori estimates for the free boundary problem of incompressible neo-Hookean elastodynamics

Hao, Chengchun; Wang, Dehua

2016-07-01

A free boundary problem for the incompressible neo-Hookean elastodynamics is studied in two and three spatial dimensions. The a priori estimates in Sobolev norms of solutions with the physical vacuum condition are established through a geometrical point of view of Christodoulou and Lindblad (2000) [3]. Some estimates on the second fundamental form and velocity of the free surface are also obtained.

5. On pressure boundary conditions for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using nonstaggered grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biringen, S.; Cook, C.

1988-01-01

Pressure boundary conditions satisfying the normal momentum equation at solid boundaries with second-order accuracy are developed. Implementation of these conditions in an explicit numerical procedure for the two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations enables convergent and accurate solutions for the driven cavity problem provided that the integral constraint of the Neumann boundary condtions is satisfied.

6. On the rotation and skew-symmetric forms for incompressible flow simulations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zang, Thomas A.

1991-01-01

A variety of numerical simulations of transition and turbulence in incompressible flow are presented to compare the commonly used rotation form with the skew-symmetric (and other) forms of the nonlinear terms. The results indicate that the rotation form is much less accurate than the other forms for spectral algorithms which include aliasing errors. For de-aliased methods the difference is minimal.

7. Amniotic fluid

MedlinePlus

... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002220.htm Amniotic fluid To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amniotic fluid is a clear, slightly yellowish liquid that surrounds ...

8. A parallel sparse algorithm targeting arterial fluid mechanics computations

Manguoglu, Murat; Takizawa, Kenji; Sameh, Ahmed H.; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.

2011-09-01

Iterative solution of large sparse nonsymmetric linear equation systems is one of the numerical challenges in arterial fluid-structure interaction computations. This is because the fluid mechanics parts of the fluid + structure block of the equation system that needs to be solved at every nonlinear iteration of each time step corresponds to incompressible flow, the computational domains include slender parts, and accurate wall shear stress calculations require boundary layer mesh refinement near the arterial walls. We propose a hybrid parallel sparse algorithm, domain-decomposing parallel solver (DDPS), to address this challenge. As the test case, we use a fluid mechanics equation system generated by starting with an arterial shape and flow field coming from an FSI computation and performing two time steps of fluid mechanics computation with a prescribed arterial shape change, also coming from the FSI computation. We show how the DDPS algorithm performs in solving the equation system and demonstrate the scalability of the algorithm.

9. On the identifiability of a rigid body moving in a stationary viscous fluid

Conca, Carlos; Schwindt, Erica L.; Takahashi, Takéo

2012-01-01

This paper is devoted to a geometrical inverse problem associated with a fluid-structure system. More precisely, we consider the interaction between a moving rigid body and a viscous and incompressible fluid. Assuming a low Reynolds regime, the inertial forces can be neglected and, therefore, the fluid motion is modelled by the Stokes system. We first prove the well posedness of the corresponding system. Then we show an identifiability result: with one measure of the Cauchy forces of the fluid on one given part of the boundary and at some positive time, the shape of a convex body and its initial position are identified.

10. Statistical properties of three-dimensional two-fluid plasma model

SciTech Connect

Qaisrani, M. Hasnain; Xia, ZhenWei; Zou, Dandan

2015-09-15

The nonlinear dynamics of incompressible non-dissipative two-fluid plasma model is investigated through classical Gibbs ensemble methods. Liouville's theorem of phase space for each wave number is proved, and the absolute equilibrium spectra for Galerkin truncated two-fluid model are calculated. In two-fluid theory, the equilibrium is built on the conservation of three quadratic invariants: the total energy and the self-helicities for ions and electrons fluid, respectively. The implications of statistic equilibrium spectra with arbitrary ratios of conserved invariants are discussed.

11. Adaptive remeshing for convective heat transfer with variable fluid properties

Pelletier, Dominique; Ilinca, Florin; Hetu, Jean-Francois

1994-10-01

This article presents an adaptive finite element method based on remeshing to solve incompressible viscous flow problems for which fluid properties present a strong temperature dependence. Solutions are obtained in primitive variables using a highly accurate finite element approximation on unstructured grids. Two general purpose error estimators are presented, which take into account the temperature dependence of fluid properties. The methodology is applied to a problem of practical interest: the thermal convection of corn syrup in an enclosure with localized heating. Predictions are in good agreement with experimental measurements. The method leads to improved accuracy and reliability of finite element predictions.

12. Fluid Mechanics.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drazin, Philip

1987-01-01

Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

13. Fluid property measurements study

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Devaney, W. E.

1976-01-01

Fluid properties of refrigerant-21 were investigated at temperatures from the freezing point to 423 Kelvin and at pressures to 1.38 x 10 to the 8th power N/sq m (20,000 psia). The fluid properties included were: density, vapor pressure, viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, freezing point and bulk modulus. Tables of smooth values are reported.

14. Analytical and experimental study of free oscillations of neutral buoyancy bodies in a continuously stratified fluid

Vasiliev, A. Yu.

2009-04-01

We study analytically and experimentally flow pattern forming by free oscillating sphere and vertical cylinder near a neutral buoyancy horizon. Calculations of the free body displacements are based on complete set of fundamental governing equations including continuity and Navier-Stokes equations and incompressibility equation for the fluid with no-slip boundary conditions and the Newton's second law for the body. The set is transformed into system of integro-differential equations which is solved by multi-scale perturbation method. Solutions for different variables are constructed in infinite series, then truncated and the first approximation which depended on two empiric parameters is analysed. The parameters, characterising frequency and typical rate of decay of oscillations are defined from experiments. Experiments are performed in a stratified tank using markers, schlieren instruments and conductivity sensors. Internal waves and autocumulative jets were observed in the fluid. Analytical calculations rather good fit the dates of measurements. Extrapolation of theoretical and experimental data on environmental condition shows that singular surfaces around free oscillating marine "ARGO" buoys can impact on measurement accuracy.

15. GASP: A computer code for calculating the thermodynamic and transport properties for ten fluids: Parahydrogen, helium, neon, methane, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, fluorine, argon, and carbon dioxide. [enthalpy, entropy, thermal conductivity, and specific heat

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hendricks, R. C.; Baron, A. K.; Peller, I. C.

1975-01-01

A FORTRAN IV subprogram called GASP is discussed which calculates the thermodynamic and transport properties for 10 pure fluids: parahydrogen, helium, neon, methane, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, fluorine, argon, and carbon dioxide. The pressure range is generally from 0.1 to 400 atmospheres (to 100 atm for helium and to 1000 atm for hydrogen). The temperature ranges are from the triple point to 300 K for neon; to 500 K for carbon monoxide, oxygen, and fluorine; to 600 K for methane and nitrogen; to 1000 K for argon and carbon dioxide; to 2000 K for hydrogen; and from 6 to 500 K for helium. GASP accepts any two of pressure, temperature and density as input conditions along with pressure, and either entropy or enthalpy. The properties available in any combination as output include temperature, density, pressure, entropy, enthalpy, specific heats, sonic velocity, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and surface tension. The subprogram design is modular so that the user can choose only those subroutines necessary to the calculations.

16. Relativistic fluid dynamics. Proceedings.

Anile, A. M.; Choquet-Bruhat, Y.

Contents: 1. Covariant theory of conductivity in ideal fluid or solid media (B. Carter). 2. Hamiltonian techniques for relativistic fluid dynamics and stability theory (D. D. Holm). 3. Covariant fluid mechanics and thermodynamics: an introduction (W. Israel). 4. Relativistic plasmas (H. Weitzner). 5. An improved relativistic warm plasma model (A. M. Anile, S. Pennisi). 6. Relativistic extended thermodynamics II (I. Müller). 7. Relativistic extended thermodynamics: general assumptions and mathematical procedure (T. Ruggeri). 8. Relativistic hydrodynamics and heavy ion reactions (D. Strottman). 9. Some problems in relativistic hydrodynamics (C. G. van Weert).

17. Introduction to finite-difference methods for numerical fluid dynamics

SciTech Connect

Scannapieco, E.; Harlow, F.H.

1995-09-01

This work is intended to be a beginners exercise book for the study of basic finite-difference techniques in computational fluid dynamics. It is written for a student level ranging from high-school senior to university senior. Equations are derived from basic principles using algebra. Some discussion of partial-differential equations is included, but knowledge of calculus is not essential. The student is expected, however, to have some familiarity with the FORTRAN computer language, as the syntax of the computer codes themselves is not discussed. Topics examined in this work include: one-dimensional heat flow, one-dimensional compressible fluid flow, two-dimensional compressible fluid flow, and two-dimensional incompressible fluid flow with additions of the equations of heat flow and the {Kappa}-{epsilon} model for turbulence transport. Emphasis is placed on numerical instabilities and methods by which they can be avoided, techniques that can be used to evaluate the accuracy of finite-difference approximations, and the writing of the finite-difference codes themselves. Concepts introduced in this work include: flux and conservation, implicit and explicit methods, Lagrangian and Eulerian methods, shocks and rarefactions, donor-cell and cell-centered advective fluxes, compressible and incompressible fluids, the Boussinesq approximation for heat flow, Cartesian tensor notation, the Boussinesq approximation for the Reynolds stress tensor, and the modeling of transport equations. A glossary is provided which defines these and other terms.

18. Solution of linear systems in arterial fluid mechanics computations with boundary layer mesh refinement

Manguoglu, Murat; Takizawa, Kenji; Sameh, Ahmed H.; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.

2009-10-01

Computation of incompressible flows in arterial fluid mechanics, especially because it involves fluid-structure interaction, poses significant numerical challenges. Iterative solution of the fluid mechanics part of the equation systems involved is one of those challenges, and we address that in this paper, with the added complication of having boundary layer mesh refinement with thin layers of elements near the arterial wall. As test case, we use matrix data from stabilized finite element computation of a bifurcating middle cerebral artery segment with aneurysm. It is well known that solving linear systems that arise in incompressible flow computations consume most of the time required by such simulations. For solving these large sparse nonsymmetric systems, we present effective preconditioning techniques appropriate for different stages of the computation over a cardiac cycle.

19. Wavelet regularization of the 2D incompressible Euler equations

Nguyen van Yen, Romain; Farge, Marie; Schneider, Kai

2009-11-01

We examine the viscosity dependence of the solutions of two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in periodic and wall-bounded domains, for Reynolds numbers varying from 10^3 to 10^7. We compare the Navier-Stokes solutions to those of the regularized two-dimensional Euler equations. The regularization is performed by applying at each time step the wavelet-based CVS filter (Farge et al., Phys. Fluids, 11, 1999), which splits turbulent fluctuations into coherent and incoherent contributions. We find that for Reynolds 10^5 the dissipation of coherent enstrophy tends to become independent of Reynolds, while the dissipation of total enstrophy decays to zero logarithmically with Reynolds. In the wall-bounded case, we observe an additional production of enstrophy at the wall. As a result, coherent enstrophy diverges when Reynolds tends to infinity, but its time derivative seems to remain bounded independently of Reynolds. This indicates that a balance may have been established between coherent enstrophy dissipation and coherent enstrophy production at the wall. The Reynolds number for which the dissipation of coherent enstrophy becomes independent on the Reynolds number is proposed to define the onset of the fully-turbulent regime.

20. Pipes Conveying Fluid: A Model Dynamical Problem