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Sample records for conductivity ph dissolved

  1. Comparison of temperature, specific conductance, pH, and dissolved oxygen at selected basic fixed sites in south-central Texas, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ging, Patricia B.; Otero, Cassi L.

    2003-01-01

    One component of the surface-water part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program is the use of continuous water-quality monitors to help characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of general water quality in relation to hydrologic conditions. During 1996?98, six continuous water-quality monitors in the South-Central Texas study unit collected water temperature, specific conductance, pH, and dissolved oxygen data. The data were compared among the six sites using boxplots of monthly mean values, summary statistics of monthly values, and hydrographs of daily mean values.

  2. Water Temperature, Specific Conductance, pH, and Dissolved-Oxygen Concentrations in the Lower White River and the Puyallup River Estuary, Washington, August-October 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ebbert, James C.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Washington State Department of Ecology, and Puyallup Tribe of Indians monitored water temperature, specific conductance, pH, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the White River at river miles 4.9 and 1.8 from August until mid-October 2002. Water diverted from the White River upstream from the monitoring sites into Lake Tapps is returned to the river at river mile 3.6 between the two sites. The same characteristics were measured in a cross section of the Puyallup River estuary at river mile 1.5 during high and low tides in September 2002. In late August, maximum daily water temperatures in the White River of 21.1oC (degrees Celsius) at river mile 4.9 and 19.6oC at river mile 1.8 exceeded the water-quality standard of 18oC at both monitoring sites. In mid-September, maximum daily water temperatures at river mile 4.9 exceeded the standard on 5 days. From August 2-25, water temperatures at both monitoring sites were similar and little or no water was discharged from Lake Tapps to the White River. Increases in water temperature at river mile 1.8 in late September and early October were caused by the mixing of warmer water discharged from Lake Tapps with cooler water in the White River. Specific conductance in the White River usually was lower at river mile 1.8 than at river mile 4.9 because of mixing with water from Lake Tapps, which has a lower specific conductance. Maximum values of pH in the White River at river mile 4.9 often exceeded the upper limit of the water-quality standard, 8.5 pH units, from early September until mid-October, when turbidity decreased. The pH standard was not exceeded at river mile 1.8. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the White River were often lower at river mile 1.8 than at river mile 4.9 because of mixing with water discharged from Lake Tapps, which has lower dissolved-oxygen concentrations. The lowest concentration of dissolved oxygen observed was 7.9 mg/L (milligrams per liter) at river mile 1.8. The lower limit allowed by the water-quality standard is 8 mg/L. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen measured in a cross section of the Puyallup River estuary at high tide on September 12, 2002, ranged from 9.9 to 10.2 mg/L in fresh water at the surface and from 8.1 to 8.4 mg/L in salt water near the riverbed. These values were within limits set by Washington State water-quality standards for dissolved oxygen of 8 mg/L in fresh water and 6 mg/L in marine water.

  3. Daily and seasonal variability of pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and specific conductance in the Colorado River between the forebay of Glen Canyon, Dam and Lees Ferry, northeastern Arizona, 1998-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Marilyn E.; Hart, Robert J.; Marzolf, G. Richard; Bowser, Carl J.

    2001-01-01

    The productivity of the trout fishery in the tailwater reach of the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam depends on the productivity of lower trophic levels. Photosynthesis and respiration are basic biological processes that control productivity and alter pH and oxygen concentration. During 1998?99, data were collected to aid in the documentation of short- and long-term trends in these basic ecosystem processes in the Glen Canyon reach. Dissolved-oxygen, temperature, and specific-conductance profile data were collected monthly in the forebay of Glen Canyon Dam to document the status of water chemistry in the reservoir. In addition, pH, dissolved-oxygen, temperature, and specific-conductance data were collected at five sites in the Colorado River tailwater of Glen Canyon Dam to document the daily, seasonal, and longitudinal range of variation in water chemistry that could occur annually within the Glen Canyon reach.

  4. DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER AND METALS: EFFECTS OF PH ON PARTITIONING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eighteen Dutch soils were extracted in aqueous solutions at varying pH. Extracts were analyzed for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by ICP-AES. Extract dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was fractionated into three operationally defined fractions: hydrophilic acids (Hyd), fulvic acids (FA), an...

  5. pH change induces shifts in the size and light absorption of dissolved organic matter

    E-print Network

    Pace, Michael L.

    pH change induces shifts in the size and light absorption of dissolved organic matter Michael L ecosystems through its light absorbing qualities. We investigated how pH affects light absorption by DOM with pH manipulation experiments and with data from two lake surveys. We hypothesized that: (1) light

  6. Dissolved oxygen and pH relationships in northern Australian mangrove waterways

    SciTech Connect

    Boto, K.G.; Bunt, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    Consistent, highly significant linear correlations (R2 greater than or equal to 0.8) between pH and dissolved oxygen levels have been found in northern Australian mangrove waterways. These properties seem to be influenced by dissolved organic matter, mainly polyphenolic compounds, present in the creeks and tidal channel waters.

  7. Relative effect of temperature and pH on diel cycling of dissolved trace elements in prickly pear creek, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, C.A.; Nimick, D.A.; McCleskey, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    Diel (24 hr) cycles in dissolved metal and As concentrations have been documented in many northern Rocky Mountain streams in the U.S.A. The cause(s) of the cycles are unknown, although temperature- and pH-dependent sorption reactions have been cited as likely causes. A light/dark experiment was conducted to isolate temperature and pH as variables affecting diel metal cycles in Prickly Pear Creek, Montana. Light and dark chambers containing sediment and a strand of macrophyte were placed in the stream to simulate instream temperature oscillations. Photosynthesis-induced pH changes were allowed to proceed in the light chambers while photosynthesis was prevented in the dark chambers. Water samples were collected periodically for 22 hr in late July 2001 from all chambers and the stream. In the stream, dissolved Zn concentrations increased by 300% from late afternoon to early morning, while dissolved As concentrations exhibited the opposite pattern, increasing 33% between early morning and late afternoon. Zn and As concentrations in the light chambers showed similar, though less pronounced, diel variations. Conversely, Zn and As concentrations in the dark chambers had no obvious diel variation, indicating that light, or light-induced reactions, caused the variation. Temperature oscillations were nearly identical between light and dark chambers, strongly suggesting that temperature was not controlling the diel variations. As expected, pH was negatively correlated (P < 0.01) with dissolved Zn concentrations and positively correlated with dissolved As concentrations in both the light and dark chambers. From these experiments, photosynthesis-induced pH changes were determined to be the major cause of the diel dissolved Zn and As cycles in Prickly Pear Creek. Further research is necessary in other streams to verify that this finding is consistent among streams having large differences in trace-element concentrations and mineralogy of channel substrate. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  8. THE EFFECT OF PH AND DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON ON THE PROPERTIES OF IRON COLLOIDAL SUSPENSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discolored water resulting from suspended iron particles is a relatively common drinking water consumer complaint. These particles result from the oxygenation of Fe(II), and this study shows that pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) have important effects on their properties....

  9. INFLUENCE OF PH, DISSOLVED OXYGEN, SUSPENDED SOLIDS OR DISSOLVED SOLIDS UPON VENTILATORY AND COUGH FREQUENCIES IN THE BLUEGILL 'LEPOMIS MACROCHIRUS' AND BROOK TROUT 'SALVELINUS FONTINALIS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conservative no-effect concentration ranges were estimated for ventilatory and coughing responses of bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis exposed to altered pH, or to changes in dissolved oxygen (DO), suspended solids, or dissolved solids con...

  10. Conductance Regulator Bicarbonate Conductance and pH Regulatory Capability of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane

    E-print Network

    Machen, Terry E.

    Conductance Regulator Bicarbonate Conductance and pH Regulatory Capability of Cystic Fibrosis Bicarbonate conductance and pH regulatory capability of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator J0 of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Communicated by Hans H. Ussing, February 28, 1994 ABSTRACT The cystic fibrosis

  11. pH measurement of low-conductivity waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busenberg, Eurybiades; Plummer, L.N.

    1987-01-01

    pH is an important and commonly measured parameter of precipitation and other natural waters. The various sources of errors in pH measurement were analyzed and procedures for improving the accuracy and precision of pH measurements in natural waters with conductivities of < 100 uS/cm at 25 C are suggested. Detailed procedures are given for the preparation of dilute sulfuric acid standards to evaluate the performance of pH electrodes in low conductivity waters. A daily check of the pH of dilute sulfuric acid standards and deionized water saturated with a gas mixture of low carbon dioxide at partial pressure (air) prior to the measurement of the pH of low conductivity waters is suggested. (Author 's abstract)

  12. Effects of pH and dissolved oxygen on Cr(VI) removal in Fe(0)/H2O systems.

    PubMed

    Yoon, In-Ho; Bang, Sunbaek; Chang, Jin-Soo; Gyu Kim, Min; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2011-02-15

    The effects of pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) on aqueous Cr(VI) removal by micro-scale zero-valent iron (Fe(0)/H(2)O system) were investigated. Batch experiments were conducted at pH 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 under oxic and anoxic conditions. Column experiments were performed at pH 5.0 and 7.5 under oxic condition. Spectroscopic analyses were applied to explain the mechanism of Cr(VI) removal using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that the kinetics of Cr(VI) removal were fastest at pH 5 under both oxic and anoxic conditions. As a rule, Cr(VI) removal were faster under oxic conditions than under anoxic conditions. Column experiments showed that Cr(VI) removal was about 1.7-fold higher at pH 5 than at pH 7.5. XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structures) results showed that Fe(0) reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(III) under both oxic and anoxic conditions. X-ray diffraction patterns of the Cr(VI)-Fe(0) reaction products suggested partial formation of chromite (FeCr(2)O(4)) at pH 5 and 6 under oxic conditions. However, nano-sized clusters of Cr(III)/Fe(III) hydroxide/oxyhydroxide were formed on the surface of Fe(0) under anoxic conditions. These results indicate that the presence of oxygen in solution plays an important role in control of the kinetic of Cr(VI) removal and in development of various Cr(VI) reduction products. PMID:21163574

  13. Scales and sources of pH and dissolved oxygen variability in a shallow, upwelling-driven ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, C. A.; Martz, T.; Levin, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    In the coastal zone extreme variability in carbonate chemistry and oxygen is driven by fluctuations in temperature, salinity, air-sea gas exchange, mixing processes, and biology. This variability appears to be magnified in upwelling-driven ecosystems where low oxygen and low pH waters intrude into shallow depths. The oxygen and carbon chemistry signal can be further confounded by highly productive ecosystems such as kelp beds where photosynthesis and respiration consume and release significant amounts of dissolved inorganic carbon and oxygen. This variability poses a challenge for scientists assessing the impacts of climate change on nearshore ecosystems. We deployed physical & biogeochemical sensors in order to observe these processes in situ. The "SeapHOx" instruments used in this study consist of a modified Honeywell Durafet° ISFET pH sensor, an Aanderra Optode Oxygen sensor, and a SBE-37 conductivity, temperature, pressure sensor. The instruments were deployed on and around the La Jolla Kelp Forest at a variety of depths. Our goals were to (a) characterize the link between pH and oxygen and identify the magnitude of pH and oxygen variability over a range of intra-annual time scales and (b) investigate spatial patterns of pH and oxygen variability associated with depth, proximity to shore, and presence of kelp. Results thus far reveal a strong relationship between oxygen and pH. Temporal variability is greatest at the semidiurnal frequency where pH (at 7 m) can range up to 0.3 units and oxygen can change 50% over 6 h. Diurnal variability is a combination of the diurnal tidal component and diel cycles of production and respiration. Event-scale dynamics associated with upwelling can maintain pH and oxygen below 7.8 units and 200 ?mol kg-1, respectively, for multiple days. Frequent current reversals drive changes in the observed oxygen and pH variability. When alongshore currents are flowing southward, driven by upwelling-favorable winds, the magnitude of semidiurnal pH variability increases 5-fold relative to the magnitude of change during northward alongshore. Applying an empirically-determined alkalinity relationship, we conclude that changes in the carbonate chemistry parameters are largely driven by changes in total carbon. On small spatial scales, cross-shore differences exist in mean oxygen and pH but differences in alongshore mean oxygen and pH at a given depth appears to be negligible. Cross-shore differences can equate to a 0.05 pH unit decrease and 25 ?mol kg-1 oxygen decrease over 1 km at a given depth. Strong spatial variability in pH and oxygen conditions exist over vertical gradients in the kelp forest, with mean pH at the surface (7m) being 0.2 pH units greater than at the bottom (17m) and mean oxygen being 104 ?mol kg-1 greater. The observed range of pH (7.55-8.22) observed in this shallow environment during the course of a year is greater than open ocean predictions for a global mean pH reduction of 0.2-0.3 units predicted by the year 2100. These results suggest that organisms on exposed upwelling coasts may be adapted to a range of pH conditions and highlight the need for scientists to consider biological response to varying scales of pH change in order to develop more realistic predictions of the impacts of climate change for the coastal zone.

  14. Influence of pH on fluorescent dissolved organic matter photo-degradation.

    PubMed

    Timko, Stephen A; Gonsior, Michael; Cooper, William J

    2015-11-15

    A novel semi-continuous excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence and absorbance monitoring system has been developed. Full EEMs were collected simultaneously with absorbance spectra every 20 min during 24 h solar-simulated irradiation experiments, and the kinetic change of fluorescence of Suwannee River natural organic matter IHSS standard material (SRNOM) at various pH values was investigated. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was then used to isolate the photo-labile and pH-influenced fluorescent components of SRNOM. Kinetic analysis showed increasing rates of fluorescence loss with increasing pH. This has significant implications for the photo-degradation of dissolved natural organic matter during estuarine mixing, when large increases of pH are common. The influence of pH on fluorescence and photo-degradation kinetics emphasizes the need for pH to be monitored and accurately controlled during laboratory experiments. It is also highly recommended that when constructing PARAFAC models or monitoring changes in fluorescence data between samples of different origins, that the pH be held constant to remove any potential artifacts or misinterpretation of data. PMID:26342180

  15. Effect of pH on dynamic and equilibrium surface tension of dissolve organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arye, Gilboa; Trifonov, Pavel; Ilani, Talli

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the terrestrial environment may originate from the decomposition of soil organic matter accumulated from the degradation of vegetative residues, the release of root exudates, the lysis of microorganisms and addition of organic wastes, such as livestock manure, biosolids, and different composted organic residues, or from irrigation with wastewater. The structure of DOM macromolecules is known to vary with the following aqueous solution properties: ionic strength, the nature of the inorganic ions, pH and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. In aqueous solution, the DOM molecules are amphiphilic, that is, it possesses both hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional groups in the same molecule. This simultaneous presence, gave rise to the conceptual surfactant like model for DOM which has been studies in conjunction with the equilibrium surface tension at the liquid-air interface (STeq, mN/m). Measurements of STeq of DOM solution were reported in a relatively small number of studies for the conditions of the aqueous solution (e.g., temperature, pH, ionic strength, the valence of the metal ions, and DOC concentration). All studies demonstrate the decrease in STeq with increase aqueous concentration of the DOC. The effect of pH, however, exhibit contradictory results. Specifically, for a given DOC concentration, the patterns reported for STeq versus pH were different. With increasing pH values, STeq has been reported to decrease, increase or exhibit a minimum. These contradictory results have been attributed to the different DOC concentration examined in each of the studies. In current study we hypothesized that the inconsistent results of STeq vs. pH may also stem from the adsorption kinetics of the DOM amphiphilic molecules at the liquid air interface, which can be evaluated form dynamic surface tension measurements (STt). The STt is approaching STeq values and commonly exhibiting an exponential decay pattern. If for different pH values STt is not reaching STeq, different apparent STeq vs. pH patterns can be obtain. In this study measurement of STt and STeq as a function of pH will be presented for DOM solutions from different origins. The analysis of the STt curves will be demonstrated based on a short and long term diffusion model.

  16. The effects of dissolved organic matter and pH on sampling rates for polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS).

    PubMed

    Li, Hongxia; Helm, Paul A; Paterson, Gordon; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2011-04-01

    The effect of solution pH and levels of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the sampling rates for model pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting substance (EDS) by polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) was investigated in laboratory experiments. A commercially available POCIS configuration containing neutral Oasis HLB (hydrophilic-lipophilic balance) resin (i.e. pharmaceutical POCIS) and two POCIS configurations prepared in-house containing MAX and MCX anion and cation exchange resins, respectively were tested for uptake of 21 model PPCPs and EDS, including acidic, phenolic, basic and neutral compounds. Laboratory experiments were conducted with dechlorinated tap water over a pH range of 3, 7 and 9. The effects of DOM were studied using natural water from an oligotrophic lake in Ontario, Canada (i.e. Plastic Lake) spiked with different amounts of DOM (the concentration of dissolved organic carbon ranged from 3 to 5mgL(-1) in uptake experiments). In experiments with the commercial (HLB) POCIS, the MCX-POCIS and the MAX-POCIS, the sampling rates generally increased with pH for basic compounds and declined with pH for acidic compounds. However, the sampling rates were relatively constant across the pH range for phenols with high pKa values (i.e. bisphenol A, estrone, estradiol, triclosan) and for the neutral pharmaceutical, carbamazepine. Thus, uptake was greatest when the amount of the neutral species in solution was maximized relative to the ionized species. Although the solution pH affected the uptake of some model ionic compounds, the effect was by less than a factor of 3. There was no significant effect of DOM on sampling rates from Plastic Lake. However, uptake rates in different aqueous matrixes declined in the order of deionized water>Plastic Lake water>dechlorinated tap water, so other parameters must affect uptake into POCIS, although this influence will be minor. MAX-POCIS and MCX-POCIS showed little advantage over the commercial POCIS configuration for monitoring in natural waters. PMID:21247614

  17. Versatile common instrumentation for optical detection of pH and dissolved oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardesai, Neha; Rao, Govind; Kostov, Yordan

    2015-07-01

    The recent trend toward use of disposable and miniature bioreactors requires the use of appropriate sensors. pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) are often measured using optical chemical sensors due to their small form factor and convenience in use. These sensors are often interrogated using a specialized opto-electronic transducer that is designed around the optical sensor. In this contribution, we are presenting a new class of opto-electronic transducers that are usable with several different chemical sensors without the need to switch the optics or hardware when changing the type of the chemical sensor. This allows flexibility closer to the lab-grade devices while the size is closer to a dedicated sensor. This versatile instrumentation is capable of seamlessly switching between the pH and DO measurement modes and is capable of auto recognition of the sensor type. The principle of ratiometric fluorescence is used for pH measurements, and that of fluorescence lifetime for DO measurements. An approach to obtain identical calibrations between several devices is also presented. The described hardware constitutes common instrumentation for measuring either pH or DO and has been tested in actual bioprocesses. It has been found adequate for continuous bioprocess monitoring.

  18. Fertilization and pH effects on processes and mechanisms controlling dissolved inorganic phosphorus in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devau, Nicolas; Hinsinger, Philippe; Le Cadre, Edith; Colomb, Bruno; Gérard, Frédéric

    2011-05-01

    We used of a set of mechanistic adsorption models (1-pK TPM, ion exchange and Nica-Donnan) within the framework of the component additive (CA) approach in an attempt to determine the effect of repeated massive application of inorganic P fertilizer on the processes and mechanisms controlling the concentration of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) in soils. We studied the surface layer of a Luvisol with markedly different total concentrations of inorganic P as the result of different P fertilizer history (i.e. massive or no application for 40 years). Soil pH was made to vary from acid to alkaline. Soil solutions were extracted with water and CaCl 2 (0.01 M). The occurrence of montmorillonite led us to determine the binding properties of P and Ca ions for this clay mineral. Satisfactory results were obtained using generic values for model parameters and soil-specific ones, which were either determined directly by measurements or estimated from the literature. We showed that adsorption largely controlled the variations of DIP concentration and that, because of kinetic constrains, only little Ca-phosphates may be precipitated under alkaline conditions, particularly in the P fertilized treatment. The mineral-P pool initially present in both P treatments did not dissolve significantly during the course of the experiments. The adsorption of Ca ions onto soil minerals also promoted adsorption of P ions through electrostatic interactions. The intensity of the mechanism was high under neutral to alkaline conditions. Changes in DIP concentration as a function of these environmental variables can be related to changes in the contribution of the various soil minerals to P adsorption. The extra P adsorbed in the fertilized treatment compared with the control treatment was mainly adsorbed onto illite. This clay mineral was the major P-fixing constituent from neutral to alkaline pH conditions, because the repulsion interactions between deprotonated hydroxyl surface sites and P ions were sufficiently counterbalanced by Ca ions. The drastic increase of DIP observed at acid pH was due to the effect of the lower concentration of surface sites of Fe oxides and kaolinite. In addition to confirming the validity of our approach to model DIP concentrations in soils, the present investigation showed that adsorption was the predominant geochemical process even in the P fertilized soil, and that Ca ions can have an important promoting effect on P adsorption. However the influence of the dissolution of the mineral-P pool under field conditions remained questionable.

  19. DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER AND METALS: EFFECTS OF PH ON PARTITIONING NATURAL ORGANIC MATTER IN SOILS AND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eighteen Dutch soils were extracted in aqueous solutions at varying pH. Extracts were analyzed for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by ICP-AES. Extract dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was fractionated into three operationally defined fractions: hydrophilic acids (Hyd), fulvic acids (FA), an...

  20. The capacity of biochar made from common reeds to neutralise pH and remove dissolved metals in acid drainage.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Luke M; Willson, Philip; Hamilton, Benjamin; Butler, Greg; Seaman, Russell

    2015-10-01

    We tested the capacity of biochar (made at 450 °C from a common reed species) to neutralise pH and remove metals in two acid drainage waters (pH 2.6 and 4.6) using column leaching and batch mixing experiments. In the column experiments, the acid drainage water was neutralised upon passage through the biochar with substantial increases (4-5 pH units) in the leachate pH. In the batch experiments, the leachate pH remained above 6.5 when the drainage:biochar ratio was less than approximately 700:1 (L acid drainage:kg biochar) and 20:1 for the pH 4.6 and pH 2.6 drainage waters, respectively. Dissolved metal concentrations were reduced by 89-98 % (Fe???Al?>?Ni???Zn?>?Mn) in the leachate from the biochar. A key mechanism of pH neutralisation appears to be solid carbonate dissolution as calcite (CaCO3) was identified (via X-ray diffraction) in the biochar prior to contact with acid drainage, and dissolved alkalinity and Ca was observed in the leachate. Proton and metal removal by cation exchange, direct binding to oxygen-containing functional groups, and metal oxide precipitation also appears important. Further evaluation of the treatment capacity of other biochars and field trials are warranted. PMID:26004563

  1. Processes controlling dissolved oxygen and pH in the upper Willamette River basin, Oregon, 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pogue, Ted R., Jr.; Anderson, Chauncey W.

    1995-01-01

    In July and August of 1994, the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ) collected data to document the spatial extent and diel variability of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and pH levels in selected reaches of streams in the upper Willamette River Basin. These data were also collected to identify primary factors that control DO concentrations downstream from major point sources as well as to provide ODEQ with data to refine calibration of their steady-state DO and nutrient models for the upper Willamette River Basin. All of the reaches studied had diel variations in DO and pH. The magnitude of the diel variations in DO ranged from 0.2 to 3.9 milligrams per liter (7 to 50 percent-saturation units based on ambient water temperature and barometric pressure) and in pH from 0.3 to 1.4 units. However, of the reaches studied, only the Coast Fork Willamette River from river mile (RM) 21.7 to 12.5 and the Willamette River from RM 151 to 141.6 had field measured violations of State standards for DO and pH. DO concentration and pH in water depend on many factors. Data were collected to examine several major factors, including BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), carbonaceous BOD, nitrogenous BOD, and measures of photosynthetic activity. Of the four study reaches, only a short stretch of the Coast Fork Willamette River has potential for important levels of oxygen consumption from BOD or nitrification. Additionally, water-column primary-productivity measurements indicated that respiration and photosynthesis by free-floating algae did not explain the observed diel variations in DO in the study reaches. Results from a simple mathematical model incorporating measures of community respiration and net primary productivities indicated that periphyton are capable of producing a diel variation of the order of magnitude observed during the August study period. In the Willamette River near Peoria, the combined periphyton DO consumption and production estimate at RM 151 (2.4 mg/L) and RM 144.6 (1.7 mg/L) would account for 90 and 63 percent, respectively, of the observed diel fluctuation. The estimates for the Corvallis reach at RM 132.6 (0.4 mg/L) and RM 130.7 (2.9 mg/L) had a considerably larger range of 36 to 264 percent of DO saturation, respectively. Therefore, because BOD and phytoplankton do not appear to be important contributors to diel DO fluctuations, periphyton are likely the primary contributor to diel fluctuations in the upper Willamette River Basin during July and August.

  2. THE RELATIONSHIP OF TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS MEASUREMENTS TO BULK ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY IN AN AQUIFER CONTAMINATED WITH HYDROCARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    A recent conceptual model links high bulk electrical conductivities at hydrocarbon impacted sites to higher total dissolved solids (TDS) resulting from enhanced mineral weathering due to acids produced during biodegradation. In this study, we investigated the vertical distributio...

  3. Sulfamethazine sorption to soil: vegetative management, pH, and dissolved organic matter effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elucidating veterinary antibiotic (VA) interactions with soil is important for assessing and mitigating possible environmental hazards. Objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of vegetative management, soil physical and chemical properties, and manure-derived dissolved organic matte...

  4. Effects of dissolved oxygen and pH on nitrous oxide production rates in autotrophic partial nitrification granules.

    PubMed

    Rathnayake, Rathnayake M L D; Oshiki, Mamoru; Ishii, Satoshi; Segawa, Takahiro; Satoh, Hisashi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    The effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH on nitrous oxide (N2O) production rates and pathways in autotrophic partial nitrification (PN) granules were investigated at the granular level. N2O was primarily produced by betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, mainly Nitrosomonas europaea, in the oxic surface layer (<200?m) of the autotrophic PN granules. N2O production increased with increasing bulk DO concentration owing to activation of the ammonia (i.e., hydroxylamine) oxidation in this layer. The highest N2O emissions were observed at pH 7.5, although the ammonia oxidation rate was unchanged between pH 6.5 and 8.5. Overall, the results of this study suggest that in situ analyses of PN granules are essential to gaining insight into N2O emission mechanisms in a granule. PMID:26318242

  5. High temporal and spatial variability of dissolved oxygen and pH in a nearshore California kelp forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frieder, C. A.; Nam, S. H.; Martz, T. R.; Levin, L. A.

    2012-03-01

    Predicting consequences of ocean deoxygenation and ocean acidification for nearshore marine ecosystems requires baseline dissolved oxygen (DO) and carbonate chemistry data that are both high-frequency and high-quality. Such data allow accurate assessment of environmental variability and present-day organism exposure regimes. In this study, scales of DO and pH variability were characterized over one year in a nearshore, kelp forest ecosystem in the Southern California Bight. DO and pH were strongly, positively correlated revealing that organisms on this upwelling shelf are not only exposed to low pH but also low DO. The dominant temporal scale of DO and pH variability occurred on semidiurnal, diurnal and event (days-weeks) time scales. Daily ranges in DO and pH at 7 m water depth (13 mab) could be as large as 220 ?mol kg-1 and 0.36 units, respectively. This range is much greater than the expected decreases in pH in the open ocean by the year 2100. Sources of pH and DO variation include photosynthesis within the kelp forest ecosystem, which can elevate DO and pH by up to 60 ?mol kg-1 and 0.1 units over one week following the intrusion of high-density, nutrient-rich water. Accordingly, highly productive macrophyte-based ecosystems could serve as deoxygenation and acidification refugia by acting to elevate DO and pH relative to surrounding waters. DO and pH exhibited greater spatial variation over a 10 m increase in water depth (from 7 to 17 m) than along a 5-km stretch of shelf in a cross-shore or alongshore direction. Over a three-month time period mean DO and pH at 17-m water depth were 168 ?mol kg-1 and 7.87, respectively. These values represent a 35% decrease in mean DO and 37% increase in [H+] relative to surface waters. High-frequency variation was also reduced at depth. The mean daily range in DO and pH was 39% and 37% less, respectively, at 17-m water depth relative to the surface. As a consequence, the exposure history of an organism is largely a function of its depth of occurrence within the kelp forest. These findings raise the possibility that the benthic communities along eastern boundary current systems are currently acclimatized and adapted to natural, variable, and low DO and pH. Future exposure of coastal California populations to low DO and pH may increase as upwelling intensifies and hypoxic boundaries shoal, compressing habitats and challenging the physiological capacity of intolerant species.

  6. B/Ca in coccoliths and relationship to calcification vesicle pH and dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Heather; Langer, Gerald; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Kanamaru, Kinuyo

    2012-03-01

    Coccolithophorid algae are microscopic but prolific calcifiers in modern and ancient oceans. When the pH of seawater is modified, as may occur in the future due to ocean acidification, different species and strains of coccolithophorids have exhibited diverse calcification responses in laboratory culture. Since their biomineralization is a completely intracellular process, it is unclear why their response should be affected by extracellular seawater pH. Variations in the B/Ca in coccoliths are potential indicators of pH shifts in the intracellular coccolith vesicle where calcification occurs, because B/Ca in abiogenic calcites increases at higher pH due to the greater abundance of borate ions, the only B species incorporated into calcite. We used a SIMS ion probe to measure B/Ca of coccoliths from three different strains of Emiliania huxleyi and one strain of Coccolithus braarudii braarudii cultured under different seawater pH conditions to ascertain if the B/Ca can be used to elucidate how coccolithophorids respond to changing ocean pH. These data are interpreted with the aid of a conceptual model of cellular boron acquisition by coccolithophorids. Based on uptake in other plants, we infer that boron uptake by coccolithophorid cells is dominated by passive uptake of boric acid across the lipid bilayer. Subsequently, in the alkaline coccolith vesicle (C.V.), boron speciates according to the C.V. pH, and borate is incorporated into the coccolith. At increasing seawater pH, the relative abundance of the neutral boric acid in seawater decreases, lowering the potential B flux into the cell. Homeostasis or constant pH of the coccolith vesicle results in a decrease of the B/Ca in the coccolith with increasing seawater pH. In contrast, if coccolith vesicle pH increases with increasing seawater pH, then the B/Ca will increase as the fraction of borate in the coccolith vesicle increases. The coccolith B/Ca is also expected to depend inversely on the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration in the coccolith vesicle. The B/Ca in cultured coccoliths is much lower than that of foraminifera or corals and limits precision in the analysis. Modest variations in DIC or pH of the coccolith vesicle can account for the observed trends in B/Ca in cultured coccoliths. The model shows that paired measurements of B/Ca and B isotopic composition of the calcite could distinguish between regulation of pH or DIC in the coccolith vesicle.

  7. Evaluation of Total Dissolved Solids and Specific Conductance Water Quality Targets with Paired Single-Species and Mesocosm Community Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isolated single-species exposures were conducted in parallel with 42 d mesocosm dosing studies that measured in-situ and whole community responses to different recipes of excess total dissolved solids (TDS). The studies were conducted with cultured species and native taxa from mo...

  8. Effects of pH, Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen, and Flow Rate on Phosphorus Release Processes at the Sediment and Water Interface in Storm Sewer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haiyan; Li, Mingyi; Zhang, Xiaoran

    2013-01-01

    The effects of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), and flow rate on the phosphorus (P) release processes at the sediment and water interface in rainwater pipes were investigated. The sampling was conducted in a residential storm sewer of North Li Shi Road in Xi Cheng District of Beijing on August 3, 2011. The release rate of P increased with the increase of pH from 8 to 10. High temperature is favorable for the release of P. The concentration of total phosphorus (TP) in the overlying water increased as the concentration of DO decreased. With the increase of flow rate from 0.7?m?s?1 to 1.1?m?s?1, the concentration of TP in the overlying water increased and then tends to be stable. Among all the factors examined in the present study, the flow rate is the primary influence factor on P release. The cumulative amount of P release increased with the process of pipeline runoff in the rainfall events with high intensities and shorter durations. Feasible measures such as best management practices and low-impact development can be conducted to control the P release on urban sediments by slowing down the flow rate. PMID:24349823

  9. High temporal and spatial variability of dissolved oxygen and pH in a nearshore California kelp forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frieder, C. A.; Nam, S. H.; Martz, T. R.; Levin, L. A.

    2012-10-01

    Predicting consequences of ocean deoxygenation and ocean acidification for nearshore marine ecosystems requires baseline dissolved oxygen (DO) and carbonate chemistry data that are both high-frequency and high-quality. Such data allow accurate assessment of environmental variability and present-day organism exposure regimes. In this study, scales of DO and pH variability were characterized over one year in a nearshore kelp forest ecosystem in the Southern California Bight. DO and pH were strongly, positively correlated, revealing that organisms on this upwelling shelf are not only exposed to low pH but also to low DO. The dominant scale of temporal DO and pH variability occurred on semidiurnal, diurnal and event (days-weeks) time scales. Daily ranges in DO and pH at 7 m water depth (13 mab) could be as large as 220 ?mol kg-1 and 0.36 units, respectively. Sources of pH and DO variation include photosynthesis within the kelp forest ecosystem, which can elevate DO and pH by up to 60 ?mol kg-1 and 0.1 units over one week following the intrusion of high-density, nutrient-rich water. Accordingly, highly productive macrophyte-based ecosystems could serve as deoxygenation and acidification refugia by acting to elevate DO and pH relative to surrounding waters. DO and pH exhibited greater spatial variation over a 10 m increase in water depth (from 7 to 17 m) than along a 5 km stretch of shelf in a cross-shore or alongshore direction. Over a three-month time period, mean DO and pH at 17 m water depth were 168 ?mol kg-1 and 7.87, respectively. These values represent a 35% decrease in mean DO and 37% increase in [H+] relative to near-surface waters. High-frequency variation was also reduced at depth. The mean daily range in DO and pH was 39% and 37% less, respectively, at 17 m water depth relative to 7 m. As a consequence, the exposure history of an organism is largely a function of its depth of occurrence within the kelp forest. With knowledge of local alkalinity conditions and high-frequency temperature, salinity, and pH data, we estimated pCO2 and calcium carbonate saturation states with respect to calcite and aragonite (?calc and ?arag) for the La Jolla kelp forest at 7 m and 17 m water depth. pCO2 ranged from 246 to 1016 ?atm, ?calc was always supersaturated, and ?arag was undersaturated at the beginning of March for five days when pH was less than 7.75 and DO was less than 115 ?mol kg-1. These findings raise the possibility that the benthic communities along eastern boundary current systems are currently acclimatized and adapted to natural, variable, and low DO and pH. Still, future exposure of coastal California populations to even lower DO and pH may increase as upwelling intensifies and hypoxic boundaries shoal, compressing habitats and challenging the physiological capacity of intolerant species.

  10. Dissolved oxygen and pH monitoring within cell culture media using a hydrogel microarray sensor 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Seung Joon

    2009-05-15

    within cell culture media are invasive and cannot be used to make on-line measurements in a closed-loop system. In this research, a microfabricated hydrogel microarray sensor was developed to monitor each anlyte. Either a pH or an oxygen sensitive...

  11. Biochar-Induced Changes in Soil Hydraulic Conductivity and Dissolved Nutrient Fluxes Constrained by Laboratory Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Rebecca T.; Gallagher, Morgan E.; Masiello, Caroline A.; Liu, Zuolin; Dugan, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    The addition of charcoal (or biochar) to soil has significant carbon sequestration and agronomic potential, making it important to determine how this potentially large anthropogenic carbon influx will alter ecosystem functions. We used column experiments to quantify how hydrologic and nutrient-retention characteristics of three soil materials differed with biochar amendment. We compared three homogeneous soil materials (sand, organic-rich topsoil, and clay-rich Hapludert) to provide a basic understanding of biochar-soil-water interactions. On average, biochar amendment decreased saturated hydraulic conductivity (K) by 92% in sand and 67% in organic soil, but increased K by 328% in clay-rich soil. The change in K for sand was not predicted by the accompanying physical changes to the soil mixture; the sand-biochar mixture was less dense and more porous than sand without biochar. We propose two hydrologic pathways that are potential drivers for this behavior: one through the interstitial biochar-sand space and a second through pores within the biochar grains themselves. This second pathway adds to the porosity of the soil mixture; however, it likely does not add to the effective soil K due to its tortuosity and smaller pore size. Therefore, the addition of biochar can increase or decrease soil drainage, and suggests that any potential improvement of water delivery to plants is dependent on soil type, biochar amendment rate, and biochar properties. Changes in dissolved carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes also differed; with biochar increasing the C flux from organic-poor sand, decreasing it from organic-rich soils, and retaining small amounts of soil-derived N. The aromaticity of C lost from sand and clay increased, suggesting lost C was biochar-derived; though the loss accounts for only 0.05% of added biochar-C. Thus, the direction and magnitude of hydraulic, C, and N changes associated with biochar amendments are soil type (composition and particle size) dependent. PMID:25251677

  12. Rates of zinc and trace metal release from dissolving sphalerite at pH 2.0-4.0

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, M.R.; Gemery-Hill, P. A.; Shanks, Wayne C., III; Taylor, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    High-Fe and low-Fe sphalerite samples were reacted under controlled pH conditions to determine nonoxidative rates of release of Zn and trace metals from the solid-phase. The release (solubilization) of trace metals from dissolving sphalerite to the aqueous phase can be characterized by a kinetic distribution coefficient, (Dtr), which is defined as [(Rtr/X(tr)Sph)/(RZn/X(Zn) Sph)], where R is the trace metal or Zn release rate, and X is the mole fraction of the trace metal or Zn in sphalerite. This coefficient describes the relationship of the sphalerite dissolution rate to the trace metal mole fraction in the solid and its aqueous concentration. The distribution was used to determine some controls on metal release during the dissolution of sphalerite. Departures from the ideal Dtr of 1.0 suggest that some trace metals may be released via different pathways or that other processes (e.g., adsorption, solubility of trace minerals such as galena) affect the observed concentration of metals. Nonoxidative sphalerite dissolution (mediated by H+) is characterized by a "fast" stage in the first 24-30 h, followed by a "slow" stage for the remainder of the reaction. Over the pH range 2.0-4.0, and for similar extent of reaction (reaction time), sphalerite composition, and surface area, the rates of release of Zn, Fe, Cd, Cu, Mn and Pb from sphalerite generally increase with lower pH. Zinc and Fe exhibit the fastest rates of release, Mn and Pb have intermediate rates of release, and Cd and Cu show the slowest rates of release. The largest variations in metal release rates occur at pH 2.0. At pH 3.0 and 4.0, release rates show less variation and appear less dependent on the metal abundance in the solid. For the same extent of reaction (100 h), rates of Zn release range from 1.53 ?? 10-11 to 5.72 ?? 10-10 mol/m2/s; for Fe, the range is from 4.59 ?? 10-13 to 1.99 ?? 10-10 mol/m2/s. Trace metal release rates are generally 1-5 orders of magnitude slower than the Zn or Fe rates. Results indicate that the distributions of Fe and Cd are directly related to the rate of sphalerite dissolution throughout the reaction at pH 3.0 and 4.0 because these two elements substitute readily into sphalerite. These two metals are likely to be more amenable to usage in predictive acid dissolution models because of this behavior. The Pb distribution shows no strong relation to sphalerite dissolution and appears to be controlled by pH-dependent solubility, most likely related to trace amounts of galena. The distribution of Cu is similar to that of Fe but is the most-dependent of all metals on its mole fraction ratio (Zn:Cu) in sphalerite. The Mn distributions suggest an increase in the rate of Mn release relative to sphalerite dissolution occurs in low Mn samples as pH increases. The Mn distribution in high Mn samples is nearly independent of pH and sphalerite dissolution at pH 2.0 but shows a dependence on these two parameters at higher pH (3.0-4.0).

  13. Marine microbial production of dimethylsulfide from dissolved dimethylsulfoniopropionate. Ph. D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ledyard, K.M.

    1993-02-01

    Dimethylsulfide (DMS) plays a central role in the transfer of sulfur from the ocean to the atmosphere and ultimately to land. The most abundant volatile organosulfur compound in seawater, DMS is believed to account for the bulk of the sea-to-air biogenic sulfur flux. DMS has also been implicated as the major precursor of submicron-sized sulfate aerosol over the ocean. This aerosol acts as an effective site for cloud droplet condensation suggesting a possibly important role for DMS in marine cloud formation. In the ocean, the precursor of DMS is presumed to be the zwitterionic sulfonium compound dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), a common osmoticum in certain classes of marine algae. While some algae can cleave DMSP intracellularly to form DMS, correlation of DMS concentrations with indicators of algal productivity on a local scale is poor. This thesis focuses on an alternative pathway of DMS formation: microbial cleavage of dissolved (extracellular) DMSP. In laboratory studies, bacteria able to cleave DMSP to form DMS were isolated from seawater by a DMSP enrichment technique, and the kinetics of DMSP uptake and DMS production were examined closely in pure cultures of a bacterial isolate from the Sargasso Sea. The isolate could grow with both DMSP and acrylic acid, one of the products of DMSP cleavage, as the sole source of carbon and energy, and the enzyme catalyzing DMSP cleavage appeared to be induced by both of these compounds. Kinetic parameters were estimated for DMSP uptake and cleavage by whole cells. Comparison of the 16S rRNA sequence of this isolate with that of known eubacteria showed that it was most closely related to Erythrobacter longus, an aerobic, bacteriochlorophyll-containing member of the alpha proteobacteria.

  14. Binding interactions of dissolved organic matter with iron and copper: Effects of source and pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Y.; Jaffe, R.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter(DOM) fluxes from terrestrial to marine environments have increased as a result of anthropogenic activities and climate change, and DOM is known to facilitate the transport of both metals and trace organics. The nature and composition of DOM may influence its binding properties to metals and thus affect their mobility and fate in aquatic environments. Humic substances make up the majority of DOM in many aquatic ecosystems. Metals such as Fe and Cu are not only important as nutrients in aquatic systems, but also in controlling biogeochemical and ecotoxicological processes respectively. Thus, gaining a better understanding on the interaction of humic substances with Fe or Cu is important in the assessment of the bioavailability of such metals in aquatic systems. In this study, the binding processes of two different DOM samples (Suwanee River humic acid, SRHA and Nordic Lake fulvic acid, NLFA)with Fe(III) and Cu(II) were examined. With the assistance of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence (EEM) and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), three humic-like components (C1, C2 and C4), and one microbial humic-like component (C3), were identified in the characterization of the samples. The quenching rates of C2 and C4 fluorescence in the presence of Cu were similar, which were slightly faster than that forC1. In contrast, the C3 fluorescence was significantly less affected by the addition of metals. In the presence of Fe, the most significant quenching was also observed for C2, and the behavior of C4 fluorescence was dependent on the pH value. Some differences in the fluorescence quenching were also observed between the two humic acid standards (one more higher-plant/terrestrially derived vs. the other more microbial/aquatic derived). In addition, pH had a significant effect on the metal binding with significantly lower quenching at lower pH values. Some variations where observed for the higher pH conditions particularly for Cu(II). A modified version of the Ryan-Weber model was used to calculate conditional stability constants (KM) and the complex capacity (CL). Effects of metal type, DOM type and pH on the fluorescence quenching are discussed.

  15. Impact of pH, dissolved inorganic carbon, and polyphosphates for the initial stages of water corrosion of copper surfaces investigated by AFM and NEXAFS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanoscale studies at the early stages of the exposure of copper surfaces after systematic treatments in synthesized water solutions can provide useful information about corrosion processes. The corrosion and passivation of copper surfaces as influenced by pH, dissolved inorganic ...

  16. Automated Rain Sampler for Real time pH and Conductivity Measurements

    E-print Network

    Weerasinghe, R; Jayananda, M K; Sonnadara, D U J

    2015-01-01

    To monitor the acidity of rain water in real time, a rain water sampling system was developed. The rain sampler detects the initial rain after a dry spell and collects a water sample. Before performing the measurements, the pH probe is calibrated using a standard buffer solution whereas the conductivity probe is calibrated using deionized water. After calibrating the probes the pH and the conductivity of the collected rain water sample are measured using the pH and the conductivity probe. Weather parameters such as air temperature, humidity and pressure are also recorded simultaneously. The pH and conductivity measurement data including weather parameters are transmitted to central station using a GSM modem for further analysis. The collected rain water sample is preserved at the remote monitoring station for post chemical analysis. A programmable logic controller controls the entire process.

  17. [Characteristics of precipitation pH and conductivity at Mt. Huang].

    PubMed

    Shi, Chun-e; Deng, Xue-liang; Wu, Bi-wen; Hong, Jie; Zhang, Su; Yang, Yuan-jian

    2013-05-01

    To understand the general characteristics of pH distribution and pollution in precipitation at Mt. Huang, statistical analyses were conducted for the routine measurements of pH and conductivity (K) at Mt. Huang during 2006-2011. The results showed that: (1) Over the period of study, the annual volume weighted mean (VWM) precipitation pH varied from 4.81 to 5.57, with precipitation acidity strengthening before 2009 and weakening thereafter. The precipitation acidity showed evident seasonal variations, with the VWM pH lowest in winter (4.78), and highest in summer (5.33). The occurrence frequency of acid rain was 46% , accounting for 45% of total rainfalls and with the most frequent pH falling into weak acid to neutral rain. (2) The annual VWM K varied from 16.91 to 27.84 microS x cm(-1), with no evident trend. As for ions pollution, the precipitation was relatively clean at Mt. Huang, with the most frequent K range being below 15 microS x cm(-1), followed by 15-25 microS x cm(-1). From February 2010 to December 2011, precipitation samples were collected on daily basis for ions analysis, as well as pH and K measurement in lab. Detailed comparisons were conducted between the two sets of pH and K, one set from field measurement and the other from lab measurement. The results indicated: (1) The lab measured pH (K) was highly correlated with the field pH (K); however, the lab pH tended to move towards neutral comparing with the corresponding field pH, and the shift range was closely correlated with the field pH and rainfall. The shift range of K from field to lab was highly correlated with the total ion concentration of precipitation. The field K showed evident negative correlation with the field pH with a correlation coefficient of -0.51. (2) When sampling with nylon-polyethylene bags, the statistics showed smaller bias between two sets of pH, with higher correlation coefficient between two sets of K. Furthermore, the lab K also showed evident negative correlation with the lab pH. Comparing with the observations at other alpine sites in central to eastern China, the natural precipitation at Mt. Huang was weaker in acidity and contains lower ion concentration. PMID:23914555

  18. An empirical method for estimating instream pre-mining pH and dissolved Cu concentration in catchments with acidic drainage and ferricrete

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimick, D.A.; Gurrieri, J.T.; Furniss, G.

    2009-01-01

    Methods for assessing natural background water quality of streams affected by historical mining are vigorously debated. An empirical method is proposed in which stream-specific estimation equations are generated from relationships between either pH or dissolved Cu concentration in stream water and the Fe/Cu concentration ratio in Fe-precipitates presently forming in the stream. The equations and Fe/Cu ratios for pre-mining deposits of alluvial ferricrete then were used to reconstruct estimated pre-mining longitudinal profiles for pH and dissolved Cu in three acidic streams in Montana, USA. Primary assumptions underlying the proposed method are that alluvial ferricretes and modern Fe-precipitates share a common origin, that the Cu content of Fe-precipitates remains constant during and after conversion to ferricrete, and that geochemical factors other than pH and dissolved Cu concentration play a lesser role in determining Fe/Cu ratios in Fe-precipitates. The method was evaluated by applying it in a fourth, naturally acidic stream unaffected by mining, where estimated pre-mining pH and Cu concentrations were similar to present-day values, and by demonstrating that inflows, particularly from unmined areas, had consistent effects on both the pre-mining and measured profiles of pH and Cu concentration. Using this method, it was estimated that mining has affected about 480 m of Daisy Creek, 1.8 km of Fisher Creek, and at least 1 km of Swift Gulch. Mean values of pH decreased by about 0.6 pH units to about 3.2 in Daisy Creek and by 1-1.5 pH units to about 3.5 in Fisher Creek. In Swift Gulch, mining appears to have decreased pH from about 5.5 to as low as 3.6. Dissolved Cu concentrations increased due to mining almost 40% in Daisy Creek to a mean of 11.7 mg/L and as much as 230% in Fisher Creek to 0.690 mg/L. Uncertainty in the fate of Cu during the conversion of Fe-precipitates to ferricrete translates to potential errors in pre-mining estimates of as much as 0.25 units for pH and 22% for dissolved Cu concentration. The method warrants further testing in other mined and unmined watersheds. Comparison of pre-mining water-quality estimates derived from the ferricrete and other methods in single watersheds would be particularly valuable. The method has potential for use in monitoring remedial efforts at mine sites with ferricrete deposits. A reasonable remediation objective might be realized when the downstream pattern of Fe/Cu ratios in modern streambed Fe-precipitates corresponds to the pattern in pre-mining alluvial ferricrete deposits along a stream valley.

  19. The synergistic effects of dissolved oxygen and pH on N2O production in biological domestic wastewater treatment under nitrifying conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengzhang; Wang, Shuying; Peng, Yongzhen; Liu, Yue; He, Janzhong

    2015-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas, which is produced during nitrifying and denitrifying processes. Some factors and mechanisms affecting N2O emission have been reported in previous literature, but wastewater biological nitrification is accompanied by a dynamic process of dissolved oxygen (DO) consumption and pH reduction, it is more meaningful to study the synergistic effects between DO and pH on N2O production. In this study, the synergistic effects between DO and pH on N2O production were investigated with real domestic wastewater. The results showed that high DO levels and a high pH could improve the oxidation ratio of NH4+-N and the production ratio of NO2--N, while effectively reducing the accumulation ratio of N2O. The NH4+-N was a prerequisite for nitrifier denitrification; when NH4+-N was oxidized completely, there would be no N2O production and an even higher concentration of NO2- The pH factor is shown to directly affect N2O emission, although free ammonia and free nitrous acid which changed with pH had no correlation with N2O emission. There were two reasons: (1) pH can influence the flow direction of electrons afforded by NH2OH oxidation; at high pH, electrons were mainly used for combining H+ and O2 (O2+4H++4e-=2H2O), the accumulation of NO2- cannot be a result of denitrification, and a higher DO can get more electrons to prefer NO2- and (2) NH4+ was the prerequisite for NH2OH oxidation, since NH2OH oxidation process was the way to provide electrons for nitrifier denitrification. PMID:25619120

  20. Continuous-flow electrophoresis: Membrane-associated deviations of buffer pH and conductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolka, A. J. K.; Mcguire, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    The deviations in buffer pH and conductivity which occur near the electrode membranes in continuous-flow electrophoresis were studied in the Beckman charged particle electrophoresis system and the Hanning FF-5 preparative electrophoresis instrument. The nature of the membranes separating the electrode compartments from the electrophoresis chamber, the electric field strength, and the flow rate of electrophoresis buffer were all found to influence the formation of the pH and conductivity gradients. Variations in electrode buffer flow rate and the time of electrophoresis were less important. The results obtained supported the hypothesis that a combination of Donnan membrane effects and the differing ionic mobilities in the electrophoresis buffer was responsible for the formation of the gradients. The significance of the results for the design and stable operation of continuous-flow electrophoresis apparatus was discussed.

  1. Characterising the secondary structure changes occurring in high density systems of BLG dissolved in aqueous pH 3 buffer

    E-print Network

    Ioannou, J. C.; Donald, A. M.; Tromp, R. H.

    2014-12-31

    in solution alkalinity due to the buffering effect of the protein upon full dilution and would also allow for the exact final pH 3 value to be achieved with minimal titration (i.e. addition of HCl/NaOH). A relatively high concentration of HCl/NaOH (i.e.10%w... (Bhattacharjee & Das, 2000). The pH of each sample was then manually titrated to pH 3 by the gradual addition of HCl and/or NaOH (10% w/v) whilst magnetically stirring each sample and monitoring the pH level. All samples were concentration...

  2. Stability of nano-sized titanium dioxide in an aqueous environment: effects of pH, dissolved organic matter and divalent cations.

    PubMed

    Yang, X N; Cui, F Y

    2013-01-01

    Nano-sized titanium dioxide in the aquatic environment has a potential impact on the environment and human health. In this study, the impact of pH value, dissolved organic matter (DOM) and divalent cations (Ca(2+)) on the stability of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) in an aqueous environment was investigated in batch tests. The results showed that the particle size of nano-TiO2 was not sensitive to pH value but was inversely proportional to zeta potential. The nano-TiO2 becomes more stable with surface zeta potential, accompanied by small particle size and high dispersion. In the presence of DOM, the particle size was smaller and the stability of nano-TiO2 could be enhanced. This might be a synergistic effect of the ligand exchange and electrostatic force. Particle size increased with the addition of Ca(2+) and the stability decreased. PMID:23863417

  3. Quantification of the dissolved inorganic carbon species and of the pH of alkaline solutions exposed to CO2 under pressure: a novel approach by Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Beuvier, Thomas; Calvignac, Brice; Bardeau, Jean-François; Bulou, Alain; Boury, Frank; Gibaud, Alain

    2014-10-01

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) content of aqueous systems is a key function of the pH, of the total alkanility (TA), and of the partial pressure of CO2. However, common analytical techniques used to determine the DIC content in water are unable to operate under high CO2 pressure. Here, we propose to use Raman spectroscopy as a novel alternative to discriminate and quantitatively monitor the three dissolved inorganic carbon species CO2(aq), HCO3(-), and CO3(2-) of alkaline solutions under high CO2 pressure (from P = 0 to 250 bar at T = 40 °C). In addition, we demonstrate that the pH values can be extracted from the molalities of CO2(aq) and HCO3(-). The results are in very good agreement with those obtained from direct spectrophotometric measurements using colored indicators. This novel method presents the great advantage over high pressure conventional techniques of not using breakable electrodes or reference additives and appears of great interest especially in marine biogeochemistry, in carbon capture and storage and in material engineering under high CO2 pressure. PMID:25203357

  4. Steady-state diagenetic model for dissolved carbonate species and pH in the pore waters of oxic and suboxic sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreau, B.P.

    1987-07-01

    An open-system diagenetic (transport) model is presented which accounts for the concurrent behavior of all the dissolved carbonate species as well as hydrogen and hydroxyl ions in the pore waters of marine sediments during the oxic and suboxic decay of organic-matter. The model includes interconversion between the dissolved carbonate species due to associationdissociation reactions as well as production by organic decay and CaCO/sub 3/ dissolution. The existence of rapid associationdissociation reactions has important consequences. First, the transport of a dissolved carbonate species is facilitated, because it can react and diffuse as another carbonate species. This action modifies the concentration profiles which would be expected without interconversion. As a consequence, the rate of CaCO/sub 3/ dissolution is increased because it is more difficult for CO/sub 3//sup =/ to reach and maintain the saturation concentration. Finally, CO/sub 2/(aq) and HCO/sub 3//sup -/ produced by decay affect the concentration of CO/sub 3//sup =/ and, therefore, the saturation state of pore waters with respect to carbonate minerals. The model is applied to the carbonate alkalinity and pH data from the Guatemala Basin and MANOP Site C. The model reproduces the sharp near-surface minimum in pH, observed at the Guatemala Basin sites; however, the carbonate alkalinity increase is underpredicted. This model result implies that there is an additional source of HCO/sub 3//sup -/ that is not presently recognized, probably in the form of sulfate reduction at depth.

  5. Control of protozoa contamination and lipid accumulation in Neochloris oleoabundans culture: Effects of pH and dissolved inorganic carbon.

    PubMed

    Peng, Licheng; Lan, Christopher Q; Zhang, Zisheng; Sarch, Cody; Laporte, Matt

    2015-12-01

    Combined effects of pH (i.e., 7.5, 8.5, and 9.5) and bicarbonate (i.e., 0, 80 and 160mM NaHCO3) on lipid accumulation and on biological contaminant viability in a protozoa-contaminated culture of the freshwater microalga Neochloris oleoabundans were studied. Cultures grown in the media containing 160mM NaHCO3 at pH 9.5 obtained the highest biomass concentration (DCWmax=1.32g/L), lipid content (LC=327mg/g), which corresponded to a lipid productivity of 56mg/(L·d), and the culture was protozoa free one day after inoculation. Other cultures, 160mM NaHCO3 at pH 8.5 (DCWmax=1.32g/L, LC=223mg/g), and 80mM NaHCO3 at pH 9.5 (DCWmax=1.25g/L, LC=264mg/g) could delay protozoan growth, but not inhibit it completely. These results suggest 160mM NaHCO3 or slightly above at pH levels of 8.5-9.5 may be used in outdoor cultivation processes of freshwater N. oleoabundans to control protozoa contamination while maintain a high lipid content. PMID:26320019

  6. Spatial models to predict ash pH and Electrical Conductivity distribution after a grassland fire in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Misi?n?, Ieva

    2015-04-01

    Fire mineralizes the organic matter, increasing the pH level and the amount of dissolved ions (Pereira et al., 2014). The degree of mineralization depends among other factors on fire temperature, burned specie, moisture content, and contact time. The impact of wildland fires it is assessed using the fire severity, an index used in the absence of direct measures (e.g temperature), important to estimate the fire effects in the ecosystems. This impact is observed through the loss of soil organic matter, crown volume, twig diameter, ash colour, among others (Keeley et al., 2009). The effects of fire are highly variable, especially at short spatial scales (Pereira et al., in press), due the different fuel conditions (e.g. moisture, specie distribution, flammability, connectivity, arrangement, etc). This variability poses important challenges to identify the best spatial predictor and have the most accurate spatial visualization of the data. Considering this, the test of several interpolation methods it is assumed to be relevant to have the most reliable map. The aims of this work are I) study the ash pH and Electrical Conductivity (EC) after a grassland fire according to ash colour and II) test several interpolation methods in order to identify the best spatial predictor of pH and EC distribution. The study area is located near Vilnius at 54.42° N and 25.26°E and 154 ma.s.l. After the fire it was designed a plot with a 27 x 9 m space grid. Samples were taken every 3 meters for a total of 40 (Pereira et al., 2013). Ash color was classified according to Úbeda et al. (2009). Ash pH and EC laboratory analysis were carried out according to Pereira et al. (2014). Previous to data comparison and modelling, normality and homogeneity were assessed with the Shapiro-wilk and Levene test. pH data respected the normality and homogeneity, while EC only followed the Gaussian distribution and the homogeneity criteria after a logarithmic transformation. Data spatial correlation was calculated with the Global Moran's I Index. In order to identify the best interpolator, we tested several well known techniques as inverse distance to a power (IDP), with the power of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, local polynomial (LP) with the power of 1 (LP1), 2 (LP2) and 3 (LP3), spline with tension (SPT), completely regularized spline (CRS), multiquadratic (MTQ), inverse multiquadratic (IMTQ) thin plate spline (TPS) and ordinary kriging. The best interpolator was the one with the lowest Root mean square error (RMSE). The results shown that on average ash pH was 8.01 (±0.20) and EC (1408± 513.51µm cm3). The coefficient of correlation between both variables was 0.34, p<0.05. Black ash had a significantly higher pH (F=6.29, p<0.05) and EC (F=5.25, p<0.05) than dark grey ash. According to Moran's I index, pH data was significantly (p<0.05) dispersed, while EC had a random pattern. The best spatial predictor for pH was IDW1 (RMSE=0.210), and for EC IMTQ (RMSE=0.141). In both cases the least accurate technique was TPS. pH data did not showed a specific spatial pattern and some high values are very close to high values which shows a great local spatial variability, mainly observed in the northern part of the plot. In relation to EC, the high values were identified in the central part of the plot. In conclusion it was observed that ash pH and EC were different according to fire severity (ash color) and data distribution has a different spatial pattern, despite the significant correlation. pH and EC had different spatial impacts on soil properties in the immediate period after the fire. Acknowledgments POSTFIRE (Soil quality, erosion control and plant cover recovery under different post-fire management scenarios, CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness; Fuegored; RECARE (Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care, FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE), funded by the European Commission; and for the COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research). References Keeley, J.E. (2009) Fire

  7. Wastewater Discharge, Nutrient Loading, and Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in a Shallow Texas Bay 

    E-print Network

    Schroer, Lee Allen

    2014-05-07

    . Variables measured were water temperature (oC), pH, salinity (ppt), conductivity (mS), depth (meters), turbidity (nephilometric turbidity units), dissolved oxygen in both % saturation and concentration (mg/L), and chlorophyll-? concentration (?g/L). Grab...

  8. Effects of pH, dissolved oxygen, and ionic strength on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in organic acid solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to survive in acidified vegetable products is of concern because of previously documented outbreaks associated with fruit juices. A study was conducted to determine the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in organic acids at pH values typical of acidified vegetable pr...

  9. In situ optimization of pH for parts-per-billion electrochemical detection of dissolved hydrogen sulfide using boron doped diamond flow electrodes.

    PubMed

    Bitziou, Eleni; Joseph, Maxim B; Read, Tania L; Palmer, Nicola; Mollart, Tim; Newton, Mark E; Macpherson, Julie V

    2014-11-01

    A novel electrochemical approach to the direct detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), in aqueous solutions, covering a wide pH range (acid to alkali), is described. In brief, a dual band electrode device is employed, in a hydrodynamic flow cell, where the upstream electrode is used to controllably generate hydroxide ions (OH(-)), which flood the downstream detector electrode and provide the correct pH environment for complete conversion of H2S to the electrochemically detectable, sulfide (HS(-)) ion. All-diamond, coplanar conducting diamond band electrodes, insulated in diamond, were used due to their exceptional stability and robustness when applying extreme potentials, essential attributes for both local OH(-) generation via the reduction of water, and for in situ cleaning of the electrode, post oxidation of sulfide. Using a galvanostatic approach, it was demonstrated the pH locally could be modified by over five pH units, depending on the initial pH of the mobile phase and the applied current. Electrochemical detection limits of 13.6 ppb sulfide were achieved using flow injection amperometry. This approach which offers local control of the pH of the detector electrode in a solution, which is far from ideal for optimized detection of the analyte of interest, enhances the capabilities of online electrochemical detection systems. PMID:25263331

  10. Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity with Decreasing pH in a Biologically-Clogged Porous Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, M. F.; Santillan, E.; McGrath, L. K.; Altman, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Biological clogging can significantly lower the hydraulic conductivity of porous media, potentially helping to limit CO2 transport from geological carbon storage reservoirs. How clogging is affected by CO2 injection, however, is unclear. We used column experiments to examine how decreasing pH, a geochemical change associated with CO2 injection, will affect the hydraulic conductivity (K) of biologically clogged porous medium. Four biologically-active experiments and two control experiments were performed. Columns consisted of 1 mm2 capillary tubes filled with 105-150 ?m diameter glass beads. Artificial groundwater medium containing 1 mM glucose was pumped through the columns at a rate of 0.015 mL/min (q = 21.6 m/day; Re = 0.045). Each column was inoculated with 10^8 CFU of Pseudomonas fluorescens tagged with a green fluorescent protein; cells introduced to control columns were heat sterilized. Biomass distribution and transport was monitored using scanning laser confocal microscopy and effluent plating. Growth was allowed to occur for 5 days in medium with pH 7 in the biologically active columns. During that time, K decreased to values ranging from 10 to 27% of the average control K and effluent cell levels increased to about 10^8 CFU/mL. Next, the pH of the inflowing medium was lowered to 4 in three experiments and 5.5 in one experiment. After pH 4 medium was introduced, K increased to values ranging from 21 to 64% of the average control K and culturable cell levels in the effluent fell by about 4 log units. Confocal images show that clogging persisted in the columns at pH 4 because most of the microbial biomass remained attached to bead surfaces. In the experiment where pH was lowered to 5.5, K changed little because biological clogging remained entirely intact. The concentration of culturable cells in the effluent was also invariant. These results suggest that biomass in porous medium will largely remain in place following exposure to acidic water in a CO2 storage reservoir, particularly where buffering is able to limit the extent of acidification. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001114. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. [Variations of pH value and electrical conductivity in the Dongkemadi basin, Tanggula range].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Aihemaiti, Aximu; Ding, Yong-jian; Liu, Shi-yin; Wu, Jin-kui

    2007-10-01

    Investigation of meltwater chemistry may provide information to understand the significance of glacier in estimating of water provenance. Most notably, the role of electrical conductivity (EC) variation in meltwater during glacier melting season has attracted considerable attention, since this may reflect the water flux. Analyses for pH and EC in 229 bulk meltwater samples have provided information about water provenance at Dongkemadi Glacier basin, an outlet tongue from the Tanggula Pass, Tibetan Plateau. The samples were collected at 14:00 from 12th May to 27th September in 2005 at site of controlled meltwater flux. The results document the following findings. First phase of runoff was mainly supplied by snow and glacier ice meltwater, 31% and 65%, respectively, and the snow including fresh snow and winter deposited snow. Secondary phase of flux primarily was supplied by glacier ice meltwater and precipitation, but meltwater of frozen water in soil also has some contribute to flux, but only 2%. Third phase, ice bulk meltwater decreased and fresh snow meltwater increased. In different precipitation modalities variation trends of pH value and EC are following an orderd snow > rainwater > hailstone. PMID:18268996

  12. Substrate-immobilized electrospun TiO2 nanofibers for photocatalytic degradation of pharmaceuticals: The effects of pH and dissolved organic matter characteristics.

    PubMed

    Maeng, Sung Kyu; Cho, Kangwoo; Jeong, Boyoung; Lee, Jaesang; Lee, Yunho; Lee, Changha; Choi, Kyoung Jin; Hong, Seok Won

    2015-12-01

    A substrate-immobilized (SI) TiO2 nanofiber (NF) photocatalyst for multiple uses was prepared through electrospinning and hot pressing. The rate of furfuryl alcohol degradation under UV irradiation was found to be the highest when the anatase to rutile ratio was 70:30; the rate did not linearly increase as a function of the NF film thickness, mainly due to diffusion limitation. Even after eight repeated cycles, it showed only a marginal reduction in the photocatalytic activity for the degradation of cimetidine. The effects of pH and different organic matter characteristics on the photodegradation of cimetidine (CMT), propranolol (PRP), and carbamazepine (CBZ) were investigated. The pH-dependence of the photocatalytic degradation rates of PRP was explained by electrostatic interactions between the selected compounds and the surface of TiO2 NFs. The degradation rates of CMT showed the following order: deionized water > l-tyrosine > secondary wastewater effluent (effluent organic matter) > Suwannee River natural organic matter, demonstrating that the characteristics of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) can affect the photodegradation of CMT. Photodegradation of CBZ was affected by the presence of DOM, and no significant change was observed between different DOM characteristics. These findings suggest that the removal of CMT, PRP, and CBZ during photocatalytic oxidation using SI TiO2 NFs is affected by the presence of DOM and/or pH, which should be importantly considered for practical applications. PMID:26025601

  13. Summary statistics and graphical comparisons of specific conductance, temperature, and dissolved oxygen data, Buffalo Bayou, Houston, Texas, April 1986-March 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, D.W.; Paul, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    Buffalo Bayou is the major stream that drains the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area. The U.S. Geological Survey has provided specific conductance, temperature, and dissolved oxygen data to the City of Houston for three sites along a 7.7-mile reach of Buffalo Bayou since 1986. Summary statistics and graphical comparisons of the data show substantial variability in the properties during 1986-91. Specific conductance ranged from about 100 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius at each of the three sites to 17,100 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius at the most downstream site, at the headwaters of the Houston Ship Channel. Water temperatures ranged from 5 to 33 degrees Celsius. Temperatures were very similar at the two upstream sites and slightly warmer at the most downstream site. Dissolved oxygen ranged from zero at the most downstream site to 11.7 milligrams per liter at the most upstream site.

  14. An automated procedure for the simultaneous determination of specific conductance and pH in natural water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eradmann, D.E.; Taylor, H.E.

    1978-01-01

    An automated, continuous-flow system is utilized to determine specific conductance and pH simultaneously in natural waters. A direct electrometric procedure is used to determine values in the range pH 4-9. The specific conductance measurements are made with an electronically modified, commercially available conductivity meter interfaced to a separate module containing the readout control devices and printer. The system is designed to switch ranges automatically to accommodate optimum analysis of widely varying conductances ranging from a few ??mhos cm-1 to 15,000 ??mho cm-1. Thirty samples per hour can be analyzed. Comparison of manual and automated procedures for 40 samples showed that the average differences were 1.3% for specific conductance and 0.07 units for pH. The relative standard deviation for 25 replicate values for each of five samples was significantly less than 1% for the specific conductance determination; the standard deviation for the pH determination was ??? 0.06 pH units. ?? 1978.

  15. Influence of aeration-homogenization system in stirred tank bioreactors, dissolved oxygen concentration and pH control mode on BHK-21 cell growth and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Eutimio Gustavo Fernández; Leme, Jaci; de Almeida Parizotto, Letícia; Chagas, Wagner Antonio; de Rezende, Alexandre Gonçalves; da Costa, Bruno Labate Vale; Monteiro, Daniela Cristina Ventini; Boldorini, Vera Lucia Lopes; Jorge, Soraia Attie Calil; Astray, Renato Mancini; Pereira, Carlos Augusto; Caricati, Celso Pereira; Tonso, Aldo

    2014-08-01

    This work focused on determining the effect of dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) on growth and metabolism of BHK-21 cell line (host cell for recombinant proteins manufacturing and viral vaccines) cultured in two stirred tank bioreactors with different aeration-homogenization systems, as well as pH control mode. BHK-21 cell line adapted to single-cell suspension was cultured in Celligen without aeration cage (rotating gas-sparger) and Bioflo 110, at 10, 30 and 50 % air saturation (impeller for gas dispersion from sparger-ring). The pH was controlled at 7.2 as far as it was possible with gas mixtures. In other runs, at 30 and 50 % (DO) in Bioflo 110, the cells grew at pH controlled with CO2 and NaHCO3 solution. Glucose, lactate, glutamine, and ammonium were quantified by enzymatic methods. Cell concentration, size and specific oxygen consumption were also determined. When NaHCO3 solution was not used, the optimal DOs were 10 and 50 % air saturation for Celligen and Bioflo 110, respectively. In this condition maximum cell concentrations were higher than 4 × 10(6) cell/mL. An increase in maximum cell concentration of 36 % was observed in batch carried out at 30 % air saturation in a classical stirred tank bioreactor (Bioflo 110) with base solution addition. The optimal parameters defined in this work allow for bioprocess developing of viral vaccines, transient protein expression and viral vector for gene therapy based on BHK-21 cell line in two stirred tank bioreactors with different agitation-aeration systems. PMID:23846480

  16. Root-induced changes in pH and dissolved organic matter binding capacity affect copper dynamic speciation in the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravin, Matthieu N.; Garnier, Cédric; Lenoble, Véronique; Gérard, Frédéric; Dudal, Yves; Hinsinger, Philippe

    2012-05-01

    Due to only few experimental evidences, the importance of root-induced alteration of metal dynamic speciation in the rhizosphere in the determination of metal bioavailability to plants is still a matter for debate. The present study thus investigated how root-induced changes in pH and dissolved organic matters (DOM) altered copper (Cu) dynamic speciation in the rhizosphere of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum L.). Plants were exposed to a Cu-contaminated soil previously alkalised by liming to cover soil pH values ranging from 4.8 to 7.5. A range of analytical techniques was deployed on soil exposed (i.e. in the rhizosphere) or not (i.e. in the bulk soil) to plant roots, including the measurement and the modelling (using the Humic Ion-Binding Model VI) of Cu2+ activity, the measurement of labile Cu concentration and Cu lability by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (DPASV) and Diffusive Gradients in Thin films (DGT). Due to root-induced alkalisation, pH reached about 7.3 in the rhizosphere whatever the initial bulk soil pH. Compared to the most acidic bulk soil (pH ? 4.8), Cu2+ activity decreased by three orders of magnitude in the rhizosphere while DPASV-Cu concentration decreased by 6-fold. DOM became the key driver of Cu dynamic speciation in the rhizosphere, where roots induced up to an order of magnitude increase in DOM concentration compared to bulk soils. This resulted in an increase in labile-Cu (both DPASV and DGT) concentrations, in spite of a decrease in Cu2+ activity. Model VI calculations supported a decrease in DOM binding capacity towards Cu in the rhizosphere. DPASV measurements unequivocally demonstrated that the increase in Cu lability in the rhizosphere solution can be attributed to a greater lability of organically-bound Cu. Collectively, our data introduce a consistent picture of root-induced changes of Cu dynamic speciation in the rhizosphere that were notably related to substantial alterations of DOM binding capacity.

  17. Differences in conductance of M2 proton channels of two influenza viruses at low and high pH

    PubMed Central

    Chizhmakov, I V; Ogden, D C; Geraghty, F M; Hayhurst, A; Skinner, A; Betakova, T; Hay, A J

    2003-01-01

    The M2 protein of influenza A viruses forms a proton channel involved in modifying virion and trans Golgi pH during infection. Previous studies of the proton current using whole-cell patch clamp of mouse erythroleukaemia (MEL) cells expressing the M2 protein of the ‘Weybridge’ strain provided evidence for two protonation sites, one involved in permeation, the other in activation by acid pH. The present report compares the M2 channels of two different strains of influenza virus, ‘Weybridge’ (WM2) and ‘Rostock’ (RM2). Whereas with external acid pH the current-voltage relations showed similar small degrees of inward rectification, a similar apparent Kd of approximately 10 ?m for proton permeation and a high selectivity for protons over Na+, the two M2 proteins differed in whole-cell conductance at low and high pH. The proton conductance of unit membrane area was on average 7-fold greater in RM2- than WM2-expressing MEL cells. At high external pH WM2 was shown previously to have small conductance for outward current at positive driving potential. In contrast, RM2 shows high conductance for outward current with high external pH, but shows small conductance for inward current with high internal pH, conditions in which WM2 shows high conductance for inward current. The different properties of the conductances due to the two channels at high pH were determined by three amino acids in their transmembrane domains. All intermediate mutants possessed one or other property and transformation of the WM2 phenotype into that of RM2 required substitution in all three residues V27I, F38L and D44N; single substitutions in RM2 effected the opposite phenotypic change. The significance of this difference for virus replication is not clear and it may be that the higher proton flux associated with RM2 is the main factor determining its increased ability to dissipate pH gradients. It is apparent, however, from the specific differences in the sidedness of the pH-induced changes in voltage dependence of the whole-cell current that this is an intrinsic property of the virus proton channel which may have parallels with regulation of other proton channels. PMID:12527729

  18. Selective recovery of dissolved Fe, Al, Cu, and Zn in acid mine drainage based on modeling to predict precipitation pH.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Min; Yoo, Jong-Chan; Ji, Sang-Woo; Yang, Jung-Seok; Baek, Kitae

    2015-02-01

    Mining activities have caused serious environmental problems including acid mine drainage (AMD), the dispersion of mine tailings and dust, and extensive mine waste. In particular, AMD contaminates soil and water downstream of mines and generally contains mainly valuable metals such as Cu, Zn, and Ni as well as Fe and Al. In this study, we investigated the selective recovery of Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, and Ni from AMD. First, the speciation of Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, and Ni as a function of the equilibrium solution pH was simulated by Visual MINTEQ. Based on the simulation results, the predicted pHs for the selective precipitation of Fe, Al, Cu, and Zn/Ni were determined. And recovery yield of metals using simulation is over 99 %. Experiments using artificial AMD based on the simulation results confirmed the selective recovery of Fe, Al, Cu, and Zn/Ni, and the recovery yields of Fe/Al/Cu/Zn and Fe/Al/Cu/Ni mixtures using Na2CO3 were 99.6/86.8/71.9/77.0 % and 99.2/85.7/73.3/86.1 %, respectively. After then, the simulation results were applied to an actual AMD for the selective recovery of metals, and the recovery yields of Fe, Al, Cu, and Zn using NaOH were 97.2, 74.9, 66.9, and 89.7 %, respectively. Based on the results, it was concluded that selective recovery of dissolved metals from AMD is possible by adjusting the solution pH using NaOH or Na2CO3 as neutralizing agents. PMID:25231736

  19. Economic process to co-produce poly(?-l-lysine) and poly(l-diaminopropionic acid) by a pH and dissolved oxygen control strategy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhaoxian; Feng, Xiaohai; Sun, Zhuzhen; Cao, Changhong; Li, Sha; Xu, Zheng; Xu, Zongqi; Bo, Fangfang; Xu, Hong

    2015-07-01

    This study tended to apply biorefinery of indigenous microbes to the fermentation of target-product generation through a novel control strategy. A novel strategy for co-producing two valuable homopoly(amino acid)s, poly(?-l-lysine) (?-PL) and poly(l-diaminopropionic acid) (PDAP), was developed by controlling pH and dissolved oxygen concentrations in Streptomyces albulus PD-1 fermentation. The production of ?-PL and PDAP got 29.4 and 9.6gL(-1), respectively, via fed-batch cultivation in a 5L bioreactor. What is more, the highest production yield (21.8%) of similar production systems was achieved by using this novel strategy. To consider the economic-feasibility, large-scale production in a 1t fermentor was also implemented, which would increase the gross profit of 54,243.5USD from one fed-batch bioprocess. This type of fermentation, which produces multiple commercial products from a unified process is attractive, because it will improve the utilization rate of raw materials, enhance production value and enrich product variety. PMID:25841184

  20. Systems Characterization of Temperature, Ph and Electrical Conductivity in Aerobic Biodegradation of Wheat Biomass at Differing Mixing Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, M.; Trotman, A.; Aglan, H.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to observe and relate the rate of mixing to pH and electrical conductivity in an aerobic, continuously stirred bioreactor. The objective is to use data collected from successive experiments as a means of a system characterization. Tests were conducted to obtain these data using a continuously stirred 20 L Cytostir glass reaction vessel as a bioreactor operated without built-in temperature or pH control. The tests were conducted on the lab bench at ambient temperatures. The substrate in the bioreactor was ground wheat biomass obtained from the Biomass Production Chamber at NASA Kennedy Space Center. In this study, the data reflect characteristics of the native (uninoculated) systems as well as inoculated systems. In the native systems, it was found that pi levels became stable after approximately 2 to 3 days. The electrical conductivity levels for the native systems tended to decrease over time. In contrast, ion activity was increased after the introduction of bacteria into the system. This could be correlated with the release of nutrients, due to the activity of the bacteria. Also, there were slight increases in pH in the inoculated system, a result which is expected for a system with no active pr controls. The data will be used to test a mathematical model in an automated system.

  1. Quantifying the impact of daily and seasonal variation in sap pH on xylem dissolved inorganic carbon estimates in plum trees.

    PubMed

    Erda, F G; Bloemen, J; Steppe, K

    2014-01-01

    In studies on internal CO2 transport, average xylem sap pH (pHx ) is one of the factors used for calculation of the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon in the xylem sap ([CO2 *]). Lack of detailed pHx measurements at high temporal resolution could be a potential source of error when evaluating [CO2 *] dynamics. In this experiment, we performed continuous measurements of CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]) and stem temperature (Tstem ), complemented with pHx measurements at 30-min intervals during the day at various stages of the growing season (Day of the Year (DOY): 86 (late winter), 128 (mid-spring) and 155 (early summer)) on a plum tree (Prunus domestica L. cv. Reine Claude d'Oullins). We used the recorded pHx to calculate [CO2 *] based on Tstem and the corresponding measured [CO2 ]. No statistically significant difference was found between mean [CO2 *] calculated with instantaneous pHx and daily average pHx . However, using an average pHx value from a different part of the growing season than the measurements of [CO2 ] and Tstem to estimate [CO2 *] led to a statistically significant error. The error varied between 3.25 ± 0.01% under-estimation and 3.97 ± 0.01% over-estimation, relative to the true [CO2 *] data. Measured pHx did not show a significant daily variation, unlike [CO2 ], which increased during the day and declined at night. As the growing season progressed, daily average [CO2 ] (3.4%, 5.3%, 7.4%) increased and average pHx (5.43, 5.29, 5.20) decreased. Increase in [CO2 ] will increase its solubility in xylem sap according to Henry's law, and the dissociation of [CO2 *] will negatively affect pHx . Our results are the first quantifying the error in [CO2 *] due to the interaction between [CO2 ] and pHx on a seasonal time scale. We found significant changes in pHx across the growing season, but overall the effect on the calculation of [CO2 *] remained within an error range of 4%. However, it is possible that the error could be more substantial for other tree species, particularly if pHx is in the more sensitive range (pHx > 6.5). PMID:23627372

  2. Fluctuation of dissolved heavy metal concentrations in the leachate from anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste in commercial scale landfill bioreactors: The effect of pH and associated mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Xie, S; Ma, Y; Strong, P J; Clarke, W P

    2015-12-15

    Heavy metals present in landfill leachate have infrequently been related to complete anaerobic degradation municipal solid waste (MSW) due to discrete ages of deposited MSW layers and leachate channelling in landfills. In this study, anaerobic digestion of MSW was performed in two enclosed 1000 tonne bioreactors using a unique flood and drain process. Leachates were characterised in terms of pH, soluble chemical oxygen demand, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), ammonium nitrogen and heavy metals over the entire course of digestion. All parameters, including pH, fluctuated during acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis, which strongly impacted on the dynamics of dissolved heavy metal concentrations. The simulation of dissolution and precipitation processes indicated that metal sulphide precipitation was not a factor as metal concentrations exceeded solubility limits. The correlation of pH and dissolved heavy metal concentrations indicated that other, mechanisms were involved in the homogenised conditions within the bioreactors. Beside dissolution and precipitation, the main processes most likely involved in metal distributions were adsorption (Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd), complexation (Cr) or combinations of both process (As and Co). PMID:26259097

  3. Carbon Dioxide Addition to Microbial Fuel Cell Cathodes Maintains Sustainable Catholyte pH and Improves Anolyte pH, Alkalinity, and Conductivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioelectrochemical system (BES) pH imbalances develop due to anodic proton-generating oxidation reactions and cathodic hydroxide-ion-generating reduction reactions. Until now, workers added unsustainable buffers to reduce the pH difference between the anode and cathode because the pH imbalance cont...

  4. Rapid solidification of high-conductivity copper alloys. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, Theodore Atlas

    1989-01-01

    The main objective was to develop improved copper alloys of high strength and high thermal and electric conductivity. Chill block melt spinning was used to produce binary alloys of Cu-Cr and Cu-Zr, and ternary alloys of Cu-Cr-Ag. By quenching from the liquid state, up to 5 atomic percent of Cr and Zr were retained in metastable extended solid solution during the rapid solidification process. Eutectic solidification was avoided and the full strengthening benefits of the large volume fraction of precipitates were realized by subsequent aging treatment. The very low solid solubility of Cr and Zr in Cu result in a high conductivity Cu matrix strengthened by second phase precipitates. Tensile properties on as-cast and aged ribbons were measured at room and elevated temperatures. Precipitate coarsening of Cr in Cu was studied by changes in electrical resistance during aging. X-ray diffraction was used to measure the lattice parameter and the degree of supersaturation of the matrix. The microstructures were characterized by optical and electron microscopy.

  5. New Secondary Batteries Utilizing Electronically Conductive Polypyrrole Cathode. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeu, Taewhan

    1991-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the dynamic behavior in electronically conducting polypyrroles and to provide guidance toward designs of new secondary batteries based on these polymers, two mathematical models are developed; one for the potentiostatically controlled switching behavior of polypyrrole film, and one for the galvanostatically controlled charge/discharge behavior of lithium/polypyrrole secondary battery cell. The first model is used to predict the profiles of electrolyte concentrations, charge states, and electrochemical potentials within the thin polypyrrole film during switching process as functions of applied potential and position. Thus, the detailed mechanisms of charge transport and electrochemical reaction can be understood. Sensitivity analysis is performed for independent parameters, describing the physical and electrochemical characteristic of polypyrrole film, to verify their influences on the model performance. The values of independent parameters are estimated by comparing model predictions with experimental data obtained from identical conditions. The second model is used to predict the profiles of electrolyte concentrations, charge state, and electrochemical potentials within the battery system during charge and discharge processes as functions of time and position. Energy and power densities are estimated from model predictions and compared with existing battery systems. The independent design criteria on the charge and discharge performance of the cell are provided by studying the effects of design parameters.

  6. An evaluation of in-situ measurements of water temperature, specific conductance, and pH in low ionic strength streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ranalli, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Survey for continuous measurement of water temperature, specific conductance, and pH in four low ionic strength streams in the Catskill Mountains of New York was evaluated through a calculation of their bias, precision, and accuracy and by comparison with laboratory measurements of specific conductance and pH on samples collected concurrently. Results indicate that the mini-monitor measurements of specific conductance and pH in an acidic stream (acid-neutralizing capacity always less than 0) agreed with laboratory measurements well enough that the minimonitors can be used to supplement laboratory measurements (mean difference in pH was 0.02 pH unit and mean difference in specific conductance was 0.72 ??S cm-1. This mean difference was 0.32 ??S cm-1 if the minimonitor data were adjusted by the bias). In less acidic streams (two streams in which the acid-neutralizing capacity was always greater than 0 and one in which the acid-neutralizing capacity was greater than 0 except during high flows), there was poor agreement between laboratory and minimonitor measurements of specific conductance at high flows and pH at all flows. The water-temperature probes measured with sufficiently small bias (-0.1 ??C) and adequate precision (??0.70 ??C) for use with most applications.

  7. Statistical summary of daily values data and trend analysis of dissolved-solids data at National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, F.C.; Schertz, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    A statistical summary is provided of the available continuous and once-daily discharge, specific-conductance, dissolved oxygen , water temperature, and pH data collected at NASQAN stations during the 1973-81 water years and documents the period of record on which the statistical calculations were based. In addition, dissolved-solids data are examined by regression analyses to determine the relation between dissolved solids and specific conductance and to determine if long-term trends can be detected in dissolved-solids concentrations. Statistical summaries, regression equations expressing the relation between dissolved solids and specific conductance, and graphical presentations of trend analyses of dissolved solids are presented for 515 NASQAN stations in the United States, Canada, Guam, and Puerto Rico. (USGS)

  8. EFFECT OF pH, IONIC STRENGTH, DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON, TIME, AND PARTICLE SIZE ON METALS RELEASE FROM MINE DRAINAGE IMPACTED STREAMBED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid-mine drainage (AMD) input to a stream typically results in the stream having a reduced pH, increased concentrations of metals and salts, and decreased biological productivity. Removal and/or treatment of these AMD sources is desired to return the impacted stream(s) to initi...

  9. A monitor for continuous measurement of temperature, pH, and conductance of wet precipitation: Preliminary results from the Adirondack Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnsson, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes a continuous wet-only precipitation monitor designed by the U.S. Geological Survey to record variations in rainfall temperature, pH, and specific conductance at 1-min intervals over the course of storms. Initial sampling in the Adirondack Mountains showed that rainfall acidity varied over the course of summer storms, with low initial pH values increasing as storm intensity increased.This report describes a continuous wet-only precipitation monitor designed by the U.S. Geological Survey to record variations in rainfall temperature, pH, and specific conductance at 1-min intervals over the course of storms. Initial sampling in the Adirondack Mountains showed that rainfall acidity varied over the course of summer storms, with low initial pH values increasing as storm intensity increased.

  10. Modulation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) activity and genistein binding by cytosolic pH.

    PubMed

    Melani, Raffaella; Tomati, Valeria; Galietta, Luis J V; Zegarra-Moran, Olga

    2010-12-31

    Potentiators are molecules that increase the activity of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Some potentiators can also inhibit CFTR at higher concentrations. The activating binding site is thought to be located at the interface of the dimer formed by the two nucleotide-binding domains. We have hypothesized that if binding of potentiators involves titratable residues forming salt bridges, then modifications of cytosolic pH (pH(i)) would alter the binding affinity. Here, we analyzed the effect of pH(i) on CFTR activation and on the binding of genistein, a well known CFTR potentiator. We found that pH(i) does modify CFTR maximum current (I(m)) and half-activation concentration (K(d)): I(m) = 127.7, 185.5, and 231.8 ?A/cm(2) and K(d) = 32.7, 56.6 and 71.9 ?m at pH 6, 7.35, and 8, respectively. We also found that the genistein apparent dissociation constant for activation (K(a)) increased at alkaline pH(i), near cysteine pK (K(a) = 1.83, 1.81 and 4.99 ?m at pH(i) 6, 7.35, and 8, respectively), suggesting the involvement of cysteines in the binding site. Mutations of cysteine residues predicted to be within (Cys-491) or outside (Cys-1344) the potentiator-binding site showed that Cys-491 is responsible for the sensitivity of potentiator binding to alkaline pH(i). Effects of pH(i) on inhibition by high genistein doses were also analyzed. Our results extend previous data about multiple effects of pH(i) on CFTR activity and demonstrate that binding of potentiators involves salt bridge formation with amino acids of nucleotide-binding domain 1. PMID:20974851

  11. A mathematical model of pH, based on the total stoichiometric concentration of acids, bases and ampholytes dissolved in water.

    PubMed

    Mioni, Roberto; Mioni, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    In chemistry and in acid-base physiology, the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation plays a pivotal role in studying the behaviour of the buffer solutions. However, it seems that the general function to calculate the valence of acids, bases and ampholytes, N = f(pH), at any pH, has only been provided by Kildeberg. This equation can be applied to strong acids and bases, pluriprotic weak acids, bases and ampholytes, with an arbitrary number of acid strength constants, pKA, including water. By differentiating this function with respect to pH, we obtain the general equation for the buffer value. In addition, by integrating the titration curve, TA, proposed by Kildeberg, and calculating its Legendre transform, we obtain the Gibbs free energy of pH (or pOH)-dependent titratable acid. Starting from the law of electroneutrality and applying suitable simplifications, it is possible to calculate the pH of the buffer solutions by numerical methods, available in software packages such as Excel. The concept of buffer capacity has also been clarified by Urbansky, but, at variance with our approach, not in an organic manner. In fact, for each set of monobasic, dibasic, tribasic acids, etc., various equations are presented which independently fit each individual acid-base category. Consequently, with the increase in acid groups (pKA), the equations become more and more difficult, both in practice and in theory. Some examples are proposed to highlight the boundary that exists between acid-base physiology and the thermodynamic concepts of energy, chemical potential, amount of substance and acid resistance. PMID:26059505

  12. Linkage of iron elution and dissolved oxygen consumption with removal of organic pollutants by nanoscale zero-valent iron: Effects of pH on iron dissolution and formation of iron oxide/hydroxide layer.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Nanae; Suzuki, Moe; Kurosu, Shunji; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2016-02-01

    The iron elution and dissolved oxygen (DO) consumption in organic pollutant removal by nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) was examined in the range of solution pH from 3.0 to 9.0. Their behaviors were linked with the removal of organic pollutant through the dissolution of iron and the formation of iron oxide/hydroxide layer affected strongly by solution pH and DO. As an example of organic pollutants, azo-dye Orange II was chosen in this study. The chemical composition analyses before and after reaction confirmed the corrosion of nZVI into ions, the formation of iron oxide/hydroxide layer on nZVI surface and the adsorption of the pollutant and its intermediates. The complete decolorization of Orange II with nZVI was accomplished very quickly. On the other hand, the total organic carbon (TOC) removal was considerably slow and the maximum TOC removal was around 40% obtained at pH 9.0. The reductive cleavage of azo-bond by emitted electrons more readily took place as compared with the cleavage of aromatic rings of Orange II leading to the degradation to smaller molecules and subsequently the mineralization. A reaction kinetic model based on the Langmuir-Hinshelwood/Eley-Rideal approach was developed to elucidate mechanisms for organic pollutant removal controlled by the formation of iron oxide/hydroxide layer, the progress of which could be characterized by considering the dynamic concentration changes in Fe(2+) and DO. The dynamic profiles of Orange II removal linked with Fe(2+) and DO could be reasonably simulated in the range of pH from 3.0 to 9.0. PMID:26519806

  13. Influence of pH, inorganic anions, and dissolved organic matter on the photolysis of antimicrobial triclocarban in aqueous systems under simulated sunlight irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shi-Ling; Wang, Xi-Kui; Jiang, Wen-Qiang; Zhao, Ru-Song; Shen, Ting-Ting; Wang, Chen; Wang, Xia

    2015-04-01

    The photolysis of the antimicrobial triclocarban (TCC) in aqueous systems under simulated sunlight irradiation was studied. The effects of several abiotic parameters, including solution pH, initial TCC concentration, presence of natural organic matter, and most common inorganic anions in surface waters, were investigated. The results show that the photolysis of TCC followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The TCC photolysis rate constant increased with increasing solution pH and decreasing the initial TCC concentration. Compared with the TCC photolysis in pure water, the presence of aqueous bicarbonate, nitrate, humic acids, and its sodium salt decreased the TCC photolysis rate, but fulvic acid increased the TCC photolysis rate. The electron spin resonance and reactive oxygen species scavenging experiments indicated that TCC may undergo two different types of phototransformation reactions: direct photolysis and energy transfer to generate (1)O2. The main degradation products were tentatively identified by gas chromatography interfaced with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and a possible degradation pathway was also proposed. PMID:25354431

  14. K[subscript a] and K[subscript b] from pH and Conductivity Measurements: A General Chemistry Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyasulu, Frazier; Moehring, Michael; Arthasery, Phyllis; Barlag, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The acid ionization constant, K[subscript a], of acetic acid and the base ionization constant, K[subscript b], of ammonia are determined easily and rapidly using a datalogger, a pH sensor, and a conductivity sensor. To decrease sample preparation time and to minimize waste, sequential aliquots of a concentrated standard are added to a known volume…

  15. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF AN ACID PRECIPITATION MONITOR FOR FRACTIONAL EVENT SAMPLING WITH CAPABILITY FOR REAL-TIME PH AND CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An acid precipitation monitor has been developed that collects fractions of rain events, measures the pH and conductivity in real-time, and stores the remaining samples under refrigerated conditions. -80 microprocessor controls all operations of the monitor including sample colle...

  16. Revisiting the Role of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator and Counterion Permeability in the pH Regulation of Endocytic Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Barriere, Herve; Bagdany, Miklos; Bossard, Florian; Okiyoneda, Tsukasa; Wojewodka, Gabriella; Gruenert, Dieter; Radzioch, Danuta

    2009-01-01

    Organellar acidification by the electrogenic vacuolar proton-ATPase is coupled to anion uptake and cation efflux to preserve electroneutrality. The defective organellar pH regulation, caused by impaired counterion conductance of the mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), remains highly controversial in epithelia and macrophages. Restricting the pH-sensitive probe to CFTR-containing vesicles, the counterion and proton permeability, and the luminal pH of endosomes were measured in various cells, including genetically matched CF and non-CF human respiratory epithelia, as well as cftr+/+ and cftr?/? mouse alveolar macrophages. Passive proton and relative counterion permeabilities, determinants of endosomal, lysosomal, and phagosomal pH-regulation, were probed with FITC-conjugated transferrin, dextran, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. Although CFTR function could be documented in recycling endosomes and immature phagosomes, neither channel activation nor inhibition influenced the pH in any of these organelles. CFTR heterologous overexpression also failed to alter endocytic organellar pH. We propose that the relatively large CFTR-independent counterion and small passive proton permeability ensure efficient shunting of the proton-ATPase–generated membrane potential. These results have implications in the regulation of organelle acidification in general and demonstrate that perturbations of the endolysosomal organelles pH homeostasis cannot be linked to the etiology of the CF lung disease. PMID:19420138

  17. Feasible metabolisms in high pH springs of the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Cardace, Dawn; Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R.; Woycheese, Kristin M.; Arcilla, Carlo A.

    2015-01-01

    A field campaign targeting high pH, H2-, and CH4-emitting serpentinite-associated springs in the Zambales and Palawan Ophiolites of the Philippines was conducted in 2012-2013, and enabled description of several springs sourced in altered pillow basalts, gabbros, and peridotites. We combine field observations of pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and oxidation-reduction potential with analyses of major ions, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved gas phases in order to model the activities of selected phases important to microbial metabolism, and to rank feasible metabolic reactions based on energy yield. We document changing geochemical inventories in these springs between sampling years, and examine how the environment supports or prevents the function of certain microbial metabolisms. In all, this geochemistry-based assessment of feasible metabolisms indicates methane cycling, hydrogen oxidation, some iron and sulfur metabolisms, and ammonia oxidation are feasible reactions in this continental site of serpentinization. PMID:25713561

  18. Investigation of a fiber optic surface plasmon spectroscopy in conjunction with conductivity as an in situ method for simultaneously monitoring changes in dissolved organic carbon and salinity in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon-Chang; Cramer, Jeffrey A; Booksh, Karl S

    2011-10-21

    A combination surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and conductivity sensor array was developed and implemented to demonstrate the ability to differentiate among changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and salinity in coastal water. The array is capable of achieving sufficient spatial and temporal data density to better understand the cycling and fate of terrestrial DOC in coastal areas. DOC is the second largest source of bioreactive carbon in the environment and plays a key role in mediating microbial activity and generation of atmospheric CO(2). In the coastal areas, the salinity is also an important property in many applications, such as leak detection for landfill liners, saltwater intrusion to drinking water, marine environment monitoring, and seasonal climate prediction. Conductivity sensors are the industry standard for determining salinity in ocean systems. However, both conductivity and refractive index sensors, such as SPR spectroscopy based sensors, respond to salinity and DOC levels. To demonstrate the capability of the SPR sensor and a conductivity sensor to collect complimentary data useful in discrimination of salinity and DOC in coastal zone water, conductivity, SPR, and temperature data were collected during passage from the Juan de Fuca ridge area returning to the University of Washington docks. PMID:21881638

  19. Sensitized photooxidation of dissolved sulfides in water

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, T.F.; Curtis, J.G.; Marchand, E.A.; Adams, V.D.; Middlebrooks, E.J.

    1994-12-31

    A byproduct of the enhanced recovery of petroleum is flood water that is often contaminated with soluble sulfides. The ability of methylene blue (MB) and riboflavin (RF) to sensitize dissolved sulfides for photooxidation was investigated. Both MB and RF were found to be effective sensitizers for the oxidation of sulfide in water. MB-dosed batch reactors consistently reduced initial sulfide concentrations of 100 mg/l to less than 10--15 mg/l in less than one hour under artificial lighting (91% sunlight corrected fluorescent tubes) at a pH = 10 and MB = 1mg/l. Preliminary experiments have shown approximately 80--85% of the removed sulfide is accounted for as accumulated sulfate. RF is also effective at enhancing the removal of sulfide, but experiments similar to those conducted for NM revealed that RF-dosed reactors required approximately 2--3 times longer to achieve sulfide removal comparable to MB (1mg/l), even with an RF concentration of 20 mg/l. The primary product in RF-sensitized photooxidation of dissolved sulfides is also sulfate, with approximately 75-80% of removed sulfide recovered as sulfate. First order plots of experimental data yield reaction rate constants of k = 0.0097 min{sup {minus}1} for RF, and k = 0.0273 min{sup {minus}1} for MB.

  20. The Bulk Lunar Electrical Conductivity. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report; [from Explorer 35 satellite and the Apollo 12 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leavy, Donald Lucien

    1975-01-01

    The electrical conductivity structure was studied of a spherically layered moon consistent with the very low frequency magnetic data collected on the lunar surface and by Explorer 35. In order to obtain good agreement with the lunar surface magnetometer observations, the inclusion of a void cavity behind the moon requires a conductivity at shallow depths higher than that of models having the solar wind impinging on all sides. By varying only the source parameters, a conductivity model can be found that yields a good fit to both the tangential response upstream and the radial response downstream. This model also satisfies the dark side tangential response in the frequency range above 0.006 Hz, but the few data points presently available below this range do not seem to agree with the theory.

  1. The electrical conductivity of the Earth's upper mantle as estimated from satellite measured magnetic field variations. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didwall, E. M.

    1981-01-01

    Low latitude magnetic field variations (magnetic storms) caused by large fluctuations in the equatorial ring current were derived from magnetic field magnitude data obtained by OGO 2, 4, and 6 satellites over an almost 5 year period. Analysis procedures consisted of (1) separating the disturbance field into internal and external parts relative to the surface of the Earth; (2) estimating the response function which related to the internally generated magnetic field variations to the external variations due to the ring current; and (3) interpreting the estimated response function using theoretical response functions for known conductivity profiles. Special consideration is given to possible ocean effects. A temperature profile is proposed using conductivity temperature data for single crystal olivine. The resulting temperature profile is reasonable for depths below 150-200 km, but is too high for shallower depths. Apparently, conductivity is not controlled solely by olivine at shallow depths.

  2. DISSOLVED OXYGEN DIURNAL FLUX STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stream monitoring study of a 24 Western Corn Belt Plains streams designed to assess any correlation of nutrient loads and the level of dissolved oxygen in wadeable streams and any subsequent affect on aquatic life. Study currently being conducted under a cooperative agreement be...

  3. Dependence of the ionospheric convection pattern on the conductivity and the southward IMF. Ph.D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, J.

    1993-12-31

    Electric field measurements from the DE-2 satellite were used to determine the location of the convection reversal boundary and the potential around this boundary under a combination of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and auroral electrojet conditions. The electric potential is obtained by the integration of the electric fields. The convection reversal boundary is defined in this study as where the potential has its absolute maximum and minimum values. The data were sorted into 18 categories according to two levels of the negative IMF B(sub z), three ranges of IMF B(sub y), and two substorm phases. The data were fit with both continuous and discontinuous boundaries to get a functional representation of boundary potentials and locations. A simple model is constructed by solving Laplace`s equation in order to illustrate the obtained boundary potentials and locations. The results show that the enhanced electric field in the midnight sector is associated with an intense westward electrojet current. It can also be seen that the convection reversal boundary is found to be discontinuous near midnight. The discontinuous convection reversal boundary on the dayside is related to the merging near dayside cusp region. The discontinuous convection reversal boundary on the nightside is related to the conductivity enhancement. The intrusion of the dawn cell into the dusk cell is due to nonuniformity of the Hall conductivity in the ionosphere. Another model is constructed by solving the current continuity equation with field-aligned current and nonuniform conductivity added. It can be found that a secondary convection reversal, which is detached from the dusk-cell convection reversal, appears in the evening-midnight sector within the polar cap when the IMF B(sub y) is positive and the conductivity is nonuniform. This convection reversal is attributed to the B x V dynamo.

  4. Effects of Dissolved Carbonate on Arsenate Adsorption and Surface

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Cl], in which each pH value was held constant by a pH- stat apparatus, effects of dissolved carbonate on As and surface speciation at the hematite-water interface were studied as a function of pH and two different-enhanced As(V) uptake in the air-equilibrated systems at pH 4 and 6 and at pH 8 after 3 h of reaction

  5. Role of Na+/H+ exchange in the control of intracellular pH and cell membrane conductances in frog skin epithelium

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Ion-sensitive microelectrodes and current-voltage analysis were used to study intracellular pH (pHi) regulation and its effects on ionic conductances in the isolated epithelium of frog skin. We show that pHi recovery after an acid load is dependent on the operation of an amiloride-sensitive Na+/H+ exchanger localized at the basolateral cell membranes. The antiporter is not quiescent at physiological pHi (7.1- 7.4) and, thus, contributes to the maintenance of steady state pHi. Moreover, intracellular sodium ion activity is also controlled in part by Na+ uptake via the exchanger. Intracellular acidification decreased transepithelial Na+ transport rate, apical Na+ permeability (PNa) and Na+ and K+ conductances. The recovery of these transport parameters after the removal of the acid load was found to be dependent on pHi regulation via Na+/H+ exchange. Conversely, variations in Na+ transport were accompanied by changes in pHi. Inhibition of Na+/K+ ATPase by ouabain produced covariant decreases in pHi and PNa, whereas increases in Na+ transport, occurring spontaneously or after aldosterone treatment, were highly correlated with intracellular alkalinization. We conclude that cytoplasmic H+ activity is regulated by a basolateral Na+/H+ exchanger and that transcellular coupling of ion flows at opposing cell membranes can be modulated by the pHi-regulating mechanism. PMID:3265145

  6. Children's Interpretation of Dissolving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longden, Ken; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Children of 2 different age groups (11-12, n=246; and 13-14, n=196) were asked to draw and write about dissolving in 2 different ways. Greater percentage of children at both ages gave accurate particle interpretation that accurate view of observable process. Consistency between two ways of looking at dissolving was not found to improve with age.…

  7. Dissolved Oxygen and Sulfide Define the Boundaries of Thermophilic Microbial Iron Mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St Clair, B.; Shock, E.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial iron cycling can be found in hot springs throughout Yellowstone National Park, where the process is often visibly apparent as red iron oxyhydroxide staining. We measured rates of microbial and abiotic iron oxidation and reduction in systems ranging from pH 2 to 6 and 40° to 90°C. Measurements of numerous solutes, including oxygen, sulfide, and iron, were also made on outflow channels of springs containing apparent iron metabolism. In all cases, > 16 ?M dissolved oxygen was required for visible iron oxidation products to occur. Oxygen concentrations below this level do not necessarily preclude microbial iron oxidation coupled to oxygen, only the accumulation of oxidation products. Kinetics experiments conducted at these iron mats suggest that the rate of microbial iron oxidation falls below the rate of microbial reduction when dissolved oxygen falls below this concentration. In outflow channels, this is often visibly apparent as a sharp boundary between the presence and lack of red iron oxidation products. Locations with changing temperature, pH, flow rate and other factors experience changing oxygen concentrations, which causes the boundary to shift from year to year. The boundaries of iron mats are also influenced in several locations by the concentration of total dissolved sulfide. Experiments with enrichment cultures and field observations show that sulfide is not toxic to iron oxidizers, but rather inhibits the accumulation of dissolved oxygen. Microbial and abiotic sulfide oxidation, leading to visible sulfur precipitation, together with degassing of hydrogen sulfide, contribute to keeping oxygen levels low. Typically, only where sulfide concentrations fall below 20 ?M are iron mats able to form. Enrichment cultures of iron oxidizers, however, grow easily at levels exceeding 100 ?M sulfide. Only a handful of field locations appear to have simultaneous sulfur and iron precipitation zones. Formation of iron oxidation mats occurs at highly consistent concentrations of dissolved oxygen and sulfide in Yellowstone hot springs, and can even serve as visible indicators of the abundance of these geochemical constituents.

  8. Dissolved Oxygen a practical guide to dissolved oxygen measurements

    E-print Network

    Serianni, Anthony S.

    ..............................................................................................5 YsI optical Dissolved oxygen Instruments ............................................6 optical sensing element............................................................................7 How

  9. Quality-assurance results for field pH and specific-conductance measurements, and for laboratory analysis, National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network; January 1980-September 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroder, L.J.; Brooks, M.H.; Malo, B.A.; Willoughby, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Five intersite comparison studies for the field determination of pH and specific conductance, using simulated-precipitation samples, were conducted by the U.S.G.S. for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network. These comparisons were performed to estimate the precision of pH and specific conductance determinations made by sampling-site operators. Simulated-precipitation samples were prepared from nitric acid and deionized water. The estimated standard deviation for site-operator determination of pH was 0.25 for pH values ranging from 3.79 to 4.64; the estimated standard deviation for specific conductance was 4.6 microsiemens/cm at 25 C for specific-conductance values ranging from 10.4 to 59.0 microsiemens/cm at 25 C. Performance-audit samples with known analyte concentrations were prepared by the U.S.G.S.and distributed to the National Atmospheric Deposition Program 's Central Analytical Laboratory. The differences between the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and national Trends Network-reported analyte concentrations and known analyte concentrations were calculated, and the bias and precision were determined. For 1983, concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and chloride were biased at the 99% confidence limit; concentrations of potassium and sulfate were unbiased at the 99% confidence limit. Four analytical laboratories routinely analyzing precipitation were evaluated in their analysis of identical natural- and simulated precipitation samples. Analyte bias for each laboratory was examined using analysis of variance coupled with Duncan 's multiple-range test on data produced by these laboratories, from the analysis of identical simulated-precipitation samples. Analyte precision for each laboratory has been estimated by calculating a pooled variance for each analyte. Interlaboratory comparability results may be used to normalize natural-precipitation chemistry data obtained from two or more of these laboratories. (Author 's abstract)

  10. RESPONSE OF LEAD SOLUBILITY TO DISSOLVED CARBONATE IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A model is presented showing the detailed response of the theoretical solubility curves for lead to changes in dissolved inorganic carbonate concentration (TIC) and pH at 25 C. Aqueous Pb(II) ion, lead carbonate complexes, lead hydroxide monomers and polymers, and the solids lead...

  11. Enhanced dissolution of cinnabar (mercuric sulfide) by dissolved organic matter isolated from the Florida Everglades

    SciTech Connect

    Ravichandran, M.; Ryan, J.N.; Aiken, G.R.; Reddy, M.M.

    1998-11-01

    Organic matter isolated from the Florida Everglades caused a dramatic increase in mercury release from cinnabar (HgS), a solid with limited solubility. Hydrophobic (a mixture of both humic and fulvic) acids dissolved more mercury than hydrophilic acids and other nonacid fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Cinnabar dissolution by isolated organic matter and natural water samples was inhibited by cations such as Ca{sup 2+}. Dissolution was independent of oxygen content in experimental solutions. Dissolution experiments conducted in Dl water had no detectable dissolved mercury. The presence of various inorganic (chloride, sulfate, or sulfide) and organic ligands (salicylic acid, acetic acid, EDTA, or cysteine) did not enhance the dissolution of mercury from the mineral. Aromatic carbon content in the isolates correlated positively with enhanced cinnabar dissolution. {zeta}-potential measurements indicated sorption of negatively charged organic matter to the negatively charged cinnabar at pH 6.0. Possible mechanisms of dissolution include surface complexation of mercury and oxidation of surface sulfur species by the organic matter.

  12. Effect of Leaf Litter Diversity on Dissolved Organic Matter Export in a Deciduous Forest Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibe*, A.; Eißfeller, V.; Langenbruch, C.; Seven, J.; Gleixner, G.

    2012-04-01

    We investigated sources and fate of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soils in order to understand the effect of tree diversity on below ground processes. We established a leaf litter exchange experiment in the National Park Hainich (Thuringia, Germany) in December 2008. Labeled (13C) and unlabeled leaf litter of beach (Fagus sylvatica) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior) were exposed to study the decomposition process. Soil water was collected biweekly with glass suction plates (1 ?m pore size, UMS, Munich, Germany) in 5 cm soil depth and pH, conductivity, DOC and anions (Cl-, NO3-, NO2-, PO43-, SO42-, F-) were determined. The 13DOC values were measured using high performance liquid chromatography - isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HPLC-IRMS). The values of conductivity and pH in the soil water indicate slower decomposition processes for leaf litter of beech in comparison to ash leaf litter. The conductivity was correlated with the Cl- ion during the first spring, which suggests the export of carbon due to leaching processes. However during the summer the conductivity correlated with the NO3- ions, which indicates mineralization as driving process. Surprisingly, the contribution of litter 13C into the dissolved carbon pool was very low. The highest contribution with up to 8.6% DOC labeled by ash litter derived carbon was found in the first 3 month of application. However, in the mean only 1.2% and 2.6% of DOC was labeled by carbon of the beech and ash litter, respectively. This represents in total only up to 0.41% of labeled litter carbon that was added. The higher percentages of ash litter derived 13C in DOM of soil water compared to beech indicates a positive effect of litter quality on decomposition. However, we did not find a faster decomposition or higher ash litter derived carbon export in mixed (ash and beech litter) treatments, which would indicate food selection or biodiversity effects.

  13. Yucca Mountain Area Saturated Zone Dissolved Organic Carbon Isotopic Data

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, James; Decker, David; Patterson, Gary; Peterman, Zell; Mihevc, Todd; Larsen, Jessica; Hershey, Ronald

    2007-06-25

    Groundwater samples in the Yucca Mountain area were collected for chemical and isotopic analyses and measurements of water temperature, pH, specific conductivity, and alkalinity were obtained at the well or spring at the time of sampling. For this project, groundwater samples were analyzed for major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) performed all the fieldwork on this project including measurement of water chemistry field parameters and sample collection. The major ions dissolved in the groundwater, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were analyzed by the USGS. All preparation and processing of samples for DOC carbon isotopic analyses and geochemical modeling were performed by the Desert Research Institute (DRI). Analysis of the DOC carbon dioxide gas produced at DRI to obtain carbon-13 and carbon-14 values was conducted at the University of Arizona Accelerator Facility (a NSHE Yucca Mountain project QA qualified contract facility). The major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of DIC were used in geochemical modeling (NETPATH) to determine groundwater sources, flow paths, mixing, and ages. The carbon isotopes of DOC were used to calculate groundwater ages that are independent of DIC model corrected carbon-14 ages. The DIC model corrected carbon-14 calculated ages were used to evaluate groundwater travel times for mixtures of water including water beneath Yucca Mountain. When possible, groundwater travel times were calculated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient sample sites. DOC carbon-14 groundwater ages were also calculated for groundwaters in the Yucca Mountain area. When possible, groundwater travel times were estimated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient groundwater sample sites using the DOC calculated groundwater ages. The DIC calculated groundwater ages were compared with DOC calculated groundwater ages and both of these ages were compared to travel times developed in ground-water flow and transport models. If nuclear waste is stored in Yucca Mountain, the saturated zone is the final barrier against the release of radionuclides to the environment. The most recent rendition of the TSPA takes little credit for the presence of the saturated zone and is a testament to the inadequate understanding of this important barrier. If radionuclides reach the saturated zone beneath Yucca Mountain, then there is a travel time before they would leave the Yucca Mountain area and flow down gradient to the Amargosa Valley area. Knowing how long it takes groundwater in the saturated zone to flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient areas is critical information for potential radionuclide transport. Radionuclide transport in groundwater may be the quickest pathway for radionuclides in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository to reach land surface by way of groundwater pumped in Amargosa Valley. An alternative approach to ground-water flow and transport models to determine the travel time of radionuclides from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient areas in the saturated zone is by carbon-14 dating of both inorganic and organic carbon dissolved in the groundwater. A standard method of determining ground-water ages is to measure the carbon-13 and carbon-14 of DIC in the groundwater and then correct the measured carbon-14 along a flow path for geochemical reactions that involve carbon containing phases. These geochemical reactions are constrained by carbon-13 and isotopic fractionations. Without correcting for geochemical reactions, the ground-water ages calculated from only the differences in carbon-14 measured along a flow path (assuming the decrease in carbon-14 is due strictly to radioactive decay) could be tens of thousands of years too old. The computer program NETPATH, developed by the USGS, is the best geochemical program for correcting carbon-14 activities for geochemical r

  14. Method of synthesis of proton conducting materials

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando Henry; Einsla, Melinda Lou; Mukundan, Rangachary

    2010-06-15

    A method of producing a proton conducting material, comprising adding a pyrophosphate salt to a solvent to produce a dissolved pyrophosphate salt; adding an inorganic acid salt to a solvent to produce a dissolved inorganic acid salt; adding the dissolved inorganic acid salt to the dissolved pyrophosphate salt to produce a mixture; substantially evaporating the solvent from the mixture to produce a precipitate; and calcining the precipitate at a temperature of from about 400.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C.

  15. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region. PMID:26729101

  16. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of cell biologist Don Francis Petersen, Ph.D., conducted November 29, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This report is a transcript of an interview of Dr. Don Francis Petersen by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Petersen was selected for this interview because of his long research career at Los Alamos and his knowledge of the Atomic Energy Commission`s biomedical program. Dr. Petersen did not personally conduct research on human subjects. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Petersen discusses his remembrances of the early use of radionuclides as biological tracers, aspects of nuclear weapons testing in the 1940`s and 1950`s including fallout studies, the means by which research projects were approved, use of humans in the whole-body counter, and the Health Division Biomedical responsibilities.

  17. A finite element model of conduction, convection, and phase change near a solid/melt interface. Ph.D. Thesis - Michigan Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed understanding of heat transfer and fluid flow is required for many aerospace thermal systems. These systems often include phase change and operate over a range of accelerations or effective gravitational fields. An approach to analyzing such systems is presented which requires the simultaneous solution of the conservation laws of energy, momentum, and mass, as well as an equation of state. The variable property form of the governing equations are developed in two-dimensional Cartesian coordinates for a Newtonian fluid. A numerical procedure for solving the governing equations is presented and implemented in a computer program. The Galerkin form of the finite element method is used to solve the spatial variation of the field variables, along with the implicit Crank-Nicolson time marching algorithm. Quadratic Langrangian elements are used for the internal energy and the two components of velocity. Linear Lagrangian elements are used for the pressure. The location of the solid/liquid interface as well as the temperatures are determined form the calculated internal energy and pressure. This approach is quite general in that it can describe heat transfer without phase change, phase change with a sharp interface, and phase change without an interface. Analytical results from this model are compared to those of other researchers studying transient conduction, convection, and phase change and are found to be in good agreement. The numerical procedure presented requires significant computer resources, but this is not unusual when compared to similar studies by other researchers. Several methods are suggested to reduce the computational times.

  18. Precipitation strengthened high strength, high conductivity Cu-Cr-Nb alloys produced by chill block melt spinning. Final Report Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.; Michal, Gary M.

    1989-01-01

    A series of Cu-based alloys containing 2 to 10 a/o Cr and 1 to 5 a/o Nb were produced by chill block melt spinning (CBMS). The melt spun ribbons were consolidated and hot rolled to sheet to produce a supersaturated Cu-Cr-Nb solid solution from which the high melting point intermetallic compound Cr2Nb could be precipitated to strengthen the Cu matrix. The results show that the materials possess electrical conductivities in excess of 90 percent that of pure Cu at 200 C and above. The strengths of the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys were much greater than Cu, Cu-0.6 Cr, NARloy-A, and NARloy-Z in the as-melt spun condition. The strengths of the consolidated materials were less than Cu-Cr and Cu-Cr-Zr below 500 C and 600 C respectively, but were significantly better above these temperatures. The strengths of the consolidated materials were greater than NARloy-Z, at all temperatures. The GLIDCOP possessed similar strength levels up to 750 C when the strength of the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys begins to degrade. The long term stability of the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys was measured by the microhardness of aged samples and the growth of precipitates. The microhardness measurements indicate that the alloys overage rapidly, but do not suffer much loss in strength between 10 and 100 hours which confirms the results of the electrical resistivity measurements taken during the aging of the alloys at 500 C. The loss in strength from peak strength levels is significant, but the strength remains exceptionally good. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the as-melt spun samples revealed that Cr2Nb precipitates formed in the liquid Cu during the chill block melt spinning, indicating a very strong driving force for the formation of the precipitates. The TEM of the aged and consolidated materials indicates that the precipitates coarsen considerably, but remain in the submicron range.

  19. Monitoring diel dissolved oxygen dynamics through integrating wavelet denoising and temporal neural networks.

    PubMed

    Evrendilek, Fatih; Karakaya, Nusret

    2014-03-01

    Diel dissolved oxygen (DO) time series measured continuously using proximal sensors in situ for a temperate lake were denoised using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) with the orthogonal wavelet families of coiflet, daubechies, and symmlet with order of 10. Diel DO time series denoised were modeled using nine temporal artificial neural networks (ANNs) as a function of water level, water temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, day of year, and hour. Our results showed that time-lag recurrent network (TLRN) using denoised data emulated diel DO dynamics better than the best-performing TLRN using the original data, time-delay neural network (TDNN), and recurrent network (RNN). Daubechies basis dealt with diel DO data slightly better than the other bases given its coefficient of determination (r (2)?=?87.1 %), while symmlet performed slightly better than the other bases in terms of root mean square error (RMSE?=?1.2 ppm) and mean absolute error (MAE?=?0.9 ppm). PMID:24100799

  20. The seasonal influence on the spatial distribution of dissolved selected metals in Lake Naivasha, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamau, Joseph Nyingi; Gachanja, Anthony; Ngila, Catherine; Kazungu, Johnson Michael; Zhai, Mingzhe

    Lake Naivasha is the only freshwater Lake in Rift Valley, in Kenya. It lies in a fertile semi-arid basin. The Lake has no surface water outlet and is presumed to be under stress. Dissolved metals are directly taken up by bacteria, algae, plants, and planktonic and benthic organisms. Dissolved metals can also adsorb to particulate matter in water column and enter aquatic organisms through various routes. Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc may bioaccumulate within lower organisms, yet they do not biomagnify up the food chain as do mercury and selenium. This study reports on the levels and distribution of dissolved heavy metals and investigates the influence of physicochemical parameters on metal mobilization. The bioavailability of selected metals was investigated by relating the levels of dissolved metals to that in fish. Water abstraction for irrigation and domestic use, compounded with organic matter inflow will affect physicochemical parameters and hence influences the mobilization of heavy metals. Dissolved Zn correlated highly with sediment pH (r = 0.67) indicating that dissolution increases with increase in pH. In addition, the fact that the pH also correlated positively with organic matter r = 0.50, Eh r = 0.63, temperature r = 0.56 and dissolved oxygen r = 56, would suggest that organic bound Zn contributed significantly to the concentration of dissolved Zn. In situ flux experiments indicated that the fringing papyrus reeds located along the shores of Lake Naivasha provided sites for metal immobilization due to their coprecipitation on redox sensitive.

  1. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2004-11-22

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  2. DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600200 Dissolving Behavior and Stability of ZnO Wires in Biofluids

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    and dissolving behavior of ZnO NWs in various solutions with moderate pH values, including deionized water water (pH 4.5­5.0), ammonia (pH 7.0­7.1, 8.7­9.0) and NaOH solution (pH 7.0­7.1, 8.7­9.0). The study in deionized water (pH 4.5­5.0), ammonia (pH 7.0­7.1, 8.7­9.0), NaOH solution (pH 7.0­7.1, 8.7­9.0), horse

  3. Ph.D. Recipients listed by recipient. 1 1937 Ablard, James Elbert D.Sc. Advisor: J. C. Warner Equivalent conductance, dissociation constants and heats of dissociation of triethylamine in

    E-print Network

    Kurnikova, Maria

    to a nitroolefin 1978 Aromatorio, Debra Kay Ph.D. Advisor: D. J. Hartshorne Calcium regulation in smooth muscle Banerjee, Deboshri Ph.D. Advisor: T. J. Collins Green Oxidation Catalysis with Fe-TAML/Peroxide: Novel

  4. Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO[sub x] emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO[sub x] fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO[sub x] emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO[sub 2] which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

  5. Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO{sub x} emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO{sub x} fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO{sub x} emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO{sub 2} which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

  6. EFFECTS OF LOW DISSOLVED OXYGEN ON SURVIVAL AND REPRODUCTION OF DAPHNIA, HYALELLA, AND GAMMARUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Daphnia magna, Daphnia pulex, Hyalella azteca, and Gammarus lacustris were exposed to low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the laboratory. Acute and chronic exposures were conducted to develop data for use in the EPA Water Quality Criteria document for dissolved oxygen. . magna...

  7. Dissolving pulp from jute stick.

    PubMed

    Matin, Mhafuza; Rahaman, M Mostafizur; Nayeem, Jannatun; Sarkar, Mamon; Jahan, M Sarwar

    2015-01-22

    Jute stick is woody portion of jute plant, which remain as leftover after extracting bast fibre. Presently, it is being used for fencing in the rural area. In this investigation, biorefinery concept was initiated in producing dissolving pulp from jute stick by pre-hydrolysis kraft process. At 170°C for 1h of pre-hydrolysis, 70% of hemicelluloses was dissolved with negligible loss of ?-cellulose. At this condition, 75% of dissolved sugars in the pre-hydrolysis liquor were in the oligomeric form. The pre-hydrolysed jute stick was subsequently pulped by kraft process with the variation of active alkali. The pulp yield was 36.2% with kappa number 18.5 at the conditions of 16% active alkali for 2h of cooking at 170°C. Final pulp was produced with 92% ?-cellulose and 89% brightness after D0EpD1EpD1 bleaching. The produced dissolving pulp can be used in rayon production. PMID:25439866

  8. Dissolved gas - the hidden saboteur

    SciTech Connect

    Magorien, V.G.

    1993-12-31

    Almost all hydraulic power components, to properly perform their tasks, rely on one basic, physical property, i.e., the incompressibility of the working fluid. Unfortunately, a frequently overlooked fluid property which frustrates this requirement is its ability to absorb, i.e., dissolve, store and give off gas. The gas is, most often but not always, air. This property is a complex one because it is a function not only of the fluid`s chemical make-up but temperature, pressure, exposed area, depth and time. In its relationshiop to aircraft landing-gear, where energy is absorbed hydraulically, this multi-faceted fluid property can be detrimental in two ways: dynamically, i.e., loss of energy absorption ability and statically, i.e., improper aircraft attitude on the ground. The pupose of this paper is to bring an awareness to this property by presenting: (1) examples of these manifestations with some empirical and practical solutions to them, (2) illustrations of this normally `hidden saboteur` at work, (3) Henry`s Dissolved Gas Law, (4) room-temperature, saturated values of dissolved gas for a number of different working fluids, (5) a description of the instrument used to obtain them, (6) some `missing elements` of the Dissolved Gas Law pertaining to absoption, (7) how static and dynamic conditions effect gas absorption and (8) some recommended solutions to prevent becoming a victim of this `hidden saboteur`

  9. Photochemical flocculation of terrestrial dissolved organic matter and iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helms, John R.; Mao, Jingdong; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus; Abdulla, Hussain; Mopper, Kenneth

    2013-11-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) rich water samples (Great Dismal Swamp, Virginia) were 0.1-?m filtered and UV-irradiated in a solar simulator for 30 days. During the irradiation, pH increased, particulate organic matter (POM) and particulate iron formed. After 30 days, 7% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was converted to POC while 75% was remineralized. Approximately 87% of the iron was removed from the dissolved phase after 30 days, but iron did not flocculate until a major fraction of DOM was removed by photochemical degradation and flocculation (>10 days); thus, during the initial 10 days, there were sufficient organic ligands present or the pH was low enough to keep iron in solution. Nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies indicated that photochemically flocculated POM was more aliphatic than the residual non-flocculated DOM. Photochemically flocculated POM was also enriched in amide functionality, while carbohydrate-like material was resistant to both photochemical degradation and flocculation. Abiotic photochemical flocculation likely removes a significant fraction of terrestrial DOM from the upper water column between headwaters and the ocean, but has previously been ignored. Preliminary evidence suggests that this process may significantly impact the transport of DOM and POM in ocean margin environments including estuaries.

  10. Dissolving mechanism of strain P17 on insoluble phosphorus of yellow-brown soil

    PubMed Central

    Chuan-qing, Zhong; Guang-xiang, Cao; Wei-yi, Huang; Xing-she, Luan; Yi-fei, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Strain P17 was a bacterial strain identified as Bacillus megaterium isolated from ground accumulating phosphate rock powder. The fermentation broth of strain P17 and the yellow-brown soil from Nanjing Agricultural University garden were collected to conduct this study. The simulation of fixed insoluble phosphorous forms after applying calcium superphosphate into yellow-brown soil was performed in pots, while available P and total P of soil were extremely positive correlative with those of groundwater. Then the dissolving effect of strain P17 on insoluble P of yellow-brown soil was studied. Results showed that Bacillus megaterium strain P17 had notable solubilizing effect on insoluble phosphates formed when too much water-soluble phosphorous fertilizer used. During 100 days after inoculation, strain P17 was dominant. Until the 120th day, compared with water addition, available P of strain P17 inoculation treated soil increased by 3 times with calcium superphosphate addition. Besides available P, pH, activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase and population of P-solubilizing microbes were detected respectively. P-solubilizing mechanism of P-solubilizing bacteria strain P17 seems to be a synergetic effect of pH decrease, organic acids, phosphatase, etc. PMID:25477929

  11. The Influence of pH on the Oxygen Isotope Composition of Calcium Carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, J. D.; Watkins, J. M.; Ryerson, F. J.; DePaolo, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Oxygen isotope fractionation between calcium carbonate and water is temperature-dependent and can therefore be used as a paleothermometer. Although oxygen isotope fractionation is expected from principles of equilibrium isotopic partitioning, the temperature-dependence remains uncertain because other factors, such as slow exchange between dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) species and water, can obscure the temperature signal. Oxygen isotopic equilibrium between aqueous solution and calcium carbonate includes two distinct equilibria: equilibrium of the DIC species in solution (i.e., CO2(aq), H2CO3, HCO3-, and CO32-) with water, and equilibrium between the dissolved inorganic carbon with the precipitated carbonate. To isolate kinetic isotope effects that arise at the mineral-solution interface, isotopic equilibrium among DIC species must be maintained. This can be accomplished by dissolving the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) into the solution, thereby reducing the time required for isotopic equilibration between DIC species by approximately two orders of magnitude between pH 7.7 and 9.3. We conduct calcite growth experiments aimed specifically at measuring the pH-dependence of kinetic oxygen isotope effects during precipitation of calcite. We precipitated calcite from aqueous solution at a constant pH and controlled supersaturation over the pH range 7.7-9.3. For each experiment, a gas mixture of N2 and CO2 is constantly bubbled through a beaker containing ~1300 mL of solution (30 mM CaCl2 + 5 mM NH4Cl + 0.1 mM SrCl2). As CO2 from the gas dissolves into solution, calcite crystals grow on the beaker walls. The pH of the solution is maintained by use of an autotitrator with NaOH as the titrant. We control the temperature, pH, the pCO2 of the gas inflow, and the gas inflow rate, and monitor the total alkalinity, the pCO2 of the gas outflow, and the amount of NaOH added. A constant crystal growth rate of ~1.6 mmol/m2/hr is maintained over all experiments. We will present results from this set of experiments and discuss kinetic oxygen isotope effects in the context of a recently-developed ion-by-ion growth model of calcite.

  12. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  13. Factors regulating nitrification in aquatic sediments: Effects of organic carbon, nitrogen availability, and pH

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strauss, E.A.; Mitchell, N.L.; Lamberti, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the response in nitrification to organic carbon (C) availability, the interactive effects of the C: nitrogen (N) ratio and organic N availability, and differing pH in sediments from several streams in the upper midwestern United States. In addition, we surveyed 36 streams to assess variability in sediment nitrification rates. Labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC) additions of 30 mg C??L-1 (as acetate) to stream sediments reduced nitrification rates (P < 0.003), but lower concentration additions or dilution of ambient DOC concentration had no effect on nitrification. C:N and organic N availability strongly interacted to affect nitrification (P < 0.0001), with N availability increasing nitrification most at lower C:N. Nitrification was also strongly influenced by pH (P < 0.002), with maximum rates occurring at pH 7.5. A multiple regression model developed from the stream survey consisted of five variables (stream temperature, pH, conductivity, DOC concentration, and total extractable NH4+) and explained 60% of the variation observed in nitrification. Our results suggest that nitrification is regulated by several variables, with NH4+ availability and pH being the most important. Organic C is likely important at regulating nitrification only under high environmental C:N conditions and if most available C is relatively labile.

  14. Bromide, Chloride, and Sulfate Concentrations, and Specific Conductance, Lake Texoma, Texas and Oklahoma, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldys, Stanley

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Dallas Water Utilities Division, collected water-quality data from 11 sites on Lake Texoma, a reservoir on the Texas-Oklahoma border, during April 2007-September 2008. At 10 of the sites, physical properties (depth, specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity) were measured and samples were collected for analysis of selected dissolved constituents (bromide, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate); at one site, only physical properties were measured. The primary constituent of interest was bromide. Bromate can form when ozone is used to disinfect raw water containing bromide, and bromate is a suspected human carcinogen. Chloride and sulfate were of secondary interest. Only the analytical results for bromide, chloride, sulfate, and measured specific conductance are discussed in this report. Median dissolved bromide concentrations ranged from 0.28 to 0.60 milligrams per liter. The largest median dissolved bromide concentration (0.60 milligram per liter at site 11) was from the Red River arm of Lake Texoma. Dissolved bromide concentrations generally were larger in the Red River arm of Lake Texoma than in the Washita arm of the lake. Median dissolved chloride concentrations were largest in the Red River arm of Lake Texoma at site 11 (431 milligrams per liter) and smallest at site 8 (122 milligrams per liter) in the Washita arm. At site 11 in the Red River arm, the mean and median chloride concentrations exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 milligrams per liter for chloride established by the 'Texas Surface Water Quality Standards' for surface-water bodies designated for the public water supply use. Median dissolved sulfate concentrations ranged from 182 milligrams per liter at site 4 in the Big Mineral arm to 246 milligrams per liter at site 11 in the Red River arm. None of the mean or median sulfate concentrations exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 milligrams per liter. Median specific conductance measurements at sites ranged from 1,120 microsiemens per centimeter at site 8 in the Washita arm to 2,100 microsiemens per centimeter in the Red River arm. The spatial distribution of specific conductance in Lake Texoma was similar to that of bromide and chloride, with larger specific conductance values in the Red River arm compared to those in the Washita arm.

  15. pH Dependence of the Physical and Electronic Structure of a Supramolecular Porphyrin Assembly

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    pH Dependence of the Physical and Electronic Structure of a Supramolecular Porphyrin Assembly nitrogens can result in physical and electronic distortions. · In acidic solutions (pH by dissolving solid TCPP in dilute ammonium hydroxide, then titrating with HCl to a desired pH1. UV

  16. Azomethine H colorimetric method for determining dissolved boron in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, R.R.; Erdmann, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    An automated colorimetric method for determining dissolved boron in water is described. The boron is complexed with azomethine H, which is readily available as the condensation product of H acid (8-amino-1-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic acid) and salicylaldehyde. The absorbance of the yellow complex formed is then measured colorimetrically at 410 nm. Interference effects from other dissolved species are minimized by the addition of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA); however, iron, zinc, and bicarbonate interfere at concentrations above 400 ??g/L, 2000 ??g/L, and 200 mg/L, respectively. The bicarbonate interference can be eliminated by careful acidification of the sample with concentrated HCl to a pH between 5 and 6. Thirty samples per hour can be routinely analyzed over the range of from 10 to 400 ??g/L, boron.

  17. Fluvial dissolved inorganic C dynamics in the Western Amazonian basin: where does this carbon come from?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldron, S.; Vihermaa, L. E.; Newton, J.; Krusche, A.; Salimon, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Amazon river and tributaries constitute globally a significant freshwater body and thus a source of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Aquatic carbon dioxide may originate from biological or physicochemical reprocessing of allochthonous dissolved, particulate or inorganic C (ecosystem-derived C, EDC) or it may derive from groundwater inputs of dissolved inorganic C through lithological weathering by soil-derived organic acids or by the dissolution of atmospheric carbon dioxide (minerogenic-derived C, MDC). In addition to quantifying and scaling catchment source import and export terms, accurate budgeting requires additional source differentiation. The significance of MDC is not usually considered by those assessing carbon dioxide efflux, yet differentiating MDC from EDC is crucial. For example, MDC should be less directly affected than EDC by future climatic change, becoming proportionally more important to fluvial carbon dioxide efflux in drought episodes. We are measuring the stable carbon isotopic ratio of dissolved inorganic C to determine the relative importance of MDC and EDC to total C loads in the Tambopata basin in Western Peru. This is an area little studied for C cycling, but important as the soils here are more nutrient rich than the remainder of the Amazon basin which is more studied. Our field station is in the Tambopata national park and since 2010 we have sampled four different river systems which vary in size and drainage characteristics: the Tambopata, (CA ~14,000 km sq.; ~30% of its in the Andes Mountains); La Torre (~2000 km sq.), New Colpita and Main Trail (both < 2 km sq. forest drainage but Main Trail only active in the wet season). Additionally the pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, water temperature and stage height have been monitored in these drainage systems where possible by logging at 15 minute intervals. Our data shows that there are statistically significant differences in carbon isotopic composition (ranging from -14 to -29 ‰) and [DIC] concentration (ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 mM) between rivers, which we interpret to represent differences in the MDC / EDC input. We will present this data and discuss in more detail local, seasonal and regional controls on composition, and its application in source contribution apportionment. Whilst we are utilising this DIC isotope tracer to differentiate the source of DIC (and ultimately effluxed carbon dioxide) this study shows the potential of utilising the DIC-C isotopic composition as a tracer of groundwater-surface water interaction.

  18. Contaminant removal and hydraulic conductivity of laboratory rain garden systems for stormwater treatment.

    PubMed

    Good, J F; O'Sullivan, A D; Wicke, D; Cochrane, T A

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of substrate composition on stormwater treatment and hydraulic effectiveness, mesocosm-scale (180 L, 0.17 m(2)) laboratory rain gardens were established. Saturated (constant head) hydraulic conductivity was determined before and after contaminant (Cu, Zn, Pb and nutrients) removal experiments on three rain garden systems with various proportions of organic topsoil. The system with only topsoil had the lowest saturated hydraulic conductivity (160-164 mm/h) and poorest metal removal efficiency (Cu ? 69.0% and Zn ? 71.4%). Systems with sand and a sand-topsoil mix demonstrated good metal removal (Cu up to 83.3%, Zn up to 94.5%, Pb up to 97.3%) with adequate hydraulic conductivity (sand: 800-805 mm/h, sand-topsoil: 290-302 mm/h). Total metal amounts in the effluent were <50% of influent amounts for all experiments, with the exception of Cu removal in the topsoil-only system, which was negligible due to high dissolved fraction. Metal removal was greater when effluent pH was elevated (up to 7.38) provided by the calcareous sand in two of the systems, whereas the topsoil-only system lacked an alkaline source. Organic topsoil, a typical component in rain garden systems, influenced pH, resulting in poorer treatment due to higher dissolved metal fractions. PMID:22643410

  19. Determination of dissolved aluminum in water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Afifi, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    A technique has been modified for determination of a wide range of concentrations of dissolved aluminum (Al) in water and has been tested. In this technique, aluminum is complexed with 8-hydroxyquinoline at pH 8.3 to minimize interferences, then extracted with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The extract is analyzed colorimetrically at 395 nm. This technique is used to analyze two forms of monomeric Al, nonlabile (organic complexes) and labile (free, Al, Al sulfate, fluoride and hydroxide complexes). A detection limit 2 ug/L is possible with 25-ml samples and 10-ml extracts. The detection limit can be decreased by increasing the volume of the sample and (or) decreasing the volume of the methyl isobutyl ketone extract. The analytical uncertainty of this method is approximately + or - 5 percent. The standard addition technique provides a recovery test for this technique and ensures precision in samples of low Al concentrations. The average percentage recovery of the added Al plus the amount originally present was 99 percent. Data obtained from analyses of filtered standard solutions indicated that Al is adsorbed on various types of filters. However, the relationship between Al concentrations and adsorption remains linear. A test on standard solutions also indicated that Al is not adsorbed on nitric acid-washed polyethylene and polypropylene bottle wells. (USGS)

  20. Determination of total dissolved inorganic carbon in freshwaters by reagent-free ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Polesello, Stefano; Tartari, Gabriele; Giacomotti, Paola; Mosello, Rosario; Cavalli, Silvano

    2006-06-16

    Studies of inorganic carbon cycle in natural waters provide important information on the biological productivity and buffer capacity. Determination of total inorganic carbon, alkalinity and dissolved carbon dioxide gives an indication of the balance between photosynthesis and respiration by biota, both within the water column and sediments, and carbon dioxide transfers from the water column to the atmosphere. There are few methods to measure and distinguish the different forms of inorganic carbon, but all require a measure or an indirect quantification of total inorganic carbon. A direct measurement of TIC in water is made possible by the introduction of electrolytic generated hydroxide eluent in ion chromatography which allows to detect a chromatographic peak for carbonate. The advantage of this method is that all the inorganic forms of carbon are converted in carbonate at eluent pH and can be detected as a single peak by conductivity detection. Repeatability of carbonate peak was evaluated at different levels from 0.02 to 6 mequiv.l(-1) both in high purity water and in real samples and ranged from 1 to 9%. The calibration curve was not linear and has to be fitted by a quadratic curve. Limit of detection was estimated to be 0.02 mequiv.l(-1). Accuracy has been estimated by comparing ion chromatography method with total inorganic carbon calculated from alkalinity and pH. The correlation between the two methods was good (R(2)=0.978, n=141). The IC method has been applied to different typologies of surface waters (alpine and subalpine lakes and rivers) characterised by different chemical characteristics (alkalinity from 0.05 to 2 mequiv.l(-1) and pH from 6.7 to 8.5) and low total organic carbon concentrations. This analytical method allowed to describe the distribution of TIC along the water column of two Italian deep lakes. PMID:16620857

  1. Fate of Acids in Clouds 1. Combination with bases dissolved in clouds: acids neutralized

    E-print Network

    Schofield, Jeremy

    problems. E#11;ects of Acid Rain 1. Vegetation: SO 2 is toxic to plants #15; Leaves damaged below pH 3 rain { Athens and Rome cathedrals and statues: pollution leads to acid rain #15; SteelFate of Acids in Clouds 1. Combination with bases dissolved in clouds: acids neutralized NH 3 (g

  2. Method of dissolving metal oxides with di- or polyphosphonic acid and a redundant

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, Earl P. (Argonne, IL); Chiarizia, Renato (Argonne, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A method of dissolving metal oxides using a mixture of a di- or polyphosphonic acid and a reductant wherein each is present in a sufficient amount to provide a synergistic effect with respect to the dissolution of metal oxides and optionally containing corrosion inhibitors and pH adjusting agents.

  3. Control of cavitation using dissolved carbon dioxide for damage-free megasonic cleaning of wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Sangita

    This dissertation describes the finding that dissolved carbon dioxide is a potent inhibitor of sonoluminescence and describes the implications of the finding in the development of improved megasonic cleaning formulations. Megasonic cleaning, or the removal of contaminants particles from wafer surfaces using sound-irradiated cleaning fluids, has been traditionally used in the semiconductor industry for cleaning of wafers. A critical challenge in the field is to achieve removal of small particles (22 nm to 200 nm) without causing damage to fine wafer features. The work described here addresses this challenge by identifying sonoluminescence and solution pH as two key factors affecting damage and cleaning efficiency, respectively and establishing novel means to control them using CO2(aq) release compounds in the presence of acids and bases. Sonoluminescence (SL) behavior of the major dissolved gases such as Ar, Air, N2, O2 and CO2 was determined using a newly designed Cavitation Threshold Cell (CT Cell). SL, which is the phenomenon of release of light in sound-irradiated liquids, is a sensitive indicator of cavitation, primarily transient cavitation. It was found that all the tested dissolved gases such as Ar, Air, N2 and O2, generated SL signal efficiently. However, dissolved CO2 was found to be completely incapable of generating SL signal. Based on this interesting result, gradual suppression of SL signal was demonstrated using CO2(aq). It was further demonstrated that CO2(aq) is not only incapable but is also a potent inhibitor of SL. The inhibitory role of CO2(aq) was established using a novel method of controlled in-situ release of CO 2 from NH4HCO3. ~130 ppm CO2(aq) was shown to be necessary and sufficient for complete suppression of SL generation in air saturated DI water. The method however required acidification of solution for significant release of CO2, making it unsuitable for the design of cleaning solutions at high pH. Analysis of the underlying ionic equilibria revealed that the loss of released CO2(aq) upon increase in pH can be compensated by moderate increase in added NH4HCO3. Using this method, simultaneous control of SL and solution pH was demonstrated in two systems, NH4HCO3/HCl and NH4OH/CO2, at two nominal pH values; 5.7 and 7.0. Damage studies were performed on wafer samples with line/space patterns donated by IMEC and FSI International bearing Si/metal/a-Si gate stacks of thickness ~36 nm and Si/Poly-Si gate stacks of thickness ~67 nm, respectively. A single wafer spin cleaning tool MegPieRTM was used for the generation of megasonic energy for inducing damage to the structures. It was demonstrated that CO2 dissolution in DI water suppresses damage to the gate stacks in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these studies establish a systematic and strong correlation between CO2(aq) concentration, SL suppression and damage suppression. Significant damage reduction (~50 % to ~90 %) was observed at [CO2(aq)] > ~300 ppm. It was also demonstrated that CO2(aq) suppresses damage under alkaline pH condition too. This demonstration was made possible by the successful design of two new cleaning systems NH4HCO3/NH4OH and CO2/NH 4OH that could generate CO2(aq) under alkaline conditions. Damage suppressing ability of the newly designed cleaning systems were compared to the standard cleaning system NH4OH at pH 8.2 and it was found that NH4HCO3/NH4OH and CO2/NH 4OH systems were 80 % more efficient in suppressing damage compared to the standard NH4OH cleaning system. Finally, megasonic cleaning studies were conducted in the same single wafer spin cleaning tool MegPieRTM, using SiO2 particles (size 185 nm) deposited on 200 mm oxide Si wafers, as the contaminant. It was found that the standard cleaning chemical, NH4OH, pH 8.2, was effective in achieving > 95 % particle removal for 2 min irradiation of megasonic energy at power densities > 0.7 W/cm2. Based on these results, a new system, NH4HCO3/NH4OH, was designed with an aim to release ~300 ppm CO2 at pH 8.2. It was demonstrated that newly designed system NH4

  4. Ocean warming-acidification synergism undermines dissolved organic matter assembly.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Shuo; Anaya, Jesse M; Chen, Eric Y-T; Farr, Erik; Chin, Wei-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the influence of synergisms on natural processes is a critical step toward determining the full-extent of anthropogenic stressors. As carbon emissions continue unabated, two major stressors--warming and acidification--threaten marine systems on several scales. Here, we report that a moderate temperature increase (from 30°C to 32°C) is sufficient to slow--even hinder--the ability of dissolved organic matter, a major carbon pool, to self-assemble to form marine microgels, which contribute to the particulate organic matter pool. Moreover, acidification lowers the temperature threshold at which we observe our results. These findings carry implications for the marine carbon cycle, as self-assembled marine microgels generate an estimated global seawater budget of ~1016 g C. We used laser scattering spectroscopy to test the influence of temperature and pH on spontaneous marine gel assembly. The results of independent experiments revealed that at a particular point, both pH and temperature block microgel formation (32°C, pH 8.2), and disperse existing gels (35°C). We then tested the hypothesis that temperature and pH have a synergistic influence on marine gel dispersion. We found that the dispersion temperature decreases concurrently with pH: from 32°C at pH 8.2, to 28°C at pH 7.5. If our laboratory observations can be extrapolated to complex marine environments, our results suggest that a warming-acidification synergism can decrease carbon and nutrient fluxes, disturbing marine trophic and trace element cycles, at rates faster than projected. PMID:25714090

  5. Ocean Warming–Acidification Synergism Undermines Dissolved Organic Matter Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chi-Shuo; Anaya, Jesse M.; Chen, Eric Y-T; Farr, Erik; Chin, Wei-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the influence of synergisms on natural processes is a critical step toward determining the full-extent of anthropogenic stressors. As carbon emissions continue unabated, two major stressors—warming and acidification—threaten marine systems on several scales. Here, we report that a moderate temperature increase (from 30°C to 32°C) is sufficient to slow— even hinder—the ability of dissolved organic matter, a major carbon pool, to self-assemble to form marine microgels, which contribute to the particulate organic matter pool. Moreover, acidification lowers the temperature threshold at which we observe our results. These findings carry implications for the marine carbon cycle, as self-assembled marine microgels generate an estimated global seawater budget of ~1016 g C. We used laser scattering spectroscopy to test the influence of temperature and pH on spontaneous marine gel assembly. The results of independent experiments revealed that at a particular point, both pH and temperature block microgel formation (32°C, pH 8.2), and disperse existing gels (35°C). We then tested the hypothesis that temperature and pH have a synergistic influence on marine gel dispersion. We found that the dispersion temperature decreases concurrently with pH: from 32°C at pH 8.2, to 28°C at pH 7.5. If our laboratory observations can be extrapolated to complex marine environments, our results suggest that a warming–acidification synergism can decrease carbon and nutrient fluxes, disturbing marine trophic and trace element cycles, at rates faster than projected. PMID:25714090

  6. Corals concentrate dissolved inorganic carbon to facilitate calcification.

    PubMed

    Allison, Nicola; Cohen, Itay; Finch, Adrian A; Erez, Jonathan; Tudhope, Alexander W

    2014-01-01

    The sources of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) used to produce scleractinian coral skeletons are not understood. Yet this knowledge is essential for understanding coral biomineralization and assessing the potential impacts of ocean acidification on coral reefs. Here we use skeletal boron geochemistry to reconstruct the DIC chemistry of the fluid used for coral calcification. We show that corals concentrate DIC at the calcification site substantially above seawater values and that bicarbonate contributes a significant amount of the DIC pool used to build the skeleton. Corals actively increase the pH of the calcification fluid, decreasing the proportion of DIC present as CO2 and creating a diffusion gradient favouring the transport of molecular CO2 from the overlying coral tissue into the calcification site. Coupling the increases in calcification fluid pH and [DIC] yields high calcification fluid [CO3(2-)] and induces high aragonite saturation states, favourable to the precipitation of the skeleton. PMID:25531981

  7. The Added Value of a PhD in Medicine--PhD Students' Perceptions of Acquired Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anttila, Henrika; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari; Lonka, Kristi; Pyhältö, Kirsi

    2015-01-01

    PhD in the field of medicine is more common than in any other domain. Many medical doctors are driven towards PhD, but also students with other backgrounds (usually MSc) are conducting a PhD in medical schools. Higher education has invested a lot in developing generic and research competences. Still little is known about how PhD students…

  8. Seasonal changes of rock magnetic parameters and dissolved iron in the Hiroshima Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, N.; Amano, Y.; Ishikawa, N.

    2013-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of red tide caused by dinoflagellate blooms have been reported since 1970 in the Hiroshima bay. Iron is an essential element for dinoflagellates, and is supplied as bivalent or trivalent ions and iron compounds from lands to sea. For damage predictions of red tide, it is important to research the distribution of iron in the bay. In order to investigate the distribution and mode of iron in sediments, suspended solids (SS), and bottom water in the Hiroshima Bay, rock magnetic and geochemical analyses are performed. Sediments of 5 cm in depth and overlying bottom water were taken at three sites in the bay every month. The sediment samples were composed of clayey silt. We measured dissolved iron concentration in bottom waters filtered above 0.45 um grains. The contents of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in the sediments are measured. The rock magnetic measurements (magnetic susceptibility, NRM, ARM, IRM, HIRM, S-0.3T, magnetic hysteresis, and high temperature magnetometry) of the sediments and SS are conducted. Concentration dependent rock magnetic parameters of the sediments and SS show relatively high values during spring at the near estuary site. It indicates that relatively larger amount of terrigenous materials are supplied in this season. Magnetic grain size decreases during summer, while iron concentration increases in the bottom waters. Data of oceanographic observations at these sites showed that the temperature of the bottom water increased, whereas DO and pH values decreased during summer. The presence of magnetite (Fe3O4) and hematite (Fe2O3) were recognized in all analyzed samples, whereas greigite (Fe3S4) appeared during summer. The contents of sulfur in the sediments also increase in this period. It is implied that magnetite and hematite were dissolved, and greigite was formed associated with the proceeding of the anoxic condition during summer. It is suggested that irons moves between sediments and bottom water corresponding to seasonal redox conditions in the Hiroshima Bay.

  9. Fast dissolving paracetamol/caffeine nanofibers prepared by electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Illangakoon, U Eranka; Gill, Hardyal; Shearman, Gemma C; Parhizkar, Maryam; Mahalingam, Sunthar; Chatterton, Nicholas P; Williams, Gareth R

    2014-12-30

    A series of polyvinylpyrrolidone fibers loaded with paracetamol (PCM) and caffeine (CAF) was fabricated by electrospinning and explored as potential oral fast-dissolving films. The fibers take the form of uniform cylinders with smooth surfaces, and contain the drugs in the amorphous form. Drug-polymer intermolecular interactions were evidenced by infrared spectroscopy and molecular modeling. The properties of the fiber mats were found to be highly appropriate for the preparation of oral fast dissolving films: their thickness is around 120-130 ?m, and the pH after dissolution in deionized water lies in the range of 6.7-7.2. Except at the highest drug loading, the folding endurance of the fibers was found to be >20 times. A flavoring agent can easily be incorporated into the formulation. The fiber mats are all seen to disintegrate completely within 0.5s when added to simulated saliva solution. They release their drug cargo within around 150s in a dissolution test, and to undergo much more rapid dissolution than is seen for the pure drugs. The data reported herein clearly demonstrate that electrospun PCM/CAF fibers comprise excellent candidates for oral fast-dissolving films, which could be particularly useful for children and patients with swallowing difficulties. PMID:25455779

  10. Progress in dissolving modified LEU Cintichem targets

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.A.; Chen, L.; Mertz, C.J.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1996-12-31

    A process is under development to use low-enriched uranium (LEU) metal targets for production of {sup 99}Mo. The first step is to dissolve the irradiated foil. In past work, this has been done by heating a closed (sealed) vessel containing the foil and a solution of nitric and sulfuric acids. In this work, the authors have demonstrated that (1) the dissolver solution can contain nitric acid alone, (2) uranium dioxide is also dissolved by nitric acid alone, and (3) barrier metals of Cu, Fe, or Ni on the U foil are also dissolved by nitric acid. Changes to the dissolver design and operation needed to accommodate the uranium foil are discussed, including (1) simple operations that are easy to do in a remote-maintenance facility, (2) heat removal from the irradiated LEU foil, and (3) cold trap operation with high dissolver pressures.

  11. [Impact of Rocky Desertification Treatment on Underground Water Chemistry and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Isotope in Karst Areas].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shi-zhen; Xiong, Kang-ning; Lan, Jia-cheng; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Long

    2015-05-01

    Five springs representing different land-use types and different karst rocky desertification treatment models were chosen at the Huajiang Karst Rocky Desertification Treatment Demonstration Site in Guanling-Zhenfeng Counties in Guizhou, to analyze the features of underground water chemistry and dissolved inorganic carbon isotopes (?13C(DIC)) and reveal the effect of rocky desertification treatment on karstification and water quality. It was found that, the underground water type of the research area was HCO3-Ca; the water quality of the springs which were relatively less affected by human activities including Shuijingwan Spring (SJW) , Gebei Spring (GB), and Maojiawan Spring (MJW) was better than those relatively more affected by human activities including Diaojing Spring (DJ) and Tanjiazhai Spring (TJZ) , the main ion concentrations and electrical conductivity of which were higher; pH, SIc and pCO2 were sensitive to land-use types and rocky desertification treatment, which could be shown by the higher pH and SIc and lower pCO2 in MJW than those in the other four springs; (Ca(2+) + Mg2+)/HCO(3-) of SJW, MJW and GB were nearly 1:1, dominated by carbonate rock weathering by carbon acid, while the (Ca(2+) + Mg2+) of DJ and TJZ was much higher than HCO3-, suggesting that sulfate and nitrate might also dissolve carbonate rock because of the agricultural activities; ?13C(DIC) was lighter in wet season because of the higher biological activities; the average ?13C(DIC) was in the order of DJ (-12.79 per thousand) < SJW (-12.48 per thousand) < GB (-10.76 per thousand)) < MJW (-10.30 per thousand) < TJZ (-6.70 per thousand), which demonstrated that ?13C(DIC) would be heavier after rocky desertification and lighter after the rocky desertification are treated and controlled. PMID:26314104

  12. Use of a Ferrous Sulfate - Sodium Dithionite Blend to Treat a Dissolved Phase Cr(VI) Plume

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of a combination of sodium dithionite and ferrous sulfate in creating an in situ redox zone for treatment of a dissolved phase Cr(VI) plume at a former industrial site. The reductant blend was injected into the path of a dissolved ...

  13. pH. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on the effect of pH on plant growth. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about soil pH and its effect on plants. The following topics are among those discussed: acidity and alkalinity; the…

  14. Solubility and Diffusivity of Water in Basic Silicate Melts at Low pH2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcombe, M.; Brett, A.; Beckett, J.; Baker, M. B.; Newman, S.; Stolper, E. M.

    2012-12-01

    Solubility experiments were conducted at 1 atm by equilibrating melts corresponding to a synthetic Apollo 15 yellow glass (AY) [1] and the 1 atm eutectic composition on the anorthite-diopside join (AD) with H2O-CO2 gas mixtures at 1350°C. Each melt composition was equilibrated at a range of pH2O, pH2, and pO2 (by varying the H2/CO2 ratio of the gas); concentrations of hydroxyl (OH) in the quenched glasses were measured by FTIR and ranged from 10s to 100s of ppm. Our results confirm that the concentrations of OH dissolved in both the AY and AD melts are proportional to pH2O0.5 under these conditions. Moreover, the amount of dissolved OH depends only on pH2O and is independent of pH2 and pO2 across the significant experimental range (6 orders of magnitude in pO2 and 3 orders of magnitude in pH2/pH2O). Apparent diffusivities of total water (D*water [2, 3]) were determined in AD melt at 1350°C and 1 atm over significant ranges of pH2/pH2O (~0.013-1.4) and pO2 (IW-0.5 to IW+3.5). AD melts were fused in a Pt crucible at 1350°C and IW+1 for ~70 hr under a CO-CO2 gas mixture. Samples equilibrated in this way contain < 50 ppm water as OH (as measured by FTIR). With the dehydrated sample still hanging in the furnace, the gas mixture was changed to a H2-CO2 mixture, fixing pH2O and pH2 and maintaining the same pO2 as in the CO-CO2 gas mixture. After exposure to the H2-CO2 gas mixture for 5-10 min (which generated a ~103 ?m diffusion profile in OH inward from the sample edge), the sample was quenched in deionized H2O. The diffusively generated concentration profiles in four experimental AD charges were measured by FTIR and SIMS. The four diffusion experiments on AD melt yield best-fit values for D*water of 1-3 × 10-10 m2s-1. Our results demonstrate that D*water is approximately constant over two orders of magnitude in pH2/pH2O, implying that diffusion of H2 does not make a significant contribution to the transport of total water in AD melt under these conditions. D*water determined in this study is ~10-100 times greater than D*water predicted by extrapolations of the speciation model [2, 3] that assumes mobile H2O molecules (with constant DH2Omol) and immobile OH groups (DOH=0). However, our preliminary results are well described by a modified speciation model in which hydroxyl groups are allowed to diffuse. This is consistent with the findings of [4] for haploandesite melt. Extension of these measurements of the diffusivity of OH to closer analogues of lunar basaltic melts will improve understanding of the mobility of H-bearing species in nature and will be directly applicable to modeling degassing of lunar magmas [e.g., 5, 6]. [1] Delano (1986) JGR, 91(B4), D201-D213. [2] Zhang et al. (1991) GCA, 55, 441-456. [3] Zhang & Stolper (1991) Nature, 351, 306-309. [4] Ni et al. (2012) submitted. [5] Saal et al. (2008) Nature, 454, 192-195. [6] Hauri et al. (2011) Science, 333, 213-215.

  15. An improved method for fluorescence analysis of dissolved organic matter in cave drip water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiuli; Hu, Chaoyong; Liao, Jin; Bao, Liangliang; Mao, Qixi

    2014-12-01

    An improved synchronous fluorimetric method for the determination of dissolved organic matter in cave drip water, by adding ascorbic acid, is described. The method is based on the redox reaction between ascorbic acid and the electron-withdrawing constituents in dissolved organic matter. The results show that adding ascorbic acid can quench the minor peaks, at 200-300 nm, but does not affect the intensity of the main peaks at 300-500 nm. In addition, adding ascorbic acid can maintain relatively high and constant fluorescence intensity over a wide pH range (9-4).

  16. Fast Dissolving Sublingual Films of Ondansetron Hydrochloride: Effect of Additives on in vitro Drug Release and Mucosal Permeation

    PubMed Central

    Koland, M; Sandeep, VP; Charyulu, NR

    2010-01-01

    Ondansetron hydrochloride, a 5 HT3 antagonist is a powerful antiemetic drug which has oral bioavailability of 60% due to hepatic first pass metabolism and has a short half-life of 5 h. To overcome the above draw back, the present study was carried out to formulate and evaluate fast dissolving films of ondansetron hydrochloride for sublingual administration. The films were prepared from polymers such as polyvinylalcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, Carbopol 934P in different ratios by solvent casting method. Propylene glycol or PEG 400 as plasticizers and mannitol or sodium saccharin as sweeteners were also included. The IR spectral studies showed no interaction between drug and polymer or with other additives. Satisfactory results were obtained when subjected to physico-chemical tests such as uniformity of weight, thickness, surface pH, folding endurance, uniformity of drug content, swelling index, bioadhesive strength, and tensile strength. Films were also subjected to in vitro drug release studies by using USP dissolution apparatus. Ex vivo drug permeation studies were carried out using porcine membrane model. In vitro release studies indicated 81–96% release within 7 min and 66–80% within 7 min during ex vivo studies. Drug permeation of 66–77% was observed through porcine mucosa within 40 min. Higher percentage of drug release was observed from films containing the sweeteners. The stability studies conducted for a period of 8 weeks showed no appreciable change in drug content, surface pH, and in vitro drug release. PMID:21042474

  17. Laboratory and marine study of photoluminescent sensors of oxygen dissolved in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, V. L.; Konovalov, B. V.; Mosharov, V. E.; Radchenko, V. N.; Khanaev, S. A.; Khlebnikov, D. V.

    2010-02-01

    The laboratory and marine study of photoluminescent sensors developed at the TsAGI has been conducted to create a highly sensitivity gauge of the oxygen dissolved in seawater. The advantages of the photoluminescent gauge over the electrochemical ones are the following: zero sensitivity to electromagnetic fields, the pH of the water, and the hydrogen sulphide and ions of heavy metals in the water; zero oxygen consumption; and no need for the water to be pumped through the device. A breadboard model of the photoluminescent gauge with LED excitation of the luminescence has been built. The laboratory tests of the model demonstrated the accuracy of the gauge to be as high as 0.05 ml/1 in air at a response time of 0.3 s for 63% relaxation. Comparative field tests of the breadboard model and the SBE 43 electrochemical oxygen gauge (Sea-Bird Electronics Corp.) have shown good agreement of the estimates of the oxygen content in the water and clarified the prospects of model’s performance improvement.

  18. Influence of dissolved hydrogen on aluminum-lithium alloy fracture behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivet, F. C.; Swanson, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study the effects of dissolved hydrogen on the mechanical properties of 2090 and 2219 alloys. Prior to mechanical testing, potentiostatic and potentiodynamic tests were performed using NaCl/HCl solutions varying in pH from 1.5 to 7.5 (3.5 pct NaCl in deionized water). After analysis of the potentiodynamic curve for each solution, several potentiostatic experiments were conducted for various times (from 10 minutes to several hours) with a cathodic overpotential of 300 mV. These experiments were performed to select charging conditions. It is shown that the fracture of L-S and T-S orientations proceeds via slipping of layers in the S-T direction. The T-S and L-S orientations fractured with substantially higher propagation energy that the L-T and T-L orientations, due in large part to the extensive delamination propagation of the fracture.

  19. Investigating Students' Understanding of the Dissolving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The…

  20. Dissolved Oxygen Data for Coos Estuary (Oregon)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this product is the transmittal of dissolved oxygen data collected in the Coos Estuary, Oregon to Ms. Molly O'Neill (University of Oregon), for use in her studies on the factors influencing spatial and temporal patterns in dissolved oxygen in this estuary. These d...

  1. COMMUNITY SCALE STREAM TAXA SENSITIVITIES TO DIFFERENT COMPOSITIONS OF EXCESS TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Model stream chronic dosing studies (42 d) were conducted with three total dissolved solids (TDS) recipes. The recipes differed in composition of major ions. Community scale emergence was compared with single-species responses conducted simultaneously using the whole effluent tox...

  2. Artificial neural network modeling of dissolved oxygen in the Heihe River, Northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiaohu; Fang, Jing; Diao, Meina; Zhang, Chuanqi

    2013-05-01

    Identification and quantification of dissolved oxygen (DO) profiles of river is one of the primary concerns for water resources managers. In this research, an artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to simulate the DO concentrations in the Heihe River, Northwestern China. A three-layer back-propagation ANN was used with the Bayesian regularization training algorithm. The input variables of the neural network were pH, electrical conductivity, chloride (Cl(-)), calcium (Ca(2+)), total alkalinity, total hardness, nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), and ammonical nitrogen (NH4-N). The ANN structure with 14 hidden neurons obtained the best selection. By making comparison between the results of the ANN model and the measured data on the basis of correlation coefficient (r) and root mean square error (RMSE), a good model-fitting DO values indicated the effectiveness of neural network model. It is found that the coefficient of correlation (r) values for the training, validation, and test sets were 0.9654, 0.9841, and 0.9680, respectively, and the respective values of RMSE for the training, validation, and test sets were 0.4272, 0.3667, and 0.4570, respectively. Sensitivity analysis was used to determine the influence of input variables on the dependent variable. The most effective inputs were determined as pH, NO3-N, NH4-N, and Ca(2+). Cl(-) was found to be least effective variables on the proposed model. The identified ANN model can be used to simulate the water quality parameters. PMID:23001527

  3. Redox and pH constraints in the subseafloor root zone of the TAG hydrothermal system, 26^o N Mid-Atlantic Ridge [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foustoukos, Dionysis I.; Seyfried, W. E.

    2005-07-01

    Experiments were conducted at 375-400 °C, 500 bars to assess the role of redox and pH on Fe, Cu and H 2S concentrations at temperatures, pressures and total dissolved chloride concentrations applicable to the Trans-Atlantic Geo-Traverse (TAG) hydrothermal system at 26° N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The magnetite-bornite-anhydrite mineral assemblage imposed redox constraints, while pH was buffered with a 0.65 molal Na-K-Cl-bearing aqueous fluid coexisting with K-feldspar, muscovite and quartz. Results indicate a strong inverse correlation between dissolved Cu and H 2S (aq), whereas dissolved Fe is more sensitive to pH. Magnetite-bornite-anhydrite-fluid equilibria is characterized by unusually low mFe / mCu (molar) ratio and low H 2(aq)-H 2S (aq) activities. To form this mineral assemblage during subseafloor hydrothermal alteration, however, requires elevated fluid / rock mass ratios, such that the ferrous iron and sulfur in the rock become sufficiently depleted to render pyrite and chalcopyrite unstable. The relatively high Cu concentrations, the low H 2S (aq) and mFe / mCu ratios observed at TAG vent fluids are consistent with constraints imposed by magnetite-bornite-anhydrite-fluid equilibria at pH of approximately 4.9. Available chemical data confirm that the TAG hydrothermal system has experienced elevated fluid / rock mass ratios in keeping with the extent of mass transfer needed to generate oxidizing, low H 2S (aq) conditions.

  4. Feasibility Study for Evaluating Cumulative Exposure of Downstream Migrant Juvenile Salmonids to Total Dissolved Gas. Final Report 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Abernethy, C.Scott; Dauble, Dennis D.; Johnson, Robert L.

    1997-11-01

    A feasibility study was initiated to determine if downstream migrant salmonids could be monitored to determine potential relationships between total dissolved gas (TDG) exposure and signs of gas bubble trauma (GBT). The primary objectives were to: (1) establish logistical requirements for in-river monitoring of TDG exposure, including net pen design, deployment, and navigation constraints; (2) resolve uncertainties associated with effects of the net pen on fish behavior; (3) test the accuracy and precision of in-river monitoring equipment used to measure fish distribution and water quality; and (4) determine the application of hydrologic/flow models to predictions of TDG exposure. In-river measurements included water velocity, boat position, and selected water quality parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, depth, conductivity). Fish distribution within the net pen was monitored using scanning sonar, and a split-beam echo sounder was used to evaluate vertical distribution of fish m in the river adjacent to the net pen. Three test drifts were conducted from late July through late August. The studies demonstrated that it was feasible to assemble and deploy a large net pen for mobile monitoring of TDG exposure. Accurate monitoring of vertical and lateral distribution of smolts was performed, and diel differences in behavior were documented. Further, the fish sounded in response to researcher activity on the perimeter platform. Thus, in-transit monitoring for GBT or mortality would affect fish depth distribution and exposure to TDG. Principal recommendations for future studies are directed at improving maneuverability of the net pen in adverse weather conditions and applying new acoustics technology to simultaneously collect fish distribution data from within and outside of the pen. 6 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Relationships between nutrients and dissolved oxygen concentrations on the Texas-Louisiana shelf during summer of 2004 

    E-print Network

    Lahiry, Sudeshna

    2009-06-02

    stratification. In 2004, three shelf wide cruises (in April, June and August) were conducted on the Louisiana Shelf to understand the mechanisms controlling hypoxia on the shelf, and examine the relationship between dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations...

  6. Role of some organic inhibitors on the oxidation of dissolved sulfur dioxide by oxygen in rainwater medium.

    PubMed

    Dhayal, Yogpal; Chandel, C P S; Gupta, K S

    2014-03-01

    In August 2012, eight rainwater samples were collected and analyzed for pH and metal ions, viz., iron, copper, and manganese. The pH was within the range 6.84-7.65. The rate of oxidation of dissolved sulfur dioxide was determined using these rainwater samples as reaction medium. Kinetics was defined by the rate law: -d[S(IV)]/dt = R o = k o[S(IV)

  7. 27 CFR 19.455 - Dissolving of denaturants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dissolving of denaturants. 19.455 Section...Articles Denaturation § 19.455 Dissolving of denaturants. Denaturants...27 CFR part 21. Any spirits used in dissolving denaturants and contained in the...

  8. When dissolved is not truly dissolved--the importance of colloids in studies of metal sorption on organic matter.

    PubMed

    Schijf, Johan; Zoll, Alison M

    2011-09-01

    In controlled metal sorption experiments, the equilibrium distribution coefficient is a key variable quantifying sorbate partitioning across the solid-solution interface. Separation of metals into 'dissolved' and 'particulate' fractions is commonly achieved with syringe filtration, where the boundary is somewhat arbitrarily dictated by the limited selection of available pore sizes. Investigations involving natural organic matter, such as bacterial cells or plant tissues, are especially prone to experimental artifacts if the substrate releases abundant colloidal compounds that contribute to sorption by binding free metal cations in a pH-dependent fashion yet pass through conventional filters, causing the truly dissolved fraction to be grossly overestimated. We observed this phenomenon during a study of lanthanide sorption on a marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, as a function of pH. At low ionic strength, distribution coefficients calculated for a 0.22-?m size cutoff falsely imply that metal sorption reverses to gradual release above pH 4.6, instead of continuing to increase. Centrifuging the filtrates in Amicon® Ultra units (30 and 3 kDa molecular weight cutoff) revealed a mounting proportion of colloid-bound metal, constituting up to 95% of the 'dissolved' (<0.22 ?m) fraction near pH 8. Measurements of DOC concentrations suggest this being due to pH-dependent binding of free metal cations to a fixed pool of organic colloids. The process is well described with a simple 2-site Langmuir isotherm in 0.05, 0.5, and 5.0M NaCl. Using this model to correct the original distribution coefficients not only removed the spurious reversal at low ionic strength, but also uncovered a prominent suppressive effect on the intermediate and high ionic strength data that had initially gone undetected. Ultra-filtration may thus be an essential analytical tool for proper characterization and interpretation of metal sorption on organic matter over a wide range of experimental conditions. Some implications are discussed for the use of biosorbents in the remediation of metal-contaminated waste waters. PMID:21652006

  9. Formulation and evaluation of aceclofenac mouth-dissolving tablet

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Shailendra Singh; Dahima, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Aceclofenac has been shown to have potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities similar to indomethacin and diclofenac, and due to its preferential Cox-2 blockade, it has a better safety than conventional Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) with respect to adverse effect on gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Aceclofenac is superior from other NSAIDs as it has selectivity for Cox-2, a beneficial Cox inhibitor is well tolerated, has better Gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability and improved cardiovascular safety when compared with other selective Cox-2 inhibitor. To provide the patient with the most convenient mode of administration, there is need to develop a fast-disintegrating dosage form, particularly one that disintegrates and dissolves/disperses in saliva and can be administered without water, anywhere, any time. Such tablets are also called as “melt in mouth tablet.” Direct compression, freeze drying, sublimation, spray drying, tablet molding, disintegrant addition, and use of sugar-based excipients are technologies available for mouth-dissolving tablet. Mouth-dissolving tablets of aceclofenac were prepared with two different techniques, wet granulation and direct compression, in which different formulations were prepared with varying concentration of excipients. These tablets were evaluated for their friability, hardness, wetting time, and disintegration time; the drug release profile was studied in buffer Phosphate buffered Saline (PBS) pH 7.4. Direct compression batch C3 gave far better dissolution than the wet granulation Batch F2, which released only 75.37% drug, and C3, which released 89.69% drug in 90 minutes. PMID:22171305

  10. Stella Koutros, Ph.D.

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Koutros received her M.P.H. and Ph.D. in epidemiology from Yale University. She completed her doctoral work through the Yale-NCI partnership training program in cancer epidemiology, conducting research in the Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch (OEEB). In 2008, upon completion of her doctorate she became a fellow in OEEB; she was appointed to the position of tenure-track investigator in 2015.

  11. Characterization of hydraulic conductivity of the alluvium and basin fill, Pinal Creek Basin near Globe, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angeroth, Cory E.

    2002-01-01

    Acidic waters containing elevated concentrations of dissolved metals have contaminated the regional aquifer in the Pinal Creek Basin, which is in Gila County, Arizona, about 100 kilometers east of Phoenix. The aquifer is made up of two geologic units: unconsolidated stream alluvium and consolidated basin fill. To better understand how contaminants are transported through these units, a better understanding of the distribution of hydraulic conductivity and processes that affect it within the aquifer is needed. Slug tests were done in September 1997 and October 1998 on 9 wells finished in the basin fill and 14 wells finished in the stream alluvium. Data from the tests were analyzed by using either the Bouwer and Rice (1976) method, or by using an extension to the method developed by Springer and Gellhar (1991). Both methods are applicable for unconfined aquifers and partially penetrating wells. The results of the analyses show wide variability within and between the two geologic units. Hydraulic conductivity estimates ranged from 0.5 to 250 meters per day for the basin fill and from 3 to 200 meters per day for the stream alluvium. Results of the slug tests also show a correlation coefficient of 0.83 between the hydraulic conductivity and the pH of the ground water. The areas of highest hydraulic conductivity coincide with the areas of lowest pH, and the areas of lowest hydraulic conductivity coincide with the areas of highest pH, suggesting that the acidic water is increasing the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer by dissolution of carbonate minerals.

  12. Effect of pH values on surface modification and solubility of phosphate bioglass-ceramics in the CaO-P 2O 5-Na 2O-SrO-ZnO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xudong; Cai, Shu; Zhang, Wenjuang; Xu, Guohua; Zhou, Wei

    2009-08-01

    The bioactive glass-ceramics in the CaO-P 2O 5-Na 2O-SrO-ZnO system were synthesized by the sol-gel technique, and then chemically treated at different pH values to study the solubility and surface modification. Samples sintered at 650 °C for 4 h consisted of the crystalline phase ?-Ca 2P 2O 7 and the glass matrix. After soaking in the solution at pH 1.0, the residual glass matrix on the surface appeared entirely dissolved and no new phase could be detected. Whereas at pH 3.0, web-like layer exhibiting peaks corresponding to CaP 2O 6 was formed and covered the entire surface of the sample. When conducted at pH 10.0, only part of the glass matrix was dissolved and a new phase Ca 4P 6O 19 was precipitated, forming the petaline layer. The chemical treatment can easily change the surface morphologies and phase composition of this bioactive glass-ceramics. The higher level of surface roughness resulting from the new-formed layer would improve the interface bonding and benefit for cell adhesion.

  13. Toxicity identification evaluation of metal-contaminated sediments using an artificial pore water containing dissolved organic carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher, A.M.; Watzin, M.C.

    1999-03-01

    Recent investigations of sediment-associated pollutants in Lake Champlain indicated significant contamination with As, Mn, and Ni in Outer Malletts Bay, Vermont, US. Ceriodaphnia dubia exposed to sediment pore water from several sites in Outer Malletts Bay showed repeatable, acute mortality at only one site. A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) was conducted on pore water to determine the contaminants causing mortality at this site. Unlike most TIE applications, the dilution water used in these tests was formulated to match the hardness, alkalinity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved organic carbon content of the pore water. Results from phase 1 of the TIE indicated that divalent metals may be responsible for toxicity. Phase 2 results revealed levels of Mn above LC50 values. Spiking experiments employed in phase 3 confirmed Mn as the principal toxicant in sediment pore water. The formulated pore water worked well and helped ensure that toxicant behavior was influenced primarily by each TIE manipulation and not by physical and chemical differences between the dilution and site water. Although the Mn toxicity at this site may be the result of its unique geomorphology, this situation underscores the need to look broadly for potential toxicants when evaluating contaminated sites.

  14. Photodegradation of dissolved organic matter in ice under solar irradiation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shuang; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Zhaohong; Song, Youtao; Liu, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    The photodegradation behavior of dissolved organic matter (DOM) with different origins in ice under solar irradiation was investigated. Exposure to sunlight at 2.7 × 10(5) J m(-2) resulted in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reductions of 22.1-36.5% in ice. The naturally occurring DOM had higher photodegradation potentials than the wastewater-derived DOM in ice. Ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds in DOM, regardless of DOM origin, had much higher photodegradation potentials than gross DOC in ice. The susceptibility of UV-absorbing compounds with natural origin to sunlight exposure in ice was higher than those derived from wastewater. Trihalomethane (THM) precursors were more susceptible to photochemical reactions than gross DOC and haloacetic acid (HAA) precursors in ice. THM precursors in naturally occurring DOM were more photoreactive than those in wastewater-derived DOM in ice, while the photoreactivity of HAA precursors in ice was independent of DOM origin. In ice, the photoreactivity of humic-like fluorescent materials, regardless of DOM origin, was higher than that of gross DOC and protein-like fluorescent materials. DOC reductions caused by sunlight irradiation were found to be negatively correlated to DOC levels, and positively correlated to the aromaticity of DOM. The photodegradation of both wastewater-derived and naturally occurring DOM in ice was significantly facilitated at both acid and alkaline pH, as compared to neutral pH. The photodegradation of DOM in ice, regardless of the origin, was facilitated by nitrate ion [Formula: see text] , nitrite ion [Formula: see text] , ferric ion (Fe(3+)) and ferrous ion (Fe(2+)), and on the other hand, was inhibited by chloridion ion (Cl(-)) and copper ion (Cu(2+)). PMID:26414742

  15. Seasonality of diel cycles of dissolved trace-metal concentrations in a Rocky Mountain stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimick, D.A.; Cleasby, T.E.; McCleskey, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    Substantial diel (24-h) cycles in dissolved (0.1-??m filtration) metal concentrations were observed during summer low flow, winter low flow, and snowmelt runoff in Prickly Pear Creek, Montana. During seven diel sampling episodes lasting 34-61.5 h, dissolved Mn and Zn concentrations increased from afternoon minimum values to maximum values shortly after sunrise. Dissolved As concentrations exhibited the inverse timing. The magnitude of diel concentration increases varied in the range 17-152% for Mn and 70-500% for Zn. Diel increases of As concentrations (17-55%) were less variable. The timing of minimum and maximum values of diel streamflow cycles was inconsistent among sampling episodes and had little relation to the timing of metal concentration cycles, suggesting that geochemical rather than hydrological processes are the primary control of diel metal cycles. Diel cycles of dissolved metal concentrations should be assumed to occur at any time of year in any stream with dissolved metals and neutral to alkaline pH. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  16. Export of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen from drained and re-wetted bog sites in Lower Saxony (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Stefan; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Freibauer, Annette

    2014-05-01

    Today, nearly all peatlands in Germany are drained for agriculture, forestry and peat cutting. The export of dissolved organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) may be important for the overall C and N balances and affects downstream ecosystems. While drainage generally increases solute losses, there is nearly no C and N export data of raised bogs in Germany which can be used to evaluate both the impact of drainage associated with intensive land use and the re-wetting of peat cutting sites. In the "Ahlenmoor" (North-Western Germany), four sampling points were chosen. Three sampling points represent a deeply drained intensively used grassland at various scales ranging from a drainage pipe (DP, 0.08 ha) and a drainage ditch (DD, 6.8 ha) to a collector ditch (CD, 20 ha). The fourth sampling point (RW) is a former peat cutting site (23 ha) re-wetted 10 years ago. At this site, polder technique was used to establish water tables at the soil surface. Sampling and discharge measurements were conducted bi-weekly from June 2011 to June 2013. Water table levels were recorded with automatic pressure sensors, and rating curves between discharge and water levels were used to calculate continuous discharge values. Samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), sulphate (SO42-), pH, electric conductivity (EC) and specific UV absorbance (SUVA). The discharge did not vary strongly between the sampling points and was slightly lower in the second year. Concentrations of all measured solutes were higher at the intensive grassland (DP, DD and CD) than at the re-wetted site. Surprisingly, SUVA showed no difference between all sites, while the DOC to DON ratio was narrower at DP, DD and CD than at RW. This indicates an export of more degraded dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the drained area. At the grassland sites, no statistical differences were found between the three scales except for SO42-, NO3- and pH. Thus, the grassland shows rather homogenous export patterns over various spatial scales, and there seem to be no fast mineralization or degradation of the exported DOM during the initial stage of export. In total, average losses of DOC (457 kg ha-1 a-1) and POC (40 kg ha-1 a-1) from the drained area were nearly thrice as high as from the re-wetted site (124 and 73 kg ha-1 a-1). The total nitrogen losses were even more reduced by re-wetting and dominated at all sites by DON (19.1 kg ha-1 a-1 at the grassland sites, 3.9 kg ha-1 a-1 at the re-wetted site). NH4+ (drained: 5.2 kg ha-1 a-1, re-wetted: 0.8 kg ha-1 a-1) and NO3- (drained: 1.6 kg ha-1 a-1, re-wetted: not detectable) played a minor role. Overall, differences in the export could rather be explained by differences in solute concentration than in discharge.

  17. Dissolved carbon and nitrogen quantity and quality at natural, drained and re-wetted bog sites in Lower Saxony (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Stefan; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Freibauer, Annette

    2013-04-01

    5 % of Germany's land area is covered with peatlands. Due to the large carbon and nitrogen stocks, changes in peatland hydrology for agricultural use have a huge impact on C and N cycling in the peatland and on the export to the atmosphere and adjacent ecosystems. Nonetheless, only a few studies focussed on the impact of drainage and re-wetting on C and N cycling in German raised bogs. Four study sites in the "Ahlenmoor" near Cuxhaven (Northwestern Germany) were chosen. This bog has a deep, medium to weakly decomposed peat layer. The sites represent a gradient of the groundwater level combined with land use differences (intensive and extensive grassland, natural site, re-wetted peat-cutting area). The mean annual groundwater level decreases from the natural and re-wetted sites (near surface) to the extensive grassland (30 cm below surface) and, finally, the intensive grassland (56 cm). The "Peeper" technique (dialysis sampler) was used to measure soil water chemistry in a high spatial resolution. At each site, three peepers (0-60 cm, 12 chambers each) collected soil water samples via diffusion. Monthly sampling was conducted from February 2012 till November 2012. The soil water solution was analysed for pH, EC, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), NH4+, NO3- and SUVA(280). Samples taken in November 2012 were additionally analysed for dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O. Average DOC concentrations ranged from 211 to 41 mg/L and decreased in order intensive > extensive grassland > re-wetted = natural site. After 10 years of restoration, the re-wetted and the natural site show similar DOC concentrations. Average SUVA(280) values of 3.7 to 3.3 L/(mg m) were higher at the grassland sites than at the re-wetted and the natural site. This indicates a distinct increase in aromaticity of DOC in grassland sites as a result of more intense humification of the upper peat layer. In contrast to mineral soils, SUVA(280) remained constant with depth at our sites. Total nitrogen decreased in same order as DOC and was mainly composed of DON. NH4+ dominates the inorganic nitrogen fraction. The comparison of peat C/N to DOC/DON ratios indicates that the more degraded upper layer is the main source of carbon and nitrogen in the soil solution. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was mainly measured as dissolved CO2-C (13.6 mg/L), followed by CH4-C (1.7 mg/L). While CH4-C was present over the whole profile at the re-wetted and the natural site, it was missing in the upper 40 cm of the grassland sites. Instead, dissolved N2O-N was found (19.8 µg/L). Especially in natural bogs with low DOC concentrations, DIC may be a relevant part of the carbon budget. Our results show that the groundwater level in combination with land use has a huge impact on C- and N-quality and quantity between sites and within the peat profile, and that re-wetting may result in a return to "natural" DOC concentration levels and properties.

  18. Seasonal and regional variability in dissolved and particulate iron fluxes via glacial runoff along the West Greenland coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choquette, K.; Hagedorn, B.; Sletten, R. S.; Harrold, Z.; Liu, L.; Dieser, M.; Cameron, K. A.; Christner, B. C.; Junge, K.

    2012-12-01

    Subglacial weathering, due to biogeochemical and physical weathering processes, can affect the chemical evolution of subglacial waters and release dissolved and particulate iron via glacial runoff. Iron is a growth limiting nutrient and plays a critical role in the biogeochemical cycles of coastal and marine waters. More recently, dissolved and colloidal iron derived from subglacial sources have been considered an important contributor of Fe fluxes to the ocean; however, their dependency on lithology, grain size, and microbial activity is not well understood. This study characterizes the solute chemistry, in particular iron mineralogy and dissolved iron concentrations, released from beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), from two locations along the West Greenland coast, Thule (76°N, 68°W) and Kangerlussuaq (67°N, 50°W). We hypothesize that the subglacial lithology has a control on Fe fluxes from the GrIS to coastal and marine systems. The underlying bedrock in Thule is the Precambrian Dundas and Narssarssuk sedimentary formations which include sandstone, siltstone, and shale. The bedrock in Kangerlussuaq is dominated by Archean granodioritic gneiss and amphibolite within the Nagssugtoqidian Orogen. Supra and subglacial meltwater samples were collected directly in front of the Ice Sheet over an entire melt season in 2011 (North River, Thule) and 2012 (Akuliarusiarsuup Kuua River, Kangerlussuaq). In situ parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and electrical conductivity were recorded in order to interpret meltwater chemistry. Dissolved Fe(II) and Fe(III) species were fixed immediately and analyzed within 24 hours after sampling in the field laboratory using a spectrophotometer and 10 cm cell. Total dissolved iron (FeT) of different size fractions (<0.22 and <0.05 ?m) of iron were determined back in the home laboratory using reaction cell ICP MS. Preliminary results demonstrate that subglacial meltwater of North River has average FeT concentrations of 200 nM and 10 nM in the <0.22 and <0.05 ?m size fraction, respectively, indicating that FeT in the <0.22 ?m fraction is mostly (95%) in form of colloidal iron. In comparison, data from Kangerlussuaq show an average FeT of 580 nM in the <0.22 ?m size fraction and 150 nM in the <0.05 ?m fraction. Suspended load in North River increased throughout the ablation period in concurrence with variation in discharge, from an average of 0.08 g/L in the early melt stages (June), 0.21 g/L during the high melt (July-August), and 0.15 g/L during the late melt (end of August-September). Initial estimates for the suspended load for subglacial flow in Kangerlussuaq are 0.30 g/L on average. The suspended load will be analyzed for iron by sequential extraction in order to characterize how iron partitions between oxide and (oxyhydr)oxide minerals in the sediment. This comprehensive study will allow us to identify biogeochemical processes involved in the mobilization of iron and to evaluate how increased melting of GrIS will affect Fe fluxes to coastal and marine environments.

  19. Electrical Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Philip B.

    1979-01-01

    Examines Drude's classical (1900) theory of electrical conduction, details the objections to and successes of the 1900 theory, and investigates the Quantum (1928) theory of conduction, reviewing its successes and limitations. (BT)

  20. PhD Students' Work Conditions and Study Environment in University- and Industry-Based PhD Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolmos, A.; Kofoed, L. B.; Du, X. Y.

    2008-01-01

    During the last 10 years, new models of funding and training PhD students have been established in Denmark in order to integrate industry into the entire PhD education. Several programmes have been conducted where it is possible to co-finance PhD scholarships or to become an employee as an industrial PhD in a company. An important question is what…

  1. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tempe, AZ)

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  2. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  3. Effects of iron on optical properties of dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Brett A; Ryan, Joseph N; Aiken, George R

    2014-09-01

    Iron is a source of interference in the spectroscopic analysis of dissolved organic matter (DOM); however, its effects on commonly employed ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) light adsorption and fluorescence measurements are poorly defined. Here, we describe the effects of iron(II) and iron(III) on the UV-vis absorption and fluorescence of solutions containing two DOM fractions and two surface water samples. In each case, regardless of DOM composition, UV-vis absorption increased linearly with increasing iron(III). Correction factors were derived using iron(III) absorption coefficients determined at wavelengths commonly used to characterize DOM. Iron(III) addition increased specific UV absorbances (SUVA) and decreased the absorption ratios (E2:E3) and spectral slope ratios (SR) of DOM samples. Both iron(II) and iron(III) quenched DOM fluorescence at pH 6.7. The degree and region of fluorescence quenching varied with the iron:DOC concentration ratio, DOM composition, and pH. Regions of the fluorescence spectra associated with greater DOM conjugation were more susceptible to iron quenching, and DOM fluorescence indices were sensitive to the presence of both forms of iron. Analyses of the excitation-emission matrices using a 7- and 13-component parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) model showed low PARAFAC sensitivity to iron addition. PMID:25084347

  4. Acid characteristics of dissolved organic matter in wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Huang, C.P.; Allen, H.E.; Takiyama, L.R.; Poesponegoro, I.; Poesponegoro, H.; Pirestani, D.

    1998-07-01

    The presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in a wastewater treatment system can significantly affect the uptake of heavy metals by sludge particulates. The characteristics of DOM, its concentration, and the solution pH are important parameters governing the heavy metals uptake reaction. The characteristics of DOM of various wastewater and sludge (primary, secondary, and tertiary) samples collected from four municipal wastewater treatment plants were investigated. Results showed that the dissolution of DOM from sludge is significantly affected by pH and suspended solids concentration. Results also showed that DOM contains two discrete acid groups that are available for metals complexation. The site concentration and acidity constants were determined by an alkalimetric titration method. For all DOM samples studied, the acidity constants, pK{sub aA} and pK{sub aB}, were 5.3 and 9.5, respectively. Based on the acidity constants and the Fourier transform infrared spectra, it is believed that the acid sites consist of carboxylic and amino functional groups. The density of the first acid site was approximately 10{sup {minus}5} mol/mg chemical oxygen demand for all samples studied. However, the density of the second acid site varied significantly among the DOM samples investigated.

  5. Design and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of clonazepam.

    PubMed

    Shirsand, S B; Suresh, Sarasija; Swamy, P V; Kumar, D Nagendra; Rampure, M V

    2008-11-01

    In the present work, fast dissolving tablets of clonazepam were prepared by direct compression method with a view to enhance patient compliance. Three super-disintegrants, viz., crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate in different ratios with microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH-102) along with directly compressible mannitol (Pearlitol SD 200) to enhance mouth feel. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, wetting time, water absorption ratio and in vitro dispersion time. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 13 s), three formulations were tested for the in vitro drug release pattern (in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer), short-term stability (at 40°/75% relative humidity for 6 mo) and drug-excipient interaction (IR spectroscopy). Among the three promising formulations, the formulation prepared by using 10% w/w of crospovidone and 35% w/w of microcrystalline cellulose emerged as the overall best formulation (t(50%) 1.8 min) based on the in vitro drug release characteristics compared to conventional commercial tablet formulation (t(50%) 16.4 min). Short-term stability studies on the formulations indicated that there were no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (P<0.05). PMID:21369444

  6. Dissolved-oxygen regimen of the Willamette River, Oregon, under conditions of basinwide secondary treatment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hines, Walter G.; McKenzie, S.W.; Rickert, D.A.; Rinella, F.A.

    1977-01-01

    For nearly half a century the Willamette River in Oregon experienced severe dissolved-oxygen problems related to large loads of organically rich waste waters from industries and municipalities. Since the mid-1950 's dissolved oxygen quality has gradually improved owing to low-flow augmentation, the achievement of basinwide secondary treatment, and the use of other waste-management practices. As a result, summer dissolved-oxygen levels have increased, salmon runs have returned, and the overall effort is widely regarded as a singular water-quality success. To document the improved dissolved-oxygen regimen, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted intensive studies of the Willamette during the summer low-flow seasons of 1973 and 1974. During each summer the mean daily dissolved-oxygen levels were found to be higher than 5 milligrams per liter throughout the river. Because of the basinwide secondary treatment, carbonaceous deoxygenation rates were low. In addition, almost half of the biochemical oxygen demand entering the Willamette was from diffuse (nonpoint) sources rather than outfalls. These results indicated that point-source biochemical oxygen demand was no longer the primary cause of dissolved-oxygen depletion. Instead, the major causes of deoxygenation were nitrification in a shallow ' surface active ' reach below Salem and an anomalous oxygen demand (believed to be primarily of benthal origin) in Portland Harbor. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Evaluation of planning alternatives for maintaining desirable dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the Willamette River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rickert, David A.; Rinella, F.A.; Hines, W.G.; McKenzie, S.W.

    1980-01-01

    For nearly half a century the Willamette River in Oregon experienced severe dissolved-oxygen problems related to large loads of organically rich waste waters from industries and municipalities. Since the mid-1950 's dissolved oxygen quality has gradually improved owing to low-flow augmentation, the achievement of basinwide secondary treatment, and the use of other waste-management practices. As a result, summer dissolved-oxygen levels have increased, salmon runs have returned, and the overall effort is widely regarded as a singular water-quality success. To document the improved dissolved-oxygen regimen, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted intensive studies of the Willamette during the summer low-flow seasons of 1973 and 1974. During each summer the mean daily dissolved-oxygen levels were found to be higher than 5 milligrams per liter throughout the river. Because of the basinwide secondary treatment, carbonaceous deoxygenation rates were low. In addition, almost half of the biochemical oxygen demand entering the Willamette was from diffuse (nonpoint) sources rather than outfalls. These results indicated that point-source biochemical oxygen demand was no longer the primary cause of dissolved-oxygen depletion. Instead, the major causes of deoxygenation were nitrification in a shallow ' surface active ' reach below Salem and an anomalous oxygen demand (believed to be primarily of benthal origin) in Portland Harbor. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Steady-state dissolved oxygen model of the Willamette River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, Stuart W.; Hines, W.G.; Rickert, D.A.; Rinella, F.A.

    1979-01-01

    For nearly half a century the Willamette River in Oregon experienced severe dissolved-oxygen problems related to large loads of organically rich waste waters from industries and municipalities. Since the mid-1950 's dissolved oxygen quality has gradually improved owing to low-flow augmentation, the achievement of basinwide secondary treatment, and the use of other waste-management practices. As a result, summer dissolved-oxygen levels have increased, salmon runs have returned, and the overall effort is widely regarded as a singular water-quality success. To document the improved dissolved-oxygen regimen, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted intensive studies of the Willamette during the summer low-flow seasons of 1973 and 1974. During each summer the mean daily dissolved-oxygen levels were found to be higher than 5 milligrams per liter throughout the river. Because of the basinwide secondary treatment, carbonaceous deoxygenation rates were low. In addition, almost half of the biochemical oxygen demand entering the Willamette was from diffuse (nonpoint) sources rather than outfalls. These results indicated that point-source biochemical oxygen demand was no longer the primary cause of dissolved-oxygen depletion. Instead, the major causes of deoxygenation were nitrification in a shallow ' surface active ' reach below Salem and an anomalous oxygen demand (believed to be primarily of benthal origin) in Portland Harbor. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. ADDING REALISM TO NUCLEAR MATERIAL DISSOLVING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, B.

    2011-08-15

    Two new criticality modeling approaches have greatly increased the efficiency of dissolver operations in H-Canyon. The first new approach takes credit for the linear, physical distribution of the mass throughout the entire length of the fuel assembly. This distribution of mass is referred to as the linear density. Crediting the linear density of the fuel bundles results in using lower fissile concentrations, which allows higher masses to be charged to the dissolver. Also, this approach takes credit for the fact that only part of the fissile mass is wetted at a time. There are multiple assemblies stacked on top of each other in a bundle. On average, only 50-75% of the mass (the bottom two or three assemblies) is wetted at a time. This means that only 50-75% (depending on operating level) of the mass is moderated and is contributing to the reactivity of the system. The second new approach takes credit for the progression of the dissolving process. Previously, dissolving analysis looked at a snapshot in time where the same fissile material existed both in the wells and in the bulk solution at the same time. The second new approach models multiple consecutive phases that simulate the fissile material moving from a high concentration in the wells to a low concentration in the bulk solution. This approach is more realistic and allows higher fissile masses to be charged to the dissolver.

  10. A simple headspace equilibration method for measuring dissolved methane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magen, C; Lapham, L.L.; Pohlman, John W.; Marshall, Kristin N.; Bosman, S.; Casso, Michael; Chanton, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved methane concentrations in the ocean are close to equilibrium with the atmosphere. Because methane is only sparingly soluble in seawater, measuring it without contamination is challenging for samples collected and processed in the presence of air. Several methods for analyzing dissolved methane are described in the literature, yet none has conducted a thorough assessment of the method yield, contamination issues during collection, transport and storage, and the effect of temperature changes and preservative. Previous extraction methods transfer methane from water to gas by either a "sparge and trap" or a "headspace equilibration" technique. The gas is then analyzed for methane by gas chromatography. Here, we revisit the headspace equilibration technique and describe a simple, inexpensive, and reliable method to measure methane in fresh and seawater, regardless of concentration. Within the range of concentrations typically found in surface seawaters (2-1000 nmol L-1), the yield of the method nears 100% of what is expected from solubility calculation following the addition of known amount of methane. In addition to being sensitive (detection limit of 0.1 ppmv, or 0.74 nmol L-1), this method requires less than 10 min per sample, and does not use highly toxic chemicals. It can be conducted with minimum materials and does not require the use of a gas chromatograph at the collection site. It can therefore be used in various remote working environments and conditions.

  11. Diel Variation in Dissolved Trace-Element Concentrations in Streams Draining Abandoned Mine Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimick, D. A.

    2001-12-01

    Substantial diel (24-hour) variations in dissolved trace-element concentrations have been measured during 20 different hourly sampling episodes at 14 sites on 9 streams draining historical mining areas in Montana. At all sites, concentrations of dissolved (0.1-um filtration) Cd, Mn, and Zn increased during the night, reaching maximum values shortly after sunrise; concentrations then decreased to minimum values during mid to late afternoon. Dissolved As concentrations exhibited the opposite temporal pattern, while variations in dissolved Cu concentrations were small and displayed no consistent pattern. Most sites were sampled during low-flow conditions, but two sampling episodes during snowmelt runoff at one site showed that similar diel variations occur during high flow. All sites had near neutral to slightly alkaline pH. Diel variations did not occur in two other acidic (pH of 4.0-5.5) streams. The magnitude of change during diel concentration cycles varied for each trace element. Zn and Mn concentrations exhibited the largest variation, with maximum concentrations ranging from 120 to 590 percent higher than minimum concentrations. Cd maximum concentrations were about 200 percent higher than minimum concentrations, whereas As maximum concentrations were 115 to 155 percent higher. Diel trace-element cycles appear to be independent of concentration magnitude, occurring over a wide range of concentrations: 5-44 ug/L As; 1-7 ug/L Cd, 18-609 ug/L Mn, and 2-4,940 ug/L Zn. Several chemical, physical, and biological processes potentially can explain diel dissolved-trace-element cycles. Temperature- and pH-dependent sorption reactions occurring on streambed material in the channel and hyporheic zone are considered the most likely mechanisms because of the strong similarity in the symmetry and magnitude of temporal plots of concentration, temperature, and pH. In addition, sorption processes can explain the simultaneous decrease in divalent metal concentrations during the day (when pH and temperature increase) and increase in anion concentrations such as arsenate. Many sorption studies have documented the importance of pH, but the role of temperature has been largely overlooked. Diel cycles are robust and reproducible and are sufficiently widespread and of sufficient magnitude that our understanding of trace-element mobility needs reconsideration. Consequently, diel cycles are a very important consideration when developing or interpreting trace-element studies designed to identify trace-element sources, long-term trends, or effectiveness of remediation activities.

  12. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tulsa, OK)

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  13. Geochemical Data for Upper Mineral Creek, Colorado, Under Existing Ambient Conditions and During an Experimental pH Modification, August 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.; Steiger, Judy I.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Mineral Creek, an acid mine drainage stream in south-western Colorado, was the subject of a water-quality study that employed a paired synoptic approach. Under the paired synoptic approach, two synoptic sampling campaigns were conducted on the same study reach. The initial synoptic campaign, conducted August 22, 2005, documented stream-water quality under existing ambient conditions. A second synoptic campaign, conducted August 24, 2005, documented stream-water quality during a pH-modification experiment that elevated the pH of Mineral Creek. The experimental pH modification was designed to determine the potential reductions in dissolved constituent concentrations that would result from the implementation of an active treatment system for acid mine drainage. During both synoptic sampling campaigns, a solution containing lithium bromide was injected continuously to allow for the calculation of streamflow using the tracer-dilution method. Synoptic water-quality samples were collected from 30 stream sites and 11 inflow locations along the 2-kilometer study reach. Data from the study provide spatial profiles of pH, concentration, and streamflow under both existing and experimentally-altered conditions. This report presents the data obtained August 21-24, 2005, as well as the methods used for sample collection and data analysis.

  14. Adsorption of dissolved aluminum on sapphire-c and kaolinite: implications for points of zero charge of clay minerals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the impact of dissolved aluminum on interfacial properties of two aluminum bearing minerals, corundum and kaolinite. The effect of intentionally adding dissolved aluminum on electrokinetic potential of basal plane surfaces of sapphire was studied by streaming potential measurements as a function of pH and was complemented by a second harmonic generation (SHG) study at pH 6. The electrokinetic data show a similar trend as the SHG data, suggesting that the SHG electric field correlates to zeta-potential. A comparable study was carried out on kaolinite particles. In this case electrophoretic mobility was measured as a function of pH. In both systems the addition of dissolved aluminum caused significant changes in the charging behavior. The isoelectric point consistently shifted to higher pH values, the extent of the shift depending on the amount of aluminum present or added. The experimental results imply that published isoelectric points of clay minerals may have been affected by this phenomenon. The presence of dissolved aluminum in experimental studies may be caused by particular pre-treatment methods (such as washing in acids and subsequent adsorption of dissolved aluminum) or even simply by starting a series of measurements from extreme pH (causing dissolution), and subsequently varying the pH in the very same batch. This results in interactions of dissolved aluminum with the target surface. A possible interpretation of the experimental results could be that at low aluminum concentrations adatoms of aluminum (we will refer to adsorbed mineral constituents as adatoms) can form at the sapphire basal plane, which can be rather easily removed. Simultaneously, once the surface has been exposed to sufficiently high aluminum concentration, a visible change of the surface is seen by AFM which is attributed to a surface precipitate that cannot be removed under the conditions employed in the current study. In conclusion, whenever pre-treatment or the starting point of an experiment favor the dissolution of aluminum, dissolved Al may remain in the experimental system and interact with the target surfaces. The systems are then no longer pristine and points of zero charge or sorption data are those of aluminum-bearing systems. PMID:25045321

  15. Observations of changes in the dissolved CO2 system in the North Sea, in four summers of the 2001-2011 decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clargo, Nicola; Salt, Lesley; Thomas, Helmuth; de Baar, Hein

    2015-04-01

    Since the industrial revolution, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) have risen dramatically, largely due to the combustion of fossil fuels, changes in land-use patterns and the production of cement. The oceans have absorbed a large amount of this CO2, with resulting impacts on ocean chemistry. Coastal seas play a significant role in the mitigation of anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 as they contribute approximately 10-30% of global primary productivity despite accounting for only 7% of the surface area. The North Sea is a perfect natural laboratory in which to study the CO2 system as it consists of two biogeochemically distinct regions displaying both oceanic and relatively coastal behaviour. It has also been identified as a continental shelf pump with respect to CO2, transporting it to the deeper waters of the North Atlantic. Large scale forcing has been shown to have a significant impact on the CO2 system over varying time scales, often masking the effects of anthropogenic influence. Here, we present data from the North Sea spanning the 2001-2011 decade. In order to investigate the dynamics of the dissolved CO2 system in this region in the face of climate change, four basin-wide cruises were conducted during the summers of 2001, 2005, 2008 and 2011. The acquired Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) and alkalinity data were then used to fully resolve the carbon system in order to assess trends over the 2001-2011 decade. We find significant interannual variability, but with a consistent, notable trend in decreasing pH. We found that surface alkalinity remained relatively constant over the decade, whereas DIC increased, indicating that the pH decline is DIC-driven. We also found that the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) increased faster than concurrent atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and that the CO2 buffering capacity of the North Sea decreased over the decade, with implications for future CO2 uptake.

  16. A Quantitative Evaluation of Dissolved Oxygen Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pijanowski, Barbara S.

    1971-01-01

    The implications of the presence of dissolved oxygen in water are discussed in terms of its deleterious or beneficial effects, depending on the functional consequences to those affected, e.g., the industrialist, the oceanographer, and the ecologist. The paper is devoted primarily to an examination of the performance of five commercially available dissolved oxygen meters. The design of each is briefly reviewed and ease or difficulty of use in the field described. Specifically, the evaluation program treated a number of parameters and user considerations including an initial check and trial calibration for each instrument and a discussion of the measurement methodology employed. Detailed test results are given relating to the effects of primary power variation, water-flow sensitivity, response time, relative accuracy of dissolved-oxygen readout, temperature accuracy (for those instruments which included this feature), error and repeatability, stability, pressure and other environmental effects, and test results obtained in the field. Overall instrument performance is summarized comparatively by chart.

  17. Process for coal liquefaction in staged dissolvers

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA)

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved liquefaction process by which coal is converted to a low ash and low sulfur carbonaceous material that can be used as a fuel in an environmentally acceptable manner without costly gas scrubbing equipment. In the process, coal is slurried with a pasting oil, passed through a preheater and at least two dissolvers in series in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures. Solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. In accordance with the improved process, the first dissolver is operated at a higher temperature than the second dissolver. This temperature sequence produces improved product selectivity and permits the incorporation of sufficient hydrogen in the solvent for adequate recycle operations.

  18. Reactive solute transport in streams. 2. Simulation of a pH modification experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, R.L.; McKnight, Diane M.; Bencala, K.E.; Chapra, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    We present an application of an equilibrium-based solute transport model to a pH-modification experiment conducted on the Snake River, an acidic, metal-rich stream located in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. During the experiment, instream pH decreased from 4.2 to 3.2, causing a marked increase in dissolved iron concentrations. Model application requires specification of several parameters that are estimated using tracer techniques, mass balance calculations, and geochemical data. Two basic questions are addressed through model application: (1) What are the processes responsible for the observed increase in dissolved iron concentrations? (2) Can the identified processes be represented within the equilibrium-based transport model? Simulation results indicate that the increase in iron was due to the dissolution of hydrous iron oxides and the photoreduction of ferric iron. Dissolution from the streambed is represented by considering a trace compartment consisting of freshly precipitated hydrous iron oxide and an abundant compartment consisting of aged precipitates that are less soluble. Spatial variability in the solubility of hydrous iron oxide is attributed to heterogeneity in the streambed sediments, temperature effects, and/or variability in the effects of photoreduction. Solubility products estimated via simulation fall within a narrow range (pK(sp) from 40.2 to 40.8) relative to the 6 order of magnitude variation reported for laboratory experiments (pK(sp) from 37.3 to 43.3). Results also support the use of an equilibrium-based transport model as the predominate features of the iron and p H profiles are reproduced. The model provides a valuable tool for quantifying the nature and extent of pH- dependent processes within the context of hydrologic transport.

  19. Identification of dissolved-constituent sources in mine-site ground water using batch mixing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Gregory M.; Williams, Robert S., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Batch-mixing experiments were used to help identify lithologic and mineralogic sources of increased concentrations of dissolved solids in water affected by surface coal mining in northwestern Colorado. Ten overburden core samples were analyzed for mineral composition and mixed with distilled water for 90 days until mineral-water equilibrium was reached. Between one day and 90 days after initial contact, specific conductance in the sample mixtures had a median increase of 306 percent. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 200 to 8,700 mg/L in water samples extracted from the mixtures after 90 days. Mass-balance simulations were conducted using the geochemical models BALANCE and WATEQF to quantify mineral-water interactions occurring in five selected sample mixtures and in water collected from a spring at a reclaimed mine site. The spring water is affected by mineral-water interactions occurring in all of the lithologic units comprising the overburden. Results of the simulations indicate that oxidation of pyrite, dissolution of dolomite, gypsum, and epsomite, and cation-exchange reactions are the primary mineral-water interactions occurring in the overburden. Three lithologic units in the overburden (a coal, a sandstone, and a shale) probably contribute most of the dissolved solids to the spring water. Water sample extracts from mixtures using core from these three units accounted for 85 percent of the total dissolved solids in the 10 sample extracts. Other lithologic units in the over-burden probably contribute smaller quantities of dissolved solids to the spring water.

  20. EVALUATION OF QUICK TESTS FOR DISSOLVED PHOSPHORUS DETERMINATION IN DAIRY MANURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of a hand-held reflectometer, hydrometers, and measurements of electrical conductivity (EC) and manure total solids (TS) concentrations for determining dissolved phosphorus (DP) in dairy manure suspensions, and to compare the estimated DP c...

  1. DIEL DISSOLVED OXYGEN MONITORING OF THE SPOKANE RIVER DURING EXTREME LOW FLOW. KOOTENAI COUNTY, IDAHO, 1992

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diel monitoring of dissolved oxygen and temperature was conducted on an impounded and free-flowing reach of the Spokane River, in north Idaho (17010303) on 2 occasions during an extreme low flow event in water year 1992. The objective was to document excursions from water qualit...

  2. EFFECT OF ACID TREATMENT ON DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON RETENTION BY A SPODIC HORIZON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Processes involving the movement of organic substances in forest soils are not well understood. This study was conducted to examine the role of acidic inputs on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) mobility, processes affecting the retention of DOV by a B horizon, and SO2-4 adsorption....

  3. Importance of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen to Water Quality in Narragansett Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    This preliminary analysis of the importance of the dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) pool in Narragansett Bay is being conducted as part of a five-year study of Narragansett Bay and its watershed. This larger study includes water quality and ecological modeling components that foc...

  4. Community-Level Effects of Excess Total Dissolved Solids Doses Using Model Streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Model stream chronic dosing studies (42 days) were conducted with four different total dissolved solids (TDS) recipes. The recipes differed in their relative dominance of major ions. One was made from sodium and calcium chloride salts only. Another was similar to the first, but a...

  5. pH control with silicates minerals for in situ bioremediation of chlorinated solventsfor in situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvents

    E-print Network

    Lenstra, Arjen K.

    conditions inhibit the activity of anaerobic bacteria. Therefore, development of an efficient pH control in groundwater. It relies on ...the activity of specialized bacteria that Organohalide respiration Acidity and hydrogen Anaerobic conditionsResults5 Anaerobic conditions Measurements: pH, ....chloroethenes, dissolved

  6. Summary of Dissolved Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Yueting Chen

    2001-06-11

    According to the Technical Work Plan titled Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR (CRWMS M&O 2000a), the purpose of this study is to perform abstractions on solubility limits of radioactive elements based on the process-level information and thermodynamic databases provided by Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO) and Waste Package Operations (WPO). The scope of this analysis is to produce solubility limits as functions, distributions, or constants for all transported radioactive elements identified by the Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) radioisotope screening. Results from an expert elicitation for solubility limits of most radioactive elements were used in the previous Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs). However, the elicitation conducted in 1993 does not meet the criteria set forth by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) due to lack of documentation and traceability (Kotra et al. 1996, Section 3). Therefore, at the Waste Form Abstraction Workshop held on February 2-4, 1999, at Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) decided to develop geochemical models to study solubility for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. WPO/NEPO is to develop process-level solubility models, including review and compilation of relevant thermodynamic data. PAO's responsibility is to perform abstractions based on the process models and chemical conditions and to produce solubility distributions or response surfaces applicable to the proposed repository. The results of this analysis and conceptual model will feed the performance assessment for Total System Performance Assessment--Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and Total System Performance Assessment--License Application (TSPA-LA), and to the Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report section on concentration limits.

  7. The pH of Enceladus' ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glein, Christopher R.; Baross, John A.; Waite, J. Hunter

    2015-08-01

    Saturn's moon, Enceladus, is a geologically active waterworld. The prevailing paradigm is that there is a subsurface ocean that erupts to the surface, which leads to the formation of a plume of vapor and ice above the south polar region. The chemistry of the ocean is just beginning to be understood, but is of profound geochemical and astrobiological interest. Here, we determine the pH of the ocean using a thermodynamic model of carbonate speciation. Observational data from the Cassini spacecraft are used to make a chemical model of ocean water on Enceladus. The model suggests that Enceladus' ocean is a Na-Cl-CO3 solution with an alkaline pH of ?11-12. The dominance of aqueous NaCl is a feature that Enceladus' ocean shares with terrestrial seawater, but the ubiquity of dissolved Na2CO3 suggests that soda lakes are more analogous to the Enceladus ocean. The high pH implies that the hydroxide ion should be relatively abundant, while divalent metals should be present at low concentrations owing to buffering by carbonates and phyllosilicates on the ocean floor. Carboxyl groups in dissolved organic species would be negatively charged, while amino groups would exist predominately in the neutral form. Knowledge of the pH improves our understanding of geochemical processes in Enceladus' ocean. The high pH is interpreted to be a key consequence of serpentinization of chondritic rock, as predicted by prior geochemical reaction path models; although degassing of CO2 from the ocean may also play a role depending on the efficiency of mixing processes in the ocean. Serpentinization leads to the generation of H2, a geochemical fuel that can support both abiotic and biological synthesis of organic molecules such as those that have been detected in Enceladus' plume. Serpentinization and H2 generation should have occurred on Enceladus, like on the parent bodies of aqueously altered meteorites; but it is unknown whether these critical processes are still taking place, or if Enceladus' rocky core has been completely altered by past hydrothermal activity. The presence of native H2 in the plume would provide strong evidence for contemporary aqueous alteration that replenishes this source of energy for possible life. The high pH also suggests that the delivery of strong oxidants from the surface to the ocean has not been significant (otherwise, sulfuric acid would be produced), which would be consistent with geophysical models of episodic resurfacing activity on Enceladus. This paper represents an expansion of chemical oceanography to an "ocean planet" beyond Earth.

  8. Geochemical behaviour of dissolved trace elements in a monsoon-dominated tropical river basin, Southwestern India.

    PubMed

    Gurumurthy, G P; Balakrishna, K; Tripti, M; Audry, Stéphane; Riotte, Jean; Braun, J J; Udaya Shankar, H N

    2014-04-01

    The study presents a 3-year time series data on dissolved trace elements and rare earth elements (REEs) in a monsoon-dominated river basin, the Nethravati River in tropical Southwestern India. The river basin lies on the metamorphic transition boundary which separates the Peninsular Gneiss and Southern Granulitic province belonging to Archean and Tertiary-Quaternary period (Western Dharwar Craton). The basin lithology is mainly composed of granite gneiss, charnockite and metasediment. This study highlights the importance of time series data for better estimation of metal fluxes and to understand the geochemical behaviour of metals in a river basin. The dissolved trace elements show seasonality in the river water metal concentrations forming two distinct groups of metals. First group is composed of heavy metals and minor elements that show higher concentrations during dry season and lesser concentrations during the monsoon season. Second group is composed of metals belonging to lanthanides and actinides with higher concentration in the monsoon and lower concentrations during the dry season. Although the metal concentration of both the groups appears to be controlled by the discharge, there are important biogeochemical processes affecting their concentration. This includes redox reactions (for Fe, Mn, As, Mo, Ba and Ce) and pH-mediated adsorption/desorption reactions (for Ni, Co, Cr, Cu and REEs). The abundance of Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides as a result of redox processes could be driving the geochemical redistribution of metals in the river water. There is a Ce anomaly (Ce/Ce*) at different time periods, both negative and positive, in case of dissolved phase, whereas there is positive anomaly in the particulate and bed sediments. The Ce anomaly correlates with the variations in the dissolved oxygen indicating the redistribution of Ce between particulate and dissolved phase under acidic to neutral pH and lower concentrations of dissolved organic carbon. Unlike other tropical and major world rivers, the effect of organic complexation on metal variability is negligible in the Nethravati River water. PMID:24374620

  9. [Geochemical distribution of dissolved bismuth in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Dan; Song, Jin-Ming; Wu, Bin; Li, Xue-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence level, geochemical distribution of dissolved bismuth and its coupling relationship to eco-environment were investigated in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea to explore the source and influencing factors. The results showed that the concentration of dissolved bismuth was within the range of 0-0. 029 microg x L(-1) at the surface and 0.001-0.189 microg x L(-1) at the bottom, with the averages of 0.008 and 0.016 microg x L(-1), respectively. Horizontally, low value of dissolved bismuth exhibited the bidirectional extension feature, indicating that it could trace the path of Changjiang Diluted Water. High value of dissolved bismuth was observed where the Subei Costal Current and Yellow Sea Warm Current flowed and the Changjiang Diluted Water and Zhejiang-Fujian Coastal Current met, suggesting that it was controlled by the cycle of current system. Vertically, the coastal water was fully mixed by water convection and eddy mixing, and was divided from the stratified water by strong tidal front, which blocked the transport of dissolved bismuth to the open sea. Thus, the concentration in front area was significantly higher than that in the open sea. Diurnal variation of dissolved bismuth was related to the hydrodynamic conditions (tide, suspension and thermocline) instead of the environmental factors (temperature and salinity). Positive relationship to SPM (suspended particulate matter) clarified that bismuth was prone to release from solid phase to liquid phase. Furthermore, conditions with temperature ranging 22-27 degrees C, salinity ranging 28-31 and pH ranging 7.9-8.1 were shown to be optimal for the release process. PMID:24720192

  10. Variation of ocean pH in the Indonesia waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Mutiara Rachmat; Setiawan, Agus; Safitri, Mediana

    2015-09-01

    The variation of ocean acidity (pH) in the Indonesia waters is strongly influenced by monsoon. Since the climate change tends to potentially change monsoonal variation over the Indonesian region, it will give also implication to the ocean pH variation. Moreover, changes of ocean pH will give effects to the marine lifes and their environment. In order to investigate this issue, we tried to calculate monthly variation of sea surface pH in the Indonesia waters based on monthly average temperature and salinity over past 18 years data. Temperature and salinity data used in this study were taken from the hydrodynamic model of Hamburg Shelf Ocean Model (HAMSOM), while alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were from World Ocean Atlas 2009 (WOA 2009). Algorithm from Ocean Carbon Model Intercomparison Project-version.3 (OCMIP-3) was used to calculate the pH. The estimation results indicate that pH variation in the Indonesia waters changes insignificantly over 18 years. El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) contribute to physical changes of seawater, but did not affect the pH significantly. The average pH of seawater is higher during northwest monsoon than during southeast monsoon.

  11. Arsenic adsorption and oxidation at manganite surfaces. 1. Method for simultaneous determination of adsorbed and dissolved arsenic species

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, V.Q.; Hering, J.G.

    2000-05-15

    Arsenic occurs in the +III oxidation state as a metastable species in oxic waters. Under oxide conditions, As(III) is both more mobile in natural waters and less efficiently removed by water treatment processes than As(V). Other oxidants, however, can react with As(III) more rapidly than oxygen. The oxidation of As(III) by manganite occurs on the time scale of hours. Here, a method is introduced for the rapid determination of the total and dissolved concentrations of arsenic species in this heterogeneous system; absorbed arsenic concentrations are calculated by difference. The oxidation reaction is quenched by the addition of ascorbic acid to effect the reductive dissolution of manganite and concomitant release of adsorbed As(III) and As(V) into solution. Once in solution, As(III) and As(V) are separated using anion-exchange chromatography. Comparison of dissolved and total concentrations of As(III) and As(V) clearly illustrates that the overall conversion rate of As(III) to As(V) in this system would be overpredicted based solely on dissolved As(III) concentrations and underpredicted based solely on dissolved As(V) concentrations. The overall conversion of As(III) to As(V) was more rapid at pH 4 than at pH 6.3 and was unaffected by the presence of boric acid at 95 {micro}M or 3 mM. However, the presence of 200 {micro}M phosphate (at pH 4) decreased the overall rate of conversion of As(III) to As(V). Comparison of total and dissolved As(III) concentrations during the reaction time course demonstrates that the effects of pH and phosphate on adsorbed As(III) concentrations are generally consistent with these kinetic observations.

  12. REMOVING DISSOLVED INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS FROM WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dissolved inorganic contaminants in water can be cationic, anionic, or neutral forms of ions, atoms, or molecules of any element in the periodic table. The article describes the physicochemical treatment processes typically used to remove the more common inorganic contaminants fr...

  13. EFFECT OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC SUBSTANCES ON OYSTERS

    E-print Network

    EF·FECT OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC SUBSTANCES· ON OYSTERS BY ALBERT COLLIER, S. M. RAY, A. W. MAGNITZKY gapes ~f !ileveral oysters recorded simultaneously indicated a parallel reaction to the concentration of carbohydrates in sea water. The oysters responded to increases in the carbohydrate concentration by pumping

  14. Modeling Fish Growth in Low Dissolved Oxygen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neilan, Rachael Miller

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a computational project designed for undergraduate students as an introduction to mathematical modeling. Students use an ordinary differential equation to describe fish weight and assume the instantaneous growth rate depends on the concentration of dissolved oxygen. Published laboratory experiments suggest that continuous…

  15. Dissolved Zinc Measurements Using Shipboard FIA During the 2008 GEOTRACES Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosnell, K. J.; Landing, W. M.; Milne, A.

    2008-12-01

    Zinc concentrations in the open ocean have been measured accurately by only a few investigators due to the extreme difficulties of collecting and processing seawater samples without introducing Zn contamination. Accurate measurements of dissolved Zn are important for understanding the biogeochemical behavior of this important biochemically required element in the open ocean. Historically, reliable samples for dissolved Zn were collected using Teflon-coated GO-FLO bottles individually hung on Kevlar line. To speed up sample collection, two "Trace Metal" rosette systems were tested during Leg 1 of the GEOTRACES 2008 intercalibration cruise: a large GEOTRACES 24-bottle rosette and the smaller Measures and Landing "CLIVAR" 12-bottle rosette. Both rosettes use 12-liter, Teflon-coated GO- FLO bottles equipped with Teflon spigots and modified air-relief fittings, allowing for pressure filtration. Contamination for dissolved Zn was eliminated in the 12-liter Teflon-lined GO-FLO bottles by repeated deployments ("flushing") on both rosette systems. A Flow Injection (FIA) technique for shipboard determination of total dissolved Zn was utilized to test rosette sampling methods for Zn contamination. Samples were acidified to 0.024M HCl (pH 2) for 16 hours. Samples were buffered to pH 5.5 using ammonium acetate buffer. Dissolved Zn was pre-concentrated using a small- volume column of 8-HQ cation exchange resin. After column rinsing, Zn was eluted into the flowing stream of organic reagent p-Tosyl-8-aminoquinoline (pTAQ), which forms fluorescent complexes with Zn. A flow- through fluorometer was used to record peak heights. Calibration was performed via standard additions. Accuracy of this method was established by measuring standard SAFe D2 and S1 samples, as well as multiple samples collected and analyzed throughout Leg 1 of the GEOTRACES 2008 cruise. Dissolved Cadmium (Cd) can additionally form fluorescent complexes with pTAQ. Thus, when necessary, a small, positive, Cd interference can be corrected for using established Cd-PO4 relationships. Dissolved Zn profiles from both rosette systems agree extremely well with previously published Zn data from this region.

  16. Measurements of the dissolved inorganic carbon system and associated biogeochemical parameters in the Canadian Arctic, 1974-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesbrecht, K. E.; Miller, L. A.; Davelaar, M.; Zimmermann, S.; Carmack, E.; Johnson, W. K.; Macdonald, R. W.; McLaughlin, F.; Mucci, A.; Williams, W. J.; Wong, C. S.; Yamamoto-Kawai, M.

    2014-03-01

    We have assembled and conducted primary quality control on previously publicly unavailable water column measurements of the dissolved inorganic carbon system and associated biogeochemical parameters (oxygen, nutrients, etc.) made on 26 cruises in the subarctic and Arctic regions dating back to 1974. The measurements are primarily from the western side of the Canadian Arctic, but also include data that cover an area ranging from the North Pacific to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The data were subjected to primary quality control (QC) to identify outliers and obvious errors. This data set incorporates over four thousand individual measurements of total inorganic carbon (TIC), alkalinity, and pH from the Canadian Arctic over a period of more than 30 years and provides an opportunity to increase our understanding of temporal changes in the inorganic carbon system in northern waters and the Arctic Ocean. The data set is available for download on the CDIAC (Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center) website: http://cdiac.ornl.gov/ftp/oceans/IOS_Arctic_Database/ (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/OTG.IOS_ARCT_CARBN).

  17. Measurements of the dissolved inorganic carbon system and associated biogeochemical parameters in the Canadian Arctic, 1974-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesbrecht, K. E.; Miller, L. A.; Zimmermann, S.; Carmack, E.; Johnson, W. K.; Macdonald, R. W.; McLaughlin, F.; Mucci, A.; Williams, W. J.; Wong, C. S.; Yamamoto-Kawai, M.

    2013-06-01

    We have assembled and conducted primary quality control on previously publically-unavailable water column measurements of the dissolved inorganic carbon system and associated biogeochemical parameters (oxygen, nutrients, etc.) made on 25 cruises in the subarctic and Arctic regions dating from as far back as 1974. The measurements are primarily from the western side of the Canadian Arctic, but also include data ranging from the North Pacific to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The data were subjected to primary quality control (QC) to identify outliers and obvious errors. This dataset incorporates over four thousand individual measurements of total inorganic carbon (TIC), alkalinity, and pH from the Canadian Arctic over a period of more than 30 yr and provides an opportunity to increase our understanding of temporal changes in the inorganic carbon system in northern waters and the Arctic Ocean. The dataset is available for download on the CDIAC website: http://cdiac.ornl.gov/ftp/oceans/IOS_Arctic_Database/ (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/OTG.IOS_ARCT_CARBN).

  18. A simple and rapid method for monitoring dissolved oxygen in water with a submersible microbial fuel cell (SBMFC).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SBMFC) was developed as a biosensor for in situ and real time monitoring of dissolved oxygen (DO) in environmental waters. Domestic wastewater was utilized as a sole fuel for powering the sensor. The sensor performance was firstly examined with tap water at varying DO levels. With an external resistance of 1000?, the current density produced by the sensor (5.6 ± 0.5-462.2 ± 0.5 mA/m(2)) increased linearly with DO level up to 8.8 ± 0.3mg/L (regression coefficient, R(2)=0.9912), while the maximum response time for each measurement was less than 4 min. The current density showed different response to DO levels when different external resistances were applied, but a linear relationship was always observed. Investigation of the sensor performance at different substrate concentrations indicates that the organic matter contained in the domestic wastewater was sufficient to power the sensing activities. The sensor ability was further explored under different environmental conditions (e.g. pH, temperature, conductivity, and alternative electron acceptor), and the results indicated that a calibration would be required before field application. Lastly, the sensor was tested with different environmental waters and the results showed no significant difference (p>0.05) with that measured by DO meter. The simple, compact SBMFC sensor showed promising potential for direct, inexpensive and rapid DO monitoring in various environmental waters. PMID:22726635

  19. Updated determination of particulate and dissolved thorium-234

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleer, Alan P.

    The determination of particulate and dissolved 234Th is similar to the procedure of Anderson and Fleer [1982]. Samples are collected using 30 L Niskin bottles with Teflon- or epoxy-coated internal springs. On deck, the sample is pumped with a delrin impeller pump through a 0.45 ?m pore size 147-mm diameter Millipore filter and into a pre-rinsed 6 gallon plastic cubitainer held in a plastic milk crate. An in-line plastic water meter records volumes in gallons. The particulate sample filter is folded twice and stored in a polyethylene sample bag. To the ˜20 L filtered sample is added: 30 mL reagent grade 16 N HNO3; 500 mL 230Th tracer of ˜30 dpm mL-l and 5 mL 50 mg mL-l iron carrier previously cleaned by extraction into isopropyl ether from an 8 M HCl solution and back-extracted into 0.1 M HCl. The acidified sample is allowed to equilibrate for from one day to a maximum of several days. The sample is weighed on a Heathkit digital scale and the pH is adjusted to approximately 8 with about 40 mL 10 M NH4OH to precipitate iron hydroxide, which carries the thorium and uranium from the solution. The precipitate is allowed to settle for 12 to 24 hours. The supernate is drawn off, and the precipitate is spun down in a centrifuge tube to about an 8 mL volume. The precipitate is resuspended in distilled water and spun down again, then dissolved in three times its volume with 12 N HCl to make a 9 N HCl solution. A 1.5 cm×12 cm ion exchange column is filled with AG1×8 100-200 mesh resin and conditioned with 9 N HCl. The sample solution is run slowly through.

  20. Possible method for dissolved organic carbon speciation in forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drabek, O.; Tejnecký, V.; Ash, C.; Hubova, P.; Boruvka, L.

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a natural part of dissolved organic matter and it plays an important role in the biogeochemistry of soil processes. Low Molecular Mass Organic Acids (LMMOA) are an essential part of DOC. These acids play a key role in chemical processes that affect the entire soil environment. Knowing the amount of DOC and the speciation of LMMOA is required for realistic equilibrium modelling of soil chemical processes and transport mechanisms. There have been a number of proposed methods for the quantitative analysis of DOC and for speciation of LMMOA. The first aim of this contribution is to introduce and test a modified spectroscopic method for the determination of water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) from forest soils. In general this method is based on the oxidization of WEOC by chromium-sulphuric acid. The presented method can be used as an economical alternative to the classical, more financially demanding elemental analysis. However, the main aim is to test the reliability of the method for LMMOA speciation. Ion exchange chromatography (IC) with hydroxide elution has proven to be a useful tool for the determination of LMMOA in many different water-based samples. However, the influence of multivalent cations (often present in environmental samples) on IC results has not yet been sufficiently studied. In order to assess the influence of Al, Fe, Mn, Mg and Ca on the amount of LMMOA determined by IC, an extensive set of model solutions was prepared and immediately analysed by means of IC. Moreover, the influence of pH on determined amounts of LMMOA in model solutions and representative soil aqueous extracts was investigated. These experimental results were compared to expected values and also to results provided by the chemical equilibrium model - PHREEQC. Based on the above listed research, some modifications to the common IC method for LMMOA speciation are presented.

  1. Modelling of dissolved oxygen in the Danube River using artificial neural networks and Monte Carlo Simulation uncertainty analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antanasijevi?, Davor; Pocajt, Viktor; Peri?-Gruji?, Aleksandra; Risti?, Mirjana

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes the training, validation, testing and uncertainty analysis of general regression neural network (GRNN) models for the forecasting of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the Danube River. The main objectives of this work were to determine the optimum data normalization and input selection techniques, the determination of the relative importance of uncertainty in different input variables, as well as the uncertainty analysis of model results using the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) technique. Min-max, median, z-score, sigmoid and tanh were validated as normalization techniques, whilst the variance inflation factor, correlation analysis and genetic algorithm were tested as input selection techniques. As inputs, the GRNN models used 19 water quality variables, measured in the river water each month at 17 different sites over a period of 9 years. The best results were obtained using min-max normalized data and the input selection based on the correlation between DO and dependent variables, which provided the most accurate GRNN model, and in combination the smallest number of inputs: Temperature, pH, HCO3-, SO42-, NO3-N, Hardness, Na, Cl-, Conductivity and Alkalinity. The results show that the correlation coefficient between measured and predicted DO values is 0.85. The inputs with the greatest effect on the GRNN model (arranged in descending order) were T, pH, HCO3-, SO42- and NO3-N. Of all inputs, variability of temperature had the greatest influence on the variability of DO content in river body, with the DO decreasing at a rate similar to the theoretical DO decreasing rate relating to temperature. The uncertainty analysis of the model results demonstrate that the GRNN can effectively forecast the DO content, since the distribution of model results are very similar to the corresponding distribution of real data.

  2. Fast dissolving strips: A novel approach for the delivery of verapamil

    PubMed Central

    Kunte, S.; Tandale, P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Fast dissolving drug delivery system offers a solution for those patients having difficulty in swallowing tablets/capsules etc. Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker used as an antianginal, antiarrhythmic, and antihypertensive agent with extensive first pass metabolism which results in less bioavailability. This work investigated the possibility of developing verapamil fast dissolving strips allowing fast, reproducible drug dissolution in the oral cavity; thus bypassing first pass metabolism. Materials and methods: The fast dissolving strips were prepared by solvent casting technique with the help of HPMC E6 and maltodextrin. The strips were evaluated for drug content uniformity, film thickness, folding endurance, in vitro disintegration time, in vitro dissolution studies, surface pH study, and palatability study. Results: Official criteria for evaluation parameters were fulfilled by all formulations. Disintegration time showed by formulations was found to be in range of 20.4–28.6 sec. Based on the evaluation parameters, the formulation containing 2% HPMC E6 and 3.5% maltodextrin showed optimum performance against other formulations. Conclusion: It was concluded that the fast dissolving strips of verapamil can be made by solvent casting technique with enhanced dissolution rate, taste masking, and hence better patient compliance and effective therapy PMID:21180465

  3. Role of structural Fe in nontronite NAu-1 and dissolved Fe(II) in redox transformations of arsenic and antimony

    SciTech Connect

    Ilgen, Anastasia G.; Foster, Andrea L.; Trainor, Thomas P.

    2012-11-01

    Oxidation state is a major factor affecting the mobility of arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) in soil and aquatic systems. Metal (hydr)oxides and clay minerals are effective sorbents, and may also promote redox reactions on their surfaces via direct or indirect facilitation of electron transfer. Iron substituted for Al in the octahedral sites of aluminosilicate clay minerals has the potential to be in variable oxidation states and is a key constituent of electron transfer reactions in clay minerals. This experimental work was conducted to determine whether structural Fe in clays can affect the oxidation state of As and Sb adsorbed at the clay surface. Another goal of our study was to compare the reactivity of clay structural Fe(II) with systems containing Fe(II) present in dissolved/adsorbed forms. The experimental systems included batch reactors with various concentrations of As(III), Sb(III), As(V), or Sb(V) equilibrated with oxidized (NAu-1) or partially reduced (NAu-1-Red) nontronite, hydrous aluminum oxide (HAO) and kaolinite (KGa-1b) suspensions under oxic and anoxic conditions. The reaction times ranged from 0.5 to 720 h, and pH was constrained at 5.5 (for As) and at 5.5 or 8.0 (for Sb). The oxidation state of As and Sb in the liquid phase was determined by liquid chromatography in line with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, and in the solid phase by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Our findings show that structural Fe(II) in NAu-1-Red was not able to reduce As(V)/Sb(V) under the conditions examined, but reduction was seen when aqueous Fe(II) was present in the systems with kaolinite (KGa-1b) and nontronite (NAu-1). The ability of the structural Fe in nontronite clay NAu-1 to promote oxidation of As(III)/Sb(III) was greatly affected by its oxidation state: if all structural Fe was in the oxidized Fe(III) form, no oxidation was observed; however, when the clay was partially reduced ({approx}20% of structural Fe was reduced to Fe(II)), NAu-1-Red promoted the most extensive oxidation under both oxic and anoxic conditions. Electron balance considerations suggest that structural Fe(III) in the NAu-1-Red was the sole oxidant in the anoxic setup, while dissolved O{sub 2} also contributes in oxic conditions. Long-term batch experiments revealed the complex dynamics of As aqueous speciation in anoxic and oxic systems when reduced arsenic was initially added: rapid disappearance of As(III) was observed due to oxidation to As(V) followed by a slow increase of aqueous As(III). This behavior is explained by two reactions: fast initial oxidation of As(III) by structural Fe(III) (anoxic) or Fe(III) and dissolved O2 (oxic) followed by the slow reduction of As(V) by dissolved Fe(II). The resulting re-mobilization of As due to As(V) reduction by aqueous Fe(II) occurs on time scales on the order of days. These reactions are likely significant in a natural soil or aquifer environment with seasonal cycling or slightly reducing conditions with an abundance of clay minerals and dissolved Fe(II).

  4. Conduct Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a child developing conduct disorder, including brain damage, child abuse or neglect, genetic vulnerability, school failure, and traumatic ... conditions such as mood disorders , anxiety , PTSD , substance ... are the child's uncooperative attitude, fear and distrust of adults. In ...

  5. Electrical Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  6. Chapter A6. Section 6.3. Specific Electrical Conductance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radtke, Dean B.; Davis, Jerri V.; Wilde, Franceska D.

    2005-01-01

    Electrical conductance is a measure of the capacity of a substance to conduct an electrical current. The specific electrical conductance (conductivity) of water is a function of the types and quantities of dissolved substances it contains, normalized to a unit length and unit cross section at a specified temperature. This section of the National Field Manual (NFM) describes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) guidance and protocols for measurement of conductivity in ground and surface waters.

  7. Screening for Dissolved Methane in Groundwater Across Texas Shale Plays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicot, J. P.; Mickler, P. J.; Hildenbrand, Z.; Larson, T.; Darvari, R.; Uhlman, K.; Smyth, R. C.; Scanlon, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    There is considerable interest in methane concentrations in groundwater, particularly as they relate to hydraulic fracturing in shale plays. Recent studies of aquifers in the footprint of several gas plays across the US have shown that (1) dissolved thermogenic methane may or may not be present in the shallow groundwater and (2) shallow thermogenic methane may be naturally occurring and emplaced through mostly vertical migration over geologic time and not necessarily a consequence of recent unconventional gas production. We are currently conducting a large sampling campaign across the state of Texas to characterize shallow methane in fresh-water aquifers overlying shale plays and other tight formations. We collected a total of ~800 water samples, ~500 in the Barnett, ~150 in the Eagle Ford, ~80 in the Haynesville shale plays as well as ~50 in the Delaware Basin of West Texas. Preliminary analytical results suggest that dissolved methane is not widespread in shallow groundwater and that, when present at concentrations exceeding 10 mg/L, it is often of thermogenic origin according to the isotopic signature and to the presence of other light hydrocarbons. The Barnett Shale contains a large methane hotspot (~ 2 miles wide) along the Hood-Parker county line which is likely of natural origin whereas the Eagle Ford and Haynesville shales, neglecting microbial methane, show more distributed methane occurrences. Samples from the Delaware Basin show no methane except close to blowouts.

  8. Remote Sensing of Dissolved Oxygen and Nitrogen in Water Using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganoe, Rene; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2013-01-01

    The health of an estuarine ecosystem is largely driven by the abundance of dissolved oxygen and nitrogen available for maintenance of plant and animal life. An investigation was conducted to quantify the concentration of dissolved molecular oxygen and nitrogen in water by means of Raman spectroscopy. This technique is proposed for the remote sensing of dissolved oxygen in the Chesapeake Bay, which will be utilized by aircraft in order to survey large areas in real-time. A proof of principle system has been developed and the specifications are being honed to maximize efficiency for the final application. The theoretical criteria of the research, components of the experimental system, and key findings are presented in this report

  9. Benthic flux of dissolved nickel into the water column of south San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Topping, B.R.; Kuwabara, J.S.; Parcheso, Francis; Hager, S.W.; Arnsberg, A.J.; Murphy, Fred

    2001-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted between April, 1998 and May, 1999 to provide the first direct measurements of the benthic flux of dissolved (0.2-micron filtered) nickel between the bottom sediment and water column at three sites in the southern component of San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California. Dissolved nickel and predominant ligands (represented by dissolved organic carbon, and sulfides) were the solutes of primary interest, although a variety of ancillary measurements were also performed to provide a framework for interpretation. Results described herein integrate information needs identified by the State Water Resources Control Board and local stakeholders with fundamental research associated with the U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program. Dissolved-Ni concentrations in the bottom water over the three sampling dates ranged from 34 to 43 nanomoles per liter. Dissolved-macronutrient concentrations in the bottom water were consistently higher (frequently by orders of magnitude) than surface-water determinations reported for similar times and locations (Regional Monitoring Program, 2001). This is consistent with measured positive benthic fluxes for the macronutrients. Benthic-flux estimates for dissolved nickel from core-incubations, when areally averaged over the South Bay, were significant (that is, of equivalent or greater order of magnitude) relative to previously reported freshwater point and non-point sources. This observation is consistent with previous determinations for other metals, and with the potential remobilization of sediment-associated metals that have been ubiquitously distributed in the South Bay. Similar to dissolved-nickel results, benthic flux of macronutrients was also consistently significant relative to surface-water inputs. These results add to a growing body of knowledge that strongly suggests a need to consider contaminant transport across the sediment-water interface when establishing future management strategies for the watershed.

  10. Biogeochemical controls on Diel cycling of stable isotopes of dissolved O2 and dissolved inorganic carbon in the Big Hole River, Montana.

    PubMed

    Parker, Stephen R; Poulson, Simon R; Gammons, Christopher H; DeGrandpre, Michael D

    2005-09-15

    Rivers with high biological productivity typically show substantial increases in pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration during the day and decreases at night, in response to changes in the relative rates of aquatic photosynthesis and respiration. These changes, coupled with temperature variations, may impart diel (24-h) fluctuations in the concentration of trace metals, nutrients, and other chemical species. A better understanding of diel processes in rivers is needed and will lead to improved methods of data collection for both monitoring and research purposes. Previous studies have used stable isotopes of dissolved oxygen (DO) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) as tracers of geochemical and biological processes in streams, lakes, and marine systems. Although seasonal variation in 6180 of DO in rivers and lakes has been documented, no study has investigated diel changes in this parameter. Here, we demonstrate large (up to 13%o) cycles in delta18O-DO for two late summer sampling periods in the Big Hole River of southwest Montana and illustrate that these changes are correlated to variations in the DO concentration, the C-isotopic composition of DIC, and the primary productivity of the system. The magnitude of the diel cycle in delta18O-DO was greater in August versus September because of the longer photoperiod and warmer water temperatures. This study provides another biogeochemical tool for investigating the O2 and C budgets in rivers and may also be applicable to lake and groundwater systems. PMID:16201639

  11. The pH of Enceladus' ocean

    E-print Network

    Glein, Christopher; Waite, Hunter

    2015-01-01

    Observational data from the Cassini spacecraft are used to obtain a chemical model of ocean water on Enceladus. The model indicates that Enceladus' ocean is a Na-Cl-CO3 solution with an alkaline pH of ~11-12. The dominance of aqueous NaCl is a feature that Enceladus' ocean shares with terrestrial seawater, but the ubiquity of dissolved Na2CO3 suggests that soda lakes are more analogous to the Enceladus ocean. The high pH implies that the hydroxide ion should be relatively abundant, while divalent metals should be present at low concentrations owing to buffering by clays and carbonates on the ocean floor. The high pH is interpreted to be a key consequence of serpentinization of chondritic rock, as predicted by prior geochemical reaction path models; although degassing of CO2 from the ocean may also play a role depending on the efficiency of mixing processes in the ocean. Serpentinization leads to the generation of H2, a geochemical fuel that can support both abiotic and biological synthesis of organic molecule...

  12. Characterization of noncovalent interactions between 6-propionyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (PRODAN) and dissolved fulvic and humic acids.

    PubMed

    Gadad, Praveen; Lei, Hongxia; Nanny, Mark A

    2007-11-01

    Noncovalent interactions between the fluorescent probe 6-propionyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (PRODAN) and dissolved Norman Landfill leachate fulvic acid, Suwannee River fulvic acid, Suwannee River humic acid, and Leonardite humic acid were examined as a function of pH, fulvic and humic acid (FA and HA) concentration, and solvent polarity using steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy. Static quenching processes, as indicated by linear Stern-Volmer plots and high K(d) values, were positively correlated with the % aromaticity of the FA and HAs, as well as with solution pH. Results illustrate that for FA molecules with relatively low % aromaticity values, solvophobic interactions between PRODAN and FA are the primary interaction mode. For HA molecules with higher % aromaticity, PRODAN engages in both solvophobic interactions and pi-pi interactions, in particular electron donor-acceptor interactions, via condensed aromatic, electron-accepting moieties inherent within HA molecules. Experiments modifying solvent polarity demonstrated that protonation of carboxylic acid functional groups at low pH ( approximately 4) increased the hydrophobicity of the dissolved FA and HA molecules, thereby enhancing noncovalent interactions with PRODAN through increased solvophobic forces. PMID:17632208

  13. Beyond temperature: Clumped isotope signatures in dissolved inorganic carbon species and the influence of solution chemistry on carbonate mineral composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripati, Aradhna K.; Hill, Pamela S.; Eagle, Robert A.; Mosenfelder, Jed L.; Tang, Jianwu; Schauble, Edwin A.; Eiler, John M.; Zeebe, Richard E.; Uchikawa, Joji; Coplen, Tyler B.; Ries, Justin B.; Henry, Drew

    2015-10-01

    "Clumped-isotope" thermometry is an emerging tool to probe the temperature history of surface and subsurface environments based on measurements of the proportion of 13C and 18O isotopes bound to each other within carbonate minerals in 13C18O16O22- groups (heavy isotope "clumps"). Although most clumped isotope geothermometry implicitly presumes carbonate crystals have attained lattice equilibrium (i.e., thermodynamic equilibrium for a mineral, which is independent of solution chemistry), several factors other than temperature, including dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) speciation may influence mineral isotopic signatures. Therefore we used a combination of approaches to understand the potential influence of different variables on the clumped isotope (and oxygen isotope) composition of minerals. We conducted witherite precipitation experiments at a single temperature and at varied pH to empirically determine 13C-18O bond ordering (?47) and ?18O of CO32- and HCO3- molecules at a 25 °C equilibrium. Ab initio cluster models based on density functional theory were used to predict equilibrium 13C-18O bond abundances and ?18O of different DIC species and minerals as a function of temperature. Experiments and theory indicate ?47 and ?18O compositions of CO32- and HCO3- ions are significantly different from each other. Experiments constrain the ?47-?18O slope for a pH effect (0.011 ± 0.001; 12 ? pH ? 7). Rapidly-growing temperate corals exhibit disequilibrium mineral isotopic signatures with a ?47-?18O slope of 0.011 ± 0.003, consistent with a pH effect. Our theoretical calculations for carbonate minerals indicate equilibrium lattice calcite values for ?47 and ?18O are intermediate between HCO3- and CO32-. We analyzed synthetic calcites grown at temperatures ranging from 0.5 to 50 °C with and without the enzyme carbonic anhydrase present. This enzyme catalyzes oxygen isotopic exchange between DIC species and is present in many natural systems. The two types of experiments yielded statistically indistinguishable results, and these measurements yield a calibration that overlaps with our theoretical predictions for calcite at equilibrium. The slow-growing Devils Hole calcite exhibits ?47 and ?18O values consistent with lattice equilibrium. Factors influencing DIC speciation (pH, salinity) and the timescale for DIC equilibration, as well as reactions at the mineral-solution interface, have the potential to influence clumped-isotope signatures and the ?18O of carbonate minerals. In fast-growing carbonate minerals, solution chemistry may be an important factor, particularly over extremes of pH and salinity. If a crystal grows too rapidly to reach an internal equilibrium (i.e., achieve the value for the temperature-dependent mineral lattice equilibrium), it may record the clumped-isotope signature of a DIC species (e.g., the temperature-dependent equilibrium of HCO3-) or a mixture of DIC species, and hence record a disequilibrium mineral composition. For extremely slow-growing crystals, and for rapidly-grown samples grown at a pH where HCO3- dominates the DIC pool at equilibrium, effects of solution chemistry are likely to be relatively small or negligible. In summary, growth environment, solution chemistry, surface equilibria, and precipitation rate may all play a role in dictating whether a crystal achieves equilibrium or disequilibrium clumped-isotope signatures.

  14. Alteration of Tephra Conductivity Resulting From Secondary Pyroclast Disaggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genareau, K. D.; Farley, A. W.

    2014-12-01

    In addition to influencing the electrical conductivity of volcanic ash, leachates bound to ash grain surfaces may pose significant hazards to water quality through the contribution of sulfates, fluoride, metals, and acidic compounds to local water supplies by either direct ash fallout or incorporation into precipitation runoff. In regions of active volcanism, remobilization of pyroclastic units may be a regular occurrence due to landslides or lahars, but the resultant effects of secondary disaggregation of pyroclasts have not been examined. Laboratory analyses of tephras from several eruptive centers have revealed variations in the pH, conductivity, and total dissolved solid (TDS) concentration of water-soluble compounds as a result of pyroclast disaggregation. Analyses were conducted using the standardized protocols for ash leachate analysis. TDS, conductivity, and pH were then measured and the tephra samples were allowed to air dry before being retested using identical methods. When pyroclast disaggregation was not performed, results show a progressive decrease in water conductivity, acidity, and TDS concentration following each stage of sonication. However, when an additional step of clast disaggregation (through crushing and grinding of samples) preceded the sonication step, water samples showed increases in measured properties. Mass spectroscopic analyses of water samples are in progress and results will be presented. These results indicate that secondary comminution of pyroclastic deposits will release water-soluble components from the pyroclast interior that may result in a renewed series of environmental hazards many years after the initial eruptive event. Break up of pyroclasts during transport in landslides or lahars (or even during cleanup efforts) will not only alter the size distribution of the deposit, but will also release metals, sulfates, and fluoride from the tephra interiors, altering the chemical and electrical properties of the tephra. This poses important implications for evaluating the hazards to water supplies and electrical infrastructure resulting from volcanic activity, and the need to consider how the physical modification of volcanic deposits due to surface processes may spark a renewed set of hazards in volcanically active regions.

  15. Distribution of dissolved silver in marine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriada, J. L.; Achterberg, E. P.; Tappin, A.; Truscott, J.

    2003-04-01

    Silver is one of the most toxic heavy metals, surpassed only by mercury [1-3]. Monitoring of dissolved silver concentrations in natural waters is therefore of great importance. The determination of dissolved silver in waters is not without challenges, because of its low (picomolar) concentrations. Consequently, there are only a few reported studies in marine waters, which have been performed in USA [4-6] and Japan [7]. The analytical techniques used in the reported studies for the determination of silver in seawater were Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GFAAS) after solvent extraction [2,4,5], and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) after solvent extraction or solid phase extraction [7,8]. In this contribution, we will present an optimised Magnetic Sector (MS) ICP-MS technique for the determination of dissolved silver in marine waters. The MS-ICP-MS method used anion exchange column to preconcentrate silver from saline waters, and to remove the saline matrix. The ICP-MS method has been used successfully to determine total dissolved silver in estuarine and oceanic samples. Bibliography 1. H. T. Ratte, Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 1999, 18: p. 89-108. 2. R. T. Herrin, A. W. Andren and D. E. Armstrong, Environ. Sci. Technol. 2001, 35: 1953-1958. 3. D. E. Schildkraut, P. T. Dao, J. P. Twist, A. T. Davis and K. A. Robillard, Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 1998, 17: 642-649. 4. E. Breuer, S. A. Sanudo-Wilhelmy and R. C. Aller, Estuaries. 1999, 22:603-615. 5. A. R. Flegal, S. A. Sanudowilhelmy and G. M. Scelfo, Mar. Chem. 1995, 49: 315-320. 6. S. N. Luoma, Y. B. Ho and G. W. Bryan, Mar. Pollut. Bull. 1995, 31: 44-54. 7. Y. Zhang, H. Amakawa and Y. Nozaki, Mar. Chem. 2001, 75: 151-163. 8. L. Yang and R. E. Sturgeon, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 2002, 17: 88-93.

  16. 40 CFR 430.10 - Applicability; description of the dissolving kraft subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the dissolving kraft subcategory. 430.10...PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dissolving Kraft Subcategory § 430.10 Applicability; description of the dissolving kraft subcategory. The...

  17. 40 CFR 430.40 - Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory. 430.40...PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dissolving Sulfite Subcategory § 430.40 Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory. The...

  18. 40 CFR 430.10 - Applicability; description of the dissolving kraft subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the dissolving kraft subcategory. 430.10...PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dissolving Kraft Subcategory § 430.10 Applicability; description of the dissolving kraft subcategory. The...

  19. 40 CFR 430.40 - Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory. 430.40...PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dissolving Sulfite Subcategory § 430.40 Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory. The...

  20. Composition, Dynamics, and Fate of Leached Dissolved Organic Matter

    E-print Network

    Neff, Jason

    Composition, Dynamics, and Fate of Leached Dissolved Organic Matter in Terrestrial Ecosystems Fluxes of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are an important vector for the movement of carbon (C dissolve organic carbon (DOC) and dis- solved organic nitrogen (DON) fractions], as well as DOM chemical

  1. GEOC: Division of Geochemistry 163 -Ternary complexation of dissolved organic

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    GEOC: Division of Geochemistry 163 - Ternary complexation of dissolved organic matter in kaolinite-Fe(III)-organic-INRA-AgroParisTech, Thiverval-Grignon, France Abstract:Chemical interactions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) with minerals of aqueous Fe(III). In this study, two common soil containing dissolved organic acids (DOA, malic and citric

  2. Investigating Students' Understanding of the Dissolving Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

    2013-04-01

    In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The symbolic-level questions were based on balanced equations, and the particulate-level questions used multiple-choice questions involving dynamic animations or static pictures. This paper analyzes students' responses to these questions to look for associations among four variables—Answer (the correct answer and three misconceptions), Representation (symbolic or particulate question), Visualization (static or animated pictures), and Representation Order (symbolic questions before or after the particulate questions). The results indicate that the correct answer and the acid-base misconception were more popular than the ion-pair or subscript error misconceptions, the ion-pair misconception was more popular for the particulate questions than the symbolic questions, and that participants were more likely to select the correct answer when viewing static particulate questions compared to animated particulate questions, especially if the particulate questions are seen first. These results suggest that the animated motion of dissolving these compounds in water may be distracting for students.

  3. Cope with dissolved gases in pump calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.C. )

    1993-10-01

    The pressure of the liquid at the inlet of a centrifugal pump must be high enough to prevent vaporization within the pump, because this vaporization hinders the pumping and can damage the impellers. This pressure requirement must be taken into account when deciding how high to place the pump feed vessel relative to the height of the pump itself. Basically, the pump suction pressure must be greater than the fluid's vapor pressure at the pumping temperature. The difference between pump suction pressure and vapor pressure is the net positive suction head (NPSH). For cases in which the liquid contains no dissolved gases, the vapor-pressure determination is straightforward. With dissolved gases, the situation is more complicated, because vapor-pressure data for such systems are usually not at hand. Adding to the complication is the fact that centrifugal pumps generally can, as it happens, tolerate a small amount of vapor at the impeller eye. If the solubility of the dissolved gas is low and the temperature is far below the boiling point of liquid, the amount of vapor released in a pump is likely not to exceed the tolerable value unless the pressure reduction is substantial.

  4. Declines in Dissolved Silica Concentrations in Western Virginia Streams (1988- 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, A. E.; Scanlon, T. M.; Galloway, J. N.

    2006-12-01

    Dissolved silica concentrations in western Virginia streams showed a significant bias toward declines (p<0.0001) over the time period from 1988-2003. Streams with the greatest declines were those that had the highest mean dissolved silica concentrations, specific to watersheds underlain by basaltic and granitic bedrock. We examined potential geochemical, hydrological, and biological factors that could account for the observed widespread declines, focusing on six core watersheds where weekly stream chemistry data were available. No relationships were evident between stream water dissolved silica concentrations and pH, a finding supported by the results from a geochemical model applied to the dominant bedrock mineralogy. Along with changes in watershed acidity, changes in precipitation and discharge were also discounted since no significant trends were observed over the study period. Analyses of two longer-term datasets that extend back to 1979 revealed that the initiation of the dissolved silica declines coincided with the timing of a gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation event. We develop a conceptual model centered on benthic diatoms, which are found within each of the six core watersheds but in greater abundance in the more silica-rich streams. Gypsy moth defoliation lead to greater sunlight penetration and enhanced nitrate concentrations in the streams, which could have spurred population growth and silica uptake. The model can explain why the observed declines are primarily driven by decreased concentrations during low-flow conditions. This study illustrates lasting effects of disturbance on watershed biogeochemistry, in this case causing decadal-scale variability in stream water dissolved silica concentrations.

  5. Fast Dissolving Tablets of Fexofenadine HCl by Effervescent Method.

    PubMed

    Nagendrakumar, D; Raju, S A; Shirsand, S B; Para, M S; Rampure, M V

    2009-03-01

    In the present work, fast dissolving tablets of fexofenadine HCl were prepared by effervescent method with a view to enhance patient compliance. Three super-disintegrants viz., crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate along with sodium bicarbonate and anhydrous citric acid in different ratios were used and directly compressible mannitol (Pearlitol SD 200) to enhance mouth feel. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity and in vitro dispersion time. Based on the in vitro dispersion time (approximately 20 s), three formulations were tested for in vitro drug release pattern in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, short-term stability at 40 degrees /75% RH for 3 mo and drug-excipient interaction (IR spectroscopy). Among the three promising formulations, the formulation ECP(3) containing 8% w/w of crospovidone and mixture of 24% w/w sodium bicarbonate 18% w/w of anhydrous citric acid emerged as the best (t(50%) 4 min) based on the in vitro drug release characteristics compared to conventional commercial tablet formulation (t(50%) 15 min). Short-term stability studies on the formulations indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (P<0.05). PMID:20336204

  6. Coping with PH over the Long Term

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your Disease Exercise and PH Traveling with PH Climate and PH Ask a PHriend Connect with Other ... your Disease Exercise and PH Traveling with PH Climate and PH Ask a PHriend Connect with Other ...

  7. The Importance of Having a Ph.D., Career Advice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A presentation on the importance of having a PhD to motivate Initiative to Maximize Student Diversity Program (IMSD) undergrads towards conducting research, pursuing careers in the biomedical field, applying to grad school, and getting a Ph.D., based upon ARS scientist's experiences as a student, a ...

  8. Earth & Space Science PhDs, Class of 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claudy, Nicholas; Henly, Megan; Migdalski, Chet

    This study documents the employment patterns and demographic characteristics of recent PhDs in earth and space science. It summarizes the latest annual survey of recent earth and space science PhDs conducted by the American Geological Institute, the American Geophysical Union, and the Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of…

  9. Conductive Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Bohnert, G.W.

    2002-11-22

    Electroluminescent devices such as light-emitting diodes (LED) and high-energy density batteries. These new polymers offer cost savings, weight reduction, ease of processing, and inherent rugged design compared to conventional semiconductor materials. The photovoltaic industry has grown more than 30% during the past three years. Lightweight, flexible solar modules are being used by the U.S. Army and Marine Corps for field power units. LEDs historically used for indicator lights are now being investigated for general lighting to replace fluorescent and incandescent lights. These so-called solid-state lights are becoming more prevalent across the country since they produce efficient lighting with little heat generation. Conductive polymers are being sought for battery development as well. Considerable weight savings over conventional cathode materials used in secondary storage batteries make portable devices easier to carry and electric cars more efficient and nimble. Secondary battery sales represent an $8 billion industry annually. The purpose of the project was to synthesize and characterize conductive polymers. TRACE Photonics Inc. has researched critical issues which affect conductivity. Much of their work has focused on production of substituted poly(phenylenevinylene) compounds. These compounds exhibit greater solubility over the parent polyphenylenevinylene, making them easier to process. Alkoxy substituted groups evaluated during this study included: methoxy, propoxy, and heptyloxy. Synthesis routes for production of alkoxy-substituted poly phenylenevinylene were developed. Considerable emphasis was placed on final product yield and purity.

  10. CORRELATION OF THE PARTITIONING OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER FRACTIONS WITH THE DESORPTION OF CD, CU, NI, PB AND ZN FROM 18 DUTCH SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eighteen Dutch soils were extracted in aqueous solutions at varying pH. Extracts were analyzed for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn by ICP-AES. Extract dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was also concentrated onto a macroreticular resin and fractionation into three operationally defined fract...

  11. Towards an understanding of feedbacks between plant productivity, acidity and dissolved organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Ed; Tipping, Ed; Davies, Jessica; Monteith, Don; Evans, Chris

    2014-05-01

    The recent origin of much dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (Tipping et al., 2010) implies that plant productivity is a major control on DOC fluxes. However, the flocculation, sorption and release of potentially-dissolved organic matter are governed by pH, and widespread increases in DOC concentrations observed in northern temperate freshwater systems seem to be primarily related to recovery from acidification (Monteith et al., 2007). We explore the relative importance of changes in productivity and pH using a model, MADOC, that incorporates both these effects (Rowe et al., 2014). The feedback whereby DOC affects pH is included. The model uses an annual timestep and relatively simple flow-routing, yet reproduces observed changes in DOC flux and pH in experimental (Evans et al., 2012) and survey data. However, the first version of the model probably over-estimated responses of plant productivity to nitrogen (N) deposition in upland semi-natural ecosystems. There is a strong case that plant productivity is an important regulator of DOC fluxes, and theoretical reasons for suspecting widespread productivity increases in recent years due not only to N deposition but to temperature and increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, evidence that productivity has increased in upland semi-natural ecosystems is sparse, and few studies have assessed the major limitations to productivity in these habitats. In systems where phosphorus (P) limitation prevails, or which are co-limited, productivity responses to anthropogenic drivers will be limited. We present a revised version of the model that incorporates P cycling and appears to represent productivity responses to atmospheric N pollution more realistically. Over the long term, relatively small fluxes of nutrient elements into and out of ecosystems can profoundly affect productivity and the accumulation of organic matter. Dissolved organic N (DON) is less easily intercepted by plants and microbes than mineral N, and DON leaching rates may thus control soil formation (Vitousek et al., 2010). Large observed DON concentrations that were observed in an experimental study are difficult to reconcile with the amount of N retention necessary to have accumulated observed organic matter stocks. We examine potential reasons for this discrepancy. - Evans CD, Jones TG, Burden A et al. (2012) Acidity controls on dissolved organic carbon mobility in organic soils. Global Change Biology 18, 3317-3331. - Monteith DT, Stoddard JL, Evans CD et al. (2007) Rising freshwater dissolved organic carbon driven by changes in atmospheric deposition. Nature 450, 537-540. - Rowe EC, Tipping E, Posch M et al. (2014) Predicting nitrogen and acidity effects on long-term dynamics of dissolved organic matter. Environmental Pollution 184, 271-282. - Tipping E, Billett MF, Bryant CL et al. (2010) Sources and ages of dissolved organic matter in peatland streams: evidence from chemistry mixture modelling and radiocarbon data. Biogeochemistry 100, 121-137. - Vitousek PM, Porder S, Houlton BZ et al. (2010) Terrestrial phosphorus limitation: mechanisms, implications, and nitrogen-phosphorus interactions. Ecological Applications 20, 5-15.

  12. 1. Constituents of rainwater 2. pH and pKa

    E-print Network

    Schofield, Jeremy

    Acid Rain Outline: 1. Constituents of rainwater 2. pH and pKa 3. Sources of acid rain 4. Adverse e#11;ects of acid rain 5. Controls 1: Constituents of rainwater #15; Gases are soluble in water: Henry. Strong acids formed upon dissolving: H 2 SO 4 and H 2 SO 3 . #12; Chemistry of Acid Rain #15; NO 2

  13. Thorium speciation in seawater P.H. Santschi a,*, J.W. Murray b

    E-print Network

    Murray, James W.

    Thorium speciation in seawater P.H. Santschi a,*, J.W. Murray b , M. Baskaran c , C.R. Benitez October 2005 Available online 7 February 2006 Abstract Since the 1960s, thorium isotopes occupy a special of these applications are possible with little knowledge of the dissolved chemical properties of thorium, other than its

  14. Total Dissolved Gas Monitoring in Chum Salmon Spawning Gravels Below Bonneville Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Geist, David R.; Panther, Jennifer L.; Dawley, Earl

    2007-01-30

    At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Portland District), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted research to determine whether total dissolved gas concentrations are elevated in chum salmon redds during spring spill operations at Bonneville Dam. The study involved monitoring the total dissolved gas levels at egg pocket depth and in the river at two chum salmon spawning locations downstream from Bonneville Dam. Dissolved atmospheric gas supersaturation generated by spill from Bonneville Dam may diminish survival of chum (Oncorhynchus keta) salmon when sac fry are still present in the gravel downstream from Bonneville Dam. However, no previous work has been conducted to determine whether total dissolved gas (TDG) levels are elevated during spring spill operations within incubation habitats. The guidance used by hydropower system managers to provide protection for pre-emergent chum salmon fry has been to limit TDG to 105% after allowing for depth compensation. A previous literature review completed in early 2006 shows that TDG levels as low as 103% have been documented to cause mortality in sac fry. Our study measured TDG in the incubation environment to evaluate whether these levels were exceeded during spring spill operations. Total dissolved gas levels were measured within chum salmon spawning areas near Ives Island and Multnomah Falls on the Columbia River. Water quality sensors screened at egg pocket depth and to the river were installed at both sites. At each location, we also measured dissolved oxygen, temperature, specific conductance, and water depth to assist with the interpretation of TDG results. Total dissolved gas was depth-compensated to determine when levels were high enough to potentially affect sac fry. This report provides detailed descriptions of the two study sites downstream of Bonneville Dam, as well as the equipment and procedures employed to monitor the TDG levels at the study sites. Results of the monitoring at both sites are then presented in both text and graphics. The findings and recommendations for further research are discussed, followed by a listing of the references cited in the report.

  15. Total dissolvable and dissolved iron isotopes in the water column of the Peru upwelling regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chever, Fanny; Rouxel, Olivier J.; Croot, Peter L.; Ponzevera, Emmanuel; Wuttig, Kathrin; Auro, Maureen

    2015-08-01

    Vertical distributions of iron (Fe) concentrations and isotopes were determined in the total dissolvable and dissolved pools in the water column at three coastal stations located along the Peruvian margin, in the core of the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ). The shallowest station 121 (161 m total water depth) was characterized by lithogenic input from the continental plateau, yielding concentrations as high as 456 nM in the total dissolvable pool. At the 2 other stations (stations 122 and 123), Fe concentrations of dissolved and total dissolvable pools exhibited maxima in both surface and deep layers. Fe isotopic composition (?56Fe) showed a fractionation toward lighter values for both physical pools throughout the water column for all stations with minimum values observed for the surface layer (between -0.64 and -0.97‰ at 10-20 m depth) and deep layer (between -0.03 and -1.25‰ at 160-300 m depth). An Fe isotope budget was established to determine the isotopic composition of the particulate pool. We observed a range of ?56Fe values for particulate Fe from +0.02 to -0.87‰, with lightest values obtained at water depth above 50 m. Such light values in the both particulate and dissolved pools suggest sources other than atmospheric dust deposition in the surface ocean, including lateral transport of isotopically light Fe. Samples collected at station 122 closest to the sediment show the lightest isotope composition in the dissolved and the particulate pools (-1.25 and -0.53‰ respectively) and high Fe(II) concentrations (14.2 ± 2.1 nM) consistent with a major reductive benthic Fe sources that is transferred to the ocean water column. A simple isotopic model is proposed to link the extent of Fe(II) oxidation and the Fe isotope composition of both particulate and dissolved Fe pools. This study demonstrates that Fe isotopic composition in OMZ regions is not only affected by the relative contribution of reductive and non-reductive shelf sediment input but also by seawater-column processes during the transport and oxidation of Fe from the source region to open seawater.

  16. Influence of calcite and dissolved calcium on uranium(VI) sorption to a hanford subsurface sediment.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wenming; Ball, William P; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Stone, Alan T; Bai, Jing; Zachara, John M

    2005-10-15

    The influence of calcite and dissolved calcium on U(VI) adsorption was investigated using a calcite-containing sandy silt/clay sediment from the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford site. U(VI) adsorption to sediment, treated sediment, and sediment size fractions was studied in solutions that both had and had not been preequilibrated with calcite, at initial [U(VI)] = 10(-7)-10(-5) mol/L and final pH = 6.0-10.0. Kinetic and reversibility studies (pH 8.4) showed rapid sorption (30 min), with reasonable reversibility in the 3-day reaction time. Sorption from solutions equilibrated with calcite showed maximum U(VI) adsorption at pH 8.4 +/- 0.1. In contrast, calcium-free systems showed the greatest adsorption at pH 6.0-7.2. At pH > 8.4, U(VI) adsorption was identical from calcium-free and calcium-containing solutions. For calcite-presaturated systems, both speciation calculations and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopic analyses indicated that aqueous U(VI) was increasingly dominated by Ca2UO2(CO3)3(0)(aq) at pH < 8.4 and thatformation of Ca2UO2(CO3)3(0)(aq) is what suppresses U(VI) adsorption. Above pH 8.4, aqueous U(VI) speciation was dominated by UO2(CO3)3(4-) in all solutions. Finally, results also showed that U(VI) adsorption was additive in regard to size fraction but not in regard to mineral mass: Carbonate minerals may have blocked U(VI) access to surfaces of higher sorption affinity. PMID:16295860

  17. Influence of Calcite and Dissolved Calcium on Uranium(VI) Sorption to a Hanford Subsurface Sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Wenming; Ball, William P.; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Stone, Alan T.; Bai, Jing; Zachara, John M.

    2005-10-15

    The influence of calcite and dissolved calcium on U(VI) adsorption was investigated using a calcite-containing sandy silt/clay sediment from the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford site. U(VI) adsorption to sediment, treated sediment, and sediment size fractions was studied in solutions that both had and had not been preequilibrated with calcite, at initial [U(VI)] - 10-7-10-5 mol/L and final pH - 6.0-10.0. Kinetic and reversibility studies (pH 8.4) showed rapid sorption (30 min), with reasonable reversibility in the 3-day reaction time. Sorption from solutions equilibrated with calcite showed maximum U(VI) adsorption at pH 8.4-0.1. In contrast, calcium-free systems showed the greatest adsorption at pH 6.0-7.2. At pH > 8.4, U(VI) adsorption was identical from calcium-free and calcium-containing solutions. For calcite-presaturated systems, both speciation calculations and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopic analyses indicated that aqueous U(VI) was increasingly dominated by Ca2UO2(CO3)3 0(aq) at pH<8.4 and that formation of Ca2UO2(CO3)3 0(aq) is what suppresses U(VI) adsorption. Above pH 8.4, aqueous U(VI) speciation was dominated by UO2(CO3)3 4- in all solutions. Finally, results also showed that U(VI) adsorption was additive in regard to size fraction but not in regard to mineral mass: Carbonate minerals may have blocked U(VI) access to surfaces of higher sorption affinity.

  18. An in-situ Mobile pH Calibrator for application with HOV and ROV platform in deep sea environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C.; Ding, K.; Seyfried, W. E., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, a novel in-situ sensor calibration instrument, Mobile pH Calibrator (MpHC), was developed for application with HOV Alvin. It was specifically designed to conduct in-situ pH measurement in deep sea hydrothermal diffuse fluids with in-situ calibration function. In general, the sensor calibrator involves three integrated electrodes (pH, dissolved H2 and H2S) and a temperature sensor, all of which are installed in a cell with a volume of ~ 1 ml. A PEEK check valve cartridge is installed at the inlet end of the cell to guide the flow path during the measurement and calibration processes. Two PEEK tubes are connected at outlet end of the cell for drawing out hydrothermal fluid and delivering pH buffer fluids. During its measurement operation, the pump draws in hydrothermal fluid, which then passes through the check valve directly into the sensing cell. When in calibration mode, the pump delivers pH buffers into the cell, while automatically closing the check valve to the outside environment. This probe has two advantages compared to our previous unit used during KNOX18RR MAR cruise in 2008 and MARS cabled observatory deployment in 2012. First, in the former design, a 5 cm solenoid valve was equipped with the probe. This enlarged size prevented its application in specific point or small area. In this version, the probe has only a dimension of 1.6 cm for an easy access to hydrothermal biological environments. Secondly, the maximum temperature condition of the earlier system was limited by the solenoid valve precluding operation in excess of 50 ºC. The new design avoids this problem, which improves its temperature tolerance. The upper limit of temperature condition is now up to 100oC, therefore enabling broader application in hydrothermal diffuse flow system on the seafloor. During SVC cruise (AT26-12) in the Gulf of Mexico this year, the MpHC was successfully tested with Alvin dives at the depth up to 2600 m for measuring pH with in-situ calibration in seafloor cold seep environment. The measurement and calibration were also conducted in hydrothermal diffuse flow at temperature condition exceeding 70 ºC with Alvin dives during a recent cruise AT26-17 in ASHES vent field and Main Endeavour Field on Juan de Fuca Ridge. Data from these seagoing deployments will be presented, with emphasis on both technical and scientific aplications.

  19. Conductivity Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air.

    The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air.

    The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Atomic Layer Deposition from Dissolved Precursors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanlin; Döhler, Dirk; Barr, Maïssa; Oks, Elina; Wolf, Marc; Santinacci, Lionel; Bachmann, Julien

    2015-10-14

    We establish a novel thin film deposition technique by transferring the principles of atomic layer deposition (ALD) known with gaseous precursors toward precursors dissolved in a liquid. An established ALD reaction behaves similarly when performed from solutions. "Solution ALD" (sALD) can coat deep pores in a conformal manner. sALD offers novel opportunities by overcoming the need for volatile and thermally robust precursors. We establish a MgO sALD procedure based on the hydrolysis of a Grignard reagent. PMID:26418724

  1. Probiotic and lactulose: influence on gastrointestinal flora and pH value in minimal hepatic encephalopathy rats

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shu-Man; Jia, Lin; Zhang, Mei-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to investigate the influence on gastrointestinal flora, counts of bifidobacteria and Enterobacterceae in colon and pH value of gastrointestinal after lactulose and probiotic treatment on rat experimental minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) induced by thioactamide (TAA). Methods: MHE was induced by intraperitoneal injection of TAA. 48 male MHE models were then randomly divided into 4 groups: control group (n = 12); MHE group (n = 12) received tap water ad libitum only; lactulose group (n = 12) and probiotics group (n = 12) gavaged respectively with 8 ml/kg of lactulose and 1.5 g/kg of probiotic preparation Golden Bifid (highly concentrated combination probiotic) dissolved in 2 ml of normal saline, once a day for 8 days. The latency of Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) I was used as objective index of MHE. Counts of gastrointestinal flora, counts of bifidobacteria and Enterobacterceae in colon and pH value of gastrointestinal were examined respectively. Results: Compared to MHE group, counts of gastrointestinal flora has greatly decreased, ratio of bifidobacteria and Enterobacterceae has greatly increased, pH value of colon has greatly descended (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between lactulose group and probiotic group (P > 0.05). Both lactulose and probiotics can effectively prevent bacteria translocation and overgrowth, intensify CR, improved value of B/E, and acidify intestinal, decreased pH value of colon. Conclusion: Probiotic compound Golden Bifid is as useful as lactulose for the prevention and treatment of MHE. Probiotic therapy may be a safe, natural, well-tolerated therapy appropriate for the long-term treatment of MHE. PMID:26309689

  2. Kaolinite dissolution and precipitation kinetics at 22oC and pH 4

    SciTech Connect

    Steefel, Carl; Yang, L.; Steefel, C.I.

    2008-04-01

    Dissolution and precipitation rates of low defect Georgia kaolinite (KGa-1b) as a function of Gibbs free energy of reaction (or reaction affinity) were measured at 22 C and pH 4 in continuously stirred flowthrough reactors. Steady state dissolution experiments showed slightly incongruent dissolution, with a Si/Al ratio of about 1.12 that is attributed to the re-adsorption of Al on to the kaolinite surface. No inhibition of the kaolinite dissolution rate was apparent when dissolved aluminum was varied from 0 and 60 {micro}M. The relationship between dissolution rates and the reaction affinity can be described well by a Transition State Theory (TST) rate formulation with a Temkin coefficient of 2 R{sub diss} (mol/m{sup 2}s) = 1.15 x 10{sup -13} [1-exp(-{Delta}G/2RT)]. Stopping of flow in a close to equilibrium dissolution experiment yielded a solubility constant for kaolinite at 22 C of 10{sup 7.57}. Experiments on the precipitation kinetics of kaolinite showed a more complex behavior. One conducted using kaolinite seed that had previously undergone extensive dissolution under far from equilibrium conditions for 5 months showed a quasi-steady state precipitation rate for 105 hours that was compatible with the TST expression above. After this initial period, however, precipitation rates decreased by an order of magnitude, and like other precipitation experiments conducted at higher supersaturation and without kaolinite seed subjected to extensive prior dissolution, could not be described with the TST law. The initial quasi-steady state rate is interpreted as growth on activated sites created by the dissolution process, but this reversible growth mechanism could not be maintained once these sites were filled. Long-term precipitation rates showed a linear dependence on solution saturation state that is generally consistent with a two dimensional nucleation growth mechanism following the equation R{sub ppt}(mol/m{sup 2}s) = 3.38 x 10{sup -14} exp[- 181776/T{sup 2} 1n{Omega}]. Further analysis using Synchrotron Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) in Total Electron Yield (TEY) mode of the material from the precipitation experiments showed spectra for newly precipitated material compatible with kaolinite. An idealized set of reactive transport simulations of the chemical weathering of albite to kaolinite using rate laws from HELLMANN and TISSERAND (2006) and this study respectively indicate that while pore waters are likely to be close to equilibrium with respect to kaolinite at pH 4, significant kaolinite supersaturation may occur at higher pH if its precipitation rate is pH dependent.

  3. The Complexities of Conducting Ethnographic Race Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaas, Jongi

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the challenges and dilemmas of conducting ethnographic race research in the context of the South African situation, forming part of my ethnographic race research PhD project, conducted in two historically white, single-sex schools in South Africa. First, it critically examines the theoretical dilemmas on crucial issues of…

  4. Mobilisation of Amorphous and Dissolved Silica on Small Agricultural Plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clymans, W.; Govers, G.; Struyf, E.; Vandamme, S.; van Wesemael, B.; Langhans, C.; van den Putte, A.; Meire, P.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years awareness has grown that biogeochemical cycles are strongly affected by processes occurring in the critical zone. Global carbon dynamics, for instance, may be affected by soil erosion and deposition processes that affect carbon dynamics within the critical zone. Silica is another element of which the cycling may be strongly influenced: weathering is a major source of dissolved silica (DSi) that may be transformed to amorphous silica (ASi) through reprecipitation in the soil and/or in vegetation. As Si is a crucial nutrient for diatoms, which are a base component for a well-balanced food-system in estuarine and coastal zones, it is important to understand how anthropogenic modifications of critical-zone processes, including agricultural erosion, may affect global Si cycling. According to our knowledge, studies on the effects of erosion and deposition on Si cycling and mobilisation are almost nonexistent. In this paper we report the first results of a series of rainfall simulation experiments that were set up to (i) quantify Si mobilisation through erosion at the small plot scale and (ii) investigate to what extent Si mobilisation by erosion may be dependent on crop type and tillage technique. We quantified ASi and Dsi fluxes during rainfall experiments on small scale plots (~0.73m2). Experiments are conducted for various crop and tillage types. Our results indicate that soil erosion mobilises significant quantities of ASi and DSi. Overall ASi mobilisation is more important: ca. 80% of total silica export is ASi, only 20% of the Si is exported as dissolved silica. There is a near-linear relationship between ASi and sediment concentration in the runoff: tillage technique and crop type have only a secondary influence. Thus, in a first approximation, a good estimate of ASi mobilisation through erosion can be made if total sediment mobilisation can be correctly assessed.

  5. Analysis of RFSA Campaign No.2 Dissolver Solution for Hg(I) and Hg(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, H.P.

    2001-05-17

    TA 2-1083, under which RFSA processing is conducted, calls for a nominal mercuric ion concentration in the dissolver solution of 0.006M with a maximum of 0.01 M. The second RFSA campaign operated according to these guidelines with the initial Hg(II) concentration being 0.0068 M. Part of this study is to ascertain optimum excess Hg(I) for chloride removal.

  6. Dissolved Mn Speciation and Ligand Characteristics in a Coastal Waterway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, V.; Jensen, L.; Luther, G. W., III

    2014-12-01

    Soluble manganese speciation (Mn(II) and Mn(III); 0.2 ?m filtered) was measured along a salinity gradient in the Broadkill River, a coastal waterway bordered by wetlands and salt marshes in Delaware. We modified an established method of porphyrin (T-4(CP)P) addition, by incorporating a heating step and coupling a 100-cm cell to a UV/Vis detector, to achieve a 4.0 nM sample DL. Surface waters were collected from June to August, 2014 and total dissolved Mn (0.23 - 1.92 ?M) first increased then decreased along the salinity gradient (31 ppt to freshwater). However, Mn speciation was highly variable; Mn(III) made up 0-49 % of the total dissolved Mn, where the highest Mn(III) values occurred at sites with high salt-marsh runoff. Mn(III) was not recoverable without the addition of a strong reducing agent, indicating that little or no weak ligand was present, and that a strong ligand was responsible for complexing Mn(III). An assessment of potential strong ligand character was made by precipitating humic matter, by acidifying subsamples to pH<1.5, then 100 ?M Mn(III)-pyrophosphate was added to acidified supernatant samples and non-acidified samples. In non-acidified samples, the Mn(III)-pyrophosphate peak at 484 nm rapidly disappeared and was replaced by a broad peak at 400 nm and the resulting sample had a yellow color. Upon the addition of 500 ?M desferrioxamine-B (DFOB) to the same sample, a peak at 310 nm appeared, indicating the formation of Mn(III)-DFOB. In acidified samples, the Mn(III)-pyrophosphate peak did not change. Humic matter, therefore, may be acting as an Mn(III) binding ligand, outcompeting pyrophosphate for Mn(III), however this natural ligand is outcompeted by a large excess of DFOB. The humic matter and increased Mn likely come from the salt marsh runoff during tidal exchange, and we observed that as salinity increased, the amount of humic binding decreased. These results present the first Mn speciation measurements along a salinity gradient in oxygenated waters.

  7. Diel behavior of iron and other heavy metals in a mountain stream with acidic to neutral pH: Fisher Creek, Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gammons, C.H.; Nimick, D.A.; Parker, S.R.; Cleasby, T.E.; McCleskey, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    Three simultaneous 24-h samplings at three sites over a downstream pH gradient were conducted to examine diel fluctuations in heavy metal concentrations in Fisher Creek, a small mountain stream draining abandoned mine lands in Montana. Average pH values at the upstream (F1), middle (F2), and downstream (F3) monitoring stations were 3.31, 5.46, and 6.80, respectively. The downstream increase in pH resulted in precipitation of hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) and hydrous aluminum oxide (HAO) on the streambed. At F1 and F2, Fe showed strong diel cycles in dissolved concentration and Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio; these cycles were attributed to daytime photoreduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II), reoxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III), and temperature-dependent hydrolysis and precipitation of HFO. At the near-neutral downstream station, no evidence of Fe(III) photoreduction was observed, and suspended particles of HFO dominated the total Fe load. HFO precipitation rates between F2 and F3 were highest in the afternoon, due in part to reoxidation of a midday pulse of Fe2+ formed by photoreduction in the upper, acidic portions of the stream. Dissolved concentrations of Fe(II) and Cu decreased tenfold and 2.4-fold, respectively, during the day at F3. These changes were attributed to sorption onto fresh HFO surfaces. Results of surface complexation modeling showed good agreement between observed and predicted Cu concentrations at F3, but only when adsorption enthalpies were added to the thermodynamic database to take into account diel temperature variations. The field and modeling results illustrate that the degree to which trace metals adsorb onto actively forming HFO is strongly temperature dependent. This study is an example of how diel Fe cycles caused by redox and hydrolysis reactions can induce a diel cycle in a trace metal of toxicological importance in downstream waters. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Novel approach of aceclofenac fast dissolving tablet.

    PubMed

    Dave, Vivek; Yadav, Sachdev; Sharma, Swapnil; Vishwakarma, Pushpendra; Ali, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) have received ever increasing demand during the last decade, and the ?eld has become a hastily growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Aceclofenac, an NSAID, has been recommended orally for the treatment of bone and connective tissue disorder and thus the formulation of the same resulted in development of several FDT technologies. The present aim is to formulate a tablet which disintegrate and dissolve rapidly and give its rapid onset of action: analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory action. Besides, the conventional tablets also show poor patient compliance an attempt had been made to formulate for FDT of aceclofenac by using various super disintegrants like sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium and crosspovidone (polyplasdone XL) and PEG 6000 followed by novel technique. The tablets were evaluated for friability, hardness, weight variation, disintegration time, wetting time, in vitro dissolution studies and drug content studies. It was concluded that the batch which was prepared by using combination of crosspovidone and sodium starch glycolate as a super disintegrant shows excellent disintegration time, enhance dissolution rate, taste masking and hence lead to improve efficacy and bioavailability of drug. PMID:25553683

  9. Automated dispersive solid-phase extraction using dissolvable Fe3O4-layered double hydroxide core-shell microspheres as sorbent.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sheng; Chia, Guo Hui; Chang, Yuepeng; Lee, Hian Kee

    2014-11-18

    Automation of dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) presents significant challenges. Separation of the sorbent from the spent sample cannot be conducted without manual operations, including centrifugation, a widely used means of isolating a solid material from solution. In this work, we report an approach to d-SPE using dissolvable magnetic Fe3O4-layered double hydroxide core-shell microspheres as sorbent to enable automation of the integrative extraction and analytical processes. Through magnetic force, the sorbent, after extraction, was isolated from the sample and then dissolved by acid to release the analytes. Thus the customary analyte elution step in conventional SPE was unnecessary. The automated d-SPE step was coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detection for determination of several pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) [acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DBA), 2-phenylphenol (PP), and fenoprofen (FP)] in aqueous samples. For the automated d-SPE process, experimental parameters such as agitation speed, temperature, time, and pH were optimized. The results showed that this method provided low limits of detection (between 0.021 and 0.042 ?g/L), good linearity (r(2) ? 0.9956), and good repeatability of extractions (relative standard deviations ?4.1%, n = 6). The optimized procedure was then applied to determination of PPCPs in a sewage sample and ASA and FP in drug preparations. This fully automated extraction-HPLC approach was demonstrated to be an efficient procedure for extraction and analysis of ASA, DBA, PP, and FP in these samples. PMID:25320871

  10. Carbon System Measurements and Potential Climatic Drivers at a Site of Rapidly Declining Ocean pH

    PubMed Central

    Wootton, J. Timothy; Pfister, Catherine A.

    2012-01-01

    We explored changes in ocean pH in coastal Washington state, USA, by extending a decadal-scale pH data series, by reporting independent measures of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), spectrophotometric pH, and total alkalinity (TA), by exploring pH patterns over larger spatial scales, and by probing for long-term trends in environmental variables reflecting potentially important drivers of pH. We found that pH continued to decline in this area at a rapid rate, that pH exhibited high natural variability within years, that our measurements of pH corresponded well to spectrophotometric pH measures and expected pH calculated from DIC/TA, and that TA estimates based on salinity predicted well actual alkalinity. Multiple datasets reflecting upwelling, including water temperature, nutrient levels, phytoplankton abundance, the NOAA upwelling index, and data on local wind patterns showed no consistent trends over the period of our study. Multiple datasets reflecting precipitation change and freshwater runoff, including precipitation records, local and regional river discharge, salinity, nitrate and sulfate in rainwater, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in rivers also showed no consistent trends over time. Dissolved oxygen did not decline over time, indicating that long-term changes did not result from shifts in contributions of respiration to pH levels. These tests of multiple potential drivers of the observed rapid rate of pH decline indicate a primary role for inorganic carbon and suggest that geochemical models of coastal ocean carbon fluxes need increased investigation. PMID:23285290

  11. Formulation of rizatriptan benzoate fast dissolving buccal films by emulsion evaporation technique

    PubMed Central

    Vidyadhara, Suryadevara; Sasidhar, Reddyvallam Lankapalli; Balakrishna, Thalamanchi; Vardhan, Malapolu Santha

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study deals with the formulation of fast dissolving films of Rizatriptan benzoate that is used for the treatment of Migraine. The concept of fast-dissolving drug delivery emerged from the desire to provide patient with more conventional means of taking their medication. Materials and Methods: In the present research work, various trials were carried out using film forming agents such as maltodextrin, gum karaya and xanthan gum to prepare an ideal film. Emulsion evaporation method was used for the preparation of films. The prepared films were evaluated for weight uniformity, drug content, film thickness, folding endurance, dispersion test and curling. The in vitro dissolution studies were carried out using simulated salivary fluid (pH 6.8 phosphate buffer). Results: About 97% of the drug was found to be released from the film within 10 min that is a desirable character for fast absorption. The drug excipient interaction studies carried out by differential scanning calorimetry analysis and Fourier transform infrared studies revealed that there were no major interactions between the drugs and excipients used for the preparation of films. Conclusion: Fast dissolving films of Rizatriptan benzoate prepared by emulsion evaporation technique were found to be suitable for eliciting better therapeutic effect in the treatment of migraine. PMID:25838995

  12. Development of polymer-bound fast-dissolving metformin buccal film with disintegrants

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Shaikh Ershadul; Sheela, Angappan

    2015-01-01

    Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems are considered advantageous over the existing conventional oral dosage forms like tablets, capsules, and syrups for being patient friendly. Buccal films are one such system responsible for systemic drug delivery at the desired site of action by avoiding hepatic first-pass metabolism. Metformin hydrochloride (Met), an antidiabetic drug, has poor bioavailability due to its high solubility and low permeability. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a polymer-bound fast-dissolving buccal film of metformin to exploit these unique properties. In the study, metformin fast-dissolving films were prepared by the solvent-casting method using chitosan, a bioadhesive polymer. Further, starch, sodium starch glycolate, and microcrystalline cellulose were the disintegrants added to different ratios, forming various formulations (F1 to F7). The buccal films were evaluated for various parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, surface pH, content uniformity, tensile strength, and percentage of elongation. The films were also subjected to in vitro dissolution study, and the disintegration time was found to be less than 30 minutes for all formulations, which was attributed to the effect of disintegrants. Formulation F6 showed 92.2% drug release within 6 minutes due to the combined effect of sodium starch glycolate and microcrystalline cellulose. PMID:26491321

  13. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the lower Puyallup and White rivers, Washington, August and September 2000 and 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ebbert, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Washington State Department of Ecology, and Puyallup Tribe of Indians conducted a study in August and September 2001 to assess factors affecting concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the lower Puyallup and White Rivers, Washington. The study was initiated because observed concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the lower Puyallup River fell to levels ranging from less than 1 milligram per liter (mg/L) to about 6 mg/L on several occasions in September 2000. The water quality standard for the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the Puyallup River is 8 mg/L.This study concluded that inundation of the sensors with sediment was the most likely cause of the low concentrations of dissolved oxygen observed in September 2000. The conclusion was based on (1) knowledge gained when a dissolved-oxygen sensor became covered with sediment in August 2001, (2) the fact that, with few exceptions, concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the lower Puyallup and White Rivers did not fall below 8 mg/L in August and September 2001, and (3) an analysis of other mechanisms affecting concentrations of dissolved oxygen.The analysis of other mechanisms indicated that they are unlikely to cause steep declines in concentrations of dissolved oxygen like those observed in September 2000. Five-day biochemical oxygen demand ranged from 0.22 to 1.78 mg/L (mean of 0.55 mg/L), and river water takes only about 24 hours to flow through the study reach. Photosynthesis and respiration cause concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the lower Puyallup River to fluctuate as much as about 1 mg/L over a 24-hour period in August and September. Release of water from Lake Tapps for the purpose of hydropower generation often lowered concentrations of dissolved oxygen downstream in the White River by about 1 mg/L. The effect was smaller farther downstream in the Puyallup River at river mile 5.8, but was still observable as a slight decrease in concentrations of dissolved oxygen caused by photosynthesis and respiration. The upper limit on oxygen demand caused by the scour of anoxic bed sediment and subsequent oxidation of reduced iron and manganese is less than 1 mg/L. The actual demand, if any, is probably negligible.In August and September 2001, concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the lower Puyallup River did not fall below the water-quality standard of 8 mg/L, except at high tide when the saline water from Commencement Bay reached the monitor at river mile 2.9. The minimum concentration of dissolved oxygen (7.6 mg/L) observed at river mile 2.9 coincided with the maximum value of specific conductance. Because the dissolved-oxygen standard for marine water is 6.0 mg/L, the standard was not violated at river mile 2.9. The concentration of dissolved oxygen at river mile 1.8 in the White River dropped below the water-quality standard on two occasions in August 2001. The minimum concentration of 7.8 mg/L occurred on August 23, and a concentration of 7.9 mg/L was recorded on August 13. Because there was some uncertainty in the monitoring record for those days, it cannot be stated with certainty that the actual concentration of dissolved oxygen in the river dropped below 8 mg/L. However, at other times when the quality of the monitoring record was good, concentrations as low as 8.2 mg/L were observed at river mile 1.8 in the White River.

  14. Oxidative dissolution of 4C- and NC-pyrrhotite: Intrinsic reactivity differences, pH dependence, and the effect of anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harries, Dennis; Pollok, Kilian; Langenhorst, Falko

    2013-02-01

    The crystallographic diversity of pyrrhotite (Fe1-xS), one of the most common iron sulfide minerals, offers insights into how mineral-fluid interactions are controlled by crystal structures. We have conducted oxidative dissolution experiments on monoclinic 4C-pyrrhotite and 'hexagonal' NC-pyrrhotite in aqueous H2O2/H2SO4 and FeCl3/HCl media at pH between 1.8 and 2.9 using polished surfaces of single crystals. Quantification and detailed characterization of the reaction interfaces has been accomplished by confocal 3D topometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in conjunction with focused ion beam (FIB) preparation. Crystallographically coherent intergrowths of 4C- and NC-pyrrhotite in a single sample allowed unambiguous identification of strong intrinsic reactivity differences between the two closely related phases. On {1 1 0} faces in the H2O2 medium at 35 °C and pH below 2.70, NC-pyrrhotite (N ˜ 4.85) reacts about 50-80% faster than 4C-pyrrhotite. Above pH 2.70, the behavior inverts and 4C-pyrrhotite dissolves faster, while overall reaction rates drop drastically by up to two orders of magnitude. Because the two pyrrhotite phases show only marginally different Fe/S ratios but substantial differences in structural complexity with regards to vacancy ordering, we attribute the reactivity differences to structurally controlled processes at the mineral-water interface. The transition at pH 2.70 is close to the reported isoelectric point of pyrrhotite. We attribute the pH dependent changes in reaction rates and behaviors to protonation/deprotonation of surface sulfhydryl groups and related changes in speciation and bonding mode of reactive oxygen species at the mineral interface. At pH <2.70, we find elemental sulfur as a frequent reaction product in H2O2 and FeCl3 media, indicating incomplete sulfur oxidation. Above pH 2.70, elemental sulfur was not found in H2O2 experiments (no data for FeCl3). Our results show that the effects of crystal anisotropy are strong and directional preference of dissolution changes at the pH 2.70 transition point as well, leading to complex sub-?m-scale textural development at the reaction interfaces throughout the pH range studied. High resolution TEM imaging of cross sections through reacted mineral surfaces show crystalline pyrrhotite up to the reaction interface and the absence of significant non-equilibrium layers or S-enriched (poly)sulfides.

  15. Removal of actinides from dissolved ORNL MVST sludge using the TRUEX process

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, B.B.; Egan, B.Z.; Chase, C.W.

    1997-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the transuranium extraction process for partitioning actinides from actual dissolved high-level radioactive waste sludge. All tests were performed at ambient temperature. Time and budget constraints permitted only two experimental campaigns. Samples of sludge from Melton Valley Storage Tank W-25 were rinsed with mild caustic (0.2 M NaOH) to reduce the concentrations of nitrates and fission products associated with the interstitial liquid. In one campaign, the rinsed sludge was dissolved in nitric acid to produce a solution containing total metal concentrations of ca. 1.8 M with a nitric acid concentration of ca. 2.9 M. About 50% of the dry mass of the sludge was dissolved. In the other campaign, the sludge was neutralized with nitric acid to destroy the carbonates, then leached with ca. 2.6 M NaOH for ca. 6 h before rinsing with the mild caustic. The sludge was then dissolved in nitric acid to produce a solution containing total metal concentrations of ca. 0.6 M with a nitric acid concentration of ca. 1.7 M. About 80% of the sludge dissolved. The dissolved sludge solution form the first campaign began gelling immediately, and a visible gel layer was observed after 8 days. In the second campaign, the solution became hazy after ca. 8 days, indicating gel formation, but did not display separated gel layers after aging for 20 days. Batch liquid-liquid equilibrium tests of both the extraction and stripping operations were conducted. Chemical analyses of both phases were used to evaluate the process. Evaluation was based on two metrics: the fraction of TRU elements removed from the dissolved sludge and comparison of the results with predictions made with the Generic TRUEX Model (GTM). The fractions of Eu, Pu, Cm, Th, and U species removed from aqueous solution in only one extraction stage were > 95% and were close to the values predicted by the GTM. Mercury was also found to be strongly extracted, with a one-stage removal of > 92%.

  16. pH Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunelli, Bruno; Scagnolari, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The exposition of the pervasive concept of pH, of its foundations and implementation as a meaningful quantitative measurement, in nonspecialist university texts is often not easy to follow because too many of its theoretical and operative underpinnings are neglected. To help the inquiring student we provide a concise introduction to the depth just…

  17. pH optrode

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Langry, Kevin C. (Tracy, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for forming a long-lasting, stable, pH-sensitive dye-acrylamide copolymer useful as a pH-sensitive material for use in an optrode or other device sensitive to pH. An optrode may be made by mechanically attaching the copolymer to a sensing device such as an optical fiber.

  18. Granular activated carbon and biological activated carbon treatment of dissolved and sorbed polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, U.; Weber, A.S.; Jensen, J.N.; Smith, J.R.

    1999-03-01

    The most widely practiced treatment method for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aqueous wastes is activated carbon adsorption. However, the presence of particulates in aqueous wastes may affect treatment processes primarily designed to treat dissolved. PCBs because PCBs tend to partition strongly to solid surfaces. In this research, bench-scale studies were conducted to investigate the performance of granular activated carbon (GAC) and biological activated carbon (BAC) processes for treating aqueous wastes containing dissolved and sorbed PCBs. When all influent PCBs were dissolved, influent PCBs of approximately 175 {micro}g/L were removed to approximately 0.2 {micro}g/L in the BAC column, compared to approximately 0.8 {micro}g/L in the GAC column. A reduction in the extent of PCB removal was observed for both GAC and BAC processes when 10 mg/L of 0.5-{micro}m polystyrene particles were added to the influent. In the presence of influent particulates, PCB removal was significantly better in the BAC column and equaled 99% compared to 62% in the GAC column. Performance differences between the GAC and BAC columns were attributed to higher particulate capture efficiency of the biological film covering the activated carbon in the BAC column. Biological activated carbon columns thus seem to offer advantages to conventional GAC processes for aqueous wastes containing either dissolved or sorbed PCBs.

  19. Removal of dissolved heavy metals from acid rock drainage using iron metal

    SciTech Connect

    Shokes, T.E.; Moeller, G.

    1999-01-15

    The chemical and microbial activity of corroding iron metal is examined in the acid rock drainage (ARD) resulting from pyrite oxidation to determine the effectiveness in neutralizing the ARD and reducing the load of dissolved heavy metals. ARD from Berkeley Pit, MT, is treated with iron in batch reactors and columns containing iron granules. Iron, in acidic solution, hydrolyzes water producing hydride and hydroxide ion resulting in a concomitant increase in pH and decrease in redox potential. The dissolved metals in ARD are removed by several mechanisms. Copper and cadmium cement onto the surface of the iron as zerovalent metals. Hydroxide forming metals such as aluminum, zinc, and nickel form complexes with iron and other metals precipitating from solution as the pH rises. Metalloids such as arsenic and antimony coprecipitate with iron. As metals precipitate from solution, various other mechanisms including coprecipitation, sorption, and ion exchange also enhance removal of metals from solution. Corroding iron also creates a reducing environment supportive for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) growth. Increases in SRB populations of 5,000-fold are observed in iron metal treated ARD solutions. Although the biological process is slow, sulfidogenesis is an additional pathway to further stabilize heavy metal precipitates.

  20. Interactive Effects of Soil ph, Halosulfuron Rate, and Application Method on Carryover to Turnip Green and Cabbage.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted in 2006 and 2007 to evaluate the tolerance of autumn-planted cabbage and turnip green to halosulfuron applied the previous spring to cantaloupe. Main plots were three levels of soil pH; maintained at a natural pH level, pH raised with Ca(OH)2, and pH lowered with Al2(SO...

  1. Understanding Non-Traditional PhD Students Habitus--Implications for PhD Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Devika

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of vast changes in doctoral education and the emergence of non-traditional doctoral programmes, this paper investigates the habitus of non-traditional PhD students at a South African university. Bourdieu's conceptual tool of habitus informed the study. In-depth and open-ended interviews were conducted with 10 non-traditional…

  2. Lithium isotopes in foraminifera shells as a novel proxy for the ocean dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigier, Nathalie; Rollion-Bard, Claire; Levenson, Yaël; Erez, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Past ocean pH and pCO2 are critical parameters for establishing relationships between Earth's climate and the carbon cycle. Previous pCO2 estimates are associated with large uncertainties and are debated. In this study, laboratory cultures of the foraminiferan genus Amphistegina were performed in order to examine the possible factors that control the Li isotope composition (?7Li) of their shells. ?7Li is insensitive to temperature and pH variations but correlates positively with the Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) of seawater. Li/Ca ratio in the shells shows negative correlation with ?7Li, consistent with published data for planktonic foraminifera from core tops and from short periods during the Cenozoic. We propose that the sensitivity of ?7Li and Li/Ca ratio to DIC is a biological phenomenon and is related to biomineralization mechanisms in foraminifera. We used the published foraminiferal ?7Li records, and our experimental results, to determine the paleo-ocean DIC and pH for the last glacial-interglacial cycle. The results are consistent with published estimates of pH and pCO2 based on boron isotopes and ice cores. We suggest Li and its isotopes may serve as a new complementary proxy for the paleo-ocean carbonate chemistry.

  3. 17-4 PH and 15-5 PH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Howard T.

    1995-01-01

    17-4 PH and 15-5 PH are extremely useful and versatile precipitation-hardening stainless steels. Armco 17-4 PH is well suited for the magnetic particle inspection requirements of Aerospace Material Specification. Armco 15-5 PH and 17-4 PH are produced in billet, plate, bar, and wire. Also, 15-5 PH is able to meet the stringent mechanical properties required in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Both products are easy to heat treat and machine, making them very useful in many applications.

  4. The influence of pH on biotite dissolution and alteration kinetics at low temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acker, James G.; Bricker, O.P.

    1992-01-01

    Biotite dissolution rates in acidic solutions were determined in fluidized-bed reactors and flowthrough columns. Biotite dissolution rates increased inversely as a linear function of pH in the pH range 3-7, where the rate order n = -0.34. Biotite dissolved incongruently over this pH range, with preferential release of magnesium and iron from the octahedral layer. Release of tetrahedral silicon was much greater at pH 3 than at higher pH. Iron release was significantly enhanced by low pH conditions. Solution compositions from a continuous exposure flow-through column of biotite indicated biotite dissolves incongruently at pH 4, consistent with alteration to a vermiculite-type product. Solution compositions from a second intermittent-flow column exhibited elevated cation release rates upon the initiation of each exposure to solution. The presence of strong oxidizing agents, the mineral surface area, and sample preparation methodology also influenced the dissolution or alteration kinetics of biotite. ?? 1992.

  5. Method to Estimate the Dissolved Air Content in Hydraulic Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to verify the air content in hydraulic fluid, an instrument was needed to measure the dissolved air content before the fluid was loaded into the system. The instrument also needed to measure the dissolved air content in situ and in real time during the de-aeration process. The current methods used to measure the dissolved air content require the fluid to be drawn from the hydraulic system, and additional offline laboratory processing time is involved. During laboratory processing, there is a potential for contamination to occur, especially when subsaturated fluid is to be analyzed. A new method measures the amount of dissolved air in hydraulic fluid through the use of a dissolved oxygen meter. The device measures the dissolved air content through an in situ, real-time process that requires no additional offline laboratory processing time. The method utilizes an instrument that measures the partial pressure of oxygen in the hydraulic fluid. By using a standardized calculation procedure that relates the oxygen partial pressure to the volume of dissolved air in solution, the dissolved air content is estimated. The technique employs luminescent quenching technology to determine the partial pressure of oxygen in the hydraulic fluid. An estimated Henry s law coefficient for oxygen and nitrogen in hydraulic fluid is calculated using a standard method to estimate the solubility of gases in lubricants. The amount of dissolved oxygen in the hydraulic fluid is estimated using the Henry s solubility coefficient and the measured partial pressure of oxygen in solution. The amount of dissolved nitrogen that is in solution is estimated by assuming that the ratio of dissolved nitrogen to dissolved oxygen is equal to the ratio of the gas solubility of nitrogen to oxygen at atmospheric pressure and temperature. The technique was performed at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The technique could be theoretically carried out at higher pressures and elevated temperatures.

  6. Adsorption of dissolved organics in lake water by aluminum oxide. Effect of molecular weight

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J.A.; Gloor, R.

    1981-01-01

    Dissolved organic compounds in a Swiss lake were fractionated into three molecular size classes by gel exclusion chromatography, and adsorption of each fraction on colloidal alumina was studied as a function of pH. Organic compounds with molecular weight (Mr) greater than 1000 formed strong complexes with the alumina surface, but low molecular weight compounds were weakly adsorbed. Electrophoretic mobility measurements indicated that alumina particles suspended in the original lake water were highly negatively charged because of adsorbed organic matter. Most of the adsorbed organic compounds were in the Mr range 1000 < Mr < 3000. Adsorption of these compounds during the treatment of drinking water by alum coagulation may be responsible for the preferential removal of trihalomethane precursors. Adsorption may also influence the molecular-weight distribution of dissolved organic material in lakes. surface, the present work will focus on the influence of molecular size and pH on the adsorption behavior of dissolved organic material of a Swiss lake. From a geochemical point of view, it is important to know the molecular-weight distribution of adsorbed organic matter so that we may better assess its reactivity with trace elements. The study also serves as a first step in quantifying the role of adsorption in the geochemical cycle of organic carbon in lacustrine environments. For water-treatment practice, we need to determine whether molecular weight fractionation occurs during adsorption by aluminum oxide. Such a fractionation could be significant in the light of recent reports that chloroform and other organochlorine compounds are preferentially produced by particular molecular-weight fractions (25-27). ?? 1981 American Chemical Society.

  7. Conducting a thermal conductivity survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, P. B.

    1985-01-01

    A physically transparent approximate theory of phonon decay rates is presented starting from a pair potential model of the interatomic forces in an insulator or semiconductor. The theory applies in the classical regime and relates the 3-phonon decay rate to the third derivative of the pair potential. Phonon dispersion relations do not need to be calculated, as sum rules relate all the needed quantities directly to the pair potential. The Brillouin zone averaged phonon lifetime turns out to involve a dimensionless measure of the anharmonicity multiplied by an effective density of states for 3-phonon decay. Results are given for rare gas and alkali halide crystals. For rare gases, the results are in good agreement with more elaborate perturbation calculations. Comparison to experimental data on phonon linewidths and thermal conductivity are made.

  8. Dissolved organic C export is highly dynamic - capturing this variability and challenges in modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldron, S.; Coleman, M.; Scott, E. M.; Drew, S.

    2013-12-01

    High resolution, field-deployable sensors offer opportunities to deepen our understanding of natural environmental systems, and measure the ';riverine pulse'. Studies utilising high-resolution equipment have demonstrated that sampling hydrological variables on traditional low frequency rates (such as once a week) creates a simplified picture of conditions that does not capture a true reflection of how fluvial systems operate. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) represents a large and diverse mixture of compounds (including sugars, amino acids and humic substances) and concentration and composition of this pool varies globally. Understanding transport of this C pool in fluvial systems is important as it 1) represents the lateral export of C no longer sequestered in the terrestrial system, 2) surface water concentrations have been observed to have increased globally and we need to know if this trend is continuing and 3) when water is abstracted the purification processes removing DOC from the water, can create harmful by-products and so prior knowledge of inflow loading is valuable. Traditionally [DOC] has been measured using manual sampling methods, where a water sample would be collected in the field and returned to the lab. This approach can provide reliable data but the resource required to sustain this make it nearly impossible to measure the ';riverine pulse' through the information in long and detailed time series. In recent years new technology designed to estimate [DOC] in-situ has been developed. We have used one of these devices, which measures absorption in both the visible and UV wavelength regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and from this absorbance profile an algorithm estimates [DOC]. We have deployed this system in the field environment and after overcoming initial challenges have an almost continuous time series of [DOC], measured at 30 minute intervals, since May 2012. The logger has been functioning over a temperature range of 0.5 - 23 °C and a [DOC] range of 8 - 55.6 mg/l C, with the greatest shift in a single day being 23.5 mg/l C. We will present this highly dynamic [DOC] time series and also contemporaneous data from an in-situ water chemistry sonde profiling other measures of the ';riverine circulation system': pH, conductivity, temperature and stage height. The challenge now is how to allow data series of ~17,500 measurements per annum to interact to better understand and model drivers of carbon export. We are exploring the application of wavelet analysis to identify periods of coherence between [DOC] and these other variables. Our initial results indicate show that coherence with [DOC] can be intermittent and irregular, and so the challenge sensor technology presents continues.

  9. Method for dissolving delta-phase plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Karraker, David G. (1600 Sherwood Pl., SE., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1992-01-01

    A process for dissolving plutonium, and in particular, delta-phase plutonium. The process includes heating a mixture of nitric acid, hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) and potassium fluoride to a temperature between 40.degree. and 70.degree. C., then immersing the metal in the mixture. Preferably, the nitric acid has a concentration of not more than 2M, the HAN approximately 0.66M, and the potassium fluoride 0.1M. Additionally, a small amount of sulfamic acid, such as 0.1M can be added to assure stability of the HAN in the presence of nitric acid. The oxide layer that forms on plutonium metal may be removed with a non-oxidizing acid as a pre-treatment step.

  10. [Sources, Migration and Conversion of Dissolved Alkanes, Dissolved Fatty Acids in a Karst Underground River Water, in Chongqing Area].

    PubMed

    Liang, Zuo-bing; Sun, Yu-chuan; Wang, Zun-bo; Shi, Yang; Jiang, Ze-li; Zhang, Mei; Xie, Zheng-Lan; Liao, Yu

    2015-09-01

    Dissolved alkanes and dissolved fatty acids were collected from Qingmuguan underground river in July, October 2013. By gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), alkanes and fatty acids were quantitatively analyzed. The results showed that average contents of alkanes and fatty acids were 1 354 ng.L-1, 24203 ng.L-1 in July, and 667 ng.L-1, 2526 ng.L-1 in October respectively. With the increasing migration distance of dissolved alkanes and dissolved fatty acids in underground river, their contents decreased. Based on the molecular characteristic indices of alkanes, like CPI, OEP, Paq and R, dissolved alkanes were mainly originated from microorganisms in July, and aquatic plants in October. Saturated straight-chain fatty acid had the highest contents in all samples with the dominant peak in C16:0, combined with the characteristics of carbon peak, algae or bacteria might be the dominant source of dissolved fatty acids. PMID:26717680

  11. Photolytic processing of secondary organic aerosols dissolved in cloud droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, Adam P.; Nizkorodov, Serguei; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

    2011-05-26

    The effect of UV irradiation on the molecular composition of aqueous extracts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was investigated. SOA was prepared by the dark reaction of ozone and d-limonene at 0.05 - 1 ppm precursor concentrations and collected with a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS). The PILS extracts were photolyzed by 300 - 400 nm radiation for up to 24 hours. Water-soluble SOA constituents were analyzed using high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS) at different stages of photolysis for all SOA precursor concentrations. Exposure to UV radiation increased the average O/C ratio and decreased the average double bond equivalent (DBE) of the dissolved SOA compounds. Oligomeric compounds were significantly reduced by photolysis relative to the monomeric compounds. Direct pH measurements showed that compounds containing carboxylic acids increased upon photolysis. Methanol reactivity analysis revealed significant photodissociation of molecules containing carbonyl groups and formation of carboxylic acids. Aldehydes, such as limononaldehyde, were almost completely removed. The removal of carbonylswas confirmed by the UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy of the SOA extracts where the absorbance in the carbonyl n??* band decreased significantly upon photolysis. The effective quantum yield (the number of carbonyls destroyed per photon absorbed) was estimated as ~ 0.03. The concentration of peroxides did not change significantly during photolysis as quantified with an iodometric test. Although organic peroxides were photolyzed, the likely end products of photolysis were smaller peroxides, including hydrogen peroxide, resulting in a no net change in the peroxide content.

  12. Formulation Design and Optimization of Fast Dissolving Clonazepam Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Shirsand, S. B.; Suresh, Sarasija; Swamy, P. V.

    2009-01-01

    Fast dissolving tablets of clonazepam were prepared by direct compression method with a view to enhance patient compliance. A 32 full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: amount of crospovidone and microcrystalline cellulose. Crospovidone (2-8% w/w) was used as superdisintegrant and microcrystalline cellulose (20-40% w/w) was used as diluent, along with directly compressible mannitol to enhance mouth feel. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, thickness, drug content uniformity, in vitro dispersion time, wetting time and water absorption ratio. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 16 s); the formulation containing 2% w/w crospovidone and 40% w/w microcrystalline cellulose was found to be promising and tested for in vitro drug release pattern (in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer). Short-term stability (at 40°/75% relative humidity for 3 mo) and drug-excipient interaction. Surface response plots are presented to graphically represent the effect of independent variables on the invitro dispersion time. The validity of the generated mathematical model was tested by preparing two extra-design checkpoints. The optimized tablet formulation was compared with conventional commercial tablet formulation for drug release profiles. This formulation showed nearly five-fold faster drug release (t50% 3.5 min) compared to the conventional commercial tablet formulation (t50% 16.4 min). Short-term stability studies on the formulation indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (P<0.05). PMID:20502581

  13. Dissolved Concentration Limits of Radioactive Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Chen; E.R. Thomas; F.J. Pearson; P.L. Cloke; T.L. Steinborn; P.V. Brady

    2003-06-20

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of radioactive elements under possible repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, and measurements made in laboratory experiments and field work. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 radioactive elements (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium), which are important to calculated dose. Model outputs are mainly in the form of look-up tables plus one or more uncertainty terms. The rest are either in the form of distributions or single values. The results of this analysis are fundamental inputs for total system performance assessment to constrain the release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Solubilities of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, lead, and radium have been re-evaluated using the newly updated thermodynamic database (Data0.ymp.R2). For all of the actinides, identical modeling approaches and consistent environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models in this revision. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, activity coefficients, and selection of solubility controlling phase have been quantified or otherwise addressed. Moreover, a new blended plutonium solubility model has been developed in this revision, which gives a mean solubility that is three orders of magnitude lower than the plutonium solubility model used for the Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation. Two alternative neptunium solubility models have also been developed in this revision. The base-case models have been validated to the level of confidence required by their relative importance to the potential performance of the repository system. The plutonium and neptunium solubility models have been validated to a higher level of confidence than the rest.

  14. Fertigation with micronized sulfur rapidly reduces soil pH in highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberry is adapted to low soil pH in the range of 4-5.5. At higher pH, soil is often modified with elemental sulfur (S) prior to planting. A 2-year study was conducted to determine the potential of applying micronized wettable S by fertigation through the drip system to reduce soil pH in highbush ...

  15. Negative pH and extremely acidic mine waters from Iron Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D.K.; Alpers, C.N.; Ptacek, C.J.; Blowes, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    Extremely acidic mine waters with pH values as low as -3.6, total dissolved metal concentrations as high as 200 g/L, and sulfate concentrations as high as 760 g/L, have been encountered underground in the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain, CA. These are the most acidic waters known. The pH measurements were obtained by using the Pitzer method to define pH for calibration of glass membrane electrodes. The calibration of pH below 0.5 with glass membrane electrodes becomes strongly nonlinear but is reproducible to a pH as low as -4. Numerous efflorescent minerals were found forming from these acid waters. These extreme acid waters were formed primarily by pyrite oxidation and concentration by evaporation with minor effects from aqueous ferrous iron oxidation and efflorescent mineral formation.

  16. Dissolved Oxygen in Guadalupe Slough and Pond A3W, South San Francisco Bay, California, August and September 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shellenbarger, Gregory; Schoellhamer, David H.; Morgan, Tara L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Athearn, Nicole D.; Henderson, Kathleen D.

    2008-01-01

    Initial restoration of former salt evaporation ponds under the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project in San Francisco Bay included the changing of water-flow patterns and the monitoring of water quality of discharge waters from the ponds. Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations became evident in discharge waters when the ponds first were opened in 2004. This was a concern, because of the potential for low-DO pond discharge to decrease the DO concentrations in the sloughs that receive water from the ponds. However, as of summer 2007, only limited point-measurements of DO concentrations had been made in the receiving sloughs adjacent to the discharge ponds. In this report, we describe two short studies aimed at understanding the natural variability of slough DO and the effect of pond discharge on the DO concentrations in the sloughs. Pond A3W (a discharge pond) and the adjacent Guadalupe Slough were instrumented in August and September 2007 to measure DO, temperature, conductivity, and pH. In addition, Mowry and Newark Sloughs were instrumented during the August study to document DO variability in nearby sloughs that were unaffected by pond discharge. The results showed that natural tidal variability in the slough appeared to dominate and control the slough DO concentrations. Water-quality parameters between Guadalupe Slough and Mowry and Newark Sloughs could not be directly compared because deployment locations were different distances from the bay. Pond-discharge water was identified in Guadalupe Slough using the deployed instruments, but, counter to the previous assumption, the pond discharge, at times, increased DO concentrations in the slough. The effects of altering the volume of pond discharge were overwhelmed by natural spring-neap tidal variability in the slough. This work represents a preliminary investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey of the effects of pond discharge on adjacent sloughs, and the results will be used in designing a comprehensive DO study to determine normal variability for this region.

  17. Temperature Dependence of Photodegradation of Dissolved Organic Matter to Dissolved Inorganic Carbon and Particulate Organic Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Porcal, Petr; Dillon, Peter J.; Molot, Lewis A.

    2015-01-01

    Photochemical transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) has been studied for more than two decades. Usually, laboratory or “in-situ” experiments are used to determine photodegradation variables. A common problem with these experiments is that the photodegradation experiments are done at higher than ambient temperature. Five laboratory experiments were done to determine the effect of temperature on photochemical degradation of DOM. Experimental results showed strong dependence of photodegradation on temperature. Mathematical modeling of processes revealed that two different pathways engaged in photochemical transformation of DOM to dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) strongly depend on temperature. Direct oxidation of DOM to DIC dominated at low temperatures while conversion of DOM to intermediate particulate organic carbon (POC) prior to oxidation to DIC dominated at high temperatures. It is necessary to consider this strong dependence when the results of laboratory experiments are interpreted in regard to natural processes. Photodegradation experiments done at higher than ambient temperature will necessitate correction of rate constants. PMID:26106898

  18. Nanostructured conductive polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed H.

    Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) are a suitable alternative to metals in many applications due to their light-weight, corrosion resistance, low cost, ease of processing and design flexibility. CPCs have been formulated using different types of conductive fillers. In this PhD thesis, the focus is on CPCs for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection and electromagnetic interference (EMI) attenuation. Despite the versatility of conductive fillers, carbon black (CB) has been the dominant filler to make CPCs for ESD protection applications because CB/polymer composites have a cost advantage over all other CPCs. For EMI shielding, stainless steel fibres and metal coated fibers are the preferred fillers, however CPCs made of those fibers are not the dominant EMI shielding materials. Metal coated and polymer plated polymers are the most widely used EMI shielding options. The limited use of CPCs in the EMI shielding market is because the high filler loading required to formulate a composite with an adequate level of shielding remarkably increases the composite price. In order to increase the competitiveness of CPCs, percolation threshold should be minimized as much as possible and composites with high EMI shielding capabilities at low filler loading should be formulated because all conductive fillers are expensive compared to polymers. In this thesis, two different methodologies to reduce percolation threshold in CPCs have been successfully developed and a CPC with exceptional EMI shielding capability has been formulated using copper nanowires as conductive filler. The first percolation threshold reduction technique is based on the selective localization of CB at the interface of immiscible polymer blend. The technique requires adding a copolymer that prefers the blend's interface and for which CB nanoparticles has the highest affinity. The second method is based on producing a CPC powder and then using this powder as a conductive filler to produce composite by dry mixing with pure polymer powder followed by compression molding. The EMI shielding material was developed using copper nanowires. CuNW/Polystyrene composites exhibit EMI shielding effectiveness exceeding that of metal microfillers and carbon nanotube/polymer composites and approaching that of coating techniques have been formulated by solution processing and dry mixing.

  19. Distribution of dissolved pesticides and other water quality constituents in small streams, and their relation to land use, in the Willamette River Basin, Oregon, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Chauncey W.; Wood, Tamara M.; Morace, Jennifer L.

    1997-01-01

    Water quality samples were collected at sites in 16 randomly selected agricultural and 4 urban subbasins as part of Phase III of the Willamette River Basin Water Quality Study in Oregon during 1996. Ninety-five samples were collected and analyzed for suspended sediment, conventional constituents (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, nutrients, biochemical oxygen demand, and bacteria) and a suite of 86 dissolved pesticides. The data were collected to characterize the distribution of dissolved pesticide concentrations in small streams (drainage areas 2.6? 13 square miles) throughout the basin, to document exceedances of water quality standards and guidelines, and to identify the relative importance of several upstream land use categories (urban, agricultural, percent agricultural land, percent of land in grass seed crops, crop diversity) and seasonality in affecting these distributions. A total of 36 pesticides (29 herbicides and 7 insecticides) were detected basinwide. The five most frequently detected compounds were the herbicides atrazine (99% of samples), desethylatrazine (93%), simazine (85%), metolachlor (85%), and diuron (73%). Fifteen compounds were detected in 12?35% of samples, and 16 compounds were detected in 1?9% of samples. Water quality standards or criteria were exceeded more frequently for conventional constituents than for pesticides. State of Oregon water quality standards were exceeded at all but one site for the indicator bacteria E. coli, 3 sites for nitrate, 10 sites for water temperature, 4 sites for dissolved oxygen, and 1 site for pH. Pesticide concentrations, which were usually less than 1 part per billion, exceeded State of Oregon or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency aquatic life toxicity criteria only for chlorpyrifos, in three samples from one site; such criteria have been established for only two other detected pesticides. However, a large number of unusually high concentrations (1?90 parts per billion) were detected, indicating that pesticides in the runoff sampled in these small streams were more highly concentrated than in the larger streams sampled in previous studies. These pulses could have had short term toxicological implications for the affected streams; however, additional toxicological assessment of the detected pesticides was limited because of a lack of available information on the response of aquatic life to the observed pesticide concentrations. Six pesticides, including atrazine, diuron, and metolachlor, had significantly higher (p<0.08 for metolachlor, p<0.05 for the other five) median concentrations at agricultural sites than at urban sites. Five other compounds ?carbaryl, diazinon, dichlobenil, prometon, and tebuthiuron?had significantly higher (p<0.05) concentrations at the urban sites than at the agricultural sites. Atrazine, metolachlor, and diuron also had significantly higher median concentrations at southern agricultural sites (dominated by grass seed crops) than northern agricultural sites. Other compounds that had higher median concentrations in the south included 2,4-D and metribuzin, which are both used on grass seed crops, and triclopyr, bromacil, and pronamide. A cluster analysis of the data grouped sites according to their pesticide detections in a manner that was almost identical to a grouping made solely on the basis of their upstream land use patterns (urban, agricultural, crop diversity, percentage of basin in agricultural production). In this way inferences about pesticide associations with different land uses could be drawn, illustrating the strength of these broad land use categories in determining the types of pesticides that can be expected to occur. Among the associations observed were pesticides that occurred at a group of agricultural sites, but which have primarily noncropland uses such as vegetation control along rights-of-way. Also, the amount of forested land in a basin was negatively associated with pesticide occurrence, sugges

  20. Characterisation and deployment of an immobilised pH sensor spot towards surface ocean pH measurements.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Jennifer S; Achterberg, Eric P; Rérolle, Victoire M C; Abi Kaed Bey, Samer; Floquet, Cedric F A; Mowlem, Matthew C

    2015-10-15

    The oceans are a major sink for anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide, and the uptake causes changes to the marine carbonate system and has wide ranging effects on flora and fauna. It is crucial to develop analytical systems that allow us to follow the increase in oceanic pCO2 and corresponding reduction in pH. Miniaturised sensor systems using immobilised fluorescence indicator spots are attractive for this purpose because of their simple design and low power requirements. The technology is increasingly used for oceanic dissolved oxygen measurements. We present a detailed method on the use of immobilised fluorescence indicator spots to determine pH in ocean waters across the pH range 7.6-8.2. We characterised temperature (-0.046 pH/°C from 5 to 25 °C) and salinity dependences (-0.01 pH/psu over 5-35), and performed a preliminary investigation into the influence of chlorophyll on the pH measurement. The apparent pKa of the sensor spots was 6.93 at 20 °C. A drift of 0.00014 R (ca. 0.0004 pH, at 25 °C, salinity 35) was observed over a 3 day period in a laboratory based drift experiment. We achieved a precision of 0.0074 pH units, and observed a drift of 0.06 pH units during a test deployment of 5 week duration in the Southern Ocean as an underway surface ocean sensor, which was corrected for using certified reference materials. The temperature and salinity dependences were accounted for with the algorithm, R=0.00034-0.17·pH+0.15·S(2)+0.0067·T-0.0084·S·1.075. This study provides a first step towards a pH optode system suitable for autonomous deployment. The use of a short duration low power illumination (LED current 0.2 mA, 5 ?s illumination time) improved the lifetime and precision of the spot. Further improvements to the pH indicator spot operations include regular application of certified reference materials for drift correction and cross-calibration against a spectrophotometric pH system. Desirable future developments should involve novel fluorescence spots with improved response time and apparent pKa values closer to the pH of surface ocean waters. PMID:26515007

  1. Exercise and Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Migdalia Denis PH Association Leaders' Corner Email Group Seed Grant Program Seed Grant Application Form Become an MOU-holding PHA ... Migdalia Denis PH Association Leaders' Corner Email Group Seed Grant Program Seed Grant Application Form Become an ...

  2. Esophageal pH monitoring

    MedlinePLUS

    pH monitoring - esophageal; Esophageal acidity test ... Esophageal pH monitoring is used to check how much stomach acid is entering the esophagus. It also checks how well the acid is cleared downward into the ...

  3. High dissolved methane concentrations in the deep-water Ulleung Basin, East Sea of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Byong-Jae; Chun, Jong-Hwa

    2014-05-01

    As a part of the Korean National Gas Hydrate Program, a production test in the Ulleung Basin is planned to be performed in 2015. The targets are the gas hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs, which were found during the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Drilling Expedition (UBGH2) in 2010. To ensure a safe production test, an environmental program has been conducted by the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) since 2012. This program includes a baseline survey using a KIGAM Seafloor Observation System (KISOS) and R/V TAMHAE II of KIGAM, development of a KIGAM Seafloor Monitoring System (KIMOS), and seafloor monitoring on various potential hazards associated with the dissociated gas from gas hydrates using the KIMOS during the production test. A survey for measuring the dissolved methane concentrations in the area at and nearby the gas hydrate production testing site was performed using R/V TAMHAE II and the KISOS. The water samples were also collected and analyzed to measure the dissolved methane concentrations by the SBE carousel water sampler installed in the KISOS and gas chromatography (GC) at KIGAM. The dissolved methane concentrations were also measured using a Frantech METS methane sensor installed in the KISOS. No dissolved methane anomaly was detected at the site where any evidence of gas hydrate presence has not been observed. On the other hand, the water analysis showed high dissolved methane concentrations at the water depth above and within the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) at the site where gas hydrates were identified by drilling. However, these dissolved methane anomalies within the GHSZ were not detected by methane sensor. To examine these uncertain dissolved methane anomalies within the GHSZ, the water samples will be collected and analyzed once again, and the analytical result will be also carefully compared with the data collected using the methane sensor and deep ocean mass spectrometer (DOMS) developed by the University of Hawaii. The results of baseline surveys will be used to set up the KIMOS efficiently.

  4. Accuracy of different sensors for the estimation of pollutant concentrations (total suspended solids, total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand) in wastewater and stormwater.

    PubMed

    Lepot, Mathieu; Aubin, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Many field investigations have used continuous sensors (turbidimeters and/or ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometers) to estimate with a short time step pollutant concentrations in sewer systems. Few, if any, publications compare the performance of various sensors for the same set of samples. Different surrogate sensors (turbidity sensors, UV-visible spectrophotometer, pH meter, conductivity meter and microwave sensor) were tested to link concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (COD), and sensors' outputs. In the combined sewer at the inlet of a wastewater treatment plant, 94 samples were collected during dry weather, 44 samples were collected during wet weather, and 165 samples were collected under both dry and wet weather conditions. From these samples, triplicate standard laboratory analyses were performed and corresponding sensors outputs were recorded. Two outlier detection methods were developed, based, respectively, on the Mahalanobis and Euclidean distances. Several hundred regression models were tested, and the best ones (according to the root mean square error criterion) are presented in order of decreasing performance. No sensor appears as the best one for all three investigated pollutants. PMID:23863442

  5. Sampling guide for determination of dissolved organic carbon

    E-print Network

    Hansell, Dennis

    Sampling guide for determination of dissolved organic carbon and total dissolved nitrogen) by A.R. Margolin. Available online 6 March 2015. For copies of this sampling guide: http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/groups/biogeochem/Data/DOC-TDN_Sampling_Guide.pdf For copies of sampling log: http://www.rsmas

  6. Interactions of Arsenic and the Dissolved Substances Derived from

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Interactions of Arsenic and the Dissolved Substances Derived from Turf Soils Z H A N G R O N G C H for the control of weeds in turf grasses at golf courses in Florida. There are concerns about arsenic (As for arsenic species (arsenite, AsIII and arsenate, AsV), dissolved organic matter, and additional constituents

  7. Black Carbon in Estuarine and Coastal Ocean Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannino, Antonio; Harvey, H. Rodger

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of high-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter (DOM) from two estuaries in the northwest Atlantic Ocean reveals that black carbon (BC) is a significant component of previously uncharacterized DOM, suggesting that river-estuary systems are important exporters of recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon to the ocean.

  8. Dissolved P in streams in dry years and wet years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dissolved phosphorus (P) has often been identified as the nutrient of concern in lakes, reservoirs, and streams especially where there is evidence of eutrophication. We analyzed contiguous-spatial and temporal variability of dissolved P [soluble reactive P (SRP)] stream concentrations during times ...

  9. Evaluation of filter media for clarification of partially dissolved residues containing plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, E.S.

    1989-10-09

    A common process in the chemical industry employs the leaching of a desirable component from an insoluble substrate, followed by filtration to produce a clarified solution of the desirable component and a discardable residue. The work described here involved evaluating sintered metal filter media for separating dissolved plutonium from undissolved residues generated at various locations owned by the Department of Energy throughout the United States. The work was performed during a six-week assignment at the Savannah River Laboratory as part of a high school science enrichment program conducted in the summer of 1989. The leach step used included dissolving the plutonium-containing solids in a solution of nitric-hydrofluoric acid. To simulate the partial solubility of the actual plutonium-containing residues, a non-radioactive power plant flyash was used. 6 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Nickel-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Coating on the Surface of Conductive Substrates by Liquid Phase Deposition.

    PubMed

    Maki, Hideshi; Takigawa, Masashi; Mizuhata, Minoru

    2015-08-12

    The direct synthesis of the adhered Ni-Al LDH thin film onto the surface of electrically conductive substrates by the liquid phase deposition (LPD) reaction is carried out for the development of the positive electrode. The complexation and solution equilibria of the dissolved species in the LPD reaction have been clarified by a theoretical approach, and the LPD reaction conditions for the Ni-Al LDH depositions are shown to be optimized by controlling the fluoride ion concentration and the pH of the LPD reaction solutions. The yields of metal oxides and hydroxides by the LPD method are very sensitive to the supersaturation state of the hydroxide in the reaction solution. The surfaces of conductive substrates are completely covered by the minute mesh-like Ni-Al LDH thin film; furthermore, there is no gap between the surfaces of conductive substrates and the deposited Ni-Al LDH thin film. The active material layer thickness was able to be controlled within the range from 100 nm to 1 ?m by the LPD reaction time. The high-crystallinity and the arbitrary-thickness thin films on the conductive substrate surface will be beneficial for the interface control of charge transfer reaction fields and the internal resistance reduction of various secondary batteries. PMID:26189509

  11. Electrostatic Spraying With Conductive Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.; Dawn, Frederic S.; Erlandson, Robert E.; Atkins, Loren E.

    1989-01-01

    Thin, uniform polymer coatings applied in water base normally impossible to charge. Electrostatic sprayer modified so applies coatings suspended or dissolved in electrically conductive liquids. Nozzle and gun constructed of nonconductive molded plastic. Liquid passageway made long enough electrical leakage through it low. Coaxial hose for liquid built of polytetrafluoroethylene tube, insulating sleeve, and polyurethane jacket. Sprayer provided with insulated seal at gun-to-hose connection, nonconductive airhose, pressure tank electrically isolated from ground, and special nozzle electrode. Supply of atomizing air reduced so particle momentum controlled by electrostatic field more effectively. Developed to apply water-base polyurethane coating to woven, shaped polyester fabric. Coating provides pressure seal for fabric, which is part of spacesuit. Also useful for applying waterproof, decorative, or protective coatings to fabrics for use on Earth.

  12. Effects of Dissolved Carbonate on Arsenate Adsorption and Surface Speciation at the Hematite-Water Interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arai, Y.; Sparks, D.L.; Davis, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of dissolved carbonate on arsenate [As(V)] reactivity and surface speciation at the hematite-water interface were studied as a function of pH and two different partial pressures of carbon dioxide gas [PCO2 = 10 -3.5 atm and ???0; CO2-free argon (Ar)] using adsorption kinetics, pseudo-equilibrium adsorption/titration experiments, extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic (EXAFS) analyses, and surface complexation modeling. Different adsorbed carbonate concentrations, due to the two different atmospheric systems, resulted in an enhanced and/or suppressed extent of As(V) adsorption. As(V) adsorption kinetics [4 g L -1, [As(V)]0 = 1.5 mM and / = 0.01 M NaCl] showed carbonate-enhanced As(V) uptake in the air-equilibrated systems at pH 4 and 6 and at pH 8 after 3 h of reaction. Suppressed As(V) adsorption was observed in the air-equilibrated system in the early stages of the reaction at pH 8. In the pseudo-equilibrium adsorption experiments [1 g L-1, [As(V)] 0 = 0.5 mM and / = 0.01 M NaCl], in which each pH value was held constant by a pH-stat apparatus, effects of dissolved carbonate on As(V) uptake were almost negligible at equilibrium, but titrant (0.1 M HCl) consumption was greater in the air-equilibrated systems (PCO2 = 10-3.5 atm)than in the CO2-free argon system at pH 4-7.75. The EXAFS analyses indicated that As(V) tetrahedral molecules were coordinated on iron octahedral via bidentate mononuclear (???2.8 A??) and bidentate binuclear (???3.3 A??) bonding at pH 4.5-8 and loading levels of 0.46-3.10 ??M m-2. Using the results of the pseudoequilibrium adsorption data and the XAS analyses, the pH-dependent As(V) adsorption under the PCO2 = 10-3.5 atm and the CO2-free argon system was modeled using surface complexation modeling, and the results are consistent with the formation of nonprotonated bidentate surface species at the hematite surfaces. The results also suggest that the acid titrant consumption was strongly affected by changes to electrical double-layer potentials caused by the adsorption of carbonate in the air-equilibrated system. Overall results suggest that the effects of dissolved carbonate on As(V) adsorption were influenced by the reaction conditions [e.g., available surface sites, initial As(V) concentrations, and reaction times]. Quantifying the effects of adsorbed carbonate may be important in predicting As(V) transport processes in groundwater, where iron oxide-coated aquifer materials are exposed to seasonally fluctuating partial pressures of CO2(g).

  13. Influence of pH on transungual passive and iontophoretic transport.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kelly A; Hao, Jinsong; Li, S Kevin

    2010-04-01

    The present study investigated the effects of pH on nail permeability and the transport of ions such as sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) ions endogenous to nail and hydronium and hydroxide ions present at low and high pH, which might compete with drug transport across hydrated nail plate during iontophoresis. Nail hydration and passive transport of water across the nail at pH 1-13 were assessed. Subsequently, passive and iontophoretic transport experiments were conducted using (22)Na and (36)Cl ions under various pH conditions. Nail hydration was independent of pH under moderate pH conditions and increased significantly under extreme pH conditions (pH >11). Likewise, nail permeability for water was pH independent at pH 1-10 and an order of magnitude higher at pH 13. The results of passive and iontophoretic transport of Na and Cl ions are consistent with the permselective property of nail. Interestingly, extremely acidic conditions (e.g., pH 1) altered nail permselectivity with the effect lasting several days at the higher pH conditions. Hydronium and hydroxide ion competition in iontophoretic transport was generally negligible at pH 3-11 was significant at the extreme pH conditions studied. PMID:19904826

  14. Composition of dissolved organic matter in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longnecker, Krista; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B.

    2011-05-01

    Groundwater constitutes a globally important source of freshwater for drinking water and other agricultural and industrial purposes, and is a prominent source of freshwater flowing into the coastal ocean. Therefore, understanding the chemical components of groundwater is relevant to both coastal and inland communities. We used electrospray ionization coupled with Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) to examine dissolved organic compounds in groundwater prior to and after passage through a sediment-filled column containing microorganisms. The data revealed that an unexpectedly high proportion of organic compounds contained nitrogen and sulfur, possibly due to transport of surface waters from septic systems and rain events. We matched 292 chemical features, based on measured mass:charge ( m/z) values, to compounds stored in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). A subset of these compounds (88) had only one structural isomer in KEGG, thus supporting tentative identification. Most identified elemental formulas were linked with metabolic pathways that produce polyketides or with secondary metabolites produced by plants. The presence of polyketides in groundwater is notable because of their anti-bacterial and anti-cancer properties. However, their relative abundance must be quantified with appropriate analyses to assess any implications for public health.

  15. Response of Dissolved Organic Matter to Warming and Nitrogen Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J. H.; Nguyen, H.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) is a ubiquitous mixture of soluble organic components. Since DOM is produced from the terrestrial leachate of various soil types, soil may influence the chemistry and biology of freshwater through the input of leachate and run-off. The increased temperature by climate change could dramatically change the DOM characteristics of soils through enhanced decomposition rate and losses of carbon from soil organic matter. In addition, the increase in the N-deposition affects DOM leaching from soils by changing the carbon cycling and decomposition rate of soil decay. In this study, we conducted growth chamber experiments using two types of soil (wetland and forest) under the conditions of temperature increase and N-deposition in order to investigate how warming and nitrogen addition influence the characteristics of the DOM leaching from different soil types. This leachate controls the quantity and quality of DOM in surface water systems. After 10 months of incubation, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations decreased for almost samples in the range of 7.6 to 87.3% (ANOVA, p<0.05). The specific UV absorption (SUVA) values also decreased for almost samples after the first 3 months and then increased gradually afterward in range of 3.3 to 108.4%. Both time and the interaction between time and the temperature had the statistically significant effects on the SUVA values (MANOVA, p<0.05). Humification index (HIX) showed the significant increase trends during the duration of incubation and temperature for almost the samples (ANOVA, p<0.05). Higher decreases in the DOC values and increases in HIX were observed at higher temperatures, whereas the opposite trend was observed for samples with N-addition. The PARAFAC results showed that three fluorescence components: terrestrial humic (C1), microbial humic-like (C2), and protein-like (C3), constituted the fluorescence matrices of soil samples. During the experiment, labile DOM from the soils was consumed and transformed into resistant aromatic carbon structures and less biodegradable components via microbial processes. Both time and the temperature presented the statistically significant effects on DOM characteristics of soil samples while the N-addition exhibited the insignificant difference among the samples.

  16. Fluorescence Characterization of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOC) from Marine and Terrestrial Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnett, H. E.; Coe, J. D.; Smith, Z. P.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrothermal ecosystems exhibit a wide range in temperature, pH, and solute concentrations, including dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Here we compare DOC concentrations among marine (Iheya North Field, East China Sea) and terrestrial (Yunnan Province, China and Yellowstone National Park, USA) hydrothermal systems. We further characterize DOC fluorescence in these three systems using 3D excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMs) and PARAFAC modeling. DOC concentrations in pore waters from the Iheya North hydrothermal field are always extremely low (<1 mg/L) and EEMs analysis suggests the DOC is of microbial origin. DOC concentrations in terrestrial springs from both China and Yellowstone have somewhat consistent variations with pH; generally, there are lower DOC concentrations in alkaline springs and higher, but more variable, DOC concentrations in acidic springs. DOC concentrations in alkaline springs are generally <2 mg/L, but in acidic hot springs DOC can be >100 mg/L. Fluorescence analysis of DOC from terrestrial hot springs reveals that some, but by no means all, of the fluorophores exhibit relationships with pH similar to those of the bulk DOC. In contrast, other fluorophores vary independently of the bulk DOC concentration. The DOC in hot springs from both China and Yellowstone appears to be predominantly of microbial origin but there are as yet unidentified fluorophores in both regions that could be unique tracers for DOC in hydrothermal systems.

  17. Variation in pH Optima of Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities in Tropical Rain Forest Soils ?

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Benjamin L.

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular enzymes synthesized by soil microbes play a central role in the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in the environment. The pH optima of eight hydrolytic enzymes involved in the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur, were assessed in a series of tropical forest soils of contrasting pH values from the Republic of Panama. Assays were conducted using 4-methylumbelliferone-linked fluorogenic substrates in modified universal buffer. Optimum pH values differed markedly among enzymes and soils. Enzymes were grouped into three classes based on their pH optima: (i) enzymes with acidic pH optima that were consistent among soils (cellobiohydrolase, ?-xylanase, and arylsulfatase), (ii) enzymes with acidic pH optima that varied systematically with soil pH, with the most acidic pH optima in the most acidic soils (?-glucosidase, ?-glucosidase, and N-acetyl-?-glucosaminidase), and (iii) enzymes with an optimum pH in either the acid range or the alkaline range depending on soil pH (phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase). The optimum pH values of phosphomonoesterase were consistent among soils, being 4 to 5 for acid phosphomonoesterase and 10 to 11 for alkaline phosphomonoesterase. In contrast, the optimum pH for phosphodiesterase activity varied systematically with soil pH, with the most acidic pH optima (3.0) in the most acidic soils and the most alkaline pH optima (pH 10) in near-neutral soils. Arylsulfatase activity had a very acidic optimum pH in all soils (pH ?3.0) irrespective of soil pH. The differences in pH optima may be linked to the origins of the enzymes and/or the degree of stabilization on solid surfaces. The results have important implications for the interpretation of hydrolytic enzyme assays using fluorogenic substrates. PMID:20709838

  18. Evaluation of specific ultraviolet absorbance as an indicator of the chemical composition and reactivity of dissolved organic carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weishaar, J.L.; Aiken, G.R.; Bergamaschi, B.A.; Fram, M.S.; Fujii, R.; Mopper, K.

    2003-01-01

    Specific UV absorbance (SUVA) is defined as the UV absorbance of a water sample at a given wavelength normalized for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. Our data indicate that SUVA, determined at 254 nm, is strongly correlated with percent aromaticity as determined by 13C NMR for 13 organic matter isolates obtained from a variety of aquatic environments. SUVA, therefore, is shown to be a useful parameter for estimating the dissolved aromatic carbon content in aquatic systems. Experiments involving the reactivity of DOC with chlorine and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), however, show a wide range of reactivity for samples with similar SUVA values. These results indicate that, while SUVA measurements are good predictors of general chemical characteristics of DOC, they do not provide information about reactivity of DOC derived from different types of source materials. Sample pH, nitrate, and iron were found to influence SUVA measurements.

  19. Diel behavior of rare earth elements in a mountain stream with acidic to neutral pH

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gammons, C.H.; Wood, S.A.; Nimick, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Diel (24-h) changes in concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) were investigated in Fisher Creek, a mountain stream in Montana that receives acid mine drainage in its headwaters. Three simultaneous 24-h samplings were conducted at an upstream station (pH = 3.3), an intermediate station (pH = 5.5), and a downstream station (pH = 6.8). The REE were found to behave conservatively at the two upstream stations. At the downstream station, REE partitioned into suspended particles to a degree that varied with the time of day, and concentrations of dissolved REE were 2.9- to 9.4-fold (190% to 830%) higher in the early morning vs. the late afternoon. The decrease in dissolved REE concentrations during the day coincided with a corresponding increase in the concentration of REE in suspended particles, such that diel changes in the total REE concentrations were relatively minor (27% to 55% increase at night). Across the lanthanide series, the heavy REE partitioned into the suspended solid phase to a greater extent than the light REE. Filtered samples from the downstream station showed a decrease in shale-normalized REE concentration across the lanthanide series, with positive anomalies at La and Gd, and a negative Eu anomaly. As the temperature of the creek increased in the afternoon, the slope of the REE profile steepened and the magnitude of the anomalies increased. The above observations are explained by cyclic adsorption of REE onto suspended particles of hydrous ferric and aluminum oxides (HFO, HAO). Conditional partition coefficients for each REE between the suspended solids and the aqueous phase reached a maximum at 1700 hours and a minimum at 0700 hours. This pattern is attributed to diel variations in stream temperature, possibly reinforced by kinetic factors (i.e., slower rates of reaction at night than during the day). Estimates of the enthalpy of adsorption of each REE onto suspended particles based on the field results averaged +82 kJ/mol and are similar in magnitude to estimates in the literature for adsorption of divalent metal cations onto clays and hydrous metal oxides. The results of this study have important implications to the use of REE as hydrogeochemical tracers in streams. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Effect of pH alkaline salts of fatty acids on the inhibition of bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine the effect of pH on the ability of alkaline salts of three fatty acids (FA) to inhibit growth of bacteria associated with poultry processing. FA solutions were prepared by dissolving 0.5 M concentrations of caprylic, capric, or lauric acid in separate ali...

  1. HYDROXYL RADICAL/OZONE RATIOS DURING OZONATION PROCESSES. II. THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE, PH, ALKALINITY, AND DOM PROPERTIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of temperature, pH, alkalinity, and type and concentration of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the rate of ozone (O3) decomposition, O3-exposure, .OH-exposure and the ratio Rct of the concentrations of .OH and O3 has been studied. For a standardized single ozon...

  2. Formation of mixed Al-Fe colloidal sorbent and dissolved-colloidal partitioning of Cu and Zn in the Cement Creek - Animas River Confluence, Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Runkel, R.L.; Cox, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Transport and chemical transformations of dissolved and colloidal Al, Fe, Cu and Zn were studied by detailed sampling in the mixing zone downstream from the confluence of Cement Creek (pH 4.1) with the Animas River (pH 7.6). Complete mixing resulted in circumneutral pH in the downstream reach of the 1300 m study area. All four metals were transported through this mixing zone without significant losses to the streambed, and they exhibited transformations from dissolved to colloidal forms to varying degrees during the mixing process. Nearly all of the Al formed colloidal hydrous Al oxides (HAO) as pH increased (4.8-6.5), whereas colloidal hydrous Fe oxides (HFO) were supplied by Cement Creek as well as formed in the mixing zone primarily at higher pH (>6.5). The short travel time through the mixing zone (approx. 40 min) and pH limited the formation of HFO from dissolved Fe2+ supplied by Cement Creek. Although the proportions of HAO and HFO varied as the streams mixed, the colloidal sorbent typically was enriched in HAO relative to HFO by a factor of 1.5-2.1 (by mole) in the pH range where dissolved-to-colloidal partitioning of Cu and Zn was observed. Model simulations of sorption by HFO (alone) greatly underestimated the dissolved-to-colloidal partitioning of Zn. Previous studies have shown that HAO-HFO mixtures can sorb greater amounts of Zn than HFO alone, but the high Zn-to-sorbent ratio in this mixing zone could also account for greater partitioning. In contrast to Zn, comparisons with model simulations did not show that Cu sorption was greater than that for HFO alone, and also indicated that sorption was possibly less than what would be expected for a non-interactive mixture of these two sorbents. These field results for Cu, however, might be influenced by (organic) complexation or other factors in this natural system. Laboratory mixing experiments using natural source waters (upstream of the confluence) showed that the presence of HFO in the mixed sorbent resulted in greater Cu partitioning than for HAO alone, and that the effect was greater with increasing (mole fraction) HFO. This was consistent with field results that showed greater Cu sorption when additional HFO was formed in the downstream reach of the mixing zone. Further research is needed to identify the significance of surface-related mechanisms specific to HAO-HFO mixtures that could affect the partitioning of Cu in natural systems.

  3. Dissolved organic carbon and chromophoric dissolved organic matter properties of rivers in the USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, Robert G.M.; Butler, Kenna D.; Aiken, George R.

    2012-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) parameters were measured over a range of discharge in 30 U.S. rivers, covering a diverse assortment of fluvial ecosystems in terms of watershed size and landscape drained. Relationships between CDOM absorption at a range of wavelengths (a254, a350, a440) and DOC in the 30 watersheds were found to correlate strongly and positively for the majority of U.S. rivers. However, four rivers (Colorado, Colombia, Rio Grande and St. Lawrence) exhibited statistically weak relationships between CDOM absorption and DOC. These four rivers are atypical, as they either drain from the Great Lakes or experience significant impoundment of water within their watersheds, and they exhibited values for dissolved organic matter (DOM) parameters indicative of autochthonous or anthropogenic sources or photochemically degraded allochthonous DOM and thus a decoupling between CDOM and DOC. CDOM quality parameters in the 30 rivers were found to be strongly correlated to DOM compositional metrics derived via XAD fractionation, highlighting the potential for examining DOM biochemical quality from CDOM measurements. This study establishes the ability to derive DOC concentration from CDOM absorption for the majority of U.S. rivers, describes characteristics of riverine systems where such an approach is not valid, and emphasizes the possibility of examining DOM composition and thus biogeochemical function via CDOM parameters. Therefore, the usefulness of CDOM measurements, both laboratory-based analyses and in situ instrumentation, for improving spatial and temporal resolution of DOC fluxes and DOM dynamics in future studies is considerable in a range of biogeochemical studies.

  4. Author s note: Marie F. Smith, CRA;Valerie T. Eviner, PhD; Kathie Weathers, PhD; Maria Uriarte, PhD; Holly Ewing, PhD; Jonathan M. Jeschke, PhD; Peter Groffman, PhD; Clive G. Jones, PhD; Institute of Ecosystem Studies, 65 Sharon Turnpike (PO

    E-print Network

    Eviner, Valerie

    Uriarte, PhD; Holly Ewing, PhD; Jonathan M. Jeschke, PhD; Peter Groffman, PhD; Clive G. Jones, Ph. Eviner, PhD Kathie C. Weathers, PhD Maria Uriarte, PhD Holly A. Ewing, PhD Jonathan M. Jeschke, PhD Peter

  5. An assessment of remote sensing algorithms for colored dissolved organic matter in complex freshwater environments

    E-print Network

    Yu, Qian

    An assessment of remote sensing algorithms for colored dissolved organic matter in complex categories of retrieval algorithms for aquatic colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM): empirical, semi Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), the photo

  6. Chapter A6. Section 6.2. Dissolved Oxygen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Revised by Lewis, Michael Edward

    2006-01-01

    Accurate data for the concentration of dissolved oxygen in surface and ground waters are essential for documenting changes in environmental water resources that result from natural phenomena and human activities. Dissolved oxygen is necessary in aquatic systems for the survival and growth of many aquatic organisms and is used as an indicator of the health of surface-water bodies. This section of the National Field Manual (NFM) includes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) guidance and protocols for four methods to determine dissolved-oxygen concentrations: the amperometric, luminescent-sensor, spectrophotometric, and iodometric (Winkler) methods.

  7. Isolation and chemical characterization of dissolved and colloidal organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, G.; Leenheer, J.

    1993-01-01

    Commonly used techniques for the concentration and isolation of organic matter from water, such as preparative chromatography, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis, and the methods used to analyze the organic matter obtained by these methods are reviewed. The development of methods to obtain organic matter that is associated with fractions of the dissolved organic carbon other than humic substances, such as organic bases, hydrophilic organic acids and colloidal organic matter are discussed. Methods specifically used to study dissolved organic nitrogen and dissolved organic phosphorous are also discussed. -from Authors

  8. Modeling CO2 degassing and pH in a stream-aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, J.; Hulseapple, S.M.; Conklin, M.H.; Harvey, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Pinal Creek, Arizona receives an inflow of ground water with high dissolved inorganic carbon (57-75 mg/l) and low pH (5.8-6.3). There is an observed increase of in-stream pH from approximately 6.0-7.8 over the 3 km downstream of the point of groundwater inflow. We hypothesized that CO2 gas-exchange was the most important factor causing the pH increase in this stream-aquifer system. An existing transport model, for coupled ground water-surface water systems (OTIS), was modified to include carbonate equilibria and CO2 degassing, used to simulate alkalinity, total dissolved inorganic carbon (C(T)), and pH in Pinal Creek. Because of the non-linear relation between pH and C(T), the modified transport model used the numerical iteration method to solve the non-linearity. The transport model parameters were determined by the injection of two tracers, bromide and propane. The resulting simulations of alkalinity, C(T) and pH reproduced, without fitting, the overall trends in downstream concentrations. A multi-parametric sensitivity analysis (MPSA) was used to identify the relative sensitivities of the predictions to six of the physical and chemical parameters used in the transport model. MPSA results implied that C(T) and pH in stream water were controlled by the mixing of ground water with stream water and CO2 degassing. The relative importance of these two processes varied spatially depending on the hydrologic conditions, such as stream flow velocity and whether a reach gained or lost stream water caused by the interaction with the ground water. The coupled transport model with CO2 degassing and generalized sensitivity analysis presented in this study can be applied to evaluate carbon transport and pH in other coupled stream-ground water systems.An existing transport model for coupled groundwater-surface water systems was modified to include carbonate equilibria and CO2 degassing. The modified model was used to simulate alkalinity, total dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) and pH in Pinal Creek. The model used the numerical iteration method to solve the nonlinear relation between pH and CT. A multi-parametric sensitivity analysis (MPSA) was used to identify the relative sensitivities of the predictions to six of the physical and chemical parameters used in the transport model. MPSA results implied that CT and pH in the stream water were controlled by the mixing of groundwater with stream water and CO2 degassing.

  9. Data on dissolved pesticides and volatile organic compounds in surface and ground waters in the San Joaquin-Tulare basins, California, water years 1992-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinsey, Willie B.; Johnson, Mark V.; Gronberg, JoAnn M.

    2005-01-01

    This report contains pesticide, volatile organic compound, major ion, nutrient, tritium, stable isotope, organic carbon, and trace-metal data collected from 149 ground-water wells, and pesticide data collected from 39 surface-water stream sites in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Included with the ground-water data are field measurements of pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. This report describes data collection procedures, analytical methods, quality assurance, and quality controls used by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program to ensure data reliability. Data contained in this report were collected during a four year period by the San Joaquin?Tulare Basins Study Unit of the United States Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Surface-water-quality data collection began in April 1992, with sampling done three times a week at three sites as part of a pilot study conducted to provide background information for the surface-water-study design. Monthly samples were collected at 10 sites for major ions and nutrients from January 1993 to March 1995. Additional samples were collected at four of these sites, from January to December 1993, to study spatial and temporal variability in dissolved pesticide concentrations. Samples for several synoptic studies were collected from 1993 to 1995. Ground-water-quality data collection was restricted to the eastern alluvial fans subarea of the San Joaquin Valley. Data collection began in 1993 with the sampling of 21 wells in vineyard land-use settings. In 1994, 29 wells were sampled in almond land-use settings and 9 in vineyard land-use settings; an additional 11 wells were sampled along a flow path in the eastern Fresno County vineyard land-use area. Among the 79 wells sampled in 1995, 30 wells were in the corn, alfalfa, and vegetable land-use setting, and 1 well was in the vineyard land-use setting; an additional 20 were flow-path wells. Also sampled in 1995 were 28 wells used for a regional assessment of ground-water quality in the eastern San Joaquin Valley.

  10. Assessing the concentration, speciation, and toxicity of dissolved metals during mixing of acid-mine drainage and ambient river water downstream of the Elizabeth Copper Mine, Vermont, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balistrieri, L.S.; Seal, R.R., II; Piatak, N.M.; Paul, B.

    2007-01-01

    The authors determine the composition of a river that is impacted by acid-mine drainage, evaluate dominant physical and geochemical processes controlling the composition, and assess dissolved metal speciation and toxicity using a combination of laboratory, field and modeling studies. Values of pH increase from 3.3 to 7.6 and the sum of dissolved base metal (Cd + Co + Cu + Ni + Pb + Zn) concentrations decreases from 6270 to 100 ??g/L in the dynamic mixing and reaction zone that is downstream of the river's confluence with acid-mine drainage. Mixing diagrams and PHREEQC calculations indicate that mixing and dilution affect the concentrations of all dissolved elements in the reach, and are the dominant processes controlling dissolved Ca, K, Li, Mn and SO4 concentrations. Additionally, dissolved Al and Fe concentrations decrease due to mineral precipitation (gibbsite, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite), whereas dissolved concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn decrease due to adsorption onto newly formed Fe precipitates. The uptake of dissolved metals by aquatic organisms is dependent on the aqueous speciation of the metals and kinetics of complexation reactions between metals, ligands and solid surfaces. Dissolved speciation of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn in the mixing and reaction zone is assessed using the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique and results of speciation calculations using the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM). Data from open and restricted pore DGT units indicate that almost all dissolved metal species are inorganic and that aqueous labile or DGT available metal concentrations are generally equal to total dissolved concentrations in the mixing zone. Exceptions occur when labile metal concentrations are underestimated due to competition between H+ and metal ions for Chelex-100 binding sites in the DGT units at low pH values. Calculations using the BLM indicate that dissolved Cd and Zn species in the mixing and reaction zone are predominantly inorganic, which is consistent with the DGT results. Although the DGT method indicates that the majority of aqueous Cu species are inorganic, BLM calculations indicate that dissolved Cu is inorganic at pH 5.5. Integrated dissolved labile concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn in the mixing and reaction zone are compared to calculated acute toxicity concentrations (LC50 values) for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) (Cd, Cu and Zn) and water fleas (Ceriodaphnia dubia) (Cd and Cu) using the BLM, and to national recommended water quality criteria [i.e., criteria maximum concentration (CMC) and criterion continuous concentration (CCC)]. Observed labile concentrations of Cd and Zn are below LC50 values and CMC for Cd, but above CCC and CMC for Zn at sites <30 m downstream of the confluence. In contrast, labile Cu concentrations exceed LC50 values for the organisms as well as CCC and CMC at sites <30 m downstream of the confluence. These results suggest that environmental conditions at sites closest to the confluence of the river and acid-mine drainage should not support healthy aquatic organisms. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dissolved oxygen as an indicator of bioavailable dissolved organic carbon in groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Bradley, Paul M.; McMahon, Peter B.; Kaiser, Karl; Benner, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) plotted vs. dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in groundwater samples taken from a coastal plain aquifer of South Carolina (SC) showed a statistically significant hyperbolic relationship. In contrast, DO-DOC plots of groundwater samples taken from the eastern San Joaquin Valley of California (CA) showed a random scatter. It was hypothesized that differences in the bioavailability of naturally occurring DOC might contribute to these observations. This hypothesis was examined by comparing nine different biochemical indicators of DOC bioavailability in groundwater sampled from these two systems. Concentrations of DOC, total hydrolysable neutral sugars (THNS), total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA), mole% glycine of THAA, initial bacterial cell counts, bacterial growth rates, and carbon dioxide production/consumption were greater in SC samples relative to CA samples. In contrast, the mole% glucose of THNS and the aromaticity (SUVA254) of DOC was greater in CA samples. Each of these indicator parameters were observed to change with depth in the SC system in a manner consistent with active biodegradation. These results are uniformly consistent with the hypothesis that the bioavailability of DOC is greater in SC relative to CA groundwater samples. This, in turn, suggests that the presence/absence of a hyperbolic DO-DOC relationship may be a qualitative indicator of relative DOC bioavailability in groundwater systems.

  12. Selective Sorption of Dissolved Organic Carbon Compounds by Temperate Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Jagadamma, Sindhu; Mayes, Melanie; Phillips, Jana Randolph

    2012-01-01

    Physico-chemical sorption of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on soil minerals is one of the major processes of organic carbon (OC) stabilization in soils, especially in deeper layers. The attachment of C on soil solids is related to the reactivity of the soil minerals and the chemistry of the sorbate functional groups, but the sorption studies conducted without controlling microbial activity may overestimate the sorption potential of soil. This study was conducted to examine the sorptive characteristics of a diverse functional groups of simple OC compounds (D-glucose, L-alanine, oxalic acid, salicylic acid, and sinapyl alcohol) on temperate climate soil orders (Mollisols, Ultisols and Alfisols) with and without biological degradative processes. Equilibrium batch experiments were conducted using 0-100 mg C L-1 at a solid-solution ratio of 1:60 for 48 hrs and the sorption parameters were calculated by Langmuir model fitting. The amount of added compounds that remained in the solution phase was detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and total organic C (TOC) analysis. Soil sterilization was performed by -irradiation technique and experiments were repeated to determine the contribution of microbial degradation to apparent sorption. Overall, Ultisols did not show a marked preference for apparent sorption of any of the model compounds, as indicated by a narrower range of maximum sorption capacity (Smax) of 173-527 mg kg soil-1 across compounds. Mollisols exhibited a strong preference for apparent sorption of oxalic acid (Smax of 5290 mg kg soil-1) and sinapyl alcohol (Smax of 2031 mg kg soil-1) over the other compounds. The propensity for sorption of oxalic acid is mainly attributed to the precipitation of insoluble Ca-oxalate due to the calcareous nature of most Mollisol subsoils and its preference for sinapyl alcohol could be linked to the polymerization of this lignin monomer on 2:2 mineral dominated soils. The reactivity of Alfisols to DOC was in between that of Ultisols and Mollisols. HPLC results revealed significantly higher sorption of D-glucose and L-alanine than did TOC results, and duplicate experiments with sterilized soils confirmed that glucose and alanine were mineralized leading to higher apparent sorption values via HPLC. This study demonstrated that three common temperate soil orders experienced differential sorption of simple OC compounds, indicating that sorbate chemistry plays a significant role in the sorptive stabilization of DOC.

  13. Declines in dissolved silica concentrations in western Virginia streams (1988-2003): Gypsy moth defoliation stimulates diatoms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, Amy E.; Scanlon, Todd M.; Galloway, James N.

    2007-03-01

    Dissolved silica concentrations in western Virginia streams showed a significant bias toward declines (p < 0.0001) over the time period from 1988 to 2003. Streams with the greatest declines were those that had the highest mean dissolved silica concentrations, specific to watersheds underlain by basaltic and granitic bedrock. We examined potential geochemical, hydrological, and biological factors that could account for the observed widespread declines, focusing on six core watersheds where weekly stream chemistry data were available. No relationships were evident between stream water dissolved silica concentrations and pH, a finding supported by the results from a geochemical model applied to the dominant bedrock mineralogy. Along with changes in watershed acidity, changes in precipitation and discharge were also discounted since no significant trends were observed over the study period. Analyses of two longer-term data sets that extend back to 1979 revealed that the initiation of the dissolved silica declines coincided with the timing of a gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation event. We develop a conceptual model centered on benthic diatoms, which are found within each of the six core watersheds but in greater abundance in the more silica-rich streams. Gypsy moth defoliation led to greater sunlight penetration and enhanced nitrate concentrations in the streams, which could have spurred population growth and silica uptake. The model can explain why the observed declines are primarily driven by decreased concentrations during low-flow conditions. This study illustrates lasting effects of disturbance on watershed biogeochemistry, in this case causing decadal-scale variability in stream water dissolved silica concentrations.

  14. Isolation and chemical characterization of dissolved and particulate polysaccharides in Mikawa Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakugawa, Hiroshi; Handa, Nobuhiko

    1985-05-01

    Isolation and chemical elucidation of dissolved and particulate polysaccharides in seawater were conducted. The water samples were collected in Mikawa Bay, Japan during a red tide bloom of the dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum minimum. Dissolved polysaccharides were concentrated from 5-101 of seawater with dialysis followed by separation by gel flitration, and isolation by ethanol precipitation. A heteropolysaccharide consisting of glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, fucose and rhamnose and a glucan were isolated from the polysaccharide component having a molecular weight more than 4,000 Dalton and were characterized by several chemical analyses. The heteropolysaccharide is a mucilaginous polysaccharide having a highly branched structure and a molecular weight of 10 4-5 × 10 6 Daltons and probably contains a sulfate half ester: the glucan is a polysaccharide with ?-1,3- and 1,6-linkages (chrysolaminaran type). Concentrations of these were respectively ca. 20 and 67 ?g l -1 at 1 m, and 2 and 26 ?g l -1 at 6 m. A similar heteropolysaccharide was found in the boiling water extract of the particulate matter, while ?-glucan was isolated in a much less purified form than the seawater ?-glucan. In addition, a large amount of ?-1,4 glucan was found in the strong alkali extract of the particulate matter, indicating that this glucan must be a cell wall polysaccharide derived from phytoplankton. These results strongly suggest that the heteropolysaccharide and chrysolaminaran type polysaccharide dissolved in seawater were derived from water soluble carbohydrates of phytoplankton through extracellular release or cell lysis.

  15. Dissolved Gases and Ice Fracturing During the Freezing of a Multicellular Organism: Lessons from Tardigrades.

    PubMed

    Kletetschka, Gunther; Hruba, Jolana

    2015-01-01

    Three issues are critical for successful cryopreservation of multicellular material: gases dissolved in liquid, thermal conductivity of the tissue, and localization of microstructures. Here we show that heat distribution is controlled by the gas amount dissolved in liquids and that when changing the liquid into solid, the dissolved gases either form bubbles due to the absence of space in the lattice of solids and/or are migrated toward the concentrated salt and sugar solution at the cost of amount of heat required to be removed to complete a solid-state transition. These factors affect the heat distribution in the organs to be cryopreserved. We show that the gas concentration issue controls fracturing of ice when freezing. There are volumetric changes not only when changing the liquid into solid (volume increases) but also reduction of the volume when reaching lower temperatures (volume decreases). We discuss these issues parallel with observations of the cryosurvivability of multicellular organisms, tardigrades, and discuss their analogy for cryopreservation of large organs. PMID:26309797

  16. Dissolved Gases and Ice Fracturing During the Freezing of a Multicellular Organism: Lessons from Tardigrades

    PubMed Central

    Kletetschka, Gunther; Hruba, Jolana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Three issues are critical for successful cryopreservation of multicellular material: gases dissolved in liquid, thermal conductivity of the tissue, and localization of microstructures. Here we show that heat distribution is controlled by the gas amount dissolved in liquids and that when changing the liquid into solid, the dissolved gases either form bubbles due to the absence of space in the lattice of solids and/or are migrated toward the concentrated salt and sugar solution at the cost of amount of heat required to be removed to complete a solid-state transition. These factors affect the heat distribution in the organs to be cryopreserved. We show that the gas concentration issue controls fracturing of ice when freezing. There are volumetric changes not only when changing the liquid into solid (volume increases) but also reduction of the volume when reaching lower temperatures (volume decreases). We discuss these issues parallel with observations of the cryosurvivability of multicellular organisms, tardigrades, and discuss their analogy for cryopreservation of large organs. PMID:26309797

  17. Assessing time-integrated dissolved concentrations and predicting toxicity of metals during diel cycling in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Nimick, David A.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating water quality and the health of aquatic organisms is challenging in systems with systematic diel (24 h) or less predictable runoff-induced changes in water composition. To advance our understanding of how to evaluate environmental health in these dynamic systems, field studies of diel cycling were conducted in two streams (Silver Bow Creek and High Ore Creek) affected by historical mining activities in southwestern Montana. A combination of sampling and modeling tools was used to assess the toxicity of metals in these systems. Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (DGT) samplers were deployed at multiple time intervals during diel sampling to confirm that DGT integrates time-varying concentrations of dissolved metals. Site specific water compositions, including time-integrated dissolved metal concentrations determined from DGT, a competitive, multiple-toxicant biotic ligand model, and the Windemere Humic Aqueous Model Version 6.0 (WHAM VI) were used to determine the equilibrium speciation of dissolved metals and biotic ligands. The model results were combined with previously collected toxicity data on cutthroat trout to derive a relationship that predicts the relative survivability of these fish at a given site. This integrative approach may prove useful for assessing water quality and toxicity of metals to aquatic organisms in dynamic systems and evaluating whether potential changes in environmental health of aquatic systems are due to anthropogenic activities or natural variability.

  18. Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving films of levocitirizine di hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Prabhakara; Malli, Ravi; Koland, Marina; Vijaynarayana, K; D’Souza, Ullas; Harish, NM; Shastry, CS; Charyulu, RN

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Levocetirizine dihydrochloride is an orally active, third-generation non-sedative antihistamine used in the symptomatic relief of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. The present work aimed at preparing quick release films of levocetirizine with the purpose of developing a dosage form for a very quick onset of action, which is beneficial in managing severe conditions of allergies, aiding in the enhancement of bioavailability, and is very convenient for administration, without the problem of swallowing and using water. Materials and Methods: The films of levocetirizine dihydrochloride were prepared by using polymers such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), as either single polymer or in combination of two, by a solvent casting method. They were evaluated for physical characteristics such as uniformity of weight, thickness, folding endurance, drug content uniformity, surface pH, percentage elongation, and tensile strength, and gave satisfactory results. The formulations were subjected to disintegration, in vitro drug release tests, and in vivo studies on rats. Results: A marked increase in the dissolution rate was exhibited by fast-dissolving films of levocetirizine dihydrochloride containing HPMC as a polymer, when compared to conventional tablets. The haloperidol-induced catalepsy, milk-induced leukocytosis, and nasal provocation in vivo studies in rats proved that the fast-dissolving films of levocetirizine dihydrochloride produced a faster onset of action compared to the conventional tablets. Conclusions: Fast dissolving films of levocetirizine dihydrochloride can be considered suitable for clinical use in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and other conditions of allergies, where a quicker onset of action for a dosage form is desirable along with the convenience of administration. PMID:23071928

  19. Photochemical Flocculation of Terrestrial Dissolved Organic Matter (tDOM) and Iron: Mechanisms and Geochemical Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mopper, K.; Helms, J. R.; Mao, J.; Abdulla, H. A.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.

    2013-12-01

    Photoflocculation of DOM has received relatively little attention. No previous studies have examined the chemical composition of the flocs nor investigated the coagulation mechanisms. We observed that, after 30 days of simulated solar UV irradiation of 0.1-um filtered Great Dismal Swamp (Virginia) water, 7.1% of the DOC was converted to POC while 75% was remineralized. Approximately 87% of the iron was removed from the dissolved phase after 30 days, but iron did not flocculate until a major fraction of DOM was removed by photochemical degradation and flocculation (>10 days); thus, during the initial 10 days, there were sufficient organic ligands present and/or the pH was low enough to keep iron in solution. Although photoflocculation of iron did eventually occur, it is not clear if iron is required for the initial flocculation of DOM. Using NMR and FT-IR techniques, we found that photochemically flocculated POM was enriched in aliphatics and amide functionality relative to the residual non-flocculated DOM, while carbohydrate-like material was neither photochemical degraded nor flocculated. Based on this spectroscopic evidence, we propose several mechanisms for the formation of the flocs during irradiation. We also speculate that abiotic photochemical flocculation may remove a significant fraction of tDOM and iron from the upper water column between headwaters and the ocean, including estuaries. Fig. 1. Concentrations of dissolved (gray), particulate (black), and adsorbed (white) material as a function of irradiation time: (a) organic carbon, (b) absorption at 300 nm, (c) total iron by atomic absorption, and (d) total nitrogen. Error bars represent the combined standard deviations of the 'total,' 'dissolved,' and 'adsorbed' terms from which the 'particulate' term was calculated. Total nitrogen was not determined for the 'adsorbed' material

  20. Co-precipitation of dissolved organic matter by calcium carbonate in Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, Jerry A.; Reddy, Michael M.

    2008-01-01

    Our previous research has demonstrated that dissolved organic matter (DOM) influences calcium carbonate mineral formation in surface and ground water. To better understand DOM mediation of carbonate precipitation and DOM co-precipitation and/or incorporation with carbonate minerals, we characterized the content and speciation of DOM in carbonate minerals and in the lake water of Pyramid Lake, Nevada, USA. A 400-gram block of precipitated calcium carbonate from the Pyramid Lake shore was dissolved in 8 liters of 10% acetic acid. Particulate matter not dissolved by acetic acid was removed by centrifugation. DOM from the carbonate rock was fractionated into nine portions using evaporation, dialysis, resin adsorption, and selective precipitations to remove acetic acid and inorganic constituents. The calcium carbonate rock contained 0.23% DOM by weight. This DOM was enriched in polycarboxylic proteinaceous acids and hydroxy-acids in comparison with the present lake water. DOM in lake water was composed of aliphatic, alicyclic polycarboxylic acids. These compound classes were found in previous studies to inhibit calcium carbonate precipitation. DOM fractions from the carbonate rock were 14C-age dated at about 3,100 to 3,500 years before present. The mechanism of DOM co-precipitation and/or physical incorporation in the calcium carbonate is believed to be due to formation of insoluble calcium complexes with polycarboxylic proteinaceous acids and hydroxy-acids that have moderately large stability constants at the alkaline pH of the lake. DOM co-precipitation with calcium carbonate and incorporation in precipitated carbonate minerals removes proteinaceous DOM, but nearly equivalent concentrations of neutral and acidic forms of organic nitrogen in DOM remain in solution. Calcium carbonate precipitation during lime softening pretreatment of drinking water may have practical applications for removal of proteinaceous disinfection by-product precursors.

  1. Fractionation and characterization of saccharides and lignin components in wood prehydrolysis liquor from dissolving pulp production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojiang; Wang, Xiaojun; Jiang, Jungang; Fu, Yingjuan; Qin, Menghua

    2015-08-01

    Saccharides and lignin components in prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) from kraft-based dissolving pulp production was characterized after being fractionated using membrane filtration. The results showed that the membrane filtration provided a method for organics fractionation with considerable recovery rate, but exhibited some disadvantages. Besides the limited ability in purifying oligosaccharides (OS) due to the overlaps of molecular weight distribution with lignin components, the membrane filtration could not improve the homogeneity of OS as indicated by the analysis of chemical compositions and the degree of polymerization (DP), which may be ascribed to the linear conformation of OS. The characterization of lignin components indicated a great potential for polymer industry because of the remarkable content of phenolic hydroxyl groups (PhOH), especially for low molecular weight (LMW) fraction. It was concluded the organics in PHL provided streams of value-added chemicals. However, the practical significance thereof can be realized and maximized only when they are successfully and completely fractionated. PMID:25933538

  2. Tolerance of Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi to varying concentrations of dissolved oxygen and organic pollution*

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Rolando G.

    1972-01-01

    Ecological investigations were made of habitats containing natural populations of the snail Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi and of habitats free from the snail in the island of Leyte, Philippines. This species of snail is a vector of Schistosoma japonicum in the Philippines. Snail-infested habitats had dissolved oxygen levels of 3.8-9.85 ppm but snail-free habitats had levels of only 0.08-3.6 ppm. Snail-infested habitats were less polluted by organic matter than habitats that were snail-free. Larger numbers of chlorophyll-bearing algae were present in both the water and the soil of snail-infested habitats. Other factors, including temperature, pH, hydrogen carbonate alkalinity, and relative humidity, were also investigated. PMID:4538906

  3. Diurnal variations in, and influences on, concentrations of particulate and dissolved arsenic and metals in the mildly alkaline Wallkill River, New Jersey, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, J.L.; Wilson, T.P.; Szabo, Z.; Bonin, J.L.; Fischer, J.M.; Smith, N.P.

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal variations in particulate and dissolved As and metal concentrations were observed in mildly alkaline water from a wetlands site on the Wallkill River in northwestern New Jersey. The site, underlain by glacial sediments over dolomite bedrock, is 10 km downstream from a mined area of the Franklin Marble, host to Zn ores, also As and Mn minerals. In mid-September 2005, maxima and minima in dissolved-oxygen-concentration and pH, typically caused by photosynthesis and respiration, occurred at 2000 and 0800 hours. Concentrations of dissolved As (1.52-1.95 ??g/L) peaked at dusk (2000 hours), whereas dissolved Mn and Zn concentrations (76.5-96.9 and 8.55-12.8 ??g/L, respectively) were lowest at dusk and peaked at 1000 hours. These opposing cycles probably reflect sorption and desorption of As (an anion), and Mn and Zn (cations) as pH varied throughout the 24-h period. Doubly-peaked cycles of B, Cl, SO4, and nutrients also were observed; these may result from upstream discharges of septic-system effluent. Both recoverable amd particulate Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn concentrations peaked between 0200 and 0600 hours. The particulate metals cycle, with perturbations at 0400 hours, may be influenced by biological activity. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  4. 7 CFR 1413.113 - Deceased individuals or dissolved entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COMMODITY INCENTIVE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Durum Wheat Quality Program § 1413.113 Deceased individuals or dissolved entities. (a) Payment may be made for an...

  5. 7 CFR 1413.113 - Deceased individuals or dissolved entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COMMODITY INCENTIVE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Durum Wheat Quality Program § 1413.113 Deceased individuals or dissolved entities. (a) Payment may be made for an...

  6. 7 CFR 1413.113 - Deceased individuals or dissolved entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COMMODITY INCENTIVE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Durum Wheat Quality Program § 1413.113 Deceased individuals or dissolved entities. (a) Payment may be made for an...

  7. 7 CFR 1413.113 - Deceased individuals or dissolved entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COMMODITY INCENTIVE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Durum Wheat Quality Program § 1413.113 Deceased individuals or dissolved entities. (a) Payment may be made for an...

  8. Dissolved gaseous mercury behavior in shallow water estuaries 

    E-print Network

    Landin, Charles Melchor

    2009-05-15

    The formation of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) can be an important pathway for mercury removal from an aquatic environment. DGM evasional fluxes from an aquatic system can account for up to 95% of atmospheric Hg and its deposition pathways. While...

  9. Microbial production and consumption of marine dissolved organic matter

    E-print Network

    Becker, Jamie William

    2013-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are the principal producers of oceanic dissolved organic matter (DOM), the organic substrate responsible for secondary production by heterotrophic microbes in the sea. Despite the importance of DOM in ...

  10. The marine biogeochemistry of dissolved and colloidal iron

    E-print Network

    Fitzsimmons, Jessica Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Iron is a redox active trace metal micronutrient essential for primary production and nitrogen acquisition in the open ocean. Dissolved iron (dFe) has extremely low concentrations in marine waters that can drive phytoplankton ...

  11. The effect of membrane filtration on dissolved trace element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.; Lum, K.R.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hall, G.E.M.; Lemieux, C.; Demas, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    The almost universally accepted operational definition for dissolved constituents is based on processing whole-water samples through a 0.45-??m membrane filter. Results from field and laboratory experiments indicate that a number of factors associated with filtration, other than just pore size (e.g., diameter, manufacturer, volume of sample processed, amount of suspended sediment in the sample), can produce substantial variations in the 'dissolved' concentrations of such elements as Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, and Ni. These variations result from the inclusion/exclusion of colloidally- associated trace elements. Thus, 'dissolved' concentrations quantitated by analyzing filtrates generated by processing whole-water through similar pore- sized membrane filters may not be equal/comparable. As such, simple filtration through a 0.45-??m membrane filter may no longer represent an acceptable operational definition for dissolved chemical constituents. This conclusion may have important implications for environmental studies and regulatory agencies.

  12. FIELD MEASUREMENT OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN: A COMPARISON OF TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The measurement and interpretation of geochemical redox parameters are key components of ground water remedial investigations. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is perhaps the most robust geochemical parameter in redox characterization; however, recent work has indicated a need for proper da...

  13. DISSOLVED OXYGEN, TEMPERATURE, SURVIVAL OF YOUNG AT FISH SPAWNING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluctuations of dissolved oxygen concentrations and water temperatures in their natural spawning sites were measured during embryo through larva stages of northern pike (Esox lucius), and during embryo and sac larva stages of bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) and pumpkinseeds (Lepo...

  14. ORIGINAL PAPER Benthic sediment influence on dissolved phosphorus

    E-print Network

    Lottig, Noah R.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Benthic sediment influence on dissolved phosphorus concentrations in a headwater with inorganic sedi- ment particles through sorption reactions in streams. Collectively, this phosphorus (P determining ambi- ent stream P concentrations. Keywords Phosphorus retention Á Sediments Á Equilibrium

  15. COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation reviews several approaches for determining dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in drinking water. xperimental studies compared the accuracy and precision of DIC determination obtained by either direct analysis using a coulometric titration technique, or by comutatio...

  16. Hidden cycle of dissolved organic carbon in the deep ocean

    E-print Network

    Repeta, Daniel J.

    Marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a large (660 Pg C) reactive carbon reservoir that mediates the oceanic microbial food web and interacts with climate on both short and long timescales. Carbon isotopic content ...

  17. DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION TREATMENT OF GULF SHRIMP CANNERY WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study reports on the operation of a plant scale dissolved air flotation system installed to define and evaluate attainable shrimp cannery wastewater treatment levels. The system was operated in all three modes of DAF pressurization. Destabilizing coagulants investigation inc...

  18. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE VARIATION ON CRITICAL STREAM DISSOLVED OXYGEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The classical assumption that the lowest dissolved oxygen (DO) occurs at the highest temperature may not always hold. The DO saturation concentration decreases monotonically with increasing temperature, lowering the DO, but the reaeration coefficient increases monotonically with ...

  19. Prediction of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration profiles in tubular photobioreactors for microalgal culture

    PubMed

    Rubio; Fernandez; Perez; Camacho; Grima

    1999-01-01

    A model is developed for prediction of axial concentration profiles of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide in tubular photobioreactors used for culturing microalgae. Experimental data are used to verify the model for continuous outdoor culture of Porphyridium cruentum grown in a 200-L reactor with 100-m long tubular solar receiver. The culture was carried out at a dilution rate of 0.05 h-1 applied only during a 10-h daylight period. The quasi-steady state biomass concentration achieved was 3.0 g. L-1, corresponding to a biomass productivity of 1.5 g. L-1. d-1. The model could predict the dissolved oxygen level in both gas disengagement zone of the reactor and at the end of the loop, the exhaust gas composition, the amount of carbon dioxide injected, and the pH of the culture at each hour. In predicting the various parameters, the model took into account the length of the solar receiver tube, the rate of photosynthesis, the velocity of flow, the degree of mixing, and gas-liquid mass transfer. Because the model simulated the system behavior as a function of tube length and operational variables (superficial gas velocity in the riser, composition of carbon dioxide in the gas injected in the solar receiver and its injection rate), it could potentially be applied to rational design and scale-up of photobioreactors. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:10099515

  20. Impact of solute concentration on the electrocatalytic conversion of dissolved gases in buffered solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-08-01

    To maintain local pH levels near the electrode during electrochemical reactions, the use of buffer solutions is effective. Nevertheless, the critical effects of the buffer concentration on electrocatalytic performances have not been discussed in detail. In this study, two fundamental electrochemical reactions, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR), on a platinum rotating disk electrode are chosen as model gas-related aqueous electrochemical reactions at various phosphate concentrations. Our detailed investigations revealed that the kinetic and limiting diffusion current densities for both the ORR and HOR logarithmically decrease with increasing solute concentration (log |jORR | = - 0.39 c + 0.92 , log |jHOR | = - 0.35 c + 0.73) . To clarify the physical aspects of this phenomenon, the electrolyte characteristics are addressed: with increasing phosphate concentration, the gas solubility decrease, the kinematic viscosity of the solution increase and the diffusion coefficient of the dissolved gases decrease. The simulated limiting diffusion currents using the aforementioned parameters match the measured ones very well (log |jORR | = - 0.43 c + 0.99 , log |jHOR | = - 0.40 c + 0.54) , accurately describing the consequences of the electrolyte concentration. These alterations of the electrolyte properties associated with the solute concentration are universally applicable to other aqueous gas-related electrochemical reactions because the currents are purely determined by mass transfer of the dissolved gases.

  1. Photochemical Oxidation of Dissolved Elemental Mercury by Carbonate Radicals in Water

    SciTech Connect

    He, Feng; Zhao, Wenrong; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2014-01-01

    Photochemical oxidation of dissolved elemental mercury [Hg(0)] affects mercury chemical speciation and its transfer at the water-air interface in the aquatic environment. The mechanisms and factors that control Hg(0) photooxidation, however, are not completely understood, especially in natural freshwaters containing dissolved organic matter (DOM) and carbonate. Here, we evaluate Hg(0) photooxidation rates affected by various reactive ionic species [e.g., DOM, HCO3-, NO3-] and free radicals in a creek water and a phosphate buffer solution (pH=8) under simulated solar irradiation. We report a high Hg(0) photooxidation rate (k = 1.44 h-1) in the presence of both HCO3- and NO3-, whereas HCO3-, NO3-, or DOM alone increased the oxidation rate slightly (k = 0.1 0.17 h-1). Using scavengers and enhancers for singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydroxyl (HO ) radicals, as well as electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identify that carbonate radicals (CO3 -) primarily drive the Hg(0) photooxidation, whereas addition of DOM resulted in a 2-fold decrease in Hg(0) oxidation. This study identifies an unrecognized pathway of Hg(0) photooxidation by CO3 - radicals and the inhibitory effect of DOM, which could be important in assessing Hg transformation and fate in water containing carbonate such as hard water and seawater.

  2. Method for the determination of dissolved chloride, nitrate, and sulfate in natural water using ion chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brinton, Terry I.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Taylor, Howard E.

    1996-01-01

    Ion chromatography was used for the determination of dissolved chloride, nitrate and sulfate in natural water where concentrations ranged from a detection limit of 0.02 milligrams per liter to 80 milligrams per liter for chloride, to 18 milligrams per liter for nitrate, and to 280 milligrams per liter for sulfate. Specific conductance was the mode of detection used. Three analytical sample size loops of 11, 61, and 250 microliters, were used to include the analytical ranges described. U.S. Geological Survey Standard Reference Water Samples were analyzed to test the precision and accuracy of the analyses.

  3. Cooperative interactions of metal nanoparticles in the ion-exchange matrix with oxygen dissolved in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorolskaya, S. V.; Polyanskii, L. N.; Kravchenko, T. A.; Konev, D. V.

    2014-06-01

    The kinetics of the reduction of molecular oxygen dissolved in water with nanocomposites consisting of an ion-exchange matrix and copper nanoparticles deposited in it in various amounts was studied. As the metal content in the polymer increased, the amount of reduced oxygen initially increased and then reached the limiting value. At a certain metal content, ionization of individual particles with formation of metal counterions changes to the oxidation of particles assembly giving layers of oxide products. The mechanism changes at the percolation threshold of the electron conductivity of the nanocomposite and determines the maximum amount of absorbed oxygen.

  4. Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Pressure and Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Turbine-Passed Fish

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, Duane A.

    2009-09-14

    Migratory and resident fish in the Columbia River Basin are exposed to stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including changes in pressure as they pass through turbines and dissolved gas supersaturation (resulting from the release of water from the spillway). To examine pressure changes as a source of turbine-passage injury and mortality, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists conducted specific tests using a hyperbaric chamber. Tests were designed to simulate Kaplan turbine passage conditions and to quantify the response of fish to rapid pressure changes, with and without the complication of fish being acclimated to gas-supersaturated water.

  5. Dissolved Phosphorus Retention in Buffer Strips: Influence of Slope and Soil Type.

    PubMed

    Darch, T; Carswell, A; Blackwell, M S A; Hawkins, J M B; Haygarth, P M; Chadwick, D

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) contributes to eutrophication of surface waters and buffer strips may be implemented to reduce its transfer from agricultural sources to watercourses. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that soil type and slope influence the retention of dissolved organic P and inorganic orthophosphate in agricultural runoff in 2-m-wide buffer strip soils. A solution, comprised of dissolved orthophosphate and the organic P compounds glucose-1-phosphate, RNA, and inositol hexakisphosphate (1.8 mg L total P) and a chloride tracer, was applied as simulated overland flow to grassland soil blocks (2 m long × 0.5 m wide × 0.35 m deep), containing intact clay or loam soils, at slope angles of 2, 5, and 10°. Phosphorus forms were determined in the surface and subsurface flow from the soil blocks. Slope had no significant effect on the hydrological behavior of the soil blocks or on the retention of any form of P at the water application rate tested. The clay soil retained 60% of the unreactive P and 21% of the reactive P applied. The loam soil retained 74% of the unreactive P applied but was a net source of reactive P (the load increased by 61%). This indicates leaching of native soil P or hydrolysis of organic compounds and complicates our understanding of P retention in buffer strip soils. Our results suggest that a 2-m buffer strip may be more effective for reducing dissolved unreactive P transfers to surface waters than for reducing the eutrophication risk posed by dissolved reactive P. PMID:26437103

  6. Biochar amendment to soil changes dissolved organic matter content and composition.

    PubMed

    Smebye, Andreas; Alling, Vanja; Vogt, Rolf D; Gadmar, Tone C; Mulder, Jan; Cornelissen, Gerard; Hale, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    Amendments of biochar, a product of pyrolysis of biomass, have been shown to increase fertility of acidic soils by enhancing soil properties such as pH, cation-exchange-capacity and water-holding-capacity. These parameters are important in the context of natural organic matter contained in soils, of which dissolved organic matter (DOM) is the mobile and most bioavailable fraction. The effect of biochar on the content and composition of DOM in soils has received little research attention. This study focuses on the effects of amendments of two different biochars to an acidic acrisol and a pH-neutral brown soil. A batch experiment showed that mixing biochar with the acrisols at a 10wt.% dose increased the pH from 4.9 to 8.7, and this resulted in a 15-fold increase in the dissolved organic carbon concentration (from 4.5 to 69mgL(-1)). The pH-increase followed the same trend as the release of DOM in the experiment, causing higher DOM solubility and desorption of DOM from mineral sites. The binding to biochar of several well-characterised reference DOM materials was also investigated and results showed a higher sorption of aliphatic DOM to biochar than aromatic DOM, with DOM-water partitioning coefficients (Kd-values) ranging from 0.2 to 590Lkg(-1). A size exclusion occurring in biochar's micropores, could result in a higher sorption of smaller aliphatic DOM molecules than larger aromatic ones. These findings indicate that biochar could increase the leaching of DOM from soil, as well as change the DOM composition towards molecules with a larger size and higher aromaticity. PMID:25980657

  7. Dissolved carbonic anhydrase for enhancing post-combustion carbon dioxide hydration in aqueous ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, James R.; Heck, Robert W.; Zwoster, Andy

    2011-04-01

    Aqueous ammonia solvents that capture CO2 as ionic complexes of carbonates with ammonium have recently been advanced as alternatives to amine-based solvents due to their lower energy requirements for thermal regeneration. In ammonia based solvents, the hydration of CO2 to form bicarbonate may become a rate-limiting step as the CO2 loading increases and the resulting pH level of the solvent decreases. Variants of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase can accelerate the reversible hydration of CO2 to yield bicarbonate by more than 10(6)-fold. The possible benefit of bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA) addition to solutions of aqueous ammonia to enhance CO2 hydration was investigated in semi-batch reactions within continuously stirred tank reactors or in a bubble column gas-liquid contactor. Adding 154 mg/liter of BCA to 2 M aqueous ammonia provided a 34.1% overall increase in the rate of CO2 hydration (as indicated by the production of [H+]) as the pH declined from 9.6 to 8.6 during sparging with a 15% CO2, 85% N-2 gas at a flow rate of 3 lpm. The benefits of adding BCA to enhance CO2 hydration were only discernable below similar to pH 9. The implications of the apparent pH limitations on the utility of BCA are discussed in the context of absorber unit operation design. Possible embodiments of carbonic anhydrase as either an immobilized catalyst or as a dissolved, recirculating catalyst in potential plant scale aqueous ammonia systems are considered as well. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Characterization of Urban Runoff Pollution between Dissolved and Particulate Phases

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhang; Simin, Li; Fengbing, Tang

    2013-01-01

    To develop urban stormwater management effectively, characterization of urban runoff pollution between dissolved and particulate phases was studied by 12 rainfall events monitored for five typical urban catchments. The average event mean concentration (AEMC) of runoff pollutants in different phases was evaluated. The AEMC values of runoff pollutants in different phases from urban roads were higher than the ones from urban roofs. The proportions of total dissolved solids, total dissolved nitrogen, and total dissolved phosphorus in total ones for all the catchments were 26.19%–30.91%, 83.29%–90.51%, and 61.54–68.09%, respectively. During rainfall events, the pollutant concentration at the initial stage of rainfall was high and then sharply decreased to a low value. Affected by catchments characterization and rainfall distribution, the highest concentration of road pollutants might appear in the later period of rainfall. Strong correlations were also found among runoffs pollutants in different phases. Total suspended solid could be considered as a surrogate for particulate matters in both road and roof runoff, while dissolved chemical oxygen demand could be regarded as a surrogate for dissolved matters in roof runoff. PMID:23935444

  9. On the losses of dissolved CO(2) during champagne serving.

    PubMed

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Bourget, Marielle; Villaume, Sandra; Jeandet, Philippe; Pron, Hervé; Polidori, Guillaume

    2010-08-11

    Pouring champagne into a glass is far from being consequenceless with regard to its dissolved CO(2) concentration. Measurements of losses of dissolved CO(2) during champagne serving were done from a bottled Champagne wine initially holding 11.4 +/- 0.1 g L(-1) of dissolved CO(2). Measurements were done at three champagne temperatures (i.e., 4, 12, and 18 degrees C) and for two different ways of serving (i.e., a champagne-like and a beer-like way of serving). The beer-like way of serving champagne was found to impact its concentration of dissolved CO(2) significantly less. Moreover, the higher the champagne temperature is, the higher its loss of dissolved CO(2) during the pouring process, which finally constitutes the first analytical proof that low temperatures prolong the drink's chill and helps it to retain its effervescence during the pouring process. The diffusion coefficient of CO(2) molecules in champagne and champagne viscosity (both strongly temperature-dependent) are suspected to be the two main parameters responsible for such differences. Besides, a recently developed dynamic-tracking technique using IR thermography was also used in order to visualize the cloud of gaseous CO(2) which flows down from champagne during the pouring process, thus visually confirming the strong influence of champagne temperature on its loss of dissolved CO(2). PMID:20681665

  10. Utilizing Colored Dissolved Organic Matter to Derive Dissolved Black Carbon Export by Arctic Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbins, Aron; Spencer, Robert; Mann, Paul; Holmes, R.; McClelland, James; Niggemann, Jutta; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2015-10-01

    Wildfires have produced black carbon (BC) since land plants emerged. Condensed aromatic compounds, a form of BC, have accumulated to become a major component of the soil carbon pool. Condensed aromatics leach from soils into rivers, where they are termed dissolved black carbon (DBC). The transport of DBC by rivers to the sea is a major term in the global carbon and BC cycles. To estimate Arctic river DBC export, 25 samples collected from the six largest Arctic rivers (Kolyma, Lena, Mackenzie, Ob’, Yenisey and Yukon) were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and DBC. A simple, linear regression between DOC and DBC indicated that DBC accounted for 8.9 ± 0.3% DOC exported by Arctic rivers. To improve upon this estimate, an optical proxy for DBC was developed based upon the linear correlation between DBC concentrations and CDOM light absorption coefficients at 254 nm (a254). Relatively easy to measure a254 values were determined for 410 Arctic river samples between 2004 and 2010. Each of these a254 values was converted to a DBC concentration based upon the linear correlation, providing an extended record of DBC concentration. The extended DBC record was coupled with daily discharge data from the six rivers to estimate riverine DBC loads using the LOADEST modeling program. The six rivers studied cover 53% of the pan-Arctic watershed and exported 1.5 ± 0.1 million tons of DBC per year. Scaling up to the full area of the pan-Arctic watershed, we estimate that Arctic rivers carry 2.8 ± 0.3 million tons of DBC from land to the Arctic Ocean each year. This equates to ~8% of Arctic river DOC export, slightly less than indicated by the simpler DBC vs DOC correlation-based estimate. Riverine discharge is predicted to increase in a warmer Arctic. DBC export was positively correlated with river runoff, suggesting that the export of soil BC to the Arctic Ocean is likely to increase as the Arctic warms.

  11. Dissolved carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations in purge of vacuum-packaged pork chops and the relationship to shelf life and models for estimating microbial populations.

    PubMed

    Adams, K R; Niebuhr, S E; Dickson, J S

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the dissolved CO2 and O2 concentrations in the purge of vacuum-packaged pork chops over a 60 day storage period, and to elucidate the relationship of dissolved CO2 and O2 to the microbial populations and shelf life. As the populations of spoilage bacteria increased, the dissolved CO2 increased and the dissolved O2 decreased in the purge. Lactic acid bacteria dominated the spoilage microflora, followed by Enterobacteriaceae and Brochothrix thermosphacta. The surface pH decreased to 5.4 due to carbonic acid and lactic acid production before rising to 5.7 due to ammonia production. A mathematical model was developed which estimated microbial populations based on dissolved CO2 concentrations. Scanning electron microscope images were also taken of the packaging film to observe the biofilm development. The SEM images revealed a two-layer biofilm on the packaging film that was the result of the tri-phase growth environment. PMID:26143235

  12. The pH Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Describes a game that can be used to teach students about the acidity of liquids and substances around their school and enable them to understand what pH levels tell us about the environment. Students collect samples and measure the pH of water, soil, plants, and other natural material. (DDR)

  13. Seasonal Changes in Arctic Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boot, C. M.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Schimel, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic is a landscape in flux. Temperatures are shifting upward and plant communities are transitioning from tussock to shrub tundra in some regions. Decomposition processes sensitive to temperature, moisture, and plant inputs are controls on the source/sink dynamics of the Arctic C pool. The response of decomposition to warming will, in part, determine if the Arctic C pool feeds back positively or negatively to climate change. The portion of the C pool immediately available to decomposers is dissolved organic matter (DOM). The aim of this is study is to examine the molecular composition of DOM to determine which components vary seasonally in soil pore water among three vegetation types at Toolik Field Station in Alaska. Vegetation types include wet sedge (Carex aquatilis and Eriophorum angustifolium), moist acidic tussock (E. vaginatum) and shrub tundra (Betula nana and Salix sp.). These sites were sampled during winter/summer transitions in 2010 in order to capture both growing season and winter dynamics. We expected the chemical composition of DOM in pore water to be distinct among plant communities due to differences in root exudates, litter chemistry and microbial community; and vary seasonally due to shifting temperature and water availability and their impacts on decomposition of DOM. Soil pore water was isolated through centrifugation and is being characterized with ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) in line with a quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer (QTOF-MS) as well as with specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA), and excitation emission matrices (EEMs) generated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The DOM concentrations across vegetation types show consistent seasonal patterns, spiking at thaw, and declining through late summer. As soils freeze these patterns diverge-in tussock soils DOM concentration decreases slightly, while in shrub and wet sedge sites it increases. SUVA values (indicator of aromaticity) were consistent among vegetation types across seasons; starting low in late winter and at thaw, increasing over the course of the summer and decreasing at the summer to winter transition. Metabolite profiles generated with UPLC-MS were evaluated using principle component analysis. Sampling date explained the most variation in this dataset, with metabolite profiles of the DOM most different in the summer to winter transition. Over 6000 mass features were detected in the metabolite profiles and at least 1500 of these features were significantly different between late summer and early winter. Fluorescence EEMs have been collected for the complete dataset and analysis is underway. Overall, these data suggest the composition of DOM varies more due to season than vegetation type, with changes in quantity, aromaticity, and shifts in the metabolite profiles occurring at seasonal transitions. Efforts are continuing to identify some of the most variable components with MS and EEMs data. By understanding which chemical components of DOM shift seasonally, we can anticipate what portions of the DOM are most subject to change in a warming arctic; and how the gain/loss of those components will play into the sink/source C dynamics under future climate scenarios.

  14. Photoionization study of PH: PH/sub 2/ revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Cho, H.

    1989-01-01

    The photoion yield curve of PH/sup +/ (PH) is presented, from threshold to 1040 A. The adiabatic ionization potential of PH is 10.149 +- 0.008 eV. Extensive autoionization structure is observed and analyzed. It is attributed to several Rydberg series, whose mutual convergence limit is 11.852 +- 0.002 eV, and corresponds to the onset of PH/sup +/ (a /sup 4/..sigma../sup -/). The photoion yield curve of AsH/sup +/ (AsH) is juxtaposed, and shown to have a similar pattern. A new photoion yield curve of PH/sup +//sub 2/ (PH/sub 2/) is shown, where the source of PH/sub 2/ is the H+PH/sub 3/ reaction. The new results corroborate the earlier data (based on the pyrolysis of benzylphosphine) regarding the adiabatic ionization potential of PH/sub 2/ to form X /sup 1/A/sub 1/, and the presence of broad autoionizing structure. They also display less scatter, and enable one to estimate the onset for a-italic-tilde /sup 3/B/sub 1/ to be about 0.70 eV above X /sup 1/A/sub 1/. From the analogous behavior of the AsH/sup +//sub 2/ (AsH/sub 2/) curve, the a /sup 3/B/sub 1/--X /sup 1/A/sub 1/ splitting in AsH/sup +//sub 2/ is estimated to be 0.58--0.68 eV.

  15. Influence of cations on noncovalent interactions between 6-propionyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (PRODAN) and dissolved fulvic and humic acids.

    PubMed

    Gadad, Praveen; Nanny, Mark A

    2008-12-01

    The influence of cations (Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) on noncovalent interactions between 6-propionyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (PRODAN) and dissolved fulvic acids (FAs) (Norman landfill leachate fulvic acid (NLFA) and Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA)) and dissolved humic acids (HAs) (Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA) and Leonardite humic acid (LHA)) was examined using steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy at pH 4, 7 and 10 as a function of cation concentration (up to 25-100mM). Regardless of pH and cation concentration, PRODAN quenching by FA was unaffected by cations. However, interactions between PRODAN and HA decreased in the presence of cations at pH 7 and 10. Cation concentrations below the HA charge density resulted in the greatest decrease of PRODAN quenching, while very little additional decrease in PRODAN quenching occurred at cation concentrations above the HA charge density. This suggests that as the HA carboxylic acid functional groups form inner sphere complexes with divalent cations, intramolecular interactions result in a contraction of the HA molecular structure, thereby preventing PRODAN from associating with the condensed aromatic, electron accepting moieties inherent within HA molecules and responsible for PRODAN quenching. However, once the HA carboxylic acid functional groups are fully titrated with divalent cations, PRODAN quenching is no longer significantly influenced by the further addition of cations, even though these additional cations facilitate intermolecular interactions between the HA molecules to form supramolecular HA aggregates that can continue to increase in size. Regardless of FA and HA type, pH, cation type and concentration, the lack of blue-shifted fluorescence emission spectra indicated that micelle-like hydrophobic regions, amenable to PRODAN partitioning, were not formed by intra- and intermolecular interactions of FA and HA. PMID:18849058

  16. Influence of pH on Phosphorus Retention in Oxidized Lake Sediments O. G. Olila* and K. R. Reddy

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Influence of pH on Phosphorus Retention in Oxidized Lake Sediments O. G. Olila* and K. R. Reddy ABSTRACT Diel pH changes in lake waters resulting from high photosynthetic activity may regulate water studies were conducted to determine the pH effect on P fractions and P sorption kinetics in oxidized

  17. Dissolved Oxygen in Allen CreekDissolved Oxygen in Allen Creek Dissolved oxygen (DO) enters the water by diffusion from air, as a by-product of photosynthesis and

    E-print Network

    Tyler, Christy

    Dissolved Oxygen in Allen CreekDissolved Oxygen in Allen Creek Dissolved oxygen (DO) enters and rapids. There is an inverse relationship between temperature and DO, i.e. colder water holds more oxygen it supplies oxygen to aquatic organisms. Higher DO levels also give the water a better taste. Figure 2. During

  18. Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) From Different Composts: Comparative Study Of Properties And Allelochemical Effects On Horticultural Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traversa, A.; Loffredo, E.; Gattullo, C. E.; Senesi, N.

    2009-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) from compost has a major role in numerous chemical and biological processes occurring in the bulk substrate or compost amended soil, and can exert allelochemical effects on plant germination and growth. The objectives of this study were: (i) to investigate comparatively the main properties of three DOM fractions isolated from a green compost (DOMGC), a mixed compost (DOMMC) and a green coffee compost (DOMGCC), and (ii) to evaluate their allelochemical effects on the germination and early growth of two horticultural plants of worldwide interest such as tomato and lettuce. The DOM was extracted from each compost with distilled water (1/10 w/v) under mechanical shaking for 15 min. The suspension was then centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 15 min and filtered sequentially through filters with decreasing particle size retention (from 11 to 0.45 ?m). Each DOM sample was characterized by means of pH, electrical conductivity, total organic carbon (TOC), E4/E6 ratio, fluorescence and FT IR spectroscopies and HPLC analysis. Comparative evaluation of the three DOM samples indicated the occurrence of significant differences among them. In particular, the pH value was similar and close to neutrality for DOMMC and DOMGC, whereas it resulted alkaline (pH 8.3) for DOMGCC. The EC values were also similar (about 3.2 mS/cm) for DOMMC and DOMGC and almost half value for DOMGCC. The TOC content, the E4/E6 ratio, the ?280 value and the humification index followed the same order: DOMGCC>DOMMC>DOMGC. The fluorescence analysis of the three DOM samples showed the presence of a common fluorophore unit associated to simple aromatic units such as phenolic-like, hydroxy-substituted benzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives. The peak wavelengths observed in the fluorescence emission, excitation and synchronous scan spectra of DOMGCC were generally higher than those of the two other DOM samples, which can be ascribed to a more extended aromatic system of the former. The FT IR spectra of all DOM samples indicated the presence of aromatic phenolic structures, while the HPLC chromatograms suggested the presence of benzoic acid derivatives such as phthalic and salicylic acids. Seed germination and seedling early growth were performed in a Phytotron growth chamber at 23 ± 1 °C. Sets of 10 seeds of tomato and lettuce were separately placed on filter paper in Petri dishes and added with 3 ml of distilled water (control) and each DOM sample diluted in distilled water at ratios of 1:10 and 1:2. After 6 or 4 days, respectively for tomato and lettuce, the number of germinated seed, the length of primary root and shoot, and the fresh and dry weights of seedlings were measured. All experiments were replicated five times, and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the least significant differences test (LSD). The percentage of germinated seeds was not altered by the presence of any DOM sample at the two doses. Conversely, significant allelochemical effects were produced by DOM on seedling early growth, in the order DOMGC > DOMMC > DOMGCC, particularly at the higher dose. The maximum stimulation of tomato growth was exerted by DOMGC at the higher dose with increases of 79 and 68%, respectively, for primary shoot length and seedling fresh weight. In the case of lettuce, these parameters increased to a maximum of 86 and 39% in the treatments with DOMMC and DOMGC, respectively, at the higher dose. Finally, significant correlations were obtained between the allelochemical effects and the DOM properties considered.

  19. Retail promotions and perceptions of R.J. Reynolds' novel dissolvable tobacco in a US test market

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With declining cigarette sales, tobacco manufacturers have been developing and marketing new smokeless products, such as R. J. Reynolds' dissolvable tobacco, Camel Sticks, Strips and Orbs. This study assessed the availability, price and point-of-purchase promotional strategies for Camel Dissolvables, and investigated consumer awareness, interest and perception of these products in the Indiana test market. Methods An exploratory retail audit of point-of-purchase promotions was conducted in a random sample of retailers from 6 store categories (n = 81) in the test market area. Data included: store type, location, product placement, forms/flavors carried, price, types and locations of advertisements and promotions, and ad messages. An Awareness-Attitude-Usage (AAU) survey was used to gauge consumer awareness and knowledge of tobacco products including Camel Dissolvables. Respondents were shown promotional materials from a package onsert and perceptions and interest in the Camel Dissolvables were assessed. An Intended Target Survey (ITS) compared subjects' perceptions of ad targets for several non-tobacco products, as well as Camel Snus, Camel No. 9 and Camel Dissolvables. Respondents were asked to identify each ad's intended target category, perceived targetedness, and purchase intent. Results The products were carried by 46% of stores, most frequently gas stations (100%) and convenience stores (75%). They were shelved near smokeless tobacco (70%), cigarettes (25%) or candy (5%). Prices ranged from $3.59 -$4.19 per package; most stores carried at least 1 promotional item. Ad messages included: "Dissolvable Tobacco" (60%). "Free Trial" (24%), "Special Price" (24%), "What's Your Style?" (22%). At 14% of stores, free trial packs of Camel Dissolvables were offered with another Camel purchase. Awareness was reported by 42% of respondents (n = 243), and trial by 3%. Consumer interest was very low, but younger respondents (< 40 years) were more familiar with Camel Dissolvables (60% vs. 45% for those > 40 years, p < .01). Males, as well as current and former smokers had higher rates of interest and trial; only 1% of never smokers reported trial. In the ITS, only for the 3 tobacco product ads, was perceived targetedness for smokers significantly higher than for non-smokers. Smokers and nonsmokers perceived that the ads targeted smokers. Conclusions Current retail promotional strategies for Camel Sticks, Strips & Orbs appear to be targeting a select audience, primarily current smokers. Overall, consumer awareness, interest and trial were low. PMID:21569637

  20. Increases in dissolved organic carbon accelerate loss of toxic Al in Adirondack lakes recovering from acidification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Dukett, James E; Houck, Nathan; Snyder, Phillip; Capone, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing pH and decreasing Al in surface waters recovering from acidification have been accompanied by increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and associated organic acids that partially offset pH increases and complicate assessments of recovery from acidification. To better understand the processes of recovery, monthly chemistry from 42 lakes in the Adirondack region, NY, collected from 1994 to 2011, were used to (1) evaluate long-term changes in DOC and associated strongly acidic organic acids and (2) use the base-cation surplus (BCS) as a chemical index to assess the effects of increasing DOC concentrations on the Al chemistry of these lakes. Over the study period, the BCS increased (p < 0.01) and concentrations of toxic inorganic monomeric Al (IMAl) decreased (p < 0.01). The decreases in IMAl were greater than expected from the increases in the BCS. Higher DOC concentrations that increased organic complexation of Al resulted in a decrease in the IMAl fraction of total monomeric Al from 57% in 1994 to 23% in 2011. Increasing DOC concentrations have accelerated recovery in terms of decreasing toxic Al beyond that directly accomplished by reducing atmospheric deposition of strong mineral acids.

  1. Performance of ANFIS versus MLP-NN dissolved oxygen prediction models in water quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Najah, A; El-Shafie, A; Karim, O A; El-Shafie, Amr H

    2014-02-01

    We discuss the accuracy and performance of the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) in training and prediction of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations. The model was used to analyze historical data generated through continuous monitoring of water quality parameters at several stations on the Johor River to predict DO concentrations. Four water quality parameters were selected for ANFIS modeling, including temperature, pH, nitrate (NO3) concentration, and ammoniacal nitrogen concentration (NH3-NL). Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of the input parameters. The inputs with the greatest effect were those related to oxygen content (NO3) or oxygen demand (NH3-NL). Temperature was the parameter with the least effect, whereas pH provided the lowest contribution to the proposed model. To evaluate the performance of the model, three statistical indices were used: the coefficient of determination (R (2)), the mean absolute prediction error, and the correlation coefficient. The performance of the ANFIS model was compared with an artificial neural network model. The ANFIS model was capable of providing greater accuracy, particularly in the case of extreme events. PMID:23949111

  2. The relationship between the dissolved inorganic carbon concentration and growth rate in marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, D R; Flynn, K J

    2000-01-01

    A range of marine phytoplankton was grown in closed systems in order to investigate the kinetics of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) use and the influence of the nitrogen source under conditions of constant pH. The kinetics of DIC use could be described by a rectangular hyperbolic curve, yielding estimations of KG(DIC) (the half saturation constant for carbon-specific growth, i.e. C mu) and mu max (the theoretical maximum C mu). All species attained a KG(DIC) within the range of 30-750 microM DIC. For most species, NH4+ use enabled growth with a lower KG(DIC) and/or, for two species, an increase in mu max. At DIC concentrations of > 1.6 mM, C mu was > 90% saturated for all species relative to the rate at the natural seawater DIC concentration of 2.0 mM. The results suggest that neither the rate nor the extent of primary productivity will be significantly limited by the DIC in the quasi-steady-state conditions associated with oligotrophic oceans. The method needs to be applied in the conditions associated with dynamic coastal (eutrophic) systems for clarification of a potential DIC rate limitation where cells may grow to higher densities and under variable pH and nitrogen supply. PMID:10874743

  3. Effect of membrane filtration artifacts on dissolved trace element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, Arthur J.; Elrick, Kent A.; Colberg, Mark R.

    1992-01-01

    Among environment scientists, the current and almost universally accepted definition of dissolved constituents is an operational one; only those materials which pass through a 0.45-??m membrane filter are considered to be dissolved. Detailed laboratory and field studies on Fe and Al indicate that a number of factors associated with filtration, other than just pore size, can substantially alter 'dissolved' trace element concentrations; these include: filter type, filter diameter, filtration method, volume of sample processed, suspended sediment concentration, suspended sediment grain-size distribution, concentration of colloids and colloidally associated trace elements and concentration of organic matter. As such, reported filtered-water concentrations employing the same pore size filter may not be equal. Filtration artifacts may lead to the production of chemical data that indicate seasonal or annual 'dissolved' chemical trends which do not reflect actual environmental conditions. Further, the development of worldwide averages for various dissolved chemical constituents, the quantification of geochemical cycles, and the determination of short- or long-term environmental chemical trends may be subject to substantial errors, due to filtration artifacts, when data from the same or multiple sources are combined. Finally, filtration effects could have a substantial impact on various regulatory requirements.

  4. Quantification of dissolved iron sources to the North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Conway, Tim M; John, Seth G

    2014-07-10

    Dissolved iron is an essential micronutrient for marine phytoplankton, and its availability controls patterns of primary productivity and carbon cycling throughout the oceans. The relative importance of different sources of iron to the oceans is not well known, however, and flux estimates from atmospheric dust, hydrothermal vents and oceanic sediments vary by orders of magnitude. Here we present a high-resolution transect of dissolved stable iron isotope ratios (?(56)Fe) and iron concentrations ([Fe]) along a section of the North Atlantic Ocean. The different iron sources can be identified by their unique ?(56)Fe signatures, which persist throughout the water column. This allows us to calculate the relative contribution from dust, hydrothermal venting and reductive and non-reductive sedimentary release to the dissolved phase. We find that Saharan dust aerosol is the dominant source of dissolved iron along the section, contributing 71-87 per cent of dissolved iron. Additional sources of iron are non-reductive release from oxygenated sediments on the North American margin (10-19 per cent), reductive sedimentary dissolution on the African margin (1-4 per cent) and hydrothermal venting at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (2-6 per cent). Our data also indicate that hydrothermal vents in the North Atlantic are a source of isotopically light iron, which travels thousands of kilometres from vent sites, potentially influencing surface productivity. Changes in the relative importance of the different iron sources through time may affect interactions between the carbon cycle and climate. PMID:25008528

  5. Asad Umar, DVM, PhD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Asad Umar received his PhD in Biochemistry and Immunology at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD, in 1993. He conducted his postdoctoral training in the laboratories of Patricia Gearhart in Baltimore, MD and Thomas Kunkel at the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences in Research Triangle Park, NC. Dr.

  6. Amr Abdelrahman, PhD Professor of Concrete Structures,

    E-print Network

    Amr Abdelrahman, PhD Professor of Concrete Structures, Structural Engineering Dept., Ain Shams Behavior and Design of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Structures and Masonry Wall Design. He conducts concrete members and design of prestressed concrete members. He is a member in the Egyptian Code for Design

  7. PhDs by Publications: An "Easy Way Out"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niven, Penelope; Grant, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    PhDs by publications are a relatively new model for doctoral research, especially in the context of the Humanities or Education. This paper describes two writers' experiences of conducting doctoral studies in this genre and in these faculties. Each discover alternative ways of employing a body of published research papers in development of an…

  8. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soil extracts investigated by FT-ICR-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, D.; Steffen, D.; Jablonowski, N. D.; Burauel, P.

    2012-04-01

    Soil drying and rewetting usually increases the release of xenobiotics like pesticides present in agricultural soils. Besides the effect on the release of two aged 14C-labeled pesticide residues we focus on the characterisation of simultaneously remobilized dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to gain new insights into structure and stability aspects of soil organic carbon fractions. The test soil (gleyic cambisol; Corg 1.2%, pH 7.2) was obtained from the upper soil layer of two individual outdoor lysimeter studies containing either environmentally long-term aged 14C residues of the herbicide ethidimuron (0-10 cm depth; time of aging: 9 years) or methabenzthiazuron (0-30 cm depth; time of aging: 17 years). Soil samples (10 g dry soil equivalents) were (A=dry/wet) previously dried (45°C) or (B=wet/wet) directly mixed with pure water (1+2, w:w), shaken (150 rpm, 1 h), and centrifuged (2000 g). This extraction procedure was repeated several individual times, for both setups. The first three individual extractions, respectively were used for further investigations. Salt was removed from samples prior analysis because of a possible quench effect in the electrospray (ESI) source by solid phase extraction (SPE) with Chromabond C18 Hydra-cartridges (Macherey-Nagel) and methanol as backextraction solvent. The so preconcentrated and desalted samples were introduced by flow injection analysis (FIA) in a fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS), equipped with an ESI source and a 7 T supra-conducting magnet (LTQ-FT Ultra, ThermoFisher Scientific). This technique is the key technique for complex natural systems attributed by their outstanding mass resolution (used 400.000 at m/z 400 Da) and mass accuracy (? 1ppm) by simultaneously providing molecular level details of thousands of compounds and was successful applied for the investigations of natural organic matter (NOM) different sources like marine and surface water, soil, sediment, bog and crude oil. The characteristics of measured DOM mass spectra were demonstrated. Furthermore, an algorithm to compute all chemically relevant C,H,O-, C,H,(O,S),N- as well as C,H,(O),S molecular compositions, designed and exercised by ourself using Scilab routines, was used for entire structure elucidation. Various methods for data evaluation of such an amount of peaks are applied to describe the characteristics of DOC. The van Krevelen diagram is widely used to classify the DOC compounds regarding polarity and aromaticity, whereas the Kendrick diagram allow to identify ions with elemental formulas that differ only in CH2, and molecular formulas with similar Kendrick Mass Defect (KMD) can be sorted by nominal mass series. Both kind of diagrams were developed and results are discussed together with the findings of ETD, MBT, and metabolites after soil drying and rewetting. Overall, the results suggest that intermittent soil drying and rewetting alters the disaggregation of soil aggregates, resulting in a release of entrapped organic carbon as well as pesticide molecules.

  9. Dissolved Organic Matter Along a North South Transect of the Yenisei River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, V.; Dittmar, T.; Gaupp, R.; Gleixner, G.

    2012-12-01

    The molecular composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) contains important information on properties and processes like decomposition in terrestrial and aquatic systems. To explore the source characteristics of DOM in relation to environmental factors, tributaries and bogs along the Yenisei River between 56° N near Krasnoyarsk and 68° N at Khantayka River were sampled. This includes a transect of 1000 km across a climatic gradient with different vegetation zones and permafrost influence. The sampling took place in July and August 1998 during the one-month BOBCAT (Boat on a Boreal Carbon Tour) campaign of the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry (Jena, Germany) and the Institute of Forest (Krasnoyarsk, Russia). After filtration with GF/F, the samples were freeze-dried for following analysis. To unravel the complexity of DOM in our samples on a molecular basis, we applied Electrospray Ionization Fourier-Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (ESI-FT-ICR-MS). For ESI-FT-ICR-MS freeze-dried material was re-dissolved and extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) with Varian Bond Elute PPL according to Dittmar et al. 2008. The desalted samples were measured in negative ionization mode at the Bruker Solarix 15 T FT-ICR-MS at the University of Oldenburg (Germany). The data of the highly resolved and accurately calibrated masses was used to calculate the corresponding molecular formulas. Different multivariate statistical tools, like principal component analysis (PCA) in combination with environmental parameters, and graphical display methods are applied to the data to explore differences and similarities between samples and as well possible correlations with environmental parameters. In our contribution we show the results of our comparative study. Major outcomes are the correlation between molecular composition of DOM and environmental parameters like DOC concentration, pH and geographical latitude. We found, that the pH in water is a driving factor for the molecular composition of DOM. Since, DOM reflects decomposition processes in general, it is a fundamental finding that the molecular composition of DOM is dependent on the pH conditions.

  10. Changes in pH and ion composition in liquid media caused by mineral grinding: its dependency to mineral species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, T.; Tanaka, H.

    2009-04-01

    In natural fault zone, rocks and minerals were fractured by seismic slip, resulting in increase in surface area of minerals. Increasing in surface area cause minerals to be chemically activated. Therefore, fluid-rock interaction is enhanced in fluid-rich area such as subduction zone and shallow intra-plate fault zone. Fluid-rock interaction would change the physical and chemical properties of the fault zone materials. Therefore, fluid-rock reaction is important for understanding feedback relationship during earthquake cycle. However, the fundamental chemical processes of fluid-rock interaction caused by fracturing are still poorly understood. In natural fault zones, fault gouges are found as one of the pulverized rock. Fault gouges is also considered as a product of chemical reactions between rocks and surrounding groundwater. However, these chemical reactions are not completely understood. In this study, we concentrated on changes in fluid media by rock fracturing with water, especially changes in pH and dissolved chemical composition. The questions concerning changes in fluid media are addressed in this study: (1) what type chemical process is dominant? (2) To what extent is fluid-rock interaction depend on mineral species. To answer these questions, we conducted grinding experiment, which analogous to pulverization in natural fault. We performed grinding experiment using ball mill to investigate fluid-mineral interaction accompanied by mineral fracturing. Starting materials are silicate minerals (quartz, plagioclase, alkali feldspar, biotite, muscovite, and mixture of quartz and other minerals) as solid media, and pure water as fluid media. In regard to the mixture samples of quartz and other minerals, several mixing ration was used. We measure pH and chemical composition in water after grinding experiment. Results of experiment showed that pH changes in fluid media and chemical composition. Result of quartz experiment showed pH decrease. Result of plagioclase, alkali feldspar, biotite, muscovite other minerals, which contain metal ion showed increase in pH. These results about pH were corresponding to previous work (Saruwatari et al., 2003, 2004). Results of plagioclase, alkali feldspar, biotite, muscovite showed increase in ion concentration. Results of mixture of quartz and minerals that contain metal ion showed the value between result of quartz and that of other minerals. These experimental results demonstrate that the mixing ratio of quartz and other minerals affect pH and ion composition in fluid media after grinding. The pH value may strongly affects chemical processes such as precipitation and dissolution of minerals in fault zone after seismic slip occurred. According to the experimental results discussed above, mineral composition of rocks in fault zone may be crucial for chemical process after seismic slip (especially, immediately after seismic slip). However, the timescale in these chemical processes is still unknown. We will discuss in presentation that application of these experimental results to natural brittle fault zone.

  11. Ocean metabolism and dissolved organic matter: How do small dissolved molecules persist in the ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, Ronald

    2010-05-01

    The ocean reservoir of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is among the largest global reservoirs (~700 Pg C) of reactive organic carbon. Marine primary production (~50 Pg C/yr) by photosynthetic microalgae and cyanobacteria is the major source of organic matter to the ocean and the principal substrate supporting marine food webs. The direct release of DOM from phytoplankton and other organisms as well as a variety of other processes, such as predation and viral lysis, contribute to the ocean DOM reservoir. Continental runoff and atmospheric deposition are relatively minor sources of DOM to the ocean, but some components of this material appear to be resistant to decomposition and to have a long residence time in the ocean. Concentrations of DOM are highest in surface waters and decrease with depth, a pattern that reflects the sources and diagenesis of DOM in the upper ocean. Most (70-80%) marine DOM exists as small molecules of low molecular weight (<1 kDalton). Surprisingly, high-molecular-weight (>1 kDalton) DOM is relatively enriched in major biochemicals, such as combined neutral sugars and amino acids, and is more bioavailable than low-molecular-weight DOM. The observed relationships among the size, composition, and reactivity of DOM have led to the size-reactivity continuum model, which postulates that diagenetic processes lead to the production of smaller molecules that are structurally altered and resistant to microbial degradation. The radiocarbon content of these small dissolved molecules also indicates these are the most highly aged components of DOM. Chemical signatures of bacteria are abundant in DOM and increase during diagenesis, indicating bacteria are an important source of slowly cycling biochemicals. Recent analyses of DOM isolates by ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry have revealed an incredibly diverse mixture of molecules. Carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules are abundant in DOM, and they appear to be derived from diagenetically-altered terpenoids, such as sterols and hopanoids. Thermally-altered molecules, including black carbon, also appear to be important components of DOM, but their origins are unclear. We are rapidly acquiring novel information about the composition and molecular identity of DOM, and novel insights about the origins, transformations and fates this vast reservoir of DOM are emerging. This presentation will review and synthesize this information for comparison with non-living organic matter in other systems.

  12. Effects of anomalous high temperatures on carbon dioxide, methane, dissolved organic carbon and trace element concentrations in thaw lakes in Western Siberia in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Shirokova, L. S.; Kirpotin, S. N.; Kulizhsky, S. P.; Vorobiev, S. N.

    2013-04-01

    During the anomalous hot summer in 2012, surface air temperatures in Western Siberia were 5 to 10 °C higher than those observed during the previous period of > 30 yr. This unusual climate phenomenon provided an opportunity to examine the effects of short-term natural heating of water in thermokarst ponds and lakes in discontinuous permafrost zones and compare these observations to previous field results obtained when the temperature was normal during the summer of 2010 in the same region. Thermokarst bodies of water shrank significantly, water levels dropped approximately 50 cm in large lakes and small (< 10-100 m2) ponds, and shallow soil depressions disappeared. Based on samples from ~ 40 bodies of water collected previously and in 2012, first-order features of changes in chemical composition in response to increased water temperatures (from 14.1 ± 2.2 to 23.8 ± 2.3 °C in 2010 and 2012, respectively) were established. In these thermokarst bodies of water that covered a full range of surface areas, the average conductivity and pH were almost unchanged, whereas dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Cl- and SO42- concentrations were higher by a factor of ~ 2 during summer 2012 compared to periods with normal temperatures. Similarly, most divalent metals and insoluble trivalent and tetravalent elements were more concentrated by a factor of 1.7-2.4 in the summer of 2012 than normal periods. The average concentrations of dissolved CO2 and CH4 during the hot summer of 2012 increased by factors of 1.4 and 4.9, respectively. For most of the trace elements bound to colloids, the degree of colloidal binding decreased by a factor of 1.44 ± 0.33 (for an average of 40 elements) during the hot summer of 2012 compared to normal periods. Increases in CO2 and CH4 concentrations with the decreasing size of the body of water were well-pronounced during the hot summer of 2012. The concentrations of CO2 and CH4 significantly increased by factors of 5 and 150, respectively, in small (? 102 m2) compared to large (? 104 m2) thermokarst (thaw) lakes. Taken together, these trends suggest that, for a conservative scenario of lake size distribution, lake water warming at high latitudes will produce (1) a significant increase in methane emission capacity from thaw lake surfaces; (2) decrease of molecular sizes of TE complexes and increase of potential bioavailability of metal micronutrients in water columns; and (3) relatively conservative responses by CO2, DOC and trace element concentrations.

  13. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery.

    PubMed

    Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Fernández, Constanza Estefany; Brandão, Ana Carolina Siqueira; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control) were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively) and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and < 0.005 mmols OH- to reach pH 5.5, respectively). Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH. PMID:25715032

  14. The effects of dissolved methane upon liquid argon scintillation light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B. J. P.; Alexander, T.; Back, H. O.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J. M.; Greene, A.; Katori, T.; Pordes, S.; Toups, M.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we report on measurements of the effects of dissolved methane upon argon scintillation light. We monitor the light yield from an alpha source held 20 cm from a cryogenic photomultiplier tube (PMT) assembly as methane is injected into a high-purity liquid argon volume. We observe significant suppression of the scintillation light yield by dissolved methane at the 10 part per billion (ppb) level. By examining the late scintillation light time constant, we determine that this loss is caused by an absorption process and also see some evidence of methane-induced scintillation quenching at higher concentrations (50-100 ppb). Using a second PMT assembly we look for visible re-emission features from the dissolved methane which have been reported in gas-phase argon methane mixtures, and we find no evidence of visible re-emission from liquid-phase argon methane mixtures at concentrations between 10 ppb and 0.1%.

  15. Diel cycles in dissolved barium, lead, iron, vanadium, and nitrite in a stream draining a former zinc smelter site near Hegeler, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, R.T.; Groschen, G.E.; Cygan, G.; Dupre, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Diel variations in the concentrations of a number of constituents have the potential to substantially affect the appropriate sampling regimen in acidic streams. Samples taken once during the course of the day cannot adequately reflect diel variations in water quality and may result in an inaccurate understanding of biogeochemical processes, ecological conditions, and of the threat posed by the water to human health and the associated wildlife. Surface water and groundwater affected by acid drainage were sampled every 60 to 90. min over a 48-hour period at a former zinc smelter known as the Hegeler Zinc Superfund Site, near Hegeler, Illinois. Diel variations related to water quality in the aquifer were not observed in groundwater. Diel variations were observed in the temperature, pH, and concentration of dissolved oxygen, nitrite, barium, iron, lead, vanadium, and possibly uranium in surface water. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, nitrite, barium, lead, and uranium generally attained maximum values during the afternoon and minimum values during the night. Iron, vanadium, and pH generally attained minimum values during the afternoon and maximum values during the night. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen were affected by the intensity of photosynthetic activity and respiration, which are dependent upon insolation. Nitrite, an intermediary in many nitrogen reactions, may have been formed by the oxidation of ammonium by dissolved oxygen and converted to other nitrogen species as part of the decomposition of organic matter. The timing of the pH cycles was distinctly different from the cycles found in Midwestern alkaline streams and likely was the result of the photoreduction of Fe3+ to Fe 2+ and variations in the intensity of precipitation of hydrous ferric oxide minerals. Diel cycles of iron and vanadium also were primarily the result of variations in the intensity of precipitation of hydrous ferric oxide minerals. The diel variation in the concentrations of lead, uranium, and barium may have been affected by competition with Fe+2 for sorption sites on hydrous ferric oxide minerals. ?? 2010.

  16. Jacob Bernoulli, Ph.D. Erhard Weigel, Ph.D. Universitt Leipzig 1650

    E-print Network

    Matta, Abraham "Ibrahim"

    , Ph.D. University of California, Los Angeles 1974 Leonard Kleinrock, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg 1713 Johann Christoph Wichmannshausen, Ph.D. Universität Leipzig 1685 Otto Mencke, Ph

  17. Effects of dissolved organic matter from a eutrophic lake on the freely dissolved concentrations of emerging organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yi-Hua; Huang, Qing-Hui; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Li, Fei-Peng; Chen, Ling

    2014-08-01

    The authors studied the effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the bioavailability of bisphenol A (BPA) and chloramphenicol by measuring the freely dissolved concentrations of the contaminants in solutions containing DOM that had been isolated from a mesocosm in a eutrophic lake. The abundance and aromaticity of the chromophoric DOM increased over the 25-d mesocosm experiment. The BPA freely dissolved concentration was 72.3% lower and the chloramphenicol freely dissolved concentration was 56.2% lower using DOM collected on day 25 than using DOM collected on day 1 of the mesocosm experiment. The freely dissolved concentrations negatively correlated with the ultraviolent absorption coefficient at 254 nm and positively correlated with the spectral slope of chromophoric DOM, suggesting that the bioavailability of these emerging organic contaminants depends on the characteristics of the DOM present. The DOM-water partition coefficients (log KOC ) for the emerging organic contaminants positively correlated with the aromaticity of the DOM, measured as humic acid-like fluorescent components C1 (excitation/emission=250[313]/412 nm) and C2 (excitation/emission=268[379]/456 nm). The authors conclude that the bioavailability of emerging organic contaminants in eutrophic lakes can be affected by changes in the DOM. PMID:24839192

  18. 3.0 SOP 6b pH 2007 10 12 pH pH total hydrogen

    E-print Network

    3.0 SOP 6b pH 2007 10 12 1 / 7 SOP 6b m- pH 1. pH pH total hydrogen ion concentration scale pH [H+ ] 1 kg 2. (1) ]HSO[]H[ )/1(]H[]H[ 4F STF -+ ++ + += KS (1) [H+ ]F ST [HSO4 - ]+[SO4 2- ] KS HSO4 - pH (2) 10 -= - + 110 soln-kgmol ][H logpH . (2) 3. pH m- pH (aq

  19. Name: _______________________________ Ph.D: MUSIC

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    Name: _______________________________ Ph.D: MUSIC INTEGRATED COMPOSITION, IMPROVISATION, AND TECHNOLOGY (ICIT) Degree Requirements (2015-2016) Music 200 (Bibliography and Research): ______ 4 units Music 215A (Computer Music Composition and Production): ______ 4 units Music 215B (Computer Music

  20. Novel System for Continuous Measurements of Dissolved Gases in Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, D. S.; Liem, J.; Owano, T. G.; Gupta, M.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements of dissolved gases in lakes, rivers and oceans may be used to quantify underwater greenhouse gas generation, air-surface exchange, and pollution migration. Studies involving quantification of dissolved gases typically require obtaining water samples (from streams, lakes, or ocean water) and transporting them to a laboratory, where they are degased. The gases obtained are then generally measured using gas chromatography and isotope ratio mass spectrometry for concentrations and isotope ratios, respectively. This conventional, off-line, discrete-sample methodology is time consuming and labor intensive, and thus severely inhibits detailed spatial and temporal mapping of dissolved gases. In this work, we describe the commercial development of a new portable membrane-based gas extraction system (18.75" x 18.88" x 10.69", 16 kg, 85 watts) that interfaces directly to our cavity enhanced laser absorption based (or Off-Axis ICOS) gas analyzers to continuously and quickly measure concentrations and isotope ratios of dissolved gases. By accurately controlling the water flow rate through the membrane contactor, gas pressure on the outside and water pressure on the inside of the membrane, the system can generate precise and highly reproducible results. Furthermore, the gas-phase mole fractions (parts per million, ppm) may be converted into dissolved gas concentrations (nM), by accurately measuring the gas flow rates in and out of the extraction system. We will present detailed laboratory test data that quantifies the performance (linearity, precision, and dynamic range) of the system for measurements of the concentrations and isotope ratios of dissolved greenhouse gases (methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide) continuously and in real time.

  1. Dissolved Solids in Streams of the Conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anning, D. W.; Flynn, M.

    2014-12-01

    Studies have shown that excessive dissolved-solids concentrations in water can have adverse effects on the environment and on agricultural, municipal, and industrial water users. Such effects motivated the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program to develop a SPAtially-Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) model to improve the understanding of dissolved solids in streams of the United States. Using the SPARROW model, annual dissolved-solids loads from 2,560 water-quality monitoring stations were statistically related to several spatial datasets serving as surrogates for dissolved-solids sources and transport processes. Sources investigated in the model included geologic materials, road de-icers, urban lands, cultivated lands, and pasture lands. Factors affecting transport from these sources to streams in the model included climate, soil, vegetation, terrain, population, irrigation, and artificial-drainage characteristics. The SPARROW model was used to predict long-term mean annual conditions for dissolved-solids sources, loads, yields, and concentrations in about 66,000 stream reaches and corresponding incremental catchments nationwide. The estimated total amount of dissolved solids delivered to the Nation's streams is 272 million metric tons (Mt) annually, of which 194 million Mt (71%) are from geologic sources, 38 million Mt (14%) are from road de-icers, 18 million Mt (7%) are from pasture lands, 14 million Mt (5 %) are from urban lands, and 8 million Mt (3%) are from cultivated lands. The median incremental-catchment yield delivered to local streams is 26 metric tons per year per square kilometer [(Mt/yr)/km2]. Ten percent of the incremental catchments yield less than 4 (Mt/yr)/km2, and 10 percent yield more than 90 (Mt/yr)/km2. In 13% of the reaches, predicted flow-weighted concentrations exceed 500 mg/L—the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary non-enforceable drinking-water standard.

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon speciation in aquatic environments and its application to monitor algal carbon uptake.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yimin; Zhang, Liang; Xu, Changan; Vaidyanathan, Seetharaman

    2016-01-15

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) speciation is an important parameter that enables chemical and ecological changes in aquatic environments, such as the aquatic environmental impact of increasing atmospheric CO2 levels, to be monitored. We have examined and developed a sensitive and cost-effective 'back-titration' method to determine the DIC species and abundance in aqueous environments that is more accurate and reproducible than existing methods and is applicable in a range of fresh, brackish and sea waters. We propose the use of pHHCO3 (bicarbonate-dominant pH) and pH3.5 as the titration end points in the back-titration technique to accurately determine carbonate alkalinity. The proposed method has a higher accuracy and precision than other modified Gran's methods that are currently in use. The detection limit was found to be ~5?molkg(-1) with an accuracy within 1% and a precision (CV) within 0.2% and 0.5% at high and low level of carbonates, respectively. This method was successfully applied to monitor DIC in the aqueous medium of Nannochlopsis salina cultivation separately carried out with NaHCO3 and CO2 as the respective inorganic carbon source. The cells were able to grow in the NaHCO3 medium with a similar growth curve to cells with 0.039% CO2 (air). Increases in CO2 level stimulated lipid accumulation by diverting the fixed carbon from protein to lipids. The increased concentration of gaseous CO2 and the accompanying lower pH appears to significantly inhibit the growth of algae despite the presence of HCO3(-) when 20% CO2 was employed. PMID:26476067

  3. Regulation of arsenic mobility on basaltic glass surfaces by speciation and pH.

    PubMed

    Sigfusson, Bergur; Meharg, Andrew A; Gislason, Sigurdur R

    2008-12-01

    The importance of geothermal energy as a source for electricity generation and district heating has increased over recent decades. Arsenic can be a significant constituent of the geothermal fluids pumped to the surface during power generation. Dissolved As exists in different oxidation states, mainly as As(III) and As(V), and the charge of individual species varies with pH. Basaltic glass is one of the most important rock types in many high-temperature geothermal fields. Static batch and dynamic column experiments were combined to generate and validate sorption coefficients for As(III) and As(V) in contact with basaltic glass at pH 3-10. Validation was carried out by two empirical kinetic models and a surface complexation model (SCM). The SCM provided a better fit to the experimental column data than kinetic models at high pH values. However, in certain circumstances, an adequate estimation of As transport in the column could not be attained without incorporation of kinetic reactions. The varying mobility with pH was due to the combined effects of the variable charge of the basaltic glass with the pH point of zero charge at 6.8 and the individual As species as pH shifted, respectively. The mobility of As(III) decreased with increasing pH. The opposite was true for As(V), being nearly immobile at pH 3 to being highly mobile at pH 10. Incorporation of appropriate sorption constants, based on the measured pH and Eh of geothermal fluids, into regional groundwater-flow models should allow prediction of the As(III) and As(V) transport from geothermal systems to adjacent drinking water sources and ecosystems. PMID:19192803

  4. pH dependence of iron photoreduction in a rocky mountain stream affected by acid mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, Diane M.; Kimball, B.A.; Runkel, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    The redox speciation of dissolved iron and the transport of iron in acidic, metal-enriched streams is controlled by precipitation and dissolution of iron hydroxides, by photoreduction of dissolved ferric iron and hydrous iron oxides, and by oxidation of the resulting dissolved ferrous iron. We examined the pH dependence of these processes in an acidic mine-drainage stream, St Kevin Gulch, Colorado, by experimentally increasing the pH of the stream from about 4.0 to 6.5 and following the downstream changes in iron species. We used a solute transport model with variable flow to evaluate biogeochemical processes controlling downstream transport. We found that at pH 6.4 there was a rapid and large initial loss of ferrous iron concurrent with the precipitation of aluminium hydroxide. Below this reach, ferrous iron was conservative during the morning but there was a net downstream loss of ferrous iron around noon and in the afternoon. Calculation of net oxidation rates shows that the noontime loss rate was generally much faster than rates for the ferrous iron oxidation at pH 6 predicted by Singer and Stumm (1970. Science 167: 1121). The maintenance of ferrous iron concentrations in the morning is explained by the photoreduction of photoreactive ferric species, which are then depleted by noon. Copyright ?? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. PhEDEx Data Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, Ricky; Wildish, Tony; Huang, Chih-Hao

    2010-04-01

    The PhEDEx Data Service provides access to information from the central PhEDEx database, as well as certificate-authenticated managerial operations such as requesting the transfer or deletion of data. The Data Service is integrated with the "SiteDB" service for fine-grained access control, providing a safe and secure environment for operations. A plug-in architecture allows server-side modules to be developed rapidly and easily by anyone familiar with the schema, and can automatically return the data in a variety of formats for use by different client technologies. Using HTTP access via the Data Service instead of direct database connections makes it possible to build monitoring web-pages with complex drill-down operations, suitable for debugging or presentation from many aspects. This will form the basis of the new PhEDEx website in the near future, as well as providing access to PhEDEx information and certificate-authenticated services for other CMS dataflow and workflow management tools such as CRAB, WMCore, DBS and the dashboard. A PhEDEx command-line client tool provides one-stop access to all the functions of the PhEDEx Data Service interactively, for use in simple scripts that do not access the service directly. The client tool provides certificate-authenticated access to managerial functions, so all the functions of the PhEDEx Data Service are available to it. The tool can be expanded by plug-ins which can combine or extend the client-side manipulation of data from the Data Service, providing a powerful environment for manipulating data within PhEDEx.

  6. Isotope variations of dissolved Zn in the Rio Grande watershed, USA: The role of adsorption on Zn isotope composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szynkiewicz, Anna; Borrok, David M.

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand the factors influencing zinc (Zn) isotope composition in hydrological systems, we analyzed the ?66Zn of dissolved Zn in the streams and groundwater of the Upper and Middle Rio Grande watershed in Colorado and New Mexico, United States. The stream water samples have a wider variation of ?66Zn (-0.57 to + 0.41 ‰ relative to the JMC 3-0749-Lyon standard) than groundwater samples (-0.13 to + 0.12 ‰) and than samples from streams that are in close proximity to abandoned mining sites (+0.24 to + 0.40 ‰). Regional changes of bedrock geology, from primarily igneous rocks to primarily sedimentary rocks, have no resolvable effect on the ?66Zn of aqueous samples. Instead, an increase in water pH from 7.5 to 8.5 corresponds to a considerable decrease in the ?66Zn of dissolved Zn (R2 = - 0.37, p = 0.003, n = 22). Consequently, we link the observed Zn isotope variations to the process of adsorption of Zn onto suspended sediment and bedrock minerals (average ?66Znadsorbed-dissolved = + 0.31 ‰). Our results are in good agreement with previous experimental and empirical studies suggesting that Zn adsorption leads to a residual dissolved pool enriched in light Zn isotopes. Given that anthropogenic Zn sources can also be responsible for lowering of ?66Zn, and may overlap with the pH/adsorption effect on ?66Zn, the latter needs to be carefully considered in future studies to differentiate between natural and anthropogenic factors influencing Zn isotopes in this and other aquatic systems.

  7. Rapid Dissolving-Debonding Strategy for Optically Transparent Paper Production

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinbo; Han, Xiaogang; Fang, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Fan; Zhao, Bin; Lu, Pengbo; Li, Jun; Dai, Jiaqi; Lacey, Steven; Elspas, Raphael; Jiang, Yuhao; Liu, Detao; Hu, Liangbing

    2015-01-01

    Transparent paper is an alternative substrate for electronic devices due to its unique properties. However, energy-intensive and/or time-consuming procedures currently limit the scalable production of transparent paper. In this report, we demonstrate a rapid process to fabricate optically transparent paper with regenerative cellulose fibers (RCFs) by employing a dissolving-debonding strategy. The RCFs have an average width of 19.3??m and length of several hundred microns and are prepared into transparent paper by vacuum filtration. This new dissolving-debonding approach enables high production efficiency while creating transparent paper with excellent optical and mechanical properties. PMID:26657809

  8. Thermodynamic properties of gases dissolved in electrolyte solutions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiepel, E. W.; Gubbins, K. E.

    1973-01-01

    A method based on perturbation theory for mixtures is applied to the prediction of thermodynamic properties of gases dissolved in electrolyte solutions. The theory is compared with experimental data for the dependence of the solute activity coefficient on concentration, temperature, and pressure; calculations are included for partial molal enthalpy and volume of the dissolved gas. The theory is also compared with previous theories for salt effects and found to be superior. The calculations are best for salting-out systems. The qualitative feature of salting-in is predicted by the theory, but quantitative predictions are not satisfactory for such systems; this is attributed to approximations made in evaluating the perturbation terms.

  9. Nano-Enriched and Autonomous Sensing Framework for Dissolved Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Shehata, Nader; Azab, Mohammed; Kandas, Ishac; Meehan, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a nano-enhanced wireless sensing framework for dissolved oxygen (DO). The system integrates a nanosensor that employs cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles to monitor the concentration of DO in aqueous media via optical fluorescence quenching. We propose a comprehensive sensing framework with the nanosensor equipped with a digital interface where the sensor output is digitized and dispatched wirelessly to a trustworthy data collection and analysis framework for consolidation and information extraction. The proposed system collects and processes the sensor readings to provide clear indications about the current or the anticipated dissolved oxygen levels in the aqueous media. PMID:26287211

  10. Rapid Dissolving-Debonding Strategy for Optically Transparent Paper Production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinbo; Han, Xiaogang; Fang, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Fan; Zhao, Bin; Lu, Pengbo; Li, Jun; Dai, Jiaqi; Lacey, Steven; Elspas, Raphael; Jiang, Yuhao; Liu, Detao; Hu, Liangbing

    2015-01-01

    Transparent paper is an alternative substrate for electronic devices due to its unique properties. However, energy-intensive and/or time-consuming procedures currently limit the scalable production of transparent paper. In this report, we demonstrate a rapid process to fabricate optically transparent paper with regenerative cellulose fibers (RCFs) by employing a dissolving-debonding strategy. The RCFs have an average width of 19.3??m and length of several hundred microns and are prepared into transparent paper by vacuum filtration. This new dissolving-debonding approach enables high production efficiency while creating transparent paper with excellent optical and mechanical properties. PMID:26657809

  11. Spatial and temporal variations of dissolved organic matter dynamics in a disturbed Sphagnum peatland after hydrological restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Moing, Franck; Guirimand-Dufour, Audrey; Jozja, Nevila; Defarge, Christian; D'Angelo, Benoît; Binet, Stéphane; Gogo, Sébastien; Laggoun, Fatima

    2015-04-01

    Peatlands contain a third of the world soil C in spite of their relatively low global area (3% of land area). They can become sources of C because of human disturbances such as drainage. The aim of this work is to assess the effect of an hydrological restoration on a disturbed Sphagnum peatland. It concerns spatial and temporal variations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) dynamics. The investigated site was La Guette peatland (France, N 47°19'44', E 2°17'04', alt. 154m), whose hydrological conditions are influenced by a road passing through its former area. The road drain accelerates drying mechanisms, favouring thus vascular plants settlement to the detriment of specific flora of peatlands (i.e. Sphagnum). Hydrological restoration was undertaken in February 2014. It consisted in building thresholds to slow down drain runoff and to promote the soil rewetting. Two transects of piezometers were settled in independent two hydrological sub-systems: Trans-up and Trans-down. Trans-down is supposed to be influenced by the hydrological restoration, while Trans-up is not. These transects cross the peatland and follow water flow direction until the outlet. Six sampling campaigns were performed before, during and after the vegetation period. Water conductivity and pH were measured on site. Water samples were collected in the piezometers. Samples were filtered in the field at 0.45 ?m. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+) and anions (Cl-, SO42-, PO43-, NO2-, NO3-) were measured. Absorbance was measured by UV-VIS spectrophotometer to assess SUVA254 and aromaticity of DOM. Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrices (EEM) were undertaken to characterise fluorescent DOM (FDOM). Humification (HIX) and biological (BIX) fluorescence indices were calculated. PARAFAC algorithm was used to treat EEMs. Precipitations and water levels were measured automatically by a weather station and automatic probes, respectively. Rain water was also analysed to assess precipitation contribution in each analysis. Mean DOC concentrations are higher in Trans-up than in Trans-down (45 mg.L-1 vs 30 mg.L-1). Water table fluctuations are more important in Trans-up than in Trans-down (6 cm vs 15 cm). In both sub-systems, DOC concentrations decrease from the upstream forest border to the middle of the peatland and then increase until the outlet. DOM aromaticity shows seasonal variability with a peak in summer. Maximum aromaticity is always reached in the middle of transects. Measured emission/excitation couples are similar to those found in peat standards and references (International Humic Substances Society). Fluorescence indices show that DOM humification degree increases while crossing peatland following water flow direction. Seasonal variations of fluorescent intensity ratios are wider in Trans-up than in Trans-down due to higher water drawdown during summer in Trans-up. DOM in the middle of the transects is mainly autochthonous, whereas DOM near the limit of the peatland shows strong allochthonous influence from neighbour systems. Ionic concentrations are correlated to DOC, showing charging and discharging gradients in peat water. Results from characterisation of DOM and peat water geochemistry show spatial and temporal variations in nature and origins of DOM. This study emphasizes contrasts between control and hydrologically reworked sub-systems.

  12. Voltammetric pH Nanosensor.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Magdalena; Kurel, Malgorzata; Jedraszko, Justyna; Toczydlowska, Diana; Wittstock, Gunther; Opallo, Marcin; Nogala, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Nanoscale pH evaluation is a prerequisite for understanding the processes and phenomena occurring at solid-liquid, liquid-liquid, and liquid-gas interfaces, e.g., heterogeneous catalysis, extraction, partitioning, and corrosion. Research on the homogeneous processes within small volumes such as intracellular fluids, microdroplets, and microfluidic chips also requires nanometer scale pH assessment. Due to the opacity of numerous systems, optical methods are useless and, if applicable, require addition of a pH-sensitive dye. Potentiometric probes suffer from many drawbacks such as potential drift and lack of selectivity. Here, we present a voltammetric nanosensor for reliable pH assessment between pH 2 and 12 with high spatial resolution. It consists of a pyrolytic carbon nanoelectrode obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) inside a quartz nanopipette. The carbon is modified by adsorption of syringaldazine from its ethanolic solution. It exhibits a stable quasi-reversible cyclic voltammogram with nearly Nernstian dependency of midpeak potentials (-54 mV/pH). This sensor was applied as a probe for scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) in order to map pH over a platinum ultramicroelectrode (UME), generating hydroxide ions (OH(-)) by the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at a diffusion-controlled rate in aerated phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The results reveal the alkalization of the electrolyte close to the oxygen reducing electrode, showing the insufficient buffer capacity of PBS to maintain a stable pH at the given conditions. PMID:26516786

  13. Recent pH and CO 2 profiles at Lakes Nyos and Monoun, Cameroon: implications for the degassing strategy and its numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusakabe, M.; Tanyileke, G. Z.; McCord, S. A.; Schladow, S. G.

    2000-04-01

    In situ pH profiles are reported for the first time for Lakes Nyos and Monoun. The pH profiles were converted to CO 2 profiles using HCO 3- profiles calculated from conductivity data. Recent observations (1993-1996) at Lake Nyos indicates that CO 2 still accumulates below 180 m depth at a rate of 125 Mmol year -1. At Lake Monoun, the majority of CO 2 is present below a depth of 60 m, only 25 m below the saturation depth. Consequently, a potential danger of gas explosion is high at both lakes, and artificial degassing of the lakes should be performed as soon as possible. A system for industrial degassing of the lakes is proposed. The system, based on the self-sustained gas lift principle, consists of multiple pipes (14 cm in diameter) with different intake depths; 12 pipes for Lake Nyos (four each at 185, 195 and 205 m) and three pipes for Lake Monoun (at 70, 80 and 90 m). The stepped degassing at different depths is intended to keep the maximum stability of the lakes. The proposed degassing operation was simulated using the DYRESM code for both lakes. In 5 years, approximately 50% of currently dissolved CO 2 in Lake Nyos and 90% in Lake Monoun will be removed. The expected changes in the thermal and chemical structures of the lakes as degassing proceeds will be most easily monitored with a carefully calibrated CTD equipped with a pH sensor. The simulation indicates that the discharged degassed water will sink to a level of neutral buoyancy, i.e. to a maximum of 70 m at Lake Nyos and 35 m at Lake Monoun. There would be no possibility of triggering a gas explosion by this plunge of discharged water because the water present there would have already been replaced by water at lower CO 2 concentration, during the degassing from shallower pipes.

  14. Nutrient Availability from Douglas Fir Bark in Response to Substrate pH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two studies were conducted to determine the influence of substrate pH on nutrient availability in douglas fir bark (DFB). Douglas fir bark was amended with either calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] at 13 rates to generate substrates with low to high pH. A non-amended control ...

  15. Which Firms Want PhDs? An Analysis of the Determinants of the Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Quevedo, Jose; Mas-Verdu, Francisco; Polo-Otero, Jose

    2012-01-01

    PhD graduates hold the highest education degree, are trained to conduct research and can be considered a key element in the creation, commercialization and diffusion of innovations. The impact of PhDs on innovation and economic development takes place through several channels such as the accumulation of scientific capital stock, the enhancement of…

  16. Effect of pH, DIC, orthophosphate and sulfate on drinking water cuprosolvency

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, M.R.; Lytle, D.A.; Clement, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    Field data from various copper monitoring studies and Lead and Copper Rule compliance data are often inappropriate and misleading for reliably determining fundamental chemical relationships behind copper corrosion control. A comprehensive solubility model for copper in drinking water has been developed, that is consistent with available data for copper dissolution and precipitation. The concentration of Cu(I) is dominated by Cu2O(s) or CuOH(s) solid phases, plus soluble aqueous ammonia and chloride complexes. Utilities may choose to add DIC for buffering of pH, raising copper to some degree. Sufficient orthophosphate may reduce cuprosolvency below pH 8. Sulfate may either lower cuprosolvency under some conditions, or interfere with oxide/hydroxide passivation above about pH 8. Dissolved oxygen and chlorine residual influence copper stagnation profiles.

  17. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. VI. Dissolved oxygen concentrations below operating dams

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.; Kumar, K.D.; Solomon, J.A.; Hildebrand, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of an effort aimed at determining whether or not water quality degradation, as exemplified by dissolved oxygen concentrations, is a potentially significant issue affecting small-scale hydropower development in the US. The approach was to pair operating hydroelectric sites of all sizes with dissolved oxygen measurements from nearby downstream US Geological Survey water quality stations (acquired from the WATSTORE data base). The USGS data were used to calculate probabilities of non-compliance (PNCs), i.e., the probabilities that dissolved oxygen concentrations in the discharge waters of operating hydroelectric dams will drop below 5 mg/l. PNCs were estimated for each site, season (summer vs remaining months), and capacity category (less than or equal to 30 MW vs >30 MW). Because of the low numbers of usable sites in many states, much of the subsequent analysis was conducted on a regional basis. During the winter months (November through June) all regions had low mean PNCs regardless of capacity. Most regions had higher mean PNCs in summer than in winter, and summer PNCs were greater for large-scale than for small-scale sites. Among regions, the highest mean summer PNCs were found in the Great Basin, the Southeast, and the Ohio Valley. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of the effects of season and capacity on potential dissolved oxygen problems, cumulative probability distributions of PNC were developed for selected regions. This analysis indicates that low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the tailwaters below operating hydroelectric projects are a problem largely confined to large-scale facilities.

  18. Distribution of dissolved and particulate trace metals in Arctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M.; Hendy, I. L.; Aciego, S.; Meyer, K.

    2014-12-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential biolimiting micronutrient, however, the bioavailablility of Fe is dependent on source and speciation. In a high nutrient/low chlorophyll region of the ocean such as the Arctic, sea ice is an important aggregator of dissolved and particulate Fe from aerosol, lithogenic, and biogenic sources. While particulate Fe is less bioavailable than dissolved Fe, it is far more abundant in sea ice. As a result, sea ice directly enhances productivity by ice entrapment of mineral dust particulates containing Fe, which can be released into the surface ocean waters during melting. In seawater underlying sea ice, Fe can be concentrated up to two orders of magnitude higher than in the ice-free open ocean (Lannuzel et al., 2011). A transect of sea ice cores were collected in the spring of 2014 offshore of Barrow, AK, and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago to capture a gradient of sediment contributions from shelf sediments to aeolian sediments. At Barrow, AK, land fast first year ice was sampled. In the Canadian Arctic, both multi-year (pack ice) and first year (land fast) ice cores were retrieved. First year ice cores were between 100-150 cm thick and the multi year core was 195 cm thick. Cores were subsampled by depth and filtered. The resulting ice core sediments were analyzed for elemental composition, and multistep Fe-leaching experiments were conducted to determine the fraction of soluble Fe. Thus we have ascertained the solubility of particulate Fe prior to onset of melt season. Dissolved trace metals were also analyzed to ascertain changes in concentration with ice core depth of lithogenic elements (Mn, Al) and biologically important elements (Si, Mo, Cu, Zn). Preliminary results show some enrichment of lithogenic inputs near surface, indicating dust deposition, and lower portions of the cores, suggesting resuspended sediments from the continental shelf. Concentrations of some biologically important elements decrease with depth, suggesting possible biological uptake by sea ice algae.

  19. Comparison of dissolved and particulate arsenic distributions in shallow aquifers of Chakdaha, India, and Araihazar, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Métral, Jerome; Charlet, Laurent; Bureau, Sara; Mallik, Sukumar Basu; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Ahmed, Kazi M; Rahman, MW; Cheng, Zhongqi; van Geen, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Background The origin of the spatial variability of dissolved As concentrations in shallow aquifers of the Bengal Basin remains poorly understood. To address this, we compare here transects of simultaneously-collected groundwater and aquifer solids perpendicular to the banks of the Hooghly River in Chakdaha, India, and the Old Brahmaputra River in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Results Variations in surface geomorphology mapped by electromagnetic conductivity indicate that permeable sandy soils are associated with underlying aquifers that are moderately reducing to a depth of 10–30 m, as indicated by acid-leachable Fe(II)/Fe ratios <0.6 in the solid phase and concentrations of dissolved sulfate >5 mg L-1. More reducing aquifers are typically capped with finer-grained soils. The patterns suggest that vertical recharge through permeable soils is associated with a flux of oxidants on the banks of the Hooghly River and, further inland, in both Chakdaha and Araihazar. Moderately reducing conditions maintained by local recharge are generally associated with low As concentrations in Araihazar, but not systematically so in Chakdaha. Unlike Araihazar, there is also little correspondence in Chakdaha between dissolved As concentrations in groundwater and the P-extractable As content of aquifer particles, averaging 191 ± 122 ug As/L, 1.1 ± 1.5 mg As kg-1 (n = 43) and 108 ± 31 ug As/L, 3.1 ± 6.5 mg As kg-1 (n = 60), respectively. We tentatively attribute these differences to a combination of younger floodplain sediments, and therefore possibly more than one mechanism of As release, as well as less reducing conditions in Chakdaha compared to Araihazar. Conclusion Systematic dating of groundwater and sediment, combined with detailed mapping of the composition of aquifer solids and groundwater, will be needed to identify the various mechanisms underlying the complex distribution of As in aquifers of the Bengal Basin. PMID:18190703

  20. The impact of seasonality and elevation on dissolved greenhouse gas concentrations in a northeastern Wyoming watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, C.; Bettigole, C.; Raymond, P. A.; Glick, H.; Seegmiller, L.; Oliver, C.; Khadka, A.; Routh, D.

    2014-12-01

    Quantification of river and stream contributions to global carbon emission budgets using field-based measurements is key to understanding how freshwater streams act as conduits between terrestrial and atmospheric carbon pools. In order to better characterize drivers of this process, this study quantifies: a) emissions of carbon dioxide and methane from a semi-arid, high plains riverine system with montaine headwaters in order to establish baseline data for the watershed; b) the impact of stream order, seasonality and elevation on dissolved gas concentrations to better understand the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of dissolved carbon gases. To achieve the latter objective, we conducted field surveys in first and second order streams in the Clear Creek drainage of the Powder River Basin watershed. We took direct measurements of stream gases using headspace sampling at thirty sites along an elevation gradient ranging from 1,203-3,346 meters. We also intensely monitored five transects throughout the descending limb of spring runoff (June 8th-August 12th) to investigate how temperature and discharge volume impact greenhouse gas concentrations. Clear Creek, located in northeastern Wyoming, is approximately 118.4 km long with a drainage area of 2,968 km2. The creek flows east out of Bighorn National Forest where it turns northeast to converge with the Powder River about ten miles before the Montana border. The stream straddles the Middle Rockies and Northwestern Great Plains ecoregions and experiences an abrupt shift in soil type, riparian vegetation, underlying geology and stream geometry as the stream exits the mountains and enters the agricultural alluvial floodplain. These site specific biological and physical changes along the elevation gradient affect dissolved greenhouse gas concentrations.

  1. Dissolved Organic Carbon Quality Assessed Along the Cuiaba River of Mato Grosso, Brazil Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalmagro, H. J.; Johnson, M. S.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Pinto Junior, O. B.; Couto, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    The Cuiabá river basin transects two major biomes in Mato Grosso: the Cerrado, or savanna, and the Pantanal wetland. Its headwaters are located in the Cerrado region where typical savanna vegetation has been largely displaced by agricultural activity, mainly soybean or corn monocultures and pasture. Downstream of the Cerrado, the river basin is then influenced by human activity from industrial activities and cities, with sewage releases and the use of sand dredges. The river finally reaches the Pantanal wetland where it annually overbanks thus creating one of the largest expanses of flooded area in the world and an important center for biodiversity. We determined dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations along the Cuiabá River, and used fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) to characterize the variability in DOC quality in order to identify the source of dissolved organic matter at these sample locations. Sampling campaigns were conducted during the high water season in early 2013. Our results show a lower concentration of DOC upstream, with a mean value of 1.3 mg L-1 (Cerrado region) but higher concentrations downstream (mean DOC 7.4 mg L-1 for the Cuiabá River in the Pantanal region). The fluorescence markers from EEMs and the fluorescence peaks were very similar for the different sampling points throughout the basin, indicating a low variability in the type of dissolved organic matter during the study period. Although the concentration of DOC was generally low, we observed high fluorescence intensity for the fulvic and humic-type peaks (respectively at 230/440 nm and 325/440 nm), which likely come from soil organic matter and terrestrial plants in the basin. This work provides further insight in the use of fluorescence in determining water quality and helps to improve our understanding in carbon biogeochemistry in a tropical river basin.

  2. REMOVAL OF HUMICSUBSTANCES AND ALGAE BY DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is used in place of conventional gravity settling as a means to separate low density floc particles from water. The following objectives were: (1) to compare DAF to conventional water treatment of coagulation-flocculation followed by gravity settling...

  3. ESTIMATING DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON PARTITION COEFFICIENTS FOR NONIONIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A literature search was performed for dissolved organic carbon/water partition coefficients for nonionic chemicals (Kdoc) and Kdoc data was taken from more than sixty references. The Kdoc data were evaluated as a function of the n-octanol/water partition coefficients (Kow). A pre...

  4. TOTAL DISSOLVED AND BIOAVAILABLE METALS AT LAKE TEXOMA MARINAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dissolved metals in water and total metals in sediments have been measured at marina areas in Lake Texoma during June 1999 to October 2001, and October 2001, respectively. The metals most often found in the highest concentrations in marina water were Na and Ca, followed by Mg an...

  5. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION TOOLS FOR DEVELOPING DISSOLVED OXYGEN TMDLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amount of dissolved oxygen (DO) in water is one of the most commonly used indicators of river and stream health. In most fresh water systems, aquatic fauna become stressed as DO drops below 4 or 5 mg L-1. Under extended hypoxic (low DO) or anoxic (no DO) conditions, most higher forms of life are...

  6. Dissolving Carboxylic Acids and Primary Amines on the Overhead Projector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Sally D.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid carboxylic acids (or primary amines) with limited solubility in water are dissolved by addition of aqueous sodium hydroxide (or hydrochloric acid) on the stage of an overhead projector using simple glassware and very small quantities of chemicals. This effective and colorful demonstration can be used to accompany discussions of the…

  7. Leachability of dissolved chromium in asphalt and concrete surfacing materials.

    PubMed

    Kayhanian, Masoud; Vichare, Akshay; Green, Peter G; Harvey, John

    2009-08-01

    Leachate metal pollutant concentrations produced from different asphalt and concrete pavement surfacing materials were measured under controlled laboratory conditions. The results showed that, in general, the concentrations of most metal pollutants were below the reporting limits. However, dissolved chromium was detected in leachate from concrete (but not asphalt) specimens and more strongly in the early-time leachate samples. As the leaching continued, the concentration of Cr decreased to below or close to the reporting limit. The source of the chromium in concrete pavement was found to be cement. The concentration of total Cr produced from leachate of different cement coming from different sources that was purchased from retail distributors ranged from 124 to 641mug/L. This result indicates that the potential leachability of dissolved Cr from concrete pavement materials can be reduced through source control. The results also showed that the leachability of dissolved Cr in hardened pavement materials was substantially reduced. For example, the concentration of dissolved Cr measured in actual highway runoff was found to be much lower than the Cr concentration produced from leachate of both open and dense graded concrete pavement specimens under controlled laboratory study. It was concluded that pavement materials are not the source of pollutants of concern in roadway runoff; rather most pollutants in roadway surface runoff are generated from other road-use or land-use sources, or from (wet or dry) atmospheric deposition. PMID:19604624

  8. Optical dissolved oxygen sensor utilizing molybdenum chloride cluster phosphorescence

    E-print Network

    Ghosh, Ruby N.

    Optical dissolved oxygen sensor utilizing molybdenum chloride cluster phosphorescence Ruby N. Ghosh in the media.5 The optical and physical properties of molybdenum chloride clusters are eminently suited. The specificity of the molybdenum chloride clusters to molecular oxygen is determined by quantum me- chanics

  9. EFFECTS OF SUSPENDED SEDIMENTS ON PHOTOLYSIS RATES OF DISSOLVED POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data are presented concerning the effects of suspended sediments upon photolysis rates of dissolved ultraviolet (u.v.) absorbing pollutants. The malachite green leucocyanide actinometer was found to be a convenient and sensitive device for measurement of solar u.v. radiation (abo...

  10. Do soils loose phosphorus with dissolved organic matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, K.; Brödlin, D.; Hagedorn, F.

    2014-12-01

    During ecosystem development and soil formation, primary mineral sources of phosphorus are becoming increasingly depleted. Inorganic phosphorus forms tend to be bound strongly to or within secondary minerals, thus, are hardly available to plants and are not leached from soil. What about organic forms of phosphorus? Since rarely studied, little is known on the composition, mobility, and bioavailability of dissolved organic phosphorus. There is some evidence that plant-derived compounds, such as phytate, bind strongly to minerals as well, while microbial compounds, such as nucleotides and nucleic acids, may represent more mobile fractions of soil phosphorus. In some weakly developed, shallow soils, leaching losses of phosphorus seem to be governed by mobile organic forms. Consequently, much of the phosphorus losses observed during initial stages of ecosystem development may be due to the leaching of dissolved organic matter. However, the potentially mobile microbial compounds are enzymatically hydrolysable. Forest ecosystems on developed soils already depleted in easily available inorganic phosphorus are characterized by rapid recycling of organic phosphors. That can reduce the production of soluble forms of organic phosphorus as well as increase the enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent plant uptake of phosphorus bound within dissolved organic matter. This work aims at giving an outlook to the potential role of dissolved organic matter in the cycling of phosphorus within developing forest ecosystems, based on literature evidence and first results of ongoing research.

  11. The Placebo Effect: Dissolving the Expectancy Versus Conditioning Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart-Williams, Steve; Podd, John

    2004-01-01

    The authors review the literature on the 2 main models of the placebo effect: expectancy theory and classical conditioning. A path is suggested to dissolving the theoretical impasse that has long plagued this issue. The key is to make a clear distinction between 2 questions: What factors shape placebo effects? and What learning mediates the…

  12. Dependence of riverine nitrous oxide emissions on dissolved oxygen levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosamond, Madeline S.; Thuss, Simon J.; Schiff, Sherry L.

    2012-10-01

    Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas, and it destroys stratospheric ozone. Seventeen per cent of agricultural nitrous oxide emissions come from the production of nitrous oxide in streams, rivers and estuaries, in turn a result of inorganic nitrogen input through leaching, runoff and sewage. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and global nitrous oxide budgets assume that riverine nitrous oxide emissions increase linearly with dissolved inorganic nitrogen loads, but data are sparse and conflicting. Here we report measurements over two years of nitrous oxide emissions in the Grand River, Canada, a seventh-order temperate river that is affected by agricultural runoff and outflow from a waste-water treatment plant. Emissions were disproportionately high in urban areas and during nocturnal summer periods. Moreover, annual emission estimates that are based on dissolved inorganic nitrogen loads overestimated the measured emissions in a wet year and underestimated them in a dry year. We found no correlations of nitrous oxide emissions with nitrate or dissolved inorganic nitrogen, but detected negative correlations with dissolved oxygen, suggesting that nitrate concentrations did not limit emissions. We conclude that future increases in nitrate export to rivers will not necessarily lead to higher nitrous oxide emissions, but more widespread hypoxia most likely will.

  13. REDUCED DISSOLVED OXYGEN TEST SYSTEM FOR MARINE ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A flow-through test system was designed to examine minimum dissolved oxygen (D.O.) requirements of marine animals. he system provides up to six treatment concentrations between 0.3 mg D.O./I and saturation. ea water is degassed in a vacuum-evacuated packed column and the treatmen...

  14. PHOTOCHEMICAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN A BLACKWATER RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined photochemical alterations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the Satilla River, a high DOC (10-40 mg/liter) blackwater river of southeast Georgia. Water samples were filtered to remove most organisms, placed in quartz tubes, and incubated under natural sunlight a...

  15. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION TOOLS FOR DEVELOPING DISSOLVED OXYGEN TMDLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents an extended abstract of a research paper describing four commonly used dissolved oxygen (DO) simulation models. The concentration of DO in surface waters is one of the most commonly used indicators of river and stream health. Regulators and other professionals are increasingly r...

  16. SIMULATION OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN PROFILES IN A TRANSPARENT, DIMICTIC LAKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thrush Lake is a small, highly transparent lake in northeastern Minnesota. rom 1986 to 1991, vertical profiles of water temperature, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a concentration, underwater light irradiance, and Secchi depths were measured at monthly intervals during the ice-fre...

  17. Localized refractory dissolved organic carbon sinks in the deep ocean

    E-print Network

    Hansell, Dennis

    August 2013. [1] The global ocean holds one of Earth's major carbon reservoirs as dissolved organic) as Williams and Druffel (1987) found it to be old relative to the circulation time of the ocean. While RDOC implicated by Sexton et al. (2011) to explain Earth's transient warming events (i.e., hyperthermals

  18. IMPROVEMENTS IN MODELLING DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Wells, Scott A.

    1 IMPROVEMENTS IN MODELLING DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEMS Jacek Makinia*, Scott A in a full-scale activated sludge reactor. The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 was used to describe the biochemical processes. The studies were performed at the Rock Creek wastewater treatment plant in Hillsboro

  19. FIELD MEASUREMENT OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN: A COMPARISON OF METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to confidently measure the concentration of dissolved oxygen (D.O.) in ground water is a key aspect of remedial selection and assessment. Presented here is a comparison of the commonly practiced methods for determining D.O. concentrations in ground water, including c...

  20. Dissolved Organic Matter and Emerging Contaminants in Urban Stream Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, S. S.; Findlay, S.; Groffman, P.; Belt, K.; Delaney, K.; Sides, A.; Walbridge, M.; Mayer, P.

    2009-05-01

    We investigated the effects of urbanization on the sources, bioavailability and forms of natural and anthropogenic organic matter found in streams located in Maryland, U.S.A. We found that the abundance, biaoavailability, and enzymatic breakdown of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) increased in streams with increasing watershed urbanization suggesting that organic nutrients may represent a growing form of nutrient loading to coastal waters associated with land use change. Organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in urban streams were elevated several-fold compared to forest and agricultural streams. Enzymatic activities of stream microbes in organic matter decomposition were also significantly altered across watershed land use. Chemical characterization suggested that organic matter in urban streams originated from a variety of sources including terrestrial, sewage, and in-stream transformation. In addition, a characterization of emerging organic contaminants (polyaromatic cyclic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardents), showed that organic contaminants and dissolved organic matter increase with watershed urbanization and fluctuate substantially with changing climatic conditions. Elucidating the emerging influence of urbanization on sources, transport, and in-stream transformation of organic nutrients and contaminants will be critical in unraveling the changing role of organic matter in urban degraded and restored stream ecosystems.

  1. Enhanced Dissolution of Cinnabar (Mercuric Sulfide) by Dissolved

    E-print Network

    Ryan, Joe

    Enhanced Dissolution of Cinnabar (Mercuric Sulfide) by Dissolved Organic Matter Isolated from, or cysteine) did not enhance the dissolution of mercury from the mineral. Aromatic carbon content in the isolates (determined by 13C NMR) correlated positively with enhanced cinnabar dissolution. -potential

  2. Optimization of Fast Dissolving Etoricoxib Tablets Prepared by Sublimation Technique

    PubMed Central

    Patel, D. M.; Patel, M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop fast dissolving tablets of etoricoxib. Granules containing etoricoxib, menthol, crospovidone, aspartame and mannitol were prepared by wet granulation technique. Menthol was sublimed from the granules by exposing the granules to vacuum. The porous granules were then compressed in to tablets. Alternatively, tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. The tablets were evaluated for percentage friability and disintegration time. A 32 full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of 2 formulation variables: amount of menthol and crospovidone. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that for obtaining fast dissolving tablets; optimum amount of menthol and higher percentage of crospovidone should be used. A surface response plots are also presented to graphically represent the effect of the independent variables on the percentage friability and disintegration time. The validity of a generated mathematical model was tested by preparing a checkpoint batch. Sublimation of menthol from tablets resulted in rapid disintegration as compared with the tablets prepared from granules that were exposed to vacuum. The optimized tablet formulation was compared with conventional marketed tablets for percentage drug dissolved in 30 min (Q30) and dissolution efficiency after 30 min (DE30). From the results, it was concluded that fast dissolving tablets with improved etoricoxib dissolution could be prepared by sublimation of tablets containing suitable subliming agent. PMID:20390084

  3. Effects of elevated total dissolved solids on bivalves

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of experiments were performed to assess the toxicity of different dominant salt recipes of excess total dissolved solids (TDS) to organisms in mesocosms. Multiple endpoints were measured across trophic levels. We report here the effects of four different TDS recipes on b...

  4. CONDUCTOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF DISSOLVED HUMIC MATERIALS. (R828158)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conductometric replacement titrations of humic and fulvic acids dissolved in a slight excess of hydroxide were carried out with standard acid. The slope of the titration curve corresponding to the protonation of humate/fulvate was related to the electrophoretic mobility of the...

  5. Investigating Factors that Affect Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantzen, Paul G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)

  6. Spectral Characterization of Plant-Derived Dissolved Organic Matter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from fresh or early-stage decomposing soil amendment materials may play an important role in the process of organic matter accumulation. The DOM can influence many chemical processes, due to its reactivity with both soil solution components and soil surfaces. W...

  7. Electrochemical Stability of Polyaniline Beyond pH 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarver, Jacob; Yoo, Joung Eun; Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2009-03-01

    Conductive polymer films are promising candidates for solution-based biosensor and organic electrochemical transistor devices. For many conducting polymers, however, stable electrochemical activity often demands restrictively acidic solutions. This need has in turn limited the use of conductive polymers in near-neutral and physiological conditions. Using spectroelectrochemical methods, we studied the stability of polyaniline that is template synthesized on poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid) as a function of pH. Transitions between the different oxidation states of polyaniline are stable and reversible in solutions as high as pH 10. This range of sustained electroactivity far exceeds that of previously reported polyaniline systems. In comparison, polyaniline that is doped with small-molecule acids loses its electroactivity in solutions beyond pH 4. Immobilization of polyaniline within a polymer acid matrix retards dopant diffusivity and reduces proton mobility. The preservation of local acidic conditions within the film greatly extends the pH range of stable electroactivity.

  8. Conducting Compositions of Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides conductive compositions of matter, as well as methods for the preparation of the conductive compositions of matter, solutions comprising the conductive compositions of matter, and methods of preparing fibers or fabrics having improved anti-static properties employing the conductive compositions of matter.

  9. Conducting compositions of matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides conductive compositions of matter, as well as methods for the preparation of the conductive compositions of matter, solutions comprising the conductive compositions of matter, and methods of preparing fibers or fabrics having improved anti-static properties employing the conductive compositions of matter.

  10. Technical protocol for implementing intrinsic remediation with long-term monitoring for natural attenuation of fuel contamination dissolved in groundwater. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedemeier, T.H.; Wilson, J.T.; Kampbell, D.H.; Miller, R.N.; Hansen, J.E.

    1995-06-01

    This report presents the results of an engineering evaluation/cost analysis (BE/CA) conducted to evaluate the use of intrinsic remediation (natural attenuation) with long-term monitoring (LTM) for remediation of fuel-hydrocarbon contamination dissolved in ground water at underground storage tank (UST) Site 870, Hill Air Force Base (AFB), Utah. The main emphasis of the work described was to evaluate the potential for intrinsic degradation mechanisms to reduce dissolved-phase benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) concentrations in ground water to levels that are protective of human health and the environment.

  11. Enhancing dissolved oxygen control using an on-line hybrid fuzzy-neural soft-sensing model-based control system in an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingzhi; Wan, Jinquan; Hu, Kang; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan

    2013-12-01

    An on-line hybrid fuzzy-neural soft-sensing model-based control system was developed to optimize dissolved oxygen concentration in a bench-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)/O) process. In order to improve the performance of the control system, a self-adapted fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm and adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) models were employed. The proposed control system permits the on-line implementation of every operating strategy of the experimental system. A set of experiments involving variable hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent pH (pH), dissolved oxygen in the aerobic reactor (DO), and mixed-liquid return ratio (r) was carried out. Using the proposed system, the amount of COD in the effluent stabilized at the set-point and below. The improvement was achieved with optimum dissolved oxygen concentration because the performance of the treatment process was optimized using operating rules implemented in real time. The system allows various expert operational approaches to be deployed with the goal of minimizing organic substances in the outlet while using the minimum amount of energy. PMID:24052227

  12. Polyaniline Based Conductive Textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teli, M.; Dash, S.; Desai, P.

    2014-12-01

    The conductive polymers were mixed with binder and coated on cotton, polyester and wool fabric, keeping conductive polymer concentration at 5 %. Conductive woven fabrics were obtained by pad-dry-cure coating technique. The surface and bulk conductivity behaviour of the coating paste with respect to temperature were studied using four probe and two probe technique. The conductivity studies show that the coated fabrics have good electrical conductivity in the range of 33.2 ?S/cm-3281 ?S/cm and there was an increase in conductivity with rise in temperature.

  13. Controls on stream water dissolved mercury in three mid-Appalachian forested headwater catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riscassi, Ami L.; Scanlon, Todd M.

    2011-12-01

    Determining the controls on dissolved mercury (HgD) transport is necessary to improve estimations of export from unmonitored watersheds and to forecast responses to changes in deposition and other environmental forcings. Stream water HgD and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were evaluated over a range of discharge conditions in three streams within Shenandoah National Park, VA. Watersheds are distinguished by stream water pH (ranging from neutral to acidic) and soil size fractioning (ranging from clays to sands). At all sites, discharge was a significant but poor predictor of HgD concentrations (r2 from 0.13-0.52). HgD was strongly coupled with DOC at all sites (r2 from 0.74-0.89). UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254), a proxy for DOC quantity and quality, slightly improved the predictions of HgD. Mean DOC quality differed between streams, with less aromatic DOC mobilized from the more acidic watershed. The site with less aromatic DOC and sandy soils mobilized more Hg to the stream for the same quantity and quality of DOC, likely due to the reduced capacity of the larger-grained soils to retain Hg, leaving a greater fraction associated with the organic matter. A similar amount of 0.54 ng HgD/mg DOC is transported at all sites, suggesting the less aromatic DOC transports less Hg per unit DOC, offsetting the effects of soil type. This research demonstrates that soil composition and DOC quality influence HgDexport. We also provide evidence that soil organic carbon is a primary control on Hg-DOC ratios (0.12-1.4 ng mg-1) observed across the U.S. and Sweden.

  14. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of fast-dissolving tablets containing solid dispersion of lamotrigine

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Arti; Gundamaraju, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Investigation of in vitro/in vivo behavior of fast-dissolving tablets containing solid dispersions (SDs) of lamotrigine (LM) was the aim and focus of the present research work. Material and Methods: The effect of various hydrophilic polymers on the aqueous solubility of LM was studied. Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) was selected as the vehicle and SDs were prepared by melting and solvent evaporation method (SEM). Evaluation of SD for dissolution indicated SVM was more appropriate as seen from an enhancement in drug dissolution. Infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and powder X-ray diffraction studies indicated a lack of physicochemical interaction between the drug and the carrier. A total of nine formulations were compressed into fast-dissolving tablets using Avicel pH 102 as a directly compressible filler and ac-di-sol, sodium starch glycolate and crospovidone as super disintegrates and evaluated for pre- and post-compression parameters and in vitro drug release. Results: Mathematical analysis of in vitro data suggested that first order was most suitable mathematical model for describing the optimized formulation. Stability studies indicated that the effect of storage was insignificant at 5% level of confidence. In vivo studies of pure drug, selected formulation and marketed product were carried out in male Wistar rats and pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were calculated using PK function for Microsoft Excel. The best formulation has shown Tmax of 0.5 h which was highly significant (P < 0.05) when compared with pure drug and marketed formulation. The statistical significance was assessed by one way analysis of variance. Conclusion: Therefore, the SDs prepared by SEM using PEG 6000 as hydrophilic carrier can be successfully used for improvement of dissolution of LM and resulted in faster onset of action as indicated by in vivo studies. PMID:25599034

  15. How do changes in dissolved oxygen concentration influence microbially-controlled phosphorus cycling in stream biofilms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saia, S. M.; Locke, N. A.; Regan, J. M.; Carrick, H. J.; Buda, A. R.; Walter, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Advances in molecular microbiology techniques (e.g. epi-fluorescent microscopy and PCR) are making it easier to study the influence of specific microorganisms on nutrient transport. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) are commonly used in wastewater treatment plants to remove excess phosphorus (P) from effluent water. PAOs have also been identified in natural settings but their ecological function is not well known. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that PAOs in natural environments would release and accumulate P during anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. We placed stream biofilms in sealed, covered tubs and subjected them to alternating air (aerobic conditions) and N2 gas (anaerobic condition) bubbling for 12 hours each. Four treatments investigated the influence of changing dissolved oxygen on micribially-controlled P cycling: (1) biofilms bubbled continuously with air, (2) biofilms bubbled alternatively with air and N2, (3) biocide treated biofilms bubbled continuously with air, and (4) biocide treated biofilms bubbled alternatively with air and N2. Treatments 3 and 4 serve as abiotic controls to treatments 1 and 2. We analyzed samples every 12 hours for soluble reactive P (SRP), temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH. We also used fluorescent microscopy (i.e. DAPI staining) and PCR to verify the presence of PAOs in the stream biofilms. SRP results over the course of the experiment support our hypothesis that anaerobic and aerobic stream conditions may impact PAO mediated P release and uptake, respectively in natural environments. The results of these experiments draw attention to the importance of microbiological controls on P mobility in freshwater ecosystems.

  16. Dissolved amino acids in oceanic basaltic basement fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Huei-Ting; Amend, Jan P.; LaRowe, Douglas E.; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Cowen, James P.

    2015-09-01

    The oceanic basaltic basement contains the largest aquifer on Earth and potentially plays an important role in the global carbon cycle as a net sink for dissolved organic carbon (DOC). However, few details of the organic matter cycling in the subsurface are known because great water depths and thick sediments typically hinder direct access to this environment. In an effort to examine the role of water-rock-microorganism interaction on organic matter cycling in the oceanic basaltic crust, basement fluid samples collected from three borehole observatories installed on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge were analyzed for dissolved amino acids. Our data show that dissolved free amino acids (1-13 nM) and dissolved hydrolyzable amino acids (43-89 nM) are present in the basement. The amino acid concentrations in the ridge-flank basement fluids are at the low end of all submarine hydrothermal fluids reported in the literature and are similar to those in deep seawater. Amino acids in recharging deep seawater, in situ amino acid production, and diffusional input from overlying sediments are potential sources of amino acids in the basement fluids. Thermodynamic modeling shows that amino acid synthesis in the basement can be sustained by energy supplied from inorganic substrates via chemolithotrophic metabolisms. Furthermore, an analysis of amino acid concentrations and compositions in basement fluids support the notion that heterotrophic activity is ongoing. Similarly, the enrichment of acidic amino acids and depletion of hydrophobic ones relative to sedimentary particulate organic matter suggests that surface sorption and desorption also alters amino acids in the basaltic basement. In summary, although the oceanic basement aquifer is a net sink for deep seawater DOC, similar amino acid concentrations in basement aquifer and deep seawater suggest that DOC is preferentially removed in the basement over dissolved amino acids. Our data also suggest that organic carbon cycling occurs in the oceanic basaltic basement, where an active subsurface biosphere is likely responsible for amino acid synthesis and degradation.

  17. Breadboard wash water renovation system. [using ferric chloride and ion exchange resins to remove soap and dissolved salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A total wash water renovation system concept was developed for removing objectionable materials from spacecraft wash water in order to make the water reusable. The breadboard model system described provides for pretreatment with ferric chloride to remove soap by chemical precipitation, carbon adsorption to remove trace dissolved organics, and ion exchange for removal of dissolved salts. The entire system was put into continuous operation and carefully monitored to assess overall efficiency and equipment maintenance problems that could be expected in actual use. In addition, the capacity of the carbon adsorbers and the ion-exchange resin was calculated and taken into consideration in the final evaluation of the system adequacy. The product water produced was well within the Tentative Wash Water Standards with regard to total organic carbon, conductivity, urea content, sodium chloride content, color, odor, and clarity.

  18. Dissolved nutrient and suspended particulate matter data for the San Francisco Bay estuary, California, October 1991 through November 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hager, Stephen W.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted hydrologic investigations in San Francisco Bay between October 1991 and November 1993. Dissolved inorganic plant nutrients, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, silica, and reactive phosphorus were measured in surface and in near-bottom waters at previously established locations in both northern and southern reaches of the bay. Salinity, turbidigy, and concentrations of suspended particulate matter also were measured. Additionally, concentratons of dissolved organic nitrogen and phosphorus were occasionally measured. This report presents the sampling and analytical methods, and the data for these studies. Data on the variability due to sampling and sample handling procedures, on the precision of the analytical methods, and on recoveries of known additions from samples are also presented.

  19. Macroalgae contribute to nested mosaics of pH variability in a subarctic fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause-Jensen, D.; Duarte, C. M.; Hendriks, I. E.; Meire, L.; Blicher, M. E.; Marbà, N.; Sejr, M. K.

    2015-08-01

    The Arctic Ocean is considered the most vulnerable ecosystem to ocean acidification, and large-scale assessments of pH and the saturation state for aragonite (?arag) have led to the notion that the Arctic Ocean is already close to a corrosive state. In high-latitude coastal waters the regulation of pH and ?arag is, however, far more complex than offshore because increased biological activity and input of glacial meltwater affect pH. Effects of ocean acidification on calcifiers and non-calcifying phototrophs occupying coastal habitats cannot be derived from extrapolation of current and forecasted offshore conditions, but they require an understanding of the regimes of pH and ?arag in their coastal habitats. To increase knowledge of the natural variability in pH in the Arctic coastal zone and specifically to test the influence of benthic vegetated habitats, we quantified pH variability in a Greenland fjord in a nested-scale approach. A sensor array logging pH, O2, PAR, temperature and salinity was applied on spatial scales ranging from kilometre scale across the horizontal extension of the fjord; to 100 m scale vertically in the fjord, 10-100 m scale between subtidal habitats with and without kelp forests and between vegetated tidal pools and adjacent vegetated shores; and to centimetre to metre scale within kelp forests and millimetre scale across diffusive boundary layers of macrophyte tissue. In addition, we assessed the temporal variability in pH on diurnal and seasonal scales. Based on pH measurements combined with point samples of total alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon and relationships to salinity, we also estimated variability in ?arag. Results show variability in pH and ?arag of up to 0.2-0.3 units at several scales, i.e. along the horizontal and vertical extension of the fjord, between seasons and on a diel basis in benthic habitats and within 1 m3 of kelp forest. Vegetated intertidal pools exhibited extreme diel pH variability of > 1.5 units and macrophyte diffusive boundary layers a pH range of up to 0.8 units. Overall, pelagic and benthic metabolism was an important driver of pH and ?arag producing mosaics of variability from low levels in the dark to peak levels at high irradiance generally appearing favourable for calcification. We suggest that productive coastal environments may form niches of high pH in a future acidified Arctic Ocean.

  20. Spatial and temporal variation in dissolved organic carbon composition in a peaty catchment draining a windfarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ying; Waldron, Susan; Flowers, Hugh

    2015-04-01

    Peatlands are an important terrestrial carbon reserve and a principal source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the fluvial environment (Wallage et al. 2006). Recently it has been observed that DOC concentrations [DOC] in surface waters have increased in Europe and North America (Monteith et al. 2007). This has been attributed primarily to reduced acid deposition. However, land use change can also release C from peat soils. A significant land use change in Scotland is hosting windfarms. Whether windfarm construction causes such impacts has been a research focus, particularly considering fluvial losses, but usually assessing if there are changes in DOC concentration rather than composition. Our study area is a peaty catchment that hosts wind turbines, has peat restoration activities and forest felling and is drained by two streams. We are using UV-visible and fluorescence spectrophotometry to assess if there are differences between the two steams or temporal changes in DOC composition. We will present data from samples collected since February 2014. The parameters we are focusing on are SUVA254, E4/E6 and E2/E4 ratios as these are indicators of DOC aromaticity, humic acid (HA): fulvic acid (FA) ratio and the proportion of humic substances in DOC (Weishaar, 2003; Spencer et al. 2007; Graham et al. 2012). To assess these we have measured UV-visible absorbance spectra from 200 nm to 800 nm. Meanwhile sample fluorescence emission and excitation matrix (EEM) will be applied with the PARAFAC model to obtain more information about the variations in humic substances in this catchment. Our current analysis indicates spatial differences not only in DOC concentration but also in composition. For example, the mainstem draining the windfarm area had a smaller [DOC] but higher E4/E6 and lower E2/E4 ratio values than the tributary draining an area of felled forestry. This may be indicative of more HAs in the mainstem DOC. Seasonal variations have also been observed. Both streams had high [DOC] in summer and autumn compared to spring. While E2/E4 ratios were steady in both streams, a more variable E4/E6 ratio in the mainstem may suggest DOC composition changed more over time than in the tributary which had a relatively stable E4/E6 ratio. [DOC] fell in both streams during the summer drought period but a corresponding fall in SUVA254 in the mainstem but not the tributary is further evidence of differences in DOC composition between the two streams. Such spatial and temporal understanding is needed to understand if, and how, land use influences the composition of the DOC exported. References: Graham M. C. et al. 2012. Processes controlling manganese distributions and associations in organic-rich freshwater aquatic systems: The example of Loch Bradan, Scotland. Science of the Total Environment, 424, 239-250. Monteith D. et al. 2007. Dissolved organic carbon trends resulting from changes in atmospheric chemistry. Nature,450, 537-540. Spencer R.G.M, Bolton L. and Baker A. 2007. Freeze/thaw and pH effects on freshwater dissolved organic matter fluorescence and absorbance properties from a number of UK locations.Water Research, 41 (13):2941-2950. Wallage Z.E., Holden, J. and McDonald, A.T. 2006. Drain blocking: An effective treatment for reducing dissolved organic carbon loss and water discolouration in a drained peatland. Science of the total environment, 367, 811-821. Weishaar J.L. et al. 2003. Evaluation of specific ultraviolet absorbance as an indicator of the chemical composition and reactivity of dissolved organic carbon. Environmental Science & Technology 37(20): 4702-4708.

  1. Feasibility of measuring dissolved carbon dioxide based on head space partial pressures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watten, B.J.; Boyd, C.E.; Schwartz, M.F.; Summerfelt, S.T.; Brazil, B.L.

    2004-01-01

    We describe an instrument prototype that measures dissolved carbon dioxide (DC) without need for standard wetted probe membranes or titration. DC is calculated using Henry's Law, water temperature, and the steady-state partial pressure of carbon dioxide that develops within the instrument's vertical gas-liquid contacting chamber. Gas-phase partial pressures were determined with either an infrared detector (ID) or by measuring voltage developed by a pH electrode immersed in an isolated sodium carbonate solution (SC) sparged with recirculated head space gas. Calculated DC concentrations were compared with those obtained by titration over a range of DC (2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28mg/l), total alkalinity (35, 120, and 250mg/l as CaCO3), total dissolved gas pressure (-178 to 120 mmHg), and dissolved oxygen concentrations (7, 14, and 18 mg/l). Statistically significant (P < 0.001) correlations were established between head space (ID) and titrimetrically determined DC concentrations (R2 = 0.987-0.999, N = 96). Millivolt and titrimetric values from the SC solution tests were also correlated (P < 0.001, R 2 = 0.997, N = 16). The absolute and relative error associated with the use of the ID and SC solution averaged 0.9mg/l DC and 7.0% and 0.6 mg/l DC and 9.6%, respectively. The precision of DC estimates established in a second test series was good; coefficients of variation (100(SD/mean)) for the head space (ID) and titration analyses were 0.99% and 1.7%. Precision of the SC solution method was 1.3%. In a third test series, a single ID was coupled with four replicate head space units so as to permit sequential monitoring (15 min intervals) of a common water source. Here, appropriate gas samples were secured using a series of solenoid valves (1.6 mm bore) activated by a time-based controller. This system configuration reduced the capital cost per sample site from US$ 2695 to 876. Absolute error averaged 2.9, 3.1, 3.7, and 2.7 mg/ l for replicates 1-4 (N = 36) during a 21-day test period (DC range, 36-40 mg/l). The ID meter was then modified so as to provide for DO as well as DC measurements across components of an intensive fish production system. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Photochemical and microbial degradation of dissolved lignin phenols: Implications for the fate of terrigenous dissolved organic matter in

    E-print Network

    Hernes, Peter J.

    Photochemical and microbial degradation of dissolved lignin phenols: Implications for the fate of syringyl to vanillyl phenols, and increases in LMW acid:aldehyde ratios for both vanillyl and syringyl phenols. A 10-day incubation experiment with plume water indicated rates of microbial degradation

  3. Predicting Effects of Cations (Mg, Ca, Na, and K) on 13C-18O Clumping in Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Species and Implications for Carbonate Geothermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, P. S.; Tripati, A.; Schauble, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    13C-18O bond abundance in carbonates is becoming more widely used as a geothermometer; this proxy is affected by various environmental factors. Here we report the influence of cations (Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, and K+) at high concentrations (~2 mol/liter) on the isotopologue composition of the DIC pool. Clumped isotope fractionation in CO32- groups of dissolved species and carbonate minerals is reported using the notation ?63 corresponding mainly to the enrichment in per mil of Hx13C18O16O2x-2 (plus Hx12C18O17O 16Ox-2, Hx12C17O17O 17Ox-2, and Hx13C17O17O 16Ox-2) above the amount expected for a random distribution of isotopes among all CO32-, HCO3- and H2CO3 isotopologues. The ?63 of a solution of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) depends upon the relative abundances of each DIC species (CO2(aq) or H2CO3, HCO3-, and CO32-) since each DIC species has a distinct equilibrium clumped isotope signature. These abundances depend primarily upon solution pH and secondarily upon temperature and salinity (fresh water vs. sea water vs. brine). Solvated DIC species with additional ions and the composite DIC solutions were modeled as a series of supermolecular clusters, each with a single DIC molecule, an added cation, and 21 to 32 surrounding H2O molecules. As in our previous work (Hill et al., 2014, GCA 125, 610-652), we developed electronic structure models at different levels of theory to ensure the best possible reliability at reasonable computational efficiency. Overall, the models predict that common aqueous cations will slightly increase the 13C-18O clumping signature of both individual DIC species and the total DIC pool at a given pH, salinity, and temperature. Predicted ?63values are also dependent upon cation concentration. The perturbing effect of Mg2+ > Ca2+ > K+ > Na+. Dissolved cations increase the clumped crossover pH (pH at which the composite ?63 of the DIC pool equals the ?63 of calcite at equilibrium). Our models predict that a DIC solution of low to moderate pH (i.e. dominantly HCO3- or H2CO3) will have ?63 greater than the equilibrium ?63 of calcite; at higher pH (i.e., mostly the CO32- species in solution) the composite DIC ?63 will be lower than the equilibrium ?63 of calcite. As salinity and/or temperature increase, the crossover pH (between higher or lower ?63) decreases.

  4. Associations of free-living bacteria and dissolved organic compounds in a plume of contaminated groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, R.W.; Barber, L.B., II

    1992-01-01

    Associations of free-living bacteria (FLB) and dissolved organic contaminants in a 4-km-long plume of sewage-contaminated groundwater were investigated. Abundance of FLB in the core of the plume (as delineated by maximum specific conductance) steadily decreased in the direction of flow from a point 0.25 km downgradient from the source to the toe of the plume. At 0.25 km downgradient, FLB comprised up to 31% of the total bacterial population, but constituted < 7% of the population at 2 km downgradient. Abundance of FLB correlated strongly (r = 0.80 n = 23) with total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in contaminated groundwater between 0.64 and 2.1 km downgradient, although distributions of individual contaminants such as di-, tri- and tetrachloroethene were highly variable, and their association with FLB less clear. Numbers of FLB in the downgradient portion of the plume which is contaminated with branched-chain alkylbenzenesulfonate (ABS) surfactants were low (< 5??108/L) in spite of relatively high levels of DOC (up to 4 mg/L). However, abundance of FLB correlated strongly with non-surfactant DOC along vertical transects through the plume. The ratio of FLB to DOC and the ratio of FLB to attached bacteria generally decreased in the direction of flow and, consequently, with the age of the organic contaminants.

  5. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: scientific rationale supporting use of freely dissolved concentrations.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Philipp; Parkerton, Thomas F; Adams, Rachel G; Cargill, John G; Gan, Jay; Gouin, Todd; Gschwend, Philip M; Hawthorne, Steven B; Helm, Paul; Witt, Gesine; You, Jing; Escher, Beate I

    2014-04-01

    Passive sampling methods (PSMs) allow the quantification of the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree ) of an organic contaminant even in complex matrices such as sediments. Cfree is directly related to a contaminant's chemical activity, which drives spontaneous processes including diffusive uptake into benthic organisms and exchange with the overlying water column. Consequently, Cfree provides a more relevant dose metric than total sediment concentration. Recent developments in PSMs have significantly improved our ability to reliably measure even very low levels of Cfree . Application of PSMs in sediments is preferably conducted in the equilibrium regime, where freely dissolved concentrations in the sediment are well-linked to the measured concentration in the sampler via analyte-specific partition ratios. The equilibrium condition can then be assured by measuring a time series or a single time point using passive samplers with different surface to volume ratios. Sampling in the kinetic regime is also possible and generally involves the application of performance reference compounds for the calibration. Based on previous research on hydrophobic organic contaminants, it is concluded that Cfree allows a direct assessment of 1) contaminant exchange and equilibrium status between sediment and overlying water, 2) benthic bioaccumulation, and 3) potential toxicity to benthic organisms. Thus, the use of PSMs to measure Cfree provides an improved basis for the mechanistic understanding of fate and transport processes in sediments and has the potential to significantly improve risk assessment and management of contaminated sediments. PMID:24288295

  6. [Effects of dissolved organic matter in landfill leachate on soil Cd- and Pb bioavailability].

    PubMed

    Fu, Meiyun; Zhou, Lixiang

    2006-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in landfill leachate on ryegrass growth and its uptake of soil Cd and Pb. Fresh sample and Shuige leachate were collected from the municipal waste landfills established 0 and 12 years, respectively. The results showed that after the landfill leachate added, the average concentration of DOM remained in soil was 1.39 (fresh sample) and 1.47 (Shuige) times higher than the control (CK). The bioavailability of Cd and Pb in the soils treated with the two leachates was fluctuated in early period, and then raised. Compared with CK, the bioavailability of soil Cd was increased by 4.81% (fresh sample) and 48.97% (Shuige), and that of soil Pb was enhanced by 7.22% (fresh sample) and 18.99% (Shuige). The total concentrations of plant Cd and Pb in the treatments of fresh sample and Shuige were 19.59% and 104.4%, and 36.03% and 44. 66% higher than CK, respectively, while the total biomass of ryegrass was decreased by 14.03% to approximately 52.24%, in compared with CK. It could be inferred that the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in landfill leachate, especially in that from the landfills established for a longer time, could enhance the bioavailability of soil heavy metals and their accumulation in plant, and thus, suppress the growth of plants. PMID:17044510

  7. Effects of Total Dissolved Gas on Chum Salmon Fry Incubating in the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Panther, Jenny; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Dawley, Earl M.; Elston, Ralph A.

    2008-01-30

    This report describes research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 2007 for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, to characterize the effects of total dissolved gas (TDG) on the incubating fry of chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) in the lower Columbia River. The tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of three objectives are summarized: * to conduct a field monitoring program at the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites, collecting empirical data on TDG to obtain a more thorough understanding of TDG levels during different river stage scenarios (i.e., high-water year versus low-water year) * to conduct laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry at gas levels likely to occur downstream from Bonneville Dam * to sample chum salmon sac fry during Bonneville Dam spill operations to determine if there is a physiological response to TDG levels. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the study methdology and results are provided in Appendixes A through D.

  8. Seasonal variability of total dissolved fluxes and origin of major dissolved elements within a large tropical river: The Orinoco, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laraque, Alain; Moquet, Jean-Sébastien; Alkattan, Rana; Steiger, Johannes; Mora, Abrahan; Adèle, Georges; Castellanos, Bartolo; Lagane, Christèle; Lopez, José Luis; Perez, Jesus; Rodriguez, Militza; Rosales, Judith

    2013-07-01

    Seasonal variations of total dissolved fluxes of the lower Orinoco River were calculated taking into account four complete hydrological cycles during a five-year period (2005-2010). The modern concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) of the Orinoco surface waters were compared with data collected during the second half of the last century published in the literature. This comparison leads to the conclusion that chemical composition did not evolve significantly at least over the last thirty to forty years. Surface waters of the Orinoco at Ciudad Bolivar are between bicarbonated calcic and bicarbonated mixed. In comparison to mean values of concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) of world river surface waters (89.2 mg l-1), the Orinoco River at Ciudad Bolivar presents mainly low mineralized surface waters (2005-10: TDS 30 mg l-1). The TDS fluxes passing at this station in direction to the Atlantic Ocean between 2005 and 2010 were estimated at 30 × 106 t yr-1, i.e. 36 t km-2 yr-1. It was observed that the seasonal variations (dry season vs wet season) of total dissolved fluxes (TDS and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) are mainly controlled by discharge variations. Two groups of elements have been defined from dilution curves and molar ratio diagrams. Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3-, Cl- and Na+ mainly come from the same geographic and lithologic area, the Andes. K+ and SiO2 essentially come from the Llanos and the Guayana Shield. These findings are important for understanding fundamental geochemical processes within the Orinoco River basin, but also as a baseline study in the perspective of the development of numerous mining activities related with aluminum and steel industries; and the plans of the Venezuelan government to construct new fluvial ports on the lower Orinoco for the transport of hydrocarbons.

  9. Pathways and transformations of dissolved methane and dissolved inorganic carbon in Arctic tundra soils: Evidence from analysis of stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throckmorton, H.; Perkins, G.; Muss, J. D.; Smith, L. J.; Conrad, M. E.; Torn, M. S.; Heikoop, J. M.; Newman, B. D.; Wilson, C. J.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic soils contain a large pool of terrestrial C and are of great interest because of their potential for releasing significant amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. Few attempts have been made, however, to derive quantitative budgets of CO2 and CH4 budgets for high-latitude ecosystems. Therefore, this study used naturally occurring geochemical and isotopic tracers to estimate production pathways and transformations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC = ? (total) dissolved CO2) and dissolved CH4 in soil pore waters from 17 locations (drainages) in Barrow, Alaska (USA) in July and September, 2013; and to approximate a complete balance of belowground C cycling at our sampling locations. Results suggest that CH4 was primarily derived from biogenic acetate fermentation, with a shift at 4 locations from July to September towards CO2 reduction as the dominant methanogenic pathway. A large majority of CH4 produced at the frost table methane was transferred directly to the atmosphere via plant roots and ebullition (94.0 ± 1.4% and 96.6 ± 5.0% in July and September). A considerable fraction of the remaining CH4 was oxidized to CO2 during upward diffusion in July and September, respectively. Methane oxidization produced <1% of CO2 relative to alternative production mechanisms in deep subsurface pore waters. The majority of subsurface CO2 was produced from anaerobic respiration, likely due to reduction of Fe oxides and humics (52 ± 6 to 100 ± 13%, on average) while CO2 produced from methanogenesis accounted for the remainder (0 ± 13% to 47 ± 6%, on average) for July and September, respectively. Dissolved CH4 and dissolved CO2 concentrations correlated with thaw depth, suggesting that Arctic ecosystems will likely produce and release a greater amount of greenhouse gasses under projected warming and deepening of active layer thaw depth under future climate change scenarios.

  10. IMPACT OF WATER PH ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2002-10-15

    The experiments conducted this past quarter have suggested that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels throughout the entire range of pH values tested (7.2 to 8.6). Highest mortality was achieved at pH values characteristic of preferred zebra mussel waterbodies, i.e., hard waters with a range of 7.8 to 8.6. In all water types tested, however, ranging from very soft to very hard, considerable mussel kill was achieved (83 to 99% mean mortality), suggesting that regardless of the pH or hardness of the treated water, significant mussel kill can be achieved upon treatment with P. fluorescens strain CL0145A. These results further support the concept that this bacterium has significant potential for use as a zebra mussel control agent in power plant pipes receiving waters with a wide range of physical and chemical characteristics.

  11. Effects of Benthic Flux on Dissolved-Mercury Distributions in Camp Far West Reservoir, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwabara, J. S.; Alpers, C. N.; Marvin-Dipasquale, M.; Topping, B. R.; Carter, J. L.; Stewart, A. R.; Fend, S. V.; Parchaso, F.; Moon, G. E.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Agee, J. L.; Kieu, L. H.

    2003-12-01

    Benthic flux measurements of dissolved mercury species were made on sediment cores from Camp Far West Reservoir, a reservoir in which elevated mercury levels in sport fish had previously been documented. The reservoir is located downstream of historic hydraulic placer-gold mining and ore processing activities in the Bear River watershed of the northern Sierra Nevada. Field and laboratory studies were conducted in April and November of 2002 (one of the driest years on record for the area) to provide the first direct measurements of the benthic flux of dissolved mercury species between bottom sediment and the water column at three locations within the reservoir. Ancillary data, including nutrient and ligand fluxes, and benthic biological characterizations, were also gathered to provide a water-quality framework with which to interpret the mercury results. The following are the major observations made from interdependent physical, biological, and chemical data. Bottom water total mercury (HgT) concentrations ranged from 2.94 to 18.3 pM. Dissolved HgT benthic fluxes were generally higher in April than in November 2002 (based on site averages from replicate cores). HgT fluxes of 36.3 and -28.4 pmoles-m-2-h-1 were measured in cores from the deep site which was suboxic in November, contrasting with positive fluxes of 306 and 272 pmoles-m-2-h-1 at that site in April 2002 when the bottom water was oxic. All six measurements of HgT flux in April 2002 and five of six in November 2002 resulted in positive values (i.e., out of the sediment into the overlying water column). Consistent with benthic fluxes for HgT, dissolved MeHg fluxes were: (a) generally positive in April 2002, (b) negligible at all sites in November 2002, and (c) at least two orders of magnitude lower than total-mercury fluxes, roughly consistent with concentration differences between species. Observed concentration ranges for MeHg in bottom water ranged from less than the detection limit (0.20 pM) at the two shallower, up-gradient sites to 0.48 +/- 0.03 pM (n=3) at the deepest sampling site in November 2002. Dissolved MeHg concentrations in the bottom waters were significantly lower under the low-flow conditions of November 2002 relative to high flow in April 2002, but spatial trends were not temporally consistent. The reservoir was highly phosphate-limited with molar N:P ratios in water column samples ranging from 136 to >5,000 (compared to the Redfield N:P molar ratio of 16). Sulfide benthic fluxes were highest (1,180 +/- 50 nmoles-m-2-h-1) at the deepest site in November 2002 following at least 2 weeks of hypolimnetic anoxia (based on prior water-column monitoring), and lowest at the same site in April 2002 (290 +/- 30 nmoles-m-2-h-1) under oxic, high-flow conditions. Sparse benthic macroinvertebrate distributions, mirrored by low benthic-chlorophyll concentrations, were considered to be inconsequential factors mediating benthic flux. Despite their seasonal variability, the magnitude of benthic flux estimates for HgT were consistently comparable to or greater than riverine sources during a relatively dry year. Diffusive transport of dissolved, bioavailable mercury species between the reservoir bed and water column may therefore be an important process regulating the concentration of mercury species in the reservoir water column.

  12. The O2, pH and Ca2+ Microenvironment of Benthic Foraminifera in a High CO2 World

    PubMed Central

    Glas, Martin S.; Fabricius, Katharina E.; de Beer, Dirk; Uthicke, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) can have adverse effects on marine calcifiers. Yet, phototrophic marine calcifiers elevate their external oxygen and pH microenvironment in daylight, through the uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) by photosynthesis. We studied to which extent pH elevation within their microenvironments in daylight can counteract ambient seawater pH reductions, i.e. OA conditions. We measured the O2 and pH microenvironment of four photosymbiotic and two symbiont-free benthic tropical foraminiferal species at three different OA treatments (?432, 1141 and 2151 µatm pCO2). The O2 concentration difference between the seawater and the test surface (?O2) was taken as a measure for the photosynthetic rate. Our results showed that O2 and pH levels were significantly higher on photosymbiotic foraminiferal surfaces in light than in dark conditions, and than on surfaces of symbiont-free foraminifera. Rates of photosynthesis at saturated light conditions did not change significantly between OA treatments (except in individuals that exhibited symbiont loss, i.e. bleaching, at elevated pCO2). The pH at the cell surface decreased during incubations at elevated pCO2, also during light incubations. Photosynthesis increased the surface pH but this increase was insufficient to compensate for ambient seawater pH decreases. We thus conclude that photosynthesis does only partly protect symbiont bearing foraminifera against OA. PMID:23166810

  13. The O2, pH and Ca2+ microenvironment of benthic foraminifera in a high CO2 world.

    PubMed

    Glas, Martin S; Fabricius, Katharina E; de Beer, Dirk; Uthicke, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) can have adverse effects on marine calcifiers. Yet, phototrophic marine calcifiers elevate their external oxygen and pH microenvironment in daylight, through the uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) by photosynthesis. We studied to which extent pH elevation within their microenvironments in daylight can counteract ambient seawater pH reductions, i.e. OA conditions. We measured the O(2) and pH microenvironment of four photosymbiotic and two symbiont-free benthic tropical foraminiferal species at three different OA treatments (~432, 1141 and 2151 µatm pCO(2)). The O(2) concentration difference between the seawater and the test surface (?O(2)) was taken as a measure for the photosynthetic rate. Our results showed that O(2) and pH levels were significantly higher on photosymbiotic foraminiferal surfaces in light than in dark conditions, and than on surfaces of symbiont-free foraminifera. Rates of photosynthesis at saturated light conditions did not change significantly between OA treatments (except in individuals that exhibited symbiont loss, i.e. bleaching, at elevated pCO(2)). The pH at the cell surface decreased during incubations at elevated pCO(2), also during light incubations. Photosynthesis increased the surface pH but this increase was insufficient to compensate for ambient seawater pH decreases. We thus conclude that photosynthesis does only partly protect symbiont bearing foraminifera against OA. PMID:23166810

  14. Inuence of dissolved organic matter source on lake bacterioplankton structure and function ^ implicationsfor seasonal

    E-print Network

    Notre Dame, University of

    In£uence of dissolved organic matter source on lake bacterioplankton structure and function Laanbroek Keywords bacterioplankton; community structure; dissolved organic matter; t-RFLP; batch cultures. Abstract It has been suggested that autochthonous (internally produced) organic carbon and allochthonous

  15. THE ROLE OF NITROGEN IN CHROMOPHORIC AND FLUORESCENT DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial and photochemical processes affect chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) dynamics in the ocean. Some evidence suggests that dissolved nitrogen plays a role in CDOM formation, although this has received little systematic attention in marine ecosystems. Coastal sea...

  16. STREAM PRODUCTIVITY ANALYSIS WITH DORM (DISSOLVED OXYGEN ROUTING MODEL) - 2: PARAMETER ESTIMATION AND SENSITIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dissolved oxygen routing model DORM, which determines productivity and respiration of a stream biological community, requires in addition to stream geometry and stream flow, parameter values for reaeration coefficients and temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) limitations on ...

  17. Rapid extraction of dissolved inorganic carbon from seawater and groundwater samples for radiocarbon dating

    E-print Network

    Gospodinova, Kalina Doneva

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is the design and development of a system for rapid extraction of dissolved inorganic carbon from seawater and groundwater samples for radiocarbon dating. The Rapid Extraction of Dissolved Inorganic ...

  18. Use of Passive Samplers to Measure Dissolved Organic Contaminants in a Temperate Estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measuring dissolved concentrations of organic contaminants can be challenging given their low solubilities and high particle association. However, to perform accurate risk assessments of these chemicals, knowing the dissolved concentration is critical since it is considered to b...

  19. The Conductivity of Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner-Canham, Geoff

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical background and modern explanations for the popular demonstration of showing conductivity of solutions through the insertion of a light-bulb conductivity tester into deionized water and water with salt in it. (PR)

  20. Cari Kitahara, Ph.D.

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Kitahara earned her Ph.D. in cancer epidemiology from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. She joined the Radiation Epidemiology Branch in 2008 as a predoctoral fellow and became a research fellow in 2011. In 2015, she was appointed to the position of tenure-track investigator.

  1. Effects of ph, carbonate, orthophosphate, and redox potential on cuprosolvency

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, M.R.; Lytle, D.A.; Clement, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    A comprehensive solubility model for copper in drinking water has been developed, that is consistent with available data for copper dissolution and passivation in drinking water systems. Copper solubility (cuprosolvency) is greatly affected by the redox conditions of the systems. The concentration of Cu(I) is dominated by Cu{sub 2}O(s) or CuOH(s) solid phases, plus soluble aqueous ammonia and chloride complexes. In new piping, the concentration of Cu(II) is mainly governed by Cu(OH){sub 2}(s) (cupric hydroxide), rather than CuO(s) (tenorite) or Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}(s)(malachite). Complexation of Cu(II) by DIC and hydroxide ion is extremely important. Increases in DIC are predicted to cause significant increases in copper solubility in the pH range of 7.5--10. Utilities may trade off increasing cuprosolvency by DIC addition for ensuring adequate buffering intensity in the finished water. Sufficient dosages of orthophosphate in the pH range of 6.5 to 7.5 may reduce cuprosolvency under oxidizing conditions. Sulfate may decrease cuprosolvency under some conditions, or may interfere with the formation of cupric hydroxide films under mildly alkaline conditions. Dissolved oxygen and chlorine residual play complicated roles in determining copper concentrations after various standing times. Frequently, 48--72 hours are necessary to reach equilibrium levels of copper in disinfected systems.

  2. Littoral zones as sources of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon in lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stets, E.G.; Cotner, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    A survey of 12 lakes in Minnesota, USA, was conducted to examine the factors controlling variability in biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) concentration. The principal question addressed was whether BDOC concentration was more strongly related to lake trophic status or morphometric parameters. BDOC concentration was determined by incubating filtered lake water for a period of 15 months and fitting an exponential decay curve to measured DOC concentrations. BDOC concentrations varied from 73 to 427 mmol C.L-1 and composed 15%-63% of the total DOC pool. There were no significant correlations between BDOC and measures of lake trophic status. Instead, BDOC was most closely associated with the percentage of lake area covered by littoral zone, suggesting a significant source of BDOC from aquatic macrophytes and lake surface sediments. ?? 2008 NRC.

  3. Photodegradation of ormetoprim in aquaculture and stream-derived dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Guerard, Jennifer J; Chin, Yu-Ping

    2012-10-01

    Ormetoprim (OMP) is an antibiotic approved for use in the United States to prevent the spread of disease in freshwater aquaculture. It has been shown in the previous literature to be photochemically stable to direct photolysis, but the role of photosensitization processes in the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the rate of degradation is not well understood. The present results show that water and DOM (specifically the fulvic acid fraction) isolated from a eutrophic aquaculture catfish pond and a nearby stream (Deer Creek) at the Mississippi State University Delta Research and Extension Center facility in Stoneville, MS, significantly increased the phototransformation of OMP relative to direct photolysis. Similar results were reported for reference fulvic acids obtained from the International Humic Substances Society. Results from a combination of scavenging experiments and experiments conducted under anoxic conditions indicate the indirect photodegradation pathway occurs by hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen attack, and reaction with triplet excited-state DOM. PMID:22950359

  4. Conductance quantization and backscattering

    E-print Network

    Nöckel, Jens Uwe

    Conductance quantization and backscattering Jens U. Nöckel I. Institut für Theoretische Physik to illustrate that backscattering can occur without any effect on the conductance quantization, which. [17] and Wharam et al. [18] that the conductance of a nanostructured constriction in a two

  5. Conductivity of magnetic fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Dyupovkin, N.I.

    1995-09-01

    Consideration of the conductivity of magnetic fluids based on nonaqueous media demonstrates that the concentration dependence of conductivity exhibits a maximum for stable systems. Dependences of the conductivity of magnetic fluids on the magnitude of magnetic field are reported, and results of the study are discussed.

  6. Surface Conductive Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, John; Suib, Steven L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the properties of surface-conducting glass and the chemical nature of surface-conducting stannic (tin) oxide. Also provides the procedures necessary for the preparation of surface-conducting stannic oxide films on glass substrates. The experiment is suitable for the advanced inorganic chemistry laboratory. (JN)

  7. Radiocarbon in dissolved organic carbon of the South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druffel, E. R. M.; Griffin, S.

    2015-05-01

    Marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) originates mainly from primary production using dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) that has young 14C ages. Paradoxically, the 14C age of deep DOC ranges from 4000 to 6400 14C years, indicating that a portion of DOC survives multiple, deep ocean mixing cycles. Here we show that 14C ages of DOC from the deep South Pacific are equal to those from the deep north central Pacific. This is contrary to DIC 14C ages that increase from south to north in the deep Pacific. We hypothesize that DOC in the South Pacific is influenced by input of ancient DOC from hydrothermal flanks and ridges of the East Pacific Rise. We show that DOC ?14C values in the deep Pacific are not controlled by aging during northward transport of deep waters, indicating that the deep oceanic carbon cycle needs reassessment.

  8. Loss of nitrogenous dissolved organic matter from small lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Otsuki, Akira

    1981-01-01

    To determine how much organic nitrogen is lost from lakes during winter by natural processes, we collected water in fall and winter from six small lakes (area, 5-822 hectares) and separated organic matter dissolved in the water with n-butanol into three fractions--yellow organic acids, a white precipitate, and aqueous (nonextractable) organic matter. The nitrogen content of each fraction was measured by ultraviolet photolysis. About 25-30% of the yellow acid and white precipitate fractions were lost from the water column in each of the lakes during winter. More than 80% of the organic nitrogen dissolved in the lake water samples was found in the aqueous fraction. We believe the white precipitate is part of the humin material in lake waters because it was relatively insoluble in acidic and alkaline solutions.

  9. Turning hardwood dissolving pulp polysaccharide residual material into barrier packaging.

    PubMed

    Saadatmand, Soheil; Edlund, Ulrica; Albertsson, Ann-Christine; Danielsson, Sverker; Dahlman, Olof; Karlström, Katarina

    2013-08-12

    Birch chips were subjected to pilot-scale pre-hydrolysis under various sets of conditions to mimic a pre-hydrolysis step in a dissolving pulp process. The process generates residual process liquor, a wood hydrolysate, and the treated chips may be directly utilized in a dissolving process. The wood hydrolysates were rich in xylan and utilized in the production of fully renewable films that provide very good oxygen barrier function and mechanical integrity also at high relative humidity. Membrane filtration had an effect in enriching higher molecular weight fractions from the hydrolysates, but noteworthy, a hydrolysate used in the crude state without any membrane filtration performed just as well as upgraded fractions in forming films providing acceptable tensile properties and a good barrier against oxygen permeation. PMID:23862767

  10. Effect of dietary combinations on plaque pH recovery after the intake of pediatric liquid analgesics

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Shaam; Bshara, Nada; Trak, Juliana; Mahmoud, Ghiath

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of water, halloumi cheese and sugar-free (SF) chewing gum on plaque pH recovery after the intake of sweetened PLAs. Settings and Design: A randomized clinical trial was conducted on 17 children (10 females, 7 males) aged 11–12 years with DFT/dft of more than 3. Materials and Methods: Each volunteer tested paracetamol and ibuprofen suspension alone or followed with water, halloumi cheese or SF gum, as well as 10% sucrose and 10% sorbitol as controls. Plaque pH was measured using the sampling method before and after 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 min of ingestion. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance followed by least significant difference test to assess minimum pH (min pH), maximum pH drop (?pH), and the area under baseline pH, and P value was set as 0.05. Results: Both ibuprofen and paracetamol were not significantly different from 10% sucrose in terms of min pH, ?pH, and area under baseline pH except for min pH of ibuprofen (P = 0.034). Water and halloumi cheese did not have a significant effect on plaque pH recovery after the intake of both analgesics as min pH, ?pH, and area under baseline pH were similar to 10% sucrose except for min pH of ibuprofen + water (P = 0.048). However, plaque pH variables after chewing SF gum for 20 min were similar to 10% sorbitol. Conclusion: Chewing SF gum immediately after the intake of sweetened PLAs for 20 min restores plaque pH and could be recommended as a complementary aid in caries prevention. PMID:26430360

  11. PREDICTION OF TOTAL DISSOLVED GAS EXCHANGE AT HYDROPOWER DAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Pasha, MD Fayzul K; Stewart, Kevin M; Bender, Merlynn; Schneider, Michael L.

    2012-07-01

    Total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in waters released at hydropower dams can cause gas bubble trauma in fisheries resulting in physical injuries and eyeball protrusion that can lead to mortality. Elevated TDG pressures in hydropower releases are generally caused by the entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin. The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. These dam operations are constrained by state and federal water quality standards for TDG saturation which balance the benefits of spillway operations designed for Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed fisheries versus the degradation to water quality as defined by TDG saturation. In the 1970s, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), under the federal Clean Water Act (Section 303(d)), established a criterion not to exceed the TDG saturation level of 110% in order to protect freshwater and marine aquatic life. The states of Washington and Oregon have adopted special water quality standards for TDG saturation in the tailrace and forebays of hydropower facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers where spillway operations support fish passage objectives. The physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been studied throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and routine water quality monitoring programs. These data have been used to quantify the relationship between project operations, structural properties, and TDG exchange. These data have also been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange to support real-time TDG management decisions. These empirically based predictive models have been developed for specific projects and account for both the fate of spillway and powerhouse flows in the tailrace channel and resultant exchange in route to the next downstream dam. Currently, there exists a need to summarize the general finding from operational and structural TDG abatement programs conducted throughout the CRB and for the development of a generalized prediction model that pools data collected at multiple projects with similar structural attributes. A generalized TDG exchange model can be tuned to specific projects and coupled with water regulation models to allow the formulation of optimal daily water regulation schedules subject to water quality constraints for TDG supersaturation. A generalized TDG exchange model can also be applied to other hydropower dams that affect TDG pressures in tailraces and can be used to develop alternative operational and structural measures to minimize TDG generation. It is proposed to develop a methodology for predicting TDG levels downstream of hydropower facilities with similar structural properties as a function of a set of variables that affect TDG exchange; such as tailwater depth, spill discharge and pattern, project head, and entrainment of powerhouse releases. TDG data from hydropower facilities located throughout the northwest region of the United States will be used to identify relationships between TDG exchange and relevant dependent variables. Data analysis and regression techniques will be used to develop predictive TDG exchange expressions for various structural categories.

  12. Determination of total dissolved solids in water analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, C.S.

    1933-01-01

    The figure for total dissolved solids, based on the weight of the residue on evaporation after heating for 1 hour at 180??C., is reasonably close to the sum of the determined constituents for most natural waters. Waters of the carbonate type that are high in magnesium may give residues that weigh less than the sum. Natural waters of the sulfate type usually give residues that are too high on account of incomplete drying.

  13. Variability in dissolved oxygen off Eastern Luzon, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Diego-McGlone, M.; Escobar, M.; Jacinto, G.; Villanoy, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    The eastern coast and shelf of Luzon is a unique area encompassed by the bifurcation of the western boundary North Equatorial Current (NEC) into the Kuroshio and Mindanao Currents. This region is also productive and has become a rich fishing ground. Of interest is how biogeochemistry in this area is influenced by variability in the bifurcation driven by ENSO events, as well as by production and remineralization processes. Results from 2011 and 2012 oceanographic cruises show changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) off Eastern Luzon in both spatial and temporal scales. Between 2011 and 2012, there was a southern shift of the bifurcation latitude. Water masses from the NEC and the Kuroshio Recirculation Gyre (KRG) east of Luzon have inherent low and higher DO concentrations, respectively. A subsurface oxygen minimum layer was seen at 150-200m. Waters with this low dissolved oxygen signature comes from a 400m-deep sill basin (Lamon Deep) off Eastern Luzon. Apart from low ventilation rates, organic matter decomposition contributes to depletion of DO. Proximity of the basin to the coast is evident in the high particulate organic carbon concentration that is delivered from land through run-off and the nearby river. The low DO water is advected offshore and contributes to the spatial variability of DO in the area. Linear regression of particulate organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon, and nutrients with AOU strongly correlate organic matter remineralization to the change in DO with depth. The variability in DO off Eastern Luzon is analyzed with the large-scale variability offshore of source waters to determine the relative influence of biogeochemical cycling in the area.

  14. Relation between Soil Order and Sorptive Capacity for Dissolved Organic Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Heal, Katherine R; Brandt, Craig C; Mayes, Melanie; Phillips, Jana Randolph; Jardine, Philip M

    2012-01-01

    Soils have historically been considered a temporary sink for organic C, but deeper soils may serve as longer term C sinks due to the sorption of dissolved organic C (DOC) onto Fe- and clay-rich mineral soil particles. This project provides an improved understanding and predictive capability of the physical and chemical properties of deep soils that control their sorptive capacities for DOC. Two hundred thirteen subsurface soil samples (72 series from five orders) were selected from the eastern and central United States. A characterized natural DOC source was added to the soils, and the Langmuir sorption equation was fitted to the observed data by adjusting the maximum DOC sorption capacity (Q{sub max}) and the binding coefficient (k). Different isotherm shapes were observed for Ultisols, Alfisols, and Mollisols due to statistically significant differences in the magnitude of k, while Q{sub max} was statistically invariant among these three orders. Linear regressions were performed on the entire database and as a function of soil order to correlate Langmuir fitted parameters with measured soil properties, e.g., pH, clay content, total organic C (TOC), and total Fe oxide content. Together, textural clay and Fe oxide content accounted for 35% of the variation in Q{sub max} in the database, and clay was most important for Alfisols and Ultisols. The TOC content, however, accounted for 27% of the variation in Q{sub max} in Mollisols. Soil pH accounted for 45% of the variation in k for the entire database, 41% for Mollisols, and 22% for Alfisols. Our findings demonstrate that correlations between Langmuir parameters and soil properties are different for different soil orders and that k is a more sensitive parameter for DOC sorption than is Q{sub max} for temperate soils from the central and eastern United States.

  15. Characterization and antimicrobial phototoxicity of curcumin dissolved in natural deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Wikene, Kristine Opsvik; Bruzell, Ellen; Tønnesen, Hanne Hjorth

    2015-12-01

    Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) are a novel class of eutectics which show a unique potential as solubilizer of water insoluble compounds. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the potential of NADES as a solvent for the hydrophobic photosensitizer curcumin for use in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). Two of the seventeen NADES initially prepared (i.e., NADES GS and MC3) solubilized >0.05mg/ml curcumin and were further characterized. The hydrolytic stability (i.e., t1/2) of curcumin in NADES was comparable to or up to 2-10 times higher than previously reported results in cyclodextrins and up to >1300 times higher than results reported in buffer at pH8. The photolytic stability increased by a factor 5.6-10 in GS compared to the most photostable cyclodextrin and surfactant preparations reported previously. This NADES seemed to lock curcumin in its colorless diketo conformer, resulting in higher photostability than in ethanol and in the NADES MC3. The curcumin-NADES preparations dissolved rapidly in aqueous media and formed supersaturated solutions of curcumin. Precipitation of curcumin was observed after ?1h depending on the dilution factor (pH<8). The NADES MC3 containing curcumin photoinactivated Escherichia coli at a lower curcumin concentration (1.25?M) than in any previously investigated preparations of curcumin. The ability of NADES to lock curcumin within one specific molecular conformation and also to potentiate the phototoxic effect of this photosensitizer emphasizes the unique properties of the NADES as a solvent. PMID:26410725

  16. Oxygen isotope fractionation of dissolved oxygen during reduction by ferrous iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, Yasuhiro; Poulson, Simon R.

    2009-01-01

    The oxygen isotope fractionation factor of dissolved oxygen gas has been measured during inorganic reduction by aqueous FeSO 4 at 10-54 °C under neutral (pH 7) and acidic (pH 2) conditions, with Fe(II) concentrations ranging up to 0.67 mol L -1, in order to better understand the geochemical behavior of oxygen in ferrous iron-rich groundwater and acidic mine pit lakes. The rate of oxygen reduction increased with increasing temperature and increasing Fe(II) concentration, with the pseudo-first-order rate constant k ranging from 2.3 to 82.9 × 10 -6 s -1 under neutral conditions and 2.1 to 37.4 × 10 -7 s -1 under acidic conditions. The activation energy of oxygen reduction was 30.9 ± 6.6 kJ mol -1 and 49.7 ± 13.0 kJ mol -1 under neutral and acidic conditions, respectively. Oxygen isotope enrichment factors ( ?) become smaller with increasing temperature, increasing ferrous iron concentration, and increasing reaction rate under acidic conditions, with ? values ranging from -4.5‰ to -11.6‰. Under neutral conditions, ? does not show any systematic trends vs. temperature or ferrous iron concentration, with ? values ranging from -7.3 to -10.3‰. Characterization of the oxygen isotope fractionation factor associated with O 2 reduction by Fe(II) will have application to elucidating the process or processes responsible for oxygen consumption in environments such as groundwater and acidic mine pit lakes, where a number of possible processes (e.g. biological respiration, reduction by reduced species) may have taken place.

  17. [Regulation effects of tourmaline on seawater pH value].

    PubMed

    Xia, Meisheng; Zhang, Hongmei; Hu, Caihong; Xu, Zirong

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy were employed to examine the characteristics of tourmaline produced in east Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and batch experiments were conducted to study its regulation effects on seawater pH value. The factors affecting the regulation, such as the dosage of tourmaline and the salinity and initial pH value of seawater, were also studied. The results showed that tourmaline could regulate the seawater pH value from its initial 3 and 10 to 7.1 and 8.9, respectively, and the regulation effect was greater in the seawater with lower salinity, e.g., after 120 minutes treatment, the initial pH value (5.0) of the seawater with a salinity of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 35 was increased by 3.24, 3.16, 3.06, 2.99 and 2.85 unit, respectively. Tourmaline had little effect on seawater conductivity. This study would provide an experimental base for the application of tourmaline in aquaculture. PMID:16422525

  18. Speciation and dynamics of dissolved inorganic nitrogen export in the Danshui River, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T.-Y.; Shih, Y.-T.; Huang, J.-C.; Kao, S.-J.; Shiah, F.-K.; Liu, K.-K.

    2014-02-01

    Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, including ammonium, nitrite and nitrate) export from land to ocean is becoming dominated by anthropogenic activities and severely altering the aquatic ecosystem. However, rare observational analyses have been conducted in the Oceania, the hotspot of global DIN export. In this study a whole watershed monitoring network (20 stations) was conducted in 2003 to investigate the controlling factors of DIN export in the Danshui River of Taiwan. The results showed that DIN concentration ranged from ∼16 ?M in the headwater and up to ∼430 ?M in the estuary. However, the dominating DIN species transformed gradually from NO3- in the headwater (∼97%) to NH4+ in the estuary (∼70%), which well followed the descending dissolved oxygen (DO) distribution (from ∼8 mg L-1 to ∼1 mg L-1). NO2- was observed in the transition zone from high to low DO. DIN yield was increasing downstream, ranging from ∼160 to ∼6000 kg N km-2 yr-1 as population density increases toward the estuary, from ∼15 pop km-2 to ∼2600 pop km-2. Although the individual DIN export, ∼2.40 kg N person-1 yr-1, was comparable to the global average, the close-to-top DIN yield was observed owing to abundant rainfall, dense population, and the sensitive response to population increase. The Danshui River occupies 1.8 × 10-3% of the land surface area of the Earth but discharges disproportionately high percentage, ∼60 × 10-3% (∼14 000 t N yr-1) of the annual global DIN export to the ocean. Through this study, regulating factors and the significance of human population on DIN export were identified, and the regional databases were supplemented to promote the completeness of global models.

  19. UTILIZATION OF DISSOLVED NITROGEN BY HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIOPLANKTON: EFFECT OF SUBSTRATE C/N RATIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The significance of dissolved combined amino acids (DCAA), dissolved free amino acids (DFAA), and dissolved DNA (D-DNA) as sources of C and N for marine bacteria in batch cultures with variable substrate C/N ratios was studied. lucose, ammonium, alanine, and phosphate were added ...

  20. Dissolved oxygen sensing based on fluorescence quenching of ceria nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehata, Nader; Meehan, Kathleen; Leber, Donald

    2012-10-01

    The development of oxygen sensors has positively impacted the fields of medical science, bioengineering, environmental monitoring, solar cells, industrial process control, and a number of military applications. Fluorescent quenching sensors have an inherent high sensitivity, chemical selectivity, and stability when compared to other types of sensors. While cerium oxide thin films have been used to monitor oxygen in the gas phase, the potential of cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles as the active material in sensor for oxygen gas has only recently been investigated. Ceria nanoparticles are one of the most unique nanomaterials that are being studied today due to the diffusion and reactivity of its oxygen vacancies, which contributes to its high oxygen storage capability. The reactivity of the oxygen vacancies, which is also related to conversion of cerium ion from the Ce+4 to Ce+3 state, affects the fluorescence properties of the ceria nanoparticles. Our research demonstrates that the ceria nanoparticles (~7 nm in diameter) have application as a fluorescence quenching sensor to measure dissolved oxygen in water. We have found a strong inverse correlation between the amplitude of the fluorescence emission (?excitation = 430 nm and ?peak = 520 nm) and the dissolved oxygen concentration between 5 - 13 mg/L. The Stern-Volmer constant, which is an indication of the sensitivity of gas sensing is 184 M-1 for the ceria nanoparticles. The results show that ceria nanoparticles can be used in an improved, robust fluorescence sensor for dissolved oxygen in a liquid medium.

  1. FDA-Approved Natural Polymers for Fast Dissolving Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Md Tausif; Parvez, Nayyar; Sharma, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Oral route is the most preferred route for administration of different drugs because it is regarded as safest, most convenient, and economical route. Fast disintegrating tablets are very popular nowadays as they get dissolved or facilely disintegrated in mouth within few seconds of administration without the need of water. The disadvantages of conventional dosage form, especially dysphagia (arduousness in swallowing), in pediatric and geriatric patients have been overcome by fast dissolving tablets. Natural materials have advantages over synthetic ones since they are chemically inert, non-toxic, less expensive, biodegradable and widely available. Natural polymers like locust bean gum, banana powder, mango peel pectin, Mangifera indica gum, and Hibiscus rosa-sinenses mucilage ameliorate the properties of tablet and utilized as binder, diluent, and superdisintegrants increase the solubility of poorly water soluble drug, decrease the disintegration time, and provide nutritional supplement. Natural polymers are obtained from the natural origin and they are cost efficacious, nontoxic, biodegradable, eco-friendly, devoid of any side effect, renewable, and provide nutritional supplement. It is proved from the studies that natural polymers are more safe and efficacious than the synthetic polymers. The aim of the present article is to study the FDA-approved natural polymers utilized in fast dissolving tablets. PMID:26556207

  2. FDA-Approved Natural Polymers for Fast Dissolving Tablets.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Tausif; Parvez, Nayyar; Sharma, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Oral route is the most preferred route for administration of different drugs because it is regarded as safest, most convenient, and economical route. Fast disintegrating tablets are very popular nowadays as they get dissolved or facilely disintegrated in mouth within few seconds of administration without the need of water. The disadvantages of conventional dosage form, especially dysphagia (arduousness in swallowing), in pediatric and geriatric patients have been overcome by fast dissolving tablets. Natural materials have advantages over synthetic ones since they are chemically inert, non-toxic, less expensive, biodegradable and widely available. Natural polymers like locust bean gum, banana powder, mango peel pectin, Mangifera indica gum, and Hibiscus rosa-sinenses mucilage ameliorate the properties of tablet and utilized as binder, diluent, and superdisintegrants increase the solubility of poorly water soluble drug, decrease the disintegration time, and provide nutritional supplement. Natural polymers are obtained from the natural origin and they are cost efficacious, nontoxic, biodegradable, eco-friendly, devoid of any side effect, renewable, and provide nutritional supplement. It is proved from the studies that natural polymers are more safe and efficacious than the synthetic polymers. The aim of the present article is to study the FDA-approved natural polymers utilized in fast dissolving tablets. PMID:26556207

  3. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Sylwester, Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  4. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1989-05-23

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  5. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1988-06-20

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  6. Dual pH durability studies of man-made vitreous fiber (MMVF).

    PubMed

    Bauer, J F; Law, B D; Hesterberg, T W

    1994-10-01

    Dissolution of fibers in the deep lung may involve both extracellular and intracellular mechanisms. This process was modeled in vitro for each environment using an experimental flow-through system to characterize both total dissolution and specific chemical changes for three representative MMVF's: a glasswool, a slagwool, and a refractory ceramic fiber (RCF). Synthetic physiological fluids at pH 4 and at pH 7.6 were used to simulate macrophage intraphagolysosomal, and extracellular environments, respectively. Actual commercial fiber, sized to rat-respirable dimension, having an average fiber diameter of 1 micron and an average length between 15 and 25 microns, was used in the experiments. Fiber dissolution was monitored through change in chemistry of the fluid collected after percolation at a constant rate through a thin bed of sample. There are great differences in total fiber dissolution rates for the different fibers. Slagwool and RCF dissolve more rapidly at pH 4 than at pH 7.6, while the reverse is true for glasswool. Dissolution is sometimes accompanied by a noticeable change in fiber morphology or dimension, and sometimes by no change. There is strong dependency on pH, which affects not only total fiber dissolution, but also the leaching of specific chemical components. This effect is different for each type of fiber, indicating that specific fiber chemistry largely controls whether a fiber dissolves or leaches more rapidly under acidic or neutral conditions. Both total dissolution rates and calculated fiber composition changes are valuable guides to interpreting in vivo behavior of man-made vitreous fibers, and demonstrate the usefulness of in vitro acellular experiments in understanding overall fiber persistence. PMID:7882957

  7. Testing Novel pH Proxies through Inorganic Calcite Precipitations and K/Pg Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Super, J. R.; Pagani, M.; Wang, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean pH proxies help constrain the carbon system in the paleocean and can be used to infer atmospheric CO2 when coupled with estimates of total alkalinity, aqueous pCO2 or dissolved inorganic carbon. This project investigates two novel pH proxies (cerium abundance and kinetically-controlled oxygen isotopes) through a series of precipitations of inorganic calcite, as well as the previously established boron isotope pH proxy. Precipitations are performed using varied pH and carbonate saturation states that span the range of typical ocean values as well as a 'free drift' that allows pH and saturation state to vary. The light rare earth element cerium speciates, depending on local oxidation-reduction conditions, between the soluble Ce3+ and highly insoluble Ce4+ ions, causing a relative depletion of cerium in ocean water. This project demonstrates how a suite rare earth elements, including cerium, partitions into inorganic calcite and how partitioning varies with changing pH and carbonate saturation state. Oxygen isotope fractionation is primarily controlled by temperature, but this project examines how pH and carbonate saturation state correlate with oxygen isotope values under kinetic conditions during the initial stage of precipitation. The effect of diagenesis on each proxy is simulated by dissolution of precipitated calcite in a pressure vessel. Results from the precipitations are used to inform a record of well-preserved benthic and planktonic foraminifera from DSDP Site 356 that range in age from the K/Pg boundary to the period when the ?13C gradient between the surface and deep ocean returned to pre-event levels. The pH record is used to infer the magnitude and length of the perturbation to the oceanic carbon system following the extinction event, particularly in terms of export productivity.

  8. Total Dissolved Gas Effects on Fishes of the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, Kathy E.; Dawley, Earl; Geist, David R.

    2006-03-31

    Gas supersaturation problems generated by spill from dams on the Columbia River were first identified in the 1960s. Since that time, considerable research has been conducted on effects of gas supersaturation on aquatic life, primarily juvenile salmonids. Also since that time, modifications to dam structures and operations have reduced supersaturated gas levels produced by the dams. The limit for total dissolved gas saturation (TDGS) as mandated by current Environmental Protection Agency water quality standards is 110%. State management agencies issue limited waivers to water quality, allowing production of levels of up to 120% TDGS to facilitate the downstream migration of juvenile salmonids. Recently, gas supersaturation as a water quality issue has resurfaced as concerns have grown regarding chronic effects of spill-related total dissolved gas on salmonids, including incubating embryos and larvae, resident fish species, and other aquatic organisms. Because of current concerns, and because the last comprehensive review of research on supersaturation effects on fishes was conducted in 1997, we reviewed recent supersaturation literature to identify new or ongoing issues that may not be adequately addressed by the current 110% TDGS limit and the 120% TDGS water quality waiver. We found that recent work supports older research indicating that short-term exposure to levels up to 120% TDGS does not produce acute effects on migratory juvenile or adult salmonids when compensating depths are available. Monitoring programs at Snake and Columbia river dams from 1995 to the early 2000s documented a low incidence of significant gas bubble disease or mortality in Columbia River salmonids, resident fishes, or other taxa. We did, however, identify five areas of concern in which total dissolved gas levels lower than water quality limits may produce sublethal effects on fishes of the Columbia River. These areas of concern are 1) sensitive and vulnerable species or life stages, 2) long-term chronic or multiple exposure, 3) vulnerable habitats and reaches, 4) effects on incubating fish in hyporheic habitats, and 5) community and ecosystem effects. Although some of these areas of concern may have been identified previously in earlier works, we suggest that consideration of the issues is warranted to avoid detrimental impacts on aquatic resources of the Columbia River system. We discuss these issues and provide recommendations to regulatory and management agencies based on our review of recent literature. In general, we recommend that additional attention be directed toward resolving the uncertainties within these five areas.

  9. Modeling the movement of a pH perturbation and its impact on adsorbed zinc and phosphate in a wastewater-contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, D.B.; Wilkie, J.A.; Davis, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical conditions were perturbed in an aquifer with an ambient pH of 5.9 and wastewater-derived adsorbed zinc (Zn) and phosphate (P) contamination by injecting a pulse of amended groundwater. The injected groundwater had low concentrations of dissolved Zn and P, a pH value of 4.5 resulting from equilibration with carbon dioxide gas, and added potassium bromide (KBr). Downgradient of the injection, breakthrough of nonreactive Br and total dissolved carbonate concentrations in excess of ambient values (excess TCO 2) were accompanied by a decrease in pH values and over twentyfold increases in dissolved Zn concentrations above preinjection values. Peak concentrations of Br and excess TCO2 were followed by slow increases in pH values accompanied by significant increases in dissolved P above preinjection concentrations. The injected tracers mobilized a significant mass of wastewater-derived Zn. Reactive transport simulations incorporating surface complexation models for adsorption of Zn, P, hydrogen ions, and major cations onto the aquifer sediments, calibrated using laboratory experimental data, captured most of the important trends observed during the experiment. These include increases in Zn concentrations in response to the pH perturbation, perturbations in major cation concentrations, attenuation of the pH perturbation with transport distance, and increases in alkalinity with transport distance. Observed desorption of P in response to chemical perturbations was not predicted, possibly because of a disparity between the range of chemical conditions in the calibration data set and those encountered during the field experiment. Zinc and P desorbed rapidly in response to changing chemical conditions despite decades of contact with the sediments. Surface complexation models with relatively few parameters in the form of logK values and site concentrations show considerable promise for describing the influence of variable chemistry on the transport of adsorbing contaminants. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Nuclear alkylated pyridine aldehyde polymers and conductive compositions thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.; Singer, S. (inventors)

    1970-01-01

    A thermally stable, relatively conductive polymer was disclosed. The polymer was synthesized by condensing in the presence of catalyst a 2, 4, or 6 nuclear alklylated 2, 3, or 4 pyridine aldehyde or quaternary derivatives thereof to form a polymer. The pyridine groups were liked by olefinic groups between 2-4, 2-6, 2-3, 3-4, 3-6 or 4-6 positions. Conductive compositions were prepared by dissolving the quaternary polymer and an organic charge transfer complexing agent such as TCNQ in a mutual solvent such as methanol.

  11. Dissolved-oxygen depletion and other effects of storing water in Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Wyoming and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolke, E.L.

    1979-01-01

    The circulation of water in Flaming Gorge Reservoir is caused chiefly by insolation, inflow-outflow relationships, and wind, which is significant due to the geographical location of the reservoir. During 1970-75, there was little annual variation in the thickness, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductance of the hypolimnion near Flaming Gorge Dam. Depletion of dissolved oxygen occurred simultaneously in the bottom waters of both tributary arms in the upstream part of the reservoir and was due to reservoir stratification. Anaerobic conditions in the bottom water during summer stratification eventually results in a metalimnetie oxygen minimum in the reservoir. The depletion of flow in the river below Flaming Gorge Dam due to evaporation and bank storage in the reservoir for the 1983-75 period was 1,320 cubic hectometers, and the increase of dissolved-solids load in the river was 1,947,000 metric tens. The largest annual variations in dissolved-solids concentration in the river was about 800 milligrams per liter before closure of the dam and about 200 milligrams per liter after closure. The discharge weighted-average dissolved-solids concentration for the 5 years prior to closure was 888 milligrams per liter and 512 milligrams per liter after closure. The most significant changes in the individual dissolved-ion loads in the river during 1973-75 were the increase in sulfate (0.48 million metric tons), which was probably derived from the solution of gypsum, and the decrease in bicarbonate (0.39 million metric tons), which can be attributed to chemical precipitation. The maximum range in temperature in the Green River below the reservoir prior to closure of the dam in 1982 was from 0?C in winter to 21?C in summer. After closure until 1970 the temperature ranged from 2 ? to 12?C, but since 1970 the range has been from 4 ? to 9?C. During September 1975, a massive algal bloom was observed in the upstream part of the reservoir. The bloom covered approximately 16 kilometers of the lower part of the Blacks Fork arm, 23 kilometers of the lower part of the Green River arm, and 15 kilometers of the main reservoir below the confluence of the two arms. By October 1975 the algal bloom had disappeared. Nutrient loading in the reservoir was not sufficient to maintain a rate of algal production that would be disastrous to the reservoir ecosystem. However, should the nutrient loading increase substantially, the quality of the reservoir water could probably deteriorate rapidly, and its use for recreation and water supply could be severely limited.

  12. Relationships between colored dissolved organic matter and dissolved organic carbon in different coastal gradients of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Harvey, E Therese; Kratzer, Susanne; Andersson, Agneta

    2015-06-01

    Due to high terrestrial runoff, the Baltic Sea is rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), the light-absorbing fraction of which is referred to as colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Inputs of DOC and CDOM are predicted to increase with climate change, affecting coastal ecosystems. We found that the relationships between DOC, CDOM, salinity, and Secchi depth all diff