Science.gov

Sample records for conducts proper elastogenesis

  1. The proper conduct of research.

    PubMed

    Maurer, John J

    2007-03-01

    Scientific misconduct has garnered recent attention by the media over scandals concerning falsification and fabrication of data surrounding potentially promising breakthroughs in stem-cell research, allegations of plagiarism at a U.S. university, and financial conflicts of interest between researchers and drug companies. While this makes for interesting copy, discussion of scientific fraud provides an excellent opportunity to review ethical standards for research and examine the conflicts that confront researchers today. This review specifically focuses on five areas that involve scientific integrity-plagiarism, falsification, fabrication, authorship, and conflict of interest-as well as nuances in each area that even senior investigators may not be aware of (e.g., self-plagiarism). The standards for ethical conductance of research discussed in this review are those set by many scientific, peer-reviewed journals and by federal and private granting agencies, and therefore it highlights the expectations and guidelines surrounding manuscript and grant submissions and review, and the consequences associated with violations. This review is intended to stimulate discussion among readers and assess what is necessary to become a good, competitive, but ethical researcher, especially in an era of shrinking financial resources for research. PMID:17461259

  2. EMILIN-1 Deficiency Induces Elastogenesis and Vascular Cell Defects

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti, Miriam; Braghetta, Paola; Sabatelli, Patrizia; Mura, Isabella; Doliana, Roberto; Colombatti, Alfonso; Volpin, Dino; Bonaldo, Paolo; Bressan, Giorgio M.

    2004-01-01

    EMILINs constitute a family of genes of the extracellular matrix with high structural similarity. Four genes have been identified so far in human and mouse. To gain insight into the function of this gene family, EMILIN-1 has been inactivated in the mouse by gene targeting. The homozygous animals were fertile and did not show obvious abnormalities. However, histological and ultrastructural examination revealed alterations of elastic fibers in aorta and skin. Formation of elastic fibers by mutant embryonic fibroblasts in culture was also abnormal. Additional alterations were observed in cell morphology and anchorage of endothelial and smooth muscle cells to elastic lamellae. Considering that EMILIN-1 is adhesive for cells and that the protein binds to elastin and fibulin-5, EMILIN-1 may regulate elastogenesis and vascular cell maintenance by stabilizing molecular interactions between elastic fiber components and by endowing elastic fibers with specific cell adhesion properties. PMID:14701737

  3. Reduced elastogenesis: a clue to the arteriosclerosis and emphysematous changes in Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arteriosclerosis and emphysema develop in individuals with Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD), a multisystem disorder caused by biallelic mutations in SMARCAL1 (SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like 1). However, the mechanism by which the vascular and pulmonary disease arises in SIOD remains unknown. Methods We reviewed the records of 65 patients with SMARCAL1 mutations. Molecular and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted on autopsy tissue from 4 SIOD patients. Results Thirty-two of 63 patients had signs of arteriosclerosis and 3 of 51 had signs of emphysema. The arteriosclerosis was characterized by intimal and medial hyperplasia, smooth muscle cell hyperplasia and fragmented and disorganized elastin fibers, and the pulmonary disease was characterized by panlobular enlargement of air spaces. Consistent with a cell autonomous disorder, SMARCAL1 was expressed in arterial and lung tissue, and both the aorta and lung of SIOD patients had reduced expression of elastin and alterations in the expression of regulators of elastin gene expression. Conclusions This first comprehensive study of the vascular and pulmonary complications of SIOD shows that these commonly cause morbidity and mortality and might arise from impaired elastogenesis. Additionally, the effect of SMARCAL1 deficiency on elastin expression provides a model for understanding other features of SIOD. PMID:22998683

  4. In vitro elastogenesis: instructing human vascular smooth muscle cells to generate an elastic fiber-containing extracellular matrix scaffold.

    PubMed

    Hinderer, Svenja; Shena, Nian; Ringuette, Léa-Jeanne; Hansmann, Jan; Reinhardt, Dieter P; Brucker, Sara Y; Davis, Elaine C; Schenke-Layland, Katja

    2015-06-01

    Elastic fibers are essential for the proper function of organs including cardiovascular tissues such as heart valves and blood vessels. Although (tropo)elastin production in a tissue-engineered construct has previously been described, the assembly to functional elastic fibers in vitro using human cells has been highly challenging. In the present study, we seeded primary isolated human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) onto 3D electrospun scaffolds and exposed them to defined laminar shear stress using a customized bioreactor system. Increased elastin expression followed by elastin deposition onto the electrospun scaffolds, as well as on newly formed fibers, was observed after six days. Most interestingly, we identified the successful deposition of elastogenesis-associated proteins, including fibrillin-1 and -2, fibulin-4 and -5, fibronectin, elastin microfibril interface located protein 1 (EMILIN-1) and lysyl oxidase (LOX) within our engineered constructs. Ultrastructural analyses revealed a developing extracellular matrix (ECM) similar to native human fetal tissue, which is composed of collagens, microfibrils and elastin. To conclude, the combination of a novel dynamic flow bioreactor and an electrospun hybrid polymer scaffold allowed the production and assembly of an elastic fiber-containing ECM. PMID:25784676

  5. Fibulin-4 and fibulin-5 in elastogenesis and beyond: Insights from mouse and human studies.

    PubMed

    Papke, Christina L; Yanagisawa, Hiromi

    2014-07-01

    The fibulin family of extracellular matrix/matricellular proteins is composed of long fibulins (fibulin-1, -2, -6) and short fibulins (fibulin-3, -4, -5, -7) and is involved in protein-protein interaction with the components of basement membrane and extracellular matrix proteins. Fibulin-1, -2, -3, -4, and -5 bind the monomeric form of elastin (tropoelastin) in vitro and fibulin-2, -3, -4, and -5 are shown to be involved in various aspects of elastic fiber development in vivo. In particular, fibulin-4 and -5 are critical molecules for elastic fiber assembly and play a non-redundant role during elastic fiber formation. Despite manifestation of systemic elastic fiber defects in all elastogenic tissues, fibulin-5 null (Fbln5(-/-)) mice have a normal lifespan. In contrast, fibulin-4 null (Fbln4(-/-)) mice die during the perinatal period due to rupture of aortic aneurysms, indicating differential functions of fibulin-4 and fibulin-5 in normal development. In this review, we will update biochemical characterization of fibulin-4 and fibulin-5 and discuss their roles in elastogenesis and outside of elastogenesis based on knowledge obtained from loss-of-function studies in mouse and in human patients with FBLN4 or FBLN5 mutations. Finally, we will evaluate therapeutic options for matrix-related diseases. PMID:24613575

  6. Recommendation to Exclude Bile-Duct-Cannulated Rats with Hyperbilirubinemia for Proper Conduct of Biliary Drug Excretion Studies.

    PubMed

    Kato, Koji; Hasegawa, Yoshitaka; Iwata, Katsuya; Ichikawa, Takuya; Yahara, Tohru; Tsuji, Satoshi; Sugiura, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Jun-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia (HB) is sometimes encountered following bile-duct cannulation in rats. It possibly originates from the reduced functioning of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) and subsequent adaptive alterations in the expression of Mrp3 and the organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps). Our aim was to clarify the importance of excluding bile-duct-cannulated (BDC) rats with HB for proper conduct of drug excretion studies. We detected HB [serum total bilirubin concentration (TBIL) ≥0.20 mg/dl] in 16% of all BDC rats prepared. The serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, leucine aminopeptidase, and alkaline phosphatase were within the respective normal ranges in the BDC rats with mild HB (TBIL, 0.20-0.79 mg/dl), indicating the absence of hepatic failure. In the pharmacokinetics of pravastatin, an Oatps/Mrp2 probe drug in the BDC rats, the apparent volume of distribution and the clearance were smaller in the mild HB group as compared with the normal group, suggesting the reduction of apparent hepatic uptake and hepatobiliary elimination. The biliary excretion (percentage of dose) was significantly reduced by 54%, suggesting that the biliary efflux activity via Mrp2 was reduced to a greater extent relative to metabolic activity in hepatocytes. The serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity correlated with TBIL and inversely correlated with biliary excretion of pravastatin, a finding which could serve as a clue to uncover the regulatory system involving cooperation between GGT and Mrp2. In conclusion, BDC rats with HB, however mild, should be excluded from drug excretion studies to avoid the risk of underestimation of the biliary excretion of drugs. PMID:27208382

  7. Nanoparticulate Delivery of Agents for Induced Elastogenesis in 3-Dimensional Collagenous Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Lavanya; Sivaraman, Balakrishnan; Vaidya, Pratik; Ramamurthi, Anand

    2014-01-01

    The degradation of elastic matrix in the infrarenal aortic wall is a critical parameter underlying the formation and progression of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). It is mediated by the chronic overexpression of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) -2 and -9, leading to a progressive loss of elasticity and weakening of the aortic wall. Delivery of therapeutic agents to inhibit MMPs, while concurrently coaxing cell-based regenerative repair of the elastic matrix represents a potential strategy for slowing or arresting AAA growth. Our prior studies have demonstrated elastogenic induction of healthy and aneurysmal aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and inhibition of MMPs, following exogenous delivery of elastogenic factors such as TGF-β1, as well as MMP-inhibitors such as doxycycline (DOX) in two-dimensional (2-D) culture. Based on these findings, and others that demonstrated elastogenic benefits of nanoparticulate delivery of these agents in 2-D culture, we have developed poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles for localized, controlled and sustained delivery of DOX and TGF-β1 to human aortic SMCs (HASMCs) within a three-dimensional (3-D) gels of type-I collagen gel, which closely evoke the arterial tissue microenvironment. DOX and TGF-β1 released from these NPs influenced elastogenic outcomes positively within the collagen constructs over 21 days of culture, which were comparable to that induced by exogenous supplementation of DOX and TGF-β1 within the culture medium. However, this was accomplished at doses ∼20-fold lower than the exogenous dosages of the agents, illustrating that their localized, controlled, and sustained delivery from NPs embedded within a 3-D scaffold is an efficient strategy for directed elastogenesis. PMID:24737693

  8. Proper Flossing

    MedlinePlus

    Proper Flossing Flossing is an essential part of the tooth-cleaning process because it removes plaque from between teeth and at the gumline, where periodontal disease often begins. If you find using floss awkward or difficult, ask your dental hygienist about ...

  9. How to conduct a proper sensitivity analysis in life cycle assessment: taking into account correlations within LCI data and interactions within the LCA calculation model.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Larrey-Lassalle, Pyrene; Faure, Thierry; Dumoulin, Nicolas; Roux, Philippe; Mathias, Jean-Denis

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis (SA) is a significant tool for studying the robustness of results and their sensitivity to uncertainty factors in life cycle assessment (LCA). It highlights the most important set of model parameters to determine whether data quality needs to be improved, and to enhance interpretation of results. Interactions within the LCA calculation model and correlations within Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) input parameters are two main issues among the LCA calculation process. Here we propose a methodology for conducting a proper SA which takes into account the effects of these two issues. This study first presents the SA in an uncorrelated case, comparing local and independent global sensitivity analysis. Independent global sensitivity analysis aims to analyze the variability of results because of the variation of input parameters over the whole domain of uncertainty, together with interactions among input parameters. We then apply a dependent global sensitivity approach that makes minor modifications to traditional Sobol indices to address the correlation issue. Finally, we propose some guidelines for choosing the appropriate SA method depending on the characteristics of the model and the goals of the study. Our results clearly show that the choice of sensitivity methods should be made according to the magnitude of uncertainty and the degree of correlation. PMID:25436503

  10. Phytoestrogen, tanshinone IIA diminishes collagen deposition and stimulates new elastogenesis in cultures of human cardiac fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Mao, Shuai; Wang, Yanting; Zhang, Minzhou; Hinek, Aleksander

    2014-04-15

    It has been previously reported that oral or intra-peritoneal administration of tanshinone IIA can alleviate the ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis that develops in rats after experimental cardiac infarction. Our present studies, performed on cultures of human cardiac fibroblasts, investigated the mechanism by which tanshinone IIA produces these beneficial effects. We found that treatment of cardiac fibroblasts with 0.1-10µM tanshinone IIA significantly inhibited their deposition of collagen I, while enhancing production of new elastic fibers. Moreover, both anti-collagenogenic and pro-elastogenic effects of tanshinone IIA occurred only after selective activation of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). This subsequently leads to initiation of the PKA/CREB phosphorylation pathway that inversely modulated transcription of collagen I and elastin genes. Interestingly, treatment of human cardiac fibroblasts with tanshinone IIA additionally up-regulated the production of the 67-kDa elastin binding protein, which facilitates tropoelastin secretion, and increased synthesis of lysyl oxidase, catalyzing cross-linkings of tropoelastin. Moreover, tanshinone IIA also caused up-regulation in the synthesis of collagenolytic MMP-1, but down-regulated levels of elastolytic MMP-2 and MMP-9. In summary, our data validate a novel mechanism in which tanshinone IIA, interacting with a non-classic estrogen receptor, maintains the proper balance between the net deposition of collagen and elastin, allowing for optimal durability and resiliency of the newly deposited matrix. PMID:24525372

  11. Proper Interval Vertex Deletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanger, Yngve

    Deleting a minimum number of vertices from a graph to obtain a proper interval graph is an NP-complete problem. At WG 2010 van Bevern et al. gave an O((14k + 14) k + 1 kn 6) time algorithm by combining iterative compression, branching, and a greedy algorithm. We show that there exists a simple greedy O(n + m) time algorithm that solves the Proper Interval Vertex Deletion problem on \\{claw,net,allowbreak tent,allowbreak C_4,C_5,C_6\\}-free graphs. Combining this with branching on the forbidden structures claw,net,tent,allowbreak C_4,C_5, and C 6 enables us to get an O(kn 6 6 k ) time algorithm for Proper Interval Vertex Deletion, where k is the number of deleted vertices.

  12. PROPER: Optical propagation routines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krist, John E.

    2014-05-01

    PROPER simulates the propagation of light through an optical system using Fourier transform algorithms (Fresnel, angular spectrum methods). Distributed as IDL source code, it includes routines to create complex apertures, aberrated wavefronts, and deformable mirrors. It is especially useful for the simulation of high contrast imaging telescopes (extrasolar planet imagers like TPF).

  13. PROMOTIONS: PROper MOTION Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleb Wherry, John; Sahai, R.

    2009-05-01

    We report on the development of a software tool (PROMOTIONS) to streamline the process of measuring proper motions of material in expanding nebulae. Our tool makes use of IDL's widget programming capabilities to design a unique GUI that is used to compare images of the objects from two epochs. The software allows us to first orient and register the images to a common frame of reference and pixel scale, using field stars in each of the images. We then cross-correlate specific morphological features in order to determine their proper motions, which consist of the proper motion of the nebula as a whole (PM-neb), and expansion motions of the features relative to the center. If the central star is not visible (quite common in bipolar nebulae with dense dusty waists), point-symmetric expansion is assumed and we use the average motion of high-quality symmetric pairs of features on opposite sides of the nebular center to compute PM-neb. This is then subtracted out to determine the individual movements of these and additional features relative to the nebular center. PROMOTIONS should find wide applicability in measuring proper motions in astrophysical objects such as the expanding outflows/jets commonly seen around young and dying stars. We present first results from using PROMOTIONS to successfully measure proper motions in several pre-planetary nebulae (transition objects between the red giant and planetary nebula phases), using images taken 7-10 years apart with the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on board HST. The authors are grateful to NASA's Undergradute Scholars Research Program (USRP) for supporting this research.

  14. Calculating proper transfer prices

    SciTech Connect

    Dorkey, F.C. ); Jarrell, G.A. )

    1991-01-01

    This article deals with developing a proper transfer pricing method. Decentralization is as American as baseball. While managers laud the widespread benefits of both decentralization and baseball, they often greet the term transfer price policy with a yawn. Since transfer prices are as critical to the success of decentralized firms as good pitchers are to baseball teams, this is quite a mistake on the part of our managers. A transfer price is the price charged to one division for a product or service that another division produced or provided. In many, perhaps most, decentralized organizations, the transfer pricing policies actually used are grossly inefficient and sacrifice the potential advantages of decentralization. Experience shows that far too many companies have transfer pricing policies that cost them significantly in foregone growth and profits.

  15. Proper-time relativistic dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Tepper L.; Zachary, W. W.; Lindesay, James

    1993-01-01

    Proper-time relativistic single-particle classical Hamiltonian mechanics is formulated using a transformation from observer time to system proper time which is a canonical contact transformation on extended phase space. It is shown that interaction induces a change in the symmetry structure of the system which can be analyzed in terms of a Lie-isotopic deformation of the algebra of observables.

  16. Proper Names: Reference and Attribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maumus, Michael Fletcher

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of Saul Kripke's landmark "Naming and Necessity," the claim that proper names are directly referential expressions devoid of descriptive content has come to verge on philosophical commonplace. Nevertheless, the return to a purely referential semantics for proper names has coincided with the resurgence of the very puzzles…

  17. The Meaning of Proper Names.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saka, Paul

    The two major schools of thought concerned with the meaning of proper names, i.e., the direct-reference or referrential/causal theory, and the description theory, are outlined, and new arguments are presented for a strong version of the second of these theories. The referential theory takes the meaning of the name as being the same as its…

  18. The Proper Study of Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Eleanor J.

    1997-01-01

    Reed believes the proper study of psychology is not mind or stimulus-response phenomena but ways animals (including humans) encounter the world. In this view, animals are seen in environmental and evolutionary contexts; a fundamental concept is not mind or behavior but affordance or what environments offer animals; and new topics, such as…

  19. Participation in "Handwashing University" Promotes Proper Handwashing Techniques for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Ginger; Radhakrishna, Rama; Cutter, Catherine Nettles

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Handwashing University on teaching youth the benefits of proper handwashing. The Handwashing University is an interactive display with several successive stations through which participants move to learn necessary skills for proper handwashing. Upon completion of the Handwashing University,…

  20. 49 CFR 109.11 - Assistance of properly qualified personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND OIL TRANSPORTATION... conducted under this part if the agent is not properly qualified to perform a function that is essential...

  1. The proper use of acetaminophen

    PubMed Central

    James, Laura; Sullivan, Janice E; Roberts, Dean

    2011-01-01

    Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, paracetamol [APAP])-induced acute liver failure is the most common cause of acute liver failure in adults. In children, APAP accounts for 25% of all cases of acute liver failure. The high mortality rate associated with this preventable condition makes it vital that paediatricians are aware of the potential adverse effects associated with this widely used drug. While APAP is generally considered to be safe when used as directed, its inclusion in multiple over-the-counter medications, as well as in prescription drugs, mandates that physicians promote and educate the general public about the proper use of acetaminophen in children. PMID:23115492

  2. Proper alignment of the microscope.

    PubMed

    Rottenfusser, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is merely the first element of an imaging system in a research facility. Such a system may include high-speed and/or high-resolution image acquisition capabilities, confocal technologies, and super-resolution methods of various types. Yet more than ever, the proverb "garbage in-garbage out" remains a fact. Image manipulations may be used to conceal a suboptimal microscope setup, but an artifact-free image can only be obtained when the microscope is optimally aligned, both mechanically and optically. Something else is often overlooked in the quest to get the best image out of the microscope: Proper sample preparation! The microscope optics can only do its job when its design criteria are matched to the specimen or vice versa. The specimen itself, the mounting medium, the cover slip, and the type of immersion medium (if applicable) are all part of the total optical makeup. To get the best results out of a microscope, understanding the functions of all of its variable components is important. Only then one knows how to optimize these components for the intended application. Different approaches might be chosen to discuss all of the microscope's components. We decided to follow the light path which starts with the light source and ends at the camera or the eyepieces. To add more transparency to this sequence, the section up to the microscope stage was called the "Illuminating Section", to be followed by the "Imaging Section" which starts with the microscope objective. After understanding the various components, we can start "working with the microscope." To get the best resolution and contrast from the microscope, the practice of "Koehler Illumination" should be understood and followed by every serious microscopist. Step-by-step instructions as well as illustrations of the beam path in an upright and inverted microscope are included in this chapter. A few practical considerations are listed in Section 3. PMID:23931502

  3. Swirl technology: Proper design, application, and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.; O`Connor, T.P.

    1995-10-01

    Swirl and vortex technologies have been with us for over thirty years now, ever since Bernard Smisson incorporated a cylindrical vortex-type combined sewer overflow (CSO) regulator/settleable-solids concentrator into the Bristol, England sewerage system back in the early 1960`s. In the early 1970`s the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a series of projects to develop and demonstrate swirl flow regulator/settleable-solids concentrator (swirl) technology. These projects resulted in the EPA swirl and helical-bend flow regulators/settleable-solids concentrators and the swirl degritter. New generations of this technology emerged after the EPA versions were developed including the Fluidsep{trademark} and the Storm King{trademark} vortex-hydrodynamic separators. However, despite different designs and applications, the main intent of the technologies are the same, i.e., to use the forces that arise from a change in flow direction to enhance settleable-solids separation from the storm flow. A variety of opinions have developed regarding the application of these technologies varying from overwhelming support to detractions that question their effectiveness. This abstract will show that proper design and placement in the sewerage system results in effective use of swirl technology. Reliable swirl pollution control efficiency determination is principally dependent on proper sampling and suspended and settleable-solids analysis techniques of the influent and effluent. Simultaneous flowrate measurement is also important. Without the complete capture of heavy and stratified suspended solids (SS) across the influent flow channel or water column, the apparent performance of the swirl will be less than the actual. Particle-settleability tests which are presented, must be conducted before and after installation, but especially before in order to decide if the inertial characteristics of SS in the storm flow warrants the use of a swirl.

  4. 7 CFR 29.112 - Proper light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proper light. 29.112 Section 29.112 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Inspectors, Samplers, and Weighers § 29.112 Proper light. Tobacco shall not be inspected or sampled for the purposes of the Act except when displayed in proper light for...

  5. 7 CFR 29.112 - Proper light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proper light. 29.112 Section 29.112 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Inspectors, Samplers, and Weighers § 29.112 Proper light. Tobacco shall not be inspected or sampled for the purposes of the Act except when displayed in proper light for...

  6. 7 CFR 29.112 - Proper light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proper light. 29.112 Section 29.112 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Inspectors, Samplers, and Weighers § 29.112 Proper light. Tobacco shall not be inspected or sampled for the purposes of the Act except when displayed in proper light for...

  7. 7 CFR 29.112 - Proper light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proper light. 29.112 Section 29.112 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Inspectors, Samplers, and Weighers § 29.112 Proper light. Tobacco shall not be inspected or sampled for the purposes of the Act except when displayed in proper light for...

  8. 7 CFR 29.112 - Proper light.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proper light. 29.112 Section 29.112 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Inspectors, Samplers, and Weighers § 29.112 Proper light. Tobacco shall not be inspected or sampled for the purposes of the Act except when displayed in proper light for...

  9. Proper Names a Cognitive-Philosophical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Ramirez, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Proper Names appear at the heart of several debates in philosophy and the cognitive sciences. These include "reference", "intentionality", and the nature of "belief" as well as "language acquisition", "cognitive development", and "memory". This dissertation follows a cognitive approach to the philosophical problems posed by proper names. It puts…

  10. UrHip Proper Motion Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouard, J.; Dorland, B. N.; Makarov, V. V.; Zacharias, N.; Finch, C. T.

    2015-11-01

    Proper motions are computed and collected in a catalog using the Hipparcos positions (epoch 1991.25) and URAT1 positions (epoch 2012.3-2014.6). The goal is to obtain a significant improvement on the proper motion accuracy of single stars in the northern hemisphere, and to identify new astrometric binaries perturbed by orbital motion. For binaries and multiple systems, the longer baseline of Tycho2 (˜100 years) makes it more reliable despite its larger formal uncertainties. The resulting proper motions obtained for 67,340 stars have a consequent gain in accuracy by a factor of ˜3 compared to Hipparcos. Comparison between UrHip and Hipparcos shows that they are reasonably close, but also reveals stars with large discrepant proper motions, a fraction of which are potential binary candidates.

  11. Large-scale databases of proper names.

    PubMed

    Conley, P; Burgess, C; Hage, D

    1999-05-01

    Few tools for research in proper names have been available--specifically, there is no large-scale corpus of proper names. Two corpora of proper names were constructed, one based on U.S. phone book listings, the other derived from a database of Usenet text. Name frequencies from both corpora were compared with human subjects' reaction times (RTs) to the proper names in a naming task. Regression analysis showed that the Usenet frequencies contributed to predictions of human RT, whereas phone book frequencies did not. In addition, semantic neighborhood density measures derived from the HAL corpus were compared with the subjects' RTs and found to be a better predictor of RT than was frequency in either corpus. These new corpora are freely available on line for download. Potentials for these corpora range from using the names as stimuli in experiments to using the corpus data in software applications. PMID:10495803

  12. How to Use Eye Drops Properly

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tablets, Suppositories, and Creams How to Use Eye Drops Properly (Using a mirror or having someone else ... gently squeeze the dropper so that a single drop falls into the pocket made by the lower ...

  13. Asteroid proper elements and secular resonances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knezevic, Zoran; Milani, Andrea

    1992-01-01

    In a series of papers (e.g., Knezevic, 1991; Milani and Knezevic, 1990; 1991) we reported on the progress we were making in computing asteroid proper elements, both as regards their accuracy and long-term stability. Additionally, we reported on the efficiency and 'intelligence' of our software. At the same time, we studied the associated problems of resonance effects, and we introduced the new class of 'nonlinear' secular resonances; we determined the locations of these secular resonances in proper-element phase space and analyzed their impact on the asteroid family classification. Here we would like to summarize the current status of our work and possible further developments.

  14. Evaluation of proper height for squatting stool.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hwa S; Jung, Hyung-Shik

    2008-05-01

    Many jobs and activities in people's daily lives have them in squatting postures. Jobs such as housekeeping, farming and welding require various squatting activities. It is speculated that prolonged squatting without any type of supporting stool would gradually and eventually impose musculoskeletal injuries on workers. This study aims to examine the proper height of the stool according to the position of working materials for the squatting worker. A total of 40 male and female college students and 10 female farmers participated in the experiment to find the proper stool height. Student participants were asked to sit and work in three different positions: floor level of 50 mm; ankle level of 200 mm; and knee level of 400 mm. They were then provided with stools of various heights and asked to maintain a squatting work posture. For each working position, they were asked to write down their thoughts on a preferred stool height. A Likert summated rating method as well as pairwise ranking test was applied to evaluate user preference for provided stools under conditions of different working positions. Under a similar experimental procedure, female farmers were asked to indicate their body part discomfort (BPD) on a body chart before and after performing the work. Statistical analysis showed that comparable results were found from both evaluation measures. When working position is below 50 mm, the proper stool height is 100 or should not be higher than 150 mm. When working position is 200 mm, the proper stool height is 150 mm. When working position is 400 mm, the proper stool height is 200 mm. Thus, it is strongly recommended to use proper height of stools with corresponding working position. Moreover, a wearable chair prototype was designed so that workers in a squatting posture do not have to carry and move the stool from one place to another. This stool should ultimately help to relieve physical stress and hence promote the health of squatting workers. This study sought

  15. Strategy Guideline: Proper Water Heater Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-04-01

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  16. Strategy Guideline. Proper Water Heater Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-04-09

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  17. 33 CFR 25.503 - Proper claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... domiciliary of the foreign country. (b) A corporation or other organization doing business in a foreign country on a permanent basis may qualify as a proper claimant although organized under United States law... unless excluded by waiver provisions of applicable international agreements....

  18. Proper Values of Matrices and Some Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir-Moez, Ali R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a short study of proper values of two-by-two matrices with real entries. Gives examples of symmetric matrices and applications to systems of linear equations of perpendicular lines intersecting at the origin and central conics rotated about the origin to eliminate the xy term from its equation. (MDH)

  19. The Essentials of Proper Wine Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manago, Gary H.

    This instructional unit was designed to assist the food services instructor and/or the restaurant manager in training students and/or staff in the proper procedure for serving wines to guests. The lesson plans included in this unit focus on: (1) the different types of wine glasses and their uses; (2) the parts of a wine glass; (3) the proper…

  20. INTERNAL PROPER MOTIONS IN THE ESKIMO NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    García-Díaz, Ma. T.; Gutiérrez, L.; Steffen, W.; López, J. A.; Beckman, J. E-mail: leonel@astro.unam.mx E-mail: jal@astro.unam.mx

    2015-01-10

    We present measurements of internal proper motions at more than 500 positions of NGC 2392, the Eskimo Nebula, based on images acquired with WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope at two epochs separated by 7.695 yr. Comparisons of the two observations clearly show the expansion of the nebula. We measured the amplitude and direction of the motion of local structures in the nebula by determining their relative shift during that interval. In order to assess the potential uncertainties in the determination of proper motions in this object, in general, the measurements were performed using two different methods, used previously in the literature. We compare the results from the two methods, and to perform the scientific analysis of the results we choose one, the cross-correlation method, because it is more reliable. We go on to perform a ''criss-cross'' mapping analysis on the proper motion vectors, which helps in the interpretation of the velocity pattern. By combining our results of the proper motions with radial velocity measurements obtained from high resolution spectroscopic observations, and employing an existing 3D model, we estimate the distance to the nebula to be 1.3 kpc.

  1. Proper name hypermnesia in an autistic subject.

    PubMed

    Mottron, L; Belleville, S; Stip, E

    1996-06-01

    The case study of an autistic "savant" subject with person names hypermnesia is presented. NM's performance in memorizing person names is compared to that of normal controls, IQ-matched controls, and one overtrained control. The data show a selective hypermnesia for both the free recall of person names and the recognition of faces. Recall of common names and of biographical informations linked to faces is unremarkable. NM's hypermnesia is restricted to list learning as low performance is observed in face-name learning tasks. A comparison of the data with that of the overtrained control indicates that training is not responsible for NM's pattern of results. These findings, when combined with previous results involving proper names, demonstrate a double dissociation between proper names and other types of semantic and referential information. However, aspects of NM's performance pattern are more compatible with a network model of proper names than with a sequential model. We propose that the contextual regularity of proper names in ecological situations can be responsible for their high memorization by NM. PMID:8798332

  2. Joint moments of proper delay times

    SciTech Connect

    Martínez-Argüello, Angel M.; Martínez-Mares, Moisés; García, Julio C.

    2014-08-15

    We calculate negative moments of the N-dimensional Laguerre distribution for the orthogonal, unitary, and symplectic symmetries. These moments correspond to those of the proper delay times, which are needed to determine the statistical fluctuations of several transport properties through classically chaotic cavities, like quantum dots and microwave cavities with ideal coupling.

  3. Family Therapy: A Very Proper Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midlarsky, Elizabeth

    This first-person account of a case study on family therapy discusses two latency-age boys who were referred for treatment. The assessment was that in both cases it was the family itself that was disturbed and needed treatment. The therapist worked with the first boy and his family together. The therapy model used was the "proper" family…

  4. Effective density terms in proper integral equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, Kippi M.; Perkyns, John S.; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2005-11-01

    Two complementary routes to a new integral equation theory for site-site molecular fluids are presented. First, a simple approximation to a subset of the atomic site bridge functions in the diagrammatically proper integral equation theory is presented. This in turn leads to a form analogous to the reactive fluid theory, in which the normalization of the intramolecular distribution function and the value of the off-diagonal elements in the density matrix of the proper integral equations are the means of propagating the bridge function approximation. Second, a derivation from a topological expansion of a model for the single-site activity followed by a topological reduction and low-order truncation is given. This leads to an approximate numerical value for the new density coefficient. The resulting equations give a substantial improvement over the standard construction as shown with a series of simple diatomic model calculations.

  5. Boltzmann babies in the proper time measure

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I-Sheng

    2007-12-20

    After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly to the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.

  6. Boltzmann babies in the proper time measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I.-Sheng

    2008-05-01

    After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly to the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.

  7. Proper Stellar Direction and Astronomical Aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Mariateresa; Vecchiato, A.

    2009-05-01

    The general relativistic definition of astrometric measurement needs an appropriate use of the concept of reference frame, which should then be linked to the conventions of the IAU Resolutions (IAU, 2000), which fix the celestial coordinate system. A consistent definition of the astrometric observables in the context of General Relativity is also essential to find uniquely the stellar coordinates and proper motion, this being the main physical task of the inverse ray tracing problem. Aim of this presentation is to set the level of reciprocal consistency of two relativistic models, GREM and RAMOD (Gaia, ESA mission), in order to guarantee a physically correct definition of light direction to a star, an essential item for deducing the star coordinates and proper motion within the same level of measurement accuracy.

  8. Proper stellar directions and astronomical aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Mariateresa; Vecchiato, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The general relativistic definition of astrometric measurement needs an appropriate use of the concept of reference frame, which should then be linked to the conventions of the IAU Resolutions (Soffel et al., 2003), which fix the celestial coordinate system. A consistent definition of the astrometric observables in the context of General Relativity is also essential to find uniquely the stellar coordinates and proper motion, this being the main physical task of the inverse ray tracing problem. Aim of this work is to set the level of reciprocal consistency of two relativistic models, GREM and RAMOD (Gaia, ESA mission), in order to guarantee a physically correct definition of light direction to a star, an essential item for deducing the star coordinates and proper motion within the same level of measurement accuracy.

  9. Testing effects for common versus proper names.

    PubMed

    Sensenig, Amanda E; Littrell-Baez, Megan K; Delosh, Edward L

    2011-08-01

    The present study examines the testing effect as a function of item meaningfulness. In Experiments 1 and 2 participants studied lists of words that could serve as proper names or occupations (e.g., Mr Baker or baker), with the items given in a name context for one group and an occupation context for a second group. During an intervening phase participants restudied some items and were given a cued recall test (Experiment 1) or a free recall test (Experiment 2) on other items. On a final free recall test memory was better for tested items than studied items in both the name and occupation contexts. Experiment 3 followed the same procedure as Experiment 1, except that participants studied lists of proper names that do not have alternative uses in the English language (e.g., Mr Anderson) or studied concrete nouns (e.g., letter). Tested items were better remembered on a final test than studied items, and there was no interaction with type of study material. These results show that the testing effect extends to proper names, material that is commonly assumed to differ from common names on several dimensions. PMID:21919593

  10. Proper Motion Of Emerging Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lirong

    2009-05-01

    Observational and modeling results indicate that typically the leading magnetic field of bipolar active regions is often spatially more compact, while more dispersed and fragmented in following polarity. Tian & Alexander (2009, ApJ, 695) studied 15 emerging active regions and find that magnetic helicity flux injected into the corona by the leading polarity is generally several times larger than that injected by the following polarity. They argue that the asymmetry of the magnetic helicity should be responsible for the asymmetry of the magnetic morphology. This argument is supported by two resent model results that magnetic flux tubes with higher degree of twist (and therefor greater magnetic tension) have higher rates of emergence (Murray & Hood 2008, A&A, 479; Cheung et al. 2008, ApJ, 687). These results are consistent because the proper motion (related to the emergence) of the leading polarity was found to be faster than that of the following polarity (van Driel-Gesztelyi & Petrovay 1990, Solar Phys., 126). In this paper, we will reinvestigate the proper motion of leading and following polarities of the emerging active regions, and study possible relationship between the proper motion and magnetic helicity.

  11. Aberration in proper motions for Galactic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.-C.; Xie, Y.; Zhu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Accelerations of both the solar system barycenter (SSB) and stars in the MilkyWay cause a systematic observational effect on the stellar proper motions, which was first studied by J. Kovalevsky (2003). This paper intends to extend that work and aims to estimate the magnitude and significance of the aberration in proper motions of stars, especially in the region near the Galactic center (GC). We adopt two models for the Galactic rotation curve to evaluate the aberrational effect on the Galactic plane. We show that the effect of aberration in proper motions depends on the galactocentric distance of stars; it is dominated by the acceleration of stars in the central region of the Galaxy. Then we investigate the applicability of the theoretical expressions: if the orbital period of stars is only a fraction of the light time from the star to the SSB, the expression with approximation proposed by Kovalevsky is not appropriate. With a more suitable formulation, we found that the aberration has no effect on the determination of the stellar orbits on the celestial sphere. In the future this aberrational effect under consideration should be considered with high-accurate astrometry, particularly in constructing the Gaia celestial reference system realized by Galactic stars.

  12. VVV IR high proper motion stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtev, R.; Gromadzki, M.; Beamin, J. C.; Peña, K.; Folkes, S.; Ivanov, V. D.; Borissova, J.; Kuhn, M.; Villanueva, V.; Minniti, D.; Mendez, R.; Lucas, P.; Smith, L.; Pinfield, D.; Antonova, A.

    2015-10-01

    We used the VISTA Variables en Vía Láctea (VVV) survey to search for large proper motion (PM) objects in the zone of avoidance in the Milky Way bulge and southern Galactic disk. This survey is multi-epoch and already spans a period of more than four years, giving us an excellent opportunity for proper motion and parallax studies. We found around 1700 PM objects with PM>30 mas yr(-1) . The majority of them are early and mid M-dwarfs. There are also few later spectral type objects, as well as numerous new K- and G-dwarfs. 75 of the stars have PM>300 mas (-1) and 189 stars have PM>200 mas (-1) . There are only 42 previously known stars in the VVV area with proper motion PM>200 mas (-1) . We also found three dM+WD binaries and new members of the immediate solar vicinity of 25 pc. We generated a catalog which will be a complementary to the existing catalogs outside this zone.

  13. SPM4: The Yale/San-Juan Southern Proper Motion Survey: 100 million absolute proper motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Altena, W. F.

    2011-10-01

    The Yale/San Juan Southern Proper Motion SPM4 Catalog is the culmination of a highly successful 47-year collaboration between the National University of San Juan (UNSJ) and the Yale Southern Observatory (YSO). The SPM4 Catalog contains absolute proper motions, celestial coordinates, blue and visual passband photometry for 103 million stars and galaxies between the south celestial pole and δ=-20°. The Catalog is roughly complete to V = 17.5 and the precision of its positions and absolute proper motions is approximately 30 to 150 mas and 2 to 10 mas yr^{-1}, respectively.

  14. Fundamental Principles of Proper Space Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Sean

    It is desirable to understand the movement of both matter and energy in the universe based upon fundamental principles of space and time. Time dilation and length contraction are features of Special Relativity derived from the observed constancy of the speed of light. Quantum Mechanics asserts that motion in the universe is probabilistic and not deterministic. While the practicality of these dissimilar theories is well established through widespread application inconsistencies in their marriage persist, marring their utility, and preventing their full expression. After identifying an error in perspective the current theories are tested by modifying logical assumptions to eliminate paradoxical contradictions. Analysis of simultaneous frames of reference leads to a new formulation of space and time that predicts the motion of both kinds of particles. Proper Space is a real, three-dimensional space clocked by proper time that is undergoing a densification at the rate of c. Coordinate transformations to a familiar object space and a mathematical stationary space clarify the counterintuitive aspects of Special Relativity. These symmetries demonstrate that within the local universe stationary observers are a forbidden frame of reference; all is in motion. In lieu of Quantum Mechanics and Uncertainty the use of the imaginary number i is restricted for application to the labeling of mass as either material or immaterial. This material phase difference accounts for both the perceived constant velocity of light and its apparent statistical nature. The application of Proper Space Kinematics will advance more accurate representations of microscopic, oscopic, and cosmological processes and serve as a foundation for further study and reflection thereafter leading to greater insight.

  15. Observations on the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkooz, Gal

    1992-01-01

    The Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (P.O.D.), also known as the Karhunen-Loeve expansion, is a procedure for decomposing a stochastic field in an L(2) optimal sense. It is used in diverse disciplines from image processing to turbulence. Recently the P.O.D. is receiving much attention as a tool for studying dynamics of systems in infinite dimensional space. This paper reviews the mathematical fundamentals of this theory. Also included are results on the span of the eigenfunction basis, a geometric corollary due to Chebyshev's inequality and a relation between the P.O.D. symmetry and ergodicity.

  16. Assigned value improves memory of proper names.

    PubMed

    Festini, Sara B; Hartley, Alan A; Tauber, Sarah K; Rhodes, Matthew G

    2013-01-01

    Names are more difficult to remember than other personal information such as occupations. The current research examined the influence of assigned point value on memory and metamemory judgements for names and occupations to determine whether incentive can improve recall of proper names. In Experiment 1 participants studied face-name and face-occupation pairs assigned 1 or 10 points, made judgements of learning, and were given a cued recall test. High-value names were recalled more often than low-value names. However, recall of occupations was not influenced by value. In Experiment 2 meaningless nonwords were used for both names and occupations. The name difficulty disappeared, and value influenced recall of both names and occupations. Thus value similarly influenced names and occupations when meaningfulness was held constant. In Experiment 3 participants were required to use overt rote rehearsal for all items. Value did not boost recall of high-value names, suggesting that differential processing could not be implemented to improve memory. Thus incentives may improve memory for proper names by motivating people to engage in selective rehearsal and effortful elaborative processing. PMID:23210532

  17. Measuring Proper Motion of Barnard's Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiechmann, Katrina; Michalik, Tom

    2009-03-01

    Stars of the night sky are generally considered to be fixed points, not changing noticeably over generations of observations. While most stars seem to appear in the same place year after year, some change location noticeably, the best example being Barnard's Star. Barnard's star is closer to Earth than any other star except Proxima Centauri. It also appears to move across the sky faster than any other star. This change in apparent location is caused by the movements of our Solar System and the motion of the star in question, and is known as proper motion. Using the astrometric capabilities of the MIRA software along with precise positional information for reference stars from the Tycho satellite star catalogue, the position of Barnard's star is computed relative to the reference stars. We calibrate a series of images of Barnard's Star taken in the Randolph College Observatory between 2001 and 2008 in order to independently determine the coordinates of Barnard's Star, revealing how these change over time. By measuring changes in the celestial coordinates, Right Ascension and Declination, we determine the proper motion of Barnard's star and compare this measurement to the accepted value of 10.25'' per year.

  18. The Proper Motion of Palomar 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, T. K.; Kallivayalil, N.

    2015-10-01

    Palomar 5 (Pal 5) is a faint halo globular cluster associated with narrow tidal tails. It is a useful system to understand the process of tidal dissolution, as well as to constrain the potential of the Milky Way. A well-determined orbit for Pal 5 would enable detailed study of these open questions. We present here the first CCD-based proper motion measurement of Pal 5 obtained using SDSS as a first epoch and new Large Binocular Telescope/Large Binocular Camera (LBC) images as a second, giving a baseline of 15 years. We perform relative astrometry, using SDSS as a distortion-free reference, and images of the cluster and also of the Pal 5 stream for the derivation of the distortion correction for LBC. The reference frame is made up of background galaxies. We correct for differential chromatic refraction using relations obtained from SDSS colors as well as from flux-calibrated spectra, finding that the correction relations for stars and for galaxies are different. We obtain μα = -2.296 ± 0.186 mas yr-1 and μδ = -2.257 ± 0.181 mas yr-1 for the proper motion of Pal 5. We use this motion, and the publicly available code galpy, to model the disruption of Pal 5 in different Milky Way models consisting of a bulge, a disk, and a spherical dark matter halo. Our fits to the observed stream properties (streak and radial velocity gradient) result in a preference for a relatively large Pal 5 distance of around 24 kpc. A slightly larger absolute proper motion than what we measure also results in better matches but the best solutions need a change in distance. We find that a spherical Milky Way model, with V0 = 220 km s-1 and V20 kpc, i.e., approximately at the apocenter of Pal 5, of 218 km s-1, can match the data well, at least for our choice of disk and bulge parametrization. Based on LBT data. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are: The Ohio State University, and The Research

  19. Investigating the Highest Proper Motion Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jao, Wei-Chun; Henry, Todd; Subasavage, John; Bean, Jacob

    2002-02-01

    There currently are 601 stars (502 systems) with proper motion faster than 1 arcsec/year (hereafter, MOTION stars). Among these MOTION stars, there are 186 systems (37%) without complete VRI photometric information on a standard system. We propose to obtain VRI band photometry from both CTIO and KPNO in order to characterize these stars. 75% of MOTION stars are estimated to lie within 25 pc of the Sun. These results will allow us to understand the colors, temperatures and luminosities for these fast moving objects and provide a complete picture of this definitive sample. The complete characterization of this sample comprises the thesis project of PI Jao. By obtaining VRI photometry for the MOTION stars , we will be able to identify new nearby star candidates for our second generation parallax project, CTIOPI2, planned as part of the new small telescope consortium at CTIO. The frames taken can be used to evaluate appropriate setup frames for future astrometry series. We also expect to discover new companions in the photometry frames. These companions can be identified by (1) confirming common proper motion using DSS frames and/or (2) initiating deep photometric searches by combining the VRI data with JHK photometry of nearby sources in 2MASS. Both types of new companions will contribute to our growing database that is being used to investigate the stellar multiplicity rate. Finally, the VRI photometry will allow us to identify the less common subdwarfs, white dwarfs or close binaries, many of which will be added to the lists of new nearby stars that will be the targets for future space missions such as SIM and TPF.

  20. SPM4: The Yale/San-Juan Southern Proper Motion survey: 100 million absolute proper motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Altena, W. F.; Girard, T. M.; Casetti, D. I.; Vieira, K.; López, C. E.; Castillo, D.; Monet, D.; Zacharias, N.; Korchagin, V. I.; Platais, I.; Lee, Y. S.; Beers, T. C.; Herrera, D.

    The Yale/San Juan Southern Proper Motion SPM4 Catalog is the culmi- nation of a highly successful 47-year collaboration between the National University of San Juan (UNSJ) and the Yale Southern Observatory (YSO). The SPM4 Catalog contains absolute proper motions, celestial coordinates, blue and visual passband photometry for 103,319,647 stars and galaxies be- tween the south celestial pole and -20 degrees declination. The Catalog is roughly complete to V=17.5 and the precision of its positions and absolute proper motions is approximately 30 to 150 mas and 2 to 10 mas/yr, respec- tively. It is based on photographic and CCD observations taken with the Yale Southern Observatory's double-astrograph at the Cesco Observatory in El Leoncito, Argentina.

  1. Cas A Dynamics: Doppler and Proper Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLaney, Tracey; Smith, J.; Rudnick, L.; Ennis, J.; Rho, J.; Reach, W.; Kozasa, T.; Gomez, H.

    2006-06-01

    We present Doppler velocity images of the young supernova remnant Cassiopeia A in the infrared emission lines of Ar, Ne, Si, and S observed with the Spitzer IRS and covering nearly the whole extent of the remnant. The measured infrared velocities of the shocked ejecta range from -4000 km/s to +6000 km/s. The Si and S emission near the center of the remnant, that is associated with ejecta that have not yet encountered the reverse shock, also shows both red- and blue-shifted structures with velocities between -3000 km/s and +3000 km/s. These unshocked ejecta provide a unique opportunity to study the kinematics of the explosion free from the influences of the reverse shock and CSM. The infrared kinematics are compared to optical and X-ray Doppler velocities and optical, X-ray, and radio proper motions. This work was performed for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, sponsored by the United States Government under Prime Contract between California Institute of Technology and NASA.

  2. Proper estimation of hydrological parameters from flood forecasting aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Mamoru; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Tsuda, Morimasa; Yamakage, Yuzuru; Iwami, Yoichi; Yanami, Hitoshi; Anai, Hirokazu

    2016-04-01

    The hydrological parameters of a flood forecasting model are normally calibrated based on an entire hydrograph of past flood events by means of an error assessment function such as mean square error and relative error. However, the specific parts of a hydrograph, i.e., maximum discharge and rising parts, are particularly important for practical flood forecasting in the sense that underestimation may lead to a more dangerous situation due to delay in flood prevention and evacuation activities. We conducted numerical experiments to find the most proper parameter set for practical flood forecasting without underestimation in order to develop an error assessment method for calibration appropriate for flood forecasting. A distributed hydrological model developed in Public Works Research Institute (PWRI) in Japan was applied to fifteen past floods in the Gokase River basin of 1,820km2 in Japan. The model with gridded two-layer tanks for the entire target river basin included hydrological parameters, such as hydraulic conductivity, surface roughness and runoff coefficient, which were set according to land-use and soil-type distributions. Global data sets, e.g., Global Map and Digital Soil Map of the World (DSMW), were employed as input data for elevation, land use and soil type. The values of fourteen types of parameters were evenly sampled with 10,001 patterns of parameter sets determined by the Latin Hypercube Sampling within the search range of each parameter. Although the best reproduced case showed a high Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency of 0.9 for all flood events, the maximum discharge was underestimated in many flood cases. Therefore, two conditions, which were non-underestimation in the maximum discharge and rising parts of a hydrograph, were added in calibration as the flood forecasting aptitudes. The cases with non-underestimation in the maximum discharge and rising parts of the hydrograph also showed a high Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency of 0.9 except two flood cases

  3. Ocean Models and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas-de-Leon, D. A.

    2007-05-01

    The increasing computational developments and the better understanding of mathematical and physical systems resulted in an increasing number of ocean models. Long time ago, modelers were like a secret organization and recognize each other by using secret codes and languages that only a select group of people was able to recognize and understand. The access to computational systems was reduced, on one hand equipment and the using time of computers were expensive and restricted, and on the other hand, they required an advance computational languages that not everybody wanted to learn. Now a days most college freshman own a personal computer (PC or laptop), and/or have access to more sophisticated computational systems than those available for research in the early 80's. The resource availability resulted in a mayor access to all kind models. Today computer speed and time and the algorithms does not seem to be a problem, even though some models take days to run in small computational systems. Almost every oceanographic institution has their own model, what is more, in the same institution from one office to the next there are different models for the same phenomena, developed by different research member, the results does not differ substantially since the equations are the same, and the solving algorithms are similar. The algorithms and the grids, constructed with algorithms, can be found in text books and/or over the internet. Every year more sophisticated models are constructed. The Proper Orthogonal Decomposition is a technique that allows the reduction of the number of variables to solve keeping the model properties, for which it can be a very useful tool in diminishing the processes that have to be solved using "small" computational systems, making sophisticated models available for a greater community.

  4. Proper equipment, techniques ensure better drillstem tests

    SciTech Connect

    Brouse, M.

    1983-05-01

    Drillstem testing in today's deeper, more complex wells can be carried out safely and economically only if the field drilling representative is armed with comprehensive knowledge of equipment and techniques available. This article presents basic equipment lists and procedures for conducting open hole, short and extended tests using either a single or straddle packer. Also presented are cased hole procedures using a single packer and additional information specifically tailored to drillstem testing on floating rigs.

  5. Choice of the proper wavelength for photochemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moan, Johan; Iani, Vladimir; Ma, LiWei

    1996-01-01

    All photosensitizers applied in experimental- and clinical-photochemotherapy (PCT) have broad absorption spectra stretching from the ultraviolet up to 6 - 700 nm. Light of wavelengths in the red part of the spectrum is chosen for PCT even though the extinction coefficients of the sensitizers are usually smaller in this wavelength region than at shorter wavelengths. Thus, if one wants to treat superficial tumors or skin disorders, this may be a wrong choice. Two pieces of information are needed in order to make a proper choice of wavelength to treat a lesion of a given depth: the wavelength dependence of the optical penetration depth into tissue, and the action spectrum for tumor destruction. Additionally, the skin photosensitivity induced by the drug should be considered. We have non-invasively measured the optical penetration spectra of human tissues in vivo and the fluorescence excitation spectra for several sensitizers, including protoporphyrin (PpIX), in cells. Assuming that the action spectrum for cell inactivation can be approximated by the fluorescence excitation spectrum of the sensitizer -- which is indeed the case for a number of sensitizers in cells in vitro -- we have considered the situation for 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced PpIX in human tissue. All the way down to about 2 mm below the surface light in the Soret band (-410 nm) would give the largest cell inactivation, while at depth exceeding 2 mm, the conventional 635 nm light would be optimal. Light at the argon laser wavelength 514.5 nm is more efficient than light at 635 nm down to 1 mm. From the surface and down to 6 mm, the 635 nm peak of the excitation spectrum of PpIX, as evaluated per photon incident on the skin surface, is redshifted by less than 2 nm. In some cases photosensitizing photoproducts are formed during PCT, such as photoprotoporphyrin during PCT with PpIX. In such cases it may be advantageous to apply a broad-band light source with a spectrum that covers also part of the action

  6. GLIMPSE Proper: Mid-Infrared Observations of Proper Motion and Variability Towards Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Robert; Babler, Brian; Churchwell, Ed; Clarkson, Will; Kirkpatrick, Davy; Meade, Marilyn; Whitney, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    We propose to re-image 43.4 square degrees of the Galactic center to measure the proper motions of over fifteen million sources within 5 degrees of Galactic center over the last decade. This stellar sample will be over 20 times larger than the previous optical ground-based measurements and will allow us to constrain the anisotropic stellar velocity dispersion as a function of direction and distance as well as test previous claims of streaming motions associated with the near/far side of the Galactic bar, the X-shaped bar, and the vertically thin extended Long Bar. Not only will this be the largest Galactic bulge proper motion survey to date, it will also be the most uniform as mid-infrared observations are minimally affected by extinction over most of the region. We also expect to find at least 150 high proper motion stars (>100 mas/yr) which could be substellar objects and possible microlensing candidates against the crowded Galactic bulge. We will put constraints on the current production rate of hyper-velocity stars thought to be formed in binary interactions with the supermassive black hole of the Galaxy. Finally, we will be able to identify many new variable stars, particularly in the central 2x1.5 degree region of the Galaxy which has only been observed in a single epoch with Spitzer; we expect to find 1000 new sources with variability amplitudes greater than 0.2 mag.

  7. 45 CFR 170.523 - Principles of proper conduct for ONC-ACBs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 170.523 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Permanent Certification Program for HIT §...

  8. 45 CFR 170.423 - Principles of proper conduct for ONC-ATCBs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....423 Section 170.423 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for...

  9. 45 CFR 170.523 - Principles of proper conduct for ONC-ACBs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 170.523 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Permanent Certification Program for HIT §...

  10. 45 CFR 170.523 - Principles of proper conduct for ONC-ACBs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 170.523 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ONC HIT Certification Program § 170.523 Principles...

  11. 45 CFR 170.523 - Principles of proper conduct for ONC-ACBs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 170.523 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ONC HIT Certification Program § 170.523 Principles...

  12. 45 CFR 170.423 - Principles of proper conduct for ONC-ATCBs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....423 Section 170.423 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for...

  13. 45 CFR 170.423 - Principles of proper conduct for ONC-ATCBs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....423 Section 170.423 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for...

  14. 45 CFR 170.423 - Principles of proper conduct for ONC-ATCBs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....423 Section 170.423 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for...

  15. 45 CFR 170.423 - Principles of proper conduct for ONC-ATCBs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....423 Section 170.423 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for...

  16. 49 CFR 109.11 - Assistance of properly qualified personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND OIL TRANSPORTATION... properly qualified to perform a function that is essential to the agent's exercise of authority under...

  17. Elastogenesis at the onset of human cardiac valve development

    PubMed Central

    Votteler, Miriam; Berrio, Daniel A. Carvajal; Horke, Alexander; Sabatier, Laetitia; Reinhardt, Dieter P.; Nsair, Ali; Aikawa, Elena; Schenke-Layland, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Semilunar valve leaflets have a well-described trilaminar histoarchitecture, with a sophisticated elastic fiber network. It was previously proposed that elastin-containing fibers play a subordinate role in early human cardiac valve development; however, this assumption was based on data obtained from mouse models and human second and third trimester tissues. Here, we systematically analyzed tissues from human fetal first (4-12 weeks) and second (13-18 weeks) trimester, adolescent (14-19 years) and adult (50-55 years) hearts to monitor the temporal and spatial distribution of elastic fibers, focusing on semilunar valves. Global expression analyses revealed that the transcription of genes essential for elastic fiber formation starts early within the first trimester. These data were confirmed by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry employing antibodies that recognize fibronectin, fibrillin 1, 2 and 3, EMILIN1 and fibulin 4 and 5, which were all expressed at the onset of cardiac cushion formation (~week 4 of development). Tropoelastin/elastin protein expression was first detectable in leaflets of 7-week hearts. We revealed that immature elastic fibers are organized in early human cardiovascular development and that mature elastin-containing fibers first evolve in semilunar valves when blood pressure and heartbeat accelerate. Our findings provide a conceptual framework with the potential to offer novel insights into human cardiac valve development and disease. PMID:23637335

  18. Impact of Cyclic Stretch on Induced Elastogenesis Within Collagenous Conduits

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Lavanya; Bashur, Chris A.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro tissue engineering of vascular conduits requires a synergy between several external factors, including biochemical supplementation and mechanotranductive stimulation. The goal of this study was to improve adult human vascular smooth muscle cell orientation and elastic matrix synthesis within 3D tubular collagen gel constructs. We used a combination of elastogenic factors (EFs) previously tested in our lab, along with cyclic circumferential strains at low amplitude (2.5%) delivered at a range of frequencies (0.5, 1.5, and 3 Hz). After 21 days of culture, the constructs were analyzed for elastic matrix outcomes, activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2 and −9, cell densities and phenotype, and mechanical properties of constructs. While cell densities remained unaffected by the addition of stretch, contractile phenotypic markers were elevated in all stretched constructs relative to control. Constructs cultured with EFs stretched at 1.5 Hz exhibited the maximum elastin mRNA expression and total matrix elastin (over sixfold vs. the static EFs control). MMP-2 content was comparable in all treatment conditions, but MMP-9 levels were elevated at the higher frequencies (1.5 and 3 Hz). Minimal circumferential orientation was achieved and the mechanical properties remained comparable among the treatment conditions. Overall, constructs treated with EFs and stretched at 1.5 Hz exhibited the most elastogenic outcomes. PMID:24313750

  19. 32 CFR 536.27 - Identification of a proper claimant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... withdrawn, deny the claim without delay. An example is a claim filed on behalf of a minor for loss of... a proper claimant. The following are proper claimants: (a) Claims for property loss or damage. A.... Property loss is defined as loss of actual tangible property, not consequential damage resulting from...

  20. 32 CFR 536.27 - Identification of a proper claimant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... withdrawn, deny the claim without delay. An example is a claim filed on behalf of a minor for loss of... a proper claimant. The following are proper claimants: (a) Claims for property loss or damage. A.... Property loss is defined as loss of actual tangible property, not consequential damage resulting from...

  1. 17 CFR 162.21 - Proper disposal of consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Proper disposal of consumer... PROTECTION OF CONSUMER INFORMATION UNDER THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT Disposal Rules § 162.21 Proper disposal of consumer information. (a) In general. Any covered affiliate must adopt must adopt...

  2. 17 CFR 162.21 - Proper disposal of consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Proper disposal of consumer... PROTECTION OF CONSUMER INFORMATION UNDER THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT Disposal Rules § 162.21 Proper disposal of consumer information. (a) In general. Any covered affiliate must adopt must adopt...

  3. 17 CFR 162.21 - Proper disposal of consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Proper disposal of consumer... (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF CONSUMER INFORMATION UNDER THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT Disposal Rules § 162.21 Proper disposal of consumer information. (a) In general. Any covered affiliate must adopt must...

  4. Second Language Listening and Unfamiliar Proper Names: Comprehension Barrier?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobeleva, Polina P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether unfamiliar proper names affect English as a second language (ESL) learners' listening comprehension. A total of 110 intermediate to advanced ESL learners participated; comprehension of a short news text was tested under two conditions, Names Known (all proper names pre-taught in advance) and Names Unknown (all proper…

  5. Secular perturbation theory and computation of asteroid proper elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milani, Andrea; Knezevic, Zoran

    1991-01-01

    A new theory for the calculation of proper elements is presented. This theory defines an explicit algorithm applicable to any chosen set of orbits and accounts for the effect of shallow resonances on secular frequencies. The proper elements are computed with an iterative algorithm and the behavior of the iteration can be used to define a quality code.

  6. 16 CFR 682.3 - Proper disposal of consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proper disposal of consumer information. 682... OF CONSUMER REPORT INFORMATION AND RECORDS § 682.3 Proper disposal of consumer information. (a) Standard. Any person who maintains or otherwise possesses consumer information for a business purpose...

  7. Educating Children to Proper Eating Habits in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Marian

    A brief discussion of proper nutrition in general precedes an examination of proper nutrition for school children and the specification of nutrition education objectives for kindergarten or first grade students. The remainder of the paper delineates food projects by which objectives can be realized (for example, snack necklace, jack-o-lantern…

  8. 17 CFR 230.401 - Requirements as to proper form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements as to proper form... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General Requirements § 230.401 Requirements as to proper... applicable rules and forms as in effect on the initial filing date of such registration statement...

  9. 17 CFR 230.401 - Requirements as to proper form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements as to proper form... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General Requirements § 230.401 Requirements as to proper... applicable rules and forms as in effect on the initial filing date of such registration statement...

  10. 29 CFR 1404.20 - Proper use of expedited arbitration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proper use of expedited arbitration. 1404.20 Section 1404... ARBITRATION SERVICES Expedited Arbitration § 1404.20 Proper use of expedited arbitration. (a) FMCS reserves the right to cease honoring request for Expedited Arbitration if a pattern of misuse of this...

  11. 25 CFR 213.35 - Mines to be timbered properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mines to be timbered properly. 213.35 Section 213.35... LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.35 Mines to be timbered properly. In mining operations the lessee shall keep the mine well and sufficiently timbered at all...

  12. 25 CFR 213.35 - Mines to be timbered properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mines to be timbered properly. 213.35 Section 213.35... LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.35 Mines to be timbered properly. In mining operations the lessee shall keep the mine well and sufficiently timbered at all...

  13. 25 CFR 213.35 - Mines to be timbered properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mines to be timbered properly. 213.35 Section 213.35... LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.35 Mines to be timbered properly. In mining operations the lessee shall keep the mine well and sufficiently timbered at all...

  14. 25 CFR 213.35 - Mines to be timbered properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Mines to be timbered properly. 213.35 Section 213.35... LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.35 Mines to be timbered properly. In mining operations the lessee shall keep the mine well and sufficiently timbered at all...

  15. 25 CFR 213.35 - Mines to be timbered properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mines to be timbered properly. 213.35 Section 213.35... LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.35 Mines to be timbered properly. In mining operations the lessee shall keep the mine well and sufficiently timbered at all...

  16. 29 CFR 1404.20 - Proper use of expedited arbitration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proper use of expedited arbitration. 1404.20 Section 1404... ARBITRATION SERVICES Expedited Arbitration § 1404.20 Proper use of expedited arbitration. (a) FMCS reserves the right to cease honoring request for Expedited Arbitration if a pattern of misuse of this...

  17. 49 CFR 236.526 - Roadway element not functioning properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Roadway element not functioning properly. 236.526... element not functioning properly. When a roadway element except track circuit of automatic train stop... roadway element shall be caused manually to display its most restrictive aspect until such element...

  18. 49 CFR 236.526 - Roadway element not functioning properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Roadway element not functioning properly. 236.526... element not functioning properly. When a roadway element except track circuit of automatic train stop... roadway element shall be caused manually to display its most restrictive aspect until such element...

  19. 49 CFR 236.526 - Roadway element not functioning properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Roadway element not functioning properly. 236.526... element not functioning properly. When a roadway element except track circuit of automatic train stop... roadway element shall be caused manually to display its most restrictive aspect until such element...

  20. 49 CFR 236.526 - Roadway element not functioning properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Roadway element not functioning properly. 236.526... element not functioning properly. When a roadway element except track circuit of automatic train stop... roadway element shall be caused manually to display its most restrictive aspect until such element...

  1. 49 CFR 236.526 - Roadway element not functioning properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roadway element not functioning properly. 236.526... element not functioning properly. When a roadway element except track circuit of automatic train stop... roadway element shall be caused manually to display its most restrictive aspect until such element...

  2. Cool White Dwarfs Selection with Pan-STARRS Proper Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, M. C.; Hambly, N. C.

    2015-06-01

    The use of Reduced Proper Motion in identifying isolated white dwarfs has long been used as a proxy for the absolute magnitude in a population with known kinematics. This, however, introduces a proper motion detection limit on top of the existing photometric limit. How the survey volume is hampered by this extra parameter is discussed in Hambly et al (2012). In this work, we discuss some robust outlier rejection methods in order to minimise the proper motion limit and hence maximise the survey volume. The generalised volume, corrected for the distance of the Sun from the Galactic Plane, is integrated explicitly.

  3. Corrections to erroneous proper motions of some AGK 3 stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Carlos E.

    1988-10-01

    Approximately 100 AGK 3 stars have such large published proper motions that they must be affected by spurious errors. For some of those stars south of +25 deg (20 in total), new proper motions have been determined by combining recent photographic positions with positions obtained from the rereduction of the published material of the Astrographic Catalogue. No attempt was made to include other positions than these. The new proper motions in the system of the AGK 3 are much smaller than the values quoted in said catalog.

  4. The Pan-STARRS 1 Parallax and Proper Motion Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Christopher Z.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Pan-STARRS Science Consortium

    2016-01-01

    The Pan-STARRS 1 3-Pi survey produced a catalog of more than three billion objects north of -30 declination with astrometric precision down to 10 milliarcseconds per observation. This excellent calibration and the multiple observations of each point of the sky over a five year internal baseline allow proper motions as small as 1-2 mas/year to be measured. The observational schedule has been designed to optimize parallax measurements for red objects. The final parallax and proper motion catalog will enable searches for and classification of stars in the local solar neighborhood, with proper motion searches extending to 200 parsecs.

  5. Proper Motions of Isolated Massive Stars Near the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    The Galactic Center is one of the most perplexing and unusual regions of the Galaxy. Not only is it home to the central massive black hole but it contains three very massive young star clusters within the central 30 pc; the Arches, Quintuplet and Central clusters. Furthermore, emission-line surveys have revealed the presence of what appears to be a diaspora of ~40 very massive isolated Wolf-Rayet-like stars scattered throughout the region, outside of these massive clusters. Their origin is currently unkown but the suspected causes include such diverse and exotic mechanisms as ejection by dynamical interaction within the massive clusters, ejection by supernovae events within those clusters old enough to have SN, ejection by interaction with the central black hole, stellar mergers in the field, and in situ star formation of isolated massive stars. These processes however should all leave clear and distinct dynamical signatures on their products.We propose using WFC3/IR to conduct a survey of ~150 square arcminutes the Galactic Center region to measure relative proper motions to an accuracy of 10 km/s for stars with masses as low as a few solar masses (late B-type). Our objectives include determining which of the known isolated massive stars are runaways, estimating their probable places of origin, discovering less luminous runaways that are invisible to emission line surveys, characterizing the dynamical properties of runaway stars in all luminosty ranges, and searching for signs of tidally disrupted massive clusters. The survey will have lasting legacy value to those trying to unravel the physics of galactic centers and the environments around massive black holes.

  6. Proper Motions of Isolated Massive Stars Near the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    The Galactic Center is one of the most perplexing and unusual regions of the Galaxy. Not only is it home to the central massive black hole but it contains three very massive young star clusters within the central 30 pc; the Arches, Quintuplet and Central clusters. Furthermore, emission-line surveys have revealed the presence of what appears to be a diaspora of 40 very massive isolated Wolf-Rayet-like stars scattered throughout the region, outside of these massive clusters. Their origin is currently unkown but the suspected causes include such diverse and exotic mechanisms as ejection by dynamical interaction within the massive clusters, ejection by supernovae events within those clusters old enough to have SN, ejection by interaction with the central black hole, stellar mergers in the field, and in situ star formation of isolated massive stars. These processes however should all leave clear and distinct dynamical signatures on their products.We propose using WFC3/IR to conduct a survey of 150 square arcminutes the Galactic Center region to measure relative proper motions to an accuracy of 10 km/s for stars with masses as low as a few solar masses {late B-type}. Our objectives include determining which of the known isolated massive stars are runaways, estimating their probable places of origin, discovering less luminous runaways that are invisible to emission line surveys, characterizing the dynamical properties of runaway stars in all luminosty ranges, and searching for signs of tidally disrupted massive clusters. The survey will have lasting legacy value to those trying to unravel the physics of galactic centers and the environments around massive black holes.

  7. 49 CFR 109.11 - Assistance of properly qualified personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND OIL TRANSPORTATION... this part if the agent is not properly qualified to perform a function that is essential to the...

  8. 49 CFR 109.11 - Assistance of properly qualified personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND OIL TRANSPORTATION... this part if the agent is not properly qualified to perform a function that is essential to the...

  9. Cataclysmic variables in the SUPERBLINK proper motion survey

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Julie N.; Thorstensen, John R.; Lépine, Sébastien

    2014-12-01

    We have discovered a new high proper motion cataclysmic variable (CV) in the SUPERBLINK proper motion survey, which is sensitive to stars with proper motions greater than 40 mas yr{sup −1}. This CV was selected for follow-up observations as part of a larger search for CVs selected based on proper motions and their near-UV−V and V−K{sub s} colors. We present spectroscopic observations from the 2.4 m Hiltner Telescope at MDM Observatory. The new CV's orbital period is near 96 minutes, its spectrum shows the double-peaked Balmer emission lines characteristic of quiescent dwarf novae, and its V magnitude is near 18.2. Additionally, we present a full list of known CVs in the SUPERBLINK catalog.

  10. Proper Use of Audio-Visual Aids: Essential for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejardin, Conrad

    1989-01-01

    Criticizes educators as the worst users of audio-visual aids and among the worst public speakers. Offers guidelines for the proper use of an overhead projector and the development of transparencies. (DMM)

  11. A properly adjusted forage harvester can save time and money

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A properly adjusted forage harvester can save fuel and increase the realizable milk per ton of your silage. This article details the adjustments necessary to minimize energy while maximizing productivity and forage quality....

  12. 15. INSIDE THEATER PROPER. GROUND FLOOR, UNDER BALCONY, AT REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INSIDE THEATER PROPER. GROUND FLOOR, UNDER BALCONY, AT REAR OF SEATING AREA (SOUTH END) LOOKING EAST. VIEW OF DECORATIVE CEILING COVE. - Granada Theatre, 6425-6441 North Sheridan Road, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  13. New high-proper motion survey in the Southern sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, R.-D.; Irwin, M.; Ibata, R.; Jahreiß, H.; Malkov, O. Yu.

    2000-01-01

    We present the discovery of about 100 new high-proper motion stars in the region between 0h and 7h in right ascension and -63deg and -32deg in declination, with proper motions between 0.3 and 1.0 arcsec/yr. In addition we have obtained improved coordinates and photographic photometry for another about 100 already known high-proper motion stars in the same region. In this study we have made use of APM measurements of UKST survey plates in 40 survey fields. Using all available information (position, proper motion, photographic R magnitude and B_J-R colour index), we draw some preliminary conclusions on the nature of the new high-proper motion stars, particularly of extreme cases. In addition, for some of the new high-proper motion stars we carried out low resolution optical spectroscopy with the 1.9m Radcliffe telescope of the South Africa Astronomical Observatory (SAAO). The faintest discovered proper motion stars are a common proper motion pair with mu = 0.5 arcsec/yr, R magnitudes of 19.7 and 20.9 and B_J magnitudes of 20.6 and 22.9, respectively. A first estimate of the absolute magnitude of this proper motion pair APMPM J0352-4127AB based on estimating the distance from the extant observational data, yields M_V=15.8 +/- 2.3 and M_V=18.1 +/- 2.3, respectively for the two components. We conclude that both components are likely to be extremely cool degenerate white dwarfs. The SAAO spectrum of the brighter component is a first confirmation of the cool white dwarf nature, although the signal-to-noise was very low. There are other cool white dwarfs among the stars for which SAAO spectra were obtained. The star with the largest proper motion among the newly detected proper motion stars (mu = 0.95 arcsec/yr and R = 15.8; B_J-R = 2.2) had a spectrum corresponding to a mid-M dwarf. For the extremely red (B_J-R > 2.6) and blue (B_J-R < 0.7) stars in our sample, our prior assumptions based on photometry and proper motion of late type M dwarf or normal white dwarf nature

  14. The Proper Name as Starting Point for Basic Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Both-de Vries, Anna C.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2010-01-01

    Does alphabetic-phonetic writing start with the proper name and how does the name affect reading and writing skills? Sixty 4- to 5 1/2-year-old children from middle SES families with Dutch as their first language wrote their proper name and named letters. For each child we created unique sets of words with and without the child's first letter of…

  15. A digitized version of the NLTT Catalogue of proper motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Wayne H., Jr.; Sturch, Conrad R.; Lasker, Barry M.; Jahreiss, Hartmut; Luyten, Willem J.

    1989-01-01

    An optically scanning data-entry machine and various manual techniques are used to digitize the NLTT Catalogue and the first supplement to the NLTT Catalogue. Included in the catalog are stars found on over 800 Palomar proper-motion survey plates to have relative annual proper motions exceeding 0.18 arcsec. The supplement contains data for 398 stars having motions larger than 0.179 arcsec annually.

  16. Foundations for proper-time relativistic quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Tepper L.; Morris, Trey; Kurtz, Stewart K.

    2015-05-01

    This paper is a progress report on the foundations for the canonical proper-time approach to relativistic quantum theory. We first review the the standard square-root equation of relativistic quantum theory, followed by a review of the Dirac equation, providing new insights into the physical properties of both. We then introduce the canonical proper-time theory. For completeness, we give a brief outline of the canonical proper-time approach to electrodynamics and mechanics, and then introduce the canonical proper-time approach to relativistic quantum theory. This theory leads to three new relativistic wave equations. In each case, the canonical generator of proper-time translations is strictly positive definite, so that it represents a particle. We show that the canonical proper-time extension of the Dirac equation for Hydrogen gives results that are consistently closer to the experimental data, when compared to the Dirac equation. However, these results are not sufficient to account for either the Lamb shift or the anomalous magnetic moment.

  17. Proper motion survey with the forty-eight inch Schmidt telescope. 33: Proper motions for 3478 faint stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luyten, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Data for the motions of 3478 stars are presented. The data were obtained with the automated-computerized plate scanner and measuring machine. Only data for those stars for which no earlier determination of proper motions are included.

  18. Aberration in proper motions for stars in our Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.-C.; Xie, Y.; Zhu, Z.

    2013-08-01

    Accelerations of both the Solar system barycentre (SSB) and stars in the Milky Way cause a systematic observational effect on the stellar proper motions, which was first studied in the early 1990s and developed by Kovalevsky (aberration in proper motions). This paper intends to extend that work and aims to estimate the magnitude and significance of the aberration in proper motions of stars, especially in the region near the Galactic Centre. We adopt two models for the Galactic rotation curve to evaluate the aberrational effect on the Galactic plane. Based on the theoretical developments, we show that the effect of aberration in proper motions depends on the Galactocentric distance of stars; it is dominated by the acceleration of stars in the central region of the Galaxy. Within 200 pc from the Galactic Centre, the systematic proper motion can reach an amplitude larger than 1000 μas yr- 1 by applying a flat rotation curve. With a more realistic rotation curve which is linearly rising in the core region of the Galaxy, the aberrational proper motions are limited up to about 150 μas yr- 1. Then we investigate the applicability of the theoretical expressions concerning the aberrational proper motions, especially for those stars with short period orbits. If the orbital period of stars is only a fraction of the light time from the star to the SSB, the expression proposed by Kovalevsky is not appropriate. With a more suitable formulation, we found that the aberration has no effect on the determination of the stellar orbits on the celestial sphere. The aberrational effect under consideration is small but not negligible with high-accurate astrometry in the future, particularly in constructing the Gaia celestial reference system realized by Galactic stars.

  19. A comparison between families obtained from different proper elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zappala, Vincenzo; Cellino, Alberto; Farinella, Paolo

    1992-01-01

    Using the hierarchical method of family identification developed by Zappala et al., the results coming from the data set of proper elements computed by Williams (about 2100 numbered + about 1200 PLS 2 asteroids) and by Milani and Knezevic (5.7 version, about 4200 asteroids) are compared. Apart from some expected discrepancies due to the different data sets and/or low accuracy of proper elements computed in peculiar dynamical zones, a good agreement was found in several cases. It follows that these high reliability families represent a sample which can be considered independent on the methods used for their proper elements computation. Therefore, they should be considered as the best candidates for detailed physical studies.

  20. Proper Motion of the Magellanic Clouds using SPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, K.; Girard, T.; van Altena, W.; Zacharias, N.; Casetti, D.; Korchagin, V.; Platais, I.; Monet, D.; López, C.

    2014-06-01

    Absolute proper motions are determined for stars and galaxies to V = 17.5 over a 450 square-degree area that includes the Magellanic Clouds, using photographic and CCD observations of the Yale/San Juan Southern Proper Motion program. Multiple, local relative proper motion measures were combined in an overlap solution using photometrically selected galactic disk stars to define a global relative system that is then transformed to absolute using external galaxies and Hipparcos stars to tie into the ICRS. The resulting catalog is used to derive the mean absolute proper motions of the Magellanic Clouds: (μ_{α}^{} cos δ, μ_{δ}^{})_LMC=(+1.88, +0.37)±(0.27, 0.27) mas yr^-1 and (μ_{α}^{} cos δ, μ_{δ}^{})_SMC=(+1.05, -1.03)±(0.30, 0.29) mas yr^-1, based on best-measured samples of 3822 LMC stars and 964 SMC stars. A dominant portion of the formal errors is due to the estimated uncertainty in the inertial system of the Hipparcos Catalog. A more precise determination was made for the proper motion of the SMC relative to the LMC; (μ_{{α cos δ }}^{}, μ_{δ}^{})_{SMC-LMC}=(-0.91, -1.49)±(0.16, 0.15) mas yr^-1. This differential value is used to estimate of the total velocity difference of the two clouds to within ±54 km s^-1. The absolute proper motion results are consistent with the Clouds' orbits being marginally bound to the Milky Way, albeit on an elongated orbit.

  1. Electrical Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Philip B.

    1979-01-01

    Examines Drude's classical (1900) theory of electrical conduction, details the objections to and successes of the 1900 theory, and investigates the Quantum (1928) theory of conduction, reviewing its successes and limitations. (BT)

  2. An effective theory of metrics with maximal proper acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego Torromé, Ricardo

    2015-12-01

    A geometric theory for spacetimes whose world lines associated with physical particles have an upper bound for the proper acceleration is developed. After some fundamental remarks on the requirements that the classical dynamics for point particles should hold, the notion of a generalized metric and a theory of maximal proper acceleration are introduced. A perturbative approach to metrics of maximal proper acceleration is discussed and we show how it provides a consistent theory where the associated Lorentzian metric corresponds to the limit when the maximal proper acceleration goes to infinity. Then several of the physical and kinematical properties of the maximal acceleration metric are investigated, including a discussion of the rudiments of the causal theory and the introduction of the notions of radar distance and celerity function. We discuss the corresponding modification of the Einstein mass-energy relation when the associated Lorentzian geometry is flat. In such a context it is also proved that the physical dispersion relation is relativistic. Two possible physical scenarios where the modified mass-energy relation could be confronted against the experiment are briefly discussed.

  3. [Maintaining the proper distance for nurses working in the home].

    PubMed

    Estève, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Health professionals must be able to respond to many different situations which require technical knowledge and self-control. Particularly when working in the patient's home, nurses must know how to maintain a proper distance to protect themselves from burnout. In this respect, the practice analysis constitutes an adapted support tool. PMID:27393988

  4. Δ μ binaries among stars with large proper motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khovritchev, M. Yu.; Kulikova, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Based on observations performed with the Pulkovo normal astrograph in 2008-2015 and data from sky surveys (DSS, 2MASS, SDSS DR12, WISE), we have investigated the motions of 1308 stars with proper motions larger than 300 mas yr-1 down to magnitude 17. The main idea of our search for binary stars based on this material is reduced to comparing the quasi-mean (POSS2-POSS1; an epoch difference of ≈50 yr) and quasi-instantaneous (2МASS, SDSS, WISE, Pulkovo; an epoch difference of ≈10 yr) proper motions. If the difference is statistically significant compared to the proper motion errors, then the object may be considered as a Δ μ-binary candidate. One hundred and twenty one stars from among those included in the observational program satisfy this requirement. Additional confirmations of binarity for a number of stars have been obtained by comparing the calculated proper motions with the data from several programs of stellar trigonometric parallax determinations and by analyzing the asymmetry of stellar images on sky-survey CCD frames. Analysis of the highly accurate SDSS photometric data for four stars (J0656+3827, J0838+3940, J1229+5332, J2330+4639) allows us to reach a conclusion about the probability that these Δ μ binaries are white dwarf +Mdwarf pairs.

  5. The Proper Place of Theory in Educational History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Wayne J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the proper place of theory in educational history and shares his comments on the essays by Eileen Tamura, Carolyn Eick, and Roland Coloma. Eileen Tamura's positing of most educational historians as practitioners of narrative history is surely on the mark. She invites historians of education to investigate…

  6. The Semantics of Proper Names and Other Bare Nominals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi, Yu

    2012-01-01

    This research proposes a unified approach to the semantics of the so-called bare nominals, which include proper names (e.g., "Mary"), mass and plural terms (e.g., "water," "cats"), and articleless noun phrases in Japanese. I argue that bare nominals themselves are monadic predicates applicable to more than one…

  7. Photometric calibration of the APM Proper Motion Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, D. W.

    1989-05-01

    Deep BVR photometry is presented in the magnitude range B = 11-21, obtained using a CCD camera. These magnitudes are used to calibrate the photographic photometry of the APM Proper Motion Project. Useful color-color relationships are also presented, calculated using the stellar spectra of Gunn and Stryker (1983).

  8. Developing proper mealtime behaviors of the institutionalized retarded1

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, F.; Azrin, N. H.

    1972-01-01

    The institutionalized mentally retarded display a variety of unsanitary, disruptive, and improper table manners. A program was developed that included (1) acquisition-training of a high standard of proper table manners and (2) maintenance procedures to provide continued motivation to maintain proper mealtime behaviors and decrease improper skills. Twelve retardates received acquisition training, individually, by a combination of verbal instruction, imitation, and manual guidance. The students then ate in their group dining arrangement where the staff supervisor provided continuing approval for proper manners and verbal correction and timeout for improper manners. The results were: (1) the trained retardates showed significant improvement, whereas those untrained did not; (2) the trained retardates ate as well in the institution as non-retarded customers did in a public restaurant; (3) proper eating was maintained in the group dining setting; (4) timeout was rarely needed; (5) the program was easily administered by regular staff in a regular dining setting. The rapidity, feasibility, and effectiveness of the program suggests the program as a solution to improper mealtime behaviors by the institutionalized mentally retarded. PMID:16795363

  9. STELLAR PROPER MOTION AND THE TIMING OF PLANETARY TRANSITS

    SciTech Connect

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2009-08-01

    Duration and period of transits in extrasolar planetary systems can exhibit long-term variations for a variety of reasons. Here we investigate how systemic proper motion, which steadily re-orients planetary orbit with respect to our line of sight, affects the timing of transits. We find that in a typical system with a period of several days, proper motion at the level of 100 mas yr{sup -1} makes transit duration vary at a rate {approx}10-100 ms yr{sup -1}. In some isolated systems this variation is at the measurable level (can be as high as 0.6 s yr{sup -1} for GJ436) and may exceed all other transit-timing contributions (due to the general relativity, stellar quadrupole, etc.). In addition, proper motion causes evolution of the observed period between transits P {sub obs} via the Shklovskii effect at a rate {approx}>10 {mu}s yr{sup -1} for the nearby transiting systems (0.26 ms yr{sup -1} in GJ436), which in some cases exceeds all other contributions to P-dot{sub obs}. Earth's motion around the Sun gives rise to additional periodic timing signal (even for systems with zero intrinsic proper motion) allowing a full determination of the spatial orientation of the planetary orbit. Unlike most other timing effects, the proper motion signatures persist even in systems with zero eccentricity and get stronger as the planetary period increases. They should be the dominant cause of transit-timing variations in isolated wide-separation (periods of months) systems that will be sought by Kepler.

  10. Proper Motion of Components in 4C 39.25

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guirado, J. C.; Marcaide, J. M.; Alberdi, A.; Elosegui, P.; Ratner, M. I.; Shapiro, I. I.; Kilger, R.; Mantovani, F.; Venturi, T.; Rius, A.; Ros, E.; Trigilio, C.; Whitney, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    From a series of simultaneous 8.4 and 2.3 GHz VLBI observations of the quasar 4C 39.25 phase referenced to the radio source 0920+390, carried out in 1990-1992, we have measured the proper motion of component b in 4C 39.25: mu(sub alpha) = 90 +/- 43 (mu)as/yr, mu(sub beta) = 7 +/- 68 (mu)as/yr, where the quoted uncertainties account for the contribution of the statistical standard deviation and the errors assumed for the parameters related to the geometry of the interferometric array, the atmosphere, and the source structure. This proper motion is consistent with earlier interpretations of VLBI hybrid mapping results, which showed an internal motion of this component with respect to other structural components. Our differential astrometry analyses show component b to be the one in motion. Our results thus further constrain models of this quasar.

  11. Common proper motion stars in the AGK 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbwachs, J. L.

    1986-11-01

    A search was made of common proper motion (CPM) systems among AGK 3 stars. The selection of physical systems was based upon the ratio between the angular separation, ρ, and the proper motion, μ; the CPM stars found are presented in two tables: Table I lists systems with ρ/μ less than 103years. It contains 326 entries and the proportion of optical pairs is estimated to be 1%. Table II lists systems with ρ/μ in the range 1000 to 3500 years; it contains 113 systems, but only 60% of them are physical. Nevertheless these systems often have separations larger than 10000 AU and are the most interesting for the study of the tail of the distribution function of the semi-major axes.

  12. Star catalog position and proper motion corrections in asteroid astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnocchia, D.; Chesley, S. R.; Chamberlin, A. B.; Tholen, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    We provide a scheme to correct asteroid astrometric observations for star catalog systematic errors due to inaccurate star positions and proper motions. As reference we select the most accurate stars in the PPMXL catalog, i.e., those based on 2MASS astrometry. We compute position and proper motion corrections for 19 of the most used star catalogs. The use of these corrections provides better ephemeris predictions and improves the error statistics of astrometric observations, e.g., by removing most of the regional systematic errors previously seen in Pan-STARRS PS1 asteroid astrometry. The correction table is publicly available at ftp://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/pub/ssd/debias/debias_2014.tgz and can be freely used in orbit determination algorithms to obtain more reliable asteroid trajectories.

  13. Emerging Flux Tube Geometry and Sunspot Proper Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia

    As sunspots appear at the intersection of rising flux tubes with the photosphere, the observed proper motions of a bipolar sunspot pair is a good indicator of the geometry of the underlying emerging flux tube. An emerging bipole caused by a simple symmetric potential flux tube should display a symmetric divergence of the two spots in diametrically opposite directions, while the proper motions of bipolar spot-pairs belonging to tilted or/and twisted (non-potential) emerging flux tubes are more complicated: asymmetric, not diametrically opposite and may follow a curved pattern. Observation of such motions may help to prove that emerging flux tubes are tilted and frequently twisted, in good agreement with predictions by recent simulation studies.

  14. Absolute parallaxes and proper motions from the PARSEC program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-10-01

    The PARallaxes of Southern Extremely Cool objects (PARSEC) program is designed to measure trigonometric parallaxes of 150 confirmed brown dwarfs in the southern hemisphere with the aim of using distances as fundamental calibrators for the investigation of star formation and evolution in the very low-mass regime. A scientifically useful addition to the primary scope of the project is the derivation of stellar proper motions, by combining observations from the full field of view, linked to the UCAC2 catalogue, with first-epoch data from 2MASS. To date, a proper motion catalogue of about 200 000 objects has been compiled. Tailored reduction techniques allow to attain milliarcsecond accuracy in the derived astrometric parameters, as validated by external comparisons.

  15. Proper definition and evolution of generalized transverse momentum dependent distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echevarria, Miguel G.; Idilbi, Ahmad; Kanazawa, Koichi; Lorcé, Cédric; Metz, Andreas; Pasquini, Barbara; Schlegel, Marc

    2016-08-01

    We consider one of the most fundamental sets of hadronic matrix elements, namely the generalized transverse momentum dependent distributions (GTMDs), and argue that their existing definitions lack proper evolution properties. By exploiting the similarity of GTMDs with the much better understood transverse momentum distributions, we argue that the existing definitions of GTMDs have to include an additional dependence on soft gluon radiation in order to render them properly defined. With this, we manage to obtain the evolution kernel of all (un)polarized quark and gluon GTMDs, which turns out to be spin independent. As a byproduct, all large logarithms can be resummed up to next-to-next-to-leading-logarithmic accuracy with the currently known perturbative ingredients.

  16. Proper motions of embedded protostellar jets in Serpens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djupvik, A. A.; Liimets, T.; Zinnecker, H.; Barzdis, A.; Rastorgueva-Foi, E. A.; Petersen, L. R.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: We determine the proper motion of protostellar jets around Class 0 and Class I sources in an active star forming region in Serpens. Methods: Multi-epoch deep images in the 2.122 μm line of molecular hydrogen, v = 1-0 S(1), obtained with the near-infrared instrument NOTCam on a timescale of 10 years, are used to determine the proper motion of knots and jets. K-band spectroscopy of the brighter knots is used to supply radial velocities, estimate extinction, excitation temperature, and H2 column densities towards these knots. Results: We measure the proper motion of 31 knots on different timescales (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 years). The typical tangential velocity is around 50 km s-1 for the 10-year baseline, but for shorter timescales, a maximum tangential velocity up to 300 km s-1 is found for a few knots. Based on morphology, velocity information, and the locations of known protostars, we argue for the existence of at least three partly overlapping and deeply embedded flows, one Class 0 flow and two Class I flows. The multi-epoch proper motion results indicate time-variable velocities of the knots, for the first time directly measured for a Class 0 jet. We find in general higher velocities for the Class 0 jet than for the two Class I jets. While the bolometric luminosites of the three driving sources are about equal, the derived mass flow rate Ṁout is two orders of magnitude higher in the Class 0 flow than in the two Class I flows. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.

  17. Method for obtaining proper injection steering into the LAMPF DTL

    SciTech Connect

    Rybarcyk, L.J.

    1994-09-01

    A portion of the LAMPF tune-up procedure involves properly steering beam from the 750 keV, low energy beam transport (LEBT) into Tank 1 of the 201.25 MHz drift tube linac (DTL). The previous method relied on a lengthy and somewhat arbitrary search over input beam trajectory parameters to obtain the desired result. A new algorithm is presented which produces a well centered beam in Tank 1 while significantly reducing the amount of time spent on this process.

  18. Proper Angle of Sono-guided Central Venous Line Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Barzegari, Hassan; Forouzan, Arash; Fahimi, Mohammad Ali; Zohrevandi, Behzad; Ghanavati, Mandana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Determining the proper angle for inserting central venous catheter (CV line) is of great importance for decreasing the complications and increasing success rate. The present study was designed to determine the proper angle of needle insertion for internal jugular vein catheterization. Methods: In the present case series study, candidate patients for catheterization of the right internal jugular vein under guidance of ultrasonography were studied. At the time of proper placing of the catheter, photograph was taken and Auto Cad 2014 software was used to measure the angles of the needle in the sagittal and axial planes, as well as patient’s head rotation. Result: 114 patients with the mean age of 56.96 ± 14.71 years were evaluated (68.4% male). The most common indications of catheterization were hemodialysis (55.3%) and shock state (24.6%). The mean angles of needle insertion were 102.15 ± 6.80 for axial plane, 36.21 ± 3.12 for sagittal plane and the mean head rotation angle was 40.49 ± 5.09. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study it seems that CV line insertion under the angles 102.15 ± 6.80 degrees in the axial plane, 36.21 ± 3.12 in the sagittal plane and 40.49 ± 5.09 head rotation yield satisfactory results. PMID:27299146

  19. Limited-memory adaptive snapshot selection for proper orthogonal decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Oxberry, Geoffrey M.; Kostova-Vassilevska, Tanya; Arrighi, Bill; Chand, Kyle

    2015-04-02

    Reduced order models are useful for accelerating simulations in many-query contexts, such as optimization, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis. However, offline training of reduced order models can have prohibitively expensive memory and floating-point operation costs in high-performance computing applications, where memory per core is limited. To overcome this limitation for proper orthogonal decomposition, we propose a novel adaptive selection method for snapshots in time that limits offline training costs by selecting snapshots according an error control mechanism similar to that found in adaptive time-stepping ordinary differential equation solvers. The error estimator used in this work is related to theory bounding the approximation error in time of proper orthogonal decomposition-based reduced order models, and memory usage is minimized by computing the singular value decomposition using a single-pass incremental algorithm. Results for a viscous Burgers’ test problem demonstrate convergence in the limit as the algorithm error tolerances go to zero; in this limit, the full order model is recovered to within discretization error. The resulting method can be used on supercomputers to generate proper orthogonal decomposition-based reduced order models, or as a subroutine within hyperreduction algorithms that require taking snapshots in time, or within greedy algorithms for sampling parameter space.

  20. The RECONS Effort to Characterize the Highest Proper Motion Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jao, W. C.; Subasavage, J. P.; Henry, T. J.; Williams, C.; Costa, E.; Ianna, P. A.; Mendez, R. A.; RECONS Team

    2001-12-01

    High proper motion is a method used for selecting probable nearby stars. There currently are 601 stars (502 systems) with proper motion faster than 1 arcsec/year (hereafter, the MOTION stars). There are 271 systems known in the northern sky and 231 systems in the southern sky. The predominance of systems in the north is because historically more proper motion surveys have been carried out in northern hemisphere. In the complete MOTION sample, 75 estimated to lie within 25 pc of the Sun, the adopted horizon for NASA's NStars (Nearby Stars) Project. Based on available photometric and parallax observations, we know that MOTION members are primarily late type main sequence stars, with a few white dwarfs and subdwarfs. Nonetheless, it is remarkable that 16 not yet have parallax measurements. In addition, nearly 40 of the systems do not have complete VRI photometry on a standard system. In an effort to understand the complete MOTION sample, and to discover new members of the solar neighborhood, we present both astrometric and photometric results for the MOTION stars from our extensive NOAO Surveys Program known as CTIOPI (CTIO Parallax Investigation). The support of NOAO, CTIO, the NASA-Ames Astrobiology Institute and the NASA's Space Interferometry Mission have been the crucial to the success of this research.

  1. Using dwarf satellite proper motions to determine their origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, G. W.; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Kroupa, Pavel

    2011-09-01

    The highly organized distribution of satellite galaxies surrounding the Milky Way is a serious challenge to the concordance cosmological model. Perhaps the only remaining solution, in this framework, is that the dwarf satellite galaxies fall into the Milky Way's potential along one or two filaments, which may or may not plausibly reproduce the observed distribution. Here we test this scenario by making use of the proper motions of the Fornax, Sculptor, Ursa Minor and Carina dwarf spheroidals, and trace their orbits back through several variations of the Milky Way's potential and account for dynamical friction. The key parameters are the proper motions and total masses of the dwarf galaxies. Using a simple model, we find no tenable set of parameters that can allow Fornax to be consistent with filamentary infall, mainly because the 1σ error on its proper motion is relatively small. The other three must walk a tightrope between requiring a small pericentre (less than 20 kpc) to lose enough orbital energy to dynamical friction and avoiding being tidally disrupted. We then employed a more realistic model with host halo mass accretion and found that the four dwarf galaxies must have fallen in at least 5 Gyr ago. This time-interval is longer than organized distribution is expected to last before being erased by the randomization of the satellite orbits.

  2. Conduct disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Disruptive behavior - child; Impulse control problem - child ... Conduct disorder has been linked to: Child abuse Drug or alcohol abuse in the parents Family conflicts Genetic defects Poverty The diagnosis is more common among boys. It is ...

  3. Electrical Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  4. Vertical velocities from proper motions of red clump giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Corredoira, M.; Abedi, H.; Garzón, F.; Figueras, F.

    2014-12-01

    Aims: We derive the vertical velocities of disk stars in the range of Galactocentric radii of R = 5 - 16 kpc within 2 kpc in height from the Galactic plane. This kinematic information is connected to dynamical aspects in the formation and evolution of the Milky Way, such as the passage of satellites and vertical resonance and determines whether the warp is a long-lived or a transient feature. Methods: We used the PPMXL survey, which contains the USNO-B1 proper motions catalog cross-correlated with the astrometry and near-infrared photometry of the 2MASS point source catalog. To improve the accuracy of the proper motions, the systematic shifts from zero were calculated by using the average proper motions of quasars in this PPMXL survey, and we applied the corresponding correction to the proper motions of the whole survey, which reduces the systematic error. From the color-magnitude diagram K versus (J - K) we selected the standard candles corresponding to red clump giants and used the information of their proper motions to build a map of the vertical motions of our Galaxy. We derived the kinematics of the warp both analytically and through a particle simulation to fit these data. Complementarily, we also carried out the same analysis with red clump giants spectroscopically selected with APOGEE data, and we predict the improvements in accuracy that will be reached with future Gaia data. Results: A simple model of warp with the height of the disk zw(R,φ) = γ(R - R⊙)sin(φ - φw) fits the vertical motions if dot {γ }/γ = -34±17 Gyr-1; the contribution to dot {γ } comes from the southern warp and is negligible in the north. If we assume this 2σ detection to be real, the period of this oscillation is shorter than 0.43 Gyr at 68.3% C.L. and shorter than 4.64 Gyr at 95.4% C.L., which excludes with high confidence the slow variations (periods longer than 5 Gyr) that correspond to long-lived features. Our particle simulation also indicates a probable abrupt decrease

  5. A Proper Motion Survey Using the First Sky Pass of NEOWISE-reactivation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Greco, Jennifer; Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Mainzer, Amy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio B.; Bauer, James

    2016-02-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) was reactivated in 2013 December (NEOWISE) to search for potentially hazardous near-Earth objects. We have conducted a survey using the first sky pass of NEOWISE data and the AllWISE catalog to identify nearby stars and brown dwarfs with large proper motions ({μ }{{total}} ≳ 250 mas yr-1). A total of 20,548 high proper motion objects were identified, 1006 of which are new discoveries. This survey has uncovered a significantly larger sample of fainter objects (W2 ≳ 13 mag) than the previous WISE motion surveys of Luhman and Kirkpatrick et al. Many of these objects are predicted to be new L and T dwarfs based on near- and mid-infrared colors. Using estimated spectral types along with distance estimates, we have identified several objects that likely belong to the nearby solar neighborhood (d < 25 pc). We have followed up 19 of these new discoveries with near-infrared or optical spectroscopy, focusing on potentially nearby objects, objects with the latest predicted spectral types, and potential late-type subdwarfs. This subset includes six M dwarfs, five of which are likely subdwarfs, as well as eight L dwarfs and five T dwarfs, many of which have blue near-infrared colors. As an additional supplement, we provide 2MASS and AllWISE positions and photometry for every object found in our search, as well as 2MASS/AllWISE calculated proper motions.

  6. Analysis of the Spread Across Liquid-5 (SAL-5) Experiment Failure to Fill Properly During Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Jeffrey Stuart

    2004-01-01

    When a pool of flammable liquid is ignited, the flame spread rate can vary widely depending on the initial fuel temperature, pool geometry, ambient atmospheric conditions, and gravitational level. There is substantial decades-old debate in the scientific literature about the role of gravity in these phenomena. The objective of the research was to measure ignition and flame spread across liquid pools in both normal and microgravity with and without forced airflow, and to obtain detailed thermal and velocity field data for comparison to a predictive numerical model that is concurrently being developed. To that end, an experiment known as Spread Across Liquids 5 (SAL 5) was designed to be conducted in a low-gravity environment on a sounding rocket. Unfortunately, during the sounding rocket flight the fuel tray for the experiment failed to fill properly prior to ignition. The primary cause of the failure to fill properly is the geometry of the fuel tray; that is, the presence of the gaps on the side walls and the sharp edge around the thermocouple through-holes. The contamination resulting from the cleaning process is a strong secondary factor which would have prevented proper, timely filling had the primary cause not been present.

  7. Spectrophotometric characterization of high proper motion sources from WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beamín, J. C.; Ivanov, V. D.; Minniti, D.; Smart, R. L.; Mužić, K.; Mendez, R. A.; Beletsky, Y.; Bayo, A.; Gromadzki, M.; Kurtev, R.

    2015-12-01

    The census of the solar neighbourhood is almost complete for stars and becoming more complete in the brown dwarf regime. Spectroscopic, photometric and kinematic characterization of nearby objects helps us to understand the local mass function, the binary fraction, and provides new targets for sensitive planet searches. We aim to derive spectral types and spectrophotometric distances of a sample of new high proper motion sources found with the WISE (Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer) satellite, and obtain parallaxes for those objects that fall within the area observed by the Vista Variables in the Vía Láctea survey (VVV). We used low-resolution spectroscopy and template fitting to derive spectral types, multiwavelength photometry to characterize the companion candidates and obtain photometric distances. Multi-epoch imaging from the VVV survey was used to measure the parallaxes and proper motions for three sources. We confirm a new T2 brown dwarf within ˜15 pc. We derived optical spectral types for 24 sources, mostly M dwarfs within 50 pc. We addressed the wide binary nature of 16 objects found by the WISE mission and previously known high proper motion sources. Six of these are probably members of wide binaries, two of those are new, and present evidence against the physical binary nature of two candidate binary stars found in the literature, and eight that we selected as possible binary systems. We discuss a likely microlensing event produced by a nearby low-mass star and a galaxy, that is to occur in the following five years.

  8. Taxonomic and thematic organisation of proper name conceptual knowledge.

    PubMed

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K

    2011-01-01

    We report the investigation of the organisation of proper names in two aphasic patients (NBC and FBI). The performance of both patients on spoken word to written word matching tasks was inconsistent, affected by presentation rate and semantic relatedness of the competing responses, all hallmarks of a refractory semantic access dysphasia. In a series of experiments we explored the semantic relatedness effects within their proper name vocabulary, including brand names and person names. First we demonstrated the interaction between very fine grain organisation and personal experience, with one patient with a special interest in the cinema demonstrating higher error rates when identifying the names of actors working in a similar film genre (e.g., action movies: Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bruce Willis, Sylvester Stallone, Mel Gibson) than those working in different genres (e.g., Arnold Schwarzenegger, Gregory Peck, Robin Williams, Gene Kelly). Second we compared directly two potential principles of semantic organisation - taxonomic and thematic. Furthermore we considered these principles of organisation in the context of the individuals' personal knowledge base. We selected topics matching the interests and experience of each patient, namely cinema and literature (NBC) and naval history (FBI). The stimulus items were arranged in taxonomic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, Agatha Christie), thematic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Mr Darcy), and unrelated arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Wuthering Heights, Hercule Poirot). We documented that different patterns of taxonomic and thematic organisation were constrained by whether the individual has limited knowledge, moderate knowledge or detailed knowledge of a particular vocabulary. It is suggested that moderate proper name knowledge is primarily organised by taxonomy whereas extensive experience results in a more detailed knowledge base in which theme is a powerful organising principle. PMID:22063815

  9. A Surgical Method for Determining Proper Screw Length in ACDF

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hae-Gi; Kang, Moo-Sung; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Jeong-Yoon; Kim, Keun-Su

    2014-01-01

    Objective We describe a surgical tool that uses the distractor pin as a reference for determining proper screw length in ACDF. It is critical that screw purchase depth be as deep as possible without violating or penetrating the posterior cortical wall, which ensures strong pull out strength. Methods We enrolled 81 adult patients who underwent ACDF using an anterior cervical plate from 2010 to 2012. Patients were categorized into Groups A (42 patients: retractor pin used as a reference for screw length) and B (39 patients: control group). Intraoperative lateral x-rays were taken after screwing the retractor pin to confirm the approaching vertebral level. The ratio of retractor pin length to body anteroposterior (A-P) diameter was measured as a reference. Proper screw length was determined by comparison to the reference. Results The average distance from screw tip to posterior wall was 3.0±1.4mm in Group A and 4.1±2.3mm in Group B. The ratio of screw length to body sagittal diameter was 86.2±5.7% in Group A and 80.8±9.0% in Group B. Screw length to body sagittal diameter ratios higher than 4/5 occurred in 33 patients (90%) in Group A and 23 patients (59%) in Group B. No cases violated the posterior cortical wall. Conclusion We introduce a useful surgical method for determining proper screw length in ACDF using the ratio of retractor pin length to body A-P diameter as a reference. This method allows for deeper screw purchase depth without violation of the posterior cortical wall. PMID:25346756

  10. uvby photometry in McCormick proper motion fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degewij, J.

    1982-01-01

    The Danish 50 cm telescope at the European Southern Observatory was used to obtain high-precision uvby photometry for 50 F2 to G2 stars, with V values in the 9.4-12.3 mag range, which were selected in the southern galactic polar regions of the McCormick proper motion fields and measured on six different nights. The brighter stars are found to systematically exhibit smaller m(1) indices, of about 0.02 mag, upon comparison with the earlier data of Blaauw et al (1976). Single measurements are given for 98 stars in eight McCormick fields at intermediate southern galactic latitudes.

  11. Discovery and characterization of the highest proper motion stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jao, Wei-Chun

    This dissertation presents methods and results of searching for missing stars in the solar neighborhood based on a rigorous selection of the highest proper motion stars. The MOTION sample of stars discussed in this work includes all systems with proper motions greater than [Special characters omitted.] /yr. As of January 1, 2003, there are 549 systems and 653 individual stars in the sample. We characterize all of these systems astrometrically, photometrically and spectroscopically. Data supporting this investigation have been taken as part of CTIOPI (Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Parallax Investigation), for which data acquisition and reduction techniques are discussed. In addition to the production of trigonometric parallaxes, proper motions, and VRI photometry, atmospheric refraction is addressed in detail for the astrometric observations, and the photometry is used to convert the relative parallaxes to absolute parallaxes. We report first ever parallax measurements for 46 MOTION systems. Five of these are new RECONS (Research Consortium on Nearby Stars) systems within 10 pc of the Sun--LHS22, LHS145, LHS263, LHS337, and DENI1048-3956. An additional 25 systems are within the 25 pc NStars horizon. These parallax results cover more than 50% of the MOTION systems that previously had no trigonometric parallaxes. We also provide VRI photometry for 86 MOTION systems that previously had incomplete or no such photometry. Of these, 15 systems are photometrically estimated to be within 25 pc. In addition, we give new spectroscopy results for 43 MOTION systems. Because of the inherent kinematic bias in the sample, a full ~15% (82) of the MOTION systems prove to be subdwarfs, an important sample that will be useful for future investigations. In this sample we have identified the first M-type subdwarf binary, LHS189AB, and the first subdwarf/white dwarf binary, LHS193AB. Finally; nine new companions have been confirmed as proper motion companions to stars observed

  12. Proper Motions in Sunspot Penumbrae: Signs of Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonet, J. A.; Márquez, I.; Sánchez Almeida, J.

    2006-12-01

    Proper motions in penumbra have been measured using local correlation tracking techniques in a high spatial resolution series of images (˜0.12 arcsec). Assuming these motions to trace true plasma motions, we have detected converging flows that arrange the plasma in long narrow filaments mostly placed along dark penumbral filaments. These converging flows suggest downflows in the filaments of ˜ 200 m s-1. We interpret the association between downflows and dark features as a sign of convection that, once several observational biases are considered, could transport enough energy to balance the radiative losses of penumbra.

  13. Proper Motion Probe of the Galaxy in the Anticentre Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chareton, M.; Considere, S.; Bienayme, O.

    1993-12-01

    We present a new proper motion probe as part of an investigation of galactic structure and evolution. We discuss the observational results obtained in a restricted field of 1.77 square degrees at low galactic latitude in the direction of SpA 23 (t = 179°., 6 = 2.8°). The resulting catalogue includes 24765 stars. It is complete down to magnitudes 19, 19 and 18 respectively in U, B and V passbands. Photographic photometry have been published separately (Mohan et al. 1988).

  14. Gentle Nearest Neighbors Boosting over Proper Scoring Rules.

    PubMed

    Nock, Richard; Ali, Wafa Bel Haj; D'Ambrosio, Roberto; Nielsen, Frank; Barlaud, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Tailoring nearest neighbors algorithms to boosting is an important problem. Recent papers study an approach, UNN, which provably minimizes particular convex surrogates under weak assumptions. However, numerical issues make it necessary to experimentally tweak parts of the UNN algorithm, at the possible expense of the algorithm's convergence and performance. In this paper, we propose a lightweight Newton-Raphson alternative optimizing proper scoring rules from a very broad set, and establish formal convergence rates under the boosting framework that compete with those known for UNN. To the best of our knowledge, no such boosting-compliant convergence rates were previously known in the popular Gentle Adaboost's lineage. We provide experiments on a dozen domains, including Caltech and SUN computer vision databases, comparing our approach to major families including support vector machines, (Ada)boosting and stochastic gradient descent. They support three major conclusions: (i) GNNB significantly outperforms UNN, in terms of convergence rate and quality of the outputs, (ii) GNNB performs on par with or better than computationally intensive large margin approaches, (iii) on large domains that rule out those latter approaches for computational reasons, GNNB provides a simple and competitive contender to stochastic gradient descent. Experiments include a divide-and-conquer improvement of GNNB exploiting the link with proper scoring rules optimization. PMID:26353210

  15. Organism and artifact: Proper functions in Paley organisms.

    PubMed

    Holm, Sune

    2013-12-01

    In this paper I assess the explanatory powers of theories of function in the context of products that may result from synthetic biology. The aim is not to develop a new theory of functions, but to assess existing theories of function in relation to a new kind of biological and artifactual entity that might be produced in the not-too-distant future by means of synthetic biology. The paper thus investigates how to conceive of the functional nature of living systems that are not the result of evolution by natural selection, or instantly generated by cosmic coincidence, but which are products of intelligent design. The paper argues that the aetiological theory of proper functions in organisms and artifacts is inadequate as an account of proper functions in such 'Paley organisms' and defends an alternative organisational approach. The paper ends by considering the implications of the discussion of biological function for questions about the interests and moral status of non-sentient organisms. PMID:23792090

  16. Time-resolved proper orthogonal decomposition of liquid jet dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arienti, Marco; Soteriou, Marios C.

    2009-11-01

    New insight into the mechanism of liquid jet in crossflow atomization is provided by an analysis technique based on proper orthogonal decomposition and spectral analysis. Data are provided in the form of high-speed videos of the jet near field from experiments over a broad range of injection conditions. For each condition, proper orthogonal modes (POMs) are generated and ordered by intensity variation relative to the time average. The feasibility of jet dynamics reduction by truncation of the POM series to the first few modes is then examined as a function of crossflow velocity for laminar and turbulent liquid injection. At conditions where the jet breaks up into large chunks of liquid, the superposition of specific orthogonal modes is observed to track long waves traveling along the liquid column. The temporal coefficients of these modes can be described as a bandpass spectrum that shifts toward higher frequencies as the crossflow velocity is increased. The dynamic correlation of these modes is quantified by their cross-power spectrum density. Based on the frequency and wavelength extracted from the videos, the observed traveling waves are linked to the linearly fastest growing wave of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The gas boundary layer thickness at the gas-liquid shear layer emerges at the end of this study as the dominant length scale of jet dynamics at moderate Weber numbers.

  17. PROPER MOTIONS OF THE HH 110/270 SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Kajdic, P.; Reipurth, B.; Walawender, J.; Raga, A. C.; Bally, J. E-mail: reipurth@IfA.Hawaii.Edu E-mail: John.Bally@casa.colorado.edu

    2012-05-15

    We present a study of the HH 110/270 system based on three sets of optical images obtained with the ESO New Technology Telescope, the Subaru Telescope, and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The ground-based observations are made in the H{alpha} and [S II] emission lines and the HST observations are made in the H{alpha} line only. Ground-based observations reveal the existence of nine knots, which have not been previously discussed and offer some important insight into the HH 110/270 history. We perform a kinematic study of the HH 110/270 system and an analysis of its emission properties. We measure proper motions of all the knots in the system. Four of the newly identified knots belong to the HH 270 jet. Their positions indicate that the jet's axis changed its direction in the past. We speculate that similar changes may have occurred many times in the past and this could be part of the reason for the unusual structure of the HH 110 jet. The HST observations allow us to resolve individual knots into their substructures and to measure their proper motions. These measurements show that the knots are highly turbulent structures. Finally, we report the discovery of four new Herbig-Haro (HH) objects located near the HH 110/270 system.

  18. Proper bibeta ROC model: algorithm, software, and performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weijie; Hu, Nan

    2016-03-01

    Semi-parametric models are often used to fit data collected in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) experiments to obtain a smooth ROC curve and ROC parameters for statistical inference purposes. The proper bibeta model as recently proposed by Mossman and Peng enjoys several theoretical properties. In addition to having explicit density functions for the latent decision variable and an explicit functional form of the ROC curve, the two parameter bibeta model also has simple closed-form expressions for true-positive fraction (TPF), false-positive fraction (FPF), and the area under the ROC curve (AUC). In this work, we developed a computational algorithm and R package implementing this model for ROC curve fitting. Our algorithm can deal with any ordinal data (categorical or continuous). To improve accuracy, efficiency, and reliability of our software, we adopted several strategies in our computational algorithm including: (1) the LABROC4 categorization to obtain the true maximum likelihood estimation of the ROC parameters; (2) a principled approach to initializing parameters; (3) analytical first-order and second-order derivatives of the likelihood function; (4) an efficient optimization procedure (the L-BFGS algorithm in the R package "nlopt"); and (5) an analytical delta method to estimate the variance of the AUC. We evaluated the performance of our software with intensive simulation studies and compared with the conventional binormal and the proper binormal-likelihood-ratio models developed at the University of Chicago. Our simulation results indicate that our software is highly accurate, efficient, and reliable.

  19. Common Proper Motion Companions to Nearby Stars: Ages and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, V. V.; Zacharias, N.; Hennessy, G. S.

    2008-11-01

    A set of 41 nearby stars (closer than 25 pc) is investigated which have very wide binary and common proper motion (CPM) companions at projected separations between 1000 and 200,000 AU. These companions are identified by astrometric positions and proper motions from the NOMAD catalog. Based mainly on measures of chromospheric and X-ray activity, age estimation is obtained for most of 85 identified companions. Color-absolute magnitude diagrams are constructed to test whether CPM companions are physically related to the primary nearby stars and have the same age. Our carefully selected sample includes three remote white dwarf companions to main-sequence stars and two systems (55 Cnc and GJ 777A) of multiple planets and distant stellar companions. Ten new CPM companions, including three of extreme separations, are found. Multiple hierarchical systems are abundant; more than 25% of CPM components are spectroscopic or astrometric binaries or multiples themselves. Two new astrometric binaries are discovered among nearby CPM companions, GJ 264 and HIP 59000, and preliminary orbital solutions are presented. The Hyades kinematic group (or stream) is presented broadly in the sample, but we find few possible thick-disk objects and no halo stars. It follows from our investigation that moderately young (age lesssim 1 Gyr) thin-disk dwarfs are the dominating species in the near CPM systems, in general agreement with the premises of the dynamical survival paradigm.

  20. Gaia relativistic astrometric models. I. Proper stellar direction and aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, M.; Vecchiato, A.

    2010-01-01

    The high accuracy achievable by modern space astrometry requires the use of General Relativity to model the stellar light propagation through the gravitational field encountered from a source to a given observer inside the Solar System. The general relativistic definition of an astrometric measurement needs an appropriate use of the concept of reference frame, which should then be linked to the conventions of the IAU resolutions. On the other hand, a definition of the astrometric observables in the context of General Relativity is also essential for finding the stellar coordinates and proper motion uniquely, this being the main physical task of the inverse ray-tracing problem. The aim of this work is to set the level of reciprocal consistency of two relativistic models, GREM and RAMOD (Gaia, ESA mission), in order to guarantee a physically correct definition of the light's local direction to a star and deduce the star coordinates and proper motions at the level of accuracy required by these models consistently with the IAU's adopted reference systems.

  1. Appropriate Conduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Lullo, Louis

    2004-01-01

    Many years ago when the author assumed the role of assistant principal for school climate, discipline, and attendance, he inherited many school policies and guidelines that were outdated, unfair, and without merit in the current school climate. Because the school conduct code had not been revised since the school opened in 1960, many of the…

  2. Conducting Meetings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Tribes Educational Technical Center, Bismarck, ND.

    Written for anyone interested in what makes a meeting run smoothly (and what doesn't), the guide for conducting meetings is divided into the following sections: the chairperson (his/her responsibilities, preparing an agenda, organizing discussions); the meeting (quorums, discussions, points of order, and clarification); the motion (making the…

  3. Conducting the Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Heat conduction plays an important role in the efficiency and life span of electronic components. To keep electronic components running efficiently and at a proper temperature, thermal management systems transfer heat generated from the components to thermal surfaces such as heat sinks, heat pipes, radiators, or heat spreaders. Thermal surfaces absorb the heat from the electrical components and dissipate it into the environment, preventing overheating. To ensure the best contact between electrical components and thermal surfaces, thermal interface materials are applied. In addition to having high conductivity, ideal thermal interface materials should be compliant to conform to the components, increasing the surface contact. While many different types of interface materials exist for varying purposes, Energy Science Laboratories, Inc. (ESLI), of San Diego, California, proposed using carbon velvets as thermal interface materials for general aerospace and electronics applications. NASA s Johnson Space Center granted ESLI a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to develop thermal interface materials that are lightweight and compliant, and demonstrate high thermal conductance even for nonflat surfaces. Through Phase II SBIR work, ESLI created Vel-Therm for the commercial market. Vel-Therm is a soft, carbon fiber velvet consisting of numerous high thermal conductivity carbon fibers anchored in a thin layer of adhesive. The velvets are fabricated by precision cutting continuous carbon fiber tows and electrostatically flocking the fibers into uncured adhesive, using proprietary techniques.

  4. Forward Shock Proper Motions of Kepler's Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuda, S.; Tsunemi, H.; Uchida, H.; Kimura, M.

    2008-12-01

    The X-ray structure of Kepler's supernova remnant shows a rounded shape delineated by forward shocks. We measure proper motions of the forward shocks on overall rims of the remnant, by using archival Chandra data taken in two epochs with time difference of 6.09 yr. The proper motions of the forward shocks on the northern rim are measured to be 0.076'' (±0.032'' ±0.016'') to 0.11'' (±0.014'' ±0.016'') yr-1, while those on the rest of the rims are measured to be 0.15'' (±0.017'' ±0.016'') to 0.30'' (±0.048'' ±0.016'') yr-1 here the first-term errors are statistical uncertainties and the second-term errors are systematic uncertainties. Combining the best-estimated shock velocity of 1660 +/- 120 km s-1 measured for Balmer-dominated filaments in the northern and central portions of the remnant (Sankrit et al. 2005) with the proper motions derived for the forward shocks on the northern rim, we estimate a distance of 3.3+1.6-0.4 kpc to the remnant. We measure the expansion indices, m (defined as R propto tm), to be 0.47-0.82 for most of the rims. These values are consistent with those expected in Type Ia SN explosion models, in which the ejecta and the circumstellar medium have power-law density profiles whose indices are 5-7 and 0-2, respectively. In addition, we should note the slower expansion on the northern rim than that on the southern rim. This is likely caused by the inhomogeneous circumstellar medium; the density of the circumstellar medium is higher in the north than that in the south of the remnant. The newly estimated geometric center, around which we believe the explosion point exists, is located at ~5'' offset to the north of the radio center.

  5. Proper Motions of Massive Stars in 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    We propose an ambitious proper motion survey of massive stars in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud using the unique capabilities of HST. We will derive the directions of motion of massive runaway stars, searching in particular for massive stars which have been ejected from the central very massive cluster R136. These data will be combined with radial velocities from the VLT-FLAMES Survey of the Tarantula Nebula and with atmospheric analyses and stellar evolution models to constrain their origins. We will also search for very young isolated massive stars to test models of single-star formation. This work is highly relevant to star formation, cluster dynamics, the origin of field WR stars and GRBs, the creation of very massive stars by runaway mergers, and the possible formation of intermediate-mass black holes.

  6. Search for high-proper motion objects with infrared excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, Massimo

    2014-12-01

    The possibility of interstellar migration has been theorized during the past thirty years in the form of 'Dysonships' that, using non-relativistic propulsion systems, are able to colonize the Galaxy in a relatively short time compared to the age of the Galaxy and consequently penetrate inside our solar system too. Observational evidence of this can be potentially obtained using the present state of the art of telescopes and related sensors, by following aimed searches and an expanded SETI protocol. Some transient and unrepeated radio signals recorded during standard SETI observations might be due to the transit of high-proper motion artificial sources of extraterrestrial origin, which are expected to show a very weak optical emission, a strong infrared excess and occasional high-energy bursts in the X and Gamma-ray wavelength ranges. Such artificial sources might show an interest to Earth by sending probes to visit it: such a possibility can be investigated scientifically as well.

  7. Preschoolers' knowledge about the appearance of proper names.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kathryn Maycumber; Pasnak, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Preschoolers' knowledge of the appearance of proper names was tested in three experiments with 25 boys and 22 girls from low-income families. Children from a Head Start program, whose parents signed a permission letter, participated. Their ages ranged from 3 yr. 6 mo. to 5 yr. 6 mo. (M = 52.2 mo., SD = 4.9). When shown consonant-vowel-consonant trigrams such as Rit or baF or dEg with various capitalization patterns, the children showed a tendency to recognize that CVC trigrams with the first letter capitalized or all letters capitalized were the ones most likely to represent a person's name. When their own names were substituted, which typically contained more than three letters, their performance was markedly better. Children also had a strong tendency to consider trigrams of Latin letters as more likely to be a person's name than trigrams of non-Latin characters (e.g., Sanskrit). PMID:21162446

  8. HOSPITAL GENERATED WASTE: A PLAN FOR ITS PROPER MANAGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Aljabre, Salih H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Hospitals are important sites for the generation of hazardous waste. Each hospital has its own profile for the generation and transportion of waste according to its location. It is extremely important to manage hospital generated waste properly in order to avoid health and environmental risks. This article reports the plan designed and used by the hospital waste management committee in King Fahad Hospital of the University , Alhkobar, Saudi Arabia, for the safe management of hospital generated waste starting from the collection areas to the final disposal procedure. The plan was in four stages: background information, identification of problems, intervention and monitoring. The possible solutions for problems encountered are suggested. This plan which was efficient and cost effective can be used in other medical establishments. PMID:23008674

  9. Social inequalities in health: a proper concern of epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Marmot, Michael; Bell, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Social inequalities are a proper concern of epidemiology. Epidemiological thinking and modes of analysis are central, but epidemiological research is one among many areas of study that provide the evidence for understanding the causes of social inequalities in health and what can be done to reduce them. Understanding the causes of health inequalities requires insights from social, behavioral and biological sciences, and a chain of reasoning that examines how the accumulation of positive and negative influences over the life course leads to health inequalities in adult life. Evidence that the social gradient in health can be reduced should make us optimistic that reducing health inequalities is a realistic goal for all societies. PMID:27084546

  10. Proper Time Dynamics in General Relativity and Conformal Unified Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyngazov, L. N.; Pawlowski, M.; Pervushin, V. N.; Smirichinski, V. I.

    1998-12-01

    The paper is devoted to the description a measurable time-interval ("proper time") in the Hamiltonian version of general relativity with the Dirac-ADM metric. To separate the dynamical parameter of evolution from the space metric we use the Lichnerowicz conformally invariant variables. In terms of these variables GR is equivalent to the conformally invariant Penrose-Chernikov-Tagirov theory of a scalar field the role of which is played by the scale factor multiplied by the Planck constant. Identification of this scalar field with the modulus of the Higgs field in the standard model of electroweak and strong interactions allows us to formulate an example of conformally invariant unified theory where the vacuum averaging of the scalar field is determined by cosmological integrals of motion of the evolution of the universe.

  11. The proper motion VS redshift relation for superluminal radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, Bert W.; Nash, Stephen G.; Geldzahler, Barry J.

    1989-02-01

    The proper motion vs redshift relation has been analyzed for the data set of Zensus and Pearson (1988). A nonlinearly constrained nonlinear optimization program is used to estimate the lower envelope as a constrained maximum likelihood problem, with the constraints specified by the expected value of the largest order statistics for the estimated angle of inclination. The present estimation procedure yields a value of H = 103 km/s per Mpc for the light echo model and a value of H = 46 km/s per Mpc for the dipole field models. In all the cases considered, a large excess of sources is found at low-inclinations angles (high apparent velocities), suggesting a strong contamination of the sample by relativistic beam sources which would only be seen at low inclination angles.

  12. Proper time regularization at finite quark chemical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin-Li; Shi, Yuan-Mei; Xu, Shu-Sheng; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we use the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model to study the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) chiral phase transition. To deal with the ultraviolet (UV) issue, we adopt the popular proper time regularization (PTR), which is commonly used not only for hadron physics but also for the studies with magnetic fields. This regularization scheme can introduce the infrared (IR) cutoff to include quark confinement. We generalize the PTR to zero temperature and finite chemical potential case use a completely new method, and then study the chiral susceptibility, both in the chiral limit case and with finite current quark mass. The chiral phase transition is second-order in μ = 0 and T = 0 and crossover at μ≠0 and T = 0. Three sets of parameters are used to make sure that the results do not depend on the parameter choice.

  13. The physical properties of double degenerate common proper motion binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sion, Edward M.; Oswalt, Terry D.; Liebert, James; Hintzen, Paul

    1991-01-01

    Spectral types and spectrophotometry are presented for 21 double degenerate (DD) common proper motion binaries, along with estimates of their colors, absolute visual and bolometric magnitudes, and cooling ages. The oldest pairs in the sample are 9 x 10 to the 9th yr; the differential cooling ages range from 0.01 to 0.84. The median and mean separations of the DD pairs are 426 and 407 Au, respectively, both apparently smaller than the WD+MS values. The average UVW motions and velocity dispersions are significantly larger than the average velocities and dispersions associated with selected samples of single white dwarfs and MS+WD binaries when the latter are restricted to the same color/Mv range as the DD systems. This may be a result of the dynamical inflation of the velocity dispersion of DD systems due to their extremely ancient total stellar ages.

  14. Digital imaging for the education of proper surgical hand disinfection.

    PubMed

    Haidegger, Tamás; Nagy, Melinda; Lehotsky, Akos; Szilágyi, László

    2011-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are the undesirable result of a treatment in a hospital, or a health care service unit, not related to the patient's original condition. Despite the evolution of medicine, fundamental problems with hand hygiene remain existent, leading to the spread of nosocomial infections. Our group has been working on a generic solution to provide a method and apparatus to teach and verify proper hand disinfection. The general idea is to mark the skin surfaces that were sufficiently treated with alcoholic hand rub. Digital image processing is employed to determine the location of these areas and overlay it on the segmented hand, visualizing the results in an intuitive form. A non-disruptive ultraviolet marker is mixed to a commercially available hand rub, therefore leaving the original hand washing workflow intact. Digital images are taken in an enclosed device we developed for this purpose. First, robust hand contour segmentation is performed, then a histogram-based formulation of the fuzzy c-means algorithm is employed for the classification of clean versus dirty regions, minimizing the processing time of the images. The method and device have been tested in 3 hospitals in Hungary, Romania and Singapore, on surgeons, residents, medical students and nurses. A health care professional verified the results of the segmentation, since no gold standard is available for the recorded human cases. We were able to identify the hand boundaries correctly in 99.2% of the cases. The device can give objective feedback to medical students and staff to develop and maintain proper hand disinfection practice. PMID:22003751

  15. Absolute Proper Motions of Nearby Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszewski, Edward

    1997-07-01

    We propose to measure precise absolute proper motions for four dwarf spheroidal satellites of the Milky Way using spectroscopically-confirmed background QSOs to define a zero- velocity reference frame. Two epochs separated by 2 yrs will yield systemic tangential velocities of UMi, Car, Scl, {and For} to +/- 78 kms {+/- 130 kms}. These are worst-case velocity precisions and they are likely to be 2-4* smaller. Our long-term goal is to reduce them by an additional factor of several by obtaining data over the lifetime of WFPC2. With 2-3 QSOs per galaxy, we will still be confident of our motions with only 2 epochs. We will test whether the halo contains a small number of massive streams containing several dwarf galaxies, or whether the individual halo dwarfs are traveling along independent orbits. HST is essential to achieving the high precisions needed to conclusively compare the projected orbital motions of the individual galaxies; even with our conservative uncertainties, we are competitive with the best ground-based efforts with only a 2 year baseline. We will also use our results to improve our estimate of the mass of the Galaxy interior to 100 kpc. We believe that our project will show that astrometry has been a much ignored resource and power of HST. If HST performs as well as we suspect it can, it will be possible to measure the internal motions of stars in the dwarf spheroidals and the proper motions of all of the Local Group members over a timespan of 5 - 10 years.

  16. Electrodeless conductivity.

    PubMed

    Light, T S; McHale, E J; Fletcher, K S

    1989-01-01

    Electrodeless conductivity is a technique for measuring the concentration of electrolytes in solution and utilizes a probe consisting of two toroids in close proximity, both of which are immersed in the solution. In special cases, the toroids may be mounted externally on insulated pipes carrying the solution. One toroid radiates an alternating electric field in the audiofrequency range and the other acts as a receiver to pick up the small current induced by the ions moving in a conducting loop of solution. Coatings which would foul contacting electrodes, such as suspensions, precipitates or oil, have little or no effect. Applications are chiefly to continuous measurement in the chemical processing industries, including pulp and paper, mining and heavy chemical production. The principles and practical details of the method are reviewed and cell-diameter, wall, and temperature effects are discussed. PMID:18964695

  17. Heat conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Lilley, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    Analytical and numerical methods, including both finite difference and finite element techniques, are presented with applications to heat conduction problems. Numerical and analytical methods are integrated throughout the text and a variety of complexities are thoroughly treated with many problems, solutions and computer programs. This book is presented as a fundamental course suitable for senior undergraduate and first year graduate students, with end-of-chapter problems and answers included. Sample case studies and suggested projects are included.

  18. Conduction apraxia.

    PubMed

    Ochipa, C; Rothi, L J; Heilman, K M

    1994-10-01

    A left hemisphere damaged patient with ideomotor apraxia is described, whose performance on pantomime to verbal command was superior to pantomime imitation. His reception of these same gestures (gesture naming) was spared. This syndrome has been named conduction apraxia. To account for this selective impaired performance on gesture imitation, a separation of the representations for gesture production and reception is proposed and a non-lexical gesture processing route for gesture imitation is suggested. PMID:7931387

  19. Conductivity Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air.

    The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air.

    The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. SIMP: A Near-Infrared Proper Motion Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artigau, Étienne; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, René; Albert, Loïc; Robert, Jasmin; Malo, Lison

    2009-02-01

    SIMP is a proper motion (PM) survey made with the Observatoire du Mont Mégantic (OMM) wide-field near-infrared camera CPAPIR at the CTIO 1.5 m and OMM 1.6 m telescopes. The SIMP observations were initiated in early 2005, are still ongoing and, to date, have covered 28% of the sky at high galactic latitudes. The PMs of the sources detected are determined by comparing their measured positions with those listed in the 2MASS point source catalog, giving a time baseline of 4 to 10 years. The 5 σ uncertainty on the relative SIMP and 2MASS astrometry is 1'', equivalent to a PM lower limit of 0.125-0.250''/yr, or a tangential velocity limit of 15-30 km/s at 25 pc. Up to the 2MASS magnitude limit (J~16.5), T dwarfs are found out to ~25 pc, while L dwarfs may be found as far as 100 pc away.

  1. Dynamics of hydrophobic organic contaminants in the Baltic proper pelagial

    SciTech Connect

    Axelman, J.; Broman, D.; Naef, C.; Pettersen, H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrophobic organic contaminants occur in different forms in natural water. Apart from being truly dissolved in water they partition into dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particles of different sizes including pelagic bacteria, phytoplankton and zooplankton. The distribution between the different forms is dependent on carbon turnover rates in and transport between the different compartments and on the physical and chemical properties of the compound in focus. The water phase, the DOC-phase and two particle size fractions, 0.2--2pm and 2--20 pm representing the base of the pelagic food web, were analyzed for their content of PCBs and PAHs during summer and winter conditions in the open sea in the Baltic proper. New methods for separating truly dissolved from DOC-bound compounds have been developed using a high capacity perfusion adsorbent and large scale gas sparging. The small particle size fraction was sampled using high volume tangential flow filtration. The possibility to separate between these four different compartments has given a more detailed picture of the short term dynamics of hydrophobic organic compounds in the important base of the pelagial food web.

  2. Halley's Discovery of Stellar Proper Motion: The Aldebaran Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Halley (1717) compared contemporary positions of Arcturus, Sirius, and Aldebaran with the ancient positions recorded in the Almagest (Book VII 3) and attributed to Timocharis, Hipparcus, and Ptolemy. He found that these stars had apparently moved southward by more than 30 arc minutes and concluded that these stars had their own particular motions. Modern proper motion measurements are consistent with this conclusion for Arcturus and Sirius, but are not even close for Aldebaran. While some authors (Fomenko et al. 1993; Evans 1998) are aware of the problem, it generally is not mentioned in books on the history of astronomy (e.g., Clerke 1908; Pannekoek 1961; Neugebauer 1975) or in the major biographies of Halley (Armitage 1966; Ronan 1969; Lancaster-Brown 1985; Cook 1998). None of the possibilities for resolving this problem_errors in the ancient and/or the 17th-18th century positions; errors in Halley's calculations; or misidentification of the star--- seem plausible and final resolution may require locating the original calculations in Halley's papers.

  3. Proper symmetric and asymmetric endoplasmic reticulum partitioning requires astral microtubules.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Jeremy T; Schoborg, Todd A; Bergman, Zane J; Riggs, Blake; Rusan, Nasser M

    2015-08-01

    Mechanisms that regulate partitioning of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during cell division are largely unknown. Previous studies have mostly addressed ER partitioning in cultured cells, which may not recapitulate physiological processes that are critical in developing, intact tissues. We have addressed this by analysing ER partitioning in asymmetrically dividing stem cells, in which precise segregation of cellular components is essential for proper development and tissue architecture. We show that in Drosophila neural stem cells, called neuroblasts, the ER asymmetrically partitioned to centrosomes early in mitosis. This correlated closely with the asymmetric nucleation of astral microtubules (MTs) by centrosomes, suggesting that astral MT association may be required for ER partitioning by centrosomes. Consistent with this, the ER also associated with astral MTs in meiotic Drosophila spermatocytes and during syncytial embryonic divisions. Disruption of centrosomes in each of these cell types led to improper ER partitioning, demonstrating the critical role for centrosomes and associated astral MTs in this process. Importantly, we show that the ER also associated with astral MTs in cultured human cells, suggesting that this centrosome/astral MT-based partitioning mechanism is conserved across animal species. PMID:26289801

  4. A proper motion study of the globular cluster M55

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zloczewski, K.; Kaluzny, J.; Thompson, I. B.

    2011-07-01

    We have derived the absolute proper motion (PM) of the globular cluster M55 using a large set of CCD images collected with the du Pont telescope between 1997 and 2008. We find (μα cos δ, μδ) = (-3.31 ± 0.10, -9.14 ± 0.15) mas yr-1 relative to background galaxies. Membership status was determined for 16 945 stars with 14 < V < 21 from the central part of the cluster. The PM catalogue includes 52 variables, of which 43 are probable members of M55. This sample not only is dominated by pulsating blue straggler stars, but also includes five eclipsing binaries, three of which are main-sequence objects. The survey also identified several candidate blue, yellow and red straggler stars belonging to the cluster. We detected 15 likely members of the Sgr dSph galaxy located behind M55. The average PM for these stars was measured to be (μα cos δ, μδ) = (-2.23 ± 0.14, -1.83 ± 0.24) mas yr-1.

  5. Aeroelastic System Development Using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and Volterra Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucia, David J.; Beran, Philip S.; Silva, Walter A.

    2003-01-01

    This research combines Volterra theory and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) into a hybrid methodology for reduced-order modeling of aeroelastic systems. The out-come of the method is a set of linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) describing the modal amplitudes associated with both the structural modes and the POD basis functions for the uid. For this research, the structural modes are sine waves of varying frequency, and the Volterra-POD approach is applied to the fluid dynamics equations. The structural modes are treated as forcing terms which are impulsed as part of the uid model realization. Using this approach, structural and uid operators are coupled into a single aeroelastic operator. This coupling converts a free boundary uid problem into an initial value problem, while preserving the parameter (or parameters) of interest for sensitivity analysis. The approach is applied to an elastic panel in supersonic cross ow. The hybrid Volterra-POD approach provides a low-order uid model in state-space form. The linear uid model is tightly coupled with a nonlinear panel model using an implicit integration scheme. The resulting aeroelastic model provides correct limit-cycle oscillation prediction over a wide range of panel dynamic pressure values. Time integration of the reduced-order aeroelastic model is four orders of magnitude faster than the high-order solution procedure developed for this research using traditional uid and structural solvers.

  6. Proper symmetric and asymmetric endoplasmic reticulum partitioning requires astral microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Jeremy T.; Schoborg, Todd A.; Bergman, Zane J.; Riggs, Blake; Rusan, Nasser M.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms that regulate partitioning of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during cell division are largely unknown. Previous studies have mostly addressed ER partitioning in cultured cells, which may not recapitulate physiological processes that are critical in developing, intact tissues. We have addressed this by analysing ER partitioning in asymmetrically dividing stem cells, in which precise segregation of cellular components is essential for proper development and tissue architecture. We show that in Drosophila neural stem cells, called neuroblasts, the ER asymmetrically partitioned to centrosomes early in mitosis. This correlated closely with the asymmetric nucleation of astral microtubules (MTs) by centrosomes, suggesting that astral MT association may be required for ER partitioning by centrosomes. Consistent with this, the ER also associated with astral MTs in meiotic Drosophila spermatocytes and during syncytial embryonic divisions. Disruption of centrosomes in each of these cell types led to improper ER partitioning, demonstrating the critical role for centrosomes and associated astral MTs in this process. Importantly, we show that the ER also associated with astral MTs in cultured human cells, suggesting that this centrosome/astral MT-based partitioning mechanism is conserved across animal species. PMID:26289801

  7. Proteoglycans support proper granule formation in pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Aroso, Miguel; Agricola, Brigitte; Hacker, Christian; Schrader, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Zymogen granules (ZG) are specialized organelles in the exocrine pancreas which allow digestive enzyme storage and regulated secretion. The molecular mechanisms of their biogenesis and the sorting of zymogens are still incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the role of proteoglycans in granule formation and secretion of zymogens in pancreatic AR42J cells, an acinar model system. Cupromeronic Blue cytochemistry and biochemical studies revealed an association of proteoglycans primarily with the granule membrane. Removal of proteoglycans by carbonate treatment led to a loss of membrane curvature indicating a supportive role in the maintenance of membrane shape and stability. Chemical inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis impaired the formation of normal electron-dense granules in AR42J cells and resulted in the formation of unusually small granule structures. These structures still contained the zymogen carboxypeptidase, a cargo molecule of secretory granules, but migrated to lighter fractions after density gradient centrifugation. Furthermore, the basal secretion of amylase was increased in AR42J cells after inhibitor treatment. In addition, irregular-shaped granules appeared in pancreatic lobules. We conclude that the assembly of a proteoglycan scaffold at the ZG membrane is supporting efficient packaging of zymogens and the proper formation of stimulus-competent storage granules in acinar cells of the pancreas. PMID:26105026

  8. Can we properly model the neutron monitor count rate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Agnieszka; Usoskin, Ilya G.; Kovaltsov, Gennady A.; Mishev, Alexander L.; Corti, Claudio; Bindi, Veronica

    2015-09-01

    Neutron monitors provide continuous measurements of secondary nucleonic particles produced in the atmosphere by the primary cosmic rays and form the main tool to study the heliospheric modulation of cosmic rays. In order to study cosmic rays using the world network of neutron monitor and needs to be able to model the neutron monitor count rate. Earlier it was difficult because of the poorly known yield function, which has been essentially revisited recently. We have presented a verification of the new yield function of the standard neutron monitor (NM) using a recently released data on the direct in situ measurements of the galactic cosmic rays energy spectrum during 2006-2009 (the period of the record high cosmic ray flux) by Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics spaceborne spectrometer, and on NM latitude surveys performed during the period of 1994-2007, including periods of high solar activity. We found a very good agreement between the measured count rates of sea level NMs and the modeled ones in very different conditions: from low to high solar activity and from polar to tropical regions. This implies that the count rate of a sea level neutron monitor can be properly modeled in all conditions, using the new yield function.

  9. Achieving the Proper Balance Between Crew and Public Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gowan, John; Rosati, Paul; Silvestri, Ray; Stahl, Ben; Wilde, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A paramount objective of all human-rated launch and reentry vehicle developers is to ensure that the risks to both the crew onboard and the public are minimized within reasonable cost, schedule, and technical constraints. Past experience has shown that proper attention to range safety requirements necessary to ensure public safety must be given early in the design phase to avoid additional operational complexities or threats to the safety of people onboard. This paper will outline the policy considerations, technical issues, and operational impacts regarding launch and reentry vehicle failure scenarios where crew and public safety are intertwined and thus addressed optimally in an integrated manner. Historical examples and lessons learned from both the Space Shuttle and Constellation Programs will be presented. Using these examples as context, the paper will discuss some operational, design, and analysis approaches to mitigate and balance the risks to people onboard and in the public. Manned vehicle perspectives from the FAA and Air Force organizations that oversee public safety will also be summarized. Finally, the paper will emphasize the need to factor policy, operational, and analysis considerations into the early design trades of new vehicles to help ensure that both crew and public safety are maximized to the greatest extent possible.

  10. Mechanosensitive ATP Release Maintains Proper Mucus Hydration of Airways

    PubMed Central

    Button, Brian; Okada, Seiko F.; Frederick, Charles Brandon; Thelin, William R.; Boucher, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    The clearance of mucus from the airways protects the lungs from inhaled noxious and infectious materials. Proper hydration of the mucus layer enables efficient mucus clearance through beating of cilia on airway epithelial cells, and reduced clearance of excessively concentrated mucus occurs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. Key steps in the mucus transport process are airway epithelia sensing and responding to changes in mucus hydration. We reported that extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine were important luminal auto-crine and paracrine signals that regulated the hydration of the surface of human airway epithelial cultures through their action on apical membrane purinoceptors. Mucus hydration in human airway epithelial cultures was sensed by an interaction between cilia and the overlying mucus layer: Changes in mechanical strain, proportional to mucus hydration, regulated ATP release rates, adjusting fluid secretion to optimize mucus layer hydration. This system provided a feedback mechanism by which airways maintained mucus hydration in an optimum range for cilia propulsion. Understanding how airway epithelia can sense and respond to changes in mucus properties helps us to understand how the mucus clearance system protects the airways in health and how it fails in lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis. PMID:23757023

  11. Mechanosensitive ATP release maintains proper mucus hydration of airways.

    PubMed

    Button, Brian; Okada, Seiko F; Frederick, Charles Brandon; Thelin, William R; Boucher, Richard C

    2013-06-11

    The clearance of mucus from the airways protects the lungs from inhaled noxious and infectious materials. Proper hydration of the mucus layer enables efficient mucus clearance through beating of cilia on airway epithelial cells, and reduced clearance of excessively concentrated mucus occurs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. Key steps in the mucus transport process are airway epithelia sensing and responding to changes in mucus hydration. We reported that extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine were important luminal autocrine and paracrine signals that regulated the hydration of the surface of human airway epithelial cultures through their action on apical membrane purinoceptors. Mucus hydration in human airway epithelial cultures was sensed by an interaction between cilia and the overlying mucus layer: Changes in mechanical strain, proportional to mucus hydration, regulated ATP release rates, adjusting fluid secretion to optimize mucus layer hydration. This system provided a feedback mechanism by which airways maintained mucus hydration in an optimum range for cilia propulsion. Understanding how airway epithelia can sense and respond to changes in mucus properties helps us to understand how the mucus clearance system protects the airways in health and how it fails in lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis. PMID:23757023

  12. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition in Optimal Control of Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindran, S. S.

    1999-01-01

    In this article, we present a reduced order modeling approach suitable for active control of fluid dynamical systems based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The rationale behind the reduced order modeling is that numerical simulation of Navier-Stokes equations is still too costly for the purpose of optimization and control of unsteady flows. We examine the possibility of obtaining reduced order models that reduce computational complexity associated with the Navier-Stokes equations while capturing the essential dynamics by using the POD. The POD allows extraction of certain optimal set of basis functions, perhaps few, from a computational or experimental data-base through an eigenvalue analysis. The solution is then obtained as a linear combination of these optimal set of basis functions by means of Galerkin projection. This makes it attractive for optimal control and estimation of systems governed by partial differential equations. We here use it in active control of fluid flows governed by the Navier-Stokes equations. We show that the resulting reduced order model can be very efficient for the computations of optimization and control problems in unsteady flows. Finally, implementational issues and numerical experiments are presented for simulations and optimal control of fluid flow through channels.

  13. Coordinate time and proper time in the GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matolcsi, T.; Matolcsi, M.

    2008-11-01

    The global positioning system (GPS) provides an excellent educational example of how the theory of general relativity is put into practice and becomes part of our everyday life. This paper gives a short and instructive derivation of an important formula used in the GPS, and is aimed at graduate students and general physicists. The theoretical background of the GPS (see [1]) uses the Schwarzschild spacetime to deduce the approximate formula, ds/dt\\approx 1+V-\\frac{|\\mathbf v|^2}{2} , for the relation between the proper time rate s of a satellite clock and the coordinate time rate t. Here V is the gravitational potential at the position of the satellite and \\mathbf v is its velocity (with light-speed being normalized as c = 1). In this paper we give a different derivation of this formula, without using approximations, to arrive at ds/dt=\\sqrt{\\vphantom{a^b}\\smash{\\1+2V-|\\mathbf v|^2 -\\frac{2V{1+2V}(\\mathbf n\\cdot\\mathbf v)^2}}} , where \\mathbf n is the normal vector pointing outwards from the centre of Earth to the satellite. In particular, if the satellite moves along a circular orbit then the formula simplifies to ds/dt=\\sqrt{1+2V-|\\mathbf v|^2} . We emphasize that this derivation is useful mainly for educational purposes, as the approximation above is already satisfactory in practice.

  14. Proper PWHT can stop stress-induced corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, C.; Hill, J.; Connell, D.

    1997-05-01

    Postweld heat treatment of welded joints to improve the ductility of welds susceptible to cracking due to metal composition or wall thickness has become an essential component of standards generated by professional organizations. When properly applied, these procedures have proven to be quite effective in preventing premature weld-related failures. Recently, the welding industry has recognized that weld-induced stress also plays a role in certain localized corrosion phenomena. To address the cause of these long-term corrosion failures, it has become common practice to specify postweld heat treatment for thin-walled piping and vessels that would otherwise be exempt from code procedures. Corrosion often continues to be a problem even after post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) is performed on these relatively thin-walled weldments. The results of the extensive tests performed for the preparation of this paper indicate that surprisingly large through-wall radial temperature gradients often exist during the application of common PWHT practices. As a result of these radial temperature gradients, the standard application of heating elements to the pipe exterior does not always provide assurance that the interior surfaces at the edge of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) will achieve the temperatures necessary to adequately reduce weld-induced hardness. It is on these interior surfaces that the stress-induced corrosion phenomena is initiated.

  15. Histone deacetylase 3 is necessary for proper brain development.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Jordan; Franklin, Jade M; Sharma, Dharmendra; D'Mello, Santosh R

    2014-12-12

    The functional role of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in the developing brain has yet to be elucidated. We show that mice lacking HDAC3 in neurons and glia of the central nervous system, Nes-Cre/HDAC3 conditional KO mice, show major abnormalities in the cytoarchitecture of the neocortex and cerebellum and die within 24 h of birth. Later-born neurons do not localize properly in the cortex. A similar mislocalization is observed with cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Although the proportion of astrocytes is higher than normal, the numbers of oligodendrocytes are reduced. In contrast, conditional knockout of HDAC3 in neurons of the forebrain and certain other brain regions, using Thy1-Cre and calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II α-Cre for ablation, produces no overt abnormalities in the organization of cells within the cortex or of cerebellar Purkinje neurons at birth. However, both lines of conditional knockout mice suffer from progressive hind limb paralysis and ataxia and die around 6 weeks after birth. The mice display an increase in overall numbers of cells, higher numbers of astrocytes, and Purkinje neuron degeneration. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HDAC3 plays an essential role in regulating brain development, with effects on both neurons and glia in different brain regions. PMID:25339172

  16. Achieving the Proper Balance between Crew & Public Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, P.; Gowan, J.; Silvestri, R.; Stahl, B.; Rosati, P.

    2012-01-01

    A paramount objective of all human-rated launch and reentry vehicle developers is to ensure that the risks to both the crew onboard and the public are minimized within reasonable cost, schedule, and technical constraints. Past experience has shown that proper attention to range safety requirements necessary to ensure public safety must be given early in the design phase to avoid additional operational complexities or threats to the safety of people onboard, and the design engineers must give these requirements the same consideration as crew safety requirements. For human spaceflight, the primary purpose and operational concept for any flight safety system is to protect the public while maximizing the likelihood of crew survival. This paper will outline the policy considerations, technical issues, and operational impacts regarding launch and reentry vehicle failure scenarios where crew and public safety are intertwined and thus addressed optimally in an integrated manner. An overview of existing range and crew safety policy requirements will be presented. Application of these requirements and lessons learned from both the Space Shuttle and Constellation Programs will also be discussed. Using these past programs as examples, the paper will detail operational, design, and analysis approaches to mitigate and balance the risks to people onboard and in the public. Crewed vehicle perspectives from the Federal Aviation Administration and Air Force organizations that oversee public safety will be summarized as well. Finally, the paper will emphasize the need to factor policy, operational, and analysis considerations into the early design trades of new vehicles to help ensure that both crew and public safety are maximized to the greatest extent possible.

  17. Information Superiority generated through proper application of Geoinformatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teichmann, F.

    2012-04-01

    Information Superiority generated through proper application of Geoinformatics Information management and especially geoscience information delivery is a very delicate task. If it is carried out successfully, geoscientific data will provide the main foundation of Information Superiority. However, improper implementation of geodata generation, assimilation, distribution or storage will not only waste valuable resources like manpower or money, but could also give rise to crucial deficiency in knowledge and might lead to potentially extremely harmful disasters or wrong decisions. Comprehensive Approach, Effect Based Operations and Network Enabled Capabilities are the current buzz terms in the security regime. However, they also apply to various interdisciplinary tasks like catastrophe relief missions, civil task operations or even in day to day business operations where geo-science data is used. Based on experience in the application of geoscience data for defence applications the following procedure or tool box for generating geodata should lead to the desired information superiority: 1. Understand and analyse the mission, the task and the environment for which the geodata is needed 2. Carry out a Information Exchange Requirement between the user or customer and the geodata provider 3. Implementation of current interoperability standards and a coherent metadata structure 4. Execute innovative data generation, data provision, data assimilation and data storage 5. Apply a cost-effective and reasonable data life cycle 6. Implement IT security by focusing of the three pillar concepts Integrity, Availability and Confidentiality of the critical data 7. Draft and execute a service level agreement or a memorandum of understanding between the involved parties 8. Execute a Continuous Improvement Cycle These ideas from the IT world should be transferred into the geoscience community and applied in a wide set of scenarios. A standardized approach of how to generate, provide

  18. Achieving the Proper Balance Between Crew and Public Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gowan, John; Silvestri, Ray; Stahl, Ben; Rosati, Paul; Wilde, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A paramount objective of all human-rated launch and reentry vehicle developers is to ensure that the risks to both the crew onboard and the public are minimized within reasonable cost, schedule, and technical constraints. Past experience has shown that proper attention to range safety requirements necessary to ensure public safety must be given early in the design phase to avoid additional operational complexities or threats to the safety of people onboard, and the design engineers must give these requirements the same consideration as crew safety requirements. For human spaceflight, the primary purpose and operational concept for any flight safety system is to protect the public while maximizing the likelihood of crew survival. This paper will outline the policy considerations, technical issues, and operational impacts regarding launch and reentry vehicle failure scenarios where crew and public safety are intertwined and thus addressed optimally in an integrated manner. An overview of existing range and crew safety policy requirements will be presented. Application of these requirements and lessons learned from both the Space Shuttle and Constellation Programs will also be discussed. Using these past programs as examples, the paper will detail operational, design, and analysis approaches to mitigate and balance the risks to people onboard and in the public. Manned vehicle perspectives from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Air Force organizations that oversee public safety will be summarized as well. Finally, the paper will emphasize the need to factor policy, operational, and analysis considerations into the early design trades of new vehicles to help ensure that both crew and public safety are maximized to the greatest extent possible.

  19. Handling categories properly: a novel objective of clinical research.

    PubMed

    Cleophas, Ton J; Atiqi, Roya; Zwinderman, Aeilko H

    2012-07-01

    A major objective of clinical research is to study outcome effects in subgroups. Such effects generally have stepping functions that are not strictly linear. Analyzing stepping functions in linear models thus raises the risk of underestimating the effects. In the past few years, recoding subgroup properties from continuous variables into categorical ones has been recommended as a solution to the problem. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate from examples how recoding works and to show that stepping functions, if used as continuous variables, do not produce significant effects, whereas they produce very significant effects after recoding. In the first example, the effects on physical strength were assessed in 60 subjects of different races. A linear regression in SPSS with race as the independent and physical strength score as the dependent variable showed that race was not a significant predictor of physical strength. Using the process of recoding, the variable race into categorical dummy variables showed that compared with the presence of Hispanic race, the black and white races were significant positive predictors (P = 0.0001 and 0.004 respectively) and Asian race is a significant negative predictor (P = 0.050). In the second example, the effects of numbers of comedications on admissions to a hospital resulting from adverse drug effects were assessed. A logistic regression in SPSS with numbers of comedications as the independent variable showed that comedications was not a significant predictor of iatrogenic admission. Using again the process of recoding for categorical dummy variables showed that comedication was a very significant predictor of iatrogenic admission with P = 0.004. Categorical variables are currently rarely analyzed in a proper way. Mostly they are analyzed in the form of continuous variables. This approach does not always fit the data patterns causing negative results as demonstrated in the examples of this article. We recommend that

  20. Proposed proper Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine vertex amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    As established in a prior work of the author, the linear simplicity constraints used in the construction of the so-called “new” spin-foam models mix three of the five sectors of Plebanski theory as well as two dynamical orientations, and this is the reason for multiple terms in the asymptotics of the Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine vertex amplitude as calculated by Barrett et al. Specifically, the term equal to the usual exponential of i times the Regge action corresponds to configurations either in sector (II+) with positive orientation or sector (II-) with negative orientation. The presence of the other terms beyond this cause problems in the semiclassical limit of the spin-foam model when considering multiple 4-simplices due to the fact that the different terms for different 4-simplices mix in the semiclassical limit, leading in general to a non-Regge action and hence non-Regge and nongravitational configurations persisting in the semiclassical limit. To correct this problem, we propose to modify the vertex so its asymptotics include only the one term of the form eiSRegge. To do this, an explicit classical discrete condition is derived that isolates the desired gravitational sector corresponding to this one term. This condition is quantized and used to modify the vertex amplitude, yielding what we call the “proper Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine vertex amplitude.” This vertex still depends only on standard SU(2) spin-network data on the boundary, is SU(2) gauge-invariant, and is linear in the boundary state, as required. In addition, the asymptotics now consist in the single desired term of the form eiSRegge, and all degenerate configurations are exponentially suppressed. A natural generalization to the Lorentzian signature is also presented.

  1. Conducting a thermal conductivity survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, P. B.

    1985-01-01

    A physically transparent approximate theory of phonon decay rates is presented starting from a pair potential model of the interatomic forces in an insulator or semiconductor. The theory applies in the classical regime and relates the 3-phonon decay rate to the third derivative of the pair potential. Phonon dispersion relations do not need to be calculated, as sum rules relate all the needed quantities directly to the pair potential. The Brillouin zone averaged phonon lifetime turns out to involve a dimensionless measure of the anharmonicity multiplied by an effective density of states for 3-phonon decay. Results are given for rare gas and alkali halide crystals. For rare gases, the results are in good agreement with more elaborate perturbation calculations. Comparison to experimental data on phonon linewidths and thermal conductivity are made.

  2. Identifying low-mass members of nearby star clusters using proper motion & color selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, Mark A.

    I present a combined kinematic and photometric search for new, low-mass (m ≤ 0.2 M⊙ ) members of nearby (d < 300 pc) star clusters. Using both proper motion and color criteria, a total of 33 low-mass objects have been newly recognized as members of the Taurus, Praesepe, and Pleiades clusters. In addition, 18 potential cluster members are noted, and 4 members are recovered from previous member searches. Multi-epoch imaging was performed using i-band Megacam observations unique to this study, combined with archival CFH telescope data in the optical I and Z bands. Near-infrared detections were also acquired from the 2MASS survey. The imaging data were processed using the Pan-STARRS IPP data pipeline software in order to provide high-precision relative astrometry, from which proper motions were extracted. Low-resolution, near-infrared spectroscopy from the IRTF telescope gives confirmation on the membership status of the selected candidates. The addition of proper motion criteria to complement the often-used color selection allows for a more effective identification of low-mass cluster members whose broadband spectral features are similar to the bulk of galactic field objects lying along the line-of-sight. Culling the candidates using proper motion also significantly reduces the amount of candidates that require spectroscopic follow-up, even in the NIR color-space with the highest levels of field contamination. Comparison of the search results to a galactic field model by Robin et al. (2003) provides strong evidence that brighter member candidates in Taurus (i < 17) found to be of mid-M spectral types are highly likely to be clusters members rather than field dwarfs. While the addition of new members to the Praesepe and Pleiades clusters are minor compared to the current known population, there is suggestive evidence that the mass function of Taurus is significantly lacking in mid-M dwarfs, and in fact may actually resemble the mass functions of other similarly

  3. Obtaining anisotropic velocity data for proper depth seismic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Egerev, Sergey; Yushin, Victor; Ovchinnikov, Oleg; Dubinsky, Vladimir; Patterson, Doug

    2012-05-24

    The paper deals with the problem of obtaining anisotropic velocity data due to continuous acoustic impedance-based measurements while scanning in the axial direction along the walls of the borehole. Diagrams of full conductivity of the piezoceramic transducer were used to derive anisotropy parameters of the rock sample. The measurements are aimed to support accurate depth imaging of seismic data. Understanding these common anisotropy effects is important when interpreting data where it is present.

  4. The proper contributions of social workers in health practice.

    PubMed

    Huntington, J

    1986-01-01

    of the clinician. Provision of social work services to the health system has become a questionable priority and raises the issue of whether much of what is now termed "health care' could more appropriately be termed "social care' and provided in a primary social work setting to which medicine and nursing would make their "proper contributions'. PMID:3529415

  5. [The role of lactoferrin in the proper development of newborns].

    PubMed

    Artym, Jolanta; Zimecki, Michał

    2005-01-01

    Colostrum and milk contain, in addition to nutritional constituents, also proteins crucial for the normal development of the offspring. Lactoferrin (LF) belongs to the family of iron-binding proteins and exhibits a wide spectrum of antimicrobial and immunotropic properties. LF is particularly resistant to proteolytic degradation in alimentary tract, in contrast to other milk proteins, e.g. casein. In any case, LF-derived peptides also possess potent antibacterial activities. LF is absorbed from the intestine by means of specific receptors located on brush border cells. Administered orally, LF stimulates both local and systemic immune response. LF plays a role in the absorption of nutrients. The protein can deliver such metal ions as iron, manganese, and zinc and facilitate the absorption of sugars. LF stimulates the proliferation of gut endothelial cells and the growth of gut-associated lymphatic follicles. This property suggests the possibility of applying LF in premature infants and patients with damaged intestinal mucus. LF controls the proper composition of the gut microflora. It suppresses the growth of pathogenic bacteria while promoting the multiplication of nonpathogenic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Newborns fed an artificial diet develop harmful microflora (Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Bacteroides, Escherichia). The non-pathogenic microflora ensures low pH, produces some vitamins, increases the activity of NK cells, T lymphocytes, and macrophages, promotes the production of protective immunoglobulins, and lowers the risk of allergies. In studies on mice, LF was found to be protective in bacteremia and endotoxemia. The protein stimulates the activity of reticulo-endothelial system cells and elicits myelopoiesis, thus increasing the killing and clearance of bacteria. In the model of experimental endotoxemia, LF inhibits the activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, and reactive forms of oxygen. LF can also promote the differentiation of T

  6. Biophysical and physiological integration of proper clothing for exercise.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, R R

    1987-01-01

    In this chapter, I have presented a potpourri of examples of proper clothing to wear during various exercise demands in different environments. These examples are not wholly exact for all persons. For example, during the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles, clothing wear related to the particular environment was totally different. We have already described the aerodynamic necessities of cyclists and runners. At the other extreme, equestrians had to contend with a warm, moderately humid environment, plus a solar load that added to the effective heat stress, while wearing clothing having clo values of nearly 0.8-0.9, plus headgear that limited evaporative heat loss. Obviously, garments with high water vapor permeation and bellows properties were necessary. Runners in the marathon faced equal thermal challenges. In addition, they incurred variable levels of hypovolemia and cardiovascular strain. A. Salazar, for example, was advised to omit shower sprays, and he ran with a prototype high-permeability singlet. The excessive wetting plus time to maneuver to the spray was deemed of no value, since Mr. Salazar chafes easily from wet clothes (L. Armstrong, personnel communication). One interesting response to this advice is to consider the clothed runner as a wet globe thermometer under forced convection. A high-contact fabric, especially one like cotton, does allow evaporative cooling, provided that the skin-ambient vapor pressure gradient is not diminished by high relative humidity. Salts in sweat may reduce the skin's vapor pressure ; however, Woodcock and Breckenridge point out that "secreted sweat (especially with heat acclimation) is so dilute that no appreciable lowering of vapor pressure would occur unless sweat were concentrated many times by evaporation." Thus, the degree of "human" wet bulb depression simulated by a completely wet runner may or may not be an advantage, since all other variables are also constant (i.e., humidity, weight of clothing as in Figure 13, etc

  7. Proper horizontal photospheric flows in a filament channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.; Roudier, T.; Mein, N.; Mein, P.; Malherbe, J. M.; Chandra, R.

    2014-04-01

    Context. An extended filament in the central part of the active region NOAA 11106 crossed the central meridian on Sept. 17, 2010 in the southern hemisphere. It has been observed in Hα with the THEMIS telescope in the Canary Islands and in 304 Å with the EUV imager (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO). Counterstreaming along the Hα threads and bright moving blobs (jets) along the 304 Å filament channel were observed during 10 h before the filament erupted at 17:03 UT. Aims: The aim of the paper is to understand the coupling between magnetic field and convection in filament channels and relate the horizontal photospheric motions to the activity of the filament. Methods: An analysis of the proper photospheric motions using SDO/HMI continuum images with the new version of the coherent structure tracking (CST) algorithm developed to track granules, as well as the large scale photospheric flows, was performed for three hours. Using corks, we derived the passive scalar points and produced a map of the cork distribution in the filament channel. Averaging the velocity vectors in the southern hemisphere in each latitude in steps of 3.5 arcsec, we defined a profile of the differential rotation. Results: Supergranules are clearly identified in the filament channel. Diverging flows inside the supergranules are similar in and out of the filament channel. Converging flows corresponding to the accumulation of corks are identified well around the Hα filament feet and at the edges of the EUV filament channel. At these convergence points, the horizontal photospheric velocity may reach 1 km s-1, but with a mean velocity of 0.35 km s-1. In some locations, horizontal flows crossing the channel are detected, indicating eventually large scale vorticity. Conclusions: The coupling between convection and magnetic field in the photosphere is relatively strong. The filament experienced the convection motions through its anchorage points with the photosphere, which are

  8. 7 CFR 701.31 - Maintenance and proper use of practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... proper use of the practice. Some practices have an established life span or minimum period of time during... properly maintained for the established life span, the participant may be required to refund all or part...

  9. ON-LINE TOOLS FOR PROPER VERTICAL POSITIONING OF VERTICAL SAMPLING INTERVALS DURING SITE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents on-line tools for proper vertical positioning of vertical sampling intervals during site assessment. Proper vertical sample interval selection is critical for generate data on the vertical distribution of contamination. Without vertical delineation, th...

  10. Discrete-time H(infinity) control problem with strictly proper measurement feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoorvogel, Anton A.; Saberi, Ali; Chen, Ben M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the discrete-time H(sub infinity) control problem with strictly proper measurement feedback. The authors derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a strictly proper compensator which achieves a given H(sub infinity) norm bound. Note that contrary to the continuous time, in discrete time there might exist a suitable proper compensator but no suitable strictly proper compensator. Finally, they give an explicit formula for one controller which achieves this bound.

  11. DISCOVERIES FROM A NEAR-INFRARED PROPER MOTION SURVEY USING MULTI-EPOCH TWO MICRON ALL-SKY SURVEY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cutri, Roc M.; Looper, Dagny L.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Schurr, Steven D.; Cushing, Michael C.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Sweet, Anne C.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Barman, Travis S.; Bochanski, John J.; Roellig, Thomas L.; McLean, Ian S.; McGovern, Mark R.; Rice, Emily L.

    2010-09-15

    We have conducted a 4030 deg{sup 2} near-infrared proper motion survey using multi-epoch data from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS). We find 2778 proper motion candidates, 647 of which are not listed in SIMBAD. After comparison to Digitized Sky Survey images, we find that 107 of our proper motion candidates lack counterparts at B, R, and I bands and are thus 2MASS-only detections. We present results of spectroscopic follow-up of 188 targets that include the infrared-only sources along with selected optical-counterpart sources with faint reduced proper motions or interesting colors. We also establish a set of near-infrared spectroscopic standards with which to anchor near-infrared classifications for our objects. Among the discoveries are six young field brown dwarfs, five 'red L' dwarfs, three L-type subdwarfs, twelve M-type subdwarfs, eight 'blue L' dwarfs, and several T dwarfs. We further refine the definitions of these exotic classes to aid future identification of similar objects. We examine their kinematics and find that both the 'blue L' and 'red L' dwarfs appear to be drawn from a relatively old population. This survey provides a glimpse of the kinds of research that will be possible through time-domain infrared projects such as the UKIDSS Large Area Survey, various VISTA surveys, and WISE, and also through z- or y-band enabled, multi-epoch surveys such as Pan-STARRS and LSST.

  12. 5 CFR 550.808 - Prohibition against setting aside proper promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition against setting aside proper... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Back Pay § 550.808 Prohibition against setting aside proper... authorizing the setting aside of an otherwise proper promotion by a selecting official from a group...

  13. 49 CFR 236.505 - Proper operative relation between parts along roadway and parts on locomotive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proper operative relation between parts along... § 236.505 Proper operative relation between parts along roadway and parts on locomotive. Proper operative relation between the parts along the roadway and the parts on the locomotive shall obtain...

  14. Urethane tetrathiafulvalene derivatives: synthesis, self-assembly and electrochemical properities

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiang; Lai, Guoqiao; Li, Zhifang; Ma, Yuwen; Yuan, Xiao; Shen, Yongjia

    2015-01-01

    Summary This paper reports the self-assembly of two new tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivatives that contain one or two urethane groups. The formation of nanoribbons was evidenced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), which showed that the self-assembly ability of T 1 was better than that of T 2. The results revealed that more urethane groups in a molecule did not necessarily instigate self-assembly. UV–vis and FTIR spectra were measured to explore noncovalent interactions. The driving forces for self-assembly of TTF derivatives were mainly hydrogen bond interactions and π–π stacking interactions. The electronic conductivity of the T 1 and T 2 films was tested by a four-probe method. PMID:26734083

  15. [Overview of guidelines for proper use of the G-CSF(2013 edition)].

    PubMed

    Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2014-06-01

    Guidelines for proper use of the G-CSF(2001 edition)by the Japan Society of Clinical Oncology have been revised the first time in 12 years. The differences between the first edition and the new one are as follows: The new guidelines(2013 edition) adopted the clinical question format, and used the level of evidence and recommendation grades, along with the Handbook of Clinical Guidelines of Minds(2007 edition). There are relatively few evidence-based randomized controlled trials(RCTs) that can inform G-CSF use in Japan at present. Thus, we had to select the evidence from RCTs conducted in Europe and the USA when setting the recommendation level. Guidelines from Europe and the USA were also referred to; however, because the incidence of febrile neutropenia(FN)is presumed to differ between Japan and the USA/Europe, the clinical trials conducted in Japan were investigated as much as possible. New chapters on topics such as biosimilars, pegfilgrastim(domestic non-release), and the dosage and method of G-CSF administration(medical insurance in Japan)were added. The chemotherapy regimen-specific incidence of FN in Japan for primary prophylactic G-CSF administration and G-CSF use in hematological malignancy were described in detail. Nurses, pharmacists, and medical doctors participated in guideline steering committee, because the new guidelines are directed at a wide range of health care workers. PMID:25129080

  16. Assessment of Proper Bonding Methods and Mechanical Characterization FPGA CQFPs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Milton C.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discusses fractured leads on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) during flight vibration. Actions taken to determine root cause and resolution of the failure include finite element analysis (FEA) and vibration testing and scanning electron microscopy (with X-ray microanalysis) and energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDS) failure assessment. Bonding methods for surface mount parts is assessed, including critical analysis and assessment of random fatigue damage. Regarding ceramic quad flat pack (CQFP) lead fracture, after disassembling the attitude control electronics (ACE) configuration, photographs showed six leads cracked on FPGA RTSX72SU-1 CQ208B package located on the RWIC card. An identical package (FPGA RTSX32SU-1 CQ208B) mounted on the RWIC did not results in cracked pins due to vibration. FPGA lead failure theories include workmanship issues in the lead-forming, material defect in the leads of the FPGA packages, and the insecure mounting of the board in the card guides, among other theories. Studies were conducted using simple calculations to determine the response and fatigue life of the package. Shorter packages exhibited more response when loaded by out-of-plane displacement of PCB while taller packages exhibit more response when loaded by in-plane acceleration of PCB. Additionally, under-fill did not contribute to reducing stress in leads due to out-of-plane PCB loading or from component twisting, as much as corner bonding. The combination of corner bond and under-fill is best to address mechanical and thermal S/C environment. Test results of bonded parts showed reduced (dampened) amplitude and slightly shifted peaks at the un-bonded natural frequency and an additional response at the bonded frequency. Stress due to PCBB out-of-plane loading was decreased on in the corners when only a corner bond was used. Future work may address CQFP fatigue assessment, including the investigation of discrepancy in predicted fatigue damage, as well as

  17. A technique to derive improved proper motions for Kepler objects of interest

    SciTech Connect

    Benedict, G. Fritz; Tanner, Angelle M.; Cargile, Phillip A.; Ciardi, David R.

    2014-12-01

    We outline an approach yielding proper motions with higher precision than exists in present catalogs for a sample of stars in the Kepler field. To increase proper-motion precision, we combine first-moment centroids of Kepler pixel data from a single season with existing catalog positions and proper motions. We use this astrometry to produce improved reduced-proper-motion diagrams, analogous to a Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram, for stars identified as Kepler objects of interest. The more precise the relative proper motions, the better the discrimination between stellar luminosity classes. Using UCAC4 and PPMXL epoch 2000 positions (and proper motions from those catalogs as quasi-Bayesian priors), astrometry for a single test Channel (21) and Season (0) spanning 2 yr yields proper motions with an average per-coordinate proper-motion error of 1.0 mas yr{sup –1}, which is over a factor of three better than existing catalogs. We apply a mapping between a reduced-proper-motion diagram and an H-R diagram, both constructed using Hubble Space Telescope parallaxes and proper motions, to estimate Kepler object of interest K-band absolute magnitudes. The techniques discussed apply to any future small-field astrometry as well as to the rest of the Kepler field.

  18. Heat conduction in conducting polyaniline nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Chandrani; Kumar, A.; Syu, K.-Z.; Kuo, Y.-K.

    2013-09-01

    Thermal conductivity and specific heat of conducting polyaniline nanofibers are measured to identify the nature of heat carrying modes combined with their inhomogeneous structure. The low temperature thermal conductivity results reveal crystalline nature while the high temperature data confirm the amorphous nature of the material suggesting heterogeneous model for conducting polyaniline. Extended acoustic phonons dominate the low temperature (<100 K) heat conduction, while localized optical phonons hopping, assisted by the extended acoustic modes, account for the high temperature (>100 K) heat conduction.

  19. Precession Constant Correction and Proper Motion Systems of FK5 and Hipparcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zi

    2007-07-01

    Results of many researches have shown that the relation between the proper motion systems of FK5 and Hipparcos is not consistent with the precession constant corrections determined by VLBI and LLR. We analysed proper motion data of PPM and ACRS based on the FK5 system for many different sub-samples and found that consistent values of the precession correction and equinox motion correction can not be given by either PPM or ACRS proper motion data, thereby indicating that the internal systematic error of the FK5 proper motion is the main underlying factor of the inconsistency.

  20. Precessional correction and the proper-motion systems of FK5 and Hipparcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Z.

    2006-10-01

    Comparing proper motions of the FK5 and Hipparcos, several authors declared that the two proper-motion systems are inconsistent with the value of the precessional correction obtained from VLBI and LLR observations. Based on the proper-motion data from the PPM and ACRS catalogues which are constructed on the FK5 system, the discrepant values of the precessional correction and of the correction of the equinoctial motion, derived from the different subsets of stellar samples, have be found. One of the reasons for those discrepancies should be mostly due to the internal biased proper-motion system of the FK5.

  1. The understanding of the FK5 and Hipparcos proper-motion systems†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Z.

    2008-07-01

    Comparing proper motions of the FK5 and Hipparcos, several authors declared that the two proper-motion systems are inconsistent with the value of the precession correction obtained from VLBI and LLR observations. Based on the proper-motion data from the PPM and ACRS catalogues which are constructed on the FK5 system, the inconsistent values of the precessional correction and of the time-dependent term of equinox correction, derived from the different subsets of stellar samples, have been found. One of the reasons for those discrepancies should be mostly due to the internally biased proper-motion system of the FK5.

  2. Proper gibberellin localization in vascular tissue is required to regulate adventitious root development in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shihui; Li, Zhexin; Yuan, Huwei; Fang, Pan; Chen, Xiaoyang; Li, Wei

    2013-08-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) are involved in many developmental aspects of the life cycle of plants, acting either directly or through interaction with other hormones. Accumulating evidence suggests that GAs have an important effect on root growth; however, there is currently little information on the specific regulatory mechanism of GAs during adventitious root development. A study was conducted on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants for altered rates of biosynthesis, catabolism, and GA signalling constitutively or in specific tissues using a transgenic approach. In the present study, PtGA20ox, PtGA2ox1, and PtGAI were overexpressed under the control of the 35S promoter, vascular cambium-specific promoter (LMX5), or root meristem-specific promoter (TobRB7), respectively. Evidence is provided that the precise localization of bioactive GA in the stem but not in the roots is required to regulate adventitious root development in tobacco. High levels of GA negatively regulate the early initiation step of root formation through interactions with auxin, while a proper and mobile GA signal is required for the emergence and subsequent long-term elongation of established primordia. The results demonstrated that GAs have an inhibitory effect on adventitious root formation but a stimulatory effect on root elongation. PMID:23918971

  3. On the need of multi-variables measurements for a proper assessment of hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baroni, G.; Graeff, T.; Oswald, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    The assessment of hydrological model is often limited by the number of data available. For this, in most of the cases, the hydrological models are often calibrated and validated considering just one single hydrological process. Depending on the case study and the model used examples mainly refer to the use of discharge data, soil moisture or groundwater level. However, several authors have underlined the limit and inconsistence of this approach with multi-input output models because a good simulation may be obtained on the basis of internal errors compensation. To further explore this issue, an uncertainty and global sensitivity analysis is conducted on SHETRAN, a fully distributed physical-based hydrological model. The model is applied in a small (~1.4 km2) mountainous catchment with agricultural land use located in central Germany (Schaefertal, Harz Mountains). Input and parameters are considered as major sources of uncertainty in the framework. A global sensitivity analysis based on the method of Sobol/Saltelli is used to find the most important sources of uncertainty. The results show the presence of compensating errors by the different processes considered i.e. evapotranspiration, percolation, soil moisture and discharge. Complementarily, the sources of uncertainty are founded to be specific for each process considered. In this way, it is showed how a coupled multi-objective sensitivity and calibration analysis should be used for a proper assessment of the model.

  4. Proper Brushing

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 teeth using a vibrating back & forth rolling motion. A rolling motion is when the brush makes contact with the ... gumline. Gently brush using back, forth, and rolling motion along all of the inner tooth surfaces. Tilt ...

  5. 16 CFR 23.15 - Misuse of the term “properly cut,” etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Misuse of the term âproperly cut,â etc. 23.15 Section 23.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.15 Misuse of the term “properly cut,”...

  6. 16 CFR 23.15 - Misuse of the term “properly cut,” etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misuse of the term âproperly cut,â etc. 23.15 Section 23.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.15 Misuse of the term “properly cut,”...

  7. 16 CFR 23.15 - Misuse of the term “properly cut,” etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Misuse of the term âproperly cut,â etc. 23.15 Section 23.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.15 Misuse of the term “properly cut,”...

  8. 16 CFR 23.15 - Misuse of the term “properly cut,” etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Misuse of the term âproperly cut,â etc. 23.15 Section 23.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.15 Misuse of the term “properly cut,”...

  9. 16 CFR 23.15 - Misuse of the term “properly cut,” etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Misuse of the term âproperly cut,â etc. 23.15 Section 23.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.15 Misuse of the term “properly cut,”...

  10. Treatment of Proper Name Retrieval Deficits in an Individual with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minkina, Irene; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Silkes, JoAnn P.; Phatak, Vaishali; Kendall, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Studies investigating language deficits in individuals with left temporal-lobe epilepsy have consistently demonstrated impairments in proper name retrieval. The aim of this Phase I rehabilitation study was to investigate the effects of a linguistically distributed word retrieval treatment on proper name retrieval in an individual with…

  11. 27 CFR 4.45 - Certificates of origin, identity and proper cellar treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., identity and proper cellar treatment. 4.45 Section 4.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Requirements for Withdrawal of Wine From Customs Custody § 4.45 Certificates of origin, identity and proper cellar treatment. (a) Origin and identity. Imported wine shall not be released from customs custody...

  12. 21 CFR 610.62 - Proper name; package label; legible type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... label; legible type. (a) Position. The proper name of the product on the package label shall be placed above any trademark or trade name identifying the product and symmetrically arranged with respect to... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Proper name; package label; legible type....

  13. 21 CFR 610.62 - Proper name; package label; legible type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... label; legible type. (a) Position. The proper name of the product on the package label shall be placed above any trademark or trade name identifying the product and symmetrically arranged with respect to... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Proper name; package label; legible type....

  14. Using Standardized Patients in Continuing Medical Education Courses on Proper Prescribing of Controlled Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiggart, William H.; Ghulyan, Marine V.; Dewey, Charlene M.

    2012-01-01

    Controlled prescription drug (CPD) abuse is an increasing threat to patient safety and health care providers (HCPs) are not adequately prepared nor do they routinely employ proper screening techniques. Using standardized patients (SPs) as an instructional strategy, the trained physicians on proper prescribing practices and SBIRT (Screening, Brief…

  15. 49 CFR 40.233 - What are the requirements for proper use and care of EBTs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the requirements for proper use and care... Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.233 What are the requirements for proper use and care of EBTs? (a) As... must take into account factors like frequency of use, environmental conditions (e.g.,...

  16. 9 CFR 381.111 - Data to be entered in proper spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Data to be entered in proper spaces. 381.111 Section 381.111 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Certificates; Export Certificates; Certification Procedures § 381.111 Data to be entered in proper spaces....

  17. Enthalpy Costs of Making and Breaking Bonds: A Game of Generating Molecules with Proper Lewis Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Peter T.; Adkins, Alyssa D.; Gamble, Rex J.; Schultz, Linda D.

    2009-01-01

    "Enthalpy Costs" is a simple card game created to assist students in developing proper Lewis structure drawing skills. Score keeping is accomplished by tracking the enthalpy changes associated with bond-making and bond-breaking processes during formation of molecules represented by proper Lewis structures. Playing the game requires the student to…

  18. 17 CFR 270.8b-10 - Requirements as to proper form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements as to proper form... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.8b-10 Requirements as to proper form... by the Commission, as in effect on the date of filing. Any such statement or report shall be...

  19. 17 CFR 270.8b-10 - Requirements as to proper form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements as to proper form... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.8b-10 Requirements as to proper form... by the Commission, as in effect on the date of filing. Any such statement or report shall be...

  20. 17 CFR 240.12b-10 - Requirements as to proper form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements as to proper form... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Formal Requirements § 240.12b-10 Requirements as to proper form. Every statement or report shall be on the form prescribed therefor by the Commission, as in effect on the date...

  1. 17 CFR 240.12b-10 - Requirements as to proper form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements as to proper form... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Formal Requirements § 240.12b-10 Requirements as to proper form. Every statement or report shall be on the form prescribed therefor by the Commission, as in effect on the date...

  2. 17 CFR 240.12b-10 - Requirements as to proper form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements as to proper form... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Formal Requirements § 240.12b-10 Requirements as to proper form. Every statement or report shall be on the form prescribed therefor by the Commission, as in effect on the date...

  3. 20 CFR 602.41 - Proper expenditure of Quality Control granted funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Proper expenditure of Quality Control granted... LABOR QUALITY CONTROL IN THE FEDERAL-STATE UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE SYSTEM Quality Control Grants to States § 602.41 Proper expenditure of Quality Control granted funds. The Secretary may, after...

  4. 20 CFR 602.41 - Proper expenditure of Quality Control granted funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proper expenditure of Quality Control granted... LABOR QUALITY CONTROL IN THE FEDERAL-STATE UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE SYSTEM Quality Control Grants to States § 602.41 Proper expenditure of Quality Control granted funds. The Secretary may, after...

  5. Contrast-Induced Nephropathy After Computed Tomography in Stable CKD Patients With Proper Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sehoon; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kang, Eunjeong; Park, Seokwoo; Jo, Hyung Ah.; Lee, Hajeong; Kim, Sun Moon.; Lee, Jung Pyo.; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Joo, Kwon Wook.; Kim, Yon Su.; Kim, Dong Ki.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Conflicting data have been reported on the clinical significance of contrast-induced nephropathy after CT scan (CT-CIN). In addition, the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical outcomes of CT-CIN following proper prophylactic intervention remain elusive. We examined the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of CT-CIN in stable chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients using data collected from our outpatient CT-CIN prophylaxis program conducted between 2007 and 2014. The program recruited patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 using an electronic health record-based pop-up alert system and provided an identical protocol of CIN prophylaxis to all patients. A total of 1666 subjects were included in this study, and 61 of the 1666 subjects (3.7%) developed CT-CIN. Multivariate analysis showed that baseline eGFR, diabetes mellitus, and low serum albumin were significant risk factors for CT-CIN. The generalized additive model analysis revealed a nonlinear relationship between the baseline eGFR and the risk of CT-CIN. In this analysis, the risk of CT-CIN began to increase below an eGFR threshold of 36.8 mL/min/1.73 m2. To assess the outcomes of CT-CIN, patients with and without CT-CIN were compared after propensity score-based 1:2 matching. CT-CIN did not increase the mortality rate of patients. However, patients with CT-CIN were significantly more likely to start dialysis within 6 months of follow-up, but not after those initial 6 months. CT-CIN developed in only a small number of stable CKD patients who received proper prophylactic intervention, and the risk of CT-CIN was increased in patients with more advanced CKD. Despite the low incidence, CT-CIN conferred a non-negligible risk for the initiation of dialysis in the acute period, even after prophylaxis. PMID:27149474

  6. The calculation of an equation of magnitude for determining the proper motions of stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharchenko, N. V.

    A method is proposed for correcting errors in magnitude equations for the proper motion of stars using only catalog data. An independent catalog of proper motion is obtained by calculating the local motion of stars within individual areas. The method can be applied to any catalog of stellar proper motions, including the AGK-3 catalog. Estimates of error are obtained for stellar magnitudes in the Goloseyev catalog of stellar proper motions relative to galaxies. The method is also applied to equations of proper motion obtained from photographs taken by the double long-focusing astrograph of the Main Astronomical Observatory of the Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences in the interval of stellar magnitudes between 10 and 15 mag. Values are obtained for the large degree of difference observed between temperature and type of plate.

  7. Cerebral processing of proper and common nouns: Perception and production following left hemisphere damage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung-Yun; Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study was to further investigate hemispheric specialization for proper and common nouns by examining the ability of individuals with left hemisphere damage (LHD) to perceive and verbally reproduce famous names and matched common names compared with the performance of matched healthy controls (HC). Ten individuals with LHD due to stroke and 16 age- and education-matched HC completed recognition and production tasks of famous proper and common nouns. All tasks were designed as split-visual field experiments, modelled after the study done by Ohnesorge and Van Lancker. Results contribute to a better understanding of hemispheric roles in perception and production of famous proper nouns, suggesting that (1) both hemispheres can recognize famous proper nouns, possibly due to a right hemisphere role in personal relevance and (2) production of proper nouns as well as common nouns is associated with left hemisphere. PMID:25517886

  8. The Bonn contribution to the extragalactic link of the HIPPARCOS proper motion system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucholke, H.-J.; Brosche, P.; Odenkirchen, M.

    1997-05-01

    In order to calibrate the proper motions of the Hipparcos astrometry satellite, our group has measured accurate absolute proper motions of Hipparcos stars in small fields around optically bright extragalactic radio sources or bright galaxies with star-like features. In addition, we also use fields where relative proper motions are calibrated by measurements of large numbers of stars and galaxies on wide-field plates. The median internal accuracy of our relative proper motions, based on photographic plates with epoch differences up to 100 years (typically 70 years), is 1.0 milliarcsec/year (mas/a), while the calibration to an inertial system in each of the 13 fields has a median uncertainty of 1.3 mas/a. We compute the rotation from the Hipparcos proper motions (median internal errors \\e{0.9}{mas/a}) to the extragalactic reference frame represented by our absolute proper motions, using 88 stars in common. The three components of the angular velocity vector have internal errors of 0.3 mas/a. Our rotation solution has been used together with those of independent groups for the extragalactic calibration of the Hipparcos proper motion system (\\cite[Kovalevsky et al. 1996)]{kova96}. It compares favourably with the adopted mean solution. Based on observations made with the ESA Hipparcos satellite.

  9. Estrogen metabolism by the equine embryo proper during the fourth week of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Raeside, James I; Christie, Heather L; Waelchli, Rudolf O; Betteridge, Keith J

    2009-12-01

    Estrogen production by the trophoblast is considered important in early equine pregnancy and leads to high concentrations in yolk-sac (Y-S) fluid. The embryo proper is a potential site for their action. We examined estrogen metabolism in the embryo proper because some actions of estrogens are derived from locally formed metabolites. The embryo proper, as well as separated extraembryonic tissues, of conceptuses collected about day 25 of pregnancy, were incubated with (3)[H]-estrone (E(1)) and (3)[H]-estradiol (E(2)). Steroids were recovered from media by solid-phase extraction and eluted separately as unconjugated and conjugated fractions. Profiles of free and sulfo-conjugated fractions were obtained by HPLC. Some differences and similarities were noted for the embryo proper as compared to the extraembryonic tissues. No reduction of E(1) to E(2) was noted for the embryo proper and allantois, but some was seen with the bilaminar Y-S wall. Less conversion of E(2) to E(1) occurred in the embryo proper than in the extraembryonic tissues. Profiles for hydrolyzed sulfates from incubation of the embryo proper were very similar for both substrates, mainly with E(1) present. Thus, low levels of reductase and high levels of oxido- activities were apparent for the 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes. Further evidence of an active role for the embryo proper was seen as minor, polar products, and an unknown compound eluting between E(2) and E(1). These findings show, for the first time, that the embryo proper can metabolize estrogens that are found in Y-S fluid - a function of potential significance at this stage in its development. PMID:19710203

  10. Optical position and 'proper motion' of the radio source OQ 208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosche, P.; Geffert, M.

    1981-11-01

    The position and 'proper motion' of OQ 208 has been derived in different catalog systems using plates taken in 1915/1916 and 1979. In an extragalactic reference system, the 'proper motion' is found to be zero within the error limits, while in the AKG system, the 'proper motion' is several tenths of arcsec in 100 years. The position in the FK 4 system (equinox 1950) is estimated as the following: alpha equals 14h04m45.627s and delta equals 28deg41arcmin29.22arcsec.

  11. Toward a Code of Conduct for the Presidency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, J. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A presidential code of conduct is needed more today than ever before. College and university presidents are being required to do more without the proper training to succeed. Presidents from outside the academy enter academia with normative patterns and codes of conduct that served them well in their previous occupations but now have the potential…

  12. Downstream evolution of proper orthogonal decomposition eigenfunctions in a lobed mixer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ukeiley, L.; Glauser, M.; Wick, D.

    1993-01-01

    A two-dimensional (one space and time) scalar adaptation of the proper orthogonal decomposition was applied to streamwise velocity data obtained in a lobed mixer flowfield, using a rake of 15 single-component hot wires. Through the application of the proper orthogonal decomposition, the amount of streamwise turbulent kinetic energy contained in the various proper orthogonal modes was examined for two different downstream locations (z/h = 2.6 and 3.9). The large eddy or dominant mode was shown to have a measurable decrease in the relative streamwise component of the kinetic energy between these two downstream locations. This indicates that the large eddy, as defined by the proper orthogonal decomposition, breaks down, and the flow becomes more homogeneous. A pseudoflow visualization technique was then employed to help visualize this process.

  13. 7 CFR 701.31 - Maintenance and proper use of practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... span or minimum period of time during which they are expected to function as a conservation practice... of any practice. (b) If a practice is not properly maintained for the established life span,...

  14. 7 CFR 701.31 - Maintenance and proper use of practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... span or minimum period of time during which they are expected to function as a conservation practice... of any practice. (b) If a practice is not properly maintained for the established life span,...

  15. 21 CFR 610.62 - Proper name; package label; legible type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contrast in color value between the proper name and the background shall be at least as great as the color value between the trademark and trade name and the background. Typography, layout, contrast, and...

  16. [Providing studies quality for pesticides risk evaluation in their use according to proper laboratory practice rules].

    PubMed

    Rakitskiy, V N; Bereznyak, I V

    2016-01-01

    The article covers experience of proper laboratory practice in hygienic studies examining air and workers' skin for assessment of exposure levels of pesticides in natural conditions of agricultural production. PMID:27265940

  17. Identification and Spectral Classification of Red Dwarf Common Proper Motion Binary Stars Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chivers, James

    2014-10-01

    The position angle, separation, and spectral class of 1042 common proper motion red dwarf binary stars are reported based on data-mining the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10. 727 of these are new discoveries.

  18. Proper Disposal of Unused Household Medications: The Role of the Pharmacist.

    PubMed

    Athern, Kathleen M; Linnebur, Sunny A; Fabisiak, Greg

    2016-05-01

    As the number of unused household medications within the United States continues to rise, so does the need for proper education among patients and health care professionals on proper drug disposal. Consumers have been provided conflicting directions on how to properly dispose of medications; as a result, harmful and unsafe disposal practices have been used that increased the risk for diversion and environmental damage. Recently, several governmental agencies have published recommendations for household medication disposal, and the number of national and statewide drug take-back programs has increased. Although these programs now have taken hold, consumers are often unaware of their presence or benefit. Pharmacists have a unique opportunity to educate the public and themselves on the importance of proper medication disposal as well as the programs available for patients to access. PMID:27178655

  19. PROPER MOTIONS AND INTERNAL DYNAMICS IN THE CORE OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M71

    SciTech Connect

    Samra, Raminder S.; Richer, Harvey B.; Heyl, Jeremy S.; Goldsbury, Ryan; Walker, Gordon; Woodley, Kristin A.; Thanjavur, Karun E-mail: richer@astro.ubc.ca E-mail: heyl@phas.ubc.ca E-mail: kwoodley@phas.ubc.ca

    2012-05-20

    We have used Gemini North together with the NIRI-ALTAIR adaptive optics imager in the H and K bands to explore the core of the Galactic globular cluster M71 (NGC 6838). We obtained proper motions for 217 stars and have resolved its internal proper motion dispersion. Using a 3.8 year baseline, the proper motion dispersion in the core is found to be 179 {+-} 17 {mu}as yr{sup -1}. We find no evidence of anisotropy in the motions and no radial variation in the proper motions with respect to distance from the cluster center. We also set an upper limit on any central black hole to be {approx}150 M{sub Sun} at 90% confidence level.

  20. Learning Proper Names and Count Nouns: Evidence from 16- and 20-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Julie; Hall, D. Geoffrey

    2006-01-01

    In 4 experiments, we examined 16- and 20-month-old infants' understanding of proper names and count nouns. In each experiment, infants were taught a novel word modeled linguistically as either a proper name (e.g., "DAXY") or a count noun (e.g., "a DAXY") for a stuffed animal shown on a puppet stage. This animal was moved to a new location on the…

  1. A 1500 deg2 near infrared proper motion catalogue from the UKIDSS Large Area Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Leigh; Lucas, P. W.; Burningham, B.; Jones, H. R. A.; Smart, R. L.; Andrei, A. H.; Catalán, S.; Pinfield, D. J.

    2014-02-01

    The United Kingdom Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS) began in 2005, with the start of the UKIDSS programme as a 7 year effort to survey roughly 4000 deg2 at high Galactic latitudes in Y, J, H and K bands. The survey also included a significant quantity of two epoch J band observations, with an epoch baseline greater than 2 years to calculate proper motions. We present a near-infrared proper motion catalogue for the 1500 deg2 of the two epoch LAS data, which includes 135 625 stellar sources and a further 88 324 with ambiguous morphological classifications, all with motions detected above the 5σ level. We developed a custom proper motion pipeline which we describe here. Our catalogue agrees well with the proper motion data supplied for a 300 deg2 subset in the current Wide Field Camera Science Archive (WSA) 10th data release (DR10) catalogue, and in various optical catalogues, but it benefits from a larger matching radius and hence a larger upper proper motion detection limit. We provide absolute proper motions, using LAS galaxies for the relative to absolute correction. By using local second-order polynomial transformations, as opposed to linear transformations in the WSA, we correct better for any local distortions in the focal plane, not including the radial distortion that is removed by the UKIDSS pipeline. We present the results of proper motion searches for new brown dwarfs and white dwarfs. We discuss 41 sources in the WSA DR10 overlap with our catalogue with proper motions >300 mas yr-1, several of which are new detections. We present 15 new candidate ultracool dwarf binary systems.

  2. Documenting Employee Conduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Jason

    2009-01-01

    One of the best ways for a child care program to lose an employment-related lawsuit is failure to document the performance of its employees. Documentation of an employee's performance can provide evidence of an employment-related decision such as discipline, promotion, or discharge. When properly implemented, documentation of employee performance…

  3. Spatial filtering and proper orthogonal decomposition of scanning laser Doppler vibrometry data for the nondestructive evaluation of frescoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prazenica, Richard J.; Kurdila, Andrew J.; Vignola, Joseph F.

    2007-07-01

    Recently, scanning laser Doppler vibrometry experiments have been conducted in order to identify structural faults in frescoes at the US Capitol. In these experiments, the artwork is subjected to force excitations over a range of frequencies and a laser vibrometer is used to measure the velocity response of the structure over an array of spatial locations. At each frequency, a two-dimensional spatial image of the force-velocity transfer function is obtained. Spatial locations that consistently exhibit large responses are indicative of potential regions of delamination. In this paper the use of proper orthogonal decomposition, also known as principle component analysis, to identify coherent features in the structural response and obtain a succinct representation of the data is described. It is shown that, for the fresco studied in this paper, the response can be characterized in terms of only a few proper orthogonal decomposition modes. Unfortunately, these modes are corrupted by spatially varying noise. This noise is a result of surface irregularities that affect the direction in which the incident laser beam is reflected, which in turn corrupts the measured response at those locations. Therefore, the use of spatial filtering techniques is also explored for removing this "speckle noise" from the measured force-velocity transfer functions prior to performing the proper orthogonal decomposition analysis. Wavelets are particularly well suited for this application because they decompose images into functions that are localized in the spatial and frequency domains. In this paper, several wavelet bases with differing properties are used to filter the scanning laser Doppler vibrometry images. In addition, wavenumber filters, which essentially act as low-pass filters, are also employed. While the results do not definitively show which filtering technique is most effective for this application, it is clear that both wavelet processing and wavenumber filtering can reduce

  4. Proper Motion of the Draco Dwarf Galaxy from Subaru Suprime-Cam Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Girard, Terrence M.

    2016-06-01

    We have measured the absolute proper motion of the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy using Subaru Suprime-Cam images taken at three epochs, with time baselines of 4.4 and 7 years. The magnitude limit of the proper-motion study is i = 25, thus allowing for thousands of background galaxies and Draco stars to be used to perform extensive astrometric tests and to derive the correction to an inertial reference frame. The derived proper motion is (μα, μδ) = ( - 0.284 ± 0.047, -0.289 ± 0.041) mas yr-1. This motion implies an orbit that takes Draco to a pericenter of ˜20 kpc; a somewhat disruptive orbit suggesting that tides might account for the rising velocity-dispersion profile of Draco seen in line-of-sight velocity studies. The orbit is only marginally consistent with Draco's membership to the vast polar structure of Galactic satellites, in contrast to a recent HST proper-motion measurement that finds alignment very likely. Our study is a test case to demonstrate that deep imaging with mosaic cameras of appropriate resolution can be used for high-accuracy, ground-based proper-motion measurement. As a useful by-product of the study, we also identify two faint brown-dwarf candidates in the foreground field.

  5. Proper motion of the Draco dwarf galaxy from Subaru Suprime-Cam data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Girard, Terrence M.

    2016-09-01

    We have measured the absolute proper motion of the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy using Subaru Suprime-Cam images taken at three epochs, with time baselines of 4.4 and 7 yr. The magnitude limit of the proper-motion study is i = 25, thus allowing for thousands of background galaxies and Draco stars to be used to perform extensive astrometric tests and to derive the correction to an inertial reference frame. The derived proper motion is (μα, μδ) = (-0.284 ± 0.047, -0.289 ± 0.041) mas yr-1. This motion implies an orbit that takes Draco to a pericentre of ˜20 kpc; a somewhat disruptive orbit suggesting that tides might account for the rising velocity-dispersion profile of Draco seen in line-of-sight velocity studies. The orbit is only marginally consistent with Draco's membership to the vast polar structure of Galactic satellites, in contrast to a recent Hubble Space Telescope proper-motion measurement that finds alignment very likely. Our study is a test case to demonstrate that deep imaging with mosaic cameras of appropriate resolution can be used for high-accuracy, ground-based proper-motion measurement. As a useful by-product of the study, we also identify two faint brown-dwarf candidates in the foreground field.

  6. CdC-SF Catalogue.II: Application of its Proper Motions to Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, B.; Garzón, F.

    We present an astrometric catalogue of positions and proper motions derived from the Carte du Ciel plates of the San Fernando zone, photographic material with a mean epoch 1901.4 with a limiting magnitude V˜15.Digitization has been made using a conventional flatbed scanner. Special techniques have been developed to handle the combination of plate material and the large distortion introduced by the scanner. A variety of post-scan corrections are shown to be necessary. The equatorial coordinates are on the ICRS system defined by Tycho-2. Comparison with the reference catalog indicates external errors of 0.;​​''2. The UCAC2 Catalogue was used as second-epoch positions to derive proper motions with a mean accuracy of 1.2 mas/year for the proper motions for well-measure stars. The usefulness of the resulting catalogue of proper motions is demonstrated by means of a proper-motion analysis of seven open clusters ASCC 30, BOCHUM 3, NGC 2215, NGC 2302, NGC 2311, NGC 2323 and NGC 2548, determining individual membership probabilities and characterizing the gross properties of each cluster.

  7. Benthic conditions around a historic shipwreck: Vrouw Maria (1771) in the northern Baltic proper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruuskanen, A. T.; Kraufvelin, P.; Alvik, R.; Díaz, E. R.; Honkonen, J.; Kanerva, J.; Karell, K.; Kekäläinen, P.; Lappalainen, J.; Mikkola, R.; Mustasaari, T.; Nappu, N.; Nieminen, A.; Roininen, J.; Svahnbäck, K.

    2015-04-01

    Since her shipwreck in 1771, the wooden vessel Vrouw Maria has been lying on the seabed at 41 m depth on the border between the Archipelago Sea and the northern Baltic proper, off the southern coast of Finland. The wreck lies in an upward position in a right angle to the dominating bottom current, which is potentially affecting seabed topography, sediment characteristics and zoobenthic communities both upstream (NE) and downstream (SW) of the wreck. This multidisciplinary study attempts to clarify abiotic and biotic patterns and processes in the vicinity of the wreck by combining field investigations with physical simulation studies in the field and in the laboratory. Multibeam echo-sounder techniques were utilised to generate a map of the wreck area and sediment grab samples were taken to characterize the sediment type and its zoobenthic community. A medium-sized field experiment generated data on the accumulation of sediment organic matter in the presence and absence of a current and/or a barrier on the seafloor and a small-scaled laboratory study was conducted to simulate scour forming processes. The results showed that a deeper basin, scour area, with the dimensions 150×300 m, was present downstream of the wreck and there was also a smaller scour area upstream of the wreck. Similar traces on the bottom were simulated in the laboratory. The organic content (recent mud) and the proportion of finer sediment were more pronounced in areas closer to both sides of the wreck. These results were in turn imitated in a field experiment, where the accumulation of organic matter in the sediment increased significantly downstream, when a current was interrupted by a barrier. Regarding zoobenthos in the wreck area, 11 taxa and a mean total abundance of 773 individuals per m2 were registered. The dominant species were Macoma balthica and Marenzelleria sp., which together made up >80% of the total number of individuals. Multivariate data analyses showed significant differences

  8. Conducting Compositions of Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides conductive compositions of matter, as well as methods for the preparation of the conductive compositions of matter, solutions comprising the conductive compositions of matter, and methods of preparing fibers or fabrics having improved anti-static properties employing the conductive compositions of matter.

  9. Conducting compositions of matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides conductive compositions of matter, as well as methods for the preparation of the conductive compositions of matter, solutions comprising the conductive compositions of matter, and methods of preparing fibers or fabrics having improved anti-static properties employing the conductive compositions of matter.

  10. Regulation of conduction time along axons.

    PubMed

    Seidl, A H

    2014-09-12

    Timely delivery of information is essential for proper functioning of the nervous system. Precise regulation of nerve conduction velocity is needed for correct exertion of motor skills, sensory integration and cognitive functions. In vertebrates, the rapid transmission of signals along nerve fibers is made possible by the myelination of axons and the resulting saltatory conduction in between nodes of Ranvier. Myelin is a specialization of glia cells and is provided by oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. Myelination not only maximizes conduction velocity, but also provides a means to systematically regulate conduction times in the nervous system. Systematic regulation of conduction velocity along axons, and thus systematic regulation of conduction time in between neural areas, is a common occurrence in the nervous system. To date, little is understood about the mechanism that underlies systematic conduction velocity regulation and conduction time synchrony. Node assembly, internode distance (node spacing) and axon diameter - all parameters determining the speed of signal propagation along axons - are controlled by myelinating glia. Therefore, an interaction between glial cells and neurons has been suggested. This review summarizes examples of neural systems in which conduction velocity is regulated by anatomical variations along axons. While functional implications in these systems are not always clear, recent studies on the auditory system of birds and mammals present examples of conduction velocity regulation in systems with high temporal precision and a defined biological function. Together these findings suggest an active process that shapes the interaction between axons and myelinating glia to control conduction velocity along axons. Future studies involving these systems may provide further insight into how specific conduction times in the brain are established and maintained in development. Throughout the text, conduction velocity is used for the

  11. Proper encoding for snapshot-entropy scaling in two-dimensional classical spin models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsueda, Hiroaki; Ozaki, Dai

    2015-10-01

    We reexamine the snapshot entropy of the Ising and three-states Potts models on the L ×L square lattice. Focusing on how to encode the spin snapshot, we find that the entropy at Tc scales asymptotically as S ˜(1 /3 )lnL that strongly reminds us of the entanglement entropy in one-dimensional quantum critical systems. This finding seems to support that the snapshot entropy after the proper encoding is related to the holographic entanglement entropy. On the other hand, the anomalous scaling Sχ˜χηlnχ for the coarse-grained snapshot entropy holds even for the proper encoding. These features originate in the fact that the largest singular value of the snapshot matrix is regulated by the proper encoding.

  12. A maximum volume density estimator generalized over a proper motion-limited sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Marco C.; Rowell, Nicholas; Hambly, Nigel C.

    2015-07-01

    The traditional Schmidt density estimator has been proven to be unbiased and effective in a magnitude-limited sample. Previously, efforts have been made to generalize it for populations with non-uniform density and proper motion-limited cases. This work shows that the then-good assumptions for a proper motion-limited sample are no longer sufficient to cope with modern data. Populations with larger differences in the kinematics as compared to the local standard of rest are most severely affected. We show that this systematic bias can be removed by treating the discovery fraction inseparable from the generalized maximum volume integrand. The treatment can be applied to any proper motion-limited sample with good knowledge of the kinematics. This work demonstrates the method through application to a mock catalogue of a white dwarf-only solar neighbourhood for various scenarios and compared against the traditional treatment using a survey with Pan-STARRS-like characteristics.

  13. A Case of Ruptured Aneurysm of the Proper Esophageal Artery with Symptomatic Mediastinal Hematoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiajia; Sato, Yusuke; Takahashi, Satoshi; Motoyama, Satoru; Yoshino, Kei; Sasaki, Tomohiko; Imai, Kazuhiro; Saito, Hajime; Minamiya, Yoshihiro

    2016-08-01

    Mediastinal aneurysms are rare but potentially life-threatening. Among these, bronchial artery aneurysms are most frequently reported, whereas up to now aneurysms of the proper esophageal artery had never been reported. A 69-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for treatment of a massive mediastinal hematoma. Enhanced computed tomography and selective proper esophageal arteriography revealed a 5-mm aneurysm in the proper esophageal artery that arises from the thoracic aorta at the Th8 level and has an anastomotic branch with the bronchial artery peripherally. Transcatheter arterial embolization was successfully performed using a mixture of N-butyl cyanoacrylate and lipiodol (1:3 ratio, 0.3 ml). Post-embolization angiography showed no filling into the aneurysm. The patient recovered with no complications and was discharged on the 25th post-procedure day. PMID:27094689

  14. Proper Motions of Water Masers within 1 AU of IRAS 16293-2422

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootten, A.; Marvel, K. B.; Claussen, M.; Wilking, B.

    1999-12-01

    Water masers can be used to trace gas motions in a variety of sources including evolved stars and stars undergoing formation. Recent observations of the water masers associated with two young stellar objects, IRAS 05413-0104 (aka HH212) and S106FIR (Claussen et al 1998 ApJ 507, L79, Furuya et al 1999), have shown that water masers form in shocked gas associated with bipolar outflows from the central forming star. Recent observations (Imai et al. 1999, PASJ 51, 473) have led to the claim that the masers in IRAS 16293-2422 are associated with infalling, rotating gas associated with a circum-protostellar disk. We present proper motion measurements using four epochs of observation with the Very Long Baseline Array, which clearly show proper motions directed away from the central source in IRAS 16293-2422. These motions contradict the expected proper motions for an infalling-rotating gas model for this source.

  15. The proper motion of HV2112: a TŻO candidate in the SMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, C. Clare; Irwin, Mike. J.; Tout, Christopher A.; Żytkow, Anna N.; Fraser, Morgan; Izzard, Robert G.

    2016-06-01

    The candidate Thorne-Żytkow object (TŻO), HV2112, is becoming a well-studied if enigmatic object. A key point of its candidacy as a TŻO is whether or not it resides in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). HV2112 has detections in a series of photometric catalogues which have resulted in contradictory estimates of its proper motion and, therefore, its membership within the SMC. This letter seeks to resolve the issue of the SMC membership of HV2112 through a reanalysis of extant photometric data. We also demonstrate the difficulties and downfalls inherent in considering a range of catalogue proper motions. We conclude that the proper motion, and associated ancillary radial velocity, positional and photometric properties, are fully consistent with HV2112 being within the SMC and thus it remains a candidate TŻO.

  16. On computation of stabilizing loop gain and delay ranges for bi-proper delay systems.

    PubMed

    Le, Binh Nguyen; Wang, Qing-Guo; Lee, Tong Heng; Nie, Zhuoyun

    2014-11-01

    A graphical method for exactly computing the stabilizing loop gain and delay ranges was proposed [Le BN, Wang Q-G, Lee T-H. Development of D-decomposition method for computing stabilizing gain ranges for general delay systems. J Process Control 2012] for a strictly proper process by determining the boundary functions which may change system׳s stability. A bi-proper process is rare but causes great complications for the method, due to the new phenomena that do not exist for a strictly proper process, such as a non-zero gain at infinity frequency, which may cause infinite intersections of boundary functions within a finite delay range. This paper addresses such a kind of processes and develops a general method that can produce the exact and complete set of the loop gain and delay for closed-loop stabilization, which is hard to find with analytical methods. PMID:25440948

  17. Conduction-coupled Tesla transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, J. L.

    2015-03-01

    A proof-of-principle Tesla transformer circuit is introduced. The new transformer exhibits the high voltage-high power output signal of shock-excited transformers. The circuit, with specification of proper circuit element values, is capable of obtaining extreme oscillatory voltages. The primary and secondary portions of the circuit communicate solely by conduction. The destructive arcing between the primary and secondary inductors in electromagnetically coupled transformers is ubiquitous. Flashover is eliminated in the new transformer as the high-voltage inductors do not interpenetrate and so do not possess an annular volume of electric field. The inductors are remote from one another. The high voltage secondary inductor is isolated in space, except for a base feed conductor, and obtains earth by its self-capacitance to the surroundings. Governing equations, for the ideal case of no damping, are developed from first principles. Experimental, theoretical, and circuit simulator data are presented for the new transformer. Commercial high-temperature superconductors are discussed as a means to eliminate the counter-intuitive damping due to small primary inductances in both the electromagnetic-coupled and new conduction-coupled transformers.

  18. Conduction-coupled Tesla transformer.

    PubMed

    Reed, J L

    2015-03-01

    A proof-of-principle Tesla transformer circuit is introduced. The new transformer exhibits the high voltage-high power output signal of shock-excited transformers. The circuit, with specification of proper circuit element values, is capable of obtaining extreme oscillatory voltages. The primary and secondary portions of the circuit communicate solely by conduction. The destructive arcing between the primary and secondary inductors in electromagnetically coupled transformers is ubiquitous. Flashover is eliminated in the new transformer as the high-voltage inductors do not interpenetrate and so do not possess an annular volume of electric field. The inductors are remote from one another. The high voltage secondary inductor is isolated in space, except for a base feed conductor, and obtains earth by its self-capacitance to the surroundings. Governing equations, for the ideal case of no damping, are developed from first principles. Experimental, theoretical, and circuit simulator data are presented for the new transformer. Commercial high-temperature superconductors are discussed as a means to eliminate the counter-intuitive damping due to small primary inductances in both the electromagnetic-coupled and new conduction-coupled transformers. PMID:25832281

  19. Tendon proper- and peritenon-derived progenitor cells have unique tenogenic properties

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Multipotent progenitor populations exist within the tendon proper and peritenon of the Achilles tendon. Progenitor populations derived from the tendon proper and peritenon are enriched with distinct cell types that are distinguished by expression of markers of tendon and vascular or pericyte origins, respectively. The objective of this study was to discern the unique tenogenic properties of tendon proper- and peritenon-derived progenitors within an in vitro model. We hypothesized that progenitors from each region contribute differently to tendon formation; thus, when incorporated into a regenerative model, progenitors from each region will respond uniquely. Moreover, we hypothesized that cell populations like progenitors were capable of stimulating tenogenic differentiation, so we generated conditioned media from these cell types to analyze their stimulatory potentials. Methods Isolated progenitors were seeded within fibrinogen/thrombin gel-based constructs with or without supplementation with recombinant growth/differentiation factor-5 (GDF5). Early and late in culture, gene expression of differentiation markers and matrix assembly genes was analyzed. Tendon construct ultrastructure was also compared after 45 days. Moreover, conditioned media from tendon proper-derived progenitors, peritenon-derived progenitors, or tenocytes was applied to each of the three cell types to determine paracrine stimulatory effects of the factors secreted from each of the respective cell types. Results The cell orientation, extracellular domain and fibril organization of constructs were comparable to embryonic tendon. The tendon proper-derived progenitors produced a more tendon-like construct than the peritenon-derived progenitors. Seeded tendon proper-derived progenitors expressed greater levels of tenogenic markers and matrix assembly genes, relative to peritenon-derived progenitors. However, GDF5 supplementation improved expression of matrix assembly genes in peritenon

  20. On the separations of common proper motion binaries containing white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswalt, T. D.; Sion, E. M.

    1989-01-01

    It is expected, on the basis of proper motion and estimated colors, that over 500 known common proper motion binaries (CPMBs) contain at least one white dwarf (WD) component, usually paired with a late type main sequence (MS) star. This paper examines 210 probable MS + MS and 26 probable WD + MS pairs from the LDS catalog to determine whether significant orbital expansion occurred as a consequence of the post-MS mass loss expected to accompany the formation of WDs in the CPMBs. It was found that, in the WD + MS pairs, the physical separation is nearly twice that in the MS + MS pairs.

  1. Improved proper motion determinations for 15 open clusters based on the UCAC4 catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtenkov, Alexander; Dimitrova, Nadezhda; Atanasov, Alexander; Aleksiev, Teodor D.

    2016-07-01

    The proper motions of 15 nearby (d > 1 kpc) open clusters (OCs) were recalculated using data from the UCAC4 catalog. Only evolved or main sequence stars inside a certain radius from the center of the cluster were used. The results significantly differ from the ones presented by Dias et al. (2014). This could be explained by a different approach in which we take the field star contamination into account. The present work aims to emphasize the importance of applying photometric criteria for the calculation of OC proper motions.

  2. Common-base proper orthogonal decomposition as a means of quantitative data comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriegseis, J.; Dehler, T.; Gnirß, M.; Tropea, C.

    2010-08-01

    The method of common-base proper orthogonal decomposition (CPOD) is introduced as a tool for processing data—numerical simulations or experiments—acquired over a selection of operating parameters, for the purpose of quantitative comparison and/or optimization. In the present work, a review of the standard proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is presented to explain the need and the nomenclature of the new approach. In order to illustrate the capabilities of CPOD, both POD and CPOD are applied to spatial velocity fields obtained experimentally from immediately above dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators operated in quiescent air.

  3. Proper motions of 15 pulsars: a comparison between Bayesian and frequentist algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Wang, N.; Yuan, J. P.; Wang, J. B.; Hobbs, G.; Lentati, L.; Manchester, R. N.

    2016-08-01

    We present proper motions for 15 pulsars which are observed regularly by the Nanshan 25-m radio telescope. Two methods, the frequentist method and the Bayesian method, are used and the results are compared. We demonstrate that the two methods can be applied to young pulsar data sets that exhibit large amounts of timing noise with steep spectral exponents and give consistent results. The measured positions also agree with very long baseline interferometric positions. Proper motions for four pulsars are obtained for the first time, and improved values are obtained for five pulsars.

  4. Proper motions of 15 pulsars: a comparison between Bayesian and frequentist algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Wang, N.; Yuan, J. P.; Wang, J. B.; Hobbs, G.; Lentati, L.; Manchester, R. N.

    2016-08-01

    We present proper motions for 15 pulsars which are observed regularly by the Nanshan 25-m radio telescope. Two methods, the frequentist method (Coles et al.2011) and the Bayesian (Lentati et al. 2014) method, are used and the results are compared. We demonstrate that the two methods can be applied to young pulsar data sets that exhibit large amounts of timing noise with steep spectral exponents and give consistent results. The measured positions also agree with very-long-baseline interferometric positions. Proper motions for four pulsars are obtained for the first time, and improved values are obtained for five pulsars.

  5. 49 CFR 392.64 - Riding within closed commercial motor vehicles without proper exits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Riding within closed commercial motor vehicles without proper exits. 392.64 Section 392.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF...

  6. MEASURING THE UNDETECTABLE: PROPER MOTIONS AND PARALLAXES OF VERY FAINT SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Dustin; Hogg, David W.; Jester, Sebastian; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2009-05-15

    The near future of astrophysics involves many large solid-angle, multi-epoch, multiband imaging surveys. These surveys will, at their faint limits, have data on a large number of sources that are too faint to be detected at any individual epoch. Here, we show that it is possible to measure in multi-epoch data not only the fluxes and positions, but also the parallaxes and proper motions of sources that are too faint to be detected at any individual epoch. The method involves fitting a model of a moving point source simultaneously to all imaging, taking account of the noise and point-spread function (PSF) in each image. By this method it is possible to measure the proper motion of a point source with an uncertainty close to the minimum possible uncertainty given the information in the data, which is limited by the PSF, the distribution of observation times (epochs), and the total signal-to-noise in the combined data. We demonstrate our technique on multi-epoch Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging of the SDSS Southern Stripe (SDSSSS). We show that with our new technique we can use proper motions to distinguish very red brown dwarfs from very high-redshift quasars in these SDSS data, for objects that are inaccessible to traditional techniques, and with better fidelity than by multiband imaging alone. We rediscover all 10 known brown dwarfs in our sample and present nine new candidate brown dwarfs, identified on the basis of significant proper motion.

  7. Fine structure in sunspots. II. Intensity variations and proper motions of umbral dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotka, Michal; Brandt, Peter N.; Simon, George W.

    1997-12-01

    Temporal intensity variations of umbral dots (UDs) and dark nuclei (DNs), and proper motions of UDs, were analyzed in a 4 1/2 hour time series of high resolution white light images of the umbra in a medium-size sunspot (NOAA 7519). The observations were made on 5 June 1993 at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope, La Palma. An identification and tracking algorithm was applied to UDs observed in a destretched movie of 360 frames. In total, 662 UDs were tracked, and their intensities, positions, and proper motions were measured. Power spectra of temporal intensity variations of UDs and DNs were computed, and several typical periods were found. The histogram of time-averaged intensities of UDs has two maxima; the UDs belonging to the brighter part of the population are located mostly at or near the umbral-penumbral boundary. The number of UDs decreases with increasing magnitude of the proper motion velocity. Speeds of UDs are grouped at 100 and 400 m/s. The observed spatial distribution of UDs with different proper motion velocities is found to be in contradiction to the generally accepted idea of moving ``peripheral'' and stationary ``central'' UDs. Both ``fast'' and ``slow'' UDs are present in all parts of the umbra. Thus velocity does not appear to be a good criterion for separating UDs into ``peripheral'' and ``central'' ones.

  8. Us and Them: Religious Education and the Role of Proper Communication in Conflict Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massoudi, Mehrdad

    2010-01-01

    The importance of proper language, in the context of multicultural education, and how it can be of help in conflict prevention is discussed. A brief discussion of what a model does and how a scientific model is constructed is provided. A circular model is developed where it is proposed that thought, language, and action, as the three most…

  9. Actual use scene of Han-Character for proper name and coded character set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo

    This article discusses the following two issues. One is overview of standardization of Han-Character in coded character set including Universal coded character set (ISO/IEC 10646), with the relation to Japanese language policy of the government. The other is the difference and particularity of Han-Character usage for proper name and difficulty to implement in ICT systems.

  10. Translating Proper Nouns: A Case Study on English Translation of Hafez's Lyrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirinzadeh, Seyed Alireza; Mahadi, Tengku Sepora Tengku

    2014-01-01

    Proper nouns are regarded so simple that they might be taken for granted in translation explorations. Some may believe that they should not be translated in transmitting source texts to target texts. But, it is not the case; if one looks at present translations, he will notice that different strategies might be applied for translating proper…

  11. 26 CFR 1.1016-2 - Items properly chargeable to capital account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....1016-2 Section 1.1016-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Basis Rules of General Application § 1.1016-2 Items properly... for $10,000. He subsequently expended $6,000 for improvements. Disregarding, for the purpose of...

  12. Quantum interferometric visibility as a witness of general relativistic proper time.

    PubMed

    Zych, Magdalena; Costa, Fabio; Pikovski, Igor; Brukner, Časlav

    2011-01-01

    Current attempts to probe general relativistic effects in quantum mechanics focus on precision measurements of phase shifts in matter-wave interferometry. Yet, phase shifts can always be explained as arising because of an Aharonov-Bohm effect, where a particle in a flat space-time is subject to an effective potential. Here we propose a quantum effect that cannot be explained without the general relativistic notion of proper time. We consider interference of a 'clock'-a particle with evolving internal degrees of freedom-that will not only display a phase shift, but also reduce the visibility of the interference pattern. According to general relativity, proper time flows at different rates in different regions of space-time. Therefore, because of quantum complementarity, the visibility will drop to the extent to which the path information becomes available from reading out the proper time from the 'clock'. Such a gravitationally induced decoherence would provide the first test of the genuine general relativistic notion of proper time in quantum mechanics. PMID:22009037

  13. Quasitoric manifolds and small covers over properly coloured polytopes: immersions and embeddings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baralić, D.; Grujić, V.

    2016-04-01

    We construct small covers and quasitoric manifolds over n-dimensional simple polytopes which allow proper colourings of facets with n colours. We calculate the Stiefel-Whitney classes of these manifolds as obstructions to immersions and embeddings into Euclidean spaces. The largest dimension required for embedding is achieved in the case n is a power of two.Bibliography: 11 titles.

  14. 20 CFR 658.415 - Transferring complaints to proper JS office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transferring complaints to proper JS office. 658.415 Section 658.415 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE JOB SERVICE SYSTEM Job Service...

  15. 20 CFR 602.41 - Proper expenditure of Quality Control granted funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...), 303(a)(9) and 303(b)(2), SSA, and 20 CFR 601.5. For purposes of this section, an expenditure will be... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Proper expenditure of Quality Control granted funds. 602.41 Section 602.41 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  16. 1 CFR 51.9 - What is the proper language of incorporation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... under the DATES caption of the preamble to the final rule document (See 1 CFR 18.12 Preamble... the list of index terms (See 1 CFR 18.20Identification of subjects in agency regulations). ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true What is the proper language of incorporation?...

  17. Young Children's Use of Contrast in Word Learning: The Case of Proper Names

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, D. Geoffrey; Rhemtulla, Mijke

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has established that contrast can exert a powerful effect on early word learning. This study examined the role of contrast in young children's ability to learn proper names. Preschoolers heard a novel word for an unfamiliar stuffed animal in the presence of a second stuffed animal of either the same or a different kind.…

  18. 49 CFR 392.64 - Riding within closed commercial motor vehicles without proper exits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Riding within closed commercial motor vehicles... SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices § 392.64 Riding within closed commercial motor vehicles without proper exits. No person shall ride within the closed body of...

  19. 9 CFR 381.111 - Data to be entered in proper spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Data to be entered in proper spaces. 381.111 Section 381.111 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  20. 9 CFR 381.111 - Data to be entered in proper spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Data to be entered in proper spaces. 381.111 Section 381.111 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  1. 9 CFR 381.111 - Data to be entered in proper spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Data to be entered in proper spaces. 381.111 Section 381.111 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  2. 9 CFR 381.111 - Data to be entered in proper spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Data to be entered in proper spaces. 381.111 Section 381.111 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  3. High Proper Motion Stars. III. Radial Velocities of 24 Late-Type Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, P. C.; De Robertis, M. M.

    1998-11-01

    We report 27 radial velocity measurements for 24 stars, all with annual proper motions larger than 1". For 17 of these, no velocities have previously been published. We identify a few stars that may be spectroscopic binaries and a sdK star of spectacularly high space velocity.

  4. Condom Use: Slippage, Breakage, and Steps for Proper Use among Adolescents in Alternative School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Karin K.; Franks, Heather M.; Glassman, Jill R.; Stanoff, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI), and pregnancy prevention programs often focus on consistent and correct condom use. Research on adolescents' experience using condoms, including condom slippage/breakage, is limited. This exploratory study examines proper condom use and the…

  5. The tentative exploration of Shen Kuo's circle method and proper method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shengchi

    In this paper, the circle method and proper method established by Shen Kuo, a famous scientist of Northern Song Dynasty, are discussed tentatively. This is a new approach for calculating the position of the sun on the ecliptic. The velocity of sun's annual apparent motion is regarded as the sum of a constant and a variation.

  6. 77 FR 70484 - Preoperational Testing of Onsite Electric Power Systems To Verify Proper Load Group Assignments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... COMMISSION Preoperational Testing of Onsite Electric Power Systems To Verify Proper Load Group Assignments... for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1294, ``Preoperational Testing of On-Site Electric... encompass preoperational testing of electrical power systems used to meet current Station...

  7. A Study on How to Breathe Properly When Practicing Tai Chi Chuan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hanchun

    2011-01-01

    When practicing Tai Chi Chuan, proper breath plays an important role in shaping Tai Chi Chuan's style and its fitness value. The paper aims to analyse the postures of Tai Chi Chuan and its breath characteristics. The paper also presents some new insights on how to co-ordinate breath with postures by case studies.

  8. THE IMPORTANCE OF PROPER INTENSITY CALIBRATION FOR RAMAN ANALYSIS OF LOW-LEVEL ANALYTES IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern dispersive Raman spectroscopy offers unique advantages for the analysis of low-concentration analytes in aqueous solution. However, we have found that proper intensity calibration is critical for obtaining these benefits. This is true not only for producing spectra with ...

  9. 42 CFR 405.410 - Conditions for properly opting-out of Medicare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conditions for properly opting-out of Medicare. 405.410 Section 405.410 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Private...

  10. 42 CFR 405.410 - Conditions for properly opting-out of Medicare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conditions for properly opting-out of Medicare. 405.410 Section 405.410 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Private...

  11. 42 CFR 405.410 - Conditions for properly opting-out of Medicare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conditions for properly opting-out of Medicare. 405.410 Section 405.410 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Private...

  12. 42 CFR 405.410 - Conditions for properly opting-out of Medicare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conditions for properly opting-out of Medicare. 405.410 Section 405.410 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Private...

  13. 42 CFR 405.410 - Conditions for properly opting-out of Medicare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conditions for properly opting-out of Medicare. 405.410 Section 405.410 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Private...

  14. 1 CFR 51.9 - What is the proper language of incorporation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... under the DATES caption of the preamble to the final rule document (See 1 CFR 18.12 Preamble... the list of index terms (See 1 CFR 18.20Identification of subjects in agency regulations). ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the proper language of...

  15. How Students Learn from Multiple Contexts and Definitions: Proper Time as a Coordination Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levrini, Olivia; diSessa, Andrea A.

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an empirical analysis of a single classroom episode in which students reveal difficulties with the concept of proper time in special relativity but slowly make progress in improving their understanding. The theoretical framework used is "coordination class theory," which is an evolving model of concepts and conceptual change.…

  16. Proper motion of the Large Magellanic Cloud and the mass of the galaxy. 1: Observational results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B. F.; Klemola, A. R.; Lin, D. N. C.

    1994-04-01

    We have measured the proper motion of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using 21 plates taken with the Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) 4 m telescope and covering an epoch span of 14 yr. The plates were centered on the globular cluster NGC 2257, lying on the northeast periphery of the Cloud. Proper motions were determined for 251 LMC members, chosen on the basis of the photometry of Stryker (1984), using 92 galaxies as a reference frame. The measured mean absolute proper motion of the LMC stars in our region is mualpha = 0.120 sec +/- 0.028 sec century-1, mudelta=0.026 sec +/- 0.027 sec century-1. After correcting for the rotation of the LMC and the effects of solar motion, this proper motion combined with the radial velocity of the LMC implies a galactocentric coordinate radial velocity for the Cloud of 48 +/- 41 km s-1 and a total galactocentric transverse velocity of 215 +/- 48 km s-1.

  17. The Pitfalls of Valenced Labels and the Benefits of Properly Calibrated Psychological Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.

    2012-01-01

    Replies to comments by Sonja Lyubomirsky (see record 2012-27130-008), Riva Guiseppe (see record 2012-27130-009), and Alan S. Waterman (see record 2012-27130-010) on the original article by McNulty and Fincham (see record 2011-15476-001) regarding the pitfalls of valenced labels and the benefits of properly calibrated psychological flexibility.

  18. 17 CFR 230.401a - Requirements as to proper form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements as to proper form. 230.401a Section 230.401a Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General Requirements § 230.401a Requirements as...

  19. 17 CFR 230.401a - Requirements as to proper form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements as to proper form. 230.401a Section 230.401a Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General Requirements § 230.401a Requirements as...

  20. Improved Proper Name Recall in Aging after Electrical Stimulation of the Anterior Temporal Lobes

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Lars A.; McCoy, David; Coslett, H. Branch; Olson, Ingrid R.; Wolk, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychology suggests that portions of the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) play a critical role in proper name retrieval. We previously found that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the ATLs improved retrieval of proper names in young adults (Ross et al., 2010). Here we extend that finding to older adults who tend to experience greater proper-naming deficits than young adults. The task was to look at pictures of famous faces or landmarks and verbally recall the associated proper name. Our results show a numerical improvement in face naming after left or right ATL stimulation, but a statistically significant effect only after left-lateralized stimulation. The magnitude of the enhancing effect was similar in older and younger adults but the lateralization of the effect differed depending on age. The implications of these findings for the use of tDCS as tool for rehabilitation of age-related loss of name recall are discussed. PMID:22016735

  1. Nerve conduction velocity

    MedlinePlus

    Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see how fast electrical signals move through a nerve. ... normal body temperature. Being too cold slows nerve conduction. Tell your doctor if you have a cardiac ...

  2. Nerve conduction velocity

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003927.htm Nerve conduction velocity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see how ...

  3. The Conductivity of Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner-Canham, Geoff

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical background and modern explanations for the popular demonstration of showing conductivity of solutions through the insertion of a light-bulb conductivity tester into deionized water and water with salt in it. (PR)

  4. Improvement of Baltic proper water quality using large-scale ecological engineering.

    PubMed

    Stigebrandt, Anders; Gustafsson, Bo G

    2007-04-01

    Eutrophication of the Baltic proper has led to impaired water quality, demonstrated by, e.g., extensive blooming of cyanobacteria during the premium summer holiday season and severe oxygen deficit in the deepwater. Sustainable improvements in water quality by the reduction of phosphorus (P) supplies will take several decades before giving full effects because of large P storages both in soils in the watershed and in the water column and bottom sediments of the Baltic proper. In this article it is shown that drastically improved water quality may be obtained within a few years using large-scale ecological engineering methods. Natural variations in the Baltic proper during the last decades have demonstrated how rapid improvements may be achieved. The present article describes the basic dynamics of P, organic matter, and oxygen in the Baltic proper. It also briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different classes of methods of ecological engineering aimed at restoring the Baltic proper from eutrophication effects. Preliminary computations show that the P content might be halved within a few years if about 100 kg O2 s(-1) are supplied to the upper deepwater. This would require 100 pump stations, each transporting about 100 m3 s(-1) of oxygen-rich so-called winter water from about 50 to 125 m depth where the water is released as a buoyant jet. Each pump station needs a power supply of 0.6 MW. Offshore wind power technology seems mature enough to provide the power needed by the pump stations. The cost to install 100 wind-powered pump stations, each with 0.6 MW power, at about 125-m depth is about 200 million Euros. PMID:17520945

  5. Surface Conductive Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, John; Suib, Steven L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the properties of surface-conducting glass and the chemical nature of surface-conducting stannic (tin) oxide. Also provides the procedures necessary for the preparation of surface-conducting stannic oxide films on glass substrates. The experiment is suitable for the advanced inorganic chemistry laboratory. (JN)

  6. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, Roger L.; Sylwester, Alan P.

    1989-01-01

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  7. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1988-06-20

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  8. DISTANCE AND PROPER MOTION MEASUREMENT OF THE RED SUPERGIANT, S PERSEI, WITH VLBI H{sub 2}O MASER ASTROMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Asaki, Y.; Deguchi, S.; Imai, H.; Hachisuka, K.; Miyoshi, M.; Honma, M. E-mail: deguchi@nro.nao.ac.j E-mail: khachi@shao.ac.c E-mail: mareki.honma@nao.ac.j

    2010-09-20

    We have conducted Very Long Baseline Array phase-referencing monitoring of H{sub 2}O masers around the red supergiant, S Persei, for six years. We have fitted maser motions to a simple expanding-shell model with a common annual parallax and stellar proper motion, and obtained the annual parallax as 0.413 {+-} 0.017 mas and the stellar proper motion as (-0.49 {+-} 0.23 mas yr{sup -1}, -1.19 {+-} 0.20 mas yr{sup -1}) in right ascension and declination, respectively. The obtained annual parallax corresponds to the trigonometric distance of 2.42{sup +0.11}{sub -0.09} kpc. Assuming a Galactocentric distance of the Sun of 8.5 kpc, the circular rotational velocity of the local standard of rest at a distance of the Sun of 220 km s{sup -1}, and a flat Galactic rotation curve, S Persei is suggested to have a non-circular motion deviating from the Galactic circular rotation for 15 km s{sup -1}, which is mainly dominated by the anti-rotation direction component of 12.9 {+-} 2.9 km s{sup -1}. This red supergiant is thought to belong to the OB association, Per OB1, so that this non-circular motion is representative of a motion of the OB association in the Milky Way. This non-circular motion is somewhat larger than that explained by the standard density-wave theory for a spiral galaxy and is attributed to either a cluster shuffling of the OB association, or to non-linear interactions between non-stationary spiral arms and multi-phase interstellar media. The latter comes from a new view of a spiral arm formation in the Milky Way suggested by recent large N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics numerical simulations.

  9. Proper motions and membership probabilities of stars in the region of globular cluster NGC 6366

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sariya, Devesh P.; Yadav, R. K. S.

    2015-12-01

    Context. NGC 6366 is a metal-rich globular cluster that is relatively unstudied. It is a kinematically interesting cluster, reported as belonging to the slowly rotating halo system, which is unusual given its metallicity and spatial location in the Galaxy. Aims: The purpose of this research is to determine the relative proper motion and membership probability of the stars in the region of globular cluster NGC 6366. To target cluster members reliably during spectroscopic surveys without including field stars, a good proper motion and membership probability catalogue of NGC 6366 is needed. Methods: To derive relative proper motions, the archival data from the Wide Field Imager mounted on the ESO 2.2 m telescope have been reduced using a high precision astrometric software. The images used are in the B,V, and I photometric bands with an epoch gap of ~3.2 yr. The calibrated BVI magnitudes have been determined using recent data for secondary standard stars. Results: We determined relative proper motions and cluster membership probabilities for 2530 stars in the field of globular cluster NGC 6366. The median proper motion rms errors for stars brighter than V ~ 18 mag is ~2 mas yr-1, which gradually increases to ~5 mas yr-1 for stars having magnitudes V ~ 20 mag. Based on the membership catalogue, we checked the membership status of the X-ray sources and variable stars of NGC 6366 mentioned in the literature. We also provide the astronomical community with an electronic catalogue that includes B, V, and I magnitudes; relative proper motions; and membership probabilities of the stars in the region of NGC 6366. Based on observations with the MPG/ESO 2.2 m and ESO/VLT telescopes, located at La Silla and Paranal Observatory, Chile, under DDT programs 164.O-0561(F), 71.D-0220(A) and the archive material.Full Table 4 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/584/A59

  10. Asteroid proper elements and the dynamical structure of the asteroid main belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, A.; Knezevic, Z.

    1994-02-01

    We have computed proper elements for 12,573 asteroids, including all the ones with orbits accurate enough to be useful for family identification. This was done with an upgraded version of our iterative analytical algorithm, resulting in significantly improved accuracy for most asteroids in the low to moderate inclination and eccentricity region of the main belt (typical instability in the proper e and sin I being less than or = 0.0015 over 5 Myr). This stability has been verified by numerical integrations (within a realistic model) of 35 test cases. In a small percentage of cases, the accuracy of the proper elements computation was degraded by the effects of some resonance, either in mean motion or secular. We have been able to list the resonances responsible for this degradation in almost all the cases, in such a way that these are properly flagged with a 'resonance code.' This list of resonances, including nine high-degree secular resonances not known before our work, provides a detailed map of the dynamical structure of the asteroid main belt. We investigate the long-term dynamics of some of these secular resonances and find both very large amplitude oscillations of the eccentricity and irregular behavior for asteroids affected by one or more resonances. We show the geometry of these resonances in the proper elements space and their relationship with the asteroid distribution and with the most prominent families. In the second part of the paper, we give a detailed description of the improvements of this version of the proper elements theory with respect to the previously published ones. (A. Milani and Z. Knezevic, 1990, 1992). We discuss the success of some of these improvements in cases which were previously of degraded accuracy, and we also comment on the failure of some attempted improvements. We conjecture that our theory is very close to the fundamental limitations to the accuracy of any analytical theory, which result from the fact that there is an

  11. A VERY HIGH PROPER MOTION STAR AND THE FIRST L DWARF IN THE KEPLER FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Gizis, John E.; Troup, Nicholas W.; Burgasser, Adam J.

    2011-08-01

    We report two nearby high proper motion dwarfs of special interest identified using the Preliminary Data Release of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey. WISEP J191239.91-361516.4 has a motion of 2.1 arcsec yr{sup -1}. Photometry identifies it as a mid-M dwarf. WISEP J190648.47+401106.8 is a spectroscopically confirmed L1 dwarf in the Kepler Mission field with a motion of 0.48 arcsec yr{sup -1}. The estimated distance is 17 pc. Both lie at relatively low galactic latitudes and demonstrate the possibility of discovering proper motion stars independent of the historic photographic sky surveys.

  12. Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach – proper identification and treatment remain a challenge

    PubMed Central

    Søreide, Jon Arne; Greve, Ole Jacob; Gudlaugsson, Einar; Størset, Svein

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The term hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HAC) of the stomach was introduced three decades ago with the observation of high serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels in some gastric adenocarcinoma patients. This very rare gastric cancer patient subgroup is likely frequently misdiagnosed. Material Two patients who were recently diagnosed with HAC of the stomach at our institution are presented. We also performed a structured literature search and reviewed pertinent articles to provide knowledge to improve the proper identification, diagnosis and management of patients with gastric HAC. Results HAC is a rare subgroup of gastric carcinoma with poor prognosis. Clinical management of this population may be challenging. The scientific literature is largely based on very small patient series or case reports, and the evidence for proper decision making and management is considered weak. Conclusion All physicians involved in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with gastric cancer should pay attention to this rare subgroup to improve identification. PMID:26728165

  13. Discovery of High Proper-Motion Ancient White Dwarfs: Nearby Massive Compact Halo Objects?

    PubMed

    Ibata; Irwin; Bienaymé; Scholz; Guibert

    2000-03-20

    We present the discovery and spectroscopic identification of two very high proper-motion ancient white dwarf stars, found in a systematic proper-motion survey. Their kinematics and apparent magnitude clearly indicate that they are halo members, while their optical spectra are almost identical to the recently identified cool halo white dwarf WD 0346+246. Canonical stellar halo models predict a white dwarf volume density that is 2 orders of magnitude less than the rho approximately 7x10-4 M middle dot in circle pc-3 inferred from this survey. With the caveat that the sample size is very small, it appears that a significant fraction, approximately 10%, of the local dark matter halo is in the form of very old, cool, white dwarfs. PMID:10702128

  14. Four years experience in APMS star plate processing - Results and future plans. [Automated Proper Motion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomb, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    The present paper describes an automated system for measuring stellar proper motions on the basis of information contained in photographic plates. In this system, the images on a star plate are digitized by a scanning microdensitometer using light from a He-Ne gas laser, and a special-purpose computer arranges the measurements in computer-compatible form on magnetic tape. The scanning and image-reconstruction processes are briefly outlined, and the image-evaluation techniques are discussed. It is shown that the present system has been especially successful in measuring the proper motions of low-luminosity stars, including 119 stars with less than 1/10,000 of the solar bolometric luminosity. Plans for measurements of high-density Milky Way star plates are noted.

  15. Optical BVRI photometry of common proper motion F/G/K+M wide separation binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ting; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Williams, Patrick; Chavez, Joy; Lépine, Sébastien

    2014-10-01

    We present optical (BVRI) photometric measurements of a sample of 76 common proper motion wide separation main-sequence binary pairs. The pairs are composed of a F-, G-, or K-type primary star and an M-type secondary. The sample is selected from the revised NLTT catalog and the LSPM catalog. The photometry is generally precise to 0.03 mag in all bands. We separate our sample into two groups, dwarf candidates and subdwarf candidates, using the reduced proper motion diagram constructed with our improved photometry. The M subdwarf candidates in general have larger V – R colors than the M dwarf candidates at a given V – I color. This is consistent with an average metallicity difference between the two groups, as predicted by the PHOENIX/BT-Settl models. The improved photometry will be used as input into a technique to determine the metallicities of the M-type stars.

  16. Asymptotic Behavior of the Proper Length and Volume of the Schwarzschild Singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qadir, Asghar; Siddiqui, Azad A.

    Though popular presentations give the Schwarzschild singularity as a point, it is known that it is spacelike and not timelike. Thus, it has a "length" and is not a "point." In fact, its length is necessarily infinite. It has been proven that the proper length of the Qadir-Wheeler suture model goes to infinity,1 while its proper volume shrinks to zero, and the asymptotic behavior of the length and volume has been calculated. That model consists of two Friedmann sections connected by a Schwarzschild "suture." The question arises whether a similar analysis could provide the asymptotic behavior of the Schwarzschild black hole near the singularity. It is proven here that, unlike the behavior for the suture model, for the Schwarzschild essential singularity Δs ~ K1/3 ln K and V ~ K-1 ln K, where K is the mean extrinsic curvature, or the York time.

  17. Searching for Proper-Motion Brown Dwarfs in the Mid-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zequn; Ashby, Matthew; Hora, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out a sensitive search for infrared proper-motion sources in the 10 square degree Spitzer/IRAC Bootes field with imaging that covers a ten-year timespan. With the latest epoch, from the Decadal IRAC Survey of Bootes (DIBS), a Cycle 10 Spitzer program, we have identified more than 2000 4.5 micron sources with proper motions in excess of 3-sigma significance, between 0.05 and 0.7 arcsec/yr. Based on the extensive multiband photometry available for our sources, we estimate rough types and distances. A fraction of these dim, nearby sources are brown dwarfs--objects which are typically very difficult to detect at visible wavelengths because they are optically dim. This work is supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  18. Affect of Early Life Oxygen Exposure on Proper Lung Development and Response to Respiratory Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Domm, William; Misra, Ravi S.; O’Reilly, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Children born preterm often exhibit reduced lung function and increased severity of response to respiratory viruses, suggesting that premature birth has compromised proper development of the respiratory epithelium and innate immune defenses. Increasing evidence suggests that premature birth promotes aberrant lung development likely due to the neonatal oxygen transition occurring before pulmonary development has matured. Given that preterm infants are born at a point of time where their immune system is also still developing, early life oxygen exposure may also be disrupting proper development of innate immunity. Here, we review current literature in hopes of stimulating research that enhances understanding of how the oxygen environment at birth influences lung development and host defense. This knowledge may help identify those children at risk for disease and ideally culminate in the development of novel therapies that improve their health. PMID:26322310

  19. XO-2b: A Transiting Hot Jupiter in a Metal-rich Common Proper Motion Binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Christopher J.; McCullough, P. R.; Valenti, J. A.; Summers, F. J.; Stys, J. E.; Johns-Krull, C. M.; Janes, K. A.; Heasley, J. N.; Bissinger, R.; Fleenor, M.; Foote, C. N.; Garcia-Melendo, E.; Gary, B. L.; Howell, P. J.; Mallia, F.; Masi, G.; Vanmunster, T.

    2007-05-01

    XO-2b, the second transiting extrasolar planet from the XO Project (McCullough et al. 2005), is approximately Jupiter-size and 0.6 Jupiter-mass with an orbital period of 2.6 days. The stellar host, XO-2, is a V=11.2, early K dwarf which is metal rich, [Fe/H]=+0.44. XO-2 has a high proper motion, 157 mas/yr, and has a common proper motion stellar companion with half arcmin separation. The two stars are nearly identical twins, with very similar spectra and apparent magnitudes. The global network of amateur and professional astronomers organized by the XO project confirmed the XO-2b transit light curve two days after being notified that it was a high-priority candidate, and radial velocities confirmed its planetary mass eight days after that.

  20. Damage identification in shear-type structures using a proper orthogonal decomposition approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dansheng; Xiang, Wei; Zeng, Peng; Zhu, Hongping

    2015-10-01

    Proper orthogonal modes (POMs) obtained through proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), as a statistical pattern analysis technique, have been physically demonstrated to represent the dominant structure of the dynamic response data in previous study. In this paper, a novel POMs-based damage identification approach for shear-type buildings is developed. First, POMs of acceleration dynamic response of a shear-type building under Gauss White Noise (GWN) ground motion are obtained using singular value decomposition; then, the dominant POMs of acceleration response are used to identify the damage locations and severities through particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. This proposed approach is applied to two three-story shear-type buildings in numerical simulation and a three-story shear-type frame in experimental study. The results demonstrate that the locations and severities of structural damage in shear-type buildings can be effectively identified by using the proposed method.

  1. Activated sampling in complex materials at finite temperature: The properly obeying probability activation-relaxation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocks, Henk; Chubynsky, M. V.; Barkema, G. T.; Mousseau, Normand

    2005-12-01

    While the dynamics of many complex systems is dominated by activated events, there are very few simulation methods that take advantage of this fact. Most of these procedures are restricted to relatively simple systems or, as with the activation-relaxation technique (ART), sample the conformation space efficiently at the cost of a correct thermodynamical description. We present here an extension of ART, the properly obeying probability ART (POP-ART), that obeys detailed balance and samples correctly the thermodynamic ensemble. Testing POP-ART on two model systems, a vacancy and an interstitial in crystalline silicon, we show that this method recovers the proper thermodynamical weights associated with the various accessible states and is significantly faster than molecular dynamics in the simulations of a vacancy below 700 K.

  2. Activated sampling in complex materials at finite temperature: the properly obeying probability activation-relaxation technique.

    PubMed

    Vocks, Henk; Chubynsky, M V; Barkema, G T; Mousseau, Normand

    2005-12-22

    While the dynamics of many complex systems is dominated by activated events, there are very few simulation methods that take advantage of this fact. Most of these procedures are restricted to relatively simple systems or, as with the activation-relaxation technique (ART), sample the conformation space efficiently at the cost of a correct thermodynamical description. We present here an extension of ART, the properly obeying probability ART (POP-ART), that obeys detailed balance and samples correctly the thermodynamic ensemble. Testing POP-ART on two model systems, a vacancy and an interstitial in crystalline silicon, we show that this method recovers the proper thermodynamical weights associated with the various accessible states and is significantly faster than molecular dynamics in the simulations of a vacancy below 700 K. PMID:16396563

  3. An adaptive model order reduction by proper snapshot selection for nonlinear dynamical problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigro, P. S. B.; Anndif, M.; Teixeira, Y.; Pimenta, P. M.; Wriggers, P.

    2016-04-01

    Model Order Reduction (MOR) methods are employed in many fields of Engineering in order to reduce the processing time of complex computational simulations. A usual approach to achieve this is the application of Galerkin projection to generate representative subspaces (reduced spaces). However, when strong nonlinearities in a dynamical system are present and this technique is employed several times along the simulation, it can be very inefficient. This work proposes a new adaptive strategy, which ensures low computational cost and small error to deal with this problem. This work also presents a new method to select snapshots named Proper Snapshot Selection (PSS). The objective of the PSS is to obtain a good balance between accuracy and computational cost by improving the adaptive strategy through a better snapshot selection in real time (online analysis). With this method, it is possible a substantial reduction of the subspace, keeping the quality of the model without the use of the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD).

  4. Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach - proper identification and treatment remain a challenge.

    PubMed

    Søreide, Jon Arne; Greve, Ole Jacob; Gudlaugsson, Einar; Størset, Svein

    2016-06-01

    Objective The term hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HAC) of the stomach was introduced three decades ago with the observation of high serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels in some gastric adenocarcinoma patients. This very rare gastric cancer patient subgroup is likely frequently misdiagnosed. Material Two patients who were recently diagnosed with HAC of the stomach at our institution are presented. We also performed a structured literature search and reviewed pertinent articles to provide knowledge to improve the proper identification, diagnosis and management of patients with gastric HAC. Results HAC is a rare subgroup of gastric carcinoma with poor prognosis. Clinical management of this population may be challenging. The scientific literature is largely based on very small patient series or case reports, and the evidence for proper decision making and management is considered weak. Conclusion All physicians involved in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with gastric cancer should pay attention to this rare subgroup to improve identification. PMID:26728165

  5. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition of Flow-Field in Non-Stationary Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshin, Victor; Seifert, Avraham; Sidilkover, David; Tadmor, Gilead

    2015-11-01

    This work presents a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) methodology for a flow field in a domain with moving boundaries. A relatively simple volume preserving mapping which transforms a deforming to stationary domain is described. This mapping was created by combining a transfinite interpolation and volume adjustment algorithm. The algorithm is based on iterative solution of the Laplace equation with respect to the displacement potential of the grid points. The transformed domain is suitable for proper orthogonal decomposition procedure. The presented mapping can be applied to a wide variety of flow problems which contain single or in some cases multiple deforming boundaries. Currently, this method is presented for 2D geometries, however, it can be expanded to 3D cases. This approach can assist in creation of low order models for complex aero-elastic systems which to date could not be analysed by existing POD approaches. Finally, the method is demonstrated on CFD results of pitching and plunging ellipse in still fluid.

  6. Migration of Founder Epithelial Cells Drives Proper Molar Tooth Positioning and Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Prochazka, Jan; Prochazkova, Michaela; Du, Wen; Spoutil, Frantisek; Tureckova, Jolana; Hoch, Renee; Shimogori, Tomomi; Sedlacek, Radislav; Rubenstein, John L; Wittmann, Torsten; Klein, Ophir D

    2015-12-21

    The proper positioning of organs during development is essential, yet little is known about the regulation of this process in mammals. Using murine tooth development as a model, we have found that cell migration plays a central role in positioning of the organ primordium. By combining lineage tracing, genetic cell ablation, and confocal live imaging, we identified a migratory population of Fgf8-expressing epithelial cells in the embryonic mandible. These Fgf8-expressing progenitors furnish the epithelial cells required for tooth development, and the progenitor population migrates toward a Shh-expressing region in the mandible, where the tooth placode will initiate. Inhibition of Fgf and Shh signaling disrupted the oriented migration of cells, leading to a failure of tooth development. These results demonstrate the importance of intraepithelial cell migration in proper positioning of an initiating organ. PMID:26702830

  7. How to conduct an emissions inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Topazio, R.J.

    1994-07-01

    An inventory will quantify emissions through source identification, extensive data gathering, research, process investigation, emission rate calculation and control equipment efficiency determination. For most facilities, a proper inventory will take six months to complete. Add that to the time it will take to prepare the permit application and it becomes evident that action needs to be taken now. Deadlines for submitting Title V operating permit applications to state agencies are right around the corner. This paper describes the process of conducting an emissions inventory.

  8. Accretion History and Mass of the Milky Way Halo: HST Proper Motions and Keck Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Emily C.; Deason, A. J.; Guhathakurta, P.; Rockosi, C. M.; Barro, G.; Van Der Marel, R. P.; Sohn, S.; Anderson, J.; HSTPROMO Collaboration; HALO7D Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Milky Way (MW) is shrouded in a faint metal-poor stellar halo. Its structure and kinematics provide a unique archaeological record of the MW's formation, past evolution, and accretion history. These data also help us constrain the dark matter mass out to large radii (50 to 100 kpc). The stellar density profile and line-of-sight velocity dispersion profile of the halo are known, but our understanding of the halo is limited by a striking lack of knowledge about the transverse motions of its stars. It is difficult from the ground to determine proper motions (PMs) far outside of the solar neighborhood. We have recently developed techniques for making PM measurements from multi-epoch Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data using distant background galaxies to define an absolute astrometric reference frame. We will obtain very deep (8 to 24 hr integrations) Keck II 10-m telescope/DEIMOS spectra of hundreds of faint Milky Way halo stars with HST-measured proper motions, to measure their line-of-sight velocities and chemical abundances, giving us 6D phase-space information plus chemical abundance information. Our primary fields of interest include the CANDELS HST/MCT program fields GOODS-N, COSMOS, and EGS. These fields are characterized by deep HST photometry at wavelengths ranging from the ultraviolet to the infrared. This dataset, which will be unique even in the era of Gaia, will vastly improve our understanding of the Milky Way structure, evolution and mass in a way that neither the HST proper motions or Keck spectroscopy can do on their own. This research is part of two large collaborations: The HST Proper Motion (HSTPROMO) collaboration and the Halo Assembly in Lambda-CDM: Observations in 7-Dimensions (HALO7D). We acknowledge financial support from the National Science Foundation and NASA.

  9. X-ray Proper Motions and Shock Speeds along the Northwest Rim of SN1006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Long, Knox S.; Petre, Robert; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Williams, Brian J.; Winkler, P. Frank

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an X-ray proper motion measurement for the NW rim of SN 1006, carried out by comparing Chandra observations from 2001 and 2012. The NW limb has predominantly thermal X-ray emission, and it is the only location in SN 1006 with signi cant optical emission: a thin, Balmer-dominated lament. For most of the NW rim, the proper motion is approximately equal to 0.30"yr(exp -1), essentially the same as has been measured from the H alpha lament. Isolated regions of the NW limb are dominated by nonthermal emission, and here the proper motion is much higher, 0:49"yr(exp -1), close to the value measured in X-rays along the much brighter NE limb, where the X-rays are overwhelmingly nonthermal. At the 2.2 kpc distance to SN 1006, the proper motions imply shock velocities of approximately 3000 kms(exp -1) and approximately 5000 kms(exp -1) in the thermal and nonthermal regions, respectively. A lower velocity behind the H alpha filament is consistent with the picture that SN 1006 is encountering denser gas in the NW, as is also suggested by its overall morphology. In the thermally-dominated portion of the X-ray shell, we also see an o set in the radial profiles at different energies; the 0.5-0.6 keV peak dominated by O VII is closer to the shock front than that of the 0.8-3 keV emission|due to the longer times for heavier elements to reach ionization states where they produce strong X-ray emission.

  10. VLBI FOR GRAVITY PROBE B. V. PROPER MOTION AND PARALLAX OF THE GUIDE STAR, IM PEGASI

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, M. I.; Lebach, D. E.; Shapiro, I. I.; Bartel, N.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Ransom, R. R.; Lestrade, J.-F.

    2012-07-01

    We present the principal astrometric results of the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program undertaken in support of the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) relativity mission. VLBI observations of the GP-B guide star, the RS CVn binary IM Pegasi (HR 8703), yielded positions at 35 epochs between 1997 and 2005. We discuss the statistical assumptions behind these results and our methods for estimating the systematic errors. We find the proper motion of IM Peg in an extragalactic reference frame closely related to the International Celestial Reference Frame 2 (ICRF2) to be -20.83 {+-} 0.03 {+-} 0.09 mas yr{sup -1} in right ascension and -27.27 {+-} 0.03 {+-} 0.09 mas yr{sup -1} in declination. For each component, the first uncertainty is the statistical standard error and the second is the total standard error (SE) including plausible systematic errors. We also obtain a parallax of 10.37 {+-} 0.07 mas (distance: 96.4 {+-} 0.7 pc), for which there is no evidence of any significant contribution of systematic error. Our parameter estimates for the {approx}25 day period orbital motion of the stellar radio emission have SEs corresponding to {approx}0.10 mas on the sky in each coordinate. The total SE of our estimate of IM Peg's proper motion is {approx}30% smaller than the accuracy goal set by the GP-B project before launch: 0.14 mas yr{sup -1} for each coordinate of IM Peg's proper motion. Our results ensure that the uncertainty in IM Peg's proper motion makes only a very small contribution to the uncertainty of the GP-B relativity tests.

  11. X-RAY PROPER MOTIONS AND SHOCK SPEEDS ALONG THE NORTHWEST RIM OF SN 1006

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuda, Satoru; Long, Knox S.; Williams, Brian J.; Petre, Robert; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Winkler, P. Frank E-mail: long@stsci.edu E-mail: reynolds@ncsu.edu

    2013-02-15

    We report the results of an X-ray proper-motion measurement for the NW rim of SN 1006, carried out by comparing Chandra observations from 2001 to 2012. The NW limb has predominantly thermal X-ray emission, and it is the only location in SN 1006 with significant optical emission: a thin, Balmer-dominated filament. For most of the NW rim, the proper motion is Almost-Equal-To 0.''30 yr{sup -1}, essentially the same as has been measured from the H{alpha} filament. Isolated regions of the NW limb are dominated by nonthermal emission, and here the proper motion is much higher, 0.''49 yr{sup -1}, close to the value measured in X-rays along the much brighter NE limb, where the X-rays are overwhelmingly nonthermal. At the 2.2 kpc distance to SN 1006, the proper motions imply shock velocities of {approx}3000 km s{sup -1} and {approx}5000 km s{sup -1} in the thermal and nonthermal regions, respectively. A lower velocity behind the H{alpha} filament is consistent with the picture that SN 1006 is encountering denser gas in the NW, as is also suggested by its overall morphology. In the thermally dominated portion of the X-ray shell, we also see an offset in the radial profiles at different energies; the 0.5-0.6 keV peak dominated by O VII is closer to the shock front than that of the 0.8-3 keV emission-due to the longer times for heavier elements to reach ionization states where they produce strong X-ray emission.

  12. WATER MASERS IN THE ANDROMEDA GALAXY: THE FIRST STEP TOWARD PROPER MOTION

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, Jeremy

    2011-05-01

    We have detected and confirmed five water maser complexes in the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) using the Green Bank Telescope. These masers will provide the high brightness temperature point sources needed for proper motion studies of M31, enabling measurement of its full three-dimensional velocity vector and its geometric distance via proper rotation. The motion of M31 is the keystone of Local Group dynamics and a gateway to the dark matter profiles of galaxies in general. Our survey for water masers selected 206 luminous compact 24 {mu}m emitting regions in M31 and was sensitive enough to detect any maser useful for {approx}10 {mu}as yr{sup -1} astrometry. The newly discovered masers span the isotropic luminosity range (0.3-1.9) x 10{sup -3} L{sub sun} in single spectral components and are analogous to luminous Galactic masers. The masers are distributed around the molecular ring, including locations close to the major and minor axes, which is nearly ideal for proper motion studies. We find no correlation between 24 {mu}m luminosity and water maser luminosity, suggesting that while water masers arise in star-forming regions, the nonlinear amplification pathways and beamed nature of the water masers means that they are not predictable based on IR luminosity alone. This suggests that there are additional bright masers to be found in M31. We predict that the geometric distance and systemic proper motion of M31 can be measured in 2-3 years with current facilities. A 'moving cluster' observation of diverging masers as M31 approaches the Galaxy may be possible in the long term.

  13. Distance and proper motion measurement of water masers in sharpless 269 IRS 2w

    SciTech Connect

    Asaki, Y.; Imai, H.; Sobolev, A. M.; Parfenov, S. Yu. E-mail: hiroimai@sci.kagoshima-u.ac.jp E-mail: Sergey.Parfenov@urfu.ru

    2014-05-20

    We present astrometric analysis of archival data of water masers in the star-forming region Sharpless 269 (S269) IRS 2w, observed with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry. An annual parallax of one of the bright maser features in this region was previously reported to be 0.189 ± 0.008 milliarcsecond (mas) using part of the same archival data as we used. However, we found that this maser feature is not the best to represent the annual parallax to S269 IRS 2w because the morphology is remarkably elongated in the east-west direction. For this study we have selected another maser feature showing simpler morphology. This makes the new annual parallax estimate more credible. Our newly obtained annual parallax is 0.247 ± 0.034 mas, corresponding to 4.05{sub −0.49}{sup +0.65} kpc. This value is well consistent with the 3.7-3.8 kpc obtained using the kinematic distance estimates and photometric distance modulus. We considered two hypotheses for the water-maser spatial distribution, a bipolar outflow and an expanding ring, in a kinematic model fitting analysis with a radially expanding flow. At this stage, any conclusions about the systemic proper motion could not be drawn from the kinematic analysis. Alternatively, we evaluated the mean proper motion to be (0.39 ± 0.92, –1.27 ± 0.90) mas yr{sup –1} eastward and northward, respectively, from the obtained proper motions of the detected water-maser features. The newly obtained annual parallax and mean proper motion give the peculiar motion of S269 IRS 2w to be (U {sub s}, V {sub s}, W {sub s}) of (8 ± 6, –21 ± 17, 1 ± 18) km s{sup –1}.

  14. Lemniscate-guided powered roof supports adapted for proper operation with the roof on longwall faces

    SciTech Connect

    Gwiazda, J.B.

    1985-08-01

    A description is given of a new design of lemniscate-guided powered roof support developed at the Central Mining Institute, Katowice. Conventional supports of this type present a serious reaction with the roof because of the horizontal displacement of the canopy in the course of decreasing support height as the support takes weight. The new design eliminates these disadvantages and ensures a proper performance in relation to the mine roof.

  15. High conductance surge cable

    DOEpatents

    Murray, Matthew M.; Wilfong, Dennis H.; Lomax, Ralph E.

    1998-01-01

    An electrical cable for connecting transient voltage surge suppressers to ectrical power panels. A strip of electrically conductive foil defines a longitudinal axis, with a length of an electrical conductor electrically attached to the metallic foil along the longitudinal axis. The strip of electrically conductive foil and the length of an electrical conductor are covered by an insulating material. For impedance matching purposes, triangular sections can be removed from the ends of the electrically conductive foil at the time of installation.

  16. High conductance surge cable

    DOEpatents

    Murray, M.M.; Wilfong, D.H.; Lomax, R.E.

    1998-12-08

    An electrical cable for connecting transient voltage surge suppressors to electrical power panels. A strip of electrically conductive foil defines a longitudinal axis, with a length of an electrical conductor electrically attached to the metallic foil along the longitudinal axis. The strip of electrically conductive foil and the length of an electrical conductor are covered by an insulating material. For impedance matching purposes, triangular sections can be removed from the ends of the electrically conductive foil at the time of installation. 6 figs.

  17. Measuring the proper motions of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellingsen, Simon; Macquart, Jean-Pierre; Bignall, Hayley; Breen, Shari; Reynolds, Cormac; Imai, Hiroshi; Keller, Stefan; Bekki, Kenji; Krishnan, Vasaant; Cioni, Maria-Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Interactions between galaxies are known to play a key role in their evolution throughout cosmic history. Studies of past and current interactions between Local Group galaxies provide us with a unique opportunity to investigate the key factors and effects of such interactions at high resolution and sensitivity. Our understanding of the interaction of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC & SMC) with each other and with the Milky Way (MW) have changed dramatically in the last decade due to the determination of the proper motions of the LMC and SMC from optical studies. The derived proper motions predict a history of interaction for the Clouds that is at odds with the leading and trailing arms of Magellanic Stream gas. This proposal is a companion to an LBA project to measure the proper motions of both the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. Observations to measure the flux density of the potential maser targets a few weeks prior to an LBA observation will enable us to tailor the observing strategy to maximise the observational sensitivity and hence the astrometric accuracy.

  18. Measuring the proper motions of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellingsen, Simon; Macquart, Jean-Pierre; Bignall, Hayley; Breen, Shari; Reynolds, Cormac; Imai, Hiroshi; Keller, Stefan; Bekki, Kenji; Krishnan, Vasaant; Cioni, Maria-Rosa

    2013-04-01

    Interactions between galaxies are known to play a key role in their evolution throughout cosmic history. Studies of past and current interactions between Local Group galaxies provide us with a unique opportunity to investigate the key factors and effects of such interactions at high resolution and sensitivity. Our understanding of the interaction of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC & SMC) with each other and with the Milky Way (MW) have changed dramatically in the last decade due to the determination of the proper motions of the LMC and SMC from optical studies. The derived proper motions predict a history of interaction for the Clouds that is at odds with the leading and trailing arms of Magellanic Stream gas. This proposal is a companion to an LBA project to measure the proper motions of both the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. Observations to measure the flux density of the potential maser targets a few weeks prior to an LBA observation will enable us to tailor the observing strategy to maximise the observational sensitivity and hence the astrometric accuracy.

  19. Measuring the proper motions of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellingsen, Simon; Macquart, Jean-Pierre; Bignall, Hayley; Beasley, Tony; Breen, Shari; Reynolds, Cormac; Imai, Hiroshi; Keller, Stefan; Bekki, Kenji; Krishnan, Vasaant; Cioni, Maria-Rosa

    2014-04-01

    Interactions between galaxies are known to play a key role in their evolution throughout cosmic history. Studies of past and current interactions between Local Group galaxies provide us with a unique opportunity to investigate the key factors and effects of such interactions at high resolution and sensitivity. Our understanding of the interaction of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC & SMC) with each other and with the Milky Way (MW) have changed dramatically in the last decade due to the determination of the proper motions of the LMC and SMC from optical studies. The derived proper motions predict a history of interaction for the Clouds that is at odds with the leading and trailing arms of Magellanic Stream gas. This proposal is a companion to an LBA project to measure the proper motions of both the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. Observations to measure the flux density of the potential maser targets a few weeks prior to an LBA observation will enable us to tailor the observing strategy to maximise the observational sensitivity and hence the astrometric accuracy.

  20. On the Connection of the Apparent Proper Motion and the VLBI Structure of Compact Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moór, A.; Frey, S.; Lambert, S. B.; Titov, O. A.; Bakos, J.

    2011-06-01

    Many of the compact extragalactic radio sources that are used as fiducial points to define the celestial reference frame are known to have proper motions detectable with long-term geodetic/astrometric very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. These changes can be as high as several hundred microarcseconds per year for certain objects. When imaged with VLBI at milliarcsecond (mas) angular resolution, these sources (radio-loud active galactic nuclei) typically show structures dominated by a compact, often unresolved "core" and a one-sided "jet." The positional instability of compact radio sources is believed to be connected with changes in their brightness distribution structure. For the first time, we test this assumption in a statistical sense on a large sample rather than on only individual objects. We investigate a sample of 62 radio sources for which reliable long-term time series of astrometric positions as well as detailed 8 GHz VLBI brightness distribution models are available. We compare the characteristic direction of their extended jet structure and the direction of their apparent proper motion. We present our data and analysis method, and conclude that there is indeed a correlation between the two characteristic directions. However, there are cases where the ~1-10 mas scale VLBI jet directions are significantly misaligned with respect to the apparent proper motion direction.

  1. Characterization of high proper motion objects from the wide-field infrared survey explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Luhman, K. L.; Sheppard, Scott S.

    2014-06-01

    We present an analysis of high proper motion objects that we have found in a recent study and in this work with multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using photometry and proper motions from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey and WISE, we have identified the members of this sample that are likely to be late-type, nearby, or metal-poor. We have performed optical and near-infrared spectroscopy on 41 objects, from which we measure spectral types that range from M4-T2.5. This sample includes 11 blue L dwarfs and 5 subdwarfs; the latter were also classified as such in the recent study by Kirkpatrick and coworkers. Based on their spectral types and photometry, several of our spectroscopic targets may have distances of <20 pc with the closest at ∼12 pc. The tangential velocities implied by the spectrophotometric distances and proper motions indicate that four of the five subdwarfs are probably members of the Galactic halo while several other objects, including the early-T dwarf WISE J210529.08–623558.7, may belong to the thick disk.

  2. Usp16 regulates kinetochore localization of Plk1 to promote proper chromosome alignment in mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Xiaolong; Guo, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Jing, Guihua; Wang, Yao; Chen, Qiang; Jiang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    During the G2 to M phase transition, a portion of mitotic regulator Plk1 localizes to the kinetochores and regulates the initiation of kinetochore–microtubule attachments for proper chromosome alignment. Once kinetochore–microtubule attachment is achieved, this portion of Plk1 is removed from the kinetochores as a result of ubiquitination. However, the crucial molecular mechanism that promotes the localization and the maintenance of Plk1 on the kinetochores until metaphase is still unclear. We report that ubiquitin-specific peptidase 16 (Usp16) plays a key role during this process. Usp16 deubiquitinates Plk1, resulting in an enhanced interaction with kinetochore-localized proteins such as BubR1, and thereby retains Plk1 on the kinetochores to promote proper chromosome alignment in early mitosis. Down-regulation of Usp16 causes increased ubiquitination and decreased kinetochore localization of Plk1. Thus, our data unveil a unique mechanism by which Usp16 promotes the localization and maintenance of Plk1 on the kinetochores for proper chromosome alignment. PMID:26323689

  3. Reduced-order models for nonlinear vibrations of cylindrical shells via the proper orthogonal decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amabili, M.; Sarkar, A.; Païdoussis, M. P.

    2003-09-01

    The nonlinear (large-amplitude) response of perfect and imperfect, simply supported circular cylindrical shells to harmonic excitation in the spectral neighbourhood of some of their lowest natural frequencies is investigated. The shell is assumed to be completely filled with an incompressible and inviscid fluid at rest. Donnell's nonlinear shallow-shell theory is used, and the solution is obtained by the Galerkin method. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method is used to extract proper orthogonal modes that describe the system behaviour from time-series response data. These time series have been obtained via the conventional Galerkin approach (using normal modes as a projection basis) with an accurate model involving 16 degrees of freedom, validated in previous studies. The POD method, in conjunction with the Galerkin approach, permits a lower-dimensional model as compared to those obtainable via the conventional Galerkin approach. Different proper orthogonal modes computed from time series at different excitation frequencies are used and solutions are compared. Some of these sets of modes are capable of describing the system behaviour over the whole frequency range around the fundamental resonance with good accuracy and with only 3 degrees of freedom. They allow a drastic reduction in the computational effort, as compared to using the 16 degree-of-freedom model necessary when the conventional Galerkin approach is used.

  4. Recoil of the Stellar Remnant from the Puppis A Supernova: Proper-Motion Measurement from Chandra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre, Robert; Winkler, P. F.

    2006-01-01

    A sequence of three Chandra X-ray Observatory High Resolution Camera images taken over a span of five years reveals arc-second-scale displacement of RX-J0822--4300, the stellar remnant near the center of the Puppis A supernova remnant. We measure its proper motion to be 0.16+/-0.02 arcsec/yr toward the west-southwest. At a distance of 2 kpc, this corresponds to a transverse space velocity of approx. 1500 km/s. This is the first case of a compact X-ray source with a directly measured proper motion. The space velocity is consistent with the explosion center inferred from proper motions of the oxygen-rich optical filaments, and confirms the idea that Puppis A resulted from an asymmetric explosion accompanied by a kick that imparted on the order of 3 x 10(exp 49) ergs of kinetic energy (some 3 percent of the supernova kinetic energy) to the stellar remnant. We will summarize this measurement and discuss possible mechanisms for producing such a violent kick. This research has been supported by NASA grant G04-5062X.

  5. Proper motions of radiative knots in simulations of stellar jets. An alternative to pulsating inflow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubini, F.; Lorusso, S.; Del Zanna, L.; Bacciotti, F.

    2007-09-01

    Aims:Elongated jets from young stellar objects typically present a nodular structure, formed by a chain of bright knots of enhanced emission with individual proper motions. Though it is generally accepted that internal shocks play an important role in the formation and dynamics of such structures, their precise origin and the mechanisms behind the observed proper motions is still a matter of debate. Our goal is to study numerically the origin, dynamics, and emission properties of such knots. Methods: Axisymmetric simulations are performed with a shock-capturing code for gas dynamics, allowing for molecular, atomic, and ionized hydrogen in non-equilibrium concentrations subject to ionization/recombination processes. Radiative losses in [S ii] lines are computed, and the resulting synthetic emission maps are compared with observations. Results: We show that a pattern of regularly spaced internal oblique shocks, characterized by individual proper motions, is generated by the pressure gradient between the propagating jet and the time variable external cocoon. In the case of under-expanded, light jets the resulting emission knots are found to move downstream with the jet flow, with increasing velocity and decaying brightness toward the leading bow shock. This suggests that the basic properties of the knots observed in stellar jets can be reproduced even without invoking ad hoc pulsating conditions at the jet inlet, though an interplay between the two scenarios is certainly possible.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Absolute Proper motions Outside the Plane (APOP) (Qi+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Z. X.; Yu, Y.; Bucciasrelli, B.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Smart, R. L.; Spagna, A.; McLean, B. J.; Tang, Z. H.; Jones, H. R. A.; Morbidelli, R.; Nicastro, L.; Vacchiato, A.

    2015-09-01

    The APOP is a absolute proper motion catalog achieved on the Digitized Sky Survey Schmidt plates data established by GSC-II project that outside the galactic plane (|b|>27°). The sky cover of this catalog is 22,525 square degree, the mean density is 4473 objects/sq.deg. and the magnitude limit is around R=20.8mag. The systematic errors of absolute proper motions related to the position, magnitude and color are practically all removed by using the extragalactic objects. The zero point error of absolute proper motions is less than 0.6mas/yr, and the accuracy is better than 4.0mas/yr for objects bright than R=18.5, and rises to 9.0mas/yr for objects with magnitude 18.5-30 degree and is not very well for others, the reason is that the epoch difference is large for Declination>-30° (45 years) but South than that is only around 12 years. It is fine for statistical studies for objects with Declination<-30° that people could find and remove obviously incorrect entries. (1 data file).

  7. Constraining the Mass of the Local Group through Proper Motion Measurements of Local Group Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, S. Tony; van der Marel, R.; Anderson, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Local Group and its two dominant spiral galaxies have been the benchmark for testing many aspects of cosmological and galaxy formation theories. This includes, e.g., dark halo profiles and shapes, substructure and the "missing satellite" problem, and the minimum mass for galaxy formation. But despite the extensive work in all of these areas, our knowledge of the mass of the Milky Way and M31, and thus the total mass of the Local Group remains one of the most poorly established astronomical parameters (uncertain by a factor of 4). One important reason for this problem is the lack of information in tangential motions of galaxies, which can be only obtained through proper motion measurements. In this study, we introduce our projects for measuring absolute proper motions of (1) the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Leo I, (2) M31, and (3) the 4 dwarf galaxies near the edge of the Local Group (Cetus, Leo A, Tucana, and Sag DIG). Results from these three independent measurements will provide important clues to the mass of the Milky Way, M31, and the Local Group as a whole, respectively. We also present our proper motion measurement technique that uses compact background galaxies as astrometric reference sources.

  8. 'In good conscience': conscience-based exemptions and proper medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Fovargue, Sara; Neal, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Lack of clarity about the proper limits of conscientious refusal to participate in particular healthcare practices has given rise to fears that, in the absence of clear parameters, conscience-based exemptions may become increasingly widespread, leading to intolerable burdens on health professionals, patients, and institutions. Here, we identify three factors which clarify the proper scope of conscience-based exemptions: the liminal zone of 'proper medical treatment' as their territorial extent; some criteria for genuine conscientiousness; and the fact that the exercise of a valid conscience-based exemption carries certain duties with it. These restricting factors should reassure those who worry that recognising rights of conscience at all inevitably risks rampant subjectivity and self-interest on the part of professionals. At the same time, they delineate a robust conscience zone: where a claim of conscience relates to treatment with liminal status and satisfies the criteria for conscientious character, as well as the conditions for conscientious performance, it deserves muscular legal protection. PMID:25944894

  9. XO-2b: Transiting Hot Jupiter in a Metal-rich Common Proper Motion Binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Christopher J.; McCullough, P. R.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Janes, Kenneth A.; Heasley, J. N.; Summers, F. J.; Stys, J. E.; Bissinger, R.; Fleenor, Michael L.; Foote, Cindy N.; García-Melendo, Enrique; Gary, Bruce L.; Howell, P. J.; Mallia, F.; Masi, G.; Taylor, B.; Vanmunster, T.

    2007-12-01

    We report on a V=11.2 early K dwarf, XO-2 (GSC 03413-00005), that hosts a Rp=0.98+/-0.030.01 RJ, Mp=0.57+/-0.06 MJ transiting extrasolar planet, XO-2b, with an orbital period of 2.615857+/-0.000005 days. XO-2 has high metallicity, [Fe/H]=0.45+/-0.02, high proper motion, μtot=157 mas yr-1, and a common proper motion stellar companion with 31" separation. The two stars are nearly identical twins, with very similar spectra and apparent magnitudes. Due to the high metallicity, these early K dwarf stars have a mass and radius close to solar, M*=0.98+/-0.02 Msolar and R*=0.97+/-0.020.01 Rsolar. The high proper motion of XO-2 results from an eccentric orbit (Galactic pericenter, Rper<4 kpc) well confined to the Galactic disk (Zmax~100 pc). In addition, the phase-space position of XO-2 is near the Hercules dynamical stream, which points to an origin of XO-2 in the metal-rich, inner thin disk and subsequent dynamical scattering into the solar neighborhood. We describe an efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for calculating the Bayesian posterior probability of the system parameters from a transit light curve.

  10. Lubricant oil production: The proper marriage of process and catalyst technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, G.L.; Suchanek, A.

    1996-12-01

    As the industry moves into the next millennium, higher product quality demands to meet the higher performance needs of modern engine technology and rising costs of traditional good quality lube crudes are driving lubricant base oil manufacturers to select hydroprocessing options versus traditional solvent refining techniques. This paper discusses how to properly select the best economic hydroprocessing technology necessary to produce high quality lubricant base oils and waxes. The economic success of such operations depends on the proper combination of process and catalyst technologies that maximizes yields of high quality products with minimum consumption of hydrogen resources and process utilities. This is particular true on the extreme end of the quality spectrum, namely, Very High Viscosity Index (VHVI) base oils and food grade white oils and waxes where there is no room for marginal product quality. Multiplicity of operations is also becoming more important as refiners try to upgrade their facilities with as little capital expense as possible, while at the same time, broaden their high valued product slate to recoup these expenses in the shortest possible payback period. Lyondell Licensing and Criterion Catalyst have put together an effective alliance based on years of development and commercial experience in both the process and catalyst areas to assist lubricant oil manufacturers in meeting these future challenges using as much existing equipment and infrastructure as is practical. Their experience will permit the proper fitting of the chemistry of hydroprocessing to make lubricant base oils to existing or new operations.

  11. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  12. A FIRST MEASUREMENT OF THE PROPER MOTION OF THE LEO II DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Lepine, Sebastien; Koch, Andreas; Rich, R. Michael; Kuijken, Konrad

    2011-11-10

    We use 14 year baseline images obtained with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to derive a proper motion for one of the Milky Way's most distant dwarf spheroidal companions, Leo II, relative to an extragalactic background reference frame. Astrometric measurements are performed in the effective point-spread function formalism using our own developed code. An astrometric reference grid is defined using 3224 stars that are members of Leo II and brighter than a magnitude of 25 in the F814W band. We identify 17 compact extragalactic sources, for which we measure a systemic proper motion relative to this stellar reference grid. We derive a proper motion [{mu}{sub {alpha},{mu}{delta}}] = [+104 {+-}113,-33 {+-} 151] {mu}as yr{sup -1} for Leo II in the heliocentric reference frame. Though marginally detected, the proper motion yields constraints on the orbit of Leo II. Given a distance of d {approx_equal} 230 kpc and a heliocentric radial velocity v{sub r} = +79 km s{sup -1}, and after subtraction of the solar motion, our measurement indicates a total orbital motion v{sub G} = 266.1 {+-} 128.7 km s{sup -1} in the Galactocentric reference frame, with a radial component v{sub r{sub G}}=21.5{+-}4.3 km s{sup -1} and tangential component v{sub t{sub G}} = 265.2 {+-} 129.4 km s{sup -1}. The small radial component indicates that Leo II either has a low-eccentricity orbit or is currently close to perigalacticon or apogalacticon distance. We see evidence for systematic errors in the astrometry of the extragalactic sources which, while close to being point sources, are slightly resolved in the HST images. We argue that more extensive observations at later epochs will be necessary to better constrain the proper motion of Leo II. We provide a detailed catalog of the stellar and extragalactic sources identified in the HST data which should provide a solid early-epoch reference for future astrometric measurements.

  13. Proper motion of the Draco dwarf galaxy based on Hubble space telescope imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, Carlton; Piatek, Slawomir; Olszewski, Edward W. E-mail: piatek@physics.rutgers.edu

    2015-02-01

    We have measured the proper motion of the Draco dwarf galaxy using images at two epochs with a time baseline of about two years taken with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys. Wide Field Channels 1 and 2 provide two adjacent fields, each containing a known QSO. The zero point for the proper motion is determined using both background galaxies and the QSOs and the two methods produce consistent measurements within each field. Averaging the results from the two fields gives a proper motion in the equatorial coordinate system of (μ{sub α},μ{sub δ})=(17.7±6.3,−22.1±6.3) mas century{sup −1} and in the Galactic coordinate system of (μ{sub ℓ},μ{sub b})=(−23.1±6.3,−16.3±6.3) mas century{sup −1}. Removing the contributions of the motion of the Sun and of the LSR to the measured proper motion yields a Galactic rest-frame proper motion of (μ{sub α}{sup Grf},μ{sub δ}{sup Grf})=(51.4±6.3,−18.7±6.3) mas century{sup −1} and (μ{sub ℓ}{sup Grf},μ{sub b}{sup Grf})=(−21.8±6.3,−50.1±6.3) mas century{sup −1}. The implied space velocity with respect to the Galactic center is (Π,Θ,Z)=(27±14,89±25,−212±20) km s{sup −1}. This velocity implies that the orbital inclination is 70{sup ∘}, with a 95% confidence interval of (59{sup ∘},80{sup ∘}), and that the plane of the orbit is consistent with that of the vast polar structure (VPOS) of Galactic satellite galaxies.

  14. Radial velocities for the HIPPARCOS-Gaia Hundred-Thousand-Proper-Motion project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Eilers, A.-C.

    2012-10-01

    Context. The Hundred-Thousand-Proper-Motion (HTPM) project will determine the proper motions of ~113 500 stars using a ~23-year baseline. The proper motions will be based on space-based measurements exclusively, with the Hipparcos data, with epoch 1991.25, as first epoch and with the first intermediate-release Gaia astrometry, with epoch ~2014.5, as second epoch. The expected HTPM proper-motion standard errors are 30-190 μas yr-1, depending on stellar magnitude. Aims: Depending on the astrometric characteristics of an object, in particular its distance and velocity, its radial velocity can have a significant impact on the determination of its proper motion. The impact of this perspective acceleration is largest for fast-moving, nearby stars. Our goal is to determine, for each star in the Hipparcos catalogue, the radial-velocity standard error that is required to guarantee a negligible contribution of perspective acceleration to the HTPM proper-motion precision. Methods: We employ two evaluation criteria, both based on Monte-Carlo simulations, with which we determine which stars need to be spectroscopically (re-)measured. Both criteria take the Hipparcos measurement errors into account. The first criterion, the Gaussian criterion, is applicable to nearby stars. For distant stars, this criterion works but returns overly pessimistic results. We therefore use a second criterion, the robust criterion, which is equivalent to the Gaussian criterion for nearby stars but avoids biases for distant stars and/or objects without literature radial velocity. The robust criterion is hence our prefered choice for all stars, regardless of distance. Results: For each star in the Hipparcos catalogue, we determine the confidence level with which the available radial velocity and its standard error, taken from the XHIP compilation catalogue, are acceptable. We find that for 97 stars, the radial velocities available in the literature are insufficiently precise for a 68.27% confidence

  15. Improvement of Accuracy of Proper Motions of Hipparcos Catalogue Stars Using Optical Latitude Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damljanovic, G.

    2009-09-01

    Commission 19 (Earth Rotation) of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) established the Working Group on Earth Rotation in the Hipparcos Reference Frame (WG ERHRF) in 1995 to collect the optical observations of latitude and universal time variations, made during 1899.7 -- 1992.0 in line with the Earth orientation programmes (to derive Earth Orientation Parameters -- EOP), with Dr. Jan Vondrák (Astronomical Institute of Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague) as the head of WG ERHRF. We participated in this international project using Belgrade Visual Zenith -- Telescope (BLZ) latitude data for the period 1949.0 -- 1986.0, after a new reduction of BLZ data made in my MSc thesis, finished in 1997 at the Faculty of Mathematics of University of Belgrade. Dr. Vondrák collected 4.4 million optical observations of latitude/universal time variations made at 33 observatories. The data were used for the EOP investigations, Hipparcos satellite Catalogue -- radio sources connection, etc. Nowadays, it is customary to correct the positions and proper motions of stars of Hipparcos Catalogue (as an optical reference frame) using ground -- based observations of some Hipparcos stars. In this PhD thesis we use the latitude observations made with several types of classical astrometric instruments: visual (ZT) and floating zenith -- telescope (FZT), visual zenith tube (VZT) and photographic zenith tube (PZT); 26 different instruments located at many observatories all over the world (used in the programs of monitoring the Earth orientation during the 20th century). We received the data from Dr. Vondrák via private communication. The observatories and instruments are: International Latitude Service -- ILS (Carloforte -- CA ZT, Cincinnati -- CI ZT, Gaithersburg -- GT ZT, Kitab -- KZ ZT, Mizusawa -- MZZ ZT, Tschardjui -- TS ZT and Ukiah -- UK ZT), Belgrade (BLZ ZT), Blagoveschtschensk (BK ZT), Irkutsk (IRZ ZT), Poltava (POL ZT), Pulkovo (PU and PUZ ZT), Varsovie (VJZ ZT

  16. Codes of Conduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Million, June

    2004-01-01

    Most schools have a code of conduct, pledge, or behavioral standards, set by the district or school board with the school community. In this article, the author features some schools that created a new vision of instilling code of conducts to students based on work quality, respect, safety and courtesy. She suggests that communicating the code…

  17. Electrically conductive diamond electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Swain, Greg; Fischer, Anne ,; Bennett, Jason; Lowe, Michael

    2009-05-19

    An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

  18. Conductive Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paetkau, Mark

    2007-01-01

    One of my goals as an instructor is to teach students critical thinking skills. This paper presents an example of a student-led discussion of heat conduction at the first-year level. Heat loss from a human head is calculated using conduction and radiation models. The results of these plausible (but wrong) models of heat transfer contradict what…

  19. Conductive Education Evaluated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stukat, Karl Gustav

    1995-01-01

    This paper evaluates two research projects concerned with conductive education for children with cerebral palsy, one in Germany and the other in the United Kingdom. Issues of generalizability and drawing causal conclusions are raised. The paper finds that neither the most sanguine expectations nor the worst misgivings about conductive education…

  20. Conductive fabric seal

    DOEpatents

    Livesay, Ronald Jason; Mason, Brandon William; Kuhn, Michael Joseph; Rowe, Nathan Carl

    2015-10-13

    Disclosed are several examples of a system and method for detecting if an article is being tampered with. Included is a covering made of a substrate that is coated with a layer of an electrically conductive material that forms an electrically conductive surface having an electrical resistance. The covering is configured to at least partially encapsulate the article such that the article cannot be tampered with, without modifying the electrical resistance of the electrically conductive surface of the covering. A sensing device is affixed to the electrically conductive surface of the covering and the sensing device monitors the condition of the covering by producing a signal that is indicative of the electrical resistance of the electrically conductive surface of the covering. A measured electrical resistance that differs from a nominal electrical resistance is indicative of a covering that is being tampered with and an alert is communicated to an observer.

  1. Responsible conduct in research.

    PubMed

    Drenth, Pieter J D

    2006-01-01

    Science is not taken for granted any longer. Society, politics and the media pose critical questions tending to censorship or at least control of science. How does science respond? It cannot exist and develop without freedom, but this does not mean freedom to amass knowledge and apply technological applications at any price and without restrictions. Science should be autonomous, but is not value-free. A distinction is made between external and internal social/ethical problems. The former refer to questions of the social/ethical context and consequences of scientific research, and the latter to the rules of 'good practice' and scientific integrity. The role of academies of science, and of associations of such academies (e.g. All European Academies (ALLEA)) in developing codes of good scientific practice and fostering a proper sense of scientific values and standards is further discussed. PMID:16501644

  2. Nanocarbonic transparent conductive films.

    PubMed

    Roth, Siegmar; Park, Hye Jin

    2010-07-01

    This tutorial review discusses the contradictory material properties of electrical conductivity and optical transparency for the examples of graphene films and carbon nanotube networks. It is argued that for homogeneous films both properties are linked by basic laws of physics and that for perfect monoatomic layers conductivity and transparency can be calculated from the fine structure constant. To beat these limitations, inhomogeneous films are required, such as graphene with an array of holes or nanotube networks. An overview is given on literature values of transparency and conductivity, both for graphene films and for nanotube networks. PMID:20502813

  3. Outer rotation curve of the Galaxy with VERA. II. Annual parallax and proper motion of the star-forming region IRAS 21379+5106

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Kurayama, Tomoharu; Matsuo, Mitsuhiro; Imai, Hiroshi; Burns, Ross A.; Ozawa, Takeaki; Honma, Mareki; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki

    2015-08-01

    We conducted astrometric very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of water-vapor maser emission in the massive star-forming region IRAS 21379+5106 in order to measure the annual parallax and proper motion, using VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA). The annual parallax measured 0.262 ± 0.031 mas, corresponding to a distance of 3.82^{+0.51}_{-0.41}kpc. The proper motion was (μαcos δ, μδ) = (-2.74 ± 0.08, -2.87 ± 0.18) mas yr-1. By using this result, the Galactic rotational velocity was estimated to be Vθ = 218 ± 19 km s-1 at the galactocentric distance R = 9.22 ± 0.43 kpc, when we adopted the Galactic constants R0 = 8.05 ± 0.45 kpc and V0 = 238 ± 14 km s-1. With the newly determined distance, the bolometric luminosity of the central young stellar object was reestimated to be (2.15 ± 0.54) × 103 L⊙, which corresponds to the spectral type of B2-B3. The maser features were found to be distributed along a straight line extending from the southwest to the northeast. In addition, a vector map of the internal motions, constructed from the residual proper motions, implies that the maser features trace a bipolar flow, and that it cannot be explained by simple ballistic motions.

  4. Thermal conductance of metallic interface in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Mortazavi, P.; Shu, D.

    1985-10-01

    In most heat transfer applications, the deposited heat is transfered by any of the following classical methods: conduction, convection, radiation, or any combinations of these three. Depending on how critical the nature is of the designed equipment, the response time must be short enough in order to safeguard the proper performance of the devices. For instance, currently at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), various hardware equipment are being designed to intercept or to stop intense radiation beams induced by insertion devices such as wiggler and undulators. Due to the nature of some of these designs, the deposited high flux thermal load must be transferred across unbonded contact surfaces. Since any miscalculation would result in the disintegration of exposed material and therefore cause substantial problems, a true actual conductance measurement of the material in question is highly desirable. In the following three sections, background summary, the method of measurement, and the obtained results are discussed.

  5. Thermal conductance of metallic interface in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Mortazavi, P.; Shu, D.

    1985-01-01

    In most heat transfer applications, the deposited heat is transferred by any of the following classical methods: conduction, convection, radiation, or any combinations of these three. Depending on how critical the nature is of the designed equipment, the response time must be short enough in order to safeguard the proper performance of the devices. For instance, currently at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), various hardware equipment are being designed to intercept or to stop intense radiation beams induced by insertion devices such as wiggler and undulators. Due to the nature of some of these designs, the deposited high flux thermal load must be transferred across unbonded contact surfaces. Since any miscalculation would result in the disintegration of exposed material and therefore cause substantial problems, a true actual conductance measurement of the material in question is highly desirable. In the following three sections, background summary, the method of measurement, and the obtained results are discussed.

  6. A SEARCH FOR HIGH PROPER MOTION T DWARFS WITH Pan-STARRS1 + 2MASS + WISE

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Michael C.; Deacon, Niall R.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Redstone, Joshua; Goldman, Bertrand; Price, P. A.

    2011-10-20

    We have searched {approx}8200 deg{sup 2} for high proper motion ({approx}0.''5-2.''7 year{sup -1}) T dwarfs by combining first-epoch data from the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) 3{pi} Survey, the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) All-Sky Point Source Catalog, and the WISE Preliminary Data Release. We identified two high proper motion objects with the very red (W1 - W2) colors characteristic of T dwarfs, one being the known T7.5 dwarf GJ 570D. Near-IR spectroscopy of the other object (PSO J043.5395+02.3995 {identical_to} WISEP J025409.45+022359.1) reveals a spectral type of T8, leading to a photometric distance of 7.2 {+-} 0.7 pc. The 2.''56 year{sup -1} proper motion of PSO J043.5+02 is the second highest among field T dwarfs, corresponding to a tangential velocity of 87 {+-} 8 km s{sup -1}. According to the Besancon galaxy model, this velocity indicates that its galactic membership is probably in the thin disk, with the thick disk an unlikely possibility. Such membership is in accord with the near-IR spectrum, which points to a surface gravity (age) and metallicity typical of the field population. We combine 2MASS, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, WISE, and PS1 astrometry to derive a preliminary parallax of 171 {+-} 45 mas (5.8{sup +2.0} {sub -1.2} pc), the first such measurement using PS1 data. The proximity and brightness of PSO J043.5+02 will facilitate future characterization of its atmosphere, variability, multiplicity, distance, and kinematics. The modest number of candidates from our search suggests that the immediate ({approx}10 pc) solar neighborhood does not contain a large reservoir of undiscovered T dwarfs earlier than about T8.

  7. Infrared spectrum and proper motion of the brown dwarf companion of HR 7329 in Tucanae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, E. W.; Neuhäuser, R.; Huélamo, N.; Brandner, W.; Alves, J.

    2001-01-01

    Up to now only four brown dwarf companions to normal stars have been found and confirmed by both spectroscopy and proper motion (namely Gl 229 B, G 196-3 B, Gl 570 D, and CoD-33 deg 7795 B). On the basis of an optical spectrum taken with HST/STIS Lowrance et al. (2000) recently pointed out another possible candidate companion. The companion candidate is located at a distance of 4{' '} from the A0-star HR 7329, which is considered as a member of a moving group of young stars in Tucanae located at a distance of only ~ 48 pc. In order to confirm or disregard the companion nature of the candidate, we have determined the proper motion of the brown dwarf candidate with an epoch difference of 1.8 years, and found that it is consistent with a co-moving companion of HR 7329. Additional to the proper motion measurement, we have also taken an H-band spectrum using ISAAC on the ESO-VLT. From this spectrum, we conclude that the companion candidate has spectral type M 7 to M 8, which is in agreement with the optical spectrum. We thus conclude that HR 7329 B is most likely a brown dwarf companion. The mass ratio of this pair (A0 to M 7-8, i.e. ~ 100:1) is the largest known among brown dwarf companions, which is relevant for studying the formation of brown dwarfs as companions. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory on Cerro Paranal and La Silla in program\\break 65.L-0144.

  8. Parallaxes of Southern Extremely Cool Objects. I. Targets, Proper Motions, and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, A. H.; Smart, R. L.; Penna, J. L.; d'Avila, V. A.; Bucciarelli, B.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Crosta, M. T.; Daprà, M.; Goldman, B.; Jones, H. R. A.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Nicastro, L.; Pinfield, D. J.; da Silva Neto, D. N.; Teixeira, R.

    2011-02-01

    We present results from the PARallaxes of Southern Extremely Cool objects (PARSEC) program, an observational program begun in 2007 April to determine parallaxes for 122 L and 28 T southern hemisphere dwarfs using the Wide Field Imager on the ESO 2.2 m telescope. The results presented here include parallaxes of 10 targets from observations over 18 months and a first version proper motion catalog. The proper motions were obtained by combining PARSEC observations astrometrically reduced with respect to the Second US Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog, and the Two Micron All Sky Survey Point Source Catalog. The resulting median proper motion precision is 5 mas yr-1 for 195,700 sources. The 140 0.3 deg2 fields sample the southern hemisphere in an unbiased fashion with the exception of the galactic plane due to the small number of targets in that region. The proper motion distributions are shown to be statistically well behaved. External comparisons are also fully consistent. We will continue to update this catalog until the end of the program, and we plan to improve it including also observations from the GSC2.3 database. We present preliminary parallaxes with a 4.2 mas median precision for 10 brown dwarfs, two of which are within 10 pc. These increase the present number of L dwarfs by 20% with published parallaxes. Of the 10 targets, seven have been previously discussed in the literature: two were thought to be binary, but the PARSEC observations show them to be single; one has been confirmed as a binary companion and another has been found to be part of a binary system, both of which will make good benchmark systems. These results confirm that the foreseen precision of PARSEC can be achieved and that the large field of view will allow us to identify wide binary systems. Observations for the PARSEC program will end in early 2011 providing three to four years of coverage for all targets. The main expected outputs are: more than a 100% increase in the number of L

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Proper motions and membership in NGC 6366 (Sariya+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sariya, D. P.; Yadav, R. K. S.

    2015-10-01

    Proper motions of the stars in the cluster region were determined using V filter images from the ESO archive (http://archive.eso.org/eso/esoarchivemain.html). The images used in this work were acquired using the 2.2m ESO/MPI telescope at La Silla, Chile. This telescope is equipped with a Wide Field Imager (WFI) camera. This camera contains a mosaic of 4x2, i.e., eight CCD chips, with 2048x4096-pixels each, making it possible to image an observational area of 34x33arcmin2. (1 data file).

  10. LES of turbulent heat transfer: proper convection numerical schemes for temperature transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Châtelain, A.; Ducros, F.; Métais, O.

    2004-03-01

    Large eddy simulations of two basic configurations (decay of isotropic turbulence, and the academic plane channel flow) with heat transfer have been performed comparing several convection numerical schemes, in order to discuss their ability to evaluate temperature fluctuations properly. Results are compared with the available incompressible heat transfer direct numerical simulation data. It is shown that the use of regularizing schemes (such as high order upwind type schemes) for the temperature transport equation in combination with centered schemes for momentum transport equation gives better results than the use of centred schemes for both equations.

  11. Neurolinguistic findings on the language lexicon: the special role of proper names.

    PubMed

    Müller, Horst M

    2010-12-31

    Cognitive linguistics proposes the existence of a human language lexicon as a necessary subsystem of language production and comprehension. While the inner structure of the lexicon remains speculative, measures of its function may distinguish separate processing paths for different types of lexical entries. Based upon the presented findings on nomina from reaction time measurements, event-related potentials (ERP) analysis, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the special role of proper names in language--in contrast to common nouns--appears to be grounded in a neurocognitive reality. PMID:21793346

  12. Proper care of early wounds to optimize healing and prevent complications.

    PubMed

    Pitzer, Geoffrey B; Patel, Krishna G

    2011-08-01

    Proper wound care has broad applications for all clinicians. Much of the future direction for enhancing wound repair focuses on key cells and growth factors, which is why possessing a strong understanding of the basic physiology of wound healing is imperative. This article first provides a thorough review of the phases of wound healing followed by a discussion on the latest wound management strategies. Wound conditions and surgical techniques are important components for optimizing wound healing and preventing complications. Special consideration has been given to the unique settings of contaminated wounds, open wounds, or avulsed tissue. PMID:21856537

  13. VLBI Water Maser Proper Motion Measurements in Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrelles, J. M.; Patel, N.; Gómez, J. F.; Anglada, G.; Uscanga, L.

    We review some of the recent water maser proper motion measurements in star-forming regions performed through VLBI multi-epoch observations. These observations are starting to reveal exciting perspectives, providing the full kinematics of the gas within the outflows/circumstellar disks around YSOs at scales of AUs, discovering new phenomena (e.g., isotropic mass ejections, watermaser "micro-structures" exhibiting remarkable coherent and well ordered spatio-kinematical behavior at AU scale), and opening new, puzzling questions related to the early stellar evolution.

  14. Vlbi Water Maser Proper Motion Measurements in Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrelles, J. M.; Patel, N.; Gómez, J. F.; Anglada, G.; Uscanga, L.

    2005-01-01

    We review some of the recent water maser proper motion measurements in star-forming regions performed through VLBI multi-epoch observations. These observations are starting to reveal exciting perspectives, providing the full kinematics of the gas within the outflows/circumstellar disks around YSOs at scales of AUs, discovering new phenomena (e.g., isotropic mass ejections, water maser "micro-structures" exhibiting remarkable coherent and well ordered spatio-kinematical behavior at AU scale), and opening new, puzzling questions related to the early stellar evolution.

  15. Efficient proper orthogonal decomposition for parameter dependent problems with applications to hydraulic turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistrian, Diana Alina; Susan-Resiga, Romeo F.

    2016-06-01

    A weighted proper orthogonal decomposition method (wPOD) is proposed for analyzing the evolution of the swirling flow exiting the hydraulic turbine runner, strongly influenced by the turbine discharge coefficient. Through orthogonal decomposition, the leading modes of the axial and circumferential velocity profiles can be identified with respect to a simple base flow. By applying the weighted POD on selected perturbation quantities the POD representation of the velocity field is achieved with a number of modes significantly lower comparing with different other techniques.

  16. Messier 35 (NGC 2168) DANCe. I. Membership, proper motions, and multiwavelength photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouy, H.; Bertin, E.; Barrado, D.; Sarro, L. M.; Olivares, J.; Moraux, E.; Bouvier, J.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Ribas, Á.; Beletsky, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Context. Messier 35 (NGC 2168) is an important young nearby cluster. Its age, richness and relative proximity make it an ideal target for stellar evolution studies. The Kepler K2 mission recently observed it and provided a high accuracy photometric time series of a large number of sources in this area of the sky. Identifying the cluster's members is therefore of high importance to optimize the interpretation and analysis of the Kepler K2 data. Aims: We aim to identify the cluster's members by deriving membership probabilities for the sources within 1° of the cluster's center, which is farther away than equivalent previous studies. Methods: We measure accurate proper motions and multiwavelength (optical and near-infrared) photometry using ground-based archival images of the cluster. We use these measurements to compute membership probabilities. The list of candidate members from the literature is used as a training set to identify the cluster's locus in a multidimensional space made of proper motions, luminosities, and colors. Results: The final catalog includes 338 892 sources with multiwavelength photometry. Approximately half (194 452) were detected at more than two epochs and we measured their proper motion and used it to derive membership probability. A total of 4349 candidate members with membership probabilities greater than 50% are found in this sample in the luminosity range between 10 mag and 22 mag. The slow proper motion of the cluster and the overlap of its sequence with the field and background sequences in almost all color-magnitude and color-color diagrams complicate the analysis and the contamination level is expected to be significant. Our study, nevertheless, provides a coherent and quantitative membership analysis of Messier 35 based on a large fraction of the best ground-based data sets obtained over the past 18 years. As such, it represents a valuable input for follow-up studies using, in particular, the Kepler K2 photometric time series

  17. Detecting a proper patient with a help of medical data retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malecka-Massalska, Teresa; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Wasiewicz, Piotr; Zaluska, Wojciech; Ksiazek, Andrzej

    2009-06-01

    Electric bioimpedance is one of methods to assess the hydrate status in hemodialyzed patients. It is also being used for assessing the hydration level among peritoneal dialysed patients, diagnosed with neoplastic diseases, patients after organ transplantations and the ones infected with HIV virus. During measurements sets were obtained from two groups, which were named a control (healthy volunteers) and test group (hemodialyzed patients). Zscored, discretized data and data retrieval results were computed in R language environment in order to find a simple rule for recognizing health problems. The executed experiments affirm possibilities of creating good classifiers for detecting a proper patient with the help of medical data sets, but only with previous training.

  18. Cardiac conduction system

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... signals to the heart muscle causing it to contract. The main components of the cardiac conduction system ... the sequence by causing the atrial muscles to contract. From there, the signal travels to the AV ...

  19. Conductive open frameworks

    DOEpatents

    Yaghi, Omar M.; Wan, Shun; Doonan, Christian J.; Wang, Bo; Deng, Hexiang

    2016-02-23

    The disclosure relates generally to materials that comprise conductive covalent organic frameworks. The disclosure also relates to materials that are useful to store and separate gas molecules and sensors.

  20. Electrically conductive material

    DOEpatents

    Singh, J.P.; Bosak, A.L.; McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.

    1993-09-07

    An electrically conductive material is described for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO[sub 2] formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns. 8 figures.

  1. Cardiac conduction system

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals to the heart muscle causing it to contract. The main components ... the cardiac conduction system’s electrical activity in the heart.

  2. Solution Conductivity Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haworth, Daniel T.; Bartelt, Mark R.; Kenney, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the construction of a conductivity meter that includes a timer and a readout display that provides semiquantitative information. The meter can be made into a hand-held or lecture hall (demonstration) version. (WRM)

  3. Electrically conductive material

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Jitendra P.; Bosak, Andrea L.; McPheeters, Charles C.; Dees, Dennis W.

    1993-01-01

    An electrically conductive material for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO.sub.2 formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns.

  4. Advances in the understanding of conduction disturbances.

    PubMed

    Kulbertus, H E

    1978-09-01

    The interest towards intraventricular conduction defects started some 10 yr after the introduction of the string galvanometer by Einthoven. As early as 1910, it was known that conduction blockade could occur along either branch of the intraventricular conducting pathway. It took some 20 yr to identify properly the electrocardiographic manifestations of right and left bundle branch blocks. A further 30 yr were needed to obtain a sound correlation between these functional disorders and the presence of anatomical lesions. The more recent introduction of the concept of left hemiblocks further improved our understanding of intraventricular conduction defects. The latter concept is based on the hypothesis of the anatomical and functional bifascicularity of the left bundle branch, a hypothesis which cannot be accepted without some reservations. Later developments indicated that left hemiblocks associated with right bundle branch block represent manifestations of bilateral conduction disturbances (incomplete bilateral bundle branch block). Such an association may constitute a forerunner of complete atrioventricular block, or an indicator of the possibility of sudden death. Whether these complications occur frequently or unfrequently in the setting of incomplete bilateral bundle branch block remains an unsettled question. PMID:699953

  5. Principles and pitfalls of nerve conduction studies.

    PubMed

    Kimura, J

    1984-10-01

    This report reviews the fundamental principles and the changing concepts of nerve stimulation techniques, and discusses the proper application of these techniques in the differential diagnosis of peripheral nerve disorders. Nerve conduction studies help delineate the extent and distribution of the neural lesion and distinguish two major categories of peripheral nerve disease: demyelination and axonal degeneration. Although the method is based on simple principles, pitfalls abound in practice. Variability in nerve conduction measurement may result from temperature change, variations among nerve segments, and the effects of age. Other sources of error include excessive spread of stimulation current, anomalous innervation, temporal dispersion, and inaccuracy of surface measurement. Unlike a bipolar derivation, which selectively records near-field potentials, a referential recording may give rise to stationary far-field peaks from a moving source. Overlooking this possibility can lead to an incorrect interpretation of findings. Conventional nerve conduction studies deal primarily with measurements of the distal nerve segments in an extremity. More recent techniques are applicable to less accessible anatomical regions, as illustrated by elicitation of the blink reflex, F wave, and H reflex, and the use of the inching technique. Other methods used to assess special aspects of nerve conduction include the ischemic test and studies of slow-conducting fibers. PMID:6093680

  6. NEARBY YOUNG STARS SELECTED BY PROPER MOTION. I. FOUR NEW MEMBERS OF THE {beta} PICTORIS MOVING GROUP FROM THE TYCHO-2 CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Lepine, Sebastien; Simon, Michal E-mail: michal.simon@sunysb.edu

    2009-03-15

    We describe a procedure to identify stars from nearby moving groups and associations out of catalogs of stars with large proper motions. We show that from the mean motion vector of a known or suspected moving group, one can identify additional members of the group based on proper motion data and photometry in the optical and infrared, with minimal contamination from background field stars. We demonstrate this technique by conducting a search for low-mass members of the {beta} Pictoris moving group in the Tycho-2 catalog. All known members of the moving group are easily recovered, and a list of 51 possible candidates is generated. Moving group membership is evaluated for 33 candidates based on X-ray flux from ROSAT, H{alpha} line emission, and radial velocity measurement from high-resolution infrared spectra obtained at Infrared Telescope Facility. We confirm three of the candidates to be new members of the group: TYC 1186-706-1, TYC 7443-1102-1, and TYC 2211-1309-1 which are late-K and early-M dwarfs 45-60 pc from the Sun. We also identify a common proper motion companion to the known {beta} Pictoris Moving Group member TYC 7443-1102-1, at a 26.''3 separation; the new companion is associated with the X-ray source 1RXS J195602.8 - 320720. We argue that the present technique could be applied to other large proper motion catalogs to identify most of the elusive, low-mass members of known nearby moving groups and associations.

  7. Proper handling of random errors and distortions in astronomical data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardiel, Nicolas; Gorgas, Javier; Gallego, Jess; Serrano, Angel; Zamorano, Jaime; Garcia-Vargas, Maria-Luisa; Gomez-Cambronero, Pedro; Filgueira, Jose M.

    2002-12-01

    The aim of a data reduction process is to minimize the influence of data acquisition imperfections on the estimation of the desired astronomical quantity. For this purpose, one must perform appropriate manipulations with data and calibration frames. In addition, random-error frames (computed from first principles: expected statistical distribution of photo-electrons, detector gain, readout-noise, etc.), corresponding to the raw-data frames, can also be properly reduced. This parallel treatment of data and errors guarantees the correct propagation of random errors due to the arithmetic manipulations throughout the reduction procedure. However, due to the unavoidable fact that the information collected by detectors is physically sampled, this approach collides with a major problem: errors are correlated when applying image manipulations involving non-integer pixel shifts of data. Since this is actually the case for many common reduction steps (wavelength calibration into a linear scale, image rectification when correcting for geometric distortions,...), we discuss the benefits of considering the data reduction as the full characterization of the raw-data frames, but avoiding, as far as possible, the arithmetic manipulation of that data until the final measure of the image properties with a scientific meaning for the astronomer. For this reason, it is essential that the software tools employed for the analysis of the data perform their work using that characterization. In that sense, the real reduction of the data should be performed during the analysis, and not before, in order to guarantee the proper treatment of errors.

  8. Proper Application of Antibodies for Immunohistochemical Detection: Antibody Crimes and How to Prevent Them

    PubMed Central

    Teerds, Katja; Hoffman, Gloria E.

    2014-01-01

    For several decades antibodies raised against specific proteins, peptides, or peptide epitopes have proven to be versatile and very powerful tools to demonstrate molecular identity in cells and tissues. New techniques of immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence have improved both the optical resolution of such protein identification as well as its sensitivity, particularly through the use of amplification methodology. However, this improved sensitivity has also increased the risks of false-positive and false-negative staining and thereby raised the necessity for proper and adequate controls. In this review, the authors draw on many years of experience to illuminate many of the more common errors and problematic issues in immunohistochemistry, and how these may be avoided. A key factor in all of this is that techniques need to be properly documented and especially antibodies and procedures must be adequately described. Antibodies are a valuable and shared resource within the scientific community; it is essential therefore that mistakes involving antibodies and their controls are not perpetuated through inadequate reporting in the literature. PMID:24428532

  9. Precessional parameters obtained from biased data of Hipparcos-FK5 proper motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, M. J.; Marco, F. J.; Lopez, J. A.

    2008-04-01

    The Hipparcos catalogue provides a reference frame in optical wavelength for the new ICRS. The differences in the system of proper motions of Hipparcos and the previous materialization of the reference frame, the FK5, are expected to be caused only by the combined effects of the motion of the equinox of the FK5 as well as the Luni-solar and planetary precession, but several authors have signaled the existence of an inconsistency for the proper motion differences of the FK5-Hipparcos with the ∆p values corresponding to the Luni-solar precession as determined from VLBI and LLR It is a fact that the widely employed parametric models do not remove the bias in the random variables. The introduction of a non parametric method, combined with the inner product in L2 over S 2 shows the necessity of removing the bias. The precessional formulas should be rearranged to be used in this case. When applying this model, the obtained values for the precession corrections are very consistent with the ones currently adopted by the IAU.

  10. The negatively charged carboxy-terminal tail of β-tubulin promotes proper chromosome segregation

    PubMed Central

    Fees, Colby P.; Aiken, Jayne; O’Toole, Eileen T.; Giddings, Thomas H.; Moore, Jeffrey K.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the broadly conserved role of microtubules in chromosome segregation, we have a limited understanding of how molecular features of tubulin proteins contribute to the underlying mechanisms. Here we investigate the negatively charged carboxy-terminal tail domains (CTTs) of α- and β-tubulins, using a series of mutants that alter or ablate CTTs in budding yeast. We find that ablating β-CTT causes elevated rates of chromosome loss and cell cycle delay. Complementary live-cell imaging and electron tomography show that β-CTT is necessary to properly position kinetochores and organize microtubules within the assembling spindle. We identify a minimal region of negatively charged amino acids that is necessary and sufficient for proper chromosome segregation and provide evidence that this function may be conserved across species. Our results provide the first in vivo evidence of a specific role for tubulin CTTs in chromosome segregation. We propose that β-CTT promotes the ordered segregation of chromosomes by stabilizing the spindle and contributing to forces that move chromosomes toward the spindle poles. PMID:27053662

  11. The Dictyostelium LIM Domain-containing Protein LIM2 Is Essential for Proper Chemotaxis and Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Sharon; Chung, Chang Y.; Sukumaran, Sujatha; Osborne, Nicholas; Lee, Susan; Ellsworth, Charlene; McNally, James G.; Firtel, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    We have identified limB, a gene encoding a novel LIM domain-containing protein, LIM2, in a screen for genes required for morphogenesis. limB null cells aggregate, although poorly, but they are unable to undergo morphogenesis, and the aggregates arrest at the mound stage. limB null cells exhibit an aberrant actin cytoskeleton and have numerous F-actin–enriched microspikes. The cells exhibit poor adhesion to a substratum and do not form tight cell–cell agglomerates in suspension. Furthermore, limB null cells are unable to properly polarize in chemoattractant gradients and move very poorly. Expression of limB from a prestalk-specific but not a prespore-specific promoter complements the morphogenetic defects of the limB null strain, suggesting that the limB null cell developmental defect results from an inability to properly sort prestalk cells. LIM2 protein is enriched in the cortex of wild-type cells, although it does not colocalize with the actin cytoskeleton. Our analysis indicates that LIM2 is a new regulatory protein that functions to control rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton and is required for cell motility and chemotaxis. Our findings may be generally applicable to understanding pathways that control cell movement and morphogenesis in all multicellular organisms. Structure function studies on the LIM domains are presented. PMID:10749929

  12. Superior mesenteric origin of the proper hepatic artery: embryological and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Alakkam, Anas; Hill, Robert V; Saggio, Gregory

    2016-08-01

    The hepatic arteries are subject to a great deal of anatomical variation, potentially complicating hepatobiliary surgical procedures as well as general gastrointestinal procedures that involve foregut and midgut structures. We report a case of a rare variant of the proper hepatic artery discovered during dissection of an 84-year-old male cadaver. In this individual, the common hepatic artery was absent and the proper hepatic artery was replaced directly to the superior mesenteric artery. The gastroduodenal artery and the right inferior phrenic artery took origin from the celiac trunk. In addition, there was no identifiable right gastric artery. The celiac trunk gave off three branches: the splenic, left gastric, and gastroduodenal arteries. The entire arterial blood supply to the liver, therefore, was derived from the superior mesenteric artery. Patterns of regression of the ventral branches and the partial disappearance of the ventral anastomotic arteries during embryonic development play a major role in the variations of the gut arteries. An intraoperative encounter with this particular variant carries a significant risk of iatrogenic injury with potentially devastating ischemia and necrotic results. Accurate depiction and definition of the hepatic arterial anatomy are crucial. Variations like the one described here underscore the importance of pre-operative imaging and knowledge of the embryological origins of variation. PMID:26650050

  13. Globular Cluster Membership Probabilities from All-Sky Proper Motion Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, Richard F.; Cudworth, Kyle M.

    2014-06-01

    Recent all-sky catalogs such as UCAC4 (Zacharias et al. 2013, AJ, 145:44) and PPMXL (Roeser et al. 2010, AJ, 139, 2440) contain proper motions with errors of 1-10 mas/yr. This precision is sufficient to determine membership probabilities for stars in the fields of globular clusters if the cluster motion is reasonably different from the field star motion. We use membership probabilities for stars in the field of the globular cluster NGC 6397 derived from very high precision relative proper motions 0.2 mas/yr errors) from long-focus plates to test membership probabilities derived from UCAC4 and PPMXL motions. We also explore the use of UCAC4 and PPMXL to search for cluster members beyond the small field of the long-focus plates.This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by NASA and the NSF. This research has made use of the VizieR catalogue access tool, CDS, Strasbourg, France. This research has been partially supported by the NSF.

  14. Choosing a proper exchange-correlation functional for the computational catalysis on surface.

    PubMed

    Teng, Bo-Tao; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Fan, Maohong; Wu, Feng-Min; Zhang, Yulong

    2014-09-14

    To choose a proper functional among the diverse density functional approximations of the electronic exchange-correlation energy for a given system is the basis for obtaining accurate results of theoretical calculations. In this work, we first propose an approach by comparing the calculated ΔE0 with the theoretical reference data based on the corresponding experimental results in a gas phase reaction. With ΔE0 being a criterion, the three most typical and popular exchange-correlation functionals (PW91, PBE and RPBE) were systematically compared in terms of the typical Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reactions in the gas phase. In addition, verifications of the geometrical and electronic properties of modeling catalysts, as well as the adsorption behavior of a typical probe molecule on modeling catalysts are also suggested for further screening of proper functionals. After a systematic comparison of CO adsorption behavior on Co(0001) calculated by PW91, PBE, and RPBE, the RPBE functional was found to be better than the other two in view of FTS reactions in gas phase and CO adsorption behaviors on a cobalt surface. The present work shows the general implications for choosing a reliable exchange-correlation functional in the computational catalysis of a surface. PMID:25072632

  15. A deep proper motion catalog within the Sloan digital sky survey footprint

    SciTech Connect

    Munn, Jeffrey A.; Harris, Hugh C.; Tilleman, Trudy M.; Hippel, Ted von; Kilic, Mukremin; Liebert, James W.; Williams, Kurtis A.; DeGenarro, Steven; Jeffery, Elizabeth E-mail: hch@nofs.navy.mil E-mail: ted.vonhippel@erau.edu E-mail: jamesliebert@gmail.com E-mail: studiofortytwo@yahoo.com

    2014-12-01

    A new proper motion catalog is presented, combining the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with second epoch observations in the r band within a portion of the SDSS imaging footprint. The new observations were obtained with the 90prime camera on the Steward Observatory Bok 90 inch telescope, and the Array Camera on the U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 1.3 m telescope. The catalog covers 1098 square degrees to r = 22.0, an additional 1521 square degrees to r = 20.9, plus a further 488 square degrees of lesser quality data. Statistical errors in the proper motions range from 5 mas year{sup −1} at the bright end to 15 mas year{sup −1} at the faint end, for a typical epoch difference of six years. Systematic errors are estimated to be roughly 1 mas year{sup −1} for the Array Camera data, and as much as 2–4 mas year{sup −1} for the 90prime data (though typically less). The catalog also includes a second epoch of r band photometry.

  16. A proper mobility formula for large, heavy particles in gases in any regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Leonardo

    2000-07-01

    The age-old problem of the derivation of a proper formula for the mechanical (or electrical) mobility of large, heavy (l.h.) particles in a simple neutral gas in any regime is carefully examined and solved under the usual hypotheses that the l.h. particles are subject to the action of a constant external force and undergo only elastic collisions with the gas particles. By a convenient procedure, a general mobility formula is obtained which not only properly corrects the well-known result derived by Cunningham for an l.h. hard sphere in a hard-sphere gas, but also applies to the general case in which both the l.h.-particle-gas-particle and gas-particle-gas-particle interactions are arbitrary. In addition, on the basis of the new formula, the fair success of the Cunningham formula (regarded as a semiempirical formula) in fitting the experimental results is explained. Other interesting aspects of the new formula are also examined, and its limits of validity are briefly discussed.

  17. "Grand piano sign," a marker for proper femoral component rotation during total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Moyad, Thomas F; Hughes, Richard E; Urquhart, Andrew

    2011-07-01

    A malpositioned femoral component is an established risk factor for patellar instability and pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In the assessment of femoral rotation, several axes, including the transepicondylar axis, the posterior condylar axis, and the anteroposterior axis, are useful. However, these axes are not always easily applicable, particularly when significant deformity exists. An anecdotal method used by some surgeons involves assessing the shape of the anterior femoral surface osteotomy. Our observations from saw bone models and TKA led to our hypothesis that proper femoral component placement is indicated by a bimodal peak on the anterior femur, approximately twice as high on the lateral side than on the medial side. We use the term "grand piano sign" to describe the shape of the trochlea after the osteotomy is correctly completed. To our knowledge, this common observation has not been studied either in the laboratory or in vivo. Our cadaveric models demonstrated that the grand piano sign correlated with proper femoral rotation during TKA. Surgeons who are knowledgeable about this marker should find it helpful when orienting components during knee replacement surgery. PMID:22013571

  18. Spontaneous Rectus Sheath Hematoma in the Elderly: An Unusual Case and Update on Proper Management

    PubMed Central

    Galyfos, George; Karantzikos, Georgios; Palogos, Konstantinos; Sianou, Argiri; Filis, Konstantinos; Kavouras, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma (SRSH) is an uncommon medical emergency in the elderly. We present a case of SRSH with an atypical clinical presentation and discuss literature regarding diagnosis and proper management. A 75-year-old female patient was transferred to the emergency department due to acute dyspnoea and confusion. Her medical history revealed a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, and no coughing or use of anticoagulants. The clinical examination showed tenderness of the left lower abdomen, although palpation was misleading due to patient's obesity. Laboratory investigations showed light anaemia. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a large rectus sheath hematoma of the left abdominal wall. Despite further deterioration of the patient, conservative management including bed rest, fluid replacement, blood products transfusion, and proper analgesia was successful. No surgical intervention was needed. Prompt diagnosis and management of SRSH plays significant role in the prognosis, especially in elder patients. Independently of size and severity, conservative management remains the first therapeutic choice. Only by failure of supportive management, progressive and large hematoma or uncontrollable hemodynamic patients, interventional management including surgery or less invasive newer techniques is indicated. PMID:24839570

  19. PROPER MOTIONS IN KAPTEYN SELECTED AREA 103: A PRELIMINARY ORBIT FOR THE VIRGO STELLAR STREAM

    SciTech Connect

    Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Girard, Terrence M.; Van Altena, William F.; Majewski, Steven R.; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Vivas, A. Katherina; Wilhelm, Ronald; Beers, Timothy C.

    2009-08-10

    We present absolute proper motions in Kapteyn Selected Area (SA) 103. This field is located 7 deg. west of the center of the Virgo Stellar Stream (VSS), and has a well-defined main sequence representing the stream. In SA 103, we identify one RR Lyrae star as a member of the VSS, according to its metallicity, radial velocity, and distance. VSS candidate turnoff and subgiant stars have proper motions consistent with that of the RR Lyrae star. The three-dimensional velocity data imply an orbit with a pericenter of {approx}11 kpc and an apocenter of {approx}90 kpc. Thus, the VSS comprises tidal debris found near the pericenter of a highly destructive orbit. Examining the six globular clusters at distances larger than 50 kpc from the Galactic center, and the proposed orbit of the VSS, we find one tentative association, NGC 2419. We speculate that NGC 2419 is possibly the nucleus of a disrupted system of which the VSS is a part.

  20. Second Epoch Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Kepler's Supernova Remnant: The Proper Motions of Balmer Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankrit, Ravi; Raymond, John C.; Blair, William P.; Long, Knox S.; Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Patnaude, Daniel J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the proper motions of Balmer-dominated filaments in Kepler’s supernova remnant using high resolution images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope at two epochs separated by about 10 years. We use the improved proper motion measurements and revised values of shock velocities to derive a distance to Kepler of {5.1}-0.7+0.8 kpc. The main shock around the northern rim of the remnant has a typical speed of 1690 km s-1 and is encountering material with densities of about 8 cm-3. We find evidence for the variation of shock properties over small spatial scales, including differences in the driving pressures as the shock wraps around a curved cloud surface. We find that the Balmer filaments ahead of the ejecta knot on the northwest boundary of the remnant are becoming fainter and more diffuse. We also find that the Balmer filaments associated with circumstellar material in the interior regions of the remnant are due to shocks with significantly lower velocities and that the brightness variations among these filaments trace the density distribution of the material, which may have a disk-like geometry. Based on observations made with the Hubble Space Telescope.

  1. Differential Proper-Motion Measurements of The Cygnus Egg Nebula; The Presence of Fast Equatorial Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasino, Rachael; Ueta, T.; Ferguson, B. A.

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of differential proper-motion analyses of the dust shell structure in the Egg Nebula (RAFGL 2688, V1610 Cyg), based on the archived two-epoch imaging-polarimetric data in the optical taken with the Hubble Space Telescope. We measured the amount of motion of local structures and the signature concentric arcs in the nebula by determining their relative shifts over an interval of 7.25 yr. We discovered that the optical polarization characteristics of the Egg Nebula was influenced by the marginal optical thickness of the circumstellar shell and the illumination of the nebula was done in two-step mechanism - most of the nebula is illuminated by the secondary/dust-scattered starlight emanating from the bipolar lobes themselves due to the central concentration of dust grains of more than 10^3 AU diameter that regulates the seepage of the starlight from the central region. Nevertheless, based on two types of differential proper-motion analyses we revealed interesting dynamics of the lobes and concentric arcs, which should provide solid constraints on the subsequent theoretical/numerical investigations.

  2. Differential Proper-Motion Measurements of The Cygnus Egg Nebula; The Presence of Fast Equatorial Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasino, Rachael; Ueta, Toshiya; Ferguson, Brian

    2012-10-01

    We present the results of differential proper-motion analyses of the dust shell structure in the Egg Nebula (RAFGL 2688, V1610 Cyg), based on the archived two-epoch imaging-polarimetric data in the optical taken with the Hubble Space Telescope. We measured the amount of motion of local structures and the signature concentric arcs in the nebula by determining their relative shifts over an interval of 7.25 yr. We discovered that the optical polarization characteristics of the Egg Nebula was influenced by the marginal optical thickness of the circumstellar shell and the illumination of the nebula was done in two-step mechanism - most of the nebula is illuminated by the secondary/dust-scattered starlight emanating from the bipolar lobes themselves due to the central concentration of dust grains of more than 10^3 AU diameter that regulates the seepage of the starlight from the central region. Nevertheless, based on two types of differential proper-motion analyses we revealed interesting dynamics of the lobes and concentric arcs, which should provide solid constraints on the subsequent theoretical/numerical investigations.

  3. Maintaining the proper connection between the centrioles and the pericentriolar matrix requires Drosophila centrosomin.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Eliana P; Raff, Jordan W

    2007-08-27

    Centrosomes consist of two centrioles surrounded by an amorphous pericentriolar matrix (PCM), but it is unknown how centrioles and PCM are connected. We show that the centrioles in Drosophila embryos that lack the centrosomal protein Centrosomin (Cnn) can recruit PCM components but cannot maintain a proper attachment to the PCM. As a result, the centrioles "rocket" around in the embryo and often lose their connection to the nucleus in interphase and to the spindle poles in mitosis. This leads to severe mitotic defects in embryos and to errors in centriole segregation in somatic cells. The Cnn-related protein CDK5RAP2 is linked to microcephaly in humans, but cnn mutant brains are of normal size, and we observe only subtle defects in the asymmetric divisions of mutant neuroblasts. We conclude that Cnn maintains the proper connection between the centrioles and the PCM; this connection is required for accurate centriole segregation in somatic cells but is not essential for the asymmetric division of neuroblasts. PMID:17709428

  4. On the systematics in apparent proper motions of radio sources observed by VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raposo-Pulido, V.; Lambert, S.; Capitaine, N.; Nilsson, T.; Heinkelmann, R.; Schuh, H.

    2015-08-01

    For about twenty years, several authors have been investigating the systematics in the apparent proper motions of radio source positions. In some cases, the theoretical work developed (Pyne et al., 1996) could not be assessed due to the few number of VLBI observations. In other cases, the effects attributed to apparent proper motion could not be related successfully because there were no significant evidences from a statistical point of view (MacMillan, 2005). In this work we provide considerations about the estimation of the coefficients of spherical harmonics, based on a three-step procedure used by Titov et al. (2011) and Titov and Lambert (2013). The early stage of this work has been to compare step by step the computations and estimation processes between the Calc/Solve (http://gemini.gsfc.nasa.gov/solve/) and VieVS software (Böhm et al., 2012). To achieve this, the results were analyzed and compared with the previous study done by Titov and Lambert (2013).

  5. Determination of Proper Austenitization Temperatures for Hot Stamping of AISI 4140 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadian, Pedram; Parsa, Mohammad Habibi; Shakeri, Amid

    2014-04-01

    High strength steels are desirable materials for use in automobile bodies in order to reduce vehicle weight and increase the safety of car passengers, but steel grades with high strength commonly show poor formability. Recently, steels with controlled microstructures and compositions are used to gain adequate strength after hot stamping while maintaining good formability during processing. In this study, microstructure evolutions and changes in mechanical properties of AISI 4140 steel sheets resulting from the hot stamping process at different austenitization temperatures were investigated. To determine the proper austenitization temperatures, the results were compared with those of the cold-worked and cold-worked plus quench-tempered specimens. Comparisons showed that the austenitization temperatures of 1000 and 1100 °C are proper for hot stamping of 3-mm-thick AISI 4140 steel sheets due to the resultant martensitic microstructure which led to the yield and ultimate tensile strength of 1.3 and 2.1 GPa, respectively. Such conditions resulted in more favorable simultaneous strength and elongation than those of hot-stamped conventional boron steels.

  6. An HST Proper-motion Study of the Large-scale Jet of 3C273

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Sparks, William B.; Georganopoulos, Markos; Anderson, Jay; van der Marel, Roeland; Biretta, John; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Chiaberge, Marco; Perlman, Eric; Norman, Colin

    2016-02-01

    The radio galaxy 3C 273 hosts one of the nearest and best-studied powerful quasar jets. Having been imaged repeatedly by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) over the past twenty years, it was chosen for an HST program to measure proper motions in the kiloparsec-scale resolved jets of nearby radio-loud active galaxies. The jet in 3C 273 is highly relativistic on sub-parsec scales, with apparent proper motions up to 15c observed by very long baseline interferometry. In contrast, we find that the kiloparsec-scale knots are compatible with being stationary, with a mean speed of -0.2 ± 0.5c over the whole jet. Assuming the knots are packets of moving plasma, an upper limit of 1c implies a bulk Lorentz factor Γ < 2.9. This suggests that the jet has either decelerated significantly by the time it reaches the kiloparsec scale, or that the knots in the jet are standing shock features. The second scenario is incompatible with the inverse Compton off the Cosmic Microwave Background (IC/CMB) model for the X-ray emission of these knots, which requires the knots to be in motion, but IC/CMB is also disfavored in the first scenario due to energetic considerations, in agreement with the recent finding of Meyer & Georganopoulos which ruled out the IC/CMB model for the X-ray emission of 3C 273 via gamma-ray upper limits.

  7. Proper use of surgical n95 respirators and surgical masks in the OR.

    PubMed

    Benson, Stacey M; Novak, Debra A; Ogg, Mary J

    2013-04-01

    Proper adherence to infection control precautions, including appropriate selection and use of personal protective equipment (PPE), is of significant importance to the health and well-being of perioperative personnel. Surgical masks are intended for use as a barrier to protect the wearer's face from large droplets and splashes of blood and other body fluids; however, surgical and high-filtration surgical laser masks do not provide enough protection to be considered respiratory PPE. Potential exposure to airborne contaminants and infectious agents, including those present in surgical smoke, necessitates the use of respiratory PPE, such as a surgical N95 particulate filtering facepiece respirator. Filtering facepiece respirators greatly reduce a wide size range of particles from entering the wearer's breathing zone and are designed to protect the user from both droplet and airborne particles. Every health care worker who must use a respirator to control hazardous exposures in the workplace must be trained to properly use the respirator and pass a fit test before using it in the workplace. PMID:23531312

  8. A SUBSTELLAR COMMON PROPER-MOTION COMPANION TO THE PLEIAD H II 1348

    SciTech Connect

    Geissler, Kerstin; Metchev, Stanimir A.; Pham, Alfonse; Larkin, James E.; McElwain, Michael; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2012-02-10

    We announce the identification of a proper-motion companion to the star H II 1348, a K5 V member of the Pleiades open cluster. The existence of a faint point source 1.''1 away from H II 1348 was previously known from adaptive optics imaging by Bouvier et al. However, because of a high likelihood of background star contamination and in the absence of follow-up astrometry, Bouvier et al. tentatively concluded that the candidate companion was not physically associated with H II 1348. We establish the proper-motion association of the pair from adaptive optics imaging with the Palomar 5 m telescope. Adaptive optics spectroscopy with the integral field spectrograph OSIRIS on the Keck 10 m telescope reveals that the companion has a spectral type of M8 {+-} 1. According to substellar evolution models, the M8 spectral type resides within the substellar mass regime at the age of the Pleiades. The primary itself is a known double-lined spectroscopic binary, which makes the resolved companion, H II 1348B, the least massive and widest component of this hierarchical triple system and the first substellar companion to a stellar primary in the Pleiades.

  9. Introducing Spectral Proper Orthogonal Decomposition: Superior identification of coherent structures in turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieber, Moritz; Oberleithner, Kilian; Paschereit, C. Oliver

    2015-11-01

    The identification of coherent structures from experimental or numerical data is an essential task in fluid dynamics. Today's commonly used approaches employ the construction of a modal base that captures the dominant flow structures. Typically, these modes are either energy (POD) or frequency (Fourier decomposition) ranked. However, there are numerous examples where the relevant coherent structures occur at low energies or at multiple frequencies. To overcome the shortcoming of the current ``rigid'' approaches, we propose a new method - Spectral Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (SPOD). It is based on classical POD and it applies to spatially and temporally resolved data. The new method involves an additional temporal constraint that enables a clear separation of phenomena that occur at multiple frequencies and energies. It allows for a continuous shifting from the energy ranked POD to the frequency ranked Fourier decomposition by changing a single parameter. In this presentation we demonstrate the SPOD on experimental data of some flow cases, where the commonly used methods fail to assign the relevant coherent structures to single modes. The SPOD, however, achieves a proper separation of spatially and temporally coherent structures that might be hidden in noise or spread over a wide frequency range. In spite of all these benefits, the algorithmic complexity and computational cost of the SPOD is still comparable to the snapshot POD.

  10. A robust expansion proper motion distance to the extraordinary planetary nebula KjPn 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boumis, P.; Meaburn, J.

    2014-04-01

    Since the discovery by Lopez, Vasquez and Rodriguez of the giant lobes projecting from the otherwise innocuous planetary nebula, KjPn 8, it has been imperative to obtain a robust distance (D) determination. This has now been achieved by comparing an image of the lobes taken in 2011 with the Greek Aristarchos telescope with that (POSSI-R) obtained in 1954: the baseline for expansive proper motions has therefore being extended to 57 yr. These proper motions, combined with previous radial velocity measurements and tilt of the most energetic outflow with respect to the sight line, as determined from HST imagery of the nebular core, give D = 1.8 ± 0.3 kpc. This value then lets the kinetic energy (approx 1047 erg) of the most recent and energetic outflow to be determined. It could be significant that this energy is consistent with an Intermediate Luminosity Optical Transient (ILOT) origin of the latest ejection as proposed for other similar objects by Soker and Kashi.

  11. Proton conducting cerate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, G.W.; Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Weber, W.J.

    1995-08-01

    Cerate perovskites of the general formula AM{sub x}Ce{sub 1-x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, where A = Sr or Ba and where M = Gd, Nd, Y, Yb or other rare earth dopant, are known to conduct a protonic current. Such materials may be useful as the electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell operating at intermediate temperatures, as an electrochemical hydrogen separation membrane, or as a hydrogen sensor. Conduction mechanisms in these materials were evaluated using dc cyclic voltammetry and mass spectrometry, allowing currents and activation energies for proton, electron, and oxygen ion contributions to the total current to be determined. For SrYb{sub 0.05}Ce{sub 0.95}O{sub 3-{delta}}, one of the best and most environmentally stable compositions, proton conduction followed two different mechanisms: a low temperature process, characterized by an activation energy of 0.42{+-}0.04 eV, and a high temperature process, characterized by an activation energy of 1.38{+-}0.13 eV. It is believed that the low temperature process is dominated by grain boundary conduction while bulk conduction is responsible for the high temperature process. The activation energy for oxygen ion conduction (0.97{+-}0.10 eV) agrees well with other oxygen conductors, while that for electronic conduction, 0.90{+-}0.09 eV, is affected by a temperature-dependent electron carrier concentration. Evaluated by direct measurement of mass flux through a dense ceramic with an applied dc field, oxygen ions were determined to be the majority charge carrier except at the lowest temperatures, followed by electrons and then protons.

  12. "A Thousand Names They Called Him" Naming and Proper Names in the Work of S. Y. Agnon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadad, Shira

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation offers a study of proper names and naming as a conceptual and thematic anchor in the work of S.Y. Agnon. Proper names, I argue, constitute an underexplored and highly fruitful prism through which to read literature, and specifically Agnon's fiction. My study consists of a series of readings in several of Agnon's major…

  13. 9 CFR 325.15 - Evidence of proper certification required on waybills; transfer bills, etc., for shipment by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of proper certification... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION TRANSPORTATION § 325.15 Evidence of proper certification required on waybills... accompanying the same includes the signed statement in the following form: (Name of transportation company)...

  14. Transparent conducting oxide nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alivov, Yahya; Singh, Vivek; Ding, Yuchen; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-09-01

    Thin film or porous membranes made of hollow, transparent, conducting oxide (TCO) nanotubes, with high chemical stability, functionalized surfaces and large surface areas, can provide an excellent platform for a wide variety of nanostructured photovoltaic, photodetector, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic devices. While large-bandgap oxide semiconductors offer transparency for incident light (below their nominal bandgap), their low carrier concentration and poor conductivity makes them unsuitable for charge conduction. Moreover, materials with high conductivity have nominally low bandgaps and hence poor light transmittance. Here, we demonstrate thin films and membranes made from TiO2 nanotubes heavily-doped with shallow Niobium (Nb) donors (up to 10%, without phase segregation), using a modified electrochemical anodization process, to fabricate transparent conducting hollow nanotubes. Temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics revealed that TiO2 TCO nanotubes, doped with 10% Nb, show metal-like behavior with resistivity decreasing from 6.5 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 300 K (compared to 6.5 × 10-1 Ωcm for nominally undoped nanotubes) to 2.2 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 20 K. Optical properties, studied by reflectance measurements, showed light transmittance up to 90%, within wavelength range 400 nm-1000 nm. Nb doping also improves the field emission properties of TCO nanotubes demonstrating an order of magnitude increase in field-emitter current, compared to undoped samples.

  15. Transparent conducting oxide nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Alivov, Yahya; Singh, Vivek; Ding, Yuchen; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-09-26

    Thin film or porous membranes made of hollow, transparent, conducting oxide (TCO) nanotubes, with high chemical stability, functionalized surfaces and large surface areas, can provide an excellent platform for a wide variety of nanostructured photovoltaic, photodetector, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic devices. While large-bandgap oxide semiconductors offer transparency for incident light (below their nominal bandgap), their low carrier concentration and poor conductivity makes them unsuitable for charge conduction. Moreover, materials with high conductivity have nominally low bandgaps and hence poor light transmittance. Here, we demonstrate thin films and membranes made from TiO2 nanotubes heavily-doped with shallow Niobium (Nb) donors (up to 10%, without phase segregation), using a modified electrochemical anodization process, to fabricate transparent conducting hollow nanotubes. Temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics revealed that TiO2 TCO nanotubes, doped with 10% Nb, show metal-like behavior with resistivity decreasing from 6.5 × 10(-4) Ωcm at T = 300 K (compared to 6.5 × 10(-1) Ωcm for nominally undoped nanotubes) to 2.2 × 10(-4) Ωcm at T = 20 K. Optical properties, studied by reflectance measurements, showed light transmittance up to 90%, within wavelength range 400 nm-1000 nm. Nb doping also improves the field emission properties of TCO nanotubes demonstrating an order of magnitude increase in field-emitter current, compared to undoped samples. PMID:25180635

  16. Cartilage conduction hearing.

    PubMed

    Shimokura, Ryota; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tadashi; Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Levitt, Harry

    2014-04-01

    Sound information is known to travel to the cochlea via either air or bone conduction. However, a vibration signal, delivered to the aural cartilage via a transducer, can also produce a clearly audible sound. This type of conduction has been termed "cartilage conduction." The aural cartilage forms the outer ear and is distributed around the exterior half of the external auditory canal. In cartilage conduction, the cartilage and transducer play the roles of a diaphragm and voice coil of a loudspeaker, respectively. There is a large gap between the impedances of cartilage and skull bone, such that cartilage vibrations are not easily transmitted through bone. Thus, these methods of conduction are distinct. In this study, force was used to apply a transducer to aural cartilage, and it was found that the sound in the auditory canal was amplified, especially for frequencies below 2 kHz. This effect was most pronounced at an application force of 1 N, which is low enough to ensure comfort in the design of hearing aids. The possibility of using force adjustments to vary amplification may also have applications for cell phone design. PMID:25234994

  17. INVESTIGATION OF THE ERRORS IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY PROPER-MOTION MEASUREMENTS USING SAMPLES OF QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Ruobing; Gunn, James; Knapp, Gillian; Rockosi, Constance

    2011-10-15

    We investigate in detail the probability distribution function (pdf) of the proper-motion measurement errors in the SDSS+USNO-B proper-motion catalog of Munn et al. using clean quasar samples. The pdf of the errors is well represented by a Gaussian core with extended wings, plus a very small fraction (<0.1%) of 'outliers'. We find that while formally the pdf could be well fit by a five-parameter fitting function, for many purposes it is also adequate to represent the pdf with a one-parameter approximation to this function. We apply this pdf to the calculation of the confidence intervals on the true proper motion for an SDSS+USNO-B proper-motion measurement, and discuss several scientific applications of the SDSS proper-motion catalog. Our results have various applications in studies of the galactic structure and stellar kinematics. Specifically, they are crucial for searching hyper-velocity stars in the Galaxy.

  18. Proliferating conduction by isomerism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Rupan Preet; Sawhney, Ravinder Singh; Engles, Derick

    2015-01-01

    The electrical conduction of isomers of anthracene molecule attached between two semi-infinite gold electrodes was simulated using extended Huckel theory (EHT)-based on semi-empirical model in this research work. The electron transport parameters were examined in two epochs by buffering anthracene and its isomer phenanthrene alternatively between gold electrodes using sulphur as an alligator clip, under variegated bias voltages. Differential NDR effect was observed in both the cases but phenanthrene exhibited more linear I-V curve than its counterpart, anthracene. The simulated results discovered phenanthrene as a better candidate than anthracene towards contributing to electrical conduction in molecular junctions. Phenanthrene reported maximum conductance of 0.74G0 whereas anthracene exhibited 0.03G0 at 0.8V.

  19. Low thermal conductivity oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei; Phillpot, Simon R.; Wan, Chunlei; Chernatynskiy, Aleksandr; Qu, Zhixue

    2012-10-09

    Oxides hold great promise as new and improved materials for thermal-barrier coating applications. The rich variety of structures and compositions of the materials in this class, and the ease with which they can be doped, allow the exploration of various mechanisms for lowering thermal conductivity. In this article, we review recent progress in identifying specific oxides with low thermal conductivity from both theoretical and experimental perspectives. We explore the mechanisms of lowering thermal conductivity, such as introducing structural/chemical disorder, increasing material density, increasing the number of atoms in the primitive cell, and exploiting the structural anisotropy. We conclude that further systematic exploration of oxide crystal structures and chemistries are likely to result in even further improved thermal-barrier coatings.

  20. Electrical Conductivity in Textiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Copper is the most widely used electrical conductor. Like most metals, though, it has several drawbacks: it is heavy, expensive, and can break. Fibers that conduct electricity could be the solutions to these problems, and they are of great interest to NASA. Conductive fibers provide lightweight alternatives to heavy copper wiring in a variety of settings, including aerospace, where weight is always a chief concern. This is an area where NASA is always seeking improved materials. The fibers are also more cost-effective than metals. Expenditure is another area where NASA is always looking to make improvements. In the case of electronics that are confined to small spaces and subject to severe stress, copper is prone to breaking and losing connection over time. Flexible conductive fibers eliminate that problem. They are more supple and stronger than brittle copper and, thus, find good use in these and similar situations. While clearly a much-needed material, electrically conductive fibers are not readily available. The cost of new technology development, with all the pitfalls of troubleshooting production and the years of testing, and without the guarantee of an immediate market, is often too much of a financial hazard for companies to risk. NASA, however, saw the need for electrical fibers in its many projects and sought out a high-tech textile company that was already experimenting in this field, Syscom Technology, Inc., of Columbus, Ohio. Syscom was founded in 1993 to provide computer software engineering services and basic materials research in the areas of high-performance polymer fibers and films. In 1999, Syscom decided to focus its business and technical efforts on development of high-strength, high-performance, and electrically conductive polymer fibers. The company developed AmberStrand, an electrically conductive, low-weight, strong-yet-flexible hybrid metal-polymer YARN.

  1. Transparent Conductive Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-22

    The objectives of this program between UT-Battelle, LLC (the ''Contractor'') and (Battelle Memorial Institute) (the "Participant") were directed towards achieving significant improvement: in the electrical conductivity and optical/infrared transmission of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT)-based composite materials. These materials will be used in coating applications that range from aircraft canopies to display applications. The goal of the project was to obtain supported mats of SWNTs with sheet conductivities approaching 10 ohms/square combined with high optical transmission (>85% transmission at 550 nm), thereby permitting their application as a replacement for indium tin oxide (ITO) in a variety of applications such as flexible displays.

  2. Conducting hybrid polymeric systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aldissi, M.; White, J.W.; Agnew, S.; Jorgensen, B.S.

    1987-09-01

    The studies took advantage of the opportunities offered by copolymerization for gaining insight into electrical conduction, morphology, phase separation, polymer-polymer interfaces, and solubility. Copolymerization is technologically important for it allows one to tailor-make products with specifically desired properties. However, the utility of copolymerization involving conjugated, rigid components could be different from that of conventional polymers. This paper is focused on the synthesis and properties of various materials: Rod-coil systems such as polyisoprene/polyacetylene diblock copolymers (resonance raman and small angle neutron scattering studies correlated to conductivity); and alternating copolymers such as poly (arylpyrroles) (electrochemical synthesis and characterization). 8 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Thermal conductivity of metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazem, Sayyed M.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to familiarize students with steady and unsteady heat transfer by conduction and with the effect of thermal conductivity upon temperature distribution through a homogeneous substance. The elementary heat conduction experiment presented is designed for associate degree technology students in a simple manner to enhance their intuition and to clarify many confusing concepts such as temperature, thermal energy, thermal conductivity, heat, transient and steady flows. The equipment set is safe, small, portable (10 kg) and relatively cheap (about $1200): the electric hot plate 2 kg (4.4 lb) for $175: the 24 channel selector and Thermocouple Digital Readout (Trendicator) 4.5 kg (10 lb) for about $1000; the three metal specimens (each of 2.5 cm diameter and 11 cm length), base plate and the bucket all about 3 kg (7 lb) for about $25. The experiment may take from 60 to 70 minutes. Although the hot plate surface temperature could be set from 90 to 370 C (maximum of 750 watts) it is a good practice to work with temperatures of 180 to 200 C (about 400 watts). They may experiment in squads of 2, 3 or even 4, or the instructor may demonstrate it for the whole class.

  4. Conductive Education Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivack, Frieda

    1995-01-01

    This article describes conductive education for children with neuromotor disabilities and identifies its major concepts, including orthofunction, rhythmic intention, and verbal regulation. Also addressed are the role of the conductor and the group and the training of conductors at the Peto Institute in Hungary. Research on the method's…

  5. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  6. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  7. Low electrolytic conductivity standards

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.C.; Berezansky, P.A.

    1995-09-01

    The monitoring and control of the quality of feedwater and boiler water are necessary for power plants. The generation of steam at high temperature and pressure requires that contaminants be strictly limited to very low levels to prevent corrosion and scaling. Standards of low electrolytic conductivity were developed to satisfy the demands of the US Navy and American industry for the measurement of high quality water. The criteria for the selection of appropriate solvent and solutes, based on the principles of equivalent conductivity and Onsager`s limiting law, are described. Dilute solutions of potassium chloride and benzoic acid in 30% n-propanol-water have been chosen as standards. The electrolytic conductivity of both sets of these solutions as a function of molality was determined. Solutions of potassium chloride and of benzoic acid are recommended for use as 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 {micro}S/cm conductivity standards. Solutions prepared from potassium chloride in 30% n-propanol-water have been certified as Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). SRM 3198 and SRM 3199 are certified nominally at 5 and 15 {micro}S/cm, respectively, at 25.000 C.

  8. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.; Xu, K.; Skotheim, T.A.

    1999-10-05

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  9. Conductance Steamflow relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney Trainor-Guitton

    2015-04-01

    These histograms represent our calibration of conductance of a volcanic geothermal field (with a clay cap) and the observed steam flow rates. See the following paper for further description: Trainor-Guitton, Hoversten,Nordquist, Intani, Value of information analysis using geothermal field data: accounting for multiple interpretations & determining new drilling locations. SEG Abstracts 2015.

  10. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen; Liu, Changle; Xu, Kang; Skotheim, Terje A.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  11. Interface Conductance Modal Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordiz, Kiarash; Henry, Asegun

    2015-03-01

    Reliably and quantitatively calculating the conductance of phonons across an interface between two materials has been one of the major unresolved questions in thermal transport physics for the last century. Theories have been presented in this regard, but their predictive power is limited. A new formalism to extract the modal contributions to thermal interface conductance with full inclusion of temperature dependent anharmonicity and all of the atom level topography is presented. The results indicate that when two materials are joined a new set of vibrational modes are required to correctly describe the transport across the interface. The new set of vibrational modes is inconsistent with the physical picture described by phonon gas model (PGM), because some of the most important modes are localized and non-propagating and therefore do not have a well-defined velocity nor do they impinge on the interface. Among these new modes, certain classifications emerge, as most modes extend at least partially into the other material. Localized interfacial modes are also present and exhibit a high conductance contribution on a per mode basis by strongly coupling to other types of vibrational modes. We apply our formalism to different interfaces and present thermal interface conductance accumulation functions, two-dimensional cross-correlation matrices, and a quantitative determination of the contributions arising from inelastic effects. The provided new perspective on interface thermal transport can open new gates towards deeper understanding of phonon-phonon and electron-phonon interactions around interfaces.

  12. Benefits of Conducting Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Frances E.

    2001-01-01

    Metaphors for researchers, such as a crusader; a traveler; an explorer; a miner; an astronaut; a biblical Daniel; a Samurai; and an archaeologist are discussed. Benefits of conducting research are enumerated, including building the knowledge base for art therapy; increasing professional opportunities; improving client care; and advancing the…

  13. Conducting Educational Design Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenney, Susan; Reeves, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Educational design research blends scientific investigation with systematic development and implementation of solutions to educational problems. Empirical investigation is conducted in real learning settings--not laboratories--to craft usable and effective solutions. At the same time, the research is carefully structured to produce theoretical…

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Proper motions and BV photometry in NGC 1513 (Frolov+, 2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, V. N.; Jilinski, E. G.; Ananjevskaja, J. K.; Poljakov, E. V.; Bronnikova, N. M.; Gorshanov, D. L.

    2002-10-01

    The results of astrometric and photometric investigations of the poorly studied open cluster NGC 1513 are presented. The proper motions of 333 stars with a root-mean-square error of 1.9mas/yr were obtained by means of the automated measuring complex "Fantasy". Eight astrometric plates covering the time interval of 101 years were measured and a total of 141 astrometric cluster members identified. BV CCD-photometry was obtained for stars in an area 17'x17' centered on the cluster. Altogether 33 stars with high reliability were considered to be cluster members by two criteria. The estimated age of NGC 1513 is 2.54E+08 years. (2 data files).

  15. ER-PM Contacts Define Actomyosin Kinetics for Proper Contractile Ring Assembly.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; Bidone, Tamara C; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2016-03-01

    The cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an elaborate network of tubules and cisternae [1], establishes contact sites with the plasma membrane (PM) through tethering machinery involving a set of conserved integral ER proteins [2]. The physiological consequences of forming ER-PM contacts are not fully understood. Here, we reveal a kinetic restriction role of ER-PM contacts over ring compaction process for proper actomyosin ring assembly in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that fission yeast cells deficient in ER-PM contacts exhibit aberrant equatorial clustering of actin cables during ring assembly and are particularly susceptible to compromised actin filament crosslinking activity. Using quantitative image analyses and computer simulation, we demonstrate that ER-PM contacts function to modulate the distribution of ring components and to constrain their compaction kinetics. We propose that ER-PM contacts have evolved as important physical modulators to ensure robust ring assembly. PMID:26877082

  16. Reflections on the history and ethics of the proper attribution and misappropriation of merit.

    PubMed

    Gans, Henry

    2011-01-01

    One would expect that the first to arrive at a new observation, discovery, or concept would be properly acknowledged as such. Unfortunately, it is not unusual that someone else receives the credit. This is not just unfair and unethical, but it also distorts the history of science. In addition, the victims of misattribution are deeply affected by losing not only the recognition of being first, but also the credit, kudos, and other benefits that derive from their contribution. This issue deserves far more attention than it currently receives. It continues to cause much mischief in the most unexpected places and under circumstances that should not be tolerated. This article looks at the consequences of some instances of misattribution in the history of science and argues that researchers should make a stronger effort to expose and rectify such cases. In most instances, all that is required is to double-check the data. PMID:22019535

  17. Tissue-specific DNA demethylation is required for proper B-cell differentiation and function.

    PubMed

    Orlanski, Shari; Labi, Verena; Reizel, Yitzhak; Spiro, Adam; Lichtenstein, Michal; Levin-Klein, Rena; Koralov, Sergei B; Skversky, Yael; Rajewsky, Klaus; Cedar, Howard; Bergman, Yehudit

    2016-05-01

    There is ample evidence that somatic cell differentiation during development is accompanied by extensive DNA demethylation of specific sites that vary between cell types. Although the mechanism of this process has not yet been elucidated, it is likely to involve the conversion of 5mC to 5hmC by Tet enzymes. We show that a Tet2/Tet3 conditional knockout at early stages of B-cell development largely prevents lineage-specific programmed demethylation events. This lack of demethylation affects the expression of nearby B-cell lineage genes by impairing enhancer activity, thus causing defects in B-cell differentiation and function. Thus, tissue-specific DNA demethylation appears to be necessary for proper somatic cell development in vivo. PMID:27091986

  18. Two Ligands Signal Through the Drosophila PDGF/VEGF Receptor to Ensure Proper Salivary Gland Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Katherine E.; Schnittke, Nikolai; Beckendorf, Steven K.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The Drosophila embryonic salivary gland is a migrating tissue that undergoes a stereotypic pattern of migration into the embryo. We demonstrate that the migratory path of the salivary gland requires the PDGF/VEGF pathway. The PDGF/VEGF receptor, Pvr, is strongly expressed in the salivary glands, and Pvr mutations cause abnormal ventral curving of the glands, suggesting that Pvr is involved in gland migration. Although the Pvr ligands, Pvf1 and Pvf2, have distinct expression patterns in the Drosophila embryo, mutations for either one of the ligands result in salivary gland migration defects similar to those seen in embryos that lack Pvr. Rescue experiments indicate that the PDGF/VEGF pathway functions autonomously in the salivary gland. The results of this study demonstrate that the Drosophila PDGF/VEGF pathway is essential for proper positioning of the salivary glands. PMID:17462868

  19. Beyond Compassion: Replacing a Blame Culture With Proper Emotional Support and Management

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Yiannis

    2015-01-01

    The absence of compassion, argues the author, is not the cause of healthcare failures but rather a symptom of deeper systemic failures. The clinical encounter arouses strong emotions of anxiety, fear, and anger in patients which are often projected onto the clinicians. Attempts to protect clinicians through various bureaucratic devices and depersonalization of the patient, constitute as Menzies noted in her classic work, social defences, aimed at containing the anxieties of clinicians but ending up in reinforcing these anxieties. Instead of placing additional burdens on clinicians by bureaucratizing and benchmarking compassion, the author argues that proper emotional management and support is a precondition for a healthcare system that offers humane and effective treatment to patients and a humane working environment for those who work in it. PMID:26340493

  20. A proper motion survey in the area of the galactic cluster in Coma Berenices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cova S., J.

    1981-12-01

    An attempt is made to test the accuracy of the block measurement method for the determination of positions from the Oxford Zone I of the Carte du Ciel catalog, and to determine the precise proper motions for all stars, down to the catalog's photographic limiting magnitude, in a 4.7 arcmin-diameter area which covers a large part of the cluster in Coma Berenices. The earliest epoch employed consists of nine fields of the Oxford Zone which were simultaneously reduced by means of block adjustment methods, while the latest epoch is based on plates taken with a Schmidt telescope. Intermediate epochs were taken from Heckmann (1929) and the AGK catalogs, with the latter serving as a reference system throughout.

  1. A Common Proper Motion Stellar Companion to HAT-P-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Norio; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Hirano, Teruyuki; Suenaga, Takuya; Kandori, Ryo; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Sato, Bun'ei; Suzuki, Ryuji; Ida, Shigeru; Nagasawa, Makiko; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D.; Carson, Joseph; Egner, Sebastian E.; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Grady, Carol A.; Guyon, Olivier; Hashimoto, Jun; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kwon, Jungmi; Matsuo, Taro; Mayama, Satoshi; McElwain, Michael W.; Miyama, Shoken M.; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suto, Hiroshi; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Tomono, Daigo; Turner, Edwin L.; Watanabe, Makoto; Wisniewski, John P.; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2012-12-01

    We report that HAT-P-7 has a common proper motion stellar companion. The companion is located at ˜3."9 to the east and estimated to be an M5.5V dwarf based on its colors. We also confirm the presence of a third companion, which was first reported by Winn et al. (2009, ApJ, 703, L99), based on long-term radial velocity measurements. We revisit the migration mechanism of HAT-P-7b given to the presence of those companions, and propose the sequential Kozai migration as a likely scenario in this system. This scenario may explain the reason for an outlier in the discussion of the spin-orbit alignment timescale for HAT-P-7b by Albrecht et al. (2012, ApJ, 757, 18).

  2. The index theory on non-compact manifolds with proper group action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braverman, Maxim

    2015-12-01

    We construct a regularized index of a generalized Dirac operator on a complete Riemannian manifold endowed with a proper action of a unimodular Lie group. We show that the index is preserved by a certain class of non-compact cobordisms and prove a gluing formula for the regularized index. The results of this paper generalize our previous construction of index for compact group action and the recent paper of Hochs and Mathai who studied the case of a Hamiltonian action on a symplectic manifold. As an application of the cobordism invariance of the index we give an affirmative answer to a question of Hochs and Mathai about the independence of the Hochs-Mathai quantization of the metric, connection and other choices.

  3. Proper time dynamics in general relativity and conformal unification of interaction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovski, M.; Papoyan, V. V.; Pervushin, V. N.; Smirichinskij, V. I.

    1999-02-01

    The paper is devoted to the description a measurable timeinterval ("proper time") in the Hamilton version of general relativity with the Dirac-ADM metric. To separate the dynamical parameter of evolution from the space metric the authors use the Lichnerowicz conformally invariant variables. In terms of these variables GR is equivalent to the conformally invariant Penrose-Chernicov-Tagirov theory of a scalar field the role of which is played by the scale factor multiplied on the Planck constant. Identification of this scalar field with the modulus of the Higgs field in the standard model of electroweak and strong interactions allows to formulate an example of conformally invariant unified theory where the vacuum averaging of the scalar field is determined by cosmological integrals of motion of the Universe evolution.

  4. Dynamics of proper time in the theory of gravitation and conformal unification of interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovski, M.; Papoyan, V. V.; Pervushin, V. N.; Smirichinskii, V. I.

    1999-01-01

    The work is devoted to a description of the dynamics of proper time as a function of the evolutionary parameter, which can be separated from the Dirac-ADM metric in the Hamiltonian version of the general theory of relativity (GTR) and in conformally invariant, Lichnerowicz variables. In these variables, the GTR is equivalent to the conformally invariant, Penrose-Chernikov-Tagirov, scalar-field theory, with a quantity proportional to the scale factor playing the role of the scalar field. Identifying such a scalar field with the modulus of the Higgs field in the standard model, which unifies the electrvweak and strong interactions, makes it possible to formulate a unified, conformally invariant theory in which the vacuum average of the scalar field is determined by integrals of motion of cosmological evolution.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NEOWISE/AllWISE high proper motion objects (Schneider+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A. C.; Greco, J.; Cushing, M. C.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Mainzer, A.; Gelino, C. R.; Fajardo-Acosta, S. B.; Bauer, J.

    2016-04-01

    The NEOWISE reactivation mission was carried out using the W1 (3.4um) and W2 (4.6um) passbands of the WISE telescope. Considering the ~4 year time baseline between the first sky pass of NEOWISE and the first WISE epochs, our 1" search radius gives us a nominal minimum proper motion limit of ~250mas/yr (see section 2). Low-resolution (R=75-120) spectra were acquired for several sources with the upgraded SpeX spectrograph at the 3m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea. A summary of all IRTF/SpeX observations is given in Table 11. Three targets were observed with the Double Spectrograph on the Hale 5m telescope on the night of UT 2015 September 07. (3 data files).

  6. A Common Proper Motion Stellar Companion to HAT-P-7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Carol A.; McElwain, Michael W.; Narita, Norio; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Hirano, Teruyuki; Suenaga, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    We report that HAT-P-7 has a common proper motion stellar companion. The companion is located at approx. 3.9 arcsec to the east and estimated as an M5.5V dwarf based on its colors. We also confirm the presence of the third companion, which was first reported by Winn et al. (2009), based on long-term radial velocity measurements. We revisit the migration mechanism of HAT-P-7b given the presence of those companions, and propose sequential Kozai migration as a likely scenario in this system. This scenario may explain the reason for an outlier in the discussion of the spin-orbit alignment timescale for HAT-P-7b by Albrecht et al. (2012).

  7. Acceleration techniques for reduced-order models based on proper orthogonal decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Cizmas, P.; Richardson, B.; Brenner, T.; O'Brien, T.; Breault, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents several acceleration techniques for reduced-order models based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method. The techniques proposed herein are: (i) an algorithm for splitting the database of snapshots generated by the full-order model; (ii) a method for solving quasi-symmetrical matrices; (iii) a strategy for reducing the frequency of the projection. The acceleration techniques were applied to a POD-based reduced-order model of the twophase flows in fluidized beds. This reduced-order model was developed using numerical results from a full-order computational fluid dynamics model of a two-dimensional fluidized bed. Using these acceleration techniques the computational time of the POD model was two orders of magnitude shorter than the full-order model.

  8. Reduced Order Model of a Spouted Fluidized Bed Utilizing Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck-Roth, Stephanie R.

    2011-07-01

    A reduced order model utilizing proper orthogonal decomposition for approximation of gas and solids velocities as well as pressure, solids granular temperature and gas void fraction for use in multiphase incompressible fluidized beds is developed and presented. The methodology is then tested on data representing a flat-bottom spouted fluidized bed and comparative results against the software Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchanges (MFIX) are provided. The governing equations for the model development are based upon those implemented in the (MFIX) software. The three reduced order models explored are projective, extrapolative and interpolative. The first is an extension of the system solution beyond an original time sequence. The second is a numerical approximation to a new solution based on a small selected parameter deviation from an existing CFD data set. Finally an interpolative methodology approximates a solution between two existing CFD data sets both which vary a single parameter.

  9. Posttraumatic carotid-cavernous fistula: Pathogenetic mechanisms, diagnostic management and proper treatment. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Marín-Fernández, Ana-Belén; Román-Ramos, María; Fernandez-Solis, José; Martínez-Lara, Ildefonso

    2016-01-01

    Carotid-cavernous fistulas are an uncommon diseases characterized by abnormal communications between arteries and veins located in the cavernous sinus. According with Barrow´s classification they could be divided in two groups: direct and indirect. The typical symptoms showed by theses pathologies are: pulsating exophthalmos and orbital blow. The present study describes a case of direct posttraumatic carotid-cavernous fistula in a 26 years old man. Furthermore, we present the images that we used to make the diagnosis. In this light, we decided to treat this case with endovascular approach after considering several therapeutic options. The aim of the present report is twofold. First, we examine the importance of the proper management of the direct posttraumatic carotid-cavernous fistula. Second, we describe this rare syndrome with the goal of proposing suitable treatments. Key words:Carotid cavernous fistulas, pulsating exophthalmos, orbital blow, endovascular approach, Barrow´s classification. PMID:27034767

  10. Proper name retrieval in temporal lobe epilepsy: naming of famous faces and landmarks.

    PubMed

    Benke, Thomas; Kuen, Eva; Schwarz, Michael; Walser, Gerald

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to further explore proper name (PN) retrieval and conceptual knowledge in patients with left and right temporal lobe epilepsy (69 patients with LTLE and 62 patients with RTLE) using a refined assessment procedure. Based on the performance of a large group of age- and education-matched normals, a new test of famous faces and famous landmarks was designed. Recognition, naming, and semantic knowledge were assessed consecutively, allowing for a better characterization of deficient levels in the naming system. Impairment in PN retrieval was common in the cohort with TLE. Furthermore, side of seizure onset impaired stages of name retrieval differently: LTLE impaired the lexico-phonological processing, whereas RTLE mainly impaired the perceptual-semantic stage of object recognition. In addition to deficient PN retrieval, patients with TLE had reduced conceptual knowledge regarding famous persons and landmarks. PMID:23542541

  11. Proper orthogonal decomposition of flow-field in non-stationary geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshin, Victor; Seifert, Avi; Sidilkover, David; Tadmor, Gilead

    2016-04-01

    The current paper outlines a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) methodology for a flow field in a domain with moving boundaries. In the standard POD approach the properties of the region of the domain, which alternatingly occupied by fluid and solid, are not defined. Here, prior to the decomposition, the domain with moving or deforming boundaries is mapped to a stationary domain using volume preserving mapping. This mapping was created by combining a transfinite interpolation and volume adjustment algorithm. The algorithm is based on an iterative solution of the Laplace equation with respect to the displacement potential of the grid points. Finally the method is demonstrated on CFD results of pitching and plunging ellipse in still fluid.

  12. ER-PM contacts define actomyosin kinetics for proper contractile ring assembly

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan; Bidone, Tamara; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Summary The cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an elaborate network of tubules and cisternae [1], establishes contact sites with the plasma membrane (PM) through tethering machinery involving a set of conserved integral ER proteins [2]. The physiological consequences of forming ER-PM contacts are not fully understood. Here, we reveal a kinetic restriction role of ER-PM contacts over ring compaction process for proper actomyosin ring assembly in Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe). We show that fission yeast cells deficient in ER-PM contacts exhibit aberrant equatorial clustering of actin cables during ring assembly and are particularly susceptible to compromised actin filament crosslinking activity. Using quantitative image analyses and computer simulation, we demonstrate that ER-PM contacts function to modulate the distribution of ring components and to constrain their compaction kinetics. We propose that ER-PM contacts have evolved as important physical modulators to ensure robust ring assembly. PMID:26877082

  13. On the symmetry of proper orthogonal decomposition modes of a low-aspect-ratio plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zongxian; Dong, Haibo

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the symmetry property and corresponding virtual force contribution of the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) modes are numerically investigated for the low-Reynolds number flows passing over a low-aspect-ratio pitching-plunging plate. It is found that the flow and its POD modes have the same reflectional symmetry about the spanwise central plane. However, about the crossflow central plane, the spatio-temporal flow symmetry results in a change of symmetry pattern every two POD modes, which corresponds to odd or even multiples of the vortex shedding frequency. Based on a wake survey method for virtual forces, the POD modes are further classified into two groups, thrust- and lift-producing modes, respectively. Results have also shown that the distinct symmetry properties of these modes can be used to identify the correlation between the wake structure and the hydrodynamic force production.

  14. Large proper motions of the Herbig-Haro objects HH 1 and HH 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbig, G. H.; Jones, B. F.

    1981-08-01

    Crossley and 120-in. direct plates obtained between 1946 and 1980 have been measured for the proper motions of the Herbig-Haro objects HH 1, HH 2, and HH 3, which were then referred to the motion of the Orion complex. HH 3 is found to be essentially stationary, while HH 1 and HH 2 have large cross motions in opposite directions, diverging from the position of a faint, red Orion association member which Cohen and Schwartz (1979) have proposed as the exciting star of HH 1. While most of the individual nuclei within each HH object are moving parallel to one another, there is a considerable dispersion in speeds: 155-351 km/sec for HH 1 and 100-294 km/sec for HH 2. A discrepancy is seen between absolute tangential velocities and the relative velocities of gas flowing into the shock front that are inferred from the optical spectra and shock model theory.

  15. Synaptic Ribbons Require Ribeye for Electron Density, Proper Synaptic Localization, and Recruitment of Calcium Channels.

    PubMed

    Lv, Caixia; Stewart, William J; Akanyeti, Otar; Frederick, Courtney; Zhu, Jie; Santos-Sacchi, Joseph; Sheets, Lavinia; Liao, James C; Zenisek, David

    2016-06-21

    Synaptic ribbons are structures made largely of the protein Ribeye that hold synaptic vesicles near release sites in non-spiking cells in some sensory systems. Here, we introduce frameshift mutations in the two zebrafish genes encoding for Ribeye and thus remove Ribeye protein from neuromast hair cells. Despite Ribeye depletion, vesicles collect around ribbon-like structures that lack electron density, which we term "ghost ribbons." Ghost ribbons are smaller in size but possess a similar number of smaller vesicles and are poorly localized to synapses and calcium channels. These hair cells exhibit enhanced exocytosis, as measured by capacitance, and recordings from afferent neurons post-synaptic to hair cells show no significant difference in spike rates. Our results suggest that Ribeye makes up most of the synaptic ribbon density in neuromast hair cells and is necessary for proper localization of calcium channels and synaptic ribbons. PMID:27292637

  16. Modelling the 3D morphology and proper motions of the planetary nebula NGC 6302

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uscanga, L.; Velázquez, P. F.; Esquivel, A.; Raga, A. C.; Boumis, P.; Cantó, J.

    2014-08-01

    We present 3D hydrodynamical simulations of an isotropic fast wind interacting with a previously ejected toroidally shaped slow wind in order to model both the observed morphology and the kinematics of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 6302. This source, also known as the Butterfly nebula, presents one of the most complex morphologies ever observed in PNe. From our numerical simulations, we have obtained an intensity map for the Hα emission to make a comparison with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of this object. We have also carried out a proper motion (PM) study from our numerical results, in order to compare with previous observational studies. We have found that the two interacting stellar wind model reproduce well the morphology of NGC 6302, and while the PMs in the models are similar to the observations, our results suggest that an acceleration mechanism is needed to explain the Hubble-type expansion found in HST observations.

  17. Microtubule segment stabilization by RASSF1A is required for proper microtubule dynamics and Golgi integrity

    PubMed Central

    Arnette, Christopher; Efimova, Nadia; Zhu, Xiaodong; Clark, Geoffrey J.; Kaverina, Irina

    2014-01-01

    The tumor suppressor and microtubule-associated protein Ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A) has a major effect on many cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression and apoptosis. RASSF1A expression is frequently silenced in cancer and is associated with increased metastasis. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that RASSF1A regulates microtubule organization and dynamics in interphase cells, as well as its effect on Golgi integrity and cell polarity. Our results show that RASSF1A uses a unique microtubule-binding pattern to promote site-specific microtubule rescues, and loss of RASSF1A leads to decreased microtubule stability. Furthermore, RASSF1A-associated stable microtubule segments are necessary to prevent Golgi fragmentation and dispersal in cancer cells and maintain a polarized cell front. These results indicate that RASSF1A is a key regulator in the fine tuning of microtubule dynamics in interphase cells and proper Golgi organization and cell polarity. PMID:24478455

  18. A case of a death by explosives: the keys to a proper investigation.

    PubMed

    Ladham, Shaun; Koehler, Steven A; Woods, Pamela; Huston, Robert; Dominick, Joseph; Fochtman, Frederick W; Wecht, Cyril H

    2005-04-01

    Suicidal deaths involving an explosive, unrelated to a terrorist act, are rare. The rarity of such events presents a unique environment for those investigating such a death. We report a case of suicide involving a 29-year-old white male who detonated a firework in his mouth, resulting in massive craniocerebral destruction. He was discovered in his residence shortly after the explosion. Initially, the case was believed to be a fatal gunshot wound by the paramedics and homicide detectives at the scene. Several small pieces of red colored paper and a possible end cap were located throughout the scene. Analysis of the paper and end cap showed trace components consistent with flash powder. The victim had used a pyrotechnic device to commit suicide. Therefore, it is critical for those who investigate deaths be able to identify cases that involve explosives in order to properly collect and analyze the evidence. PMID:15863023

  19. Determining proper strategies for health, safety, security and environmental (HSSE) management system.

    PubMed

    Zaeimdar, Mojgan; Nasiri, Parvin; Taghdisi, Mohammadhoseyn; Abbaspour, Majid; Arjmandi, Reza; Kalatipor, Omid

    2013-01-01

    Today, managing an organization is concerned with many problems. Adopting proper strategies can promote an organization's survival. This study aimed at developing an appropriate HSSE Strategy for regional operation associated companies of Iran National Gas Company (INGS) using SWOT analysis. The analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of HSSE was carried out and according to the results suitable strategies were recommended. In this regard, senior and junior managers, supervisors, and experts active in regional operation associated companies of Iran National Gas Company participated in SWOT analysis from HSSE angle. Then, they selected the most applicable SWOT factors pertaining to the organization. In the next step, these factors were weighted and scored. Based on the results four categories of strategies were developed including SO, WO, ST, and WT. Further examination showed that SO Strategies were the most applicable for the organization. PMID:23324707

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 1103 parallaxes and proper motions from URAT (Finch+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, C. T.; Zacharias, N.

    2016-07-01

    We present 1103 trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions from the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) Robotic Astrometric Telescope (URAT) observations taken at the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station (NOFS). URAT observes through a single filter (part of the dewar window) to provide a fixed bandpass of about 680 to 760nm. The clear aperture of the USNO astrograph is 206mm with a focal length of only 2m. A single exposure covers 28 square degrees with a resolution of 0.9arcsec/pixel. Each of the four large CCDs in the focal plane covers a 2.65 by 2.65 deg area on the sky. Data of all three years of operations (2012 April to 2015 June) at the NOFS are used here for this parallax investigation. For more details about the project, instrument, and observing the reader is referred to the URAT1 paper (Zacharias et al. 2015, cat. I/329). (3 data files).

  1. Anomalous Stretchable Conductivity Using an Engineered Tricot Weave.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, Yoonseob; Lee, Tae-Ik; Lee, Inhwa; Shin, Jaeho; Lee, Hyun Soo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Choi, Jang Wook

    2015-12-22

    Robust electric conduction under stretching motions is a key element in upcoming wearable electronic devices but is fundamentally very difficult to achieve because percolation pathways in conductive media are subject to collapse upon stretching. Here, we report that this fundamental challenge can be overcome by using a parameter uniquely available in textiles, namely a weaving structure. A textile structure alternately interwoven with inelastic and elastic yarns, achieved via a tricot weave, possesses excellent elasticity (strain up to 200%) in diagonal directions. When this textile is coated with conductive nanomaterials, proper textile engineering allows the textile to obtain an unprecedented 7-fold conductivity increase, with conductivity reaching 33,000 S cm(-1), even at 130% strain, due to enhanced interyarn contacts. The observed stretching conductivity can be described well using a modified 3D percolation theory that reflects the weaving effect and is also utilized for stretchable electronic interconnects and supercapacitors with high performance. PMID:26493327

  2. Qiang-Dong proper quantization rule and its applications to exactly solvable quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, F. A.; Gu Xiaoyan; Dong, Shi-Hai

    2010-08-15

    We propose proper quantization rule, x{sub A}(x{sub B})k(x)dx-x{sub 0A}(x{sub 0B})k{sub 0}(x)dx=n{pi}, where k(x)={radical}(2M[E-V(x)])/({h_bar}/2{pi}). The x{sub A} and x{sub B} are two turning points determined by E=V(x), and n is the number of the nodes of wave function {psi}(x). We carry out the exact solutions of solvable quantum systems by this rule and find that the energy spectra of solvable systems can be determined only from its ground state energy. The previous complicated and tedious integral calculations involved in exact quantization rule are greatly simplified. The beauty and simplicity of the rule come from its meaning--whenever the number of the nodes of {phi}(x) or the number of the nodes of the wave function {psi}(x) increases by 1, the momentum integral x{sub A}(x{sub B})k(x)dx will increase by {pi}. We apply this proper quantization rule to carry out solvable quantum systems such as the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator, the Morse potential and its generalization, the Hulthen potential, the Scarf II potential, the asymmetric trigonometric Rosen-Morse potential, the Poeschl-Teller type potentials, the Rosen-Morse potential, the Eckart potential, the harmonic oscillator in three dimensions, the hydrogen atom, and the Manning-Rosen potential in D dimensions.

  3. Gaia reference frame amid quasar variability and proper motion patterns in the data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachchan, R. K.; Hobbs, D.; Lindegren, L.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Gaia's very accurate astrometric measurements will allow the optical realisation of the International Celestial Reference System to be improved by a few orders of magnitude. Several sets of quasars are used to define a kinematically stable non-rotating reference frame with the barycentre of the solar system as its origin. Gaia will also observe a large number of galaxies. Although they are not point-like, it may be possible to determine accurate positions and proper motions for some of their compact bright features. Aims: The optical stability of the quasars is critical, and we investigate how accurately the reference frame can be recovered. Various proper motion patterns are also present in the data, the best known is caused by the acceleration of the solar system barycentre, presumably, towards the Galactic centre. We review some other less well-known effects that are not part of standard astrometric models. Methods: We modelled quasars and galaxies using realistic sky distributions, magnitudes, and redshifts. Position variability was introduced using a Markov chain model. The reference frame was determined using the algorithm developed for the Gaia mission, which also determines the acceleration of the solar system. We also tested a method for measuring the velocity of the solar system barycentre in a cosmological frame. Results: We simulated the recovery of the reference frame and the acceleration of the solar system and conclude that they are not significantly disturbed by quasar variability, which is statistically averaged. However, the effect of a non-uniform sky distribution of the quasars can result in a correlation between the parameters describing the spin components of the reference frame and the acceleration components, which degrades the solution. Our results suggest that an attempt should be made to astrometrically determine the redshift-dependent apparent drift of galaxies that is due to our velocity relative to the cosmic microwave

  4. USING RUNNING DIFFERENCE IMAGES TO TRACK PROPER MOTIONS OF XUV CORONAL INTENSITY ON THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Sheeley, N. R. Jr.; Warren, H. P.; Lee, J. E-mail: harry.warren@nrl.navy.mil; Chung, S.; Katz, J.; Namkung, M

    2014-12-20

    We have developed a procedure for observing and tracking proper motions of faint XUV coronal intensity on the Sun and have applied this procedure to study the collective motions of cellular plumes and the shorter-period waves in sunspots. Our space/time maps of cellular plumes show a series of tracks with the same 5-8 minute repetition times and ∼100 km s{sup –1} sky-plane speeds found previously in active-region fans and in coronal hole plumes. By synchronizing movies and space/time maps, we find that the tracks are produced by elongated ejections from the unipolar flux concentrations at the bases of the cellular plumes and that the phases of these ejections are uncorrelated from cell to cell. Thus, the large-scale motion is not a continuous flow, but is more like a system of independent conveyor belts all moving in the same direction along the magnetic field. In contrast, the proper motions in sunspots are clearly waves resulting from periodic disturbances in the sunspot umbras. The periods are ∼2.6 minutes, but the sky-plane speeds and wavelengths depend on the heights of the waves above the sunspot. In the chromosphere, the waves decelerate from 35-45 km s{sup –1} in the umbra to 7-8 km s{sup –1} toward the outer edge of the penumbra, but in the corona, the waves accelerate to ∼60-100 km s{sup –1}. Because chromospheric and coronal tracks originate from the same space/time locations, the coronal waves must emerge from the same umbral flashes that produce the chromospheric waves.

  5. Gaia reference frame amid quasar variability and proper motion patterns in the data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachchan, R. K.; Hobbs, D.; Lindegren, L.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Gaia's very accurate astrometric measurements will allow the optical realisation of the International Celestial Reference System to be improved by a few orders of magnitude. Several sets of quasars are used to define a kinematically stable non-rotating reference frame with the barycentre of the solar system as its origin. Gaia will also observe a large number of galaxies. Although they are not point-like, it may be possible to determine accurate positions and proper motions for some of their compact bright features. Aims: The optical stability of the quasars is critical, and we investigate how accurately the reference frame can be recovered. Various proper motion patterns are also present in the data, the best known is caused by the acceleration of the solar system barycentre, presumably, towards the Galactic centre. We review some other less well-known effects that are not part of standard astrometric models. Methods: We modelled quasars and galaxies using realistic sky distributions, magnitudes, and redshifts. Position variability was introduced using a Markov chain model. The reference frame was determined using the algorithm developed for the Gaia mission, which also determines the acceleration of the solar system. We also tested a method for measuring the velocity of the solar system barycentre in a cosmological frame. Results: We simulated the recovery of the reference frame and the acceleration of the solar system and conclude that they are not significantly disturbed by quasar variability, which is statistically averaged. However, the effect of a non-uniform sky distribution of the quasars can result in a correlation between the parameters describing the spin components of the reference frame and the acceleration components, which degrades the solution. Our results suggest that an attempt should be made to astrometrically determine the redshift-dependent apparent drift of galaxies that is due to our velocity relative to the cosmic microwave

  6. Using Running Difference Images to Track Proper Motions of XUV Coronal Intensity on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheeley, N. R., Jr.; Warren, H. P.; Lee, J.; Chung, S.; Katz, J.; Namkung, M.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a procedure for observing and tracking proper motions of faint XUV coronal intensity on the Sun and have applied this procedure to study the collective motions of cellular plumes and the shorter-period waves in sunspots. Our space/time maps of cellular plumes show a series of tracks with the same 5-8 minute repetition times and ~100 km s-1 sky-plane speeds found previously in active-region fans and in coronal hole plumes. By synchronizing movies and space/time maps, we find that the tracks are produced by elongated ejections from the unipolar flux concentrations at the bases of the cellular plumes and that the phases of these ejections are uncorrelated from cell to cell. Thus, the large-scale motion is not a continuous flow, but is more like a system of independent conveyor belts all moving in the same direction along the magnetic field. In contrast, the proper motions in sunspots are clearly waves resulting from periodic disturbances in the sunspot umbras. The periods are ~2.6 minutes, but the sky-plane speeds and wavelengths depend on the heights of the waves above the sunspot. In the chromosphere, the waves decelerate from 35-45 km s-1 in the umbra to 7-8 km s-1 toward the outer edge of the penumbra, but in the corona, the waves accelerate to ~60-100 km s-1. Because chromospheric and coronal tracks originate from the same space/time locations, the coronal waves must emerge from the same umbral flashes that produce the chromospheric waves.

  7. ProperCAD: A portable object-oriented parallel environment for VLSI CAD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramkumar, Balkrishna; Banerjee, Prithviraj

    1993-01-01

    Most parallel algorithms for VLSI CAD proposed to date have one important drawback: they work efficiently only on machines that they were designed for. As a result, algorithms designed to date are dependent on the architecture for which they are developed and do not port easily to other parallel architectures. A new project under way to address this problem is described. A Portable object-oriented parallel environment for CAD algorithms (ProperCAD) is being developed. The objectives of this research are (1) to develop new parallel algorithms that run in a portable object-oriented environment (CAD algorithms using a general purpose platform for portable parallel programming called CARM is being developed and a C++ environment that is truly object-oriented and specialized for CAD applications is also being developed); and (2) to design the parallel algorithms around a good sequential algorithm with a well-defined parallel-sequential interface (permitting the parallel algorithm to benefit from future developments in sequential algorithms). One CAD application that has been implemented as part of the ProperCAD project, flat VLSI circuit extraction, is described. The algorithm, its implementation, and its performance on a range of parallel machines are discussed in detail. It currently runs on an Encore Multimax, a Sequent Symmetry, Intel iPSC/2 and i860 hypercubes, a NCUBE 2 hypercube, and a network of Sun Sparc workstations. Performance data for other applications that were developed are provided: namely test pattern generation for sequential circuits, parallel logic synthesis, and standard cell placement.

  8. Mass of the Local Group from Proper Motions of Distant Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Marel, Roeland

    2010-09-01

    The Local Group and its two dominant spirals, the Milky Way and M31, have become the benchmark for testing many aspects of cosmological and galaxy formation theories, due to many exciting new discoveries in the past decade. However, it is difficult to put results in a proper cosmological context, because our knowledge of the mass M of the Local Group remains uncertain by a factor 4. In units of 10^{12} solar masses, a spherical infall model for the zero-velocity surface gives M 1.3; the sum of estimates for the Milky Way and M31 masses gives M 2.6; and the Local Group Timing argument for the M31 orbit gives M 5.6. It is possible to discriminate between the proposed masses by calculating the orbits of galaxies at the edge of the Local Group, which requires knowledge of transverse velocity components. We therefore propose to use ACS/WFC to determine the proper motions of the 4 dwarf galaxies near the edge of the Local Group {Cetus, Leo A, Tucana, Sag DIG} for which deep first epoch data {with 5-7 year time baselines} already exist in the HST Archive. Our team has extensive expertise with HST astrometric science, and our past/ongoing work for, e.g., Omega Cen, LMC/SMC and M31 show that the necessary astrometric accuracy is within the reach of HST's demonstrated capabilities. We have developed, tested, and published a new technique that uses compact background galaxies as astrometric reference sources, and we have already reduced the first epoch data. The final predicted transverse velocity accuracy, 36 km/s when averaged over the sample, will be sufficient to discriminate between each of the proposed Local Group masses at 2-sigma significance {4-sigma between the most extreme values}. Our project will yield the most accurate Local Group mass determination to date, and only HST can achieve the required accuracy.

  9. PG1258+593 and its common proper motion magnetic white dwarf counterpart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girven, J.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Külebi, B.; Steeghs, D.; Jordan, S.; Marsh, T. R.; Koester, D.

    2010-05-01

    We confirm SDSSJ130033.48+590407.0 as a common proper motion companion to the well-studied hydrogen-atmosphere (DA) white dwarf PG1258+593 (GD322). The system lies at a distance of 68 +/- 3pc, where the angular separation of 16.1 +/- 0.1arcsec corresponds to a minimum binary separation of 1091 +/- 7au. SDSSJ1300+5904 is a cool (Teff = 6300 +/- 300K) magnetic white dwarf (B ~= 6mG). PG1258+593 is a DA white dwarf with Teff = 14790 +/- 77K and logg = 7.87 +/- 0.02. Using the white dwarf mass-radius relation implies the masses of SDSSJ1300+5904 and PG1258+593 are 0.54 +/- 0.06 and 0.54 +/- 0.01Msolar, respectively, and therefore a cooling age difference of 1.67 +/- 0.05Gyr. Adopting main-sequence lifetimes from stellar models, we derive an upper limit of 2.2Msolar for the mass of the progenitor of PG1258+593. A plausible range of initial masses is 1.4-1.8 Msolar for PG1258+593 and 2-3 Msolar for SDSSJ1300+5904. Our analysis shows that white dwarf common proper motion binaries can potentially constrain the white dwarf initial mass-final mass relation and the formation mechanism for magnetic white dwarfs. The magnetic field of SDSSJ1300+5904 is consistent with an Ap progenitor star. A common envelope origin of the system cannot be excluded, but requires a triple system as progenitor.

  10. ON THE INTERPRETATION OF RECENT PROPER MOTION DATA FOR THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Bekki, Kenji

    2011-03-20

    Recent observational studies using the Hubble Space Telescope have derived the center-of-mass proper motion (CMPM) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Although these studies carefully treated both rotation and perspective effects in deriving the proper motion (PM) for each of the sampled fields, they did not consider the effects of local random motion in the derivation. This means that the average PM of the fields (i.e., the observed CMPM) could significantly deviate from the true CMPM, because the effect of local random motion cannot be close to zero in making the average PM for the small number of fields ({approx}10). We discuss how significantly the observationally derived CMPM can deviate from the true CMPM by applying the same method as used in the observations for a dynamical model of the LMC with a known true CMPM. We find that the deviation can be as large as {approx}50 km s{sup -1} ({approx}0.21 mas yr{sup -1}), if the LMC has a thick disk and a maximum circular velocity of {approx}120 km s{sup -1}. We also find that the deviation depends both on the total number of sampled fields and on the structure and kinematics of the LMC. We therefore suggest that there is a possibility that the observed CMPM of the LMC deviates from the true one to some extent. We also show that a simple mean of PM for a large number of LMC fields ({approx}1000) can be much closer to the true CMPM.

  11. DISCO-SCA and Properly Applied GSVD as Swinging Methods to Find Common and Distinctive Processes

    PubMed Central

    Van Deun, Katrijn; Van Mechelen, Iven; Thorrez, Lieven; Schouteden, Martijn; De Moor, Bart; van der Werf, Mariët J.; De Lathauwer, Lieven; Smilde, Age K.; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2012-01-01

    Background In systems biology it is common to obtain for the same set of biological entities information from multiple sources. Examples include expression data for the same set of orthologous genes screened in different organisms and data on the same set of culture samples obtained with different high-throughput techniques. A major challenge is to find the important biological processes underlying the data and to disentangle therein processes common to all data sources and processes distinctive for a specific source. Recently, two promising simultaneous data integration methods have been proposed to attain this goal, namely generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD) and simultaneous component analysis with rotation to common and distinctive components (DISCO-SCA). Results Both theoretical analyses and applications to biologically relevant data show that: (1) straightforward applications of GSVD yield unsatisfactory results, (2) DISCO-SCA performs well, (3) provided proper pre-processing and algorithmic adaptations, GSVD reaches a performance level similar to that of DISCO-SCA, and (4) DISCO-SCA is directly generalizable to more than two data sources. The biological relevance of DISCO-SCA is illustrated with two applications. First, in a setting of comparative genomics, it is shown that DISCO-SCA recovers a common theme of cell cycle progression and a yeast-specific response to pheromones. The biological annotation was obtained by applying Gene Set Enrichment Analysis in an appropriate way. Second, in an application of DISCO-SCA to metabolomics data for Escherichia coli obtained with two different chemical analysis platforms, it is illustrated that the metabolites involved in some of the biological processes underlying the data are detected by one of the two platforms only; therefore, platforms for microbial metabolomics should be tailored to the biological question. Conclusions Both DISCO-SCA and properly applied GSVD are promising integrative methods for

  12. Axial-conductances angular filter investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannan, P. W.; Pedersen, J. F.

    1984-04-01

    This report describes the concept, analysis, design, construction, and tests of an angular filter using an axial-conductance medium. The filter provides rejection that increases with incidence angle in the E plane. It is essentially invisible at broadside incidence, does not have critical tolerances on dimensions or materials, and operates over a wide frequency band. Analysis of an ideal homogeneous axial-conductance medium shows that the optimum value for the axial loss tangent is unity. With this value, the homogeneous medium provides approximately 8 dB of absorptive rejection per wavelength of filter thickness at a 45 E-plane incidence angle. Analysis of a practical inhomogeneous axial-conductance medium shows that some loss is introduced at broadside incidence, and that two types of waves can exist in the medium when only one wave is incident at an oblique angle. When the practical medium has dimensions that are properly chosen, its broadside loss can be negligible, and its rejection versus incidence angle can approximate that of the ideal medium. Tests of inhomogeneous samples in simulator wave guide confirm these analytical results. A screen printing method for depositing thick-film resistive ink on thin dielectric sheets has been investigated. With this method a 5x5 foot angular filter, designed for operation at 10 GHz, has been constructed containing over 70,000 axial-conductance elements.

  13. Nanostructured conductive polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed H.

    Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) are a suitable alternative to metals in many applications due to their light-weight, corrosion resistance, low cost, ease of processing and design flexibility. CPCs have been formulated using different types of conductive fillers. In this PhD thesis, the focus is on CPCs for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection and electromagnetic interference (EMI) attenuation. Despite the versatility of conductive fillers, carbon black (CB) has been the dominant filler to make CPCs for ESD protection applications because CB/polymer composites have a cost advantage over all other CPCs. For EMI shielding, stainless steel fibres and metal coated fibers are the preferred fillers, however CPCs made of those fibers are not the dominant EMI shielding materials. Metal coated and polymer plated polymers are the most widely used EMI shielding options. The limited use of CPCs in the EMI shielding market is because the high filler loading required to formulate a composite with an adequate level of shielding remarkably increases the composite price. In order to increase the competitiveness of CPCs, percolation threshold should be minimized as much as possible and composites with high EMI shielding capabilities at low filler loading should be formulated because all conductive fillers are expensive compared to polymers. In this thesis, two different methodologies to reduce percolation threshold in CPCs have been successfully developed and a CPC with exceptional EMI shielding capability has been formulated using copper nanowires as conductive filler. The first percolation threshold reduction technique is based on the selective localization of CB at the interface of immiscible polymer blend. The technique requires adding a copolymer that prefers the blend's interface and for which CB nanoparticles has the highest affinity. The second method is based on producing a CPC powder and then using this powder as a conductive filler to produce composite by dry

  14. Electrically conductive alternating copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, M.; Jorgensen, B.S.

    1987-08-31

    Polymers which are soluble in common organic solvents and are electrically conductive, but which also may be synthesized in such a manner that they become nonconductive. Negative ions from the electrolyte used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer are incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant. A further electrochemical step may be utilized to cause the polymer to be conductive. The monomer repeat unit is comprised of two rings, a pyrrole molecule joined to a thienyl group, or a furyl group, or a phenyl group. The individual groups of the polymers are arranged in an alternating manner. For example, the backbone arrangement of poly(furylpyrrole) is -furan-pyrrole-furan-pyrrole- furan-pyrrole. An alkyl group or phenyl group may be substituted for either or both of the hydrogen atoms of the pyrrole ring.

  15. [Disorders of intraventricular conduction].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, A; Medrano, G A

    1987-01-01

    An electrophysiologic approach to intraventricular conduction disturbances, preeminently functional phenomena, is presented. They are divided into two groups: the proximal type corresponding to obstruction of excitation impulses in the main trunk of one intraventricular specific system; distal or peripheral type, due to an obstruction in the distal subdivisions of the system (fascicular) or to regional myocardial alterations (parietal). Trunkal blocks produce global delay of the activation sequence of the ipsilateral ventricular myocardium. Consequently they are recognized by slurred R waves and delayed time of onset of intrinsicoid deflection in all ipsilateral leads. Distal or peripheral blocks cause a segmentary delay of the activation phenomenon of ipsilateral ventricular myocardium. This is revealed by slurred R waves and delayed time of onset of intrinsicoid deflection only in those leads which explore the affected region. Peripheral blocks can be classified from a topographic point of view when they appear in the area of distal subdivisions of the intraventricular conduction system. PMID:2959227

  16. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOEpatents

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2005-07-12

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  17. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-11-23

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  18. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOEpatents

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2003-01-01

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  19. Highly Thermal Conductive Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Ya-Ping (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Veca, Lucia Monica (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed are methods for forming carbon-based fillers as may be utilized in forming highly thermal conductive nanocomposite materials. Formation methods include treatment of an expanded graphite with an alcohol/water mixture followed by further exfoliation of the graphite to form extremely thin carbon nanosheets that are on the order of between about 2 and about 10 nanometers in thickness. Disclosed carbon nanosheets can be functionalized and/or can be incorporated in nanocomposites with extremely high thermal conductivities. Disclosed methods and materials can prove highly valuable in many technological applications including, for instance, in formation of heat management materials for protective clothing and as may be useful in space exploration or in others that require efficient yet light-weight and flexible thermal management solutions.

  20. Super ionic conductive glass

    DOEpatents

    Susman, Sherman; Volin, Kenneth J.

    1984-01-01

    An ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A.sub.1+x D.sub.2-x/3 Si.sub.x P.sub.3-x O.sub.12-2x/3, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.